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Sample records for dendropanax trifidus makino

  1. The major allergen of Dendropanax trifidus Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, K; Saito, F; Yasuhara, T; Sugimoto, A

    1997-05-01

    Dendropanax trifidus Makino (family Araliaceae, syn. Gilibertia trifida Makino) has been reported as causing allergic contact dermatitis in Japan. To identify the major allergen, fractionated extracts of fresh leaves of Dendropanax trifidus were patch tested on 2 patients with hypersensitivity to the plant. Cis-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1, 16-diol (I), an analog of falcarinol, was identified as an active component. 18 normal control subjects were patch tested with the leaf of Dendropanax trifidus and I diluted to 0.05% in pet. 4 of them showed active sensitization to the leaf of Dendropanax trifidus and I. Our results suggest that I is the major allergen of Dendropanax trifidus and is a strong sensitizer. The results of patch testing on patients and control subjects with the leaves of Fatsia japonica Decne. et Planch. and Hedera helix L., which also belong to the Araliaceae family, and urushiol are also shown.

  2. The allergens of Dendropanax trifidus Makino and Fatsia japonica Decne. et Planch. and evaluation of cross-reactions with other plants of the Araliaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, K; Saito, F; Yasuhara, T; Sugimoto, A

    1999-04-01

    cis-9,17-Octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,16-diol (I), an analog of falcarinol has been identified in our previous report as an active component of Dendropanax trifidus and a strong sensitizer. In this report, 16-hydroxy-cis-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diynoic acid (II) and cis-9,trans-16-octadecadiene-12,14-diynoic acid (III) were elucidated as 2 other active components of the plant. Compound I, however, presented with the highest concentration and showed a stronger reaction on patch testing. The leaves of Fatsia japonica Decne. et Planch. were also found to contain compound I, but the amount was found to be 7x more in Dendropanax trifidus than in Fatsia japonica. 5 subjects with hypersensitivity to Dendropanax trifidus and compound I showed positive reactions when patch tested with the leaves of Hedera helix L. and Schefflera arboricola. 1 of these also showed a positive reaction to the extract of Panax ginseng root powder diluted 1% in ethanol. There was cross-reaction among these plants, which all belong to the Araliaceae family.

  3. Chemical constituents from Dendropanax dentiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Chun; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    Nineteen compounds and an HPLC inseparable mixture, composed of compounds 20 and 21, were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Dendropanax dentiger (Harms ex Diels) Merr. Of these, syringin (1) is the most abundant, 6'-O-apiofuranosyl dendranthemoside A (16) is a new megastigmane glycoside, and 3-methoxy-D-mannono-1,4-lactone (21) is a new hexono-1,4-lactone. Their structures were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopic and MS analyses.

  4. A cytotoxic diacetylene from Dendropanax arboreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, W N; Green, T J; Whitaker, K W; Moriarity, D M; Yancey, C A; Lawton, R O; Bates, R B

    1995-10-01

    The crude ethanol extract from the leaves of Dendropanax arboreus (Araliaceae) from Monteverde, Costa Rica, exhibits cytotoxic activity against Hep-G2, A-431, H-4IIE, and L-1210 tumor cell lines, but is not toxic against normal hepatocytes. The active component has been isolated by activity-directed separation and identified by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy as the acetylenic compound cis-1,9,16-heptadecatriene-4,6-diyne-3,8-diol.

  5. Cytotoxic falcarinol oxylipins from Dendropanax arboreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernart, M W; Cardellina, J H; Balaschak, M S; Alexander, M R; Shoemaker, R H; Boyd, M R

    1996-08-01

    The crude organic extract of Dendropanax arboreus was selected as a candidate for bioassayguided fractionation on the basis of its relatively selective cytotoxicity to a subset of cell lines within the National Cancer Institute's disease-oriented in vitro tumor-screening panel. The major compound responsible for the in vitro cytotoxicity was falcarinol (1). Several other known compounds were isolated and found to be cytotoxic, including dehydrofalcarinol (2), a diyenne (3), falcarindiol (4), and dehydrofalcarindiol (5). In addition, two novel polyacetylenes, dendroarboreols A (6) and B (7), were isolated and characterized by standard and inverse-detected NMR methods. Compounds were selected from this series for absolute stereochemical determination using the modified Mosher method and preliminary in vivo evaluation using a LOX melanoma mouse xenograft model.

  6. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract for mouthwash and denture cleaning solution

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract for assessing whether Dendropanax morbifera Léveille can be used for the development of natural mouthwash and denture cleaning solution. MATERIALS AND METHODS The extract was obtained from branches of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille. The solvent fractions were acquired by fractionating Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract using n-hexane, ethyl ac...

  7. Sesquiterpenoids from Chloranthus spicatus (Thunb.) Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Sheng-Ping; ZHANG Chuan-Rui; CHEN Hua-Dong; LIAO Shang-Gao; YUE Jian-Min

    2007-01-01

    Two new sesquiterpenoids, namely 1β,4β-dihydroxy-5α,8β(H)-eudesm-7(11)Z-en-8,12-olide (1) and 1β,4α-dihydroxy-5α,8β(H)-eudesm-7(11)Z-en-8,12-olide (2),along with six known ones,homalomenol A (3),oplodiol (4),5α,7α(H)-6,8-cycloeudesma-1β,4β-diol (5),oplopanone (6),4β,10α-dihydroxyaromadendrane (7) and spathulenol (8),were isolated from the aerial part of Chloranthus spicatus (Thunb.) Makino,and their structures were established by spectroscopic methods.

  8. Isolation and anticomplement activity of compounds from Dendropanax morbifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-Young; Min, Byung-Sun; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Jung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hee; Bae, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu

    2004-02-01

    Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (Araliaceae) is used in Korea for a variety of disease, such as migraine headache and dysmenorrhea. A new polyacetylene (1) and six known compounds (2-7) were isolated from the leaves of this plant by conventional chromatographic techniques. The structure of the new polyacetylene (1) was determined as (9Z,16S)-16-hydroxy-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diynoic acid by spectroscopic means including 2D NMR, which comprised the determination of a chiral by modified Mosher's ester method. Compounds 1-7 were investigated in vitro for their anticomplement activity against the classical pathway of the complement system. Of these, compound 1 showed significant anticomplement activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56.98 microM, whereas compounds 2-7 were inactive.

  9. Anticomplement activity of polyacetylenes from leaves of Dendropanax morbifera Leveille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Song, Hong-Keun; Kim, Sun-Jin; Moon, Hyung-In

    2011-05-01

    The present study evaluated the anticomplement effect of polyacetylenes from Dendropanax morbifera (Araliaceae) in the classical pathway complement system. The leaves of D. morbifera were evaluated with regard to its anticomplement activity, and its active principles identified following activity-guided isolation. An aqueous CCl(4) fraction of the leaves of D. morbifera exhibited significant anticomplement activity on the classical pathway complement system, which was expressed as total hemolytic activity. Three polyacetylenes isolated from the leaves of D. morbifera, namely (3S)-falcarinol (1), (3S,8S)-falcarindiol (2) and (3S)-diynene (3). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) values of 87.3 µM, 15.2 µM and 39.8 µM. Among the compounds tested, 2 showed the most potent anticomplement activity (IC(50), 15.2 µM).

  10. Antiatherogenic activity of Dendropanax morbifera essential oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Min Young; Park, Won-Hwan; Moon, Hyung-In

    2009-08-01

    In Korea, Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (Araliaceae) is commonly used in traditional medicines for various diseases. We evaluated the hypolipidemic activity of D. morbifera essential oil (DMEO) in male Wistar rats (weight, 160 +/- 15 g) maintained on a high-cholesterol diet. DMEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The DMEO yield was 3.5%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were gamma-elemene (18.59%), tetramethyltricyclo hydrocarbons (10.82%), beta-zingiberene (10.52%), and beta-selinene (10.41%). Rats were orally administered DMEO at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for 2 weeks. DMEO significantly and dose-dependently reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. We conclude that D. morbifera has significant lipid-lowering effects and is a promising agent that should be considered in studies seeking new, safe, and effective natural cardioprotective agents.

  11. Antioxidant effects of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract in the hippocampus of mercury-exposed rats

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Dendropanax morbifera Léveille has been employed for the treatment of infectious diseases using folk medicine. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effects of a leaf extract of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille in the hippocampus of mercury-exposed rats. Methods Seven-week-old Sprague–Dawley rats received a daily intraperitoneal injection of 5 μg/kg dimethylmercury and/or oral Dendropanax morbifera Léveille leaf extract (100 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed 2 h after...

  12. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dendropanax morbifera (Léveillé).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dendropanax morbifera, an economically and medicinally important endemic tree species in Korea, was obtained by de novo assembly with whole-genome sequence data and manual correction. A circular 156 366-bp chloroplast genome showed typical chloroplast genome structure comprising a large single copy region of 86 475 bp, a small single copy region of 18 125 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats of 25 883 bp. The chloroplast genome harbored 87 protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the chloroplast genome revealed that D. morbifera is most closely related to Dendropanax dentiger, an evergreen tree species in China and Southeastern Asia.

  13. Lupeol is the cytotoxic principle in the leaf extract of Dendropanax cf. querceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, D M; Huang, J; Yancey, C A; Zhang, P; Setzer, W N; Lawton, R O; Bates, R B; Caldera, S

    1998-05-01

    The crude ethanol extract from the leaves of Dendropanax cf. querceti (Araliaceae) from Monteverde, Costa Rica, exhibits cytotoxic activity against Hep-G2, A-431, and H-4IIE tumor cell lines. The active component has been isolated by activity-directed separation and identified by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy as the triterpene lupeol. The mechanism of cytotoxic activity of lupeol has been determined to be inhibition of topoisomerase II.

  14. Characterization of a novel polysaccharide from tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuge; Yan, Wei; Lv, Junli; Yao, Wenbing; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-05-22

    A novel heteropolysaccharide (GPP-TL) was isolated from tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Makino) leaf by hot water extraction and anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography approaches. GPP-TL had a molecular weight of 9.3 × 10(3) Da and was primarily composed of glucose, galactose, and arabinose, with a molar ratio of 43:5:1, respectively. The chemical structure of GPP-TL was characterized using chemical and instrumental analyses. The results indicated the presence of (1→4)-α-d-glucopyranosyl, (1→4)-β-d-galactopyranosyl, (1→4,6)-linked-α-d-glucopyranosyl, and terminal 1→)-α-d-glucopyranosyl moieties in a molar ratio of 5.7:1:1.5:1, respectively. The results indicated that GPP-TL had glucose and galactose residues in the main chain with (1→6)-linked branches at glucose residues. In addition, GPP-TL exhibited scavenging capacities against hydroxyl, peroxyl, and DPPH radicals in vitro and had a stronger bile acid-binding ability than psyllium on a same-weight basis.

  15. Characterization of a heteropolysaccharide isolated from diploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Niu, Yuge; Lv, Junli; Xie, Zhuohong; Jin, Lei; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-02-15

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide (GPP), with a molecular mass of 7.1×10(3) Da, was isolated from the defatted whole-plant of diploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that GPP was a heteropolysaccharide mainly containing mannose, glucose, galactose and arabinose, at a molar ratio of 1.00:77.33:4.81:1.83. The detailed structure analysis revealed that GPP consisted of a (1→4)-α-D-glucoside backbone with a 1→)-α-D-glucopyranosyl branch at the C-6 position of (1→4,6)-linked-α-D-glucopyranosyl on every 5 monosaccharide residues, with a few mannose, galactose and arabinose terminal residues. GPP exhibited scavenging capacities against hydroxyl, peroxyl and DPPH radicals in vitro, and had a greater bile acid-binding ability than psyllium on a per weight basis. These results suggested a potential application of GPP in functional foods and dietary supplements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estudio de mutagenicidad y actividad antibacteriana de Erythrina herbacea, Zanthoxylum caribaeum y Dendropanax arboreus

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Ordaz Pichardo; Rocío Clemente Garcés; Ma. Edith López Villafranco; Mireya de la Garza; Myriam Arriaga-Alba

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio presenta la caracterización toquímica y la evaluación antibacteriana y mutagénica de Erythrina herbacea, Zanthoxylum caribaeum y Dendropanax arboreus , que se utilizan en la medicina tradicional mexicana para el tratamiento de infecciones gastrointestinales y de la piel. Los extractos contienen aminas, fenoles y alcaloides principalmente al ser caracterizados por cromatografía en capa na. El extracto acuoso de D. arboreus y los extractos hexánicos de Z. caribaeum y E. herbacea fu...

  17. [Studies on the antiarrhythmic effects of leaves of Dendropanax chevalieri (Vig.) Merr. et Chun].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J Y; Liu, C M; Qi, P L; Liu, K M

    1989-06-01

    Aqueous extract of the leaves of Dendropanax chevalieri (DC), administrated orally, showed prominent protective effect against arrhythmias induced by iv aconitine CaCl2 (120mg/kg) in mice and BaCl2 (4mg/kg) in rats. In anesthetized rabbits, the duration of arrhythmia elicited by ivAdr 75 micrograms/kg was markedly shortened by iv DC 0.4g/kg. It might also obviously delay the onset of arrhythmias and cardiac electricity disappearance evoked by ouabain perfusing consistently into isolated guinea-pig hearts.

  18. Comparison of chemical components of Ligusticum chuanzxiong HORT and Cnidium officinale MAKINO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.B.; Yang, M.O. [Korean Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    Chemical components of domestic Ligusticum chuanxiong HORT and Cnidium officinale MAKINO were analyzed. Proximate analysis of each species showed crude protein 18.5% and 11.1%, crude lipid 5.9% and 62.%, crude fiber 6.4% and and 6.5%, crude ash 5.4% and 6.0%, and carbohydrate 63. 7% and 70.2%, respectively. Contents of potassium which was found to be the most abundant mineral in both species were 1.8% and 3.0%, and those of sucrose were 0.4% and 0.3% respectively while neither fructose nor glucose were detected in each species. Major fatty acids in Ligusticum chuanxiong HORT and Chidium officinale MAKINO were linoleic acid (60.7% and 61.2%), oleic acid (19.9% and 21.3%), palmitic acid (11.4% and 11.3%)(respectively) bu there was no significant difference between two species. Glutamic acid was revealed as the most abundant amino acid in both species with 2.5% in Ligusticum chuanxiong HORT and 1.6% in Cnidium officinale MAKINO. Ligusticum chuanxiong HORT and Cnidium officinale MAKINO also were shown to be contained 0.0009% and 0.0005% vitamin B{sub 1}, and 0.6% and 0.7% tannin, respectively.

  19. First Report of Foliar Blight on Dendropanax morbifera Caused by Alternaria panax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian Xin; Kim, Chang Sun; Oh, Eun Sung; Yu, Seung Hun

    2010-12-01

    Leaf spot and blight disease was observed on two-year-old seedlings of Dendropanax morbifera (Korean name: Hwangchil tree) during July of 2008 in Jindo Island, Korea. Symptoms included yellow-brown to dark brown irregularly enlarged spots frequently located along the veins of leaves. The lesions were often surrounded by chlorotic haloes. Severe leaf blight and subsequent defoliation occurred when conditions favored disease outbreak. The causal organism of the disease was identified as Alternaria panax based on morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. A. panax isolates induced leaf spots and blight symptoms not only on D. morbifera but also on the other members of Araliaceae tested. This is the first report of foliar blight caused by A. panax on D. morbifera.

  20. Genetic structure of a bird-dispersed tropical tree (Dendropanax arboreus) in a fragmented landscape in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa M. Figueroa-Esquivel; Fernando Puebla-Olivares; EGUIARTE, LUIS E.; Juan Núñez-Farfán

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic structure of the tropical tree Dendropanax arboreus (Araliaceae) in relation to habitat fragmentation. Genetic variation, structure, and genetic differentiation among populations from Los Tuxtlas tropical rainforest were estimated using ISSRs as molecular markers. DNA from 219 individuals belonging to 9 populations was amplified with 4 primers yielding a total of 75 loci. Adults and juveniles from each population were analyzed to assess the genetic diversity and struct...

  1. Cirsium maritimum Makino Inhibits the Antigen/Immunoglobulin-E-Mediated Allergic Response In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mamoru; Suzuki, Masanobu; Takei, Yuichiro; Okamoto, Takeaki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-27

    We investigated whether Cirsium maritimum Makino can inhibit immunoglobulin-E-mediated allergic response in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in BALB/c mice. In vitro, the ethyl acetate extract of C. maritimum Makino (ECMM) significantly inhibited β-hexosaminidase release and decreased intracellular Ca(2+) levels in RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, ECMM leaves more strongly suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase than ECMM flowers. ECMM leaves also significantly suppressed the PCA reaction in the murine model. High-performance liquid chromatography and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that cirsimaritin, a flavonoid, was concentrated in active fractions of the extract. Our findings suggest that ECMM leaves have a potential regulatory effect on allergic reactions that may be mediated by mast cells. Furthermore, cirsimaritin may be the active anti-allergic component in C. maritimum Makino.

  2. Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract facilitates cadmium excretion and prevents oxidative damage in the hippocampus by increasing antioxidant levels in cadmium-exposed rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Dendropanax morbifera Léveille is used in herbal medicine as a cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the effects of Dendropanax morbifera stem extract (DMS) on cadmium (Cd) excretion from the blood and kidney and brain tissues of rats exposed to cadmium, as well as the effects of DMS on oxidative stress and antioxidant levels in the hippocampus after Cd exposure. Methods Seven-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2 mg/kg of cadmium by intragastric gavage and were...

  3. Age-related leaf characteristics of surface features and ultrastructure of Dendropanax morbifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Woo; Koo, Young Kuk; Yoon, Chul Jong

    2012-02-01

    Age-related morphological and anatomical changes were investigated by light and electron microscopy with juvenile and adult leaves of Dendropanax morbifera. Most juvenile leaves were glossy and palmate with five deep and narrow lobes divided nearly to two-thirds of the leaf base. Adult leaves were thick and possessed three lobes divided nearly to half of the leaf base. Stomata were ovoid and found on the abaxial surface. The epicuticular waxes of the plant included platelets, angular rodlets and threads. Platelets were attached to the surface at various angles. Distinct angular rodlets could be found on either the adaxial or the abaxial surface. Platelets on surface undulations occurred exclusively on the abaxial surface of adult leaves. Juvenile leaves were ca. 150 μm thick and had few intercellular spaces. Adult leaves were nearly two times thicker than juvenile leaves, and showed highly vacuolated cells and large intercellular spaces. The cuticle proper was apparent on the epidermis and showed distinctly alternating lamellate structures in juvenile leaves. The epidermal cell wall of adult leaves was covered with a cuticle layer for which a lamellate structure was not found. These results suggest that the species is heteroblastic in leaf characteristics with increasing leaf age.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polyacetylene from Dendropanax dentiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Chang; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Hsu, Wei-Ning; Chu, Fang-Hua; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2014-11-01

    Dendropanax dentiger has been used as a folk medicine since ancient times. In our current study, we observed that D. dentiger exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory activity, which could efficiently inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage inflammation assay. (9Z,16S)-16-Hydroxy-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diynoic acid (HODA) was isolated from the leaves of D. dentiger following a bioactivity guided fractionation protocol. Our data indicated that HODA significantly inhibited the NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells (IC50 = 4.28 μM). Consistent with these observations, the mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS were also inhibited by HODA in a dose-dependent manner. HODA also reduced the translocation of NF-κB into nuclear fractions. Meanwhile, HODA enhanced Nrf-2 activation and its downstream antioxidant gene HO-1. We concluded that HODA possessed significant anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activity; the compound may have a potential for development as a chemoprevention agent.

  5. Anti-thrombotic effect of rutin isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Dae-Won; Park, Se-Eun; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Ki-Man; Kim, Kyung-Je; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Seung

    2015-08-01

    Dendropanax morbifera H. Lev. is well known in Korean traditional medicine for improvement of blood circulation. In this study, rutin, a bioflavonoid having anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activities was isolated from a traditional medicinal plant, D. morbifera H. Lev. The chemical characteristics of rutin was studied to be quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-β-d-glucopyranoside using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR). Turbidity and fibrin clotting studies revealed that rutin reduces fibrin clot in concentration dependent manner. Rutin was found to prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and closure time (CT). Furthermore, it decreased the activity of pro-coagulant protein, thrombin. In vivo study showed that rutin exerted a significant protective effect against collagen and epinephrine (or thrombin) induced acute thromboembolism in mice. These results suggest that rutin has a potent to be an anti-thrombotic agent for cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Protective Activity of Dendropanax Morbifera Against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

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    Eun-Sun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Drug-induced acute kidney injury (AKI has been a severe threat to hospitalized patients, raising the urgent needs to develop strategies to reduce AKI. We investigated the protective activity of Dendropanax morbifera (DP, a medicinal plant which has been widely used to treat infectious and pain diseases, on acute kidney injury (AKI using cisplatin-induced nephropathic models. Methods: Both in vitro renal tubular cells (NRK-52E and in vivo rat models were used to demonstrate the nephroprotective effect of DP. Results: Methanolic extract from DP significantly reduced cisplatin-induced toxicity in renal tubular cells. Through successive liquid extraction, the extract of DP was separated into n-hexane, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O fractions. Among these, the CHCl3 fraction (DPCF was found to be most potent. The protective activity of DPCF was found to be mediated through anti-oxidant, mitochondrial protective, and anti-apoptotic activities. In in vivo rat models of AKI, treatment with DPCF significantly reversed the cisplatin-induced increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine and histopathologic damage, recovered the level of anti-oxidant enzymes, and inhibited renal apoptosis. Conclusion: We demonstrated that DP extracts decreased cisplatin-induced renal toxicity, indicating its potential to ameliorate drug-associated acute kidney damage.

  7. Characterization of Volatile and Polar Compounds of Jiaogulan Tea [Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino] by Hyphenated Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaogulan [Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino] is a Chinese medical plant from southern Asia that has rapidly gained popularity and interest for its health-promotive and therapeutic properties. The volatile composition of jiaogulan tea was analyzed by using headspace-solid phase microextraction...

  8. Rapid green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Dendropanax morbifera leaf extract and their anticancer activities

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Chao Wang,1 Ramya Mathiyalagan,2 Yeon Ju Kim,1 Veronica Castro-Aceituno,1 Priyanka Singh,1 Sungeun Ahn,1 Dandan Wang,1 Deok Chun Yang1,2 1Department of Oriental Medicine Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, 2Graduate School of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea Abstract: Dendropanax morbifera Léveille is an oriental medicinal plant that is traditionally used in folk medicine and grows in a specific region of South ...

  9. Essential oil compositions and cytotoxic activities of Dendropanax capillaris, Oreopanax nubigenus, and Schefflera rodrigueziana from Monteverde, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Justin D; Agius, Brittany R; Wright, Brenda S; Haber, William A; Moriarity, Debra M; Setzer, William N

    2009-02-01

    The leaf essential oils of Dendropanax capillaris, Oreopanax nubigenus and Schefflera rodrigueziana (Araliaceae) were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The leaf oil of Dendropanax capillaris was composed of only four compounds, beta-pinene (25.3%), 6-3-carene (44.7%), daucene (17.1%), and dauca-5,8-diene (12.9%). Oreopanax nubigenus leaf oil was dominated by the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons germacrene D (70.1%) and beta-caryophyllene (11.8%), while Schefflera rodrigueziana leaf oil was made up entirely of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, mostly germacrene D (27.6%), beta-cubebene (27.2%), beta-caryophyllene (12.2%), beta-cubebene (11.1%), and alpha-copaene (10.8%). Both O. nubigenus and S. rodrigueziana leaf oils showed notable in-vitro cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 cells, which may be attributable to the relatively high concentrations of germacrene D and beta-caryophyllene in those oils.

  10. Evaluation of anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kim, Myeong-ok; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Younjoo; Kim, Euikyung; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Dendropanax morbifera Léveille, an endemic species in Korea, is best known as a tree that produces a resinous sap. Although D. morbifera is used in folk medicine, its biological activities are poorly understood. In this study, the methanolic extracts of D. morbifera branches, debarked stems, bark, and two different stages of leaves were evaluated for anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer potential. The debarked stem extract exhibited strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and reducing power compared with other samples. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of these extracts were investigated in human tumour cell lines. The results suggested that the extracts of debarked stems, green leaves, and yellow leaves were the potent source of anti-cancer compounds, particularly in Huh-7 cells. Furthermore, treatment with the extracts of debarked stems, green leaves, and yellow leaves caused an increase of apoptotic or senescent cells in Huh-7 cells. Twenty-four hour treatment with debarked stems extract resulted in the strong induction of p53 and p16, whereas both leaf extracts inhibited the activation of ERK. The debarked stems and green leaf extracts reduced Akt levels in Huh-7 cells, indicating that D. morbifera extracts caused the activation of p16 and p53 pathways. This, together with the inhibition of Akt or ERK signalling, resulted in suppression of Huh-7 cell proliferation. These results suggest that methanolic leaf and debarked stems extracts are a source of anti-oxidant and anti-cancer compounds, and could be developed as a botanical drug.

  11. Extracts from Dendropanax morbifera Leaves Have Modulatory Effects on Neuroinflammation in Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Sinwoo; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Hye-Jin; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2016-01-01

    Dendropanax morbifera (D. morbifera), a species endemic to Korea, is largely distributed throughout the southern part of the country. Its leaves, stems, roots, and seeds have been used as a form of alternative medicine for various diseases and neurological disorders including paralysis, stroke, and migraine. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the remedial effects of D. morbifera remain largely unknown. In this paper, extracts from D. morbifera leaves were prepared using ethyl acetate as a solvent (abbreviated as DMLE). The modulatory effects of DMLE on neuroinflammation were studied in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 murine microglial cell line. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-[Formula: see text]B), and different M1/M2 activation states of microglia were examined. DMLE treatment suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] (TNF-[Formula: see text]), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. DMLE treatment also attenuated the activation of MAPKs and NF-[Formula: see text]B. In a novel discovery, we found that DMLE up-regulated the marker genes representing an alternative, anti-inflammatory M2 polarization, while suppressing the expression of the classical, pro-inflammatory M1 activation state genes. Here, we uncovered the cellular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of D. morbifera against neuroinflammation using BV2 microglia cells. These results strongly suggest that DMLE was able to counter the effects of LPS on BV2 cells via control of microglia polarization states. Additionally, study results indicated that DMLE may have therapeutic potential as a neuroinflammation-suppressing treatment for neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Rapid green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Dendropanax morbifera leaf extract and their anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Kim, Yeon Ju; Castro-Aceituno, Veronica; Singh, Priyanka; Ahn, Sungeun; Wang, Dandan; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-01-01

    Dendropanax morbifera Léveille is an oriental medicinal plant that is traditionally used in folk medicine and grows in a specific region of South Korea. We aimed to enhance the utilization of D. morbifera medicinal plants for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). D. morbifera leaf extract acted as both a reducing and a stabilizing agent that rapidly synthesized Dendropanax AgNPs (D-AgNPs) and Dendropanax AuNPs (D-AuNPs). The D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, elemental mapping, field emission transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and dynamic light scattering. The characterizations revealed that the D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs were in polygon and hexagon shapes with average sizes of 100-150 nm and 10-20 nm, respectively. The important outcomes were the synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs within 1 hour and 3 minutes, respectively, avoiding the subsequent processing for removal of any toxic components or for stabilizing the nanoparticles. Additionally, D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs were examined for cytotoxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line and in A549 human lung cancer cell line. The results indicated that D-AgNPs exhibited less cytotoxicity in the human keratinocyte cell line at 100 µg/mL after 48 hours. On the other hand, D-AgNPs showed potent cytotoxicity in the lung cancer cells at the same concentration after 48 hours, whereas D-AuNPs did not exhibit cytotoxicity in both cell lines at the same concentration. However, both D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs at 50 µg/mL enhanced the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside compound K at 25 µM after 48 hours of treatment compared with CK alone. We believe that this rapid green synthesis of D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs is a valuable addition to the applications of D. morbifera medicinal plant. D-AuNPs can be used as carriers for drug delivery and in cancer therapy due to their lack of normal cell cytotoxicity.

  13. Rapid green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Dendropanax morbifera leaf extract and their anticancer activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chao Wang,1 Ramya Mathiyalagan,2 Yeon Ju Kim,1 Veronica Castro-Aceituno,1 Priyanka Singh,1 Sungeun Ahn,1 Dandan Wang,1 Deok Chun Yang1,2 1Department of Oriental Medicine Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, 2Graduate School of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea Abstract: Dendropanax morbifera Léveille is an oriental medicinal plant that is traditionally used in folk medicine and grows in a specific region of South Korea. We aimed to enhance the utilization of D. morbifera medicinal plants for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. D. morbifera leaf extract acted as both a reducing and a stabilizing agent that rapidly synthesized Dendropanax AgNPs (D-AgNPs and Dendropanax AuNPs (D-AuNPs. The D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, elemental mapping, field emission transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and dynamic light scattering. The characterizations revealed that the D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs were in polygon and hexagon shapes with average sizes of 100–150 nm and 10–20 nm, respectively. The important outcomes were the synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs within 1 hour and 3 minutes, respectively, avoiding the subsequent processing for removal of any toxic components or for stabilizing the nanoparticles. Additionally, D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs were examined for cytotoxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line and in A549 human lung cancer cell line. The results indicated that D-AgNPs exhibited less cytotoxicity in the human keratinocyte cell line at 100 µg/mL after 48 hours. On the other hand, D-AgNPs showed potent cytotoxicity in the lung cancer cells at the same concentration after 48 hours, whereas D-AuNPs did not exhibit cytotoxicity in both cell lines at the same concentration. However, both D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs at 50 µg/mL enhanced the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside

  14. Antidiabetic effects of dendropanoxide from leaves of Dendropanax morbifera Leveille in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyung-In

    2011-08-01

    The present study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of Dendropanoxide (DP) from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. DP in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed significant hypoglycemic activity for 14 days significantly decreased the serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) while it increased the serum insulin in diabetic rats but not in normal rats (p < 0.05; at doses of 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg for 14 days). A comparison was made between the action of DP and glibenclamide (600 μg/kg), a known antidiabetic drug. The antidiabetic effect of the DP was more effective than that observed with glibenclamide.

  15. 中国树参属(五加科)一新种%A new species of Dendropanax (Araliaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓云飞; 彭华

    2002-01-01

    @@ 厚叶树参新种图1 Dendropanax crassifolius Y. F. Deng et H. Peng, sp. nov. Fig. 1 Species affinis D. kwangsiensi Li, sed foliis crasse coriaceis eglandulosis, 2~5 cm longis, 1~2 cm latis, venis reticulatis supra impressis vel obscur is, f ructibus minoribus, longe ellipsoideis, c. 7 mm longis, 4 mm diam., longitudi naliter leviter 3_costatis differt.

  16. 树参属植物化学成分及药理活性研究进展%Progress of chemical constituents and pharmacological research of Dendropanax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑莉萍; 王庭芳; 熊礼燕; 邹豪; 张川

    2011-01-01

    Objective To presente a view of chemical and pharmacological study on Dendropanax and lay a solid foundation for further research. Methods Relevant literature of Dendropanax were searched and summarized. Results and Conclusion The main chemical constituents of Dendropanax were essential oils, terpene, polyacetylene, saponins, etc,which had effects of anti-arrhythmic, anti-rheumatism, anti-cancer and anti-atherogenic, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant as well as liver protecting and inhibit tyrosinase activity, which could provide the evidence for further exploitation, utilization and quality control of the Materia Medica, extracts, products of Dendropanax.%五加科Araliaceae树参属Dendropanax植物含有多种结构类型的化学成分,主要为多炔类,萜类,皂苷,挥发油等;用于瘫痪、偏头痛、臂丛神经炎、风湿性及类风湿性关节炎、扭伤、痈疖、小儿麻痹后遗症、月经不调等疾病的治疗,有抗心律失常、抗癌、抗菌和抗风湿、抗动脉粥样硬化、抑制酪氨酸酶的活性、抗肝炎病毒等药理活性.本文对树参属植物的化学成分及药理活性进行综述,为进一步开发利用该属植物提供参考.

  17. Study on adsorptive separation of berberine alkaloids in Coptis Japonica makino by molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Sakoda, A.; Suzuki, M. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institure of Industrial Science

    1997-12-01

    A calculation approach to discuss the solvent effect on liquid phase adsorption has been developed by using the molecular dynamics simulation method and solvophobic theory. The distinctive feature of the approach is that the calculations of the potential energy changes related to the solvent effect can be achieved on the basis of the molecular structure only, without using any experimental physicochemical property of the solute. This approach is applied to adsorption of five berberine alkaloids contained in Coptis japonica Makino onto the graphite surface from six solvents. Detailed analysis of the potential energy changes due to the solvent effect derived by molecular dynamics calculations yields an outline of the relative adsorption capacities of the alkaloids. Furthermore, the prediction of the preferential adsorption of alkaloids onto a graphite surface from the liquid phase and the eluent strength of solvents for desorption of the alkaloids from graphite surface were obtained. The calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data. 25 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Effects of Polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino in Immunosuppressed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaoya; Chao, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Lu, Chengyuan; Xu, Chunlan; Niu, Weining

    2016-08-19

    The immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities of crude polysaccharides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GPMPP) were investigated. GPMPP was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 1.39:3.76:1.00:1.64:4.98:5.88. In vivo studies showed GPMPP significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, activated the macrophage phagocytosis and NK cells, and exhibited activity on none or Con A/LPS-stimulated splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, GPMPP elevated CD4⁺ T lymphocyte counts as well as the CD4⁺/CD8⁺ ratio dose-dependently, and it increased IL-2 level in the sera and spleen of Cy-immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, GPMPP significantly increased the SOD, GSH-Px, T-AOC, GSH and CAT level, and decreased the MDA level. The results showed that GPMPP might play an important role in prevention of oxidative damage in immunological system. These findings indicate GPMPP has immunomodulatory activity in vivo and seems to be an effective natural immunomodulatory agent.

  19. Determination of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, T H; Huang, S C; Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, B H

    2008-09-26

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, a traditional Chinese herb possessing antitumor and antioxidant activities, has been shown to contain several functional components like saponins and flavonoids. However, their identities remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop an appropriate extraction, purification and HPLC-MS method to determine saponins and flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum. Both flavonoids and saponins were extracted with methanol, followed by purification with a C18 cartridge to elute the former with 50% methanol and the latter with 100% methanol. A total of 34 saponins were separated within 40 min by a Gemini C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water, in which 18 saponins were identified by LC-MS with ESI mode and Q-TOF (LC/MS/MS). Similarly, a total of eight flavonoids were separated within 45 min by the same column and a gradient solvent system of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water, with identification being carried out by a post-column derivatization method and LC-MS with ESI mode. The amounts of flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum ranged from 170.7 to 2416.5 mug g(-1), whereas saponins were from 491.0 to 89,888.9 mug g(-1).

  20. Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Effects of Polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino in Immunosuppressed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoya Shang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities of crude polysaccharides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GPMPP were investigated. GPMPP was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 1.39:3.76:1.00:1.64:4.98:5.88. In vivo studies showed GPMPP significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, activated the macrophage phagocytosis and NK cells, and exhibited activity on none or Con A/LPS-stimulated splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, GPMPP elevated CD4+ T lymphocyte counts as well as the CD4+/CD8+ ratio dose-dependently, and it increased IL-2 level in the sera and spleen of Cy-immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, GPMPP significantly increased the SOD, GSH-Px, T-AOC, GSH and CAT level, and decreased the MDA level. The results showed that GPMPP might play an important role in prevention of oxidative damage in immunological system. These findings indicate GPMPP has immunomodulatory activity in vivo and seems to be an effective natural immunomodulatory agent.

  1. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Songxiao; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Chong; Tang, Yufan; Liu, Jieying; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development.

  2. Determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S C; Hung, C F; Wu, W B; Chen, B H

    2008-09-10

    The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, a traditional Chinese herb possessing vital biological activities. Chlorophylls were extracted with a quaternary solvent system of hexane-acetone-ethanol-toluene (10:7:6:7, v/v/v/v), followed by separation of a total of 15 chlorophylls and their derivatives within 32 min using a gradient mobile phase of acetone, acetonitrile and methanol and a HyPURITY C18 column, with detection at 660 nm and flow rate at 1 mL/min. Identification was carried out on the basis of retention behavior, absorption spectra and mass spectra using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive ion mode for detection. Of the 15 analytes, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, pheophytin a and pheophytin b were quantified by using standard calibration curves, with the other 11 being quantified with an internal standard Fast Green FCF. Chlorophyll extracts in G. pentaphyllum were found to contain pheophytin a (2508.3 microg/g), pheophytin a' (111.2 microg/g), chlorophyll a (113.8 microg/g), chlorophyll a' (11.0 microg/g), hydroxypheophytin a (88.6 microg/g), hydroxypheophytin a' (66.5 microg/g), pyropheophytin a (76.0 microg/g), hydroxychlorophyll a (23.8 microg/g), pheophytin b (319.6 microg/g), pheophytin b' (13.2 microg/g), chlorophyll b (287.9 microg/g), chlorophyll b' (11.1 microg/g), hydroxychlorophyll b (15.0 microg/g), hydroxypheophytin b (11.2 microg/g) and hydroxypheophytin b' (8.5 microg/g).

  3. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of a Nonpolar Fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yantao; Huang, Jiajun; Lin, Wanjun; Yuan, Zhongwen; Feng, Senling; Xie, Ying; Ma, Wenzhe

    2016-01-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (GpM) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Most previous studies have focused primarily on polar fractions of GpM for anticancer activities. In this study, a nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM showed potent growth inhibitory activities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 31.62 μg/mL to 38.02 μg/mL. Furthermore, EA1.3A also inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 time-dependently, as well as its colony formation ability. EA1.3A induced apoptosis on MDA-MB-453 cells both dose-dependently and time-dependently as analyzed by flow cytometry and verified by western blotting analysis of apoptosis marker cleaved nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (cPARP). Additionally, EA1.3A induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Chemical components analysis of EA1.3A by GC-MS revealed that this nonpolar fraction from GpM contains 10 compounds including four alkaloids, three organic esters, two terpenes, and one catechol substance, and all these compounds have not been reported in GpM. In summary, the nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle progression. Our study shed light on new chemical bases for the anticancer activities of GpM and feasibilities to develop new anticancer agents from this widely used medicinal plant. PMID:27034692

  4. Effects of polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.), Makino on physical fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin-Na, Shan; Yong-Xiu, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino has been reported to have a wide range of health benefits in Chinese herbal medicines. Polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (PGP), has been identified as one of the active ingredients responsible for its biological activities. Although many pharmacological activities of PGP have received a great deal of attention, there is limited evidence for the anti-fatigue effects of PGP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polysaccharides from PGP on physical fatigue. The rats were divided into four groups, with 10 animals per group: control (C), group, low-treated (LT), group, medium-treated (MT), group, and high-treated (HT), group. The C group received distilled water, while LT, MT and HT groups were given various doses of PGP (100, 200, 400 mg/kg· d). After 30 days, forced swimming test was carried out in an acrylic plastic pool, then the exhaustive swimming time of rats and some biochemical parameters related to fatigue were measured. The data obtained showed that PGP could extend the exhaustive swimming time of the rats, as well as decrease the blood lactic acid (BLA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), concentrations, and increase the hemoglobin, liver glycogen and muscle glycogen concentrations. The data obtained showed that different doses of PGP could extend the exhaustive swimming time of the rats, as well as decrease the BLA and BUN concentrations, and increase the hemoglobin, liver glycogen and muscle glycogen concentrations, which suggests that PGP had significant anti-fatigue effects on rats. PGP may be of use as a potential anti-fatigue agent, but there is a need for further research on long-term use in order to show its positive effects on physical fatigue.

  5. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of a Nonpolar Fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb. Makino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb. Makino (GpM has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Most previous studies have focused primarily on polar fractions of GpM for anticancer activities. In this study, a nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM showed potent growth inhibitory activities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 31.62 μg/mL to 38.02 μg/mL. Furthermore, EA1.3A also inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 time-dependently, as well as its colony formation ability. EA1.3A induced apoptosis on MDA-MB-453 cells both dose-dependently and time-dependently as analyzed by flow cytometry and verified by western blotting analysis of apoptosis marker cleaved nuclear poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (cPARP. Additionally, EA1.3A induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Chemical components analysis of EA1.3A by GC-MS revealed that this nonpolar fraction from GpM contains 10 compounds including four alkaloids, three organic esters, two terpenes, and one catechol substance, and all these compounds have not been reported in GpM. In summary, the nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle progression. Our study shed light on new chemical bases for the anticancer activities of GpM and feasibilities to develop new anticancer agents from this widely used medicinal plant.

  6. Genetic structure of a bird-dispersed tropical tree (Dendropanax arboreus) in a fragmented landscape in Mexico Estructura genética de un árbol tropical dispersado por aves (Dendropanax arboreus) en un paisaje fragmentado en México

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa M. Figueroa-Esquivel; Fernando Puebla-Olivares; EGUIARTE, LUIS E.; Juan Núñez-Farfán

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic structure of the tropical tree Dendropanax arboreus (Araliaceae) in relation to habitat fragmentation. Genetic variation, structure, and genetic differentiation among populations from Los Tuxtlas tropical rainforest were estimated using ISSRs as molecular markers. DNA from 219 individuals belonging to 9 populations was amplified with 4 primers yielding a total of 75 loci. Adults and juveniles from each population were analyzed to assess the genetic diversity and struct...

  7. Transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis in Viola yedoensis Makino (Fam. Violaceae) responsive to cadmium (Cd) pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jian [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Maize in Southwest Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Maize Research Institute of Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan (China); Luo, Mao [Drug Discovery Research Center of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou, Sichuan (China); Zhu, Ye; He, Ying; Wang, Qin [Department of Pharmacy of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Chun, E-mail: zc83good@126.com [Department of Pharmacy of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou, Sichuan (China)

    2015-03-27

    Viola yedoensis Makino is an important Chinese traditional medicine plant adapted to cadmium (Cd) pollution regions. Illumina sequencing technology was used to sequence the transcriptome of V. yedoensis Makino. We sequenced Cd-treated (VIYCd) and untreated (VIYCK) samples of V. yedoensis, and obtained 100,410,834 and 83,587,676 high quality reads, respectively. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 109,800 unigenes were finally generated with an average length of 661 bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning unigenes with public protein databases including NR, NT, SwissProt, KEGG and COG. In addition, 892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated between the two libraries of untreated (VIYCK) and Cd-treated (VIYCd) plants. Moreover, 15 randomly selected DEGs were further validated with qRT-PCR and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. This study firstly generated a successful global analysis of the V. yedoensis transcriptome and it will provide for further studies on gene expression, genomics, and functional genomics in Violaceae. - Highlights: • A de novo assembly generated 109,800 unigenes and 5,4479 of them were annotated. • 31,285 could be classified into 26 COG categories. • 263 biosynthesis pathways were predicted and classified into five categories. • 892 DEGs were detected and 15 of them were validated by qRT-PCR.

  8. Potent effects of the total saponins from Dioscorea nipponica Makino against streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Zheng, Lingli; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Lin, Yuan; Li, Hua; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of the total saponins from Dioscorea nipponica Makino (TSDN) against type 2 diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin (STZ) with high-fat diet induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats were treated with TSDN. Some biochemical parameters, target proteins and genes were investigated. The results showed that TSDN decreased the levels of food/water intake, fasting blood glucose and serum lipid parameters, ameliorated oral glucose and insulin tolerance test levels, markedly increased body weight and serum insulin, reduced excess free radicals and affected ossification and renal protection. Histopathological examination indicated that TSDN increased liver glycogen, decreased the production of lipid vacuoles and lightened liver damage. Further investigation showed that TSDN down-regulated the protein expressions of NF-κB, GRP78, ATF6, eIF2 and the levels of MAPK phosphorylation and up-regulated the protein expressions of IRS-1, GLUT-4, p-Akt and p-AMPK. In addition, TSDN obviously decreased the gene expressions of TNF-a, IL-6, PEPCK, G6Pase, GSK-3β and GSK-3β activity, and increased the gene expressions of PFK, PK and GK activity. These findings show the anti-diabetic activity of total saponins from D. nipponica Makino, which should be developed as a new potent drug for treatment of diabetes mellitus in future.

  9. In vitro evaluation of the antiplasmodial activity of Dendropanax morbifera against chloroquine-sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Min-Young; Park, Sun-Dong; Park, Won-Hwan; Moon, Hyung-In

    2009-11-01

    Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (Araliaceae) is well known in Korea traditional medicine for a variety of diseases. The methanol extract of the lower stem parts of D. morbifera was investigated for its activity against chloroquine-sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay method. Two cycloartane-type glycosides oleifoliosides A (1) and B (2), and dendropanoxide (3), beta-amyrin (4), alpha-amyrin (5) have been isolated from the stem parts of D. morbifera. All five compounds were evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activities as well as their cytotoxic potential on SK-OV-3 cancer cell lines. Compounds 2 and 3 showed notable growth inhibitory activity against chloroquine-sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC(50) values of 6.2 and 5.3 microm. This compound showed no significant cytotoxicity (IC(50) > 150 microm) evaluated using SK-OV-3 cancer cell lines. This is the first report on the antiplasmodial activity of the compounds from D. morbifera.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Nano-Extract from Dendropanax morbifera on Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leejin; Yun, Je-Jung; Jeong, Ji-Eun; Wi, An-Jin; Song, Heesang

    2015-01-01

    The plant Dendropanax morbifera Léveille (D. morbifera), a subtropical broad-leaved evergreen tree, have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases, skin diseases, and other maladies. However, the effect of extracts from D. morbifera in vascuar diseases has not yet been reported. In this study, BrdU assay revealed that extracts from D. morbifera inhibit significantly the proliferation rate of Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells (RAoSMCs) by -40% in treated samples compared to controls. Notably, 2-D wound healing assay and 3-D boyden chamber assay showed the significant reduction of RAoSMCs migration induced by serum in nano extracts treated groups by -50%. We further observed that the phosphorylated levels of Akt and ERK were significantly reduced by 70% in extracts treated RAoSMCs. Moreover, the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 were significantly reduced by extracts from D. morbifera. Our results suggest that extracts from D. morbifera inhibit proliferation and migration in RAoSMCs via the modulation of phosphorylated levels of Akt and ERK. Subsequently, the reduced MMP2 and 9 expression might result to reduced migration of RAoSMCs.

  11. The Comparative Analysis of Antioxidant and Biological Activity for the Dendropanax morbifera LEV. Leaves Extracted by Different Ethanol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaya; Ra, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The different concentrations of ethanol (20-100%) and distilled water extract for Dendropanax morbifera LEV. leaves were evaluated to induce antioxidant and biological activity employed by variety of assays. The 20%, 80%, and 100% ethanol extract demonstrated the relatively higher activity, whereas distilled water, 40%, and 60% ethanol extracts exhibited the lower antioxidant and biological activity. Especially, 80% ethanol extract showed the remarkably higher radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenol and flavonoid content, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Also, 100% ethanol extract exhibited relatively greater activity, but there did not show significant radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, there were 50% and 30% promotion effect for ADH activity assay and 80% and 40% promotion effect for ALDH activity assay in 80% and 100% ethanol extract, respectively. In addition, in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), all extracts except for distilled water extract inhibited Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Escherichia coli. For Pichia jadinii, whole extracts effectively inhibited yeast multiplication at concentration of 125 μg/mL for 100% ethanol extract and 250 μg/mL for the rest of extract. These result indicated that D. morbifera LEV. leaves extracted by 80% ethanol would be the ideal extracting solution to maximize inherent antioxidant and biological activity agent.

  12. Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino: An ethnomedical, phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Ling; Chen, Bang-Jiao; Li, Guo-Hui; Zhou, Ming-Xing; Li, Yan-Ru; Ren, Dong-Mei; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Shen, Tao

    2017-08-31

    The calyxes and fruits of Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino (Physalis Calyx seu Fructus), have been widely used in traditional and indigenous Chinese medicines for the therapy of cough, excessive phlegm, pharyngitis, sore throat, dysuria, pemphigus, eczema, and jaundice with a long history. The present review aims to achieve a comprehensive and up-to-date investigation in ethnomedical uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of P. alkekengi var. franchetii, particularly its calyxes and fruits. Through analysis of these findings, evidences supporting their applications in ethnomedicines are illustrated. Possible perspectives and opportunities for the future research are analyzed to highlight the gaps in our knowledge that deserves further investigation. Information on P. alkekengi var. franchetii was collected via electronic search of major scientific databases (e.g. Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Elsevier, SpringerLink, Wiley online and China Knowledge Resource Integrated) for publications on this medicinal plant. Information was also obtained from local classic herbal literature on ethnopharmacology. About 124 chemical ingredients have been characterized from different parts of this plant. Steroids (particularly physalins) and flavonoids are the major characteristic and bioactive constituents. The crude extracts and the isolated compounds have demonstrated various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological functions, such as anti-inflammation, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, antimicrobial activity, diuretic effect, anti-diabetes, anti-asthma, immunomodulation, and anti-oxidation. P. alkekengi var. franchetii is an important medicinal plant for the ethnomedical therapy of microbial infection, inflammation, and respiratory diseases (e.g. cough, excessive phlegm, pharyngitis). Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of this plant definitely increased in the past half century. The chemical profiles, including

  13. First report of the land planarian Diversibipalium multilineatum (Makino & Shirasawa, 1983) (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Continenticola) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Giuseppe; Menchetti, Mattia; Sluys, Ronald; Solà, Eduard; Riutort, Marta; Tricarico, Elena; Justine, Jean-Lou; Cavigioli, Luca; Mori, Emiliano

    2016-01-26

    Introduction of alien species may significantly affect soil ecosystems, through predation or disruption of components of native ecosystems (Winsor et al. 2004; Álvarez-Presas et al. 2014; Justine et al. 2014). Land planarians have been reported as alien species in soils throughout the world and, among those, some species are considered to be successful invaders, e.g. Platydemus manokwari de Beauchamp, 1963, Arthurdendyus triangulatus (Dendy, 1894), Bipalium adventitium Hyman, 1943, Bipalium kewense Moseley, 1878 and Dolichoplana striata Moseley, 1877 (Winsor et al. 2004; Álvarez-Presas et al. 2014; Justine et al. 2014, 2015). Soil moisture status seems to be an important element for their successful invasion (Fraser & Boag 1998). In Europe at least 18 species of alien land planarians have been recorded since now and some of them are considered as invasive ones, e.g. P. manokwari (cf. Justine et al. 2014). Although the alien land planarian B. kewense has been reported to occur in many greenhouses in Italy (Bello et al. 1995), no data are available on its establishment and/or impact on natural environments. On 28th September 2014, 20 specimens (~1 individual/m2) of the land planarian Diversibipalium multilineatum (Makino & Shirasawa, 1983) (Fig. 1), native to Japan, were collected under pots, branches and plastic materials in a private garden located in the center of Bologna (Emilia Romagna, Central Italy), near the urban park Giardini Margherita (44°29' N, 11°21' E; WGS84). Thirty plant species (both indigenous and alien), mainly cultivated as bonsai (e.g. Lagerstroemia indica L., Juniperus procumbens (Siebold ex Endl.) Miquel), were present in this shady, wet garden (25 m2). Between March 2014 and June 2015, 70 more specimens of D. multilineatum were collected at the same site, mainly at dusk and dawn after rain. Reproduction by fission and regeneration processes were observed in several of those specimens, which were kept for some time in captivity. A specimen

  14. Pectinesterase Inhibitor from Jelly Fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino Achene Inhibits Surface Antigen Expression by Human Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chuen Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectinesterase inhibitor (PEI isolated from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino is an edible component of a popular drink consumed in Asia. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is prevalent in Asia, and current treatments for HBV infection need improvement. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PEI on the surface antigen expression by HBV (HBsAg. Human hepatoma cell lines Hep3B and Huh7 served as in vitro models for assessing the cytotoxicity and HBsAg expression. A culture of primary hepatocytes cultured from mice served as the normal counterpart. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT colorimetric assay. HBsAg expression was evaluated by measuring HBsAg secretion into the culture medium using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that PEI did not affect the viability of the human hepatoma cell lines or primary mouse hepatocytes. PEI inhibited the expression of HBsAg in hepatoma cell lines harboring endogenous (Hep3B and integrated (Huh7 HBV genomes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, thus implicating a universal activity against HBV gene expression. In conclusion, it suggests that PEI from jelly fig inhibits the expression of human HBsAg in host cells without toxic effects on normal primary hepatocytes.

  15. Characteristics, composition, and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Pang, Min; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Pan; Xiao, Yaping; Liu, Quanhong

    2017-05-01

    In order to further develop and utilise Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino seeds, a detailed analysis of the characteristics of G. pentaphyllum seed oil (GPSO), including its physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid composition and unsaponifiable matter constituents, has been investigated in this study. The antioxidant potential of GPSO was evaluated by radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay in vitro, and the antioxidant activity in vivo was examined by using an aged mice model. The main components of the seeds are lipids (485.54 g kg(-1) ) and proteins (203.26 g kg(-1) ). The GPSO obtained by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (92.85%), especially conjugated linolenic acid (88.17%); and various useful compounds (squalene, tocopherol and phytosterols) were identified in the unsaponifiable matter. The overall antioxidant capacity of GPSO in vitro was shown to be comparable to that of Camellia seed oil as a positive control. GPSO could provide protection to the aged mice against oxidative stress and minimised the impact of ageing. All the results suggest that GPSO has direct and potent antioxidant activities; it could be utilised as a functional food to supplement or replace some conventional oils. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Genetic structure of a bird-dispersed tropical tree (Dendropanax arboreus in a fragmented landscape in Mexico Estructura genética de un árbol tropical dispersado por aves (Dendropanax arboreus en un paisaje fragmentado en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Figueroa-Esquivel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the genetic structure of the tropical tree Dendropanax arboreus (Araliaceae in relation to habitat fragmentation. Genetic variation, structure, and genetic differentiation among populations from Los Tuxtlas tropical rainforest were estimated using ISSRs as molecular markers. DNA from 219 individuals belonging to 9 populations was amplified with 4 primers yielding a total of 75 loci. Adults and juveniles from each population were analyzed to assess the genetic diversity and structure pre and post-fragmentation, respectively. Dendropanax arboreus showed high levels of genetic diversity (h = 0.253 and significant but low genetic differentiation among populations ( or = 0.062. A hierarchical analysis of the gvenetic structure showed that 91.5% of the genetic variation is attributable to individual differences within populations. The average Nei's genetic distance among populations was low (D = 0.034 and genetic distance among pairs of populations increased with geographic distance separating them. Because genetic diversity is similar between adult and juvenile trees at all but 2 populations, we suggest that seed dispersal prevented genetic differentiation and maintains genetic connectivity among fragments and continuous forest populations. Juvenile populations showed a higher genetic differentiation ( or = 0.15 than adult trees, indicating a role of genetic drift via reduced population size.Se analizó la estructura genética del árbol tropical Dendropanax arboreus (Araliaceae en relación con la fragmentación del hábitat en la selva tropical de Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México. La variación, estructura y diferenciación genética entre poblaciones del bosque continuo y de fragmentos se estimó usando ISSR como marcador molecular. El ADN de 219 individuos de 9 poblaciones se amplificó para 4 primers (75 loci. Se analizaron las poblaciones de árboles adultos y juveniles en cada sitio, representando la diversidad y estructura gen

  17. Differentiation of leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino using flow-injection mass spectrometric(FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, the feasibility and advantages of employing a flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analyses for assessment of di- and tetraploid leaf and whole-plant Gynostemma. pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino samples were investigated for the fi...

  18. Anti-amnesic effect of Dendropanax morbifera via JNK signaling pathway on cognitive dysfunction in high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Park, Seon Kyeong; Guo, Tian Jiao; Kang, Jin Yong; Ha, Jeong Su; Lee, Du Sang; Lee, Uk; Heo, Ho Jin

    2016-10-01

    The ameliorating effects of the ethyl acetate fraction from Dendropanax morbifera (EFDM) on cognitive impairment in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice were examined by measuring its possible pharmacological activities. Administration of EFDM (20 and 50mg/kg body weight) in HFD-induced diabetic mice significantly improved glucose tolerance status in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). In animal experiments using Y-maze, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests, the cognitive and behavioral disorders in HFD-induced diabetic mice were considerably recovered by regulating cholinergic systems, including acetylcholine (ACh) levels and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, and antioxidant systems, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), oxidized GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Furthermore, HFD-induced abnormal activity of mitochondria were also significantly protected by the improvement of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) signaling pathway with phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK), phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (p-IRS), serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). Finally, rutin, orientin, isoorientin, and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside as the main phenolics of EFDM were identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS(2)). These findings suggest that EFDM may have an effect as a multiple preventive substances to reduce diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction.

  19. Study on the Chemical Constituents of the Roots of Dendropanax chevalieri%畲药半边风化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任刚; 罗仉平; 黄慧莲; 邵峰; 李贡辉; 周长新; 刘荣华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the chemical constituents of the roots of Dendropanax chevalieri. Methods: The constituents were isolated by column chromatography with silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 gel and RP-18. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectral data and physicochemical properties. Results: Eight compounds were isolated and identified as palmitic acid ( 1 ) , dibutyl-phthalate(2) , β-sitosterol(3) , coniferaldehyde(4) , scopoletin(5) ,β-hydroxypropiovanillone(6) ,( + )-pinoresinol(7) ,( + )-syrin-garesinol(8). Conclusion; Compounds 1 ~2, 4 ~8 are obtained from this genus for the first time.%目的:研究畲药半边风的化学成分.方法:利用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20、RP-18柱层析法分离纯化半边风的化学成分,并根据波谱数据及理化性质鉴定其结构.结果:分离了8个化合物,分别鉴定为:棕榈酸(1)、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(2)、β-谷甾醇(3)、松柏醛(4)、东莨菪素(5)、β-hydroxypropiovanillon(6)、右旋松脂素(7)、右旋丁香树脂酚(8).结论:除化合物3外,均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  20. Rutin from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille protects human dopaminergic cells against rotenone induced cell injury through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Eun; Sapkota, Kumar; Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young Hoi; Kim, Ki Man; Kim, Kyung Je; Oh, Ha-Na; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Seung

    2014-04-01

    Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (Araliaceae) is well known in Korean traditional medicine for a variety of diseases. Rotenone is a commonly used neurotoxin to produce in vivo and in vitro Parkinson's disease models. This study was designed to elucidate the processes underlying neuroprotection of rutin, a bioflavonoid isolated from D. morbifera Leveille in cellular models of rotenone-induced toxicity. We found that rutin significantly decreased rotenone-induced generation of reactive oxygen species levels in SH-SY5Y cells. Rutin protected the increased level of intracellular Ca(2+) and depleted level of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by rotenone. Furthermore, it prevented the decreased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 caused by rotenone treatment. Additionally, rutin protected SH-SY5Y cells from rotenone-induced caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death. We also observed that rutin repressed rotenone-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. These results suggest that rutin may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  1. Induction of human leukemia U937 cell apoptosis by an ethanol extract of Dendropanax morbifera Lev. through the caspase-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Wοο; Park, Cheol; Han, Min Hο; Hong, Su Hyun; Lee, Tae Kyung; Lee, Shin Hwa; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-09-01

    Dendropanax morbifera Leveille is found throughout southwestern Korea, and has been used in traditional medicine for various diseases, such as migraine headache, infectious diseases, skin diseases and dysmenorrhea. However, the molecular mechanisms of D. morbifera concerning its biochemical actions in cancer have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effects of an ethanol extract of D. morbifera stem bark (EEDM) on human leukemia U937 cells. EEDM markedly inhibited the growth of U937 cells by decreasing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. EEDM-induced apoptosis in U937 cells was associated with the upregulation of death receptor-related protein levels and downregulation of anti-apoptotic IAP family proteins. The increase in apoptosis was also associated with proteolytic activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, inhibition of anti‑apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression, Bid cleavage, and loss of MMP suggesting that apoptosis of U937 cells induced by EEDM was through the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, a pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VED-fmk, significantly inhibited EEDM-induced U937 cell apoptosis indicating that the caspases were key regulators of apoptosis in response to EEDM in U937 cells. Our data suggest that D. morbifera may be a potential anticancer agent for cancer treatment.

  2. The Toxicity and Anti-cancer Activity of the Hexane Layer of Melia azedarach L. var. japonica Makino's Bark Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Woo; Kang, Se Chan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the 4-week oral toxicity and anti-cancer activity of the hexane layer of Melia azedarach L. var. japonica Makino's bark extract were investigated. We carried out a hollow fiber (HF) assay and 28- day repeated toxicity study to confirm the anti-cancer effect and safety of the hexane layer. The HF assay was carried out using an A549 human adenocarcinoma cell via intraperitoneal (IP) site with or without cisplatin. In the result, the 200 mg/kg b.w of hexane layer with 4 mg/kg b.w of cisplatin treated group, showed the highest cytotoxicity aginst A549 carcinoma cells. For the 28-day repeated toxicity study, 6 groups of 10 male and female mice were given by gavage 200, 100, or 50 mg/kg b.w hexane layer with or without 4 mg/kg b.w of cisplatin against body weight, and were then sacrificed for blood and tissue sampling. The subacute oral toxicity study in mice with doses of 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg b.w hexane layer showed no significant changes in body weight gain and general behavior. The cisplatin-treated group significantly decreased in body weight compared to the control group but regained weight with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w of hexane layer. The biochemical analysis showed significant increase in several parameters (ALT, total billirubin, AST, creatinine, and BUN) in cisplatin-treated groups. However, in the group given a co-treatment of hexane layer (200 mg/kg b.w), levels of these parameters decreased. In hematological analysis, cisplatin induced the reduction of WBCs and neutrophils but co-treatment with hexane layer (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w) improved these toxicities caused by cisplatin. The histological profile of the livers showed eosinophilic cell foci in central vein and portal triad in cisplatin treated mice. These results show that hexane layer might have an anti-cancer activity and could improve the toxicity of cisplatin.

  3. [Analysis of proteins in the extracts of Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino using nanoflow reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyang; Yan, Jiaze; Guo, Ming; Jin, Yan

    2013-04-01

    The protein was extracted from Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino fruit by using water extraction and acid precipitation methods, and it consisted of 188 mg/g of protein on dry basis of the extract. Among 18 amino acids, eight essential amino acids for human account for 31% were found in this extract. Based on shotgun proteomics method, the protein extracted from Physalis fruit was analysed by nanoflow reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-RPLC-MS/MS) system. Combined with database searches and bioinformatics analysis, the protein species and six molecular functions were identified, including with catalytic activity, antioxidant activity, enzyme regular activity, nutrient reservoir activity, transporter activity and binding activity. And three antioxidant activity-related proteins were identified. These results may lay the foundation for further study of the functional properties of the proteins in Physalis fruit.

  4. Simultaneous determination of seven major diterpenoids in Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Linan; Jiang, Zhen; Li, Huining; Wang, Mingsheng; Ye, Xiaoxia; Ji, Bin; Guo, Xingjie

    2012-10-01

    A novel HPLC method with evaporative light scattering detection was developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven major diterpenoids of two types, including ent-pimarane type: Kirenol, Hythiemoside B, Darutigenol, and ent-kaurane type: ent-16β,17,18-trihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid, ent-17,18-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid, ent-16β,17-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid, 16α-hydro-ent-kauran-17,19-dioic acid in the aerial parts of Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino, an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Symmetry Shield(TM) RP18 column (250 mm× 4.6 mm id, 5 μm) with a gradient mobile phase (A: 0.3% v/v aqueous formic acid and B: acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The drift tube temperature of evaporative light scattering detection was set at 103°C, and nitrogen flow rate was 3.0 L/min. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ. All calibration curves showed a good linear relationship (r > 0.999) in test range. Precision was evaluated by intra- and interday tests that showed RSDs were less than 3.5%. Accuracy validation showed that the recovery was between 96.5 and 102.0% with RSDs below 2.8%. The validated method was successfully applied to determine the contents of seven diterpenoids in the different parts of Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino from two sources and to determine the contents of ent-pimarane, ent-kaurane, and total diterpenoids.

  5. Potent Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Actions of the Chloroform Extract of Dendropanax morbifera Mediated by the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Kim, Kyeong-A; Kim, Eun-Sun; Syed, Ahmed Shah; Kim, Chul Young; Lee, Jong Soo; Bae, Ok-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Dendropanax morbifera LEVEILLE (DP) has been used in traditional Korean medicines to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. Although the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of this plant is understood, its in vivo efficacy and underlying molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects are largely unknown. We elucidated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and the underlying molecular mechanisms of DP using in vitro and in vivo models. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages were used to analyze the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of DP extract and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In vivo animal models of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced writhing response tests were used to analyze the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects and anti-nociceptive effects of DP extract, respectively. Methanolic extract of DP (DPME) significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-activated macrophages. Among the five sub-fractions, the chloroform fraction (DP-C) showed the most potent suppressive effects against pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These effects were attributed to inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 phosphorylation and to activation of NF-E2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) signaling. DP-C exhibited strong protective in vivo effects in TPA-induced ear edema mouse model and acetic acid-induced writhing response test. Our data suggest that DP-C has potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and may be a promising treatment against a variety of inflammatory diseases.

  6. Research Progress of Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Genus Dendropanax%树参属化学成分与生物活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀梅; 杨丽; 何军伟; 任刚; 杨明; 钟国跃

    2015-01-01

    五加科树参属植物大多数为我国民间传统常用草药,药用历史悠久,具有祛风除湿、活血消肿的功效,被载录《中华本草》,《中药大辞典》,《全国中草药汇编》,《中国畲族医药学》等书籍中.系统查阅中国知网,万方,维普,Web of science,SeiFinder,Pubmed等国内外多个数据库,对树参属植物的化学成分与生物活性相关的内容进行了文献整理、分析及总结.结果表明,该属植物主要的化学成分为多炔类、苯丙素类、黄酮类、三萜类等化合物,具有抗炎、抗补体、抗肿瘤、杀虫、抗氧化等生物活性.此外,树参属与人参属亲缘关系密切,是具有潜在开发价值的药用植物群.然而,仅有树参Dendropanax dentiger,变叶树参D.proteus,乔木树参D.arboreus,黄漆木D.morbifera,三棱果树参D.trifidus和1个不确定种D.cf querceti 进行了化学成分及生物活性研究,且与临床功效相关的研究较少.因此,亟需对树参属的化学成分及生物活性进行系统的研究,结合临床功效,阐明其药效物质基础及作用机制.本文从化学成分与生物活性两方面对国内外树参属植物研究概况进行了综述,以期为该属植物的质量控制、临床应用及合理开发提供重要的科学依据.

  7. 川芎与东川芎挥发性成分分析%Analysis of the volatile component from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.and Cnidium officinale Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自梁; 王景迪; 邹依霖; 安仁波

    2016-01-01

    用气流吹扫微注射器萃取技术(GP-MSE)得到川芎和东川芎的挥发性成分,用气相色谱质谱联用(GC-MS)鉴定了所得挥发性物质的化学成分,并用归一化法测定了其相对含量.在川芎中鉴定出2羟基苯乙酸异丁酯(21.94%)、间苯二胺(6.04%)、丁烯苯酞(5.17%)和1(2,4二甲基苯基)2甲基1丙酮(4.83%)等32个化合物.在东川芎中鉴定出(1Z,4Z)6丁基环庚1,4二烯(15.76%)、2羟基苯乙酸异丁酯(13.46%)、(11E,14E)二十碳二烯酸甲酯(9.32%)和1(2,4二甲基苯基)1丙酮(5.61%)等34个化合物.2羟基苯乙酸异丁酯为首次从川芎和东川芎中鉴定出的成分,其相对百分含量分别为21.94%和13.46%.%The volatile component of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.and Cnidium officinale Makino were han-dled by gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE),and were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spec-trometer (GC-MS).Area normalization method was used for the detection of the volatile component.Thirty-two compounds were identified from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.and the components conclude isobutyl 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (21.94%),benzene-1,3-diamine (6.04%),n-butene phthalide (5.17%),1-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-2-methylpropan-1-one (4.83%),etc;thirty-four compounds were extracted and identified from Cnidium officinale Makino,the components conclude (1Z,4Z)-6-butylcyclohepta-1,4-diene (15.76%), isobutyl 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (13.46%),(11E,14E)-methyl icosa-11,14-dienoate (9.32%),1-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)propan-1-one (5.61%),etc.The component isobutyl 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate was iden-tified from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.and Cnidium officinale Makino for the first time,the relative per-centage content is 21.94% and 13.46%,respectively.

  8. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  9. Characterization of a novel alkali-soluble heteropolysaccharide from tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino and its potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuge; Shang, Pingping; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Hua; Gong, Lu; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Wenjuan; Xu, Yuhong; Wang, Qin; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-04-30

    A novel polysaccharide (GPP-S), with a molecular mass of 1.2 × 10(6) Da, was isolated from the tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino by alkali extraction followed by purifications using DEAE and Sephacryl S-400 column chromatographies. The monosaccharide composition of GPP-S was determined as rhamnose, arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 1.00:3.72:19.49:7.82. The structural analysis suggested that the backbone of GPP-S is (1→4)-linked-glucose and (1→6)-linked-galactose with a (1→4,6)-linked-glucose branch every six monosaccharide residues. The terminals were 1-)-α-arabinose, glucuronic acid, and other monosaccharides. GPP-S exhibited scavenging capacities against hydroxyl, peroxyl, and DPPH(•) radicals in vitro. GPP-S also had inhibitory activities on IL-1β, IL-6, and COX-2 gene expressions in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. These results suggested that GPP-S could be developed as a bioactive ingredient for functional foods and dietary supplements.

  10. Differential Expression Analysis of Genic Male Sterility A/B Lines in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi(Brassica Campestris ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-qin; CAO Jia-shu; FU Qing-gong; YU Xiao-lin; YE Wan-zhi; XIANG Xun

    2003-01-01

    To determine differential expression of genic male sterility A/B lines in Chinese cabbage-pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino var. communis Teen et Lee), we used the RNA fingerprinting technique, cDNA-AFLP analysis, in different developmental stages and different tissues. While no obvious differential expressions were observed in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes, some differential expressions were found in alabstrums of A/B lines and among leaves, scapes and alabstrums. We analyzed the alabstrums collected in different developmental stages with 10 primer combinations. We got a unique band between middle size alabstrums and large alabstrums in B line in one of the ten pair primers, and in another one pair, one band reflecting a higher gene-expression level in A line than that in B line was obtained. No unique bands were found with the other primer combinations. The bands reflecting different gene-expression level were confirmed by Northern hybridization. The results indicated that cDNA-AFLP was a suitable tool for studying differential expression of genic male sterility in plants. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of soluble proteins further verified the difference in A/B lines.

  11. Inhibitory effect of glycoprotein isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MAKINO on activities of allergy-mediators in compound 48/80-stimulated mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kye-Taek

    2010-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the anti-allergy potentials of glycoprotein (90kDa) isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MAKINO (OFI glycoprotein) in vivo (ICR mice) and in vitro (RBL-2H3 cells). At first, to know whether the OFI glycoprotein has an inhibitory ability for allergy in vivo, we evaluated the activities of allergy-related factors such as histamine and beta-hexosaminidase release, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in compound 48/80 (8 ml/kg BW)-treated ICR mice. After that, we studied to found the effect for anti-allergy in vitro such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, arachidonic acid, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in compound 48/80 (5 microg/ml)-treated RBL-2H3 cells. Our results showed that the OFI glycoprotein (5 mg/kg) inhibited histamine and beta-hexosaminidase release, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in mice serum. Also OFI glycoprotein (25 microg/ml) has suppressive effects on the expression of MAPK (ERK1/2), and on protein expression of anti-allergic proteins (iNOS and COX-2). Thus, we speculate that the OFI glycoprotein is an example of natural compound that blocks anti-allergic signal transduction pathways.

  12. Some endophytes of Juncus trifidus from Tatra Mts. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a first part of work devoted highland rush endophytes: Penicillium expansum, Cladosporium oxysporum, Arthrinium state of Apiospora montagnei and Aureobasidium pullulans. The basidiomycete strain, possibly Lagarobasidium detriticum was also isolated.

  13. Isolation, Identification and Antioxidant Activity of an Endophytic Fungi from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino%具有抗氧化活性的绞股蓝内生真菌的分离及研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚菲; 魏希颖; 刘竹; 马彩霞

    2011-01-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino was a well known edible and medicinal plant in oriental countries and its dominant active constituents are mainly Gypenosides(GP). The objective is to select and identify endophytic fungus from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino which displays antioxidant activity and produces Gypenosides( GP) as its host. A total of 10 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from the root of healthy, living, and symptomless tissues of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, and the extracts from one strain( G4) showing antioxidant activity and had the same Rf value in TLC as that of the authentic Gypenosides( GP) and its extracts had a retention time identical with that of authentic Gypenosides( GP) in HPLC. So the strain G4 of endophytic fungus appeared to produce the same components as its host,and Rdna sequence analysis proved that G4 was identified to be Helotiales.%从药用植物绞股蓝根部分离内生真菌,筛选出抗氧化活性菌株并对其成分进行初步检测,鉴定目的菌株.采用常规方法分离绞股蓝根部内生真菌;DPPH法和Fe3+还原力测定抗氧化能力;TLC和HPLC检测内生真菌代谢产物中绞股蓝皂苷;分子生物学方法进行种属鉴定.分离得到的10株内生真菌中G4菌株具有一定的抗氧化活性,经检测发现G4的胞内产物中含有绞股蓝皂苷,鉴定其为柔膜菌目(Helotiales).

  14. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Prachoom, Norratouch; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-04-27

    Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products.

  15. Co-Treatment of EFF and 1-MCP for Enhancing the Shelf-Life and Aroma Volatile Compounds of Oriental Sweet Melons (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xiao-hang; TENG Lu-hua; LÜ De-qing; QI Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other melon types, oriental sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) is quite a different species with a shorter shelf-life due to its typical climacteric behavior and thin pericarp. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the effects of co-treatment of enhanced freshness formulation (EFF) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on physiological changes and the content of aroma volatile compounds introduced by them of two oriental sweet melon cultivars (Yumeiren and Tianbao) during storage. The melons were stored in incubators with temperature of 15°C and a relative humidity of 85%for 24 d during which fruit quality and related physiological index were measured. Compared to the control, both treatments delayed fruit weight loss rate and kept the fruit ifrmness, water content and soluble solids content. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities showed lfuctuations in treated melons, while lipoxygenase (LOX) activity (P<0.01) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.05) decreased compared to control. During the early stage of storage, alcohols and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds, and esters gradually increased during storage. Of all the esters, acetic esters were the main components, followed by oxalic acid esters and other esters. The total content of aroma volatile compounds, esters, alcohols and aldehydes of co-treated melons were all higher than those of 1-MCP treated and control melons. In addition, the aroma volatile peak of co-treated melons occurred later than that of 1-MCP treated and control melons. In summary, co-treatment of EFF and 1-MCP was more beneifcial than 1-MCP treatment to delay ripening and senescence, maintain fruit quality, enhance shelf-life and improve levels of aroma volatile compounds.

  16. APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms influence metabolic responses to Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino tea consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeenduang, Nutjaree; Sangkaew, Boonnisa; Chantaracha, Pacharee; Chanchareonsri, Sirada; Plyduang, Thunyaluk; Thitdee, Wanida; Samae, Cathaleeya; Pitumanon, Wacharaporn

    2017-03-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GP) have been used as traditional medicines to treat diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, there is interindividual variation in the metabolic responses to HS and GP consumption. This may be due to genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HS and GP tea consumption on anthropometric data, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolemia subjects with different genotypes of the APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms. Forty-eight subjects with hypercholesterolemia were given either HS or GP tea for 30 days. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were determined, and APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). E4 (p=0.008) and homozygous B1B1 (p=0.010) carriers had significantly decreased HDL-C concentrations after HS consumption; in addition, B2 carriers who consumed HS showed significantly decreased triglyceride (TG) concentrations (p=0.039). Regarding GP consumption, non-E4 carriers had significantly decreased HDL-C (p=0.009) and FBG (p=0.042) concentrations. Furthermore, B2 carriers had significantly decreased total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.045), HDL-C (p=0.004), and FBG (p=0.026) concentrations. HS consumption may have beneficial effects with respect to TG concentrations in the B2 carriers, but it may adversely affect HDL-C concentrations in homozygous B1B1 and E4 carriers. In contrast, GP consumption may have favorable effects on TC and FBG concentrations but not on HDL-C concentrations for B2 and/or non-E4 carriers.

  17. Chemical constituents in ethyl acetate fraction from roots of Dendropanax proteus%变叶树参根醋酸乙酯部位化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李陆军; 宋杰; 冯丽彬

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究五加科树参属植物变叶树参Dendropanax proteus根醋酸乙酯部位的化学成分.方法 利用硅胶和Sephadex LH-20等色谱技术进行分离纯化,根据NMR、MS等波谱数据和理化性质鉴定化合物结构.结果 从变叶树参根95%乙醇提取物的醋酸乙酯萃取部位分离鉴定了6个化合物,分别为3,5-二甲氧基-4-羟基反式桂皮醛(1)、3-甲氧基-4-羟基反式桂皮醛(2)、香草酸(3)、香草醛(4)、壬二酸(5)和β-谷甾醇(6).结论 化合物1~5为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  18. Analysis of the Nutritional Components of Fruit and Fruit Calyx of Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.Makino) in Heilongjiang%黑龙江酸浆果实及果萼的成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛玉; 段玉峰; 刘俊花; 肖红

    2006-01-01

    酸浆[Physalis alkekengi L.var. franehetii Mast.Makino]属茄科(Solanaceae),多年生草本植物。果肉柔嫩多汁,酸甜爽口,果萼可泡水饮用。其花萼、全草及根均可入药,具清热、利咽、化痰、行水之功效,是一种果药兼用的经济植物。本实验对其营养成分及多糖的体外抗氧化能力进行研究,为开发利用提供依据。

  19. Effects of Copper Stress on Seedling Growth of Brassica campestris ssp. chinenses (L.) Makino%铜胁迫对小白菜幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志平; 张海霞; 赵智灵; 杜清洁

    2015-01-01

    以北京新一号四季小白菜为材料,研究了 CuSO4胁迫对基质栽培小白菜幼苗生长、光合色素含量和膜脂过氧化的影响。试验结果表明,较低浓度 CuSO4使株高、叶片数、最大叶长、最大叶宽、根长及地上部、根系鲜质量和干质量显著增加,较高浓度 CuSO4则显著抑制了各形态指标和生物量积累;20μmol/L CuSO4使叶绿素 a、叶绿素 b 和类胡萝卜素含量显著增加,较高浓度 CuSO4则使各光合色素含量显著降低;随 CuSO4浓度提高,叶片质膜透性显著增加,抗坏血酸含量则呈先升高后降低的趋势。说明低浓度 CuSO4处理对小白菜生长有一定的促进作用,高浓度CuSO4胁迫则使光合能力降低,膜脂过氧化程度加剧,最终造成小白菜生长受到显著抑制。%Taking Beijing New No.1 as material, the experiment studied the effects of CuSO4 stress on the growth, photosynthetic pigment contents and membrane lipid peroxidation of Brassica campestris ssp. chinenses (L.) Makino cultivated in mixed substrate. The results showed that, the plant height, leaf number, maximum leaf length, maximum leaf width, root length and shoot and root fresh weight and dry weight of B. campestris ssp. chinenses (L.) Makino were significantly increased under lower CuSO4 concentration treatments, while all morphological indicators and biomass accumulation were significantly inhibited under higher CuSO4 concentration treatments. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid contents were significantly increased when the CuSO4 concentration was 20 μmol/L, while all photosynthetic pigment contents were significantly reduced under higher CuSO4 concentration treatments. with CuSO4 concentration increased, membrane permeability of leaves was significantly increased, and ascorbic acid content was increased firstly and then decreased. The results indicated that lower CuSO4 concentrations could promote the growth of campestris ssp

  20. 太行菊和芙蓉菊花粉母细胞减数分裂过程%Meiosis process of pollen mother cells in Opisthopappus taihangensis (Ling)Shih and Crossostephium chinense(L.)Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 陈发棣; 陈素梅; 房伟民

    2009-01-01

    对太行菊和芙蓉菊花粉母细胞减数分裂过程进行了研究.结果表明:太行菊和芙蓉菊减数分裂过程基本正常,为同时型胞质分裂.减数分裂中期Ⅰ染色体基本构型为9个二价体,其中太行菊和芙蓉菊每个花粉母细胞(PMC)平均染色体配对构型分别为005Ⅰ+892Ⅱ+003Ⅳ和004Ⅰ+861Ⅱ+002Ⅲ+017Ⅳ;部分花粉母细胞后期Ⅰ和后期Ⅱ及末期Ⅰ和末期Ⅱ发现有染色体桥、落后染色体、微核及不同步分裂等减数分裂异常现象.%Meiosis behaviors in the Opisthopappus taihangensis (Ling) Shih and Crossostephium chinense (L. ) Makino were investigated for the first time. The results showed that meiosis of pollen mother cell ( PMC) was overall normal and simultaneous cytokinesis. The chromosome pairing configurations at meiotic metaphase Ⅰ per PMC in Opisthopappus taihangensis (Ling) Shih and Crossostephium chinense (L. ) Makino, with the commonest configurations of 9 bivalents (9Ⅱ ), were 0. 05 Ⅰ +8. 92 Ⅱ +0. 03Ⅳ and 0. 04Ⅰ +8. 61 Ⅱ +0. 02Ⅲ+0. 17Ⅳ , respectively. A few of chromosome bridges and laggard chromosomes were found in some PMCs at anaphase Ⅰ and Ⅱ ; moreover, micronucleus and nonsynchronous division were also observed in several cells at telophase land Ⅱ.

  1. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the fruit and calyx of Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino%中药锦灯笼化学成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才谦; 刘玉强; 马哲

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究中药锦灯笼(physalis alkekengi L.vat.franchetii(Mast.)Makino)的宿萼和果实的化学成分.方法 采用乙醇提取,硅胶柱色谱分离纯化,根据理化性质和波谱数据鉴定结构.结果 分离得到11个化合物,分别鉴定为4,7-二脱氢新酸浆苦素B(4,7-didehydroneophysalin B,1)、酸浆苦素D(physalin D,2)、酸浆苦素P(physalin P,3)、木犀草素(luteolin,4)、木犀草素-7-葡萄糖苷(lutcolin-7-O-glucoside,5)、3',4'-二甲氧基杨梅皮素(3',4'-dimethoxymyricetin,6)、柠檬酸二甲酯(1,5-dimethyl citrate,7)、5-羟甲基糠酸(5-hydroxymethylfuroic acid,8)、环(酪-亮)二肽(cyclo(tyrosine-amidocaproic)-bipeptide,9)β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,10)、胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,11).结论 化合物6~9为首次从该植物中分离得到的已知化合物.

  2. 分葱对黄瓜、萝卜和白菜的化感作用%Allelopathy of Allium fistulosum L.var.caespitosum Makino on Cucumis sativus L.,Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica chinensis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽; 孙玉文; 刘景安

    2007-01-01

    以黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.),萝卜(Raphanus satovis L.)和白菜(Brassica chinensis L.)3种蔬菜作物为受体,通过种子萌发试验及幼苗生长试验,对分葱(Allium fistulosum L.var.caespitosum Makino)根系及其地上部水浸液的化感作用进行了初步研究.结果表明:分葱根系和地上部水浸液对黄瓜、萝卜和白菜具有一定的化感作用.对黄瓜和萝卜的萌发有一定的抑制作用,而对其幼苗生长有一定的促进作用;对白菜的萌发表现为低浓度促进高浓度抑制,而对其幼苗生长有一定的抑制作用.因此,在蔬菜栽培制度中,分葱可与黄瓜和萝卜进行合理的轮作与间套作;但可能不适宜与白菜进行轮作或间套作.

  3. Glycoprotein (90 kDa) isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MAKINO lowers plasma lipid level through scavenging of intracellular radicals in Triton WR-1339-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil-Sun; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2006-07-01

    The Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MAKINO (OFI) has been traditionally used as health food and herbal agent in folk medicine in Korea. In this study, we investigated whether the OFI glycoprotein has antioxidative activity and hypolipidemic effect on Triton WR-1339-induced A/J mice. The OFI glycoprotein inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO) in BNL CL.2 cells. With its antioxidative property, the mice were orally administered in the OFI glycoprotein [50 mg/kg body weight (BW)] for two weeks. Our finding resulted in a significant decrease of plasma lipid levels in Triton WR-1339-treated mice such as total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Indeed, mice which induced by Triton WR-1339 were significantly increased the levels of TC, TG and LDL, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level obviously decreased. However, the values were reversed at pretreatment with OFI glycoprotein in Triton WR-1339-treated mice. The data also showed that pretreatment with OFI glycoprotein resulted in decrease of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level and in increase of nitric oxide (NO) amount in presence of Triton WR-1339-treated mice, while the activities of antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] were augmented. Therefore, we speculate that the OFI glycoprotein would be effective in lowering of plasma lipid levels.

  4. 半边风苯丙素类成分及抑制中性粒细胞呼吸爆发活性研究%Isolation and Anti-PMN Respiratory Burst Activity of Phenylpropanoids Compounds from Dendropanax chevalieri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任刚; 罗仉平; 李文艳; 朱根华; 邵峰; 黄慧莲; 刘荣华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the phenylpropanoids chemical constituents from the root of Dendropanax chevalieri,and evaluate the biological activity of the nine phenylpropanoids including the five phenylpropanoids isolated previously,and to provide preliminary pharmacological basis for the clinical application of the root of D.chevalieri in medicine of She nationality.Method:The constituents were isolated from n-butanol extract of D.chevalieri 95% ethanol extract by all kinds of column chromatography.Their structures were elucidated by analysis of physical chemical properties and spectral data.By using phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) as the stimulant,luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was used to compare the effects of the nine phenylpropanoids compounds on the respiratory burst of rat neutrophils.Result:Four phenylpropanoid compounds,sinapaldehye glucoside (1),syrigin (2),coniferaldehyde 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and icariside E5 (4),were isolated and identified from n-butanol extract.As results of pharmacological studies,six phenylpropanoid compounds revealed different inhibitory activity on the respiratory burst of rat neutrophils.Their activity were ranked in the decreasing order of scopoletin > (+)-pinoresinol > (+)-syringaresinol coniferaldehyde > β-hydroxypropiovanillon > VC > icariside E5,while sinapaldehye glucoside,syrigin and coniferaldehyde 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside had no inhibitory activity.Conclusion:Compound 3 is isolated from this genus for the first time.Phenylpropanoid compounds isolated from the root of D.chevalieri has a strong anti-PMN respiratory burst activity and hydroxyl group might be a pharmacophore.This is the fist report of the pharmacological evidence for the clinical application of the root of D.chevalieri in medicine of She nationality.%目的:继续对半边风的化学成分进行研究,并对包括前期研究的9个苯丙素类化合物进行生物活性评价,为半边风在畲族医药中的临床应用提供初步的

  5. Comparison of Six Methods for the Extraction of Genomic DNA from Boehmeria tricuspis (Hance)Makino%悬铃叶苎麻基因组 DNA 的六种提取方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志雪; 唐蜻; 程超华; 信鹏飞; 高春生; 李育君; 臧巩固; 赵立宁

    2015-01-01

    悬铃叶苎麻(Boehmeria tricuspis (Hance)Makino)是一种多年生草本植物,含有较多的多酚、多糖等次生代谢物质,这些次生代谢物质能够与基因组 DNA 结合从而影响其 DNA 的提取。本文以悬铃叶苎麻幼嫩叶片为试材,采用6种方法提取基因组 DNA,并比较其提取效果,以期寻找到正确的、快速的、能够得到高质量的基因组 DNA 的方法。琼脂糖凝胶电泳、紫外分光光度仪、SSR -PCR 扩增和限制性内切酶酶切等方法检测不同方法提取的全基因组 DNA 的质量和纯度。结果显示:采用方法1(TianGen 试剂盒)提取的溶液中含有杂质,DNA 含量较少;方法2(常规CTAB 法)提取的 DNA 含有较多杂质;方法3(硅胶-CTAB 法)和方法4(酚抽提-CTAB 法)没有提取到 DNA;方法5(高盐预先去杂-CTAB 法)得到的基因组 DNA 溶液含有较多的蛋白质或盐;方法6(葡萄糖预先去杂-CTAB 法)是唯一能获得高质量的基因组 DNA,能够满足 PCR、限制性内切酶酶切等分子实验对 DNA 的要求。本研究找到了一种通用、简单易行,成本低且安全的去除植物 DNA 提取过程中多糖等杂质的方法,为悬铃叶苎麻后续的其他分子生物学的研究奠定了基础。%Boehmeria tricuspis (Hance)Makino is a perennial herbaceous plant which contains ex-ceptionally high amounts of polyphenols,polysaccharides,and other secondary metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation.Six methods were compared for the extraction of genomic DNA from young leaves of Boehmeria tricuspis,and we expected to find a correct method which can make us quickly obtained high quality genomic DNA.The total DNAs extracted by different methods were detected by agarose gel elec-trophoresis,the ultraviolet absorbency,the amplification of DNAs with SSR primer and restriction endo-nuclease reaction.The results indicate the solution of genomic DNA extracted by

  6. Studies on Tetraploid Breeding Techniques by Using Isolated Microspore Culture Techniques in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino%基于小孢子培养的青梗菜多倍体育种技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 付颖; 杨硕; 包美丽; 刘雪利

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop diversified tetraploid lines in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis(L.)Makino and thereby facilitate heterosis breeding.Sixteen hybrid varieties were used for isolated microspore culture and 393 regenerated plants were obtained.Among these,113 plants were identified as tetraploids based on morphological identification,examination of stomatal characteristics,size measurement and viability testing of pollen,and chromosome counts of the pollen mother cells.Furthermore,3 tetraploid lines showing excellent characteristics were screened.The 3 selected tetraploid lines were used as parents,and a tetraploid hybrid‘T24 × T11’with significant heterosis and comprehensive quality traits was selected through a variety comparison tests.A technical system for tetraploid heterosis breeding was established based on isolated microspore in Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis(L.)Makino.%为创制多样性的青梗菜多倍体纯系用于多倍体育种实践,以16个青梗菜杂交种为试材进行游离小孢子培养,获得了393株小孢子植株。再生植株经过形态鉴定、叶片气孔特征检测、花粉粒大小及生活力检测、花粉母细胞染色体计数,鉴定出113个自然加倍的四倍体植株,从中筛选出3个优良株系。以可育的四倍体株系为亲本配制杂交组合,通过品种比较试验筛选出1个优势显著、综合性状优良的四倍体杂交组合‘T24×T11’。建立了基于游离小孢子培养的青梗菜多倍体育种技术体系。

  7. An improved technique for isolating codominant compound microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Chunlan L; Abdul Wadud, Md; Geng, Qifang; Shimatani, Kenichiro; Hogetsu, Taizo

    2006-07-01

    An approach for developing codominant polymorphic markers (compound microsatellite (SSR) markers), with substantial time and cost savings, is introduced in this paper. In this technique, fragments flanked by a compound SSR sequence at one end were amplified from the constructed DNA library using compound SSR primer (AC)6(AG)5 or (TC)6(AC)5 and an adaptor primer for the suppression-PCR. A locus-specific primer was designed from the sequence flanking the compound SSR. The primer pairs of the locus-specific and compound SSR primers were used as a compound SSR marker. Because only one locus-specific primer was needed for design of each marker and only a common compound SSR primer was needed as the fluorescence-labeled primer for analyzing all the compound SSR markers, this approach substantially reduced the cost of developing codominant markers and analyzing their polymorphism. We have demonstrated this technique for Dendropanax trifidus and easily developed 11 codominant markers with high polymorphism for D. trifidus. Use of the technique for successful isolation of codominant compound SSR markers for several other plant species is currently in progress.

  8. Analysis of proteins in the extracts of Physalis alkekengi L.var.franchetii(Mast.) Makino using nanoflow reversed-phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry%纳升级反相液相色谱-串联质谱法分析锦灯笼提取物中的蛋白质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海洋; 晏嘉泽; 郭明; 靳艳

    2013-01-01

    The protein was extracted from Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii ( Mast. ) Makino fruit by using water extraction and acid precipitation methods, and it consisted of 188 mg/g of protein on dry basis of the extract. Among 18 amino acids, eight essential amino acids for human account for 31 % were found in this extract. Based on shotgun proteomics method, the protein extracted from Physalis fruit was analysed by nanoflow reversed-phase liquid chro-matography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-RPLC-MS/MS) system. Combined with database searches and bioinformatics analysis, the protein species and six molecular functions were identified, including with catalytic activity, antioxidant activity, enzyme regular activity, nutrient reservoir activity, transporter activity and binding activity. And three antioxidant activity-related proteins were identified. These results may lay the foundation for further study of the functional properties of the proteins in Physalis fruit.%通过水提、酸沉法得到锦灯笼果实提取物,其中蛋白质含量为188 mg/g(以提取物干重计),共含有18种氨基酸,其中8种人体必需氨基酸占氨基酸总量的31%.基于鸟枪法蛋白质组学的分析方法,用纳升级反相液相色谱-串联质谱(nano-RPLC-MS/MS)系统分析锦灯笼果实提取物中蛋白质的酶解产物,结合数据库检索,共鉴定得到60种蛋白质;通过生物信息学分析,得到锦灯笼提取物中的蛋白质具有催化活性、抗氧化活性、酶调节活性、养分贮液囊活性、运输活性、结合活性六大生物活性,其中鉴定到与抗氧化相关的蛋白质有3种,为锦灯笼中蛋白质的功能性质的进一步研究奠定了基础.

  9. 硅对镉胁迫下白菜光合作用及相关生理特性的影响%Effect of Silicon on Photosynthesis and Its Related Physiological Parameters of Brassica campestris L.ssp.chinensis(L.)Makino Grown Under Cd Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋阿琳; 李萍; 李兆君; 梁永超

    2011-01-01

    Two pakchoi[Brassica campestris L.ssp.chinensis(L.)Makino]cultivars:i.e.Hangyoudong(HYD),a Cd-tolerant cultivar and Shanghaiqing(SHQ),a Cd-susceptible cultivar,were selected among 12 pakchoi genotypes based on the root tolerance index,and then grown hydroponically to investigate the effects of Si on biomass,photosynthetic parameters and leaf stoma structure and chloroplast ultrastructure in two contrasting pakchoi cultivars grown under Cd stress.Theresults showed that shoot and root biomass of SHQ and HYD with Cd treatment decreased by 33.8%,30.9% and 28.2%,6.8% compared with the corresponding controls;Cd contents were 56.2,86.6 and 44.7,62.9 times as high in the Cd treatment alone as in the corresponding control treatment.Net photosynthetic rate(Pn),stomatal conductance(Gs),transpiration rate(Tr)and chlorophyll content of the two pakchoi cultivars tested were all decreased under Cd-stress,while intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci)was increased under Cd-stress.Microscopic observations showed that the stoma transmutated and chloroplast structure swelled observably with chloroplast granae being destroyed heavily under Cd-stress,which were all counteracted by addition of Si.Addition of Si to Cd treatment significantly increased shoot and root biomass of SHQ and HYD by 24.9%,41.8% and 32.0%,43.5%,decreased Cd contents in shoot of both cultivars by 15.1% and 26.3%,and increased Cd contents in root of both cultivars by 24.7% and 33.6%,compared with the corresponding Cd treatments alone.The results showed that addition of Si suppressed Cd uptake in shoots and root-to-shoot transport,improved the photosynthetic efficiency.However,the alleviation of Si on above-mentioned parameters was smaller in Cd-sensitive plant cultivar than in Cd-resistant plant.%通过水培试验,采用前期以根系耐性指数为指标从12个白菜[Brassica campestris L.ssp.chinensis(L.)Makino]品种中筛选的两个对Cd耐性不同的白菜品种‘上海青

  10. Light-receiving characteristics of a distributed solar module with a plant shoot configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Shin' ya; Tanno, Itaru; Shiratori, Taichiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tomakomai National College of Technology, Nishikioka 443, Tomakomai, Hokkaido 0591275 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    The object of this study is to develop a solar power generation system with high energy density. In order to improve the energy density of a solar power generation system, compaction of the system (improvement of light-receiving density) and a directive fall (dependency on the solar position is excluded) are required. So, in this study, because the issues described above are resolved, a solar cell module is divided and distributed. In this paper, the relation between the shoot shape of a 'dogwood tree,' 'ginkgo tree,' 'Dendropanax trifidus,' and 'Acer palmatum var. matsumurae' and the light-receiving amount is clarified by numerical analysis, and the optimal solution of each shoot shape and result of the light-receiving density were obtained. Furthermore, the characteristics of variables, such as leaf size, installation location, length of the branch of a leaf, and light-receiving amount of each shoot, were examined. As a result, in the distribution of the solar cell module with the shoot shape of each plant except dogwood, the light-receiving density showed clear improvement compared with the distribution of a square module. Compared with a square leaf, the maximum differences of each light-receiving density of D. trifidus, ginkgo, and A. palmatum var. matsumurae were 2.0 times, 7.4 times, and 6.4 times in January, respectively. On the other hand, they were 1.9 times, 8.7 times, and 7.3 times in July. (author)

  11. Toxicity evaluation of standardized extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiranthanut, Natthakarn; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Panthong, Ampai; Khonsung, Parirat; Kanjanapothi, Duangta; Lertprasertsuk, Nirush

    2013-08-26

    To evaluate the safety of standardized extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in rats. The water extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum was prepared and standardized, the dry powder yielded 6% gypenosides. In the acute oral toxicity test, the single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract was given to female Sprague-Dawley rats. In subchronic toxicity test, the oral dose of 1000 mg/kg/day of the extract was given to rats in treatment and satellite groups for 90 days. Satellite groups of both sexes were kept for additional 28 days after 90-day treatment. Control rats received distilled water. Standardized extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum did not cause death or any toxic signs in rats. The daily administration of the extract for 90 days did not produce lethal or harmful effects. Although certain hematological and blood chemistry values (i.e., neutrophil, monocyte, glucose, and serum alkaline phosphatase levels) were found to be statistically different from the control group, however; these values were within the ranges of normal rats. Standardized extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum did not produce mortality or any abnormality in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Four new species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera) from China and Japan, and description of the pupal morphology of the genera Corythoxestis, Eumetriochroa, Guttigera, and Metriochroa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Huang, Guo-hua; Nakamura, Akihiro; Hirowatari, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    Four new leaf mining Oecophyllembiinae (Gracillariidae) species are described from China and Japan: Metriochroa symplocosella sp. nov. (host plants: Symplocos anomala, S. sumuntia, Symplocaceae) from China, Guttigera schefflerella sp. nov. (host plant: Schefflera octophylla, Araliaceae), Eumetriochroa araliella sp. nov. (host plants: Dendropanax trifidus, Evodiopanax innovans, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides and Fatsia japonica, Araliaceae) and Corythoxestis tricalysiella sp. nov. (host plant: Tricalysia dubia, Rubiaceae) from Japan. Corythoxestis sunosei (Kumata, 1998) is recorded from new host plants: Adinapilulifera and Mussaenda parviflora, Rubiaceae, from Japan. The female adult and pupal morphologies, life history and host plant of the genus Guttigera are described for the first time. Pupae of seven species of four genera: Corythoxestis, Eumetriochroa, Guttigera, and Metriochroa, are described for the first time. We provide morphological diagnostic differences between species and genera of Oecophyllembiinae and Phyllocnistis. Our preliminary data suggest that Oecophyllembiinae species have three valuable pupal diagnostic characters: 1) cocoon cutter with unique lateral processes or setae on the clypeus, 2) tergal spines with only a pair of dorsal setae, and 3) cremaster with more than two pairs of caudal processes, while Phyllocnistis species possess 1) cocoon cutter without lateral processes or setae on clypeus, 2) tergal spines with a pair of dorsal setae and dorsal hooks, and 3) cremaster with only a pair of caudal processes.

  13. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Makino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ri; Wang, Haibin; Dong, Bin; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Zhaohe; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid. PMID:27735845

  14. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv. Makino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs, which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid.

  15. A phase I trial of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malee Banjob

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a phase I trial of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, grown in northern Thailand, to evaluate its safety in three groups of healthy volunteers. Fourteen, fifteen and fourteen volunteers respectively received the water extract of G. pentaphyllum in capsules at the doses of 50, 200 and 400 mg twice daily for two months. There were no major adverse events reported from any of the three groups throughout the study. Significant changes in hematological parameters, natural killer cell activities and the numbers of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells were not seen during taking the extract. Some biochemical parameters were significantly different from baseline data. Those values were, however, within normal limits and did not result in clinically significant conditions. Our results suggested that the water extract of G. pentaphyllum at the doses of 50, 200 or 400 mg twice daily given to healthy volunteers for two months was safe.

  16. Isolation and antitumor activities of acidic polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Zheng-Hui; Zhao, Yong-Xi; Luo, Su-Ju; Zhang, Ding-Wei; Xiao, Sheng-Xiang; Peng, Zhen-Hui

    2012-07-01

    Two acidic polysaccharides (GP-B1 and GP-C1) were obtained from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. The molecular weights (Mw) of the two fractions were 79 kDa for GP-B1 and 126 kDa for GP-C1. GP-B1 was composed of Gal, Ara, Man, Rha, Xyl, Glc, GalA and GlcA in a molar ration of 3.5:3.2:0.6:0.9:0.3:0.5:0.6:0.4. GP-C1 consisted of Gal, Ara, Man, Rha, Glc, and GlcA in the proportions of 2.1:1.0:0.3:0.5:0.4:0.9. Among them, GP-B1 treatment had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of melanoma B16 in vivo and in vitro. Meanwhile GP-B1 could increase the relative spleen weight and stimulate the splenocyte proliferation alone or combined with ConA. Moreover, GP-B1 treatment induced an evident increase in the level of serum TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-12 and a reduction for IL-10 production. These results indicate that the antitumor effects of GP-B1 are associated with immunostimulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Purification of a polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino and its therapeutic advantages for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Zheng-Hui; Zhao, Yong-Xi; Luo, Su-Ju; Zhang, Ding-Wei; Xiao, Sheng-Xiang; Peng, Zhen-Hui

    2012-08-01

    In current study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (GP-I), with a molecular mass of 33 kDa, was purified from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis suggested that it was composed of Glc, Gal, Man, Rha and Ara with a ratio of 5.3: 4.2: 3.0: 0.7: 0.8. The GP-I (25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 μg/ml) was found to have significant anti-proliferative effects on HaCat cells in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by MTT assay. On the contrary, Trypan blue exclusion experiment indicated that GP-I had no cytotoxicity to HaCat cells. Moreover, the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in GP-I treated cells was also observed, indicating apoptosis in HaCat cells. Besides, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a vital pro-inflammatory cytokine in psoriasis, in the supernatant of HaCat cells was dramatically reduced by GP-I. Collectively, these findings suggested that GP-I was a promising agent to be developed for psoriasis treatment in clinical therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation and characterization of immunostimulatory polysaccharide from an herb tea, Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingbin; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Ying; Ruan, Yun

    2008-08-27

    Water-soluble polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum herb tea (PSGP) was isolated by hot-water extraction and ethanol precipitation. The chemical components and preliminary immunomodulating activity of PSGP were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis showed that PSGP was a typical nonstarch heteropolysaccharide, with glucose being the main component monosaccharide (23.2%), followed by galactose (18.9%), arabinose (10.5%), rhamnose (7.7%), galacturonic acid (4.7%), xylose (3.9%), mannose (3.1%), and glucuronic acid (1.2%). PSGP could significantly stimulate peritoneal macrophages to release nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in a dose-dependent manner. This immunostimulating activity of PSGP was further demonstrated by its inhibition on the proliferation of human colon carcinoma HT-29 and SW-116 cells incubated with the supernatant of PSGP-stimulated macrophage culture. It is evident that PSGP is a very important ingredient responsible for at least in part the immunomodulating activity of G. pentaphyllum herb tea.

  19. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingxiang; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B) were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion), migration patterns (linear expansion), and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents) have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild radish between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan, and might provide new insight into the genetic differentiation of coastal plants across islands.

  20. 荩草的化学成分%Chemical constituents of Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb) Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖艳华; 李彦超; 帅维; 曹辉; 高婷

    2013-01-01

    Arthraxon hispidus is rich in resources and has a long medication history. In order to find the active ingredient and enrich the types of compounds, the system study on its chemical constituents was carried out. The chemical constituents of A. hispidus were extracted by 80% ethanol. The residue was suspended in water and then extracted successively with Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Chloroform part and ethyl acetate part were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and recrystallization. Their structures were characterized by chromogenic reaction, ultravioet, infrared, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance and 2 D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments such as Distortionless Enhanced by Polarization Transfer, Heteronuclear Muliple Boan Correlation and Heteronuclear Single Boan Correlation. Ten compounds including 3,5,7-trihydroxy-3' ,5 '-dimethoxylflavone (1), dehydrocorydaline (2), Stigmasterol-3-0-β-D-glucoside (3), n-Tetradecane (4), n-Pentadecane (5), n-Octadecane (6), n-Nonadecane (7), n-Docosane (8), n-Tetracosane (9), n-Pentacosane (10) were isolated and identified. Among these ten compounds, compounds 1—3 are obtained from this plant for the first time.%荩草资源丰富且有悠久的民间用药历史,为了寻找其活性成分,丰富荩草中化合物的类型,对荩草地上部分的化学成分进行系统的研究.用80%乙醇提取荩草地上部分,所得浸膏加水稀释后,依次用石油醚,氯仿,乙酸乙酯和正丁醇萃取,对氯仿和乙酸乙酯部分浸膏采用各种硅胶柱色谱和重结晶方法进行分离纯化,利用熔点,溶解性,颜色反应等理化性质和紫外光谱、红外光谱、质谱以及氢(1)与碳(13)核磁共振以及二维核磁共振技术无畸变极化转移增强-135,杂核多键相关和杂核单键相关等波谱数据确定了分离所得物质的结构.从荩草中分离并鉴定了10个化合物,分别为:3,5,7-三羟基-3',5'-二甲氧基黄酮(1)、去氢紫堇碱(2)、△5,22豆甾醇-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(3)、正十四烷(4)、正十五烷(5)、正十八烷(6)、正十九烷(7)、正二十二烷(8)、正二十四烷(9)、二十五烷(10).这10个化合物中化合物1~3为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  1. 贵州植物的新记录种%New Record Species of Plants in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成华; 安明态; 戴晓勇; 罗扬

    2010-01-01

    通过对贵州境内采集的植物标本鉴定和相关文献检索,报道了贵州的10个新记录种,其中1个新记录种为新记录属.它们是勿忘草Myosotis silvatica Ehrh.ex Hoffm.、短小蛇根草Ophiorrhiza pumila Champ.ex Benth.、细叶亚婆潮Hedyotis auricularia L.var.mina W.C.Ko、多刺山黄皮Fagerlindia depauperata(Drake)Tirveng、短梗乌饭Vaccinium brevipedicellatum C.Y.Wu ex Fang et Z.H.Pan、林生越橘Vaccinium sciaphilum C.Y.Wu、变叶树参Dendropanax proteus(Champ.)Benth.、滇赤杨叶Alniphyllum eberhardtii Guill、滇黄堇Corydalis yunnanensis Franch.、矮小山麦冬Liriope minor(Maxim.)Makino,新记录属为勿忘草属.

  2. Preparation of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Chian; Wu, Wen-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2010-12-01

    A preparative column chromatographic method for isolation of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a traditional Chinese herb, was developed to evaluate their antiproliferative effects on the hepatoma cell Hep3B. An open column containing 70 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:2.5, wt/wt) was used to elute carotenoid with 2% ethanol in ethyl acetate and chlorophyll with 50% ethanol in acetone. After high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the carotenoid fraction was composed of all-trans- and cis-isomers of lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene as well as epoxy-containing carotenoids, while the chlorophyll fraction consisted of chlorophylls a and b and their derivatives. Both carotenoid and chlorophyll fractions as well as lutein and chlorophyll a standards at 50-100 μg/mL were effective against Hep3B cells with a dose-dependent response with the following order: carotenoid fraction > chlorophyll fraction > lutein > chlorophyll a. For all treatments, the cell cycle was arrested in the G₀/G₁ phase, with Hep3B cells undergoing necrosis or apoptosis.

  3. Differential expression of salt tolerance related genes in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. communis Tsen et Lee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang QIU; Xi-xiang LI; Hai-ying ZHI; Di SHEN; Peng LU

    2009-01-01

    We examined salt tolerance responsive genes in Pak-choi under salt stress and analyze their potential function. The mRNA differential display was used to screen the transcript derived fragments (TDFs) related to salinity tolerance in tolerant and moderately tolerant Pak-choi germplasm. Seventy-eight primer combinations generated 101 differential cDNA fragments, which were divided into 10 expression types. Seven cDNA sequences (GenBank accession Nos. DQ006915-DQ006921) obtained and sequenced were highly homologous to some known expression genes or the genes related to the signaling pathways in plants under different abiotic stress.

  4. Pharmacognosic Identification of Ethno- medicine Dendropanax dentiger(Harms)Merr.%民族药届招觅的生药学鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玮; 李莹; 刘圆

    2009-01-01

    目的 对多民族常用的植物药届招觅进行生药学鉴定,为其鉴别及应用提供科学依据.方法 采用原植物、性状、显微鉴别的方法.结果 届招觅在原植物、性状、显微等方面具有专属性的特征.结论 通过原植物、性状、显微鉴别能够很好地鉴定该药材.

  5. Chemical composition and anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of the leaf and whole-plant samples of diploid and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhuohong; Huang, Haiqiu; Zhao, Yang; Shi, Haiming; Wang, Shaoke; Wang, Thomas T Y; Chen, Pei; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-05-01

    Leaf and whole-plant samples of the diploid and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) were investigated and compared for their chemical compositions, and their potential anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. The highest levels of total flavonoids and phenolics were observed in the diploid leaf botanical (2L3) at 36.84mg rutin equiv/g and 41.15mg gallic acid equiv/g, respectively. The diploid leaf sample (2L2) had the highest amount of rutin and quercetin contents of 77.7μmol quercetin equiv/g. The tetraploid whole-plant botanical (4L3) had the highest total saponin content of 227.1mg gypenoside equiv/g. Extracts from all tested GP samples showed time- and dose-dependent antiproliferative effects in HT-29 cells, and the diploid leaf samples had the overall highest inhibitory activity. These extracts had different order of antiproliferative properties in the LNCaP cells, suggesting the potential selective inhibition of GP extracts against different types of cancer cells and the effect of the cell model in screening and evaluation of antiproliferative components. In addition, the diploid leaf extracts showed the strongest inhibitory effects on the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and COX-2 mRNA at final concentrations of 0.2 and 1mg botanical equiv/ml media. The results from this study will be used to develop new nutraceutical products from G. pentaphyllum.

  6. Characterization of a Chitosanase from Jelly Fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino Latex and Its Application in the Production of Water-Soluble Low Molecular Weight Chitosans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Tien Chang

    Full Text Available A chitosanase was purified from jelly fig latex by ammonium sulfate fractionation (50-80% saturation and three successive column chromatography steps. The purified enzyme was almost homogeneous, as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and gel activity staining. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 20.5 kDa. The isoelectric point (pI was <3.5, as estimated by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis on PhastGel IEF 3-9. Using chitosan as the substrate, the optimal pH for the enzyme reaction was 4.5; the kinetic parameters Km and Vmax were 0.089 mg mL-1 and 0.69 μmol min-1 mg-1, respectively. The enzyme showed activity toward chitosan polymers which exhibited various degrees of deacetylation (21-94%. The enzyme hydrolyzed 70-84% deacetylated chitosan polymers most effectively. Substrate specificity analysis indicated that the enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of chitin and chitosan polymers and their derivatives. The products of the hydrolysis of chitosan polymer derivatives, ethylene glycol (EG chitosan, carboxymethyl (CM chitosan and aminoethyl (AE chitosan, were low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs; these products were referred to as EG-LMWC, CM-LMWC and AE-LMWC, respectively. The average molecular weights of EG-LMWC, CM-LMWC and AE-LMWC were 11.2, 11.2 and 8.89 kDa, respectively. All of the LMWC products exhibited free radical scavenging activities toward ABTS•+, superoxide and peroxyl radicals.

  7. Characterization of a novel gene, BcMF7, that is expressed preferentially in pollen of Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li; CAO JiaShu; ZHANG YuChao; YE YiQun

    2007-01-01

    Pollen formation is important for plant sexual reproduction, To identify the genes that are involved in pollen formation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling in the flower buds of both male meiotic cytokinesis (mmc) mutant and its wild-type plants of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis showed that the mmc mutation resulted in changes in expression of a variety of genes. BcMF7, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in the wild-type flower buds was further characterized.The BcMF7 gene has 1161 bp in length with two introns. The full-length BcMF7 cDNA has 609 bp in length and encodes a protein of 129 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of BcMF7 protein shares no similarity to any function-known protein in Swiss-Prot database, but has 8 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 2 casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites, 2 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites,2 N-glycosylation sites and 2 N-myristoylation sites. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis showed that BcMF7 was expressed exclusively in pollen. The expression signal of BcMF7 was first detected at the tetrad stage of microspore development, reached a peak level at the uninucleate stage,and decreased to a slightly low level at the mature pollen stage. All these results show that BcMF7 may play a certain role in the signal transduction during pollen development.

  8. Cloning and Characterization of the Microspore Development-Related Gene BcMF2 in Chinese Cabbage Pak-Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qin WANG; Wan-Zhi YE; Jia-Shu CAO; Xiao-Lin YU; Xun XIANG; Gang LU

    2005-01-01

    For the sake of providing some important information relevant to the study of the molecular mechanism of genic male sterility in plants, gene differential expression in flower buds at different developmental stages, as well as in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes was analyzed using cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic male sterile A and fertile B line of Chinese cabbage pak-choi. Following amplification of 125 pairs of primer combinations, 11 differential fragments were obtained, of which eight were from the B line and the other three were from the A line. Of 11 differential fragments, four were verified by Northern hybridization that were expressed preferentially in fertile flower buds. Results of GenBank BLAST showed that one fragment was with unknown function,whereas the other fragments have strong nucleotide sequence similarities with the polygalacturonase (PG)gene, the pectinesterase (PE) gene, and the polygalacturonase inhibitory protein (PGIP4) gene. Only fulllength cDNA from the differential fragment BcMF-A18T16-1 was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and Northern analysis showed that this fragment was expressed only in medium and largesized flower buds of the B line. The full-length cDNA, designated as BcMF2 (Brassica campestris Male Fertile 2), was 1 485 bp long and was composed of a 1 263-bp open reading frame, which had 83% nucleotide similarity to a PG gene from Arabidopsis encoding polygalacturonase. Analysis of the basic structure of the protein revealed that it had one polygalacturonase active site (RVTCGPGHGLSVGS) at 256th site of amino acids and was classified as being a member of family 28 of the glycosyl hydrolases. The role of the BcMF2 gene on microspore development is discussed in the present paper.

  9. Characterization of a novel gene, BcMF7,that is expressed preferentially in pollen of Brassica campestris L.ssp. chinensis Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollen formation is important for plant sexual reproduction. To identify the genes that are involved in pollen formation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling in the flower buds of both male meiotic cytokinesis (mmc) mutant and its wild-type plants of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinen-sis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analy-sis showed that the mmc mutation resulted in changes in expression of a variety of genes. BcMF7, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in the wild-type flower buds was further characterized. The BcMF7 gene has 1161 bp in length with two introns. The full-length BcMF7 cDNA has 609 bp in length and encodes a protein of 129 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of BcMF7 protein shares no similarity to any function-known protein in Swiss-Prot database, but has 8 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 2 casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, 2 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites, 2 N-glycosylation sites and 2 N-myristoylation sites. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis showed that BcMF7 was expressed exclusively in pollen. The expression signal of BcMF7 was first detected at the tetrad stage of microspore development, reached a peak level at the uninucleate stage, and decreased to a slightly low level at the mature pollen stage. All these results show that BcMF7 may play a certain role in the signal transduction during pollen development.

  10. Cloning and characterization of acid invertase genes in the roots of the metallophyte Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino from two populations: Differential expression under copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luan; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Xu, Zhong-rui; Liu, Chen; Cai, Shen-wen

    2014-06-01

    The roots of metallophytes serve as the key interface between plants and heavy metal-contaminated underground environments. It is known that the roots of metallicolous plants show a higher activity of acid invertase enzymes than those of non-metallicolous plants when under copper stress. To test whether the higher activity of acid invertases is the result of increased expression of acid invertase genes or variations in the amino acid sequences between the two population types, we isolated full cDNAs for acid invertases from two populations of Kummerowia stipulacea (from metalliferous and non-metalliferous soils), determined their nucleotide sequences, expressed them in Pichia pastoris, and conducted real-time PCR to determine differences in transcript levels during Cu stress. Heterologous expression of acid invertase cDNAs in P. pastoris indicated that variations in the amino acid sequences of acid invertases between the two populations played no significant role in determining enzyme characteristics. Seedlings of K. stipulacea were exposed to 0.3µM Cu(2+) (control) and 10µM Cu(2+) for 7 days under hydroponics׳ conditions. The transcript levels of acid invertases in metallicolous plants were significantly higher than in non-metallicolous plants when under copper stress. The results suggest that the expression of acid invertase genes in metallicolous plants of K. stipulacea differed from those in non-metallicolous plants under such conditions. In addition, the sugars may play an important role in regulating the transcript level of acid invertase genes and acid invertase genes may also be involved in root/shoot biomass allocation.

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIOCÂRLAN VASILE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are present and discussed the fact that the legitimate name is Cirsium heterophyllum (L. Hill and the synonime name is Cirsium helenioides auct., non (L. Hill.In the flora of Romania, as well as in Europe, is growing Cirsium heterophyllum (L. Hill; Cirsium helenioides (L. Hill is growing in Central Asia and in Siberie.Follow, it is showed that the taxa Juncus trifidus L. ssp. monanthos (Jacq. Asch. & Graebn. is not growing in the flora of Romania. There is presented an infraspecific taxa, new for the science, namely: Juncus trifidus L. ssp. trifidus var. brevifolia Ciocârlan var. nova., discovered in the Mountains of Cozia (Vâlcea county.Also, in this paper is presented two rare plants in the flora of Romania: Dianthus kladovanus Degen and Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, species listed in the “Red Lists”, discovered by the author in new localities.

  12. Merrilliopanax Cordifolia, a new species of Araliaceae from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishna Sastry, A.

    1967-01-01

    An Araliaceous plant from Subansiri District was found on a critical study to be Merrilliopanax Li, a genus founded on Dendropanax listeri King (in Journ. Asia. Soc. Bengal 67,2: 294,1898) from Assam. In a revision of the Araliaceae of China, Li (Sargentia 2: 62—65, 1942) showed that Dendropanax lis

  13. Efecto de la fragmentación del hábitat en la dispersión y estructura genética de Dendropanax arboreus (Araliaceae) en Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz /

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Esquivel, Elsa Margarita sustentante.

    2009-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas, presenta Elsa Margarita Figueroa Esquivel ; asesor Juan Servando Núñez Farfán. 96 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Ciencias Biológicas UNAM, Instituto de Ecología, 2009

  14. Introduction and Phenological Observation of Dendropanax chevalieri and Podocarpus flearyi in Nanyue Mountain%树参与长叶竹柏在南岳山的引种表现及其物候观测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏江林; 赵成; 夏淋淋

    2009-01-01

    在南岳山桎木潭引种树参和长叶竹柏,经过24年的引种驯化,现都已开花结果.通过连续3年的物候观测表明,引种树木叶芽及幼叶的生长集中在每年的3~4月,开花期4~7月,果熟期在9~10月.分析了它们的生物学特性、生态适应性和抗逆性,为开发推广树参、长叶竹柏在园林上的应用,提供理论依据.

  15. Intelligent Processing of Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-03

    Gnadinger, "Ferroelectrics for [10] H. Higashino , T. Kawaguchi, H. Adachi, T. Makino Nonvolatile RAMs," IE Sm , July 1989, p.3 0 and 0. Yamazaki, "High...be determined by the compensator. I With the PLZT phase modulator, the above [3] H. Higashino , T. Kawaguchi, H. Adachi, T. Makino Withe the Phasprovena...Review," Ferroelectrics, 75, 25(1987) be determined by the compensator. [3] H. Higashino , T. Kawaguchi, H. Adachi, T. Makino With the PLZT phase

  16. 朝仓花椒幼芽转录组测序数据组装及基因功能注释%Transcriptome Data Assembly and Gene Function Annotation of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC var.inerme Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵懿琛; 刘雪微; 李岩; 赵德刚

    2016-01-01

    采用2代Illumina Hi-Seq测序技术对朝仓花椒雌株结果期幼芽的转录组进行测序,构建了转录组数据库,获得49 672 080条Clean Reads数据,包含总长度为4 967 208 000 nt序列数据信息;经拼接组装,获得转录组基因信息长达55 902 243 nt的176 407个Contig片段,再通过进一步拼接,共获得平均长度为878 nt的96 475个Unigene片段.与Nt、Nr、Swiss-Prot、COG、GO、KEGG等数据库进行BLAST信息比对(E-value≦10-5),共获得68 315个注释基因,以及62 150个表达序列标签(EST).与NR数据库比对,发现花椒转录组基因序列与同科柑橘属的甜橙(Citrus sinensis)和克莱门柚(Citrus clementina)具有较高的同源性,分别为43.96%及41.86%,与其他物种的同源性较低,均不足10%;可将花椒转录组的Unigene的功能通过与COG数据库进行注释比对划分为25类;根据GO数据库的注释,可将其分为生物过程、细胞组分和分子功能3大类共55分支,根据与KEGG数据库的比较分析发现朝仓花椒的转录组数据中含有代谢通路相关基因128类,其中包括多种化合物的代谢途径和次生代谢产物的生物合成途径,其中有较多的次生物质代谢途径,如萜类化合物生物合成途径、黄酮类生物合成代谢途径以及花青素的生物合成途径等.

  17. Requirements for the Development of Bacillus Anthracis Spore Reference Materials Used to Test Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    animals by polymerase chain reaction, J. Clinical Microbiol. 31, 547-551 (1993). [41] S.-I. Makino, H. I. Cheun, M. Watari , I. Uchida, and K. Takeshi...65] H .I. Cheun, S.-I. Makino, M. Watari , T. Shirahata, I. Uchida, and K. Takeshi, A simple and sensitive detection system for Bacillus anthracis in

  18. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 1: Kudzu (Pueraria montana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    hard to exterminate. Eradication be- comes more difficult with time as the plant develops large roots that store starch , which makes them more...are needed for success. Defoliation during the growing season will reduce plant vigor and stress starch reserves. Defoliation in the fall is im...species from China (Gonioctena tredecimmaculata and Ornatal- cides trifidus) have been studied in quarantine in the United States as po- tential

  19. 半边风醇提物及不同极性部位对大鼠中性粒细胞呼吸爆发的抑制作用%Anti-PMN respiratory burst activity and remove oxygen free radicals activity of Dendropanax chevalieri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相恒云; 胡志成; 任刚; 易文芳; 彭加兵; 罗仉平; 元文君

    2014-01-01

    目的 筛选半边风抑制大鼠中性粒细胞呼吸爆发的有效部位,并探讨可能的机制.方法 采用化学发光法测定乙醇提取物及各极性部位对大鼠中性粒细胞呼吸爆发的抑制活性;化学模拟机体内O2-·及H2O2的产生,采用化学发光法分别测定各样品对O2-·及H2O2清除作用.结果 除石油醚部位(PEP)和萃余水部位(WAP)外,乙醇提取物(ACE)、乙酸乙酯部位(EAP)及正丁醇部位(BAP)对大鼠中性粒细胞呼吸爆发均具有不同程度的抑制作用,其IC50分别为41.4,19.7,80.3 μg·ml-1;在活性氧清除实验中,仅EAP对O2-·和H2O2表现了较强的清除效果.结论 半边风对大鼠中性粒细胞呼吸爆发具有较强的抑制作用,其活性部位为EAP和BAP,但二者的抑制机制可能不同.

  20. Historical connection between memory and testimony psychology by an experimental study of Seiichi Terada in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wakabayashi, Kosuke; Sato, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    .... This is probably the first experimental study of law and psychology carried out in Japan. This article introduces Terada's history as a psychologist, and his collaboration with Makino, followed by explanation of their experiments...

  1. Rethinking Japanese Language Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Phyllis

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of Seiichi Makino, a scholar of Japanese, noting that his work in establishing the Japanese proficiency guidelines helped make it appear that Japanese language teaching was part of mainstream American language teaching. (Author/VWL)

  2. Linguistics, Culture, and Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatasa, Yukiko A.

    2003-01-01

    Underlines Seiichi Makino's pivotal role as a scholar of Japanese language, through the publication of two dictionaries of Japanese grammar and two pioneering textbooks and through an exemplary teaching career. (Author/VWL)

  3. Capsule Depolymerase Overexpression Reduces Bacillus anthracis Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    reported to be secreted (Kimura et al., 2004), while B. anthracis CapD is membrane associated ( Candela & Fouet, 2005). The individual subunits of...the peptidoglycan layer ( Candela & Fouet, 2005; Makino et al., 2002; Uchida et al., 1993), specifically, to the side-chain amino group of meso...in mice and guinea pigs ( Candela & Fouet, 2005; Makino et al., 2002; Richter et al., 2009). These observa- tions led us to hypothesize that increased

  4. The rapid discovery and identification of physalins in the calyx of Physalis alkekengi L.var.franchetii (Mast.) Makino using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry together with a novel three-step data mining strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cai; Xu, Qiongming; Chen, Chang; Song, Chengwu; Xu, Yong; Xiang, Yi; Feng, Yulin; Ouyang, Hui; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Hongliang

    2014-09-26

    Physalins, uniquely discovered from genus physalis, showed significant bioactivities in many aspects. It is therefore very important for the exploration of natural resources rich of physalins. However, there is no efficient approach for rapid discovery and identification of this class of compounds due to their structural complexity. To address the issue, the fragmentation pathways and correspondingly fragmentation rules of physalins in negative MS/MS mode were thoroughly investigated in this study using seven physalin standards. As a result, diagnostic ions for the rapid screening of physalins and classification of different types of physalins were determined based on their MS/MS fragmentation patterns. On top of that, an integrated approach using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS together with a novel three-step data mining strategy was developed for the systematic analysis of physalins in complex samples. Consequently, 46 physalins including 20 novel ones were efficiently discovered and identified from the crude extracts of Ph. alkekengi calyx. The present study laid a foundation for future study of different parts of Ph. alkekengi and other physalis species with regard to rapid discovery of novel physalins. In addition, this study provided a base for establishing a quality control method of the raw materials of Ph. alkekengi according to the profile of physalins.

  5. 76 FR 69693 - Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... pumila; Filbert (hazelnut), Corylus spp.; Hickory nut, Carya spp.; Macadamia nut (bush nut), Macadamia spp.; Pecan, Carya illinoensis; Walnut, black and English (Persian), Juglans spp. EPA proposes to... (Makino) Rehder, J. ailantifolia Carri re) Hickory nut (Carya cathayensis Sarg., C. glabra (Mill.)...

  6. Biomarkers of Exposure to Toxic Substances. Volume 5: Biomarker Pre-validation Studies Prevalidation of Urine and Serum Biomarkers Indicative of Subclinical Kidney Damage in a Nephrotoxin Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    highly polymorphic serum protein, and studies have linked GSC variants to osteoporosis , Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, diabetes, COPD, AIDS...of pregnancy ,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology., 178, 1, Jan 1998 pp. 161- 5. Makino T, Takaishi M, Morohashi M, and Huh NH

  7. PENGGUNAAN JODOUSHI 「~たい」 DAN KEIYOUSHI 「ほしい」DALAM KALIMAT PADA KOMIK DORAEMON SERI 25-35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieska Sekar Nadya

    2009-10-01

    their sentences pattern, as well as the analysis, this research uses Doraemon vol.25-35. As for analyzing all the data, the use of theories from Tomita Takayuki, Seichi Makino and Michio Tsutsui, Naomi Hanaoka McGloin, and also Fumiko Koide will suit them respectively.

  8. Genetic diversity of diploid Japanese strawberry species based on microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Agricultural Research Service (ARS) - National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, is a genebank that preserves strawberry genetic resources. In 2004, representatives of two Japanese diploid species, F. iinumae Makino and F. n...

  9. A new triterpenoid saponin from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Meng, Xian-Jun; Cao, Jia-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    A new dammarane-type triterpene saponin was isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Its structural elucidation was accomplished mainly on the basis of the interpretation of spectroscopic data, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS and NMR. Its cytotoxic activity was evaluated against one human cancer cell line HL-60 using MTT assay.

  10. Triterpenoid saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Cao, Jia-Qing; Shi, Sheng-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Four new dammarane-type triterpene saponins, 1-4, were isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Their structural elucidations were accomplished mainly on the basis of spectroscopic methods, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, and NMR. Compounds 1-4 showed moderate cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines HL-60, Colon205, and Du145 in vitro.

  11. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis and rutin and quercetin compositions in the leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino is a traditional Chinese herb that has shown antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities. Flavonoids are considered to be major contributors to these beneficial effects. To obtain chemical pattern of flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum of diff...

  12. 酸浆的研究开发现状及其应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹鸿

    2014-01-01

    酸浆是一种新型药食兼用的功能型水果,综述酸浆的化学成分、生理功效及开发利用现状,并对其应用前景进行展望,以期在食品工业中能得到更广泛的开发和利用。%Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino is a new fruit of medical and edible. This paper is reviewed the chemical composition of Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino, physiological functions, the development and utilization. Prospect of its application is discussed, in order to widely developmented and utilized in the food industry.

  13. [Historical connection between memory and testimony psychology by an experimental study of Seiichi Terada in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kosuke; Sato, Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    In Japan, Seiichi Terada (1884-1922) was the first psychologist who applied psychological knowledge to the field of law, working in collaboration with the law professor Eiich Makino (1878-1970). Terada's work was mainly in the tradition of clinical psychology, although in his 1915 paper titled "How useful are testimonies?" he described a set of seven experiments concerned with the empirical relationship between eyewitness testimony and memory. This is probably the first experimental study of law and psychology carried out in Japan. This article introduces Terada's history as a psychologist, and his collaboration with Makino, followed by explanation of their experiments. Finally, we discuss perspectives on testimony research in consideration of Terada's approach.

  14. Novel sesquiterpene and coumarin constituents from the whole herbs of Crossostephium chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Zou, Lei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Fu, De-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Novel sesquiterpene, named crossostephin (1), and coumarin, named biscopoletin (2), together with four known compounds, artesin, tanacetin, scopoletin, and scopolin, were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extract of the whole herbs of Crossostephium chinense (L.) Makino. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including IR, UV, EIMS, HRFTICRMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral analyses. Both scopoletin and scopolin were isolated from the title plant for the first time.

  15. New records of spermatophytes in Jiangxi Province%江西省种子植物分布新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪锋; 邱贺媛

    2014-01-01

    According to field investigation in Xunwu, Huichang and Yushan of Jiangxi Province, six species of spermatophyte are reported as new records in Jiangxi Province, viz. Sedum hakoenese Makino, Elatostema macintyrei Dunn, Euonymus nitidus f. tsoi (Merr.) C. Y. Cheng, Lindernia pusilla (Willd.) Bold., Paraphlomis lancidentata Sun and Scleria biflora Roxb. All voucher specimens are deposited in Herbarium of Department of Biological Sciences of Hanshan Normal University (CZH).

  16. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Jin Kim; Jina Choi; Mi-Kyung Lee; Kyung-Yun Kang; Man-Jeong Paik; Sung-Kee Jo; Uhee Jung; Hae-Ran Park; Sung-Tae Yee

    2014-01-01

    HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozo...

  17. Herbal preparation (HemoHIM) enhanced functional maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells mediated toll-like receptor 4

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Hwang, Yun-Ho; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background HemoHIM, which is an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelicam gigas Nakai, Cnidium offinale Makino, and Peaonia japonica Miyabe), is known to have various biological and immunological activities, but the modulatory effects of this preparation on dendritic cells (DCs)-mediated immune responses have not been examined previously. DCs are a unique group of white blood cells that initiate primary immune responses by capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to T cells. R...

  18. 越瓜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德纯

    2008-01-01

    越瓜(oriental pickling melon)学名Cucumis melo L.var.conomon Makino,葫芦科甜瓜属甜瓜种中以嫩果生食的变种。一般认为,越瓜与甜瓜起源于同一物种。甜瓜由非洲经中东传入印度进一步分化后,再传入中国。

  19. A novel cytotoxic neophysalin from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Hang Zhang; Zheng Tao Wang; Yi Ping Yang; Qi Shi Sun

    2009-01-01

    A new neophysalin, named 5α-hydroxy-25,27-dihydro-4,7-didehydro-7-deoxyneophysalin A(1), along with three other known neophysalins (2-4) were isolated from the calyxes of Physalis alkekengi L. var.francheti (Mast.) Makino. The structure of 1 was determined by means of ID and 2D NMR, UV, IR and mass spectra. Compound 1 displayed potent cytotoxicities in vitro against PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines.

  20. A new dammarane-type triterpene saponin from Gynostemma pentaphyllum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin

    2010-01-01

    One new dammarane-type triterpene saponin, named (20S)-3β,20,21-trihydroxydammar-24-ene 3-O[α-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)][β-D-xylopyranosyl(l→3)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Its structural elucidation was accomplished mainly on the basis of the interrelation of spectroscopic methods, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, NMR.

  1. Some New Records of Ferns from Vietnam (2)%越南蕨类植物新记载(2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Nine species of ferns are reported for the first time from Vietnam:Cyrtomium pachyphyllum (Rosenst.)C.Chr.,C.shingianum H.S.Kung et P.S.Wang,Dryopteri bodinieri (Christ) C.Chr.,D.gymnosora (Makino)C.Chr.,Teratophyllum aculeatum(Bl.) Mett.ex Kuhn,Elaphoglossunm sinii C.Chr.ex Wu,Tectaria herpetocaulos Holtt.,T.hokouensis Ching et C.H.Wang,Boniniella cardiophylla (Hance) Tagawa,distributions are discussed.

  2. Two new triterpene saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Lu, Fei; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpene saponins, gypenbiosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Their structural elucidations were accomplished mainly on the basis of the interrelation of spectroscopic methods, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, and NMR. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated against one human cancer cell line HL-60 using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.

  3. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Jin Kim; Jina Choi; Mi-Kyung Lee; Kyung-Yun Kang; Man-Jeong Paik; Sung-Kee Jo; Uhee Jung; Hae-Ran Park; Sung-Tae Yee

    2014-01-01

    HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozo...

  4. Herbal preparation (HemoHIM) enhanced functional maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells mediated toll-like receptor 4

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Hwang, Yun-Ho; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background HemoHIM, which is an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelicam gigas Nakai, Cnidium offinale Makino, and Peaonia japonica Miyabe), is known to have various biological and immunological activities, but the modulatory effects of this preparation on dendritic cells (DCs)-mediated immune responses have not been examined previously. DCs are a unique group of white blood cells that initiate primary immune responses by capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to T cells. R...

  5. Características tecnológicas de la madera de Sac-Chacah de Campeche en diferentes zonas del árbol

    OpenAIRE

    T. Martínez Trinidad; A. Borja de la Rosa; M. A. Ávalos Rodríguez

    2001-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad ampliar el conocimiento de las características tecnológicas de la madera de Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Planch Decne. Para lo cual se realizó un estudio anatómico, se determinaron las propiedades físicas, la madera de tensión y los índices de calidad de pulpa para papel, y se calcularon a partir de la densidad las propiedades mecánicas. Se utilizaron muestras de madera de siete alturas y tres zonas de la sección transversal de cinco árboles. Los vasos ...

  6. 贵州植物区系新资料%New Records to the Flora of Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安明态; 王建中; 周云龙; 刘忠华; 张钢民

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,9 species and 1 variety of seed plants were reported as new records to the flora of Guizhou province.They were Fissistigma oldhamii,Dendropanax proteus,Boehmeria formosana,Urena procumbens,Acer longipes,Callicarpa integerrima var.chinensis,Impatiens commellinoides,Ardisia chinensis,Psychotria yunnanensis and Fimbristylis bisumbellata.The specimen citation and the distribution of these plant species were also presented.%报道了贵州省种子植物9个新记录种和1个新记录变种,即瓜馥木(Fissistigma oldhami)i、变叶树参(Dendropanax proteus)、海岛苎麻(Boehmeria formosana)、梵天花(Urena procumbens)、长柄槭(Acerlongipes)、藤紫珠(Callicarpa integerrima var.chinensis)、鸭跖草状凤仙花(Impatiens commellinoides)、小紫金牛(Ardisia chinensis)、云南九节(Psychotria yunnanensis)和复序飘拂草(Fimbristylis bisumbellata),列出了这些新记录种的标本引证和地理分布。

  7. 江苏省维管植物分布新记录(三)%New records of vascular plants in Jiangsu Province ( Ⅲ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶康; 刘启新; 邓懋彬; 褚晓芳

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: According to plant investigation result in Yixing and Liyang of Jiangsu Province, ten species, one subspecies and one variety belonging to eleven genera of ten families are reported as new records in Jiangsu Province, viz. Machilus pauhoi Kanehira, Schisandra arisanensis Hayata subsp. viridis (A. C. Smith) R. M. K. Saunders, Broussonetia kaempferi Sieb. var. australis Suzuki, Laportea cuspidate (Wedd.) Friis, Oreocnide frutescens (Thunb.) Miq., Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana (A. Camus) Y. S. Hsu et H. W. Jen, Achyranthes longifolia (Makino) Makino, Eurya alata Kobuski, Hyperwum seniavinii Maxim., Viola palrinii DC. ex Ging., V. violacea Makino and Vaccinium trichocladum Merr. et Met. And Oreocnide Miq. is a new record genus in Jiangsu Province. Some of them are simply analyzed on resources, flora and distribution.%结合《江苏植物志》(增订版)的修订,作者对江苏境内植物做了补充调查并发现了一些江苏省分布新记录.续前文[1-2],本文报道了分布于宜溧山地的部分江苏新记录属和新记录种,共计有10种1亚种1变种,隶属10个科11个属,其中有新记录属1个.另外,从植物资源利用、植物区系及分布范围等方面对部分种类进行了简要分析.凭证标本均保存于江苏省·中国科学院植物研究所标本馆(NAS).

  8. Preventative Effect of an Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Development of Airway Inflammation in Mice via Modulation of Th1/2 Cells Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Jin Kim; Hyun Wook Cho; Hae-Ran Park; Uhee Jung; Sung-Kee Jo; Sung-Tae Yee

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured w...

  9. Cytotoxic triterpenes from the acid hydrolyzate of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Tan, De-Hong; Yan, Ting-Cai; Jiang, Dong-Hua; Hou, Ming-Xiao

    2017-05-02

    One new dammarane-type triterpene, gypsapogenin A (1), was isolated from the acid hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, together with two known compounds, (20S,24S)-3β,20,21β,23β,25-pentahydroxy-21,24-cyclodammarane (2) and (23S)-3β-hydroxydammar-20,24-dien-21-oic acid 21,23-lactone (3). Its structural elucidations were accomplished mainly on the basis of the interpretation of spectroscopic data, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, and NMR. The cytotoxic activities were evaluated against HepG2 and A549 human cancer cell lines.

  10. Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y N; Choo, Y; Lee, Y C; Moon, Y I; Kim, S D; Choi, J W

    2001-02-01

    Three varieties of methyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were isolated from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino through in vitro bioassay-guided isolation for the inhibition on monoamine oxidase(MAO). The IC50 values for MAO-B of 1-monomethyl citrate, 1,3-dimethyl citrate, trimethyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were 0.19, 0.23, 0.61 and 0.25 mM, respectively. However, on MAO-A, their inhibitions showed only marginal activity.

  11. Preventative Effect of an Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Development of Airway Inflammation in Mice via Modulation of Th1/2 Cells Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Jin Kim; Hyun Wook Cho; Hae-Ran Park; Uhee Jung; Sung-Kee Jo; Sung-Tae Yee

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured w...

  12. Oleifolioside A mediates caspase-independent human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell apoptosis involving nuclear relocation of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors AIF and EndoG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai Yang; Jin, Cheng-Yun; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Young-Choon; Park, Shin-Hyung; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Hyung-In; Choi, Yung Hyun; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-05-30

    Apoptosis, the main type of programmed cell death, plays an essential role in a variety of biological events. Whereas "classical" apoptosis is dependent on caspase activation, caspase-independent death is increasingly recognized as an alternative pathway. To develop new anticancer agents, oleifolioside A was isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille and the biochemical mechanisms of oleifolioside A-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells were investigated. Exposure to oleifolioside A resulted in caspase activation and typical features of apoptosis, although cell death was not prevented by caspase inhibition. Oleifolioside A treatment induced up-regulation of Bad, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear relocation of mitochondrial factors, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), endonuclease G (EndoG), and apoptosis induction. This is the first report of anticancer activity of oleifolioside A, and nuclear translocation of AIF and EndoG in oleifolioside A-treated HeLa cells might represent an alternative death signaling pathway in the absence of caspase activity.

  13. Measurement of Some Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of the Antisense Fragment of CYP86MF Gene Transgenic Male Sterile Plantlets in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-lin; CAO Jia-shu; DONG De-kun

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the transgenic male sterility induced by the antisense fragment of gene CYP86MF, some physiological and biochemical indexes were compared between the transgenic plantlets of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) and their controls.Results showed that there was significant difference between content of the endogenous hormones in leaves and floral buds. GA3 contents in leaves of the transgenic plantlets of B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino cv.Shanghai-qing and cv. Youqing were reduced by 31.72 and 46.88% respectively as compared with those of their controls, and GA3 contents in floral buds of them were reduced by 62.92 and 80.57 % respectively. In addition, ZT contents in leaves of cv. Shanghai-qing and cv. Youqing were reduced by 11.81 and 181.20%respectively as compared with those of their controls and those in floral buds were reduced by 105.94 and 128.75% respectively. But, ABA content in transgenic plantlets was significantly higher than that in nontransgenic plantlets. However, differences among respiratory rate and cyanide-resistant respiratory rate, the photosynthesic rate and the content of total flavones in floral buds were not significant. In this study, the results indicated that the gene CYP86MF might be one of the key functional genes to control fertility of Chinese cabbage.

  14. Distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs on leaves of vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Masayuki; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Yoshida, Naoko; Iguchi, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs) on the leaves of various vegetables was studied. All kinds of vegetable leaves tested gave pink-pigmented colonies on agar plates containing methanol as sole carbon source. The numbers of PPFMs on the leaves, colony-forming units (CFU)/g of fresh leaves, differed among the plants, although they were planted and grown at the same farm. Commercial green perilla, Perilla frutescens viridis (Makino) Makino, gave the highest counts of PPFMs (2.0-4.1×10(7) CFU/g) of all the commercial vegetable leaves tested, amounting to 15% of total microbes on the leaves. The PPFMs isolated from seeds of two varieties of perilla, the red and green varieties, exhibited high sequence similarity as to the 16S rRNA gene to two different Methylobacterium species, M. fujisawaense DSM5686(T) and M. radiotolerans JCM2831(T) respectively, suggesting that there is specific interaction between perilla and the PPFMs.

  15. 盐分胁迫对5种园林灌木生理生化指标的影响%Impact of salt stress on physiological and biochemical indexes of five garden shrubs for landscape usage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红洋; 陈莉

    2012-01-01

    The impact of salt solution at different concentrations on five garden shrubs(Grandiflora,Maculata,Casin,Rosmarinus and Makino was studied).The result indicated that the chlorophyll and carotenoids contents were reduced along with the salt concentration.And the decline range of Grandiflora and Makino was small.The chlorophyll content variation of Makino was the minimum.The five garden shrubs contents of SOD,CAT,POD and soluble protein were negatively correlated with the cell membrane permeability.The enzyme active of Makino and Rosmarinus was higher.The soluble protein content was not important in salt resistance.The contents of proline,soluble sugar,MAD activity were negatively correlated with cell membrane permeability.Makino,Rosmarinus and Grandiflora showed an increasing trend.Their superoxide radical changes were small,membrane damage showed a lesser degree.Maculata and Casin showed a poor salt tolerance.%通过对不同浓度盐胁迫下5种园林灌木大花六道木、滨柃、花叶胡颓子、伞房决明和迷迭香生理生化指标的测定,结果表明,随着盐分的升高,5种园林灌木的叶绿素和类胡萝卜素含量不断下降,大花六道木和滨柃的下降幅度较小,分别为28.8%和17.8%,滨柃的叶绿素含量的变化幅度最小,为21.2%和6.5%。5种园林灌木SOD、CAT、POD酶活性和可溶性蛋白含量与细胞膜透性呈显著或极显著负相关,滨柃具有较强的酶活性,上述指标最高时可分别达258.0%,58.6%和184.0%。可溶性蛋白对植物的耐盐程度作用不大。5种园林灌木的游离Pro、可溶性糖、超氧阴离子自由基含量和MDA均与细胞膜透性呈极显著和显著相关。在重度盐分胁迫下,滨柃的脯氨酸含累量最大,为对照的6倍,可溶性糖的含累量仅次于大花六道木。超氧阴离子自由基含量和MDA在体内的变化幅度最小,达90%和18.71%,其次是大花六道木和迷迭香。因此,细胞膜受伤害程度最小的是滨柃、

  16. New records of vascular plants in Zhejiang Province%浙江维管植物分布新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芬耀; 谢文远; 陈锋; 刘宝权; 陈征海

    2016-01-01

    报道了浙江维管植物分布新记录10种,分别为:睫毛蕨科Pleurosoriopsidaceae的睫毛蕨 Pleurosoriopsis makinoi (Maxim .ex Makino) Fomin;榆科Ulmaceae的山黄麻 Trema tomentosa (Roxb .) Hara;樟科Lauraceae的华南木姜子 Litsea greenmaniana Allen和黄枝润楠 Machilus versicolora S .K .Lee & F .N .Wei;景天科Crassu‐laceae的东至景天 Sedum dongzhiense D .Q .Wang & Y .L .Shi和高岭景天 Sedum tricarpum Makino ;紫金牛科Myrsinaceae的少年红 Ardisia alyxiaefolia Tsiang ex C .Chen;禾本科 Poaceae的广州鼠尾粟 Sporobolus hancei Rendle、远东芨芨草 Achnatherum extremiorientale (Hara) Keng ex P .C .Kuo和南荻 Miscanthus lutarioriparius L .Liu ex Renvoize & S .L .Chen .其中,睫毛蕨科为浙江新记录科.凭证标本保存于浙江农林大学植物标本室(ZJFC ).%Ten species are reported for the first time in Zhejiang Province ,i .e .Pleurosoriopsis makinoi (Maxim .ex Makino) Fomin of Pleurosoriopsidaceae ,Trema tomentosa (Roxb .) Hara of Ulmaceae ,Litsea greenmaniana Allen and Machilus versicolora S .K .Lee & F .N .Wei of Lauraceae ,Sedum dongzhiense D .Q .Wang & Y .L .Shi and Sedum tricarpum Makino of Crassulaceae ,Ardisia alyxiaefolia Tsiang ex C . Chen of Myrsinaceae , Sporobolus hancei Rendle ,Achnatherum extremiorientale (Hara) Keng ex P .C .Kuo and Miscanthus lutarioripa‐rius L .Liu ex Renvoize & S .L .Chen of Poaceae .Pleurosoriopsidaceae is a newly recorded family in Zhejiang Province .The voucher specimens were preserved in the herbarium of Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University (ZJFC ) .

  17. Some New Records of Seed Plants from Fujian Province%福建省种子植物分布新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 阮少江

    2009-01-01

    在福建闽东地区海岛植被调查中,发现了福建省种子植物地理分布新记录属1个:假还阳参属(Crepidiastrum Nakai);新记录种7个,分别是:碱蓬[Suaeda glauca (Bunge) Bunge]、海滨木槿(Hibiscus hamabo Sieb.et Zucc.)、假还阳参[Crepidiastrum lanceolatum (Houtt.) Nakai]、普陀狗哇花(Heteropappus arenarius Kitam.)、浙江大青(Clerodendrum kaichianum P.S.Hsu)、厚叶石斑木[Rhaphiolepis umbellate (Thunb.) Makino]和刺葵(Phoenix hanceana Naudin).标本全部存放于宁德师专植物标本室(NDTC).

  18. Electrostatic potential map modelling with COSY Infinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J.A., E-mail: maloneyja@triumf.ca; Baartman, R.; Planche, T.; Saminathan, S.

    2016-06-01

    COSY Infinity (Makino and Berz, 2005) is a differential-algebra based simulation code which allows accurate calculation of transfer maps to arbitrary order. COSY’s existing internal procedures were modified to allow electrostatic elements to be specified using an array of field potential data from the midplane. Additionally, a new procedure was created allowing electrostatic elements and their fringe fields to be specified by an analytic function. This allows greater flexibility in accurately modelling electrostatic elements and their fringe fields. Applied examples of these new procedures are presented including the modelling of a shunted electrostatic multipole designed with OPERA, a spherical electrostatic bender, and the effects of different shaped apertures in an electrostatic beam line.

  19. Electrostatic potential map modelling with COSY Infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. A.; Baartman, R.; Planche, T.; Saminathan, S.

    2016-06-01

    COSY Infinity (Makino and Berz, 2005) is a differential-algebra based simulation code which allows accurate calculation of transfer maps to arbitrary order. COSY's existing internal procedures were modified to allow electrostatic elements to be specified using an array of field potential data from the midplane. Additionally, a new procedure was created allowing electrostatic elements and their fringe fields to be specified by an analytic function. This allows greater flexibility in accurately modelling electrostatic elements and their fringe fields. Applied examples of these new procedures are presented including the modelling of a shunted electrostatic multipole designed with OPERA, a spherical electrostatic bender, and the effects of different shaped apertures in an electrostatic beam line.

  20. 上海植物区系新资料(Ⅵ)%Newly recorded plants in Shanghai (Ⅵ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏庆; 熊申展; 陈纪云; 桂萍; 胡超

    2013-01-01

    A newly exotic genus Kickxia Dumort. (Scrophulariaceae) is recorded in Shanghai and China. And 11 newly recorded species are found in Shanghai, namely, Kickxia elatine (L. ) Dumort. , Amaranthus polygonoides L. , Ampelopsis japonica (Thunb. ) Makino, Asarum forbesii Maxim. , Ammannia multiflora Roxb. , Elymus shandongensis B. Salomon, Rorippa dubia (Pers. ) H. Hara, Cardamine scutata Thunb. , Corydalis sheareri S. Moore, Basella alba L. and Melochia corchorifolia L. respectively.%记载了中国及上海新记录外来植物凯氏草属,上海新记录植物戟叶凯氏草、合被苋、白蔹、杜衡、多花水苋菜、山东披碱草、无瓣蔊菜、圆齿碎米荠、地锦苗、落葵及马松子等11种.

  1. PENGGUNAAN JODOUSHI 「~たい」 DAN KEIYOUSHI 「ほしい」DALAM KALIMAT PADA KOMIK DORAEMON SERI 25-35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieska Sekar Nadya

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Every language in many countries has its own uniqueness to express wish. In Indonesian, theword “ingin” means want to, or wish to. But in Japanese, there are two classes of word, both havemeaning of want or wish. They are jodoushi「~たい」and keiyoushi「ほしい」. These two classesof word usually people find when learning Japanese, especially when reading Japanese comics forchildren. Therefore, in order to be able to differ the use of those two classes of word and the use oftheir sentences pattern, as well as the analysis, this research uses Doraemon vol.25-35. As foranalyzing all the data, the use of theories from Tomita Takayuki, Seichi Makino and Michio Tsutsui,Naomi Hanaoka McGloin, and also Fumiko Koide will suit them respectively.

  2. Molecular Systematics of Polygonum minus Huds. Based on ITS Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Mohd Noor

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Plastid trnL-trnF and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences were obtained from selected wild-type individuals of Polygonum minus Huds. in Peninsular Malaysia. The 380 bp trnL-trnF sequences of the Polygonum minus accessions were identical. Therefore, the trnL-trnF failed to distinguish between the Polygonum minus accessions. However, the divergence of ITS sequences (650 bp among the Polygonum minus accessions was 1%, indicating that these accessions could be distinguished by the ITS sequences. A phylogenetic relationship based on the ITS sequences was inferred using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. All of the tree topologies indicated that Polygonum minus from Peninsular Malaysia is unique and different from the synonymous Persicaria minor (Huds. Opiz and Polygonum kawagoeanum Makino.

  3. [Evolution of the origin of strain of Shancigu (Rhizoma Pleionis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyan; Song, Xiangwen; Han, Bangxing; Fang, Shiying

    2015-05-01

    Shancigu (Rhizome Pleionis) was first recorded in the Ben cao shiyi (Supplements to Chinese Materia Medica). The source of the strain of this medicinal was unclear because of its too simple description in the medical books in the Tang and Song dynasties. Its original plant could be Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino, Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker and so on. The original plant of Shanciguwas Tulipaedulis since the Ming dynasty to the Republican period. The name of "Guangcigu" began to appear in the Republican period because of the changes of its processing method. The original plants evolved into Cremastra appendiculata, Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe and Pleione yunnanensis Rolfe, with Tulipa edulisas the original plant of Guangcigu (Bulbus of Tulipasedulis). It is found that only the Tulipaedulis is the unequivocal origin with the longest medicinal history through sorting out of the original plants of Shancigu. Hence, it is suggested that Tulipa edulis should be recovered as the original strain of Shancigu.

  4. Study on Vegetation Root Strength of Pioneer Plants for Forest Areas in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bin; LIANG Da-qing; YE Xu-rong

    2005-01-01

    Forest plant roots may restrain the occurrence of shallow landslides for forest land and pioneer tree species can also reduce runoff and soil erosion;thus they are useful practical ecological materials for landslide control and erosion control.In this study,two important pioneer plant species;Formosan Alder (Alnus formosana Makino) and Roxburgh Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill.Var.roxburghi i(DC.) Rehd.) were selected at landslide areas under vegetation treatments for soil and water conservation.In order to obtain the root strength model for the factors affecting pulling resistance and root tensile strength,experimental materials were tested and the data were analyzed using regression techniques.These models could be used to provide the index of slope stability and to quantify the root-strength using non-destructive methods.

  5. Study on the Effect of Six Sawdust Media on the Growth of the Strain of Tremella fuciformis Berk%6种木屑培养基对银耳菌种生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭彪; 戴维浩; 林雄平; 雷银清; 阮毅

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In order to provide the medium optimization and high yield and good quality information, effects of Tremella fuciformis Berk growth and development, yield and quality on 6 kinds of sawdust medium was studied, [method] 6 tree as culture medium of Multiple hatches of the strain of Tremella fuciformis Berk growth was tested on Six Sawdust Media from different tree including Cyelobalanopsis glauca (Thunb. ) Oerst. , Diospyros kaki L. f. , Rhus chinensis Mill. , Machilus pauhoi Kanehira, Sapium sebiferum (L. ) Roxb. and Alniphyllum forut-nei (Hemsl. )Makino. [Result] Tremella fuciformis Berk grew well on six tree media, but growth indexes were different on different tree media. Among these media, Machilus pauhoi Kanehira was the most appropriate, Alniphyllum fortunei (Hemsl. ) Makino was the last one. On Cyclobalarwpsis glauca (Thunb. )Oerst. medium, the mycelium grew slowly ,but strongly and yellowish green, biological efficiency was higher , dried product conversion rate reaching 11. 5% , having better quality. The other tree medium showed general at all aspects. [Conclusion] 6 kinds of tree sawdust medium was suitable for growth as culture medium raw material of the strain of Tremella fuciformis Berk. Controlling these tree as culture medium, Machilus pauhoi was the best culture medium raw material, followed by Cyclohalanopsis glauca ( Thunb. ) Oerst. , then Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. , Rhus chinensis Mill. , Diospyros kaki L. f. , Alniphyllum forutnei (Hemsl. ) Makino.%[目的]研究6种木屑培养基对银耳(Tremella fuciformis Berk)生长发育、产量及品质的影响,为银耳菌种培养基的优化以及银耳的优质高产提供资料.[方法]6个适生银耳树种作为培养基[①青冈木[ Cyclobalanopsis glauca( Thunb.) Oerst.]木屑73%;②柿树(Diospyros kaki L.f.)木屑73%;③盐肢木(Rhus chinensis Mill.)木屑73%;④刨花楠(Machilus pauhoi Kanehira)木屑73%;⑤乌桕[Sapium sebiferum(L.)Roxb.]木屑73

  6. 中草药穿山龙人工栽培技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜祥; 李海勇

    2012-01-01

    在概述中草药穿山龙的植物学特性基础上,从无性繁殖和有性繁殖两方面阐述了其繁殖技术.包括选地、整地、栽植、田间管理及病虫害防治等人工栽培技术中的前期准备和后期田间管理技术等。%Based un summaring botanical characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine Dioscorea nipposlica Makino, the reproductive techniques were elaborated from aspects of asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction, including site selection, soil preparation, planting, field management, pest control and so on, which belonged to preparation and post-field management techniques in arliticial cultivalion techniques.

  7. 湖南的新记录植物(六)%Some newly recorded plants from Hunan Province of China(Ⅵ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文新; 刘克明; 蔡秀珍; 田建平; 胡光万

    2004-01-01

    报道了湖南植物分布新记录,其中新记录属2个,即假木豆属(Dendrolobium(Wight et Arn.) Benth.)和排钱树属(Phyllodium Desv.);新记录种20个,即鹰爪花(Artabotrys hexapetalus (Linn. f.) Bhandari)、岩生碎米荠(Cardamine calcicola W. W. Smith.)、山芥碎米荠( Cardamine griffithii Hook. f. et Thons.)、白花碎米荠(Cardamine leucantha (Tausch) O. E. Schulz)、紫彩绣球(Hydrangea sargentiana Rehd.)、狭叶黄檀(Dalbergia stenophylla Prain)、假木豆(Dendrolobium triangulare (Retz.) Schindl.)、排钱树(Phyllodium pulchellum (L. ) Desv.)、华野豌豆(Vicia chinensis Franch.)、绿萼凤仙花(Impatiens chlorosepala Hand.-Mazz.)、岩谷杜鹃(Rhododendron rupivalleculatum Tam.)、革叶铁榄(Sinosideroxylon wightianum (Hook. et Arn.) Aubr.)、宁波木犀(Osmanthus cooperi Hemsl.)、天人草(Comanthosphace japonica (Miq.) S. Moore)、华南野靛棵(Mananthes austrosinensis (H. S. Lo) C. Y. Wu et C. C. Hu)、东亚磨芋(Amorphophallus kiusianus (Makino) Makino)、齿唇兰(Anoectochilus lanceolatus Lindl.)、圆叶石豆兰(Bulbophyllum drymoglossum Maxim. ex Okubo)、毛杓兰(Cypripedium franchetii E. H. Wilson)、绿花斑叶兰(Goodyyera viridiflora (Bl.) Bl.);新记录变种1个,即异果崖豆藤(Millettia dielsiana Harms var. heterocarpa (Chun ex T. Chen)Z. Wei).

  8. 连续逆流提取机及其在绞股蓝皂苷提取工艺中的应用%Continuous countercurrent extraction equipment used in the process of extraction Gypenosides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易克传; 曾其良; 徐淑亮

    2011-01-01

    The essential structure and the principle of continuous countercurrent extraction equipment on Chinese herbal medicine were introduced.The experiment on extraction effective components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino was studied by water as solvent and G.pentaphyllum Makino as stuff.The key factors influencing extraction yield of wate-solubile matter and saponins, which including extracting temperature, ratio of liquid to solid and extracting time were investigated by using orthogonally experimental design.The results showed that the optimum condition were as follows: liquid to solid ratio 1: 35, temperature 80 ℃, time 50 min.Under these conditions, and the yield of extract was 33.95% and the yield of gypenosides was 8.9%.%简述了中草药连续逆流提取机的基本结构和工作原理.以水为溶媒、绞股蓝为原料,进行绞股蓝有效成分的提取试验.以绞股蓝水溶出物和总皂苷为目标物,考察提取温度、液料比和提取时间等因素对提取得率的影响,并通过L9(33)正交实验设计,对提取工艺进行优选.采用中草药连续逆流提取机提取绞股蓝有效成分的最佳工艺条件:提取溶剂温度80 ℃,料液比1:35(g/mL),提取时间50 min;所得提取物得率为33.95%,总皂苷得率为8.9%.

  9. On Merging Hunaniopanax with Aralia (Araliaceae),with Description of a New Taxon and Additional Nomenclatural Changes in Asian Aralia%湖南参属的归并及亚洲楤木属(五加科)的一个新种和一些名称的变更

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Molecular and morphological evidence suggests that the newly described Hunaniopanax hypoglaucus C. J. Qi & T. R. Cao is nested within Aralia L.Specifically Hunaniopanax is closely related to Aralia parasitica and A verticillata .Morphological data support its sister species relationship with A verticillata because the two taxa share a synapomorphy of verticillate pattern of inflorescence.To maintain the monophyly of Aralia, Hunaniopanax is herein merged with Aralia , and a new combination, Aralia hypoglauca (C. J. Qi & T. R. Cao) J. Wen & Y. F. Deng, is made. Aralia hypoglauca is also newly recorded from Guangxi, China in this study.The previously hypothesized close relationship of Hunaniopanax with Dendropanax Decne. & Planch. was refuted by our micromorphological examination as well as the DNA data. A new species, Aralia shangiana J. Wen, is herein described and two new combinations and a new name are also proposed: Aralia glabrifoliolata (C. B. Shang) J. Wen, comb. nov., A stellata (King) J. Wen,comb. nov., and A delavayi J. Wen, nom. nov.%分子与形态证据表明湖南参(Hunaniopanax hypoglaucus C.J.Qi & T.R.Cao)起源于木属(Aralia L.),湖南参的近缘种为寄生五叶参(Aralia parasitica)和轮伞五叶参(Aralia verticillata),形态证据支持湖南参为轮伞五叶参的姐妹种,此2种具轮伞花序这一共衍征.为了保证木属的单系性,现将湖南参并入木属,并作如下新组合:Aralia hypoglauca (C.J.Qi & T.R.Cao) J.Wen & Y.F.Deng.本文报道了湖南参在广西的新分布.目前的形态学和分子数据均不支持早先提出的湖南参与树参属(Dendropanax)的近缘关系.本文亦报道了木属的1新种、2新种组合和1个新名称:Aralia shangiana J.Wen.sp.nov.(向氏五叶参,新种);Aralia glabrifoliolata (C.B.Shang) J.Wen.comb.nov.(光叶五叶参,新组合);Aralia stellata (King) J.Wen,comb.nov.(星毛羽叶参,新组合)和Aralia delavayi J.Wen.nom.nov.(云南五叶参,新名称).

  10. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  11. Effects of age, sex, prior experience, and intraspecific food variation on diet composition of a tropical folivore (Phasmetodea: Phasmatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandlin, E.A.; Willig, M.R. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Recent attention in ecology has focused on factors that influence the foraging behavior of herbivores. We evaluated responses to different arrays of food plants exhibited by an abundant folivore within the tabonuco forest of Puerto Rico. Previous work indicates that the walkingstick Lamponius portoricensis Rehn forages on a limited array of plant species and selects habitats that contain high densities of Piper treleaseanum Britton Wilson. We designed three separate experiments to evaluate (1) if walkingsticks of different ages or of different sex have different food preferences, (2) if previous exposure to only one food type affects subsequent diet composition, and (3) if walkingsticks distinguish among leaves of different quality from the same plant. Four plants [Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne Planch, Piper hispidum Sw., P. treleaseanum, and Urera baccifera (L.) Gaud.] known to be forage for this insect were used in food choice experiments. Multi- variate analyses revealed that, at different ages, males and females exhibit different patterns of consumption. Likewise, preexposure to only one food influences subsequent diet differently depending upon preexposure regime and sex. In addition, preferences are shown for different qualities of leaves within single forage species. In particular, lower (older) leaves of P. treleaseanum are preferred, whereas leaves of D. arboreus and U. baccifera are eaten indiscriminately. These results are consistent with the contention that herbivores forage within nutritional constraints. In addition, walkingsticks distinguish between plant species, recognize differences in leaf quality associated with age or position, and modify their diet to reflect past experience.

  12. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, liver profile test, and mutagenic activity of five plants used in traditional Mexican medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cornejo-Garrido

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Berberis hartwegii Benth., Berberidaceae, Hamelia patens Jacq., Rubiaceae, Dendropanax arboreus (L. Decne & Planch., Araliaceae, Erythrina herbacea L., Fabaceae, and Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam., Rutaceae, acetone extracts were selected on the basis of their use in traditional Mexican medicine to treat scabies or skin diseases. Anti-dermatophyte activity in vitro was evaluated using the agar dilution assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of B. hartwegii and Z. caribaeum were tested against experimental tinea pedis. The infected animals were treated intragastrically daily for seven days with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of acetone extracts. The acetone extract of H. patens exhibited 100% growth inhibition against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum at 100.0 and 50.0 µg/ml, respectively, and B. hartwegii inhibited growth of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes at 100.0 µg/ml. Effective treatments with 2.5 mg/kg of Z. caribaeum and B. hartwegii extract were comparable with 1 mg/kg of clotrimazole in mice. Liver profile tests and histological analyses did not exhibit any signs of toxicity and the Ames test indicated that both extracts were safe when evaluated in strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. Our results suggest the potential for the future development of new antifungal drugs from B. hartwegii or Z. caribaeum.

  13. Dendropanoxide induces autophagy through ERK1/2 activation in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells and autophagy inhibition enhances dendropanoxide-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; An, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Moon, Hyung-In; Lee, Young-Choon

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer effects of dendropanoxide (DP) newly isolated from leaves and stem of Dendropanax morbifera Leveille were firstly investigated in this study. DP inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manner in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells, which was dependent on the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol and the activation of caspases. Moreover, the DP-treated cells exhibited autophagy, as characterized by the punctuate patterns of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) by confocal microscopy and the appearance of autophagic vacuoles by MDC staining. The expression levels of ATG7, Beclin-1 and LC3-II were also increased by DP treatment. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and wortmannin (Wort) significantly enhanced DP-induced apoptosis. DP treatment also caused a time-dependent increase in protein levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation with U0126 resulted in a decreased DP-induced autophagy that was accompanied by an increased apoptosis and a decreased cell viability. These results indicate a cytoprotective function of autophagy against DP-induced apoptosis and suggest that the combination of DP treatment with autophagy inhibition may be a promising strategy for human osteosarcoma control. Taken together, this study demonstrated for the first time that DP could induce autophagy through ERK1/2 activation in human osteosarcoma cells and autophagy inhibition enhanced DP-induced apoptosis.

  14. Oleifolioside A, a New Active Compound, Attenuates LPS-Stimulated iNOS and COX-2 Expression through the Downregulation of NF-κB and MAPK Activities in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai Yang; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-01-01

    Oleifolioside A, a new triterpenoid compound isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (D. morbifera), was shown in this study to have potent inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-)stimulated nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these findings, oleifolioside A was further shown to suppress the expression of LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose-dependent manner at both the protein and mRNA levels and to significantly inhibit the DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activity of NF-κB in response to LPS. These results were found to be associated with the inhibition of the degradation and phosphorylation of IκB-α and subsequent translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit to the nucleus. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by oleifolioside A was also shown to be mediated through the prevention of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that oleifolioside A has the potential to be a novel anti-inflammatory agent capable of targeting both the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

  15. [Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

    2013-03-01

    White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic.

  16. Oleifolioside B-mediated autophagy promotes apoptosis in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Yun; Yu, Hai Yang; Park, Cheol; Han, Min Ho; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Young-Choon; Chang, Young-Chae; Cheong, Jaehun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Hyung-In; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Jai-Heon; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The biochemical mechanisms of cell death by oleifolioside B (OB), a cycloartane-type triterpene glycoside isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille, were investigated in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Our data indicated that exposure to OB led to caspase activation and typical features of apoptosis; however, apoptotic cell death was not prevented by z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, demonstrating that OB-induced apoptosis was independent of caspase activation. Subsequently, we found that OB increased autophagy, as indicated by an increase in monodansylcadaverine fluorescent dye-labeled autophagosome formation and in the levels of the autophagic form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 and Atg3, an autophagy-specific gene, which is associated with inhibiting phospho-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression. However, pretreatment with bafilomycin A1, an autophagy inhibitor, attenuated OB-induced apoptosis and dephosphorylation of Nrf2. The data suggest that OB-induced autophagy functions as a death mechanism in A549 cells and OB has potential as a novel anticancer agent capable of targeting apoptotic and autophagic cell death and the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  17. 马蹄参属种子油脂肪酸的特征及其分类学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟华; 向其柏; 欧惠英

    1998-01-01

    用气相色谱-质谱方法分析了马蹄参(Diplopanax stachyanthus hand.-Mazz.)和近缘属植物挤果树参(Dendropanax confertus Li),桃叶珊瑚(Aucuba japonica Thunb.),毛来(Cornus walteri Wanger.)八角金盘(Fatsia japonica(Thunb.)Dence.et Planch.]的种子油脂肪酸成分,结果表明在所测定的马蹄参种子油样本中含量最高的成分是亚油酸C18:2(9C,12C),同时含有岩芹酸C18:1(6C)这一异常脂肪酸,种子油脂肪酸分布特征支持将马蹄参属移出五加科,改 于广义的山茱萸科。

  18. Oleifolioside A, a New Active Compound, Attenuates LPS-Stimulated iNOS and COX-2 Expression through the Downregulation of NF-κB and MAPK Activities in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Yang Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleifolioside A, a new triterpenoid compound isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (D. morbifera, was shown in this study to have potent inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these findings, oleifolioside A was further shown to suppress the expression of LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner at both the protein and mRNA levels and to significantly inhibit the DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activity of NF-κB in response to LPS. These results were found to be associated with the inhibition of the degradation and phosphorylation of IκB-α and subsequent translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit to the nucleus. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by oleifolioside A was also shown to be mediated through the prevention of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that oleifolioside A has the potential to be a novel anti-inflammatory agent capable of targeting both the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

  19. 变叶树参根醋酸乙酯部位化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李陆军; 宋杰; 冯丽彬

    2013-01-01

    目的研究五加科树参属植物变叶树参Dendropanax proteus根醋酸乙酯部位的化学成分。方法利用硅胶和Sephadex LH-20等色谱技术进行分离纯化,根据NMR、MS等波谱数据和理化性质鉴定化合物结构。结果从变叶树参根95%乙醇提取物的醋酸乙酯萃取部位分离鉴定了6个化合物,分别为3,5-二甲氧基-4-羟基反式桂皮醛(1)、3-甲氧基-4-羟基反式桂皮醛(2)、香草酸(3)、香草醛(4)、壬二酸(5)和β-谷甾醇(6)。结论化合物1~5为首次从该属植物中分离得到。

  20. Dendropanoxide induces autophagy through ERK1/2 activation in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells and autophagy inhibition enhances dendropanoxide-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Won Lee

    Full Text Available Anticancer effects of dendropanoxide (DP newly isolated from leaves and stem of Dendropanax morbifera Leveille were firstly investigated in this study. DP inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manner in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells, which was dependent on the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol and the activation of caspases. Moreover, the DP-treated cells exhibited autophagy, as characterized by the punctuate patterns of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3 by confocal microscopy and the appearance of autophagic vacuoles by MDC staining. The expression levels of ATG7, Beclin-1 and LC3-II were also increased by DP treatment. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA and wortmannin (Wort significantly enhanced DP-induced apoptosis. DP treatment also caused a time-dependent increase in protein levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2, and inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation with U0126 resulted in a decreased DP-induced autophagy that was accompanied by an increased apoptosis and a decreased cell viability. These results indicate a cytoprotective function of autophagy against DP-induced apoptosis and suggest that the combination of DP treatment with autophagy inhibition may be a promising strategy for human osteosarcoma control. Taken together, this study demonstrated for the first time that DP could induce autophagy through ERK1/2 activation in human osteosarcoma cells and autophagy inhibition enhanced DP-induced apoptosis.

  1. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  2. 八棱海棠中转录因子基因MrDREBA6的克隆及表达分析%Cloning and expression of transcription factor gene MrDREBA6 from Malus micromalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓燕; 熊爱生; 姚泉洪; 彭日荷; 章镇; 乔玉山; 周军; 朱波; 高峰; 田永生; 赵伟

    2009-01-01

    DREB晒类基因是植物中重要的一类转录因子基因,其编码的产物广泛参与生长发育和各类生理过程.根据拟南芥和水稻DREB类基因序列,设计2个兼并引物,利用RACE法从八棱海棠cDNA文库中扩增出一编码DREB类转录因子的cDNA序列.命名为MrDREBA6.从cDNA序列、推测的氨基酸序列、进化树、功能域和分子结构模型进行预测和较为全面的分析.表明MrDREBA6属于DREB类转录因子的A6亚族.蛋白质三级结构与AtRAP2.4和AtERFl相似.荧光定量PCR分析MrDREBA6在各种处理下表达水平显示,MrDREBA6受到PEG、ABA、高盐和低温的诱导表达.另外.组织表达特异性检测表明,正常生长条件下MrDREBA6基因在叶中表达较高,在根和茎中的表达量略低.%MrDREB gene is an important family of transcription factors in plant, encoding transcriptional regulators with a va-riety of functions involved in the developmental and physiological processes. Here, using two degenerate primers according to the sequences of DREB genes from Arabidopsis and rice,a cDNA encoding putative DREB protein was cloned from cDNA of Malus micromalus Makino by RACE,named as MrDREBA6. Then,cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence,phylogenetic tree,function domain and three-dimension structure were predicted and analyzed. MrDREBA 6 from Malus micromalus Maki-no was classified into A6 subgroup of DREB family transcription factor. MrDREBA6,AtRAP2.4 and AtERFI have similar three--dimension structure. The results of Real-Time-Quantitative PCR analysis for Malus micromalus Makino exposed to various treatments demonstrated that MrDREBA 6 gene was induced by PEG, ABA, high-salinity and low-temperature stress-es. Expression profiling analyses of MrDREBA 6 in different organs indicated that MrDREBA 6 gene was mainly expressed in leaf, and faintly expressed in root and stem under normal growth condition.

  3. Effects of NaCl Stress on Different Growth Stages of Hongcaitai%NaCl胁迫对不同生育期红菜薹的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱进

    2014-01-01

    研究了NaCl胁迫对不同生育时期红菜薹[Brassica campestris L. ssp chinensis (L.) Makino var. utilis Tsen et Lee]的影响。结果表明,在种子萌发期,300 mmol/L的NaCl处理显著降低了红菜薹种子的发芽率、发芽势和发芽指数;在幼苗期,不同浓度的NaCl处理对红菜薹的地上部鲜重、根鲜重、根干重、丙二醛含量、根系活力均无显著影响,在300 mmol/L的NaCl胁迫下红菜薹的地上部干重反而显著增加;在成株期,不同浓度的NaCl处理对红菜薹的叶片数、主薹高度、主薹茎粗、侧薹数、单株产量、丙二醛含量、根系活力均无显著影响。%The effects of NaCl stress on different growth stages of Hongcaitai [Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. utilis Tsen et Lee] were investigated. The results showed that Hongcaitai seed germination rate, germination en-ergy and germination index reduced significantly only under 300 mmol/L NaCl stress in Hongcaitai seed period. Different concentrations of NaCl stress in seedling stage of Hongcaitai had no significant effect on shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight, root activity and MDA content. The shoot dry weight increased significantly under 300 mmol/L NaCl stress. Different concentrations of NaCl stress response in adult stage of Hongcaitai had no significant effect on the number of leaves, the main moss height, main stem diameter, number of lateral moss, yield per plant, MDA content and root activity.

  4. Characteristics of Seed Germination and Regularities of Growth and Development of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium in Natural Conditions%甘菊种子萌发特性及自然条件下生长发育规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁焱; 付建新; 戴思兰

    2012-01-01

    对甘菊[ Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium(Fisch.ex Trautv.)Makino]种子萌发特性和自然条件下生长发育规律进行了试验观察,发现不同栽培基质及不同储藏时间对甘菊种子萌发率均有影响,在MS培养基上播种甘菊种子萌发率最高,可达90%左右.甘菊种子无休眠现象,采收后立即播种和次年春季播种萌发率均可达90%左右.甘菊种子不耐储藏,储藏至第3年秋季播种,萌发率仅为30%.自然条件下,5月至8月底是甘菊植株的营养生长时期,在此期间,甘菊株高、茎粗、冠幅、叶片数及分枝数一直处于增长状态;9月份当日照长度缩短至13 h时,甘菊开始现蕾,这表明13h光照/11h黑暗可能为甘菊现蕾的临界日长.%An experiment was conducted to study the seed germination characteristics and the regularities of growth and development of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv. ) Makino in natural conditions. Results indicate that different culture media and different storage times have some effects on the germination rate of C. lavandulifolium. The seeds on the MS medium showed the highest germination rate (about 90% ). The seeds of C. lavandulifolium have no dormancy phenomenon. The germination rate of the seeds sowed immediately after harvest or the next spring could reach almost 90%. The germination rate of the seeds decreased with storage time. The germination rate of the seeds sowed in the fall of the third year was only 30%. May to late August is the period of vegetative growth when the plant height, stem thickness, the number of leaves, crown size and the number of branches of C. lavandulifolium are in a rapid growth stage. The buds start appeared when the duration of day decreased to thirteen hours, which indicates that 13 hours of light and 11 hours of darkness may be the critical period for the buds of C. lavandulifolium, but it still need to be demonstrated by extensive experiments.

  5. 日本垂枝、叶籽、喇叭、斑叶及雌雄同株银杏资源调查%Ginkgo resources of different types in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 刘伟; 李桂祥

    2014-01-01

    简述日本垂枝银杏、叶籽银杏、喇叭银杏(我国文献称“筒叶银杏”)、斑叶银杏及雌雄同株银杏实生大树、古树资源概况。查有可靠依据者共有117株,其中垂枝银杏14株,叶籽银杏78株(包括3株雄株),喇叭银杏19株,斑叶银杏4株,雌雄同株银杏2株。部分单株兼具垂枝、叶籽、喇叭、斑叶性状中的2个或3个性状,因此共有107株。实际上,该类资源的数量要远多于此。多数单株为各级政府指定的“天然纪念物”,其中国家级指定“天然纪念物”叶籽银杏8株,雌雄同株银杏1株。%Japanese ginkgo resources of different types, including Ginkgo biloba var. pendula Hort., Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Makino, Ginkgo biloba‘Tubifolia’, Ginkgo biloba var. variegata Cari., monoecious tree and ancient tree were summarized. The reliable recorded 117 trees investigated, 14 trees were weeping ginkgo, 78 trees were Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Makino (including 3 staminiferous plant), 19 trees were Ginkgo biloba‘Tubifolia’, 4 trees were Ginkgo biloba var. variegata Cari., 2 trees were monoecious plants. Some plants have combining 2 or 3 traits in weeping, Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla, Ginkgo biloba‘Tubifolia’and Ginkgo biloba var. variegata, totally 107 trees. In fact, plant resources which had combining 2 or 3 traits were more than 107. Most of single plant was‘natural monument’designated by government at all levels. Eight plants of Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla and 1 plant of monoecious plant were‘natural monument’designated by national government.

  6. Flutuações temporais nos padrões de distribuição diamétrica da comunidade arbóreo-arbustivo e de 15 populações em um fragmento florestal Temporal fluctuations in the diametric distribution patterns of the trees and shrub community and 15 populations in a forest fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Luiz Mendonça Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando caracterizar possíveis flutuações nos padrões de distribuição diamétrica foram analisadas, num intervalo de cinco anos (2000-2005, a comunidade e as populações das 15 espécies mais abundantes do compartimento arbóreo de um remanescente de Floresta Semidecídua. A distribuição diamétrica da comunidade apresentou alta concentração nas classes menores e diminuição acentuada no sentido das maiores (J-invertido, em ambos os inventários. As populações apresentaram padrões distintos, arbitrariamente distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo 1, formado por espécies de menor porte e abundantes no sub-bosque, como Galipea jasminiflora, Allophylus edulis, Sebastiania commersoniana, Dendropanax cuneatus e Mollinedia widgrenii, e também espécies de árvores altas e pioneiras, como Acacia polyphylla e Piptadenia gonoacantha, cujas distribuições diamétricas seguiram o modelo J-invertido. Com exceção de Calycorectes acutatus, todas as demais espécies do Grupo 2 (Platycyamus regnellii, Cupania vernalis, Machaerium stipitatum, Machaerium villosum, Copaifera langsdorffii, Persea major e Cassia ferruginea eram de maior porte, cujos adultos predominavam no dossel da floresta, elevando a área basal e apresentando densidade de indivíduos menor nas classes diamétricas inferiores. No intervalo considerado, apenas D. cuneatus alterou seu padrão de distribuição (Grupo 1-Grupo 2, enquanto as demais os acentuaram. No Grupo 1, a síndrome de dispersão preferencial era anemocórica ou autocórica, ao passo que no Grupo 2 predominava a zoocoria. Assim, o remanescente, por apresentar área pequena, forma alongada e localização semiurbana associada a um regime de intensas perturbações, pode ter ocasionado empobrecimento da fauna dispersora, prejudicando a taxa de recrutamento.Aiming to characterize possible fluctuations in the patterns of diametric distribution, the community and the populations of the 15 most abundant tree species

  7. Fitossociologia do componente arbóreo na floresta turfosa do Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Phytosociology of the tree component in a peat forest of the National Park Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Patrícia Pereira Dorneles

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A composição florística e a estrutura do componente arbóreo foram analisadas na floresta de restinga turfosa do Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe (31º04' - 31º29'S, 50º461 - 51º09'W, localizado na região central da Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O componente arbóreo foi amostrado pelo método de quadrantes centrados, incluindo indivíduos com DAP mínimo de 5cm. Foram amostrados 60 pontos, distribuídos ao longo de quatro transectos paralelos, aproximadamente com a mesma orientação NE-SW do sistema lagunar. A composição florística resultou em 14 famílias, 18 gêneros e 21 espécies. A densidade arbórea total estimada para um hectare foi de 3.479 indivíduos. A família com maior riqueza específica foi Myrtaceae. As espécies mais importantes foram Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassman, Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC., Ilex pseudobuxus Reissek, Citharexylum myrianthum Cham. e Dendropanax cuneatum Decne. & Planch. A diversidade específica estimada pelo índice de Shannon (H' foi de 2,601 nats.ind.-1 e a equabilidade (J de 0,854, similar aos resultados obtidos em outros estudos realizados em florestas brejosas ou turfosas do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil.Floristic composition and structure of the tree component were analyzed in a coastal peat forest of the National Park Lagoa do Peixe (31º04' - 31º29'S, 50º46' - 51º09'W, located in the central region of the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The tree component was sampled according to the point-centered quarter method, including individuals with a minimum DBH of 5cm. Sixty sample points were distributed along four parallel transects, approximately with the same NE-SW orientation as the lagoon system. Floristic composition resulted in 14 families, 18 genera and 21 species. The total tree density estimated for one hectare was 3,479 individuals. The family with highest species richness was Myrtaceae. The most important species were Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham

  8. Florística e estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo de uma floresta higrófila da bacia do rio Jacaré-Pepira, SP, Brasil Floristics and structure of the shrub and the tree-layer of a swamp forest in Jacaré-Pepira river, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia C. M. Marques

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As florestas higrófilas são formações ribeirinhas caracterizadas por ocorrerem em solo permanentemente encharcado e restritas a pequenos fragmentos junto a outros tipos vegetacionais. Neste trabalho caracterizaram-se a florística e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo (plantas com DAP>5cm de uma área de 0,36ha de floresta higrófila localizada em Brotas (48º06'W 22º16'S, 470m.s.m., Estado de São Paulo, usando-se método de parcelas (total de 24 parcelas. No total foram amostrados 735 indivíduos, distribuídos em 32 famílias e 51 espécies. As espécies que se destacaram na comunidade devido aos elevados valores de importância foram Calophyllum brasiliense Camb., Protium almecega L. Marchand, Podocarpus sellowii Klotzch., Tapirira guianensis Aubl. e Dendropanax cuneatum DC. Decne. & Planch. O índice de diversidade de Shannon foi igual a 2,81, valor pouco superior aos descritos para florestas semelhantes. Na comunidade, as espécies generalistas com relação ao encharcamento do solo e as de solo drenado contribuíram na riqueza total (juntas 62% do total de espécies amostradas, enquanto as espécies de solo encharcado tiveram maior contribuição na composição da dominância (66% da dominância total e densidade (67% da densidade total relativas. A diversidade de situações topográficas e a entrada de espécies da vegetação do cerrado adjacente permitiram que espécies com diferentes exigências hídricas se estabelecessem na área relativamente pequena da floresta e influenciaram fortemente a florística e estrutura da comunidade.Swamp forests occur in permanently flooded small forest fragments in southeastern Brazil. We studied the floristic composition and community structure (plants with DBH>5cm of a swamp forest in Brotas municipality (48º06'W 22º16'S, 470m high, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 735 individuals, 32 families, and 51 woody species were recorded in the area. The most important species were

  9. 浙江六十田常绿阔叶林主要乔木种生态位研究%Niche of Dominant Species in Evergreen Broadleaved Forest in Liushitian Mini Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子林; 张志祥; 刘鹏; 康华靖; 陈煜

    2007-01-01

    应用Shannon-Wiener生态位宽度指数、生态位相似性比例系数及生态位重叠指数,对浙江省六十田省级自然保护小区常绿阔叶林群落中主要乔木树种的生态位特征进行了研究.结果表明:红楠Machilus thunbergii,华东楠Machilus leptophylla,青冈Cyclobalanopsis glauca、紫楠Phoebe sheareri、木荷Schima superba、东南石栎Lithocarpus harlandii具有较大的生态位宽度,分别为0.969、0.951、0.898、0.867、0.819和0.773,而香槐Cladrastis wilsonii、树参Dendropanax dentiger、枫香Liquidambar formosana的生态位较小,仅为0.345、0.245和0.245;生态位宽度大的树种间一般有较高的生态位相似性比例;香槐、树参和枫香的生态位宽度较小,但与其它树种的相似性却很高,表明这些树种对资源有较明显的共享趋势;从生态位重叠值来看,整体上表现为生态位宽度较大的树种间都有较高的生态位重叠,生态位宽度较小的树种与其它树种的生态位重叠较小.898、0.86、0.819和0.773,而香槐Cladrastis wilsonii、树参Dendropanax dentiger、枫香Liquidambar formosana的生态位较小,仅为0.345、0.245和0.245;生态位宽度大的树种间一般有较高的生态位相似性比例;香槐、树参和枫香的生态位宽度较小,但与其它树种的相似性却很高,表明这些树种对资源有较明显的共享趋势;从生态位重叠值来看,整体上表现为生态位宽度较大的树种间都有较高的生态位重叠,生态位宽度较小的树种与其它树种的生态位重叠较小.

  10. Evolutionary Relationships of Araliaceae in the Malesian Region: a Preliminary Analysis%东南亚地区五加科植物进化关系的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文军; 朱昱苹; Chunghee LEE; Elizabeth WIDJAJA; LENG Guan Saw

    2008-01-01

    We employ the nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences to assess the evolutionary relationships of Araliaceae in the Malesian region. Malesian Araliaceae consist of 14 genera and about 500 species. Our analysis suggests a diffuse origin of Araliaceae taxa, with many genera belong to the Asian palmate clade or the tribe Hedereae. The Malesian endemic Harmsiopanax is morphologically unique and its phylogenetic position is not well resolved at present. Several morphologically diverse species of Brassaiopsis perhaps have a relatively recent origin in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, as suggested by their monophyly as well as their low ITS sequence divergence. Wardenia is not supported as W. simplex ( = B. simplex) is nested within Brassaiopsis. The Malayan region is important for the development of Schefflera, and available evidence suggests that Scheffera in the region forms a clade with the Heptapleurum group. Dendropanax lancifolius does not form a clade with the core group of Dendropanax, and its status needs to be further analyzed. Macropanax maingayi was considered to be a highly distinct member comprising the monotypic genus Hederopsis. Our analysis clearly places it in Macropanax. Aralia merrillii was once considered to be the sole member of the genus Acanthophora because of its unusual climbing habit. The ITS data support its placement in Aralia. Our expanded sampling of ArthrophyUum continues to support its monophyly. Osmoxylon has a primary distribution in the Malesian region and it is a hylogenetically isolated member of Araliaceae.%东南亚五加科包含14个属约500种,本文应用ITS片段对该区五加科植物的进化关系作了初步研究.研究显示该地区五加科植物具有复杂的起源,很多属属于亚洲掌状复叶类群或Hedereae族的一支中.该区特有类群Harmsiopanax形态上非常特殊,但其系统位置尚未不明朗.在Brassaiopsis属中,有几种形态差异较大的种,但它们属同一单系,加之各种问ITS序列差

  11. Características tecnológicas de la madera de Sac-Chacah de Campeche en diferentes zonas del árbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Martínez Trinidad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad ampliar el conocimiento de las características tecnológicas de la madera de Dendropanax arboreus (L. Planch & Decne. Para lo cual se realizó un estudio anatómico, se determinaron las propiedades físicas, la madera de tensión y los índices de calidad de pulpa para papel, y se calcularon a partir de la densidad las propiedades mecánicas. Se utilizaron muestras de madera de siete alturas y tres zonas de la sección transversal de cinco árboles. Los vasos presentaron placa perforada escaleriforme, longitud de 959.48µ y diámetro de 73.31µ; y las fibras una longitud de 1343.73µ, un diámetro de 27.73µ y un grosor de pared de 4.68µ. La madera presentó densidad básica media (0.44 g⋅cm-3, contracción volumétrica total media (11.17 %, contracciones lineales altas (7.0 T y 4.14 %R, relación de anisotropía baja (1.69, índices de calidad de pulpa para papel buenos y las propiedades mecánicas resultaron de bajas a muy bajas. La madera de tensión se encontró en forma dispersa y aislada. En general, no se presentó una tendencia marcada por parte de las variables analizadas en los diferentes diámetros o alturas estudiadas. En función de los resultados, la madera presenta un amplio espectro de utilización excepto para usos estructurales.

  12. 浙江六十田常绿阔叶林主要乔木种生态位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子林; 张志祥; 刘鹏; 康华靖; 陈煜

    2007-01-01

    应用Shannon-Wiener生态位宽度指数、生态位相似性比例系数及生态位重叠指数,对浙江省六十田省级自然保护小区常绿阔叶林群落中主要乔木树种的生态位特征进行了研究.结果表明:红楠Machilus thunbergii、华东楠Machilus leptophylla、青冈Cyclobalanopsis glauca、紫楠Phoebe sheareri、木荷Schima superba、东南石栎Lithocarpus harlandii具有较大的生态位宽度,分别为0.969、0.951、0.898、0.867、0.819和0.773,而香槐Cladrastis wilsonii、树参Dendropanax dentiger、枫香Liquidambar formosana的生态位较小,仅为0.345、0.245和0.245;生态位宽度大的树种间一般有较高的生态位相似性比例;香槐、树参和枫香的生态位宽度较小,但与其它树种的相似性却很高,表明这些树种对资源有较明显的共享趋势;从生态位重叠值来看,整体上表现为生态位宽度较大的树种间都有较高的生态位重叠,生态位宽度较小的树种与其它树种的生态位重叠较小.

  13. 三种常用半枫荷类药用植物的化学成分与生物活性研究概况%Research Progress of Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities from Three Commonly Used Ban-feng-he Medicinal Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 王雅琪; 刘升长; 何军伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:半枫荷类药用植物的种类很多,涉及5科6属12种,是形态特征或临床功效相似的一类植物,大多具有祛风除湿、活血通络的功效,是一类具有较大开发价值的植物群.临床上以金缕梅科半枫荷Semiliquidambar cathayensis,五加科树参Dendropanax dentiger及梧桐科翻白叶树Pterospermum heterophyllum为常用且以S.cathayensis的抗风湿作用最佳,广泛使用于苗族、瑶族、畲族、壮族等多个民族,有着悠久的临床用药历史和确切的疗效,主要用于治疗风湿、类风湿关节炎等炎症方面的疾病,但其抗炎药效物质基础尚不明确,且有混用和乱用的现象,因此亟需对它们的抗炎药效物质基础进行系统、深入的比较性研究.本文对临床上3种常用半枫荷类药用植物的化学成分和生物活性进行系统的文献综述,以期为该类植物资源的质量控制、临床用药及合理开发提供科学依据.

  14. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA PRODUÇÃO DE SERAPILHEIRA E DA CHUVA DE SEMENTES EM UMA RESERVA DE FLORESTA ESTACIONAL SEMIDECIDUAL, PARANÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Gonçalves Toscan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze litterfall production and seed rain of a fragment of seasonal semideciduous forest from western of Parana state with 242 ha, which is known as Santa Maria Farm’s Private Nature Reserve. The material was collected from June/2011 to May/2012, in nine plots of 20 x 20 m, using four traps of 0,5 x 0,5 m in each plot. The litter was sorted and weighed, and the seed rain was evaluated as the wealth, life form, successional category and dispersal syndrome of the species found. The annual litterfall production was 11.886 kg ha -1 , being August and September the months of the largest production. The leaf fraction was the most representative with 58,52% of the total . In the seed rain were collected 18.300 seeds, distributed in 79 morphospecies, which 51 were identified to species level, eight at the genus level and six at the family level. Mikania sp., Cecropia pachystachya , Pisonia aculeata , Gouania ulmifolia and Dendropanax cuneatus , were the species with the highest relative densities. The months with the highest abundance of seeds were September (19%, October (20%, November (27% and March (15%. The life form predominant was tree with 76,27% of the species, followed by climbers with 20,34% and herbaceous with 3,39% only. Among the tree species, 37 % were represented by successional category of pioneer, while the early and late secondary categories accounted for 22% each and the climax 20%. The zoochory predominated among dispersal syndromes (52,54%, while anemochory and autocory occurred in 38,98% and 8,47%, respectively. The results were similar to those found in other works performed in late seasonal semideciduous forest. Furthermore, through this study about litterfall production and seed rain, the forest fragment can be considered an area of mature forest and with high regeneration potential.

  15. Hábitos alimentarios del venado cola blanca Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae en el Parque Natural Sierra Nanchititla, Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Aguilera-Reyes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El venado cola blanca es una especie con una gran plasticidad conductual y de adaptación en diferentes hábitat. En el Parque Sierra Nanchititla en el Estado de México se realizó un estudio para determinar los hábitos alimentarios en el bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM y bosque de pino-encino (BPE. De junio 1990 a mayo 1992 se recolectaron 104 muestras de excremento de venado en las dos zonas de estudio. Aplicamos el índice de Morisita y la correlación de Spearman para determinar la preferencia alimentaria. Se utilizó el análisis histológico de heces fecales para herbívoros las cuales se compararon con muestras de tejidos vegetales de plantas de la zona de estudio. Los resultados muestran que consume el 79.44% de especies vegetales del BMM y 20.56% del BPE. Existe cierta tendencia en la selectividad de 12 de las 14 especies de plantas localizadas en el BMM, mientras que para el BPE no se aprecia tal tendencia. Las especies clave que for- man parte de la alimentación elemental del venado fueron: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum y Dendropanax arborea. El consumo de plantas no varió sig- nificativamente entre la época seca y lluviosa en función de la forma biológica (X2=12, p=0.21. Sin embargo, durante la época seca existe cierta tendencia a consumir árboles y a finales de la época de lluvia a consumir hierbas (Z=1.61, p=0.95. Los datos indican que el venado puede ser selecti- vo con plantas del BMM, mientras que para el BPE tiende a ser oportunista.

  16. Estructura y composición de la vegetación leñosa de selvas en diferentes estadios sucesionales en el Ejido El Carmen II, Calakmul, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B García-Licona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la diversidad florística de la selva mediana subperennifolia del ejido El Carmen II, Calakmul, Campeche, en diferentes estadios sucesionales en un área de 2700 m2. En nueve parcelas de 300 m2 se representó vegetación secundaria (acahual con siete años de abandono, 15 años de abandono y selvas maduras, en las cuales se identifi caron y midieron todos los individuos leñosos con un DAP = 1 cm. Se encontraron 996 individuos de 78 especies distribuidas en 29 familias, las familias con mayor riqueza de especies fueron Fabaceae, Rubiaceae y Sapindaceae. Las especies con mayor abundancia en el área de estudio fueron Nectandra salicifolia, Pouteria reticulata, Croton icche y Bursera simaruba, esta última especie fue la única que se presentó en todas las parcelas de estudio. Las especies con mayor valor de importancia relativo (VIR en los acahuales con siete años de abandono fueron Lysiloma latisiliquum, Bursera simaruba y Guettarda combsii; en los acahuales con 15 años de abandono las especies con mayor VIR fueron Nectandra salicifolia, Piscidia piscipula y Dendropanax arboreus; mientras en las parcelas de selva madura fueron Brosimum alicastrum, Manilkara zapota y Pouteria reticulata. Además se presentaron 15 especies sólo en parcelas de acahuales con siete años de abandono, cinco especies únicas en las parcelas de acahuales de 15 años y 18 especies únicas en las parcelas de selvas maduras. Concluimos que analizar la estructura y composición florística en vegetación en distintas fases sucesionales permite documentar mejor la diversidad florística de áreas que han sido altamente impactadas por distintos disturbios

  17. Equation of state in (2+1)-flavor QCD with gradient flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Iwami, Ryo; Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Yusuke; Umeda, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The energy-momentum tensor and equation of state are studied in finite-temperature (2+1)-flavor QCD with improved Wilson quarks using the method proposed by Makino and Suzuki based on the gradient flow. We find that the results of the gradient flow are consistent with the previous results using the $T$-integration method at $T \\mathrel{\\rlap{\\raise 0.511ex \\hbox{$$}}{\\lower 0.511ex \\hbox{$\\sim$}}}10$), while a disagreement is found at $T \\mathrel{\\rlap{\\raise 0.511ex \\hbox{$>$}}{\\lower 0.511ex \\hbox{$\\sim$}}} 350$ MeV ($N_t \\mathrel{\\rlap{\\raise 0.511ex \\hbox{$<$}}{\\lower 0.511ex \\hbox{$\\sim$}}} 8$) presumably due to the small-$N_t$ lattice artifact. We also report on the results on the renormalized chiral condensate and its disconnected susceptibility using the method of Hieda and Suzuki. The results show a clear signal of the expected chiral restoration crossover even with Wilson-type quarks which violate the chiral symmetry explicitly.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Pollen Development Related Gene RsMF2 from Raphanus sativus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; CAO Jia-shu

    2005-01-01

    In the paper, the full length cDNA of RsMF2 gene, homologous with the BcMF2 gene encoding pollen-specific polygalacturonase of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) was cloned from Raphanus sativus L. cv. Yuanbai by PCR, with a pair of primer designed according to the coding sequence of BcMF2. The largest opening reading frame of RsMF2 gene is 1 266 bp in length and encodes a protein of 421 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. Sequence analysis revealed that it has three potential N-glycosylation sites and one polygalacturonase active position (RVTCGPGHGLSVGS). And the first 32 amino acids of the predicted RsMF2 protein form a N-terminal hydrophobic domain which displays the properties of a signal peptide. The predicted secondary structure composition for the protein has 6.9% helix, 42.0% sheet and 51.1% loop. Four domains which are highly conserved in the whole plant and fungal PGs is present in RsMF2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RsMF2 falls into the category of clade-C, which includes PGs related to pollen. These results indicate that RsMF2 may act as polygalacturonase related to pollen development.

  19. Characterization of a putative pollen-specific arabinogalactan protein gene, BcMF8, from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Cao, Jia-Shu; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Ye, Yi-Qun

    2008-12-01

    The BcMF8 (Brassica campestris male fertility 8) gene, possessing the features of 'classical' arabinogalactan protein (AGP) was isolated from Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, Makino syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. This gene was highly abundant in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile A/B line ('ZUBajh97-01A/B') in B. campestris. Expression patterns analysis suggested BcMF8 was a pollen-specific gene, whose transcript started to be expressed at the uninucleate stage and maintained throughout to the pollen at pollination stage. BcMF8 is highly homologous to the known pollen-specific AGP genes Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 from B. napus. Isolation and multiple alignment of the homologs of BcMF8 gene in the family Cruciferae indicated that BcMF8 was highly conserved in this family, which reflect the conservation in biological function and importance of this putative AGP gene in plant development. Similarity analysis also demonstrated Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 may originate from different genomes.

  20. 4种瓜类蔬菜对模拟酸雨的敏感性反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建昌; 张建文; 杨丽清; 秦棱

    2006-01-01

    测定了南瓜(Cucurbita moschta (Duch.)Poir.)、越瓜(Cucumis melo L.var.conomon Makino)、棱丝瓜(Luffa acutangula (L.)Roxb.)和苦瓜(Momordica charantia L.)等4种瓜类蔬菜在不同pH值的模拟酸雨处理条件下的生长量、叶片损伤程度的变化,并以此分析这几种瓜类蔬菜对酸雨污染的敏感性反应.结果表明,酸雨对4种瓜类蔬菜的生长具有抑制作用,叶片产生的伤害程度与pH值的大小和种类有关.南瓜和越瓜对酸雨的抗性较强,有棱丝瓜和苦瓜对酸雨的抗性较弱.

  1. 薄皮甜瓜海冬青小拱棚栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海荣

    2001-01-01

    @@ 薄皮甜瓜海冬青(Cucumis melo L.var.Flava Makino),是上海地区和江浙一带的优良地方品种,又称“青皮青肉”、“青皮绿肉”,在上海地区栽培历史悠久,以皮薄、肉脆、汁多和香甜可口而受到市民喜爱,在市郊各地方品种中栽培面积最大。近几年来,在上海市农业局、农业科学院等单位的共同努力下,海冬青种性得以提纯复壮,形成了一套高产栽培技术措施,并在市郊应用且获得了高产优质的效果,对调整上海市郊种植业结构,发展农村经济,增加农民收入,丰富瓜果市场起到了积极作用。本文介绍其小拱棚栽培技术操作规程。

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel pollen predominantly membrane protein gene BcMF12 from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianghua; Zhang, Lixin; Cao, Jiashu

    2009-11-01

    A novel membrane protein gene, BcMF12, was isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends based on a pollen-specific cDNA fragment (DN237936). The cDNA was 1,155 bp in length with an open reading frame of 894 bp capable of encoding a putative polypeptide of 297 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 34.6 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 9.6. Comparative and bioinformatics analyses revealed that BcMF12 showed high similarities with some membrane protein sequences previously published in the public database and contained six highly conserved transmembrane domains corresponding to six highly hydrophobic regions. This indicates that BcMF12 may be a putative membrane protein. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that the transcripts of BcMF12 were abundant in the flower bud, flower and anther, but not detected in the root, stem, leaf and pistil. Moreover, the BcMF12 transcripts were detectable at the late stages of pollen development. Morphological investigations of pollen from the BcMF12 antisense transgenic plants showed that most of pollen grains of transgenic plants were abnormal. These results strongly suggest that BcMF12 is a novel pollen-preferentially membrane protein which play an important role during the pollen development in Chinese cabbage.

  3. Antimetropia in a 10-year-old boy with unilateral tilted disc syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Shinji MakinoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: Antimetropia is a condition in which one eye is myopic, while the fellow eye is hyperopic. This report describes a case of antimetropia associated with unilateral tilted disc syndrome. A 10-year-old boy presented with the complaint of diminished vision for distant objects in his right eye for several months. His uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.15 in the right eye and 1.0 in the left eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 1.0, with -6.00 D/-2.00 D 170° in the right eye and +1.50 D in the left eye. The cover test revealed right esotropia and hypertropia. Bifoveal fixation was achieved using a 14 prism diopter (PD base at 220° in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed a tilted disc with inferior staphyloma in the right eye, but no abnormal findings were observed in the left eye. In addition, the patient occasionally experienced diplopia under casual viewing conditions. A cycloplegic refraction revealed -6.00 D/-2.00 D 170° in the right eye and +1.50 D/-2.00 D 5° in the left eye. Thus, prism glasses were prescribed. While wearing the prism glasses, the patient has shown no diplopia and maintains good binocular function.Keywords: amblyopia, strabismus, anisometropia, staphyloma

  4. New design studies for TRIUMF's ARIEL High Resolution Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. A.; Baartman, R.; Marchetto, M.

    2016-06-01

    As part of its new Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory (ARIEL), TRIUMF is designing a novel High Resolution Separator (HRS) (Maloney et al., 2015) to separate rare isotopes. The HRS has a 180° bend, separated into two 90° magnetic dipoles, bend radius 1.2 m, with an electrostatic multipole corrector between them. Second order correction comes mainly from the dipole edge curvatures, but is intended to be fine-tuned with a sextupole component and a small octupole component in the multipole. This combination is designed to achieve 1:20,000 resolution for a 3 μm (horizontal) and 6 μm (vertical) emittance. A design for the HRS dipole magnets achieves both radial and integral flatness goals of <10-5. A review of the optical design for the HRS is presented, including the study of limiting factors affecting separation, matching and aberration correction. Field simulations from the OPERA-3D (OPERA) [2] models of the dipole magnets are used in COSY Infinity (COSY) (Berz and Makino, 2005) [3] to find and optimize the transfer maps to 3rd order and study residual nonlinearities to 8th order.

  5. New design studies for TRIUMF’s ARIEL High Resolution Separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J.A., E-mail: maloneyja@triumf.ca; Baartman, R.; Marchetto, M.

    2016-06-01

    As part of its new Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory (ARIEL), TRIUMF is designing a novel High Resolution Separator (HRS) (Maloney et al., 2015) to separate rare isotopes. The HRS has a 180° bend, separated into two 90° magnetic dipoles, bend radius 1.2 m, with an electrostatic multipole corrector between them. Second order correction comes mainly from the dipole edge curvatures, but is intended to be fine-tuned with a sextupole component and a small octupole component in the multipole. This combination is designed to achieve 1:20,000 resolution for a 3 μm (horizontal) and 6 μm (vertical) emittance. A design for the HRS dipole magnets achieves both radial and integral flatness goals of <10{sup −5}. A review of the optical design for the HRS is presented, including the study of limiting factors affecting separation, matching and aberration correction. Field simulations from the OPERA-3D (OPERA) [2] models of the dipole magnets are used in COSY Infinity (COSY) (Berz and Makino, 2005) [3] to find and optimize the transfer maps to 3rd order and study residual nonlinearities to 8th order.

  6. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  7. Determination of Quercetin in CALYX SEU FRVCTUS PHYSALIS by HPLC%HPLC法测定锦灯笼宿萼中槲皮素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓林; 钟方丽; 张坤瑶

    2011-01-01

    [目的]建立HPLC测定锦灯笼[Physalis alkekengi L.var.franchetii (Mast.)Makino]宿萼中槲皮素含量的方法.[方法]色谱柱为Diamonsil-C18(250.0 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm);流动相为甲醇-0.4%磷酸溶液(V:V=55:45);流速为1.0 ml/min;进样量为20 μl;检测波长为360 nm;柱温为50 ℃.[结果]槲皮素进样浓度在4.0~40.0 μg/ml范围内,与峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 6);槲皮素平均回收率为98.17%,RSD值为0.46%.[结论]该方法简便、准确,可用于锦灯笼宿萼的质量控制.

  8. Chemical Constituents in the Calyx of Physalis alkekengi var.franchetii%锦灯笼的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸福; 蒋建勤

    2013-01-01

    从锦灯笼[Physalis alkekengi L.var.franchetii (Mast.)Makino]中提取物中分离出12个化合物,通过波谱方法和理化性质分别鉴定为:酸浆苦素B(1),酸浆苦素A(2),4,7-didehydroneophyalin B(3),(Z)-9,10,11-三羟基-12-十八碳烯酸(4),酸浆苦素F(5)山奈酚-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(6),3',4'-二甲基槲皮素(7),山奈酚-3,7-二氧-α-L-双鼠李糖苷(8),十五碳酸(9),二十四碳酸(10),3,4-二羟基苯乙醇(11),齐墩果酸(12).化合物6~11为首次从该属植物中分出,化合物5为首次从该种植物中分出.

  9. Development of the Nonobese Diabetic Mouse and Contribution of Animal Models for Understanding Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In 1974, the discovery of a mouse and a rat that spontaneously developed hyperglycemia led to the development of 2 autoimmune diabetes models: nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse and Bio-Breeding rat. These models have contributed to our understanding of autoimmune diabetes, provided tools to dissect autoimmune islet damage, and facilitated development of early detection, prevention, and treatment of type 1 diabetes. The genetic characterization, monoclonal antibodies, and congenic strains have made NOD mice especially useful. Although the establishment of the inbred NOD mouse strain was documented by Makino et al (Jikken Dobutsu. 1980;29:1–13), this review will focus on the not-as-well-known history leading to the discovery of a glycosuric female mouse by Yoshihiro Tochino. This discovery was spearheaded by years of effort by Japanese scientists from different disciplines and dedicated animal care personnel and by the support of the Shionogi Pharmaceutical Company, Osaka, Japan. The history is based on the early literature, mostly written in Japanese, and personal communications especially with Dr Tochino, who was involved in diabetes animal model development and who contributed to the release of NOD mice to the international scientific community. This article also reviews the scientific contributions made by the Bio-Breeding rat to autoimmune diabetes. PMID:28291161

  10. Special Reaction and Polypeptide Analysis of Apple Rootstock Calli Under Iron Deficiency Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞学渝; 李港丽; 苏润宇; 陈正华

    1994-01-01

    The callus experiment systems derived from sterile stem segments subject to subcultureshave been established for Malus baccata(L.)Borkh that is sensitive to iron deficiency stress,and for M.mi-cromalus Makino that is tolerant to iron deficiency stress.The physiological and biochemical changes underiron deficiency stress were compared between 2 species using these systems.Under iron deficiency stress,the dry and fresh weights of M.baccata callus increased,and the contents of elements P,S,Mg,K,Zn,B,etc.increased too,while its ferric iron reduction capacity did not change.Its nltramicrostructure of cellswere damaged to some degree,and only the 25-kD polypeptide was synthesized when the NaHCO3 was addedinto the medium.On the contrary,under iron deficiency stress the dry weight of M.micromalus callus didnot change,the ferric iron reduction capacity increased;the content of P and S greatly decreased;the trans-fer cells were formed;and the polypeptide of 25,34 and 100 kD were synthesized.The results show thatthe different reactions of M.baccata and M.micromalus to iron deficiency conditions are determined by theirdifferent genetic backgrounds.It is feasible to study iron chlorosis under tissue culture condition,and it ispossible to select the best species and new varieties tolerant to iron deficiency by using in vitro culture sys-tems.

  11. Pseudosasa zhongyanensis S.H.Chen, K.F.Huang et H.Z.Guo,a New Species of Pseudosasa of Bambusoideae from China%中国竹亚科矢竹属一新种——中岩茶秆竹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松河; 黄克福; 郭惠珠; 蔡邦平

    2012-01-01

    A new species of the genus Pseudosasa Makino ex Nakai of Bambusoideae from China, P. zhongyanensis S. H. Chen, K. F. Huang et H. Z. Guo, which was found to grow in Xiamen Wan-shi Mountain and Xiamen Tian-zhu Mountain, Fujian Province, is described and illustrated in this paper. This new species is similar to P. amabilis ( McClure) Keng f. but differs by having distinct residuum, when the culm-sheathes falls, and su-berine sticking out around the basic culm-sheathes scar, the culm-sheathes scar is taller than culm scar, small and eversion culm-sheathes ear on the culm-sheathes upside, wrinkle and curving oral setae on the culm-sheathes ear edge, nearly glabrous or some short pubescences occasionally on the culm-sheathes tongue.%描述了竹亚科矢竹属一新种——中岩茶秆竹(Pseudosasa zhongyanensis S.H.Chen,K.F.Huang et H.Z.Guo).本种与茶秆竹(P.amabilis(McClure) Keng f.)相近似,但箨环具明显箨基残留物和木栓质隆起,高于秆环,箨鞘顶端具小型外翻箨耳,耳缘具皱曲繸毛,箨舌几无毛或有短柔毛.,易于区别.

  12. SMOKE-SATURATED WATER FROM FIVE GRASSES GROWING IN JAPAN INHIBITS IN VITRO PROTOCORM-LIKE BODY FORMATION IN HYBRID CYMBIDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke derived from the burning of plant material has been shown to stimulate seed growth of several species. In addition, several studies have reported that when smoke is condensed with water, smoke-saturated water (SSW can also stimulate the germination of orchid seeds. In this study, SSW was derived from burning the aerial part of five grasses growing in the wild in Shikoku, Japan (Arundinella hirta (Thunb. C. Tanaka var. hirta, Microstegium japonicum (Miquel Koidzumi, Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Paspalum thunbergii Kunth ex Steud., Themeda triandra Forssk. var. japonica (Willd. Makino, all of which flower between August and October. SSW was added at three concentrations (1, 5, 10%, v/w to solid, agarized Teixeira Cymbidium (TC medium to assess the impact on in vitro organogenesis of hybrid Cymbidium, specifically on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB formation. The SSW of all five species strongly inhibited the formation of neo-PLBs at all concentrations relative to the control (no SSW added. Since PLBs are considered to be the equivalent of somatic embryos in orchids, and since SSW is able to stimulate the germination of zygotic embryos in other plant families, the mechanism of action is clearly different between zygotic and somatic embryos.

  13. Effects of N Forms and Rates on Vegetable Growth and Nitrate Accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao-Hui; LI Sheng-Xiu

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on a vegetable field with Peking cabbage (Brassica pekinensis (Lour.)Rupr.), cabbage (Brassica chinensis var. Oleifera Makino and nemoto), green cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.) to study the effects of N forms and N rates on their growth and nitrate accumulation. The results indicated that application of ammonium chloride,ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate and urea significantly increased the yields and nitrate concentrations of Peking cabbage and spinach. Although no significant difference was found in the yields after application of the 4 N forms, nitrate N increased nitrate accumulation in vegetables much more than ammonium N. The vegetable yields were not increased continuously with N rate increase, and oversupply of N reduced the plant growth, leading to a yield decline. This trend was also true for nitrate concentrations in some vegetables and at some sampling times. However, as a whole, the nitrate concentrations in vegetables were positively correlated with N rates. Thus, addition of N fertilizer to soil was the major cause for increases in nitrate concentrations in vegetables. Nitrate concentrations were much higher in roots, stems and petioles than in blades at any N rate.

  14. Correlations between choroidal abnormalities, Lisch nodules, and age in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shinji Makino, Hironobu Tampo, Yusuke Arai, Hiroto ObataDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: To evaluate correlations between choroidal abnormalities, Lisch nodules, and age in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, we examined ten cases with NF1 using near-infrared reflectance imaging. Patients ranged in age from 4 to 39 years. The angle used for near-infrared reflectance imaging was 55°. We counted the total number of choroidal abnormalities in an area within a 55° angle centered on the fovea and the total number of Lisch nodules on the iris by slit-lamp examination. No positive correlation was found between the number of Lisch nodules and patient age (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ρ=0.117, P=0.7414. Choroidal abnormalities tended to increase with age (ρ=0.6150, but this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.0650. A positive correlation was found between the number of choroidal abnormalities and Lisch nodules (ρ=0.783, P=0.0267. In conclusion, choroidal abnormalities tend to increase with patient age and are correlated with the number of Lisch nodules.Keywords: neurofibromatosis type 1, near-infrared reflectance, choroidal abnormality, Lisch nodule, age

  15. Antiproliferation effect and apoptosis mechanism of prostate cancer cell PC-3 by flavonoids and saponins prepared from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tse-Chou; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Lin, Li-Ju; Kuo, Hung-I; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2011-10-26

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the antiproliferation and apoptosis mechanism of saponin and flavonoid fractions from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino on prostate cancer cell PC-3. Both flavonoid and saponin fractions were isolated by a column chromatographic method with Cosmosil 75C(18)-OPN as adsorbent and elution solvents of ethanol-water (30:70, v/v) for the former and 100% ethanol for the latter, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. On the basis of the MTT assay, the saponin and flavonoid fraction were comparably effective in inhibiting the growth of PC-3 cells, with the IC(50) being 39.3 and 33.3 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, both fractions induced an arrest of PC-3 cell cycle at both S and G2/M phases, with both early and late apoptotic cell populations showing a dose-dependent rise. The Western blot assay indicated that the incorporation of flavonoid or saponin fraction could modulate the expression of G2 and M checkpoint regulators, cyclins A and B, and the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl and pro-apoptotic proteins Bad and Bax. The expression of the caspase-3 and its activated downstream substrate effectors, DFF45 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), was also increased and followed a dose-dependent manner. All of these findings suggest that the apoptosis of PC-3 cells may proceed through the intrinsic mitochondria pathway.

  16. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis and rutin and quercetin compositions in the leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhuohong; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Pei; Jing, Pu; Yue, Jin; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2011-04-13

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, also known as jiaogulan, has been shown to have antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities. Flavonoid is considered a major contributor for these beneficial effects. To obtain chemical patterns of flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum of different genotypes (di- versus tetraploids) and different parts (leaf versus whole plant) of plants, the extraction condition was optimized and a fingerprinting approach was established by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Eight flavonoids were identified, among which rutin and quercetin were quantified. The highest levels of rutin and quercetin were 23.03 and 12.10 mg/g, respectively, observed in the diploid leaf sample 2L3 and 2L2, while the lowest levels of rutin and quercetin were 1.92 and 0.25 mg/g in the tetraploid whole-plant sample 4W3. The chemical patterns were further analyzed by similarity calculation and principal component analysis (PCA). Seven common characteristic peaks were found in all of the tested samples. Flavonoid patterns of tetraploids were significantly different from those of diploids, whereas different parts of plants showed less difference. The flavonoid pattern of the diploid leaf sample was most similar to that of the reference botanical G. pentaphyllum. The combination of chromatographic fingerprint and quantification analysis could be used for quality assessment of G. pentaphyllum and its derived nutraceutical products.

  17. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

  18. Metabolic profiling of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract in rat serum, urine and faeces after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dao-Jin; Hu, Hua-Gang; Xing, Shao-Fang; Gao, Ya-Jun; Xu, Si-Fan; Piao, Xiang-Lan

    2014-10-15

    Folk drug Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino contains many biologically active phytochemicals which have been demonstrated to be effective against chronic diseases. As in vivo anti-tumor experiments of G. pentaphyllum extract (GP) show much stronger antitumor activities than in vitro, it is important and necessary to understand the metabolic study of GP. A sensitive and specific U-HPLC-MS method was utilized for the first time to rapidly identify gypenosides and its possible metabolites in rat serum, urine, and faeces after oral administration. Solid phase extraction was utilized in the sample preparation. Negative Electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometry was used to discern gypenosides and its possible metabolites in rat samples. As a result, after oral administration, a total of seven metabolites of G. pentaphyllum extract were assigned, two from the rat serum and seven both from the rat urine and faeces. As metabolites of G. pentaphyllum extract, all of them have never been reported before. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictions of the Potential Geographical Distribution and Quality of a Gynostemma pentaphyllum Base on the Fuzzy Matter Element Model in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefang Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Specific spatial information about medicinal plants is becoming an increasingly important part of their conservation. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb. Makino is a traditional Chinese medical plant, and gypenosides is one of the main active components of G. pentaphyllum. In our research, many samples of G. pentaphyllum and the data of gypenosides content in these samples were collected from 43 sampling sites, and based on the Fuzzy Matter Element model (FME, the relationships between gypenosides content and 19 environmental variables were established. Then, the maximum entropy model was used to determine the relative importance of each environmental variable, and thus determine the most limiting habitat criteria. Finally, the weighted average method was applied to determine the potential distribution of G. pentaphyllum in China, which was based on the content of gypenosides. The results showed that the areas of marginally suitable and suitable habitats for G. pentaphyllum in China were approximately 1.2 × 106 km2 and 0.3 × 106 km2, respectively. The suitable habitats were mainly located in southern China, including Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Anhui, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Shaanxi, and other regions. In conclusion, the FME model could accurately evaluate the habitat suitability of G. pentaphyllum, quantify the area of a suitable habitat, and analyze the spatial distribution.

  20. Gynostemma pentaphyllum decreases allergic reactions in a murine asthmatic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Chung; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Li, Ming-Liang; Yang, Rong-Chi; Liou, Chian-Jiun; Shen, Jiann-Jong

    2008-01-01

    The increasing incidence of asthma in developing countries emphasizes the importance of identifying more effective treatments that have low cost. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (Cucurbitaceae), a common herbal tea in China, has been used to treat lung inflammation. Since the Th2 cytokines are the major mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma, Th1-biased immune responses caused by G. pentaphyllum might have the potential to relieve asthmatic symptoms. We hypothesized that oral administration of G. pentaphyllum extracts might suppress Th2 cytokine-induced airway inflammation responses in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitive mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal injection and challenged 3 times with OVA inhalation (IH) (the IH3 model). G. pentaphyllum was orally administered for 7 consecutive days before the end of the OVA challenge. In the IH5 model, 2 more OVA challenges were administered to mimic the encounter with an allergen after drug treatment. G. pentaphyllum extracts significantly attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inhibited eosinophil infiltration in mice in both models. Serum OVA-specific antibodies were also reduced with the treatment. Decreased Th2-type cytokines and increased IFN-gamma were detected in the cultures of OVA-activated splenocytes from treated mice. Our results suggest that G. pentaphyllum extracts might be beneficial for asthma airway inflammation through the suppression of Th2 activity.

  1. Potential hypoglycemic effect of an ethanol extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jiyoung; Kang, Young-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Song, Hebok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2008-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of an extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, containing standardized concentrations of gypenosides, in C57BL/KSJ-db/db mice. For 5 weeks, animals were provided a standard AIN-76 diet (normal control) with rosiglitazone (0.005%, wt/wt) or two different doses of G. pentaphyllum ethanol extract (GPE) of the plant leaves (0.0025% and 0.01%, wt/wt). After the experimental period, the blood glucose levels of the high-dose GPE- and rosiglitazone-supplemented groups were significantly lower than that of the control group. The plasma insulin concentrations of the GPE-supplemented mice were significantly elevated compared to the control group. The GPE and rosiglitazone treatments profoundly affected the intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test compared to the control group, but not the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. In the evaluation of effects on hepatic glucose metabolism, the ratios of glucokinase/glucose-6-phosphatase activities in the high-dose GPE- and rosiglitazone-supplemented groups were prominently higher than that of the control group. The histology of the pancreatic islets revealed that the insulin-positive beta-cell numbers were higher in the high-dose GPE- and rosiglitazone-supplemented groups than in the control group. These results suggest that the supplementation of high-dose GPE (0.01%) in the diet lowers the blood glucose level by altering the hepatic glucose metabolic enzyme activities.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Chitosan-Binding Protein from Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Ping CHEN; Lang-Lai XU

    2005-01-01

    To know the mechanism of ammonia assimilation in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino) leaves regulated by chitosan (CTS), a CTS-binding protein was isolated from non-heading Chinese cabbage leaves using the chitosan affinity chromatography approach and this CTS-binding protein was partially characterized. The profile of the 53.1 kDa purified protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was compared with the native molecular weight of 106.5 kDa, which indicated that the purified protein was a dimer with identical subunits. After isoelectric focusing, a band was obtained at pH 8.25. The agglutination test and periodic acid-Schiff staining further revealed that the protein was a glycoprotein with lectin activity. Moreover, the purified protein contained 17.4 % (w/w) neutral carbohydrate and 82.56% (w/w) protein. The comparison of this protein and the 67 kDa CTS-binding protein isolated previously from Rubus culture tissue exhibited some differences in characterization. According to results of peptide mass fingerprinting analysis, the protein purified in the present study does not show any similarity with any protein in the protein data bank. Thus, it was deduced that the protein purified in the present study is a novel CTS-binding protein.

  3. Responses of ABA and CTK to soil drought in leafless and leafy apple tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 潘海春; 李德全

    2003-01-01

    The authors tested the contents of ABA (abscisic acid), ZR (zeatin riboside), DHZR (dihydrozeatin riboside) and iPA (isopentenyl adenosine) in leafless and leafy apple trees (Red Fuji/Malus micromalus Makino) during soil drought stress. ABA concentration in drought stressed leafless trees increased significantly compared to the controls. ABA both in roots and xylem rose steadily in the earlier drought stage, reaching a maximum of 1.46±0.35 nmol g\\+-1FW and 117 nmol l\\+-1 after the 8th day. Similar change patterns of ABA concentration was observed in the leafy trees during soil drought stress; ABA concentrations in roots and xylem sap increased and reached the maximum in the first three days; after 8th day , it decreased slightly, whereas leaf ABA concentration increased steadily in drought stressed plants throughout the duration of the experiment. Between drought stressed and control trees, no significant differences were observed in concentration of ZR and DHZR in both leafless and leafy trees; whereas iPA concentration of the drought stressed leafless and leafy plants decreased markedly in the later stage of drought. These results showed that endogenous ABA originated mainly from the roots in the earlier drought stage, and mainly from the leaves in the later drought stage. Total CTK showed no reduction in the earlier drought stage and decreased in the later drought stage.

  4. The distribution of vascular plants in Banronsan (Mt. at Jeongseon Gangwon-do, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won Jang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the distribution of vascular plants in Banronsan (Mt. located in Jeongseon-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea. The vascular flora in Banronsan (Mt. were surveyed a total of four times-three times from May 2010 to October 2010, and once in August 2012. This result revealed 447 taxa in total: 89 families, 278 genera, 390 species, four subspecies, 47 varieties, and six form. In the flora of this area, 15 taxa were Korean endemic plants including Aconitum pseudolaeve Nakai, Lysimachia coreana Nakai, and Saussurea macrolepis (Nakai Kitam., and 17 taxa were rare and endangered plants of Korea including Astragalus koraiensis Y.N. Lee, Pseudostellaria japonica Pax, and Paeonia japonica (Makino Miyabe and Takeda. Three taxa were found as a special forest conservation species designated by the Korea Forest Service including Delphinium maackianum Regel and Daphne pseudomezereum var. koreana (Nakai Hamaya. Besides, 76 taxa were found to be specific floristic plants designated by the Ministry of Environment, whereas naturalized plants in this area were 32 taxa. Resource plants were categorized by usage into eight groups: 189 edible, four fiber, 127 medical, 48 ornamental, 150 pasturing, three industrial, 10 dyeing, and eight timber plants.

  5. Removal of dimethoate residues in Brassica campestris through different methods%上海青残留乐果的去除方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游泳; 王长方; 王俊; 陈峰; 胡进锋

    2008-01-01

    比较水浸泡、洗洁精浸洗、臭氧处理、光照等不同处理方法对上海青[Brassica campestris L.ssp.Chinensis (L.) Makino]上乐果残留的去除效果.结果表明,在pH值为11的水中浸泡30 min,乐果残留的去除率为61.43%;用含0.05%完美芦荟蔬果洁净剂的水浸洗30 min,残留去除率为63.22%;通臭氧30 min的水浸泡30 min,去除率达46.28%;100 W高压汞灯照射60 min,去除率达61.55%.各种方法对乐果农药残留都有不同程度的去除作用.

  6. Inhibition of the Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (HERG) K+ Channels by Lindera erythrocarpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hee-Kyung; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Kim, Young Ho; Yoo, Eun-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Lindera erythrocarpa Makino (Lauraceae) is used as a traditional medicine for analgesic, antidote, and antibacterial purposes and shows anti-tumor activity. We studied the effects of Lindera erythrocarpa on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) channel, which appears of importance in favoring cancer progression in vivo and determining cardiac action potential duration. Application of MeOH extract of Lindera erythrocarpa showed a dose-dependent decrease in the amplitudes of the outward currents measured at the end of the pulse (IHERG) and the tail currents of HERG (Itail). When the BuOH fraction and H2O fraction of Lindera erythrocarpa were added to the perfusate, both IHERG and Itail were suppressed, while the hexane fraction, CHCl3 fraction, and EtOAc fraction did not inhibit either IHERG or Itail. The potential required for half-maximal activation caused by EtOAc fraction, BuOH fraction, and H2O fraction shifted significantly. The BuOH fraction and H2O fraction (100 µg/mL) decreased gmax by 59.6% and 52.9%, respectively. The H2O fraction- and BuOH fraction-induced blockades of Itail progressively decreased with increasing depolarization, showing the voltage-dependent block. Our findings suggest that Lindera erythrocarpa, a traditional medicine, blocks HERG channel, which could contribute to its anticancer and cardiac arrhythmogenic effect. PMID:19949665

  7. The n-butanolic extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten enhances long-term memory in the passive avoidance task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Park, Dong Hyun; Jung, Seo Yun; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Yong Sup; Jin, Changbae; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2010-08-16

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino (Cactaceae) is used to treat burns, edema, dyspepsia, and asthma in traditional medicine. The present study investigated the beneficial effects of the n-butanolic extract of O. ficus-indica var. saboten (BOF) on memory performance in mice and attempts to uncover the mechanisms underlying its action. Memory performance was assessed with the passive avoidance task, and western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to measure changes in protein expression and cell survival. After the oral administration of BOF for 7 days, the latency time in the passive avoidance task was significantly increased relative to vehicle-treated controls (P<0.05). Western blotting revealed that the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response element binding-protein (pCREB), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) 1/2 were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue after 7 days of BOF administration (P<0.05). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining also revealed that BOF significantly enhanced the survival of immature neurons, but did not affect neuronal cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the subchronic administration of BOF enhances long-term memory, and that this effect is partially mediated by ERK-CREB-BDNF signaling and the survival of immature neurons.

  8. 湖南的新记录植物(四)%SOME NEWLY RECORDED PLANTS FROM HUNAN PROVINCE OF CHINA(Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡光万; 雷立公; 刘克明

    2002-01-01

    报道了湖南植物分布新记录,其中新记录科1个,即无叶莲科Petrosaviaceae;新记录属2个,即无叶莲属Petrosavia Becc.和鸢尾兰属Oberonia Lindl.;新记录种11个,即小药八旦子Corydalis caudata (Lam.) Pers、韫珍金腰Chrysosplenium wuwenchenii Jien、桂林乌桕Sapium chihsinianum S. K. Lee、蛛毛苣苔Paraboea sinensis (Oliv.) Burtt、扁穗牛鞭草Hemarthria compressa (Linn. f.) R. Br.、曲轴黑三棱Sparganium fallax Graebn、无叶莲Petrosavia sakuraii (Makino) J. J. Smith ex Steenis、北重楼Paris verticillata M.-Bieb.、大叶仙茅Curculigo capitulata (Lour.) O. Kuntze、狭叶鸢尾兰Oberonia caulescens Lindl.、无距虾脊兰Calanthe tsoongiana T. Tang et F. T. Wang;新记录变种1个,即峨嵋金腰Chrysosplenium hydrocotylifolium Lévl. et Vant. var. emeiense J. T. Pan.

  9. Evaluation of ginkgo as a biomonitor of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Abe, Maho; Kakumoto, Yoriko; Kawano, Hiromi; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2012-07-01

    The utility of ginkgo leaves as biomonitors of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated. We investigated PAH concentrations among tree species, the effect of variations in leaf position in a tree, tissue distributions, correlations between ginkgo leaves and air, and seasonal variations. Among the five species examined (Ginkgo biloba L., Zelkova serrata Makino, Liriodendron tulipifera L., Prunus yedoensis Matsum, and Magnolia kobus DC.), ginkgo accumulated the greatest amount of PAHs from roadside air. Most PAHs (˜80%) were accumulated in the wax fraction, and most of the remainder (17%) penetrated the inner tissues of the leaves. PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves decreased with increasing height and distance from the road, reflecting the derivation of PAHs from vehicle emissions. Seasonal time-series sampling showed that PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves increased with time, attributable to the effects of temperature and accumulation through long-term exposure. Concentrations in ginkgo leaves collected from various roads showed a strong and significant correlation with those in air collected by a high-volume air sampler (r2 = 0.68, P Ginkgo leaf data clearly showed a dramatic decrease in the ratio of low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs to high-molecular-weight PAHs from 2001 or 2002 to 2006, indicating that on-road diesel emission regulations effectively reduced LMW PAH concentrations in air.

  10. 蒲地兰消炎口服液中板蓝根等4味药材薄层色谱鉴别%Thin-layer Chromatographic Identification of Four Chinese Herbs in Pudilan Xiaoyan Oral Liquid Such as Isatis Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚玲; 叶云; 余德智

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To build thin-layer chromatographic identification method of Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid. Methods: The exclusive identification of dandelion, viola yedoensis makino, scutellaria baicalensis and radix isatidis in Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid by thin-layer chromatography ( HLC ). Results: The thin-layer chromatography features of each herbs is obvious, negative reference solution isn't interference. Conclusion'. The method is simple, fast, accurate results, high sensitivity, exclusive, and repeatability, which can effectively control quality of Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid.%目的:构建蒲地蓝消炎口服液的薄层色谱定性鉴别方法.方法:用薄层色谱法(HLC)对蒲地蓝消炎口服液中的蒲公英、苦地丁、板蓝根、黄芩进行专属定性鉴别.结果:各味药材的薄层色谱特征明显,阴性对照溶液无干扰.结论:本方法操作简便、快速、结果准确、灵敏度高、专属性强、重复性好,可有效控制蒲地蓝消炎口服液的质量.

  11. Responses of ABA and CTK to soil drought in leafless and leafy apple tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 潘海春; 李德全

    2003-01-01

    The authors tested the contents of ABA (abscisic acid) , ZR (zeatin riboside), DHZR (dihydrozeatin riboside) and iPA (isopentenyl adenosine) in leafless and leafy apple trees ( Red Fufi/Malus micromalus Makino) during soil drought stress. ABA concentration in drought stressed leafless trees increased significantly compared to the controls. ABA both in roots and xylem rose steadily in the earlier drought stage, reaching a maximum of 1.46 ± 0.35 nmol g-1 FW and 117 nmol l-1 after the 8th day. Similar change patterns of ABA concentration was observed in the leafy trees during soil drought stress; ABA concentrations in roots and xylem sap increased and reached the maximum in the first three days; after 8th day , it decreased slightly, whereas leaf ABA concentration increased steadily in drought stressed plants throughout the duration of the experiment.Between drought stressed and control trees, no significant differences were observed in concentration of ZR and DHZR in both leafless and leafy trees ; whereas iPA concentration of the drought stressed leafless and leafy plants decreased markedly in the later stage of drought. These results showed that endogenous ABA originated mainly from the roots in the earlier drought stage, and mainly from the leaves in the later drought stage. Total CTK showed no reduction in the earlier drought stage and decreased in the later drought stage.

  12. [Evaluation on equivalence of pharmacological properties between natural crude drugs and their cultured cells based on their components. Accelerative effect of lithospermi radix and inhibitory effect of coptidis rhizoma on proliferation of granulation tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Y; Suga, C; Yoshioka, T; Morimoto, T; Harada, M

    1990-04-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate an equivalence of pharmacological properties between natural crude drugs and their cultured cells. The effects of ether extract of Lithospermi Radix and cultured cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc. and aqueous extract of Coptidis Rizoma and cultured cells of Coptis japonica Makino var. dissecta Nakai on proliferation of granulation tissue in rats were compared. The ether extracts of Lithospermi Radix and the cultured cells enhanced proliferation of granulation tissue by the cotton pellet method. The potency of both extract was about the same, if results were compared with the corresponding doses which contained the same quantity of shikonin derivatives. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts of Coptidis Rhizoma and the cultured cells inhibited it. The potency of both extract was about the same, if results were compared with the corresponding doses which contained the same quantity of berberine-type alkaloids. From these results, to evaluate an equivalence of pharmacological properties between natural crude drugs and their cultured cells, it is concluded that their qualities and quantities are not so different each other and the almost same pharmacological effect expected on the basis of their uses is required.

  13. Gypenosides causes DNA damage and inhibits expression of DNA repair genes of human oral cancer SAS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kung-Wen; Chen, Jung-Chou; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Yang, Jai-Sing; Weng, Shu-Wen; Ma, Yi-Shih; Tang, Nou-Ying; Lu, Pei-Jung; Weng, Jing-Ru; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2010-01-01

    Gypenosides (Gyp) are the major components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, a Chinese medical plant. Recently, Gyp has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. However, there is no available information to address the effects of Gyp on DNA damage and DNA repair-associated gene expression in human oral cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Gyp induced DNA damage and DNA repair gene expression in human oral cancer SAS cells. The results from flow cytometric assay indicated that Gyp-induced cytotoxic effects led to a decrease in the percentage of viable SAS cells. The results from comet assay revealed that the incubation of SAS cells with Gyp led to a longer DNA migration smear (comet tail) when compared with control and this effect was dose-dependent. The results from real-time PCR analysis indicated that treatment of SAS cells with 180 mug/ml of Gyp for 24 h led to a decrease in 14-3-3sigma, DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (DNAPK), p53, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) and breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) mRNA expression. These observations may explain the cell death caused by Gyp in SAS cells. Taken together, Gyp induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair-associated gene expressions in human oral cancer SAS cells in vitro.

  14. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Choi, Jina; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.). In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T), which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  15. Preventative effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on development of airway inflammation in mice via modulation of Th1/2 cells differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA). In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4(+) T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-γ(+) cell) as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4(+) cell) differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment (4 weeks). These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

  16. Herbal preparation (HemoHIM) enhanced functional maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells mediated toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Hwang, Yun-Ho; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Jo, Sung-kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2016-02-19

    HemoHIM, which is an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelicam gigas Nakai, Cnidium offinale Makino, and Peaonia japonica Miyabe), is known to have various biological and immunological activities, but the modulatory effects of this preparation on dendritic cells (DCs)-mediated immune responses have not been examined previously. DCs are a unique group of white blood cells that initiate primary immune responses by capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to T cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HemoHIM on the functional and phenotypic maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) both in vitro and in vivo. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC I, and MHC II) and the production of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, and TNF-α) were increased by HemoHIM in BMDCs. Furthermore, the antigen-uptake ability of BMDCs was decreased by HemoHIM, and the antigen-presenting ability of HemoHIM-treated mature BMDCs increased TLR4-dependent CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Our findings demonstrated that HemoHIM induces TLR4-mediated BMDCs functional and phenotypic maturation through in vivo and in vitro. And our study showed the antigen-presenting ability that HemoHIM-treated mature BMDCs increase CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses by in vitro. These results suggest that HemoHIM has the potential to mediate DC immune responses.

  17. Preventative effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM on development of airway inflammation in mice via modulation of Th1/2 cells differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+ T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA. In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4(+ T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-γ(+ cell as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4(+ cell differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight pretreatment (4 weeks. These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

  18. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Jin Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.. In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4+ T and CD8+ T, which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  19. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  20. Stellate figure in the macula: visualization in the Henle fiber layer on optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shinji Makino, Meri Watanabe, Hironobu TampoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: A 21-year-old woman complaining of a sudden visual disturbance in her left eye was referred to our hospital. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA in the left eye was 0.3. Fundus examination revealed tortuous retinal veins, soft exudates, and retinal edema. Optical coherence tomography showed that the macular thickness was increased to 685 µm. We diagnosed the condition as a central retinal vein occlusion. Systemic administration of an antiplatelet agent was initiated. The BCVA improved to 0.6, the retinal edema dramatically resolved, and the macular thickness was reduced to 318 µm 1 week later. Furthermore, the reduced retinal edema had transformed to many spokes in a wheel of exudates, a so-called “stellate figure”s, in the macula. On optical coherence tomography, hyper-reflective substances were detected in the Henle fiber layer. One month later, the BCVA improved to 1.0. Changes in microstructural findings and visual acuity were analogous during the recovery of macular edema in our patient.Keywords: stellate figure in the macula, Henle fiber layer, central retinal vein occlusion, macular edema, optical coherence tomography

  1. New Records of Seed Plants from Some Provinces in China (Ⅰ)%中国种子植物省级分布新记录(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相银龙; 周磊; 丛义艳; 刘克明

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen species and two varieties are reported as new records to four provinces in China, ie Impatiens sulcata Wall. (Balsaminaceae), Impatiens racemosa DC. (Balsaminaceae) and Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f. et L. K. Dai ex P. C. Li. (Leguminosae) for Sichuan, Impatiens tubulosa Hemsl.(Balsaminaceae), Impatiens macrovexilla var. yaoshanensis S. X. Yu, Y. L. Chen & H. N. Qin,(Balsaminaceae), Impatiens monticoia Hook. f. (Balsaminaceae), Eutrema tenue Makino (Brassicaceae),Hilliella changhuaensis Y. H. Zhang (Brassicaceae), Desmodium heterocarpon (Linn) DC. (Leguminosae),Ficus sarmentosa Buch. -Ham. ex J. E. SM. Var. thunbergii (Maxim.) Corner (Moraceae), A mpelopsis delavayana Planch. var. glabra (Diels & Gilg) C. L. Li (Vitaceae), Tetrastigrna erubescens Planch.(Vitaceae), Ilex tutcheri Merr. (Aquifoliaceae) and Peristylus densus (Lindl.) Santap. et Kapad.(Orchidaceae) for Hunan, Impatiens napoensis Y. L. Chen(Balsaminaceae) and Impatiens chiulungensis Y.L. Chen, (Balsaminaceae) for Yunnan, Impatiens yui S. H. Huang (Balsaminaceae) for Xizang.%报导了凤仙花科、十字花科、豆科、桑科、葡萄科、冬青科和兰科共15种2变种植物在我国4个省区的分布新记录.其中四川分布新记录有槽茎凤仙花(Impatiens sulcata Wall.)、总状凤仙花(Impatiens racemosa DC.)和云南甘草(Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f.et L.K.Dai ex P.C.Li.);湖南分布新记录有管茎凤仙花(Impatiens tubulosa Hemsl.)、瑶山凤仙花(Impatiens macrovexilla var.yaoshanensis S.X.Yu,Y.L.Chen & H.N.Qin,)、山地凤仙花(Impatiens monticoia Hook.f.)、日本山嵛菜(Eutrema tenue Makino)、昌化泡果荠(Hilliella changhuaensis Y.H.Zhang)、糙毛假地豆(Desmodium heterocarpon(Linn)DC.)、少脉爬藤榕(Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham.ex J.E.SM.var.thunbergii(Maxim.)Corner)、掌裂蛇葡萄(Ampelopsis delavayana Planch.var.glabra(Diels & Gilg)C.L.Li)、红枝崖爬藤(Tetrastigma erubescens Planch.)、罗浮冬青(Ilex tutcheri Merr

  2. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufan; Zhang, Chong; Cao, Songxiao; Wang, Xiao; Qi, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo), and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino), 'Yu Meiren' (YMR) and 'Cui Bao' (CB); a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon), 'Shao Gua' (SHAO); and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud), 'Cai Gua' (CAI). A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z)-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid). Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E)-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  3. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Tang

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo, and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino, 'Yu Meiren' (YMR and 'Cui Bao' (CB; a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon, 'Shao Gua' (SHAO; and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud, 'Cai Gua' (CAI. A principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid. Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  4. N-body simulation for self-gravitating collisional systems with a new SIMD instruction set extension to the x86 architecture, Advanced Vector eXtensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Ataru; Yoshikawa, Kohji; Okamoto, Takashi; Nitadori, Keigo

    2012-02-01

    We present a high-performance N-body code for self-gravitating collisional systems accelerated with the aid of a new SIMD instruction set extension of the x86 architecture: Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX), an enhanced version of the Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE). With one processor core of Intel Core i7-2600 processor (8 MB cache and 3.40 GHz) based on Sandy Bridge micro-architecture, we implemented a fourth-order Hermite scheme with individual timestep scheme ( Makino and Aarseth, 1992), and achieved the performance of ˜20 giga floating point number operations per second (GFLOPS) for double-precision accuracy, which is two times and five times higher than that of the previously developed code implemented with the SSE instructions ( Nitadori et al., 2006b), and that of a code implemented without any explicit use of SIMD instructions with the same processor core, respectively. We have parallelized the code by using so-called NINJA scheme ( Nitadori et al., 2006a), and achieved ˜90 GFLOPS for a system containing more than N = 8192 particles with 8 MPI processes on four cores. We expect to achieve about 10 tera FLOPS (TFLOPS) for a self-gravitating collisional system with N ˜ 10 5 on massively parallel systems with at most 800 cores with Sandy Bridge micro-architecture. This performance will be comparable to that of Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) cluster systems, such as the one with about 200 Tesla C1070 GPUs ( Spurzem et al., 2010). This paper offers an alternative to collisional N-body simulations with GRAPEs and GPUs.

  5. Maintenance of remission with low-dose olopatadine hydrochloride for itch in well-controlled chronic urticaria

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    Makino T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Teruhiko Makino,1 Yoshiaki Takegami,1 Mati Ur Rehman,1 Yoko Yoshihisa,1 Waka Ishida,2 Takashi Toyomoto,3 Tadamichi Shimizu11Department of Dermatology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Niigata Central Hospital, Joetsu, Japan; 3Department of Dermatology, Saiseikai Takaoka Hospital, Takaoka, JapanBackground: The long-term follow-up of chronic urticaria (CU is important to ensure the adequate treatment of patients. Olopatadine hydrochloride is one of the second-generation nonsedating antihistamines.Methods: This study was designed to assess the optimal dose of olopatadine to suppress symptoms of chronic urticarial itch in well-controlled patients. After CU patients were treated with 10 mg olopatadine, patients having a visual analogue scale (VAS itch score of less than 20 were randomly allocated into one of three groups: 10 mg/day (n = 35, 5 mg/day (n = 30, or no medication (n = 32.Results: The suppressive effects of both the 5 mg and 10 mg olopatadine treatments on the VAS itch score were more significant and longer lasting over a period of 4 weeks than the no-medication treatment. Both the 5-mg group and the 10-mg group showed improved urticarial symptoms and maintained their VAS itch score within normal limits compared to the no-medication group. The differences between the 5-mg and 10-mg groups were not significant.Conclusion: These results demonstrate that treatment with olopatadine at a dose of 5 mg once daily is effective and safe for the management and prevention of CU symptoms for itch in well-controlled patients.Keywords: chronic urticaria, olopatadine, dose, antihistamine, itch, histamine

  6. Gypenosides Induce Apoptosis by Ca2+ Overload Mediated by Endoplasmic-Reticulum and Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels in Human Hepatoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Da-Peng; Li, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Xin-Li; Zhao, Dan; Qiu, Feng-Qi; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Gypenosides (Gyps) are triterpenoid saponins contained in an extract from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino and reported to induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cells through Ca2+-implicated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondria-dependent pathways. The mechanism underlying the Gyp-increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) is unclear. Here, we examined Gyp-induced necrosis and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Gyp-induced apoptotic cell death was accompanied by a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i level. Gyp-increased [Ca2+]i level was partly inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca2+ by Ca2+ chelator EGTA, store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOC) inhibitor 2- aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), and ER Ca2+-release-antagonist 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino) octyl ester (TMB-8). The strongest inhibitory effect was observed with TMB-8. EGTA, 2-APB, and TMB-8 also protected against Gyp-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The combination of 2-APB and TMB-8 almost completely abolished the Gyp-induced Ca2+ response and apoptosis. In contrast, the sarco/endoplasmic-reticulum-Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin slightly elevated Gyp-induced [Ca2+]i increase and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Exposure to 300 μg/mL Gyp for 24 hours upregulated protein levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and SOC and downregulated that of SERCA for at least 72 hours. Thus, Gyp-induced increase in [Ca2+]i level and consequent apoptosis in HepG2 cells may be mainly due to enhanced Ca2+ release from ER stores and increased store-operated Ca2+ entry. PMID:25310348

  7. Anti-Cancer Effect and the Underlying Mechanisms of Gypenosides on Human Colorectal Cancer SW-480 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Wang, Xiaobing; Niu, Junfeng; Wang, Yaqin; Wang, Pan; Liu, Quanhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Gypenosides (Gyp), the main components from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of Gyp on human colorectal cancer cells SW-480. Materials and Methods The inhibitory effect of Gyp on SW-480 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was detected by nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. Apoptosis was analyzed using Annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D staining. Cell membrane integrity was evaluated with flow cytometry following PI staining. Changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were detected through flow cytometry analysis of rhodamine 123 (Rh123). The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Gyp induced cell death was investigated by intracellular ROS generation and general ROS scavenger. Wound-healing assay was carried out to investigate Gyp-inhibited migration of SW-480 cells in vitro. Additionally, the alterations in F-actin microfilaments were analyzed by FITC-labeled phalloidin toxin staining and the morphological changes were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results After the Gyp treatment, the plasma membrane permeability of SW-480 cell was increased, Δψm was decreased significantly, the level of intracellular ROS level was increased, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology were observed. Cells treated with Gyp exert serious microfilament network collapse as well as the significant decrease in the number of microvilli. Gyp induced the changes of cell viability, cell migration, intracellular ROS generation and nuclear morphology were alleviated obviously by NAC. Conclusion The results in this study implied that ROS play an important role in Gyp induced cell toxicity and apoptosis, and the mitochondria damage may be upstream of ROS generation post Gyp treatment. The findings of the present study provide new evidences for anti-tumor mechanisms

  8. Molecular characterization, expression, and regulation of Gynostemma pentaphyllum squalene epoxidase gene 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huihong; Li, Rufang; Liu, Shibiao; Zhao, Na; Han, Shuo; Lu, Mengmeng; Liu, Xiaomin; Xia, Xinli

    2016-12-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino is a perennial medicinal herb widely distributed in China. This herb contains important medicinal components called gypenosides, which belong to dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins. Squalene epoxidase (SE, EC 1.14.99.7) catalyzes the epoxidation of squalene to form oxidosqualene and is a key regulatory enzyme in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis. In this study, a SE gene designated as GpSE1 was isolated from G. pentaphyllum leaves. The deduced protein sequence of GpSE1 contained two conserved domains involved in the catalytic function of SE. GpSE1 was expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli cells, and the HIS-tagged recombinant protein was successfully purified and renatured in vitro. Immunofluorescence indicated that the polygonal reticular fluorescence signal of GpSE1 was significantly stronger in young leaves than in mature leaves and rhizomes. This finding is consistent with the tissue-specific expression pattern of GpSE1 and suggests that the young leaves of G. pentaphyllum mainly serve as the active site of gypenoside synthesis. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment upregulated GpSE1 expression in both the young and mature leaves of G. pentaphyllum, with greater upregulation in young leaves than in mature leaves. However, the expression of GpSE1 was not enhanced continually with the increase in MeJA concentration. Moreover, the GpSE1 expression was maximally regulated in response to 50 μM MeJA but not to 100 μM MeJA. This result indicates that MeJA exerts a concentration-dependent effect on GpSE1 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Profiling analysis of amino acids from hyperlipidaemic rats treated with Gynostemma pentaphyllum and atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Zhao, Min; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Chunjie

    2016-10-01

    Context Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of hyperlipidaemic with a long history. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) and atorvastatin on amino acids from the plasma and liver tissue of hyperlipidaemic rats. Materials and methods The rats were fed a high-fat diet continuously for 11 weeks for the construction of hyperlipidaemic model. The hyperlipidaemic rats were treated with Gynostemma pentaphyllum (120 mg/kg) and atorvastatin (1.8 mg/kg) for 4 weeks, and the rats were intragastric administration one time every day. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODSIII C18 analytical column (75 mm × 2.0 mm i.d., 1.6 μm, Shmadazu Corp., Tokyo, Japan). The biomarkers of amino acids were identified by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Results After feeding with a high-fat diet, the TC and LDL-C values of the hyperlipidaemic mode rats increased dramatically (p < 0.01). The established method allowed a target analysis of 12 kinds of amino acids. PCA studies showed that the plasma amino acids had not returned to normal after GP treatment, but those had recovered slightly after atorvastatin treatment. GP has almost no impact on the metabolism of amino acids, while atorvastatin can modify the metabolism of amino acids via self-regulatory mechanisms. Discussion and conclusion UPLC/DAD combined with SCX-SPE can be successfully used for profiling analysis of amino acids. By the comparison of biomarkers following treatment with GP and atorvastatin, the influence of the two drugs on biomarkers is revealed.

  10. Anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of gypenosides on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gypenosides (Gyp, the main components from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of Gyp on human colorectal cancer cells SW-480. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibitory effect of Gyp on SW-480 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was detected by nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. Apoptosis was analyzed using Annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D staining. Cell membrane integrity was evaluated with flow cytometry following PI staining. Changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm were detected through flow cytometry analysis of rhodamine 123 (Rh123. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in Gyp induced cell death was investigated by intracellular ROS generation and general ROS scavenger. Wound-healing assay was carried out to investigate Gyp-inhibited migration of SW-480 cells in vitro. Additionally, the alterations in F-actin microfilaments were analyzed by FITC-labeled phalloidin toxin staining and the morphological changes were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM. RESULTS: After the Gyp treatment, the plasma membrane permeability of SW-480 cell was increased, Δψm was decreased significantly, the level of intracellular ROS level was increased, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology were observed. Cells treated with Gyp exert serious microfilament network collapse as well as the significant decrease in the number of microvilli. Gyp induced the changes of cell viability, cell migration, intracellular ROS generation and nuclear morphology were alleviated obviously by NAC. CONCLUSION: The results in this study implied that ROS play an important role in Gyp induced cell toxicity and apoptosis, and the mitochondria damage may be upstream of ROS generation post Gyp treatment. The findings of the present study provide new evidences for anti

  11. The Anthocyanin Metabolic Profiling Analysis of Three Purple Brassica rapa Vegetables%紫菜薹、紫色芜菁和紫色白菜花青苷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宁; 郑姝宁; 武剑; 程锋; 梁建丽; 王晓武

    2014-01-01

    在对紫菜薹(Brassica rapa L.ssp.chinensis var.purpurea Baile.)以及芜菁(Brassica rapa ssp.rapifera Metzg.)和白菜[Brassica rapaL.ssp.chinensis (L.) Makino]中的紫色品种类型叶片中花青苷分布特点研究的基础上,结合利用UFLC-UrV-Q-Trip-MS和UP,LC-Q-TOF-MS两种液相色谱质谱联用(LC-MS)技术,对叶片中花青苷代谢物谱进行分析鉴定.结果表明,花青苷在紫菜薹、紫色芜菁和紫色白菜叶片中积累的部位并不相同,主要分布于紫菜薹和紫色芜菁叶柄的表皮细胞,以及紫色白菜叶片的上表皮细胞中.3种蔬菜中共鉴定出23种花青苷,其中紫菜薹和紫色白菜含有的花青苷种类相同,为17种不同酰基化取代的矢车菊素-3-双/三葡萄糖苷-5-葡萄糖苷;紫色芜菁中检测出与紫菜薹和紫色白菜不同的6种花青苷,为不同酰基化的天竺葵素-3-双葡萄糖苷-5-葡萄糖苷.

  12. Quantitative determination of salvinorin A, a natural hallucinogen with abuse liability, in Internet-available Salvia divinorum and endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan

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    Po-Xiang Lin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, recreational use of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae, a herbal drug that contains a hallucinogenic ingredient, salvinorin A, has become a new phenomenon among young drug users. In Taiwan, as in many other countries, dry leaves of S. divinorum and its related concentrated extract products are available via the Internet. Besides S. divinorum, there are many endemic Salvia species whose salvinorin A content is yet unknown. To understand the abuse liability of these products, the aim of this study was to assess the concentration of salvinorin A in endemic Salvia species and Internet-available salvinorin A-related products. Samples of S. divinorum were purchased via the Internet and samples of eight endemic species of Salvia were collected in Taiwan, including S. arisanensis Hayata, S. coccinea Juss. ex Murr, S. hayatana Makino ex Hayata, S. japonica Thumb. ex Murr, S. nipponica Miq. Var. formosana (Hayata Kudo, S. scapiformis Hance, S. tashiroi Hayata. Icon. PI. Formosan, and S. keitaoensis Hayata. The content of salvinorin A was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Salvinorin A was extracted from the dry leaves of S. divinorum and endemic species of Salvia with methanol and analyzed on a C-18 column by isocratic elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile–water. Salvinorin A was detected in S. divinorum, but not in the endemic Salvia species of Taiwan. Therefore, endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan may not possess hallucinogenic potential. However, the potential harm from S. divinorum available via the Internet should be thoroughly assessed in Taiwan, and control measures similar to those implemented in many other countries should be considered.

  13. 不结球白菜雄性不育系及其保持系花药发育的细胞学观察%Cytological Observation of Anther Development between the Male Sterile Line and Its Maintainer Line in Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红芳; 侯瑞贤; 李晓锋; 朱玉英; 侯喜林

    2011-01-01

    以不结球白菜(Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis Makino)雄性不育系及其保持系为试验材料,选择不同发育阶段的花蕾,取其花药,制成石蜡切片和超薄切片,经染色后在电子显微镜下观察.结果表明,不结球白菜雄性不育系与保持系的花药发育有明显的不同:不育系花药发育受阻于花粉母细胞分化期,形成1~3个药室,并形成正常的四分体小孢子,此时细胞组织逐步解体,形成空腔花药;最后向内皱缩;保持系花粉母细胞能形成正常的四分体,进而形成小孢子,最终形成充满正常花粉粒的花药.%Buds selected at different developmental stages of a new germplasm sterile male of non-heading Chinese cabbage and its maintainer lines were studied. Anthers were collected,made into paraffin sections, stained, and observed by electron microscopy. Results show that non-heading Chinese cabbage sterile male lines and maintainer lines exhibited quite different anther development. Male sterile lines in relation to anther development were inhibited at the stage of archesporial cell, produced only 1 -3 anther sacs, and formed normal sporogenous cells. The cells gradually disintegrated,formated cavity,and finally shrunk inward. The maintainer archesporial cells formed normal anther sacs, formed sporogenous cell, and ultimately formed anthers with normal pollen.

  14. Efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate ointment (Oronine H® for experimentally-induced comedones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Takako Yamakoshi,1 Teruhiko Makino,1 Kenji Matsunaga,1 Yoko Yoshihisa,1 Mati Ur Rehman,1 Taisuke Seki,2 Yoshito Hayashi,3 Tadamichi Shimizu11Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama-shi, Toyama; 2Seki Dermatological Clinic, Toyama-shi, Toyama; 3Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc, Naruto-shi, Tokushima, JapanBackground: Oronine H® ointment, which contains chlorhexidine gluconate as its active component, is a well known disinfectant, and has been widely used for treatment of acne in Japan. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of this ointment on the formation of comedones induced by application of 50% oleic acid on the orifices of the external auditory canals of rabbits.Methods: The application sites were observed with a dermatoscope, and the area of the hair pores was measured using an Image analysis software program.Results: The chlorhexidine gluconate ointment inhibited comedone formation significantly more effectively than the liquid paraffin used as a control (P < 0.001. We also investigated the therapeutic effect of this ointment on comedones. After starting application of chlorhexidine gluconate ointment or liquid paraffin on the comedone area, the hair pore size was gradually decreased in the group treated with chlorhexidine gluconate ointment compared with the hair pore size at baseline.Conclusion: These results suggest that chlorhexidine gluconate ointment is effective for inhibiting comedone formation as well as for treating already formed comedones. Chlorhexidine gluconate ointment is a useful topical medicine for the treatment of early-stage acne and for preventing acne.Keywords: chlorhexidine gluconate ointment, comedones, dermatoscope, oleic acid

  15. Descriptions of a New Genus and Species of Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Mukariinae) Attacking Chimonobambusa (Gramineae: Bambusoideae) from Guizhou Province, China%危害方竹的叶蝉一新属新种记述(半翅目:叶蝉科:额垠叶蝉亚科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子忠; 陈祥盛; 张斌

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, 1 new genus and 1 new species of leafhopper subfamily Mukariinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Guizhou Province, China, Pseudomohunia gen. nov. and P. nigrifascia sp. nov., attacking Chimonobambusa Makino (Gramineae: Bambusoideae), are described and illustrated. This new genus is closely related to Mohunia Distant, but can be distinguished from the latter by the forewing with 4 apical cells, the aedeagus with 2 gonopores, dorsoatrium short, and the connective Y-shaped. All type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University.%记述采自我国贵州省雷公山国家级自然保护区狭叶方竹上的叶蝉科昆虫1新属1新种,即拟痕叶蝉属和黑带额痕叶蝉.根据头部颜面构造、前后翅端部翅脉、腿节刚毛公式、下生殖板及阳基侧突等特征,该属应隶属于额垠叶蝉亚科,与痕叶蝉属近缘,主要区别特征为:前翅具4个端室(后者前翅具3个端室);阳茎具短背腔(后者阳茎简单,无背腔),有2个性孔(后者仅1个性孔);连索"V"形(后者连索"Y"形).模式标本保存于贵州大学昆虫研究所.

  16. 甘菊水培体系的建立%Establishment of Hydroponics Culture System for Chrysanthemum lavadulifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛雅静; 黄河; 杨可; 王斌; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    为探索甘菊[Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium(Fisch. ex Trautv.)Makino]在非生物胁迫下以及营养物质代谢中精准的生理、基因表达变化机理,研究通过筛选外植体的种类和营养液的浓度,建立了甘菊水培体系。结果表明:水培中,播种苗的成活率和生根率极显著高于1年生大苗和茎段插条;在长时间的水培中,使用标准Hoagland和1.5倍Hoagland培养液,其畸形叶率极显著低于1/2和1/4Hoagland培养液,并且株高极显著高于另外2个浓度。结合科研需求,认为组培播种苗、标准Hoagland营养液是甘菊水培的最佳外植体和培养条件。%In order to explore the accurate mechanism of physiology and gene expression under abiotic stress and nutrient metabolism for Chrysanthemum lavadulifolium,we screened the explants and concentration of nutrient solution,and established the hydroponics culture system.The results indicate that in hydroponics culture,the survival rate and rooting rate are significantly higher in seedings rather than yearlings or cuttings;for a long time culture,the abnormal leaf rate is lower and the height is higher in normal and 1.5 times Hoagland solution than 1/2 or 1/4 Hoagland solution.Considering the actual demand in research,we choose seedings sown in MS medium,normal Hoagland solution as the best explants and culture medium.

  17. 鸡眼草属两种植物中总黄酮的含量测定%Determination of Contents of Total Flavonoids from Different Harvest Time in Kummerowia Striata (Thunb) Schindl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝徽; 李芳芳; 周牡娜; 方念伯

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a quantitative method for the determination of total flavonoids in two Kummerowia plant Kummerowia striata (Thunb. )Schindl. And Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim. )Makino. Method Using rutin as a standard substance, spectrophotometer method and the colour method of sodium nitrite - aluminium nitrate - sodium hydroxide were used to determine the total flavonoid content in two Kummerowia plant. Result The calibration curve of rutin at SlOnm was A =0.0124C -0.0087, r=0. 9994 (n=6), and the average recovery was 99.6% (n =6) with RSD of 1.09%. Conclusion This method is reliable, accurate, quick and reproducible. It can be used as a quality control method to determine the content of total flavonoids in Kummerowia plant.%目的 测定鸡眼草属两种植物鸡眼草和长萼鸡眼草中总黄酮的含量.方法 采用分光光度法,以芦丁为对照品,并利用NaNO2 - Al( N03)3- NaOH显色方法,对鸡眼草属几种植物中的总黄酮含量进行测定.结果 在最大吸收波长510nm处芦丁测定的线性方程是Y =0.0124X -0.0087,r=q.9994 (n=6),测得的平均回收率为99.6%(n=6),RSD=1.09%.结论 该方法的测定结果准确可靠、快速、重复性好,适用于鸡眼草属植物中总黄酮的含量测定.

  18. Electrophysiology and behavior feedback of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to volatile secondary metabolites emitted by Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The volatiles, absorbed by Porapak Q and eluted by hexane, from Chinese cabbage, Brassica campestris chinesis (L.) Makino. var. communis Tsen et Lee, have been identified as allyl isothiocyanate, Z-3-hexenyl acetate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene, 2,5-hexanediol, Z-3-hexen-1-ol, nonanol, (-myrcene, (-pinene, E-2-hexen-1-ol, D-limonene, Z-3-hexenyl propanoate, linalool, geraniol, E-4-hexen-1-ol, Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate, (-terpinene, (-caryophyllene, 3-carene and (-caryophyllene, by their mass spectra and retention times in comparison with authentic samples. The first five chemicals are the main components. All components can elicite electroantennogram (EAG) responses of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, in which allyl isothiocyanate and C6 alcohols and esters, i.e. Z-3-hexen-1-ol, E-2-hexen-1-ol, E-4-hexen-1-ol, Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate and 2,5-hexanediol elicite stronger EAG responses than other components, and EAG responses of female moths to them are slightly larger than those of male moths. However, EAG responses elicited by terpenes are smaller, and EAG responses from females to terpenes are smaller than those from males, but ((myrcene can evoke stronger EAG responses from both females and males. Volatiles from intact Chinese cabbage, allyl isothiocyanate, 2,5-hexanediol and Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate intensely cause DBM directional flying and landing in wind tunnel, in which volatiles from intact Chinese cabbage have the strongest activity, and the next is allyl isothiocyanate. Allyl isothiocyanate is more attractive to females than to males a bit. As for (-terpinene and other subordinate components, EAG and wind tunnel test make sure they have weak activity.

  19. The Extraction and the TLC Analysis of Flavonoids f rom Leaves of M alus M icromalus (Rosaceae)%西府海棠(Malus micromalus)总黄酮提取及微乳液薄层分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱柯成; 刘连芬

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the kinds of flavonoids in leaves of Malus micromalus Makino ,flavonoids was colored by the method of aluminum nitrate and sodium nitrite colorimetric ,and the content of fla‐vonoids was determined by spectrophotometry ,the optimized extraction system of total flavonoids in M . micromalus was thus determined by the means of orthogonal experimental design .And then ,flavonoids purified by ethyl acetate or petroleum ether were analyzed by microemulsion TLC .The results showed that the most proper fators to extract total flavonoids from leaves of M .micromalus were :70% ethanol extracting for 4 h ,at the extraction temperature of 80℃ ,in the extracting system with solid :liquid=1 :30 .As TLC shown ,the extraction of ethyl acetate contains many kinds of flavonoids ,3 of them are rutinum ,quercetin and puerarin .%为研究西府海棠的黄酮类成分及含量,采用硝酸铝‐亚硝酸钠‐氢氧化钠法显色,采用分光光度法测定了西府海棠叶总黄酮的含量,优选出西府海棠总黄酮的最佳提取条件.利用乙酸乙酯和石油醚分别对样品进行萃取纯化,以层析比较其黄酮种类.结果表明:西府海棠叶总黄酮最佳提取工艺为固液比1:20,乙醇浓度70%,提取时间4 h ,提取温度80℃.微乳膜薄层层析显示,西府海棠叶中含有多种黄酮类,其中有芦丁、槲皮素、葛根素.

  20. Gypenosides inhibits migration and invasion of human oral cancer SAS cells through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 -9 and urokinase-plasminogen by ERK1/2 and NF-kappa B signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kung-Wen; Chen, Jung-Chou; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Yang, Jai-Sing; Weng, Shu-Wen; Ma, Yi-Shih; Lu, Pei-Jung; Weng, Jing-Ru; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Wood, W Gibson; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2011-05-01

    Gypenosides (Gyp), found in Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, has been used as a folk medicine in the Chinese population for centuries and is known to have diverse pharmacologic effects, including anti-proliferative and anti-cancer actions. However, the effects of Gyp on prevention from invasion and migration of oral cancer cells are still unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of Gyp treatment on migration and invasion of SAS human oral cancer cells. SAS cells were cultured in the presence of 90 and 180 μg/mL Gyp for 24 and 48 hours. Gyp induced cytotoxic effects and inhibited SAS cells migration and invasion in dose- and time-dependent response. Wound-healing assay and boyden chamber assay were carried out to investigate Gyp-inhibited migration and invasion of SAS cells. Gyp decreased the abundance of several proteins, including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/ 2), matrix metalloproteinase-9, -2 (MMP-9, -2), sevenless homolog (SOS), Ras, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt), in a time-dependent manner. In addition, Gyp decreased mRNA levels of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 but did not affect FAK and Rho A mRNA levels in SAS cells. These results provide evidences for the role of Gyp as a potent anti-metastatic agent, which can markedly inhibit the metastatic and invasive capacity of oral cancer cells. The inhibition of NF-κB and MMP-2, -7 and -9 signaling may be one of the mechanisms that is present in Gyp-inhibited cancer cell invasion and migration.

  1. Chemical constituents and structural characterization of polysaccharides from four typical bamboo species leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Li, Wen-Jun; Ye, Jian-Zhong

    2015-03-05

    In order to find bamboo leaves with high contents of bioactive polysaccharides, 32 samples were chosen to analyze their polysaccharide content by GC and sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetric assays. Purified polysaccharides (BLPS) were separated from the four varieties P. nigra (Lodd.) Munro (PN), P. vivax McClure (PV), Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Fenzi) Makino (CQ), and P. bambussoides cv. Tanakae (PB) by ultrasound extraction, solution precipitation, ion exchange resin, DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. BLPS structural characterization was accomplished by HPLC-GPC, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and NaIO4-HIO4 oxidation reactions. The results showed that the total polysaccharides of the bamboo leaves in samples 1-32 ranged between 1.4% and 5.4%, Samples No. 29-No. 32 (PN, PV, CQ, and PB) contained 2-3 fold more polysaccharides than No. 1~No. 28 among the 32 different species, particularly the content of galactose was in a range of 21.5%-34.1% for these four typical bamboo species leaves, which was also more than 2-3 fold higher than in No. 1-No. 28. Sugar analysis indicated that PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, CQ-PBLPS-1 and PB-PBLPS-1 from the four varieties were homogeneous polysaccharides with molecular weights of 2.04 × 104, 1.15 × 104, 8.75 × 104 and 1.48 × 104 Da, respectively. PB-PBLPS-1 was a mixture of α-galactopyranose and β-d-glucopyranose linkages with α-(1→6) or β-(1→6)glycosidic bonds, while PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, and CQ-PBLPS-1 had α galactopyranose linkages with α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds.

  2. Chemical Constituents and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharides from Four Typical Bamboo Species Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhang Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to find bamboo leaves with high contents of bioactive polysaccharides, 32 samples were chosen to analyze their polysaccharide content by GC and sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetric assays. Purified polysaccharides (BLPS were separated from the four varieties P. nigra (Lodd. Munro (PN, P. vivax McClure (PV, Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Fenzi Makino (CQ, and P. bambussoides cv. Tanakae (PB by ultrasound extraction, solution precipitation, ion exchange resin, DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. BLPS structural characterization was accomplished by HPLC-GPC, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and NaIO4-HIO4 oxidation reactions. The results showed that the total polysaccharides of the bamboo leaves in samples 1–32 ranged between 1.4% and 5.4%, Samples No. 29–No. 32 (PN, PV, CQ, and PB contained 2–3 fold more polysaccharides than No. 1~No. 28 among the 32 different species, particularly the content of galactose was in a range of 21.5%–34.1% for these four typical bamboo species leaves, which was also more than 2–3 fold higher than in No. 1–No. 28. Sugar analysis indicated that PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, CQ-PBLPS-1 and PB-PBLPS-1 from the four varieties were homogeneous polysaccharides with molecular weights of 2.04 × 104, 1.15 × 104, 8.75 × 104 and 1.48 × 104 Da, respectively. PB-PBLPS-1 was a mixture of α-galactopyranose and β-d-glucopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 or β-(1→6glycosidic bonds, while PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, and CQ-PBLPS-1 had α galactopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 glycosidic bonds.

  3. COMPOSICIÓN FLORÍSTICA Y ESTRUCTURA DE LOS BOSQUES RIBEREÑOS DE LA CUENCA BAJA DEL RÍO PAUTO, CASANARE, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mauricio Cabrera-Amaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la composición florística y aspectos de la estructura de la vegetación en bosques ribereños de la cuenca baja del río Pauto (Colombia, Casanare utilizando la información de nueve parcelas de 20 x 50 m (1000 m², se midieron el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP, la altura total y cobertura de la copa. Se analizó la riqueza y los valores de importancia por especie y por familia. Se realizó un análisis para establecer una clasificación local de los tipos de bosque, los cuales se describieron en términos de clases diamétricas y altimétricas, diagramas estructurales e índice de predominio fisionómico. Se registraron 185 especies, 127 géneros y 56 familias, la mayor riqueza florística se agrupó en las familias Rubiaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Fabaceae y Bignoniaceae y en los géneros Ficus, Piper, Psychotria e Inga. Las familias con mayor IVF fueron Arecaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae y Verbenaceae. Las especies más importantes según su IVI fueron: Attalea butyracea, Clarisia biflora, Sarcaulus brasiliensis, Dendropanax arboreus e Inga interrupta. Se encontraron seis comunidades, de las cuales sólo la primera se ha mencionado con anterioridad: 1 Palmar de Mauritia flexuosa y Euterpe precatoria, 2 Bosque de galería de Copaifera pubiflora y Homalium racemosum, 3 Bosque de vega de Discocarpus spruceanus y Sloanea terniflora, 4 Bosque de vega de Attalea butyracea y Garcinia madruno, 5 Bosque de galería de Attalea butyracea e Inga interrupta, y 6 Bosque de vega Attalea butyracea y Clarisia biflora. Los bosques presentan múltiples estratos con alturas del dosel desde los 18 m sobre las riberas de los caños, hasta 25 m en las vegas de los ríos. La riqueza y la composición concuerdan con los patrones florísticos de la Orinoquía colombiana, especialmente a nivel de familia, pero son menos las coincidencias a nivel de género y especie. La concentración de individuos en clases diamétricas pequeñas es

  4. Study on the Ecophysiological Characteristics of Photosynthesis in the Saplings of Three South Asian Tropical Trees%南亚热带3种幼树的光合生理生态特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨期和; 陈昆平; 杨和生; 赖万年

    2016-01-01

    采用Li-6400便携式光合作用测定仪对3种南亚热带植物:变叶树参(Dendropanax proteu)、半枫荷(Semiliquidambar cathayensis)、台湾榕(Ficus formosana)幼树光合生理特性进行研究.结果表明:①3种幼树的净光合速率(Pn)日变化均呈“双峰”曲线,变叶树参首峰(3.62 μmol·m-2·s-1)出现于10:00,次峰(2.09 μmol·m-2·s-1)出现在16:00;半枫荷首峰(3.15 μmol·m-2·s-1)出现于10:00,次峰(1.75)出现在16:00左右;台湾榕首峰(4.07 μmol·m-2·s-1)出现在9:00左右,次峰(2.20 μmol·m-2·s-1)出现在16:00左右.均具有明显的光合午休现象.②相关、回归及通径分析表明,3种植物Pn与光合有效辐射(PAR)、气孔导度(Gs)显著正相关,而与胞间CO2浓度(Ci)显著负相关,光合午休现象的原因很可能是环境因子变化引起叶肉细胞光合活性降低的非气孔限制因素.③3种植物的光饱和点(LSP)、光补偿点(LCP)均较低,变叶树参分别为640.45、4.16μmol·m-2 ·s-1;半枫荷分别为597.96、2.09 μmol·m-2·s-1;台湾榕分别为657.85、3.08μmol·m-2·s-1,均为典型的阴生植物.

  5. Fatores edáficos e as variações florísticas de um trecho de Mata Ciliar do Rio Gualaxo do Norte, Mariana, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda de Sena Gonçalves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a correlação entre a distribuição de espécies arbóreas ciliares do rio Gualaxo do Norte (S20°16'31,9" W43°26'15,3" e S20°16'30,6" W43°26'07,3" com fatores edáficos, assim como se existem espécies de ocorrência restrita à área de depleção ciliar que possam ser indicadas para recuperação de matas ciliares. As parcelas foram alocadas em 1 ha dividido em três blocos com declividades distintas. Todos os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m do solo igual ou superior a 15 cm foram registrados e identificados. Foram coletadas cinco amostras simples de solo em cada parcela para análises químicas de fertilidade. A ordenação dos dados de solo e vegetação foi realizada pela análise de correspondência canônica (CCA, que indicou que variações na fertilidade, na acidez do solo e na altitude estavam influenciando a distribuição da vegetação arbórea ao longo do gradiente topográfico. Albizia hassleri, Bathysa meridionalis, Cariniana estrelensis, Casearia gossypiosperma, Casearia sp., Cecropia hololeuca, Himatanthus lancifolius, Luehea grandiflora, Picramnia sp., Platypodium elegans, Pseudopiptadenia contorta, Tibouchina candoleana e Virola oleifera são espécies adaptadas a condições edáficas com elevada acidez e fertilidade muito baixa, apresentando potencial para utilização em projetos de recuperação de áreas degradadas, principalmente de encostas e topo de morros. Já Casearia sylvestris, Dalbergia villosa, Dendropanax cuneatus, Machaerium aculeatum, Machaerium stiptatum, Ocotea odorifera, Ocotea pulchella, Rollinea longifolia, Schinus terebinthifolius, Tibouchina granulosa, Vernonia piptocarphoides e Vismia sp. estavam correlacionadas com solos menos ácidos, mais férteis e mais próximos ao rio, apresentando potencial para a restauração florestal em áreas ciliares.

  6. 武夷山米槠、甜槠常绿阔叶林的物种组成及多样性分析%Species composition and diversity of evergreen broad-leaved forest of Castanopsis carlesii and C. eyrei in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, Fujian, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方燕鸿

    2005-01-01

    选择武夷山自然保护区最具代表性的米槠(Castanopsis carlesii)、甜槠(C.eyrei)常绿阔叶林设置4800 m2的样方,研究了植物群落生长特征及其物种多样性.共记录到植物物种67科138属311种,其中乔木物种(含更新层或小乔木)160种,灌木89种,藤本25种,草本37种.主要优势种有:米槠、甜槠、黄瑞木(Adinandra mille-ttii)、树参(Dendropanax dentiger)、罗浮栲(C.fabri)、少叶黄杞(Engelhardtia fenzelii)、丝栗栲(C.fargesii)、青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glauca)等,其中米槠和甜槠两个物种的相对胸高断面积(RBA)占44.1%.武夷山常绿阔叶林主要由壳斗科(RBA=60.1%)和山茶科(12.2%)的物种组成;最重要属为栲属(Castanopsis)(RBA=52.0%)、青冈属(Cyclobalanopsis)(6.4%)和黄瑞木属(Adinandra)(4.5%)等.多样性分析结果表明,乔木层Shannon-Wie-ner指数(H')为3.0左右;随着取样面积的增加,H'值和均匀度指数(E)逐渐增加;1500 m2时H'趋于平稳,1000m2时E趋于平稳.从种-面积曲线可知,武夷山常绿阔叶林在取样面积大于4500 m2后物种数量趋于稳定.武夷山常绿阔叶林小径级的乔木(DBH≤10 cm)数量占76.3%,而DBH≥45 cm的个体数量仅占2.3%.该植物群落常绿树种占绝对优势,但落叶物种种类仍然比较丰富.

  7. Long-term effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride on abdominal aortic calcification in patients on hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazunori Nakayama,1,2 Kazushi Nakao,1,2 Yuji Takatori,1,2 Junko Inoue,1 Shoichirou Kojo,1 Shigeru Akagi,1,2 Masaki Fukushima,2 Jun Wada,1 Hirofumi Makino11Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Shigei Medical Research Hospital, Okayama, JapanBackground: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT is one of the common complications in dialysis patients, and is associated with increased risk of vascular calcification. The effects of cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment on bone and mineral metabolism have been previously reported, but the benefit of cinacalcet on vascular calcification remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cinacalcet on abdominal aortic calcification in dialysis patients.Subjects and methods: Patients were on maintenance hemodialysis with insufficiently controlled SHPT (intact parathyroid hormone [PTH] >180 pg/mL by conventional therapies. All subjects were initially administered 25 mg cinacalcet daily, with concomitant use of calcitriol analogs. Abdominal aortic calcification was annually evaluated by calculating aortic calcification area index (ACAI using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT, from 12 months before to 36 months after the initiation of cinacalcet therapy.Results: Twenty-three patients were analyzed in this study. The mean age was 59.0±8.7 years, 34.8% were women, and the mean dialysis duration was 163.0±76.0 months. After administration of cinacalcet, serum levels of intact PTH, phosphorus, and calcium significantly decreased, and mean Ca × P values significantly decreased from 67.4±7.9 mg2/dL2 to 52±7.7 mg2/dL2. Although the ACAI value did not decrease during the observation period, the increase in ACAI between 24 months and 36 months after cinacalcet administration was significantly suppressed.Conclusion: Long-term administration of cinacalcet was associated with reduced progression of

  8. 2甲·草甘膦异丙胺盐防除稻田埂埝杂草的效果%Control Effect of 2-methyl · glyphosate isopropylamine against Weeds in Rice Field Ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志伟; 郭艳超; 左永梅

    2015-01-01

    [目的]明确2甲·草甘膦异丙胺盐防治稻田埂埝杂草的效果、杀草谱及最佳用药量.[方法]以41%草甘膦异丙胺盐水剂和56%二甲四氯可湿性粉剂为对照药剂,通过田间药效试验研究了50%2甲·草甘膦异丙胺盐水剂不同剂量(1 242、1 656、2070、3 312g/hm2)防除稻田埂埝杂草的效果.[结果]50%2甲·草甘膦异丙胺盐水剂不同用药量对稗草[Echinochloa crusgalli(L.)Beauv.]、藜(Chenopodium album L.)、假稻(Leersia japonica Makino)等为代表的1年生和多年生恶性杂草的杀草效果有明显差异,1 656g/hm2低剂量处理施药后35 d的综合除治效果为84.1%,而3 312 g/hm2高剂量处理的综合除治效果则达到98.5%,二者间差异显著.[结论]采用50%2甲·草甘膦异丙胺盐水剂进行稻田埂埝杂草防治,以稗草、藜等1年生单、双子叶杂草群落为主的埂埝杂草防治剂量采用1 656 g/hm2,以多年生恶性杂草——假稻为主的稻田杂草防治剂量则采用3 312 g/hm2.

  9. Li Xin and the Development of Sociological Jurisprudence in China%李炘与社会法学在中国的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖伟

    2015-01-01

    Li Xin encountered the popularization of so ciological jurisprudence when he studied in Meiji University. He learned western and Japanese sociological jurisprudence through Hozumi Shigeto, Shida Kotaro and Makino Echi. After returned to China,he served in judicial circle as well as Beijing Law and Politics School (BLPS)& Chaoyang University. Chinese scholars knew only a little about sociological jurisprudence though they had approached it. Through the platform supplied by BLPS and Chaoyang University, Li Xin showed the scholar circles the opinions of sociological jurisprudence school, which made the scholar circles not only know the purport, history and the jurists’ opinion of sociological jurisprudence school, but also think twice about the trend of legal science. With the increasing number of legal personality who studying in Europe and the US, Li Xin’s academic achievement makes the returned students studying legal science in Japan still taking a leading position.%李炘在明治大学留学期间,恰逢日本兴起研究社会法学之风。他通过穗积重远、志田钾太郎和牧野英一等人了解到东西方的社会法学思想。回国后,李炘一边投身于司法界,一边在北京法政专门学校和朝阳大学任教。当时的中国学界对社会法学说虽略有接触,但并无明确认识。李炘通过北京法政专门学校和朝阳大学的平台,向学界展示了社会法学派的主张。此举不但使学界明确了社会法学派的旨趣、沿革以及主要代表人物的学术观点,还使学界产生了对法学发展趋势的新思考。在留学欧美的法律人陆续崛起的环境下,李炘等人的学术成就使留日法政生在中国法学界仍然居于领先地位。

  10. Structural, morphological and optical properties of Cd doped ZnO film grown on a- and r-plane sapphire substrate by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouzri, A., E-mail: Fouzri.Afif@gmail.com [Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie de Sousse, Université de Sousse (Tunisia); Laboratoire Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Unité de Service Commun de Recherche, High resolution X-ray diffractometer, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Boukadhaba, M.A. [Laboratoire Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Unité de Service Commun de Recherche, High resolution X-ray diffractometer, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Touré, A. [Unité de recherche hétéroepitaxie et ses applications, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Sakly, N. [Laboratoire Physico-chimie des Interfaces, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); and others

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Cd doped ZnO films have been grown on (1 1 −20) (a-plane) and (0 1 −1 2) (r-plane) sapphire substrate by MOCVD. • A maximum cadmium incorporation of 8.5% and 11.2% has been, respectively, determined for films deposited on a- and r-plane sapphire. • XRD study revealed that all films had wurtzite phase but solid solution grown on a-plane sapphire are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation along the [0 0 0 1] and a-plane (1 1 −2 0) film are epitaxially grown on r-plane-sapphire. • The near band-edge photoluminescence emission shifts gradually to lower energies as Cd is incorporated and reaches 2.916 eV for the highest Cd content (11.2%) at low temperature (20 K). - Abstract: Cd doped ZnO films have been grown on (1 1 −2 0) (a-plane) and (0 1 −1 2) (r-plane) sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A maximum cadmium incorporation of 8.5% and 11.2% has been, respectively, determined for films deposited on a- and r-plane sapphire. The optical transmission spectra and energy band-gap equation established by Makino et al. were used to estimate the cadmium mole fraction in layer. Structural, morphological and optical properties of these films were examined using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and room and low temperature photoluminescence (Pl) as Cd incorporation and employed substrate. X-ray diffraction study revealed that all films had wurtzite phase but solid solution grown on a-plane sapphire are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation along the [0 0 0 1] direction and a-plane (1 1 −2 0) film are epitaxially grown on r-plane sapphire. AFM image show significant differences between morphologies depending on orientation sapphire substrate but no significant differences on surface roughness have been found. The near band-edge photoluminescence emission shifts gradually to lower energies as Cd is incorporated and reaches 2.916 eV for the highest Cd content (11.2%) at

  11. 蘑菇渣和园林废物堆肥复配基质在黄瓜育苗上的应用效果%Effect of Reproducing Compound Substrate for Cucumber Seedling by Mushroom Residue and Garden Waste Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田锁霞; 陈清; 龚建英; 李国学; 贾小红; 李彦明

    2011-01-01

    以腐熟的蘑菇渣堆肥、园林修剪废物堆肥、草炭、蛭石为原料,通过将蘑菇渣堆肥与园林废物堆肥以不同比例替代草炭后对复配基质的理化特性及普通白菜生长的影响筛选出适宜的配方,并以草炭:蛭石=7V:3V为对照,探讨该配方对黄瓜幼苗生长指标的影响.结果表明,蘑菇渣堆肥:园林废物堆肥:草炭:蛭石=3 V:4 V:7 V:6V为最佳基质配方;受EC值过高的影响,蘑菇渣堆肥和园林废物堆肥替代草炭最大比例不宜超过40%;所获配方基质培育出的黄瓜幼苗株高、茎粗、干物质积累和壮苗指数等指标均显著优于对照.%The spent mushroom compost ( MC ) and the garden wastes compost ( YC ) were evaluated as components of substrates in partial substitution of peat for seedlings production. Compost-based substrates , containing different percentage of these 2 composts , were analyzed to find their physicochemical parameter and effect on the growth of Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Chinensis ( L.) Makino var. Communis Tsen et Lee, so as to screen out an optimal formula. Then its effects on cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) seedling quality were investigated comparing with the control ( a commercial substrates ). The results showed that the substrate's composition of MC : YC : peat : vermiculite=3 V : 4 V : 7 V : 6 V was the optimal formula. The percentage of the MC and YC in compost-based substrates should not exceed 40%, due to the high EC value. The plant height, stem diameter, dry matter accumulation and seedling index and other indicators of cucumber seedling cultivated on this formula substrate were significantly excelled that of the control treatment.

  12. Gypenosides Synergistically Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of 5-Fluorouracil on Colorectal Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo: A Role for Oxidative Stress-Mediated DNA Damage and p53 Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lulu; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Wenjuan; Yang, Qiwen; Fan, Jianping; Wang, Pan; Liu, Quanhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) has been widely used as a first-line drug for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment but limited by drug resistance and severe toxicity. The chemo-sensitizers that augment its efficiency and overcome its limitation are urgently needed. Gypenosides (Gyp), the main components from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, has shown potential anti-tumor property with little side-effect. Here, we carefully explored the chemo-sensitization of Gyp to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of 5-Fu in vitro and in vivo. Methodology / Principal Findings 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltertrazolium bromide tetrazolium assay and colony formation test reveal that Gyp could significantly enhance the 5-Fu-caused SW-480,SW-620 and Caco2 cells viability loss. Calcusyn analysis shows that Gyp acts synergistically with 5-Fu. Annexin V-PE/7-AAD staining indicates 5-Fu + Gyp could induce SW-480 cell apoptosis. The activations of caspase 3, caspase 9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were involved in the process. Gyp was also found to up-regulate 5-Fu-caused phospho-p53 expression and thus augment 5-Fu-induced G0/G1 phase arrest. Gyp elevated intracellular ROS level, significantly enhanced 5-Fu-triggered DNA damage response as evidenced by flow cytometry, comet assay and the expression of Ser139-Histone H2A.X. Inhibition of ROS and p53 respectively reversed the cell death induced by 5-Fu + Gyp, suggesting the key roles of ROS and p53 in the process. Moreover, 5-Fu and Gyp in combination exhibits much superior tumor volume and weight inhibition on CT-26 xenograft mouse model in comparison to 5-Fu or Gyp alone. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests the combinations greatly suppressed tumor proliferation. Preliminary toxicological results show that 5-Fu + Gyp treatment is relatively safe. Conclusions As a potential chemo-sensitizer, Gyp displays a splendid synergistic effect with 5-Fu to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. By using 5

  13. Gypenosides Synergistically Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of 5-Fluorouracil on Colorectal Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo: A Role for Oxidative Stress-Mediated DNA Damage and p53 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Kong

    Full Text Available 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu has been widely used as a first-line drug for colorectal cancer (CRC treatment but limited by drug resistance and severe toxicity. The chemo-sensitizers that augment its efficiency and overcome its limitation are urgently needed. Gypenosides (Gyp, the main components from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb. Makino, has shown potential anti-tumor property with little side-effect. Here, we carefully explored the chemo-sensitization of Gyp to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of 5-Fu in vitro and in vivo.3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltertrazolium bromide tetrazolium assay and colony formation test reveal that Gyp could significantly enhance the 5-Fu-caused SW-480,SW-620 and Caco2 cells viability loss. Calcusyn analysis shows that Gyp acts synergistically with 5-Fu. Annexin V-PE/7-AAD staining indicates 5-Fu + Gyp could induce SW-480 cell apoptosis. The activations of caspase 3, caspase 9 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP were involved in the process. Gyp was also found to up-regulate 5-Fu-caused phospho-p53 expression and thus augment 5-Fu-induced G0/G1 phase arrest. Gyp elevated intracellular ROS level, significantly enhanced 5-Fu-triggered DNA damage response as evidenced by flow cytometry, comet assay and the expression of Ser139-Histone H2A.X. Inhibition of ROS and p53 respectively reversed the cell death induced by 5-Fu + Gyp, suggesting the key roles of ROS and p53 in the process. Moreover, 5-Fu and Gyp in combination exhibits much superior tumor volume and weight inhibition on CT-26 xenograft mouse model in comparison to 5-Fu or Gyp alone. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests the combinations greatly suppressed tumor proliferation. Preliminary toxicological results show that 5-Fu + Gyp treatment is relatively safe.As a potential chemo-sensitizer, Gyp displays a splendid synergistic effect with 5-Fu to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. By using 5-Fu and Gyp in combination would be a

  14. 海藻叶面肥对菠菜和不结球白菜产量和品质的影响%Effects of seaweed foliar fertilizers on yield and quality of spinach and pakchoi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周英; 陈振德; 王海华; 曹委

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed foliar fertilizer is one species of foliar fertilizer made by different processing technics, used seaweed as extracting material. In this experiment, effects of 8 species of seaweed foliar fertilizers, for instance, mannite, amino acid,alginate, iodine, indole butyrate, gibberellin, Laminaria japonica slurry and Entermorpha prolifera slurry foliar fertilizers, on yield and quality of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. ) and pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis Makino var. communis Tsen et Lee) were investigated at plastic shed and open-field growing. The results showed that 8 species of seaweed foliar fertilizers increased obviously the yields of spinach and pakchoi, generally increasing over 10%. Laminaria japonica slurry fertilizer increased most obviously the yield of spinach and pakchoi, and then mannite and gibberellin foliar fertilizers.Spraying seaweed foliar fertilizers could remarkably increase the contents of soluble sugar and Vc, decrease nitrate content and not change soluble protein content in spinach and pakchoi.%海藻叶面肥是以海藻为原料,经不同加工工艺制成的一类叶面肥品种.采用塑料大棚和露地种植方式,研究了8种海藻叶面肥对菠菜和不结球白菜产量和品质的影响.结果表明,8种海藻叶面肥对菠菜和不结球白菜都有不同程度的增产效果,大多数叶面肥增产10%以上,其中增产效果最明显的是海带浆型叶面肥,其次是甘露醇型和赤霉素型叶面肥.叶面喷施海藻叶面肥对菠菜和不结球白菜中的可溶性蛋白基本没有影响,可明显提高其可溶性糖和Vc含量,降低其硝酸盐含量.

  15. 不同肥料施用对嫁接薄皮甜瓜生长、产量及品质的影响%Effect of Different Fertilizer Application on Growth, Yield and Quality of Graft Pellicular Muskmelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵依杰; 吴宇芬; 陈贻钊; 林航; 陈晟; 张伟光

    2012-01-01

    采用控释肥、有机肥、有机无机复混肥和复合肥等4种肥料作为基肥,按株施肥料价格相等设计,以施用复合肥为对照,研究不同肥料施用对嫁接薄皮甜瓜生长、产量及品质的影响.结果表明:施用有机无机复混肥,在定植35 d后接穗主茎粗与第1子蔓长度均显著大于其他各处理,但薄皮甜瓜的产量显著下降,品质降低.施用控释肥薄皮甜瓜单果质量比对照提高3.1%,产量增加7.3%,可溶性固形物含量提高1.5%;施用有机肥,薄皮甜瓜的品质最优,但产量比对照下降了17.7%.综合评价认为,控释肥是嫁接薄皮甜瓜较理想的肥料.%In this paper, the effect of different fertilizer application on growth, yield and quality of graft pellicular muskmelon ( Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa Makino ) was studied by adopting 4 kinds of fertilizer including controlled—release fertilizers, organic fertilizer, organic—inorganic compound fertilizers and complex fertilizer as basic fertilizer. This research was designed by equal fertilizer price which was invested in every muskmelon plant, taking complex fertilizer application as contrast. The results showed that 35 days after planting, by applying organic-inorganic compound fertilizers the thickness of scion main stem and the length of the first tendril were all significantly larger than that by other treatments. But the yield and quality of pellicular muskmelon were remarkably dropped down. By applying controlled-release fertilizers, the weight of single fruit of pellicular muskmelon improved 3.1%, its yield increased 7.3%, and the content of soluble solid matter rose 1.5%. The quality of pellicular muskmelon was the best, because of applying organic fertilizer. But the yield decreased 17.7%. The integrated review believes that controlled-release fertilizers are ideal basic fertilizer for graft pellicular muskmelon.

  16. Dendritic cells fused with different pancreatic carcinoma cells induce different T-cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andoh Y

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiaki Andoh,1,2 Naohiko Makino,2 Mitsunori Yamakawa11Department of Pathological Diagnostics, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, JapanBackground: It is unclear whether there are any differences in the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and CD4+CD25high regulatory T-cells (Tregs among dendritic cells (DCs fused with different pancreatic carcinomas. The aim of this study was to compare the ability to induce cytotoxicity by human DCs fused with different human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines and to elucidate the causes of variable cytotoxicity among cell lines.Methods: Monocyte-derived DCs, which were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, were fused with carcinoma cells such as Panc-1, KP-1NL, QGP-1, and KP-3L. The induction of CTL and Tregs, and cytokine profile of PBMCs stimulated by fused DCs were evaluated.Results: The cytotoxicity against tumor targets induced by PBMCs cocultured with DCs fused with QGP-1 (DC/QGP-1 was very low, even though PBMCs cocultured with DCs fused with other cell lines induced significant cytotoxicity against the respective tumor target. The factors causing this low cytotoxicity were subsequently investigated. DC/QGP-1 induced a significant expansion of Tregs in cocultured PBMCs compared with DC/KP-3L. The level of interleukin-10 secreted in the supernatants of PBMCs cocultured with DC/QGP-1 was increased significantly compared with that in DC/KP-3L. Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I expression and increased secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor were observed with QGP-1, as well as in the other cell lines.Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity induced by DCs fused with pancreatic cancer cell lines was different between each cell line, and that the reduced cytotoxicity of DC/QGP-1 might be related to the increased secretion of interleukin-10 and the extensive induction of Tregs

  17. Evaluation of the transporter-mediated herb-drug interaction potential of DA-9801, a standardized dioscorea extract for diabetic neuropathy, in human in vitro and rat in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug transporters play important roles in the absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs and thereby, modulate drug efficacy and toxicity. With a growing use of poly pharmacy, concurrent administration of herbal extracts that modulate transporter activities with drugs can cause serious adverse reactions. Therefore, prediction and evaluation of drug-drug interaction potential is important in the clinic and in the drug development process. DA-9801, comprising a mixed extract of Dioscoreae rhizoma and Dioscorea nipponica Makino, is a new standardized extract currently being evaluated for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a phase II clinical study. Method The inhibitory effects of DA-9801 on the transport functions of organic cation transporter (OCT)1, OCT2, organic anion transporter (OAT)1, OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) were investigated in HEK293 or LLC-PK1 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on the pharmacokinetics of relevant substrate drugs of these transporters were also examined in vivo in rats. Results DA-9801 inhibited the in vitro transport activities of OCT1, OCT2, OAT3, and OATP1B1, with IC50 values of 106, 174, 48.1, and 273 μg/mL, respectively, while the other transporters were not inhibited by 300 μg/mL DA-9801. To investigate whether this inhibitory effect of DA-9801 on OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3 could change the pharmacokinetics of their substrates in vivo, we measured the pharmacokinetics of cimetidine, a substrate for OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3, and of furosemide, a substrate for OAT1 and OAT3, by co-administration of DA-9801 at a single oral dose of 1,000 mg/kg. Pre-dose of DA-9801 5 min or 2 h prior to cimetidine administration decreased the Cmax of cimetidine in rats. However, DA-9801 did not affect the elimination parameters such as half-life, clearance, or amount excreted in the urine, suggesting that it did not inhibit elimination

  18. Envisioning the Shôjo Aesthetic in Illustrations of Miyazawa Kenji’s Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Claire Kilpatrick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite an ever-growing body of scholarship on the shôjo (girl in manga and anime, little has been written about representations of the ‘girl’ in Japanese picture books. Shôjo literature and culture have grown exponentially in Japan since about the 1980s, but there has been a tendency in popular media to overemphasise the 'cute', disempowering aspects of the ‘girl’. By using Takahara Eiri's (1999 concept of “girl consciousness” and Honda Masuko's (1992 envisioning of the girl’s imagined freedom through a hirahira (fluttering aesthetic, notions of the powerless or mindlessly consuming shôjo can be dispelled. Such concepts help demonstrate that the girl ‘has her own creative, critical and cultural, if not social or political, power’ (Aoyama 2008: 286. This paper examines the shôjo tropes in contemporary illustrations that were produced to accompany two tales by the renowned author Miyazawa Kenji (1896-1933, Futago no Hoshi (Twin Stars and Ginga Tetsudô no Yoru (Night of the Milky Way Railway. Although Kenji (as he is known is not generally considered a shôjo author, some of his works incorporate gently transgressive shôjo themes reminiscent of, for example, Yoshiya Nobuko’s Hana Monogatari (Flower Tales from the 1920s. I argue that the current artwork of two award-winning artists, Makino Suzuko and Azuma Itsuko, reflects and enhances Kenji’s ‘girlish’ verbal images, bringing them to the fore in their accompanying imagery for Futago and Ginga by drawing on shôjo art, manga and literature. The artists thus bring into play intertextual references that occur not only across different historical temporalities but also through relations between the author, the artist, the text(s, the protagonists and the reading/viewing audience. The analysis of their striking artwork shows how they bring Kenji’s 1920s’ works firmly into the arena of the contemporary ‘girl’, expanding the abstract consciousness of the sh

  19. 腐植酸复合肥对油菜品质及生理指标的影响%Study the effect of humic acid (HA) compound fertilizer on the quality and physiologic index of rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭正萍; 薛世川; 孙志梅; 门明新; 赵会欣

    2001-01-01

    针对长期大量施用化肥造成老菜园土壤养分失衡、蔬菜品质变劣等问题,研制了几种新型颗粒腐植酸复合肥供油菜土培与砂培试验应用。研究表明,所有施肥处理比对照有显著的增产效果,参试肥料间产量差异不显著。在投入养分量相等条件下,腐植酸能显著降低油菜体内硝酸盐含量,提高Vc、可溶性糖含量及SOD、POD、NR活性,且以腐复肥4号(HA-NPK-Zn)效果最好。腐植酸还能有效提高油菜体内叶绿素含量,使叶片增厚,外观油绿鲜美,商品价值提高。在土壤水分含量相等条件下,腐植酸能有效提高油菜的蒸腾强度,降低气孔阻力,从而保障水分及各种代谢活动旺盛。%Fertilizer used in the old vegetable garden for a long time causing a lot of problems like the disequilibrium of soil nutrients, the deterioration of vegetable quality, so several new HA compound fertilizers were applied to rape ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L. Makino) in sandy and soil culture experiments. The results showed that all fertilizer treatments were notably out-weighted the CK and no significant different yield between the experimental fertilizers. With equal-nutritional quantity, HA compound fertilizer appaiently decreased the NO3-N content and increased Vc, soluble sugar content and SOD, POD, NR activities. Moreover,number 4 (HA-NPK-Zn) was the best among them. It also effectively enhanced the chlorophyll content and made the blade thick, glossy dark green and fresh, which hnproved the commodity value of rape. With equal soil-water content, the intensity of transpiration increased and the resistance of stoma decreased by HA compound fertilizer ensured the water or other metabolisms vigorously to rape.

  20. 中药复方灌注剂治疗奶牛乳房炎的药效与应用安全性研究%The Effecacy and Safety of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Compoud Filler for Dairy Cattle with Mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆娟; 冯士彬; 李志明; 王希春; 韩春杨; 邹松阳; 刘琦山; 吴金节

    2011-01-01

    治疗奶牛乳房炎的中药复方灌注剂由瓜子金、紫花地丁、鸡血藤和黄芪等11味中药组方制成.以兔子、小白鼠和豚鼠为试验动物,从镇痛、抗炎、解热、异常毒性、热源检查、溶血与凝集和过敏反应等方面进行了药效与应用安全性研究.试验显示,该中药复方灌注剂对小白鼠镇痛和抗炎效果以及对伤寒-副伤寒二联菌苗致家兔发热反应的解热效果极显著(P<0.01).通过安全性试验,未发现该中药复方灌注剂引起异常毒性、热敏、溶血与凝集反应和过敏反应.结果表明,该中药复方灌注剂镇痛、消炎和解热效果显著,安全性较高,可用于临床试验.%The compound filler was composed of 11 kinds of the traditional Chinese herbs such as Polygala japonica, Viola yedoensis Makino, Spatholobus suberectrus and Astragalus membranaceus, etc. Rabbits, small mice and guinea pigs were selected to investigate the effecacy and safety of the compound filler through analgesic test, antiinflammation test, antipyretic test,abnormal toxicity and pyrogen test, hemolysis and agglutination reaction, and allergic reaction, etc. The results showed that the analgesic and antiinflammation effect of the compound filler in small mice and the antipyretic effect on the fever of rabbits induced by typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine were extremely significant(P<O.O1). The security test revealed that the compound filler did not cause abnormal toxicity, temperature sensitivity, hemolysis and agglutination, and allergic reactions. The results indicated that the compound filler was very effective for analgesic, antiinflammation and antipyretic, and it was safe in clinical application.

  1. Cloning and expression analysis of SRK gene fragment in non-heading Chinese cabbage%不结球白菜S位点受体激酶基因片段的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱芬; 王立; 侯喜林; 刘同坤; 李英

    2011-01-01

    Using primers SR KF/SRKR,964 bp gDNA (BcSRK-I)and 646 bp cDNA sequences of S locus receptor kinase gene were obtained from serf-incompatible line 03 of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that DNA and cDNA of BcSRK-I belonged to kinase domain,containing 4 exons and 3 introns,and coded 215 amino acids.Furthermore, its similarity was over 90% with the SRK gene of Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra.Real-time PCR analysis showed there was a significant difference between self-incompatible and seff-compatible lines. BcSRK-1 was highly expressed in stigmas of self-incompatible line. Howerer,in self-compatible line,BcSRK-1 was expressed in an even lower level whether in stigmas, buds or leaves.%以不结球白菜自交不亲和系03的基因组DNA和柱头cDNA为模板,利用引物SRKF/SRKR扩增获得长度为964bp和646bp的SRK基因片段.序列比较分析表明,克降的基因片段属于SRK基因的激酶域,该序列包含4个外显子和3个内含子,编码215个氨基酸,与芜菁、甘蓝、芥蓝等SRK基因有90%以上的相似性.荧光定量PCR分析结果表明:自交不亲和系03和自交亲和系105不同组织中SRK基因的表达水平存在显著的差异,SRK基因主要在自交不亲和系的柱头中高度表达,自交亲和系中该基因的表达主要分布于叶片、花蕾和柱头组织中.

  2. Generation of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide hydroxyl and scavenger radical adducts from copper/H2O2 mixtures: effects of metal ion chelation and the search for high-valent metal-oxygen intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, M J; Tsang, S Y; Tam, S C; Bremner, I

    1995-10-20

    A metal-catalyzed nucleophilic addition mechanism for the formation of radical adducts of the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) has been described recently (K. Makino, T. Hagiwara, A. Hagi, M. Nishi, and A. Murakami, 1990, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 172, 1073-1080; P. M. Hanna, W. Chamulitrat, and R. P. Mason, 1992, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 296, 640-644). In the present investigation, we have demonstrated that the recently reported inhibition of copper-dependent hydroxyl radical formation by the complexing agent 1,10-phenanthroline (OP), which appears to contradict the well-known chemical nuclease properties of CuI(OP)2, is an artifact resulting from an inhibition of the nucleophilic addition of water to DMPO by OP (A. C. Mello-Filho and R. Meneghini, 1991, Mutat. Res. 251, 109-113). Copper bound to OP was found to be a good catalyst of hydroxyl radical formation: the CuII(OP)2 complex can be reduced by H2O2 and the CuI(OP)2 generated reacts with the peroxide to form .OH. In contrast, no evidence could be obtained for oxidant formation from the CuII(aq)/H2O2 reaction system, despite the detection of a prominent signal from the DMPO hydroxyl radical adduct (DMPO/.OH) (the formation of which was due solely to the nucleophilic addition of water to DMPO). The failure to generate an oxidant in this reaction mixture was attributed to the failure of hydrogen peroxide to reduce CuII(aq), as hydroxyl radical formation did occur when CuI(aq) was added directly to H2O2. However, in order to account for the high concentration of alpha-hydroxyethanol radicals detected when ethanol was included in the CuI(aq)/H2O2 reaction, the possibility that an oxidant in addition to .OH (e.g., CuO+) is generated is discussed.

  3. 毛叶香茶菜中新奇二萜化合物的核磁共振波谱信号的指定%The Assignments of NMR Data of Rabdoepigibberellolide, A Novel Diterpenoid from Isodon japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵清治; 张雁冰; 寇娴; 林隆泽; 孙汉董

    2001-01-01

    @@ Rabdoepigibberellolide是日本学者越智雅光(Ochi等, 1982)从日本产四国香茶菜[Is odon shikokiana (Makino) Hara]中首次分离得到的、也是迄今为止从香茶菜属(Iso don)植物中得到的唯一一个具6-表-对映-赤霉素烷(6-epi-ent-gibberellane)型的新奇二萜化合物,经NMR波谱测定和X-射线衍射分析,其结构如图1所示.但基于当时的条件, 未能对其1H和13 C NMR的数据进行全指定.我们研究组于1992年从河南省新县产毛叶香茶菜[Isodon japonica (Burman f.) Hara]叶的提取物中,同样得到了该化合物 ,后经1D和2D NMR技术仔细测定分析,对Rabdoepigibberellolide化合物的1H和13 C NMR数据进行了全指定,并借助于分子模型分析程序PCMODEL 386 V 4.0和MNX能量场最低能量计算得其三维结构,如图2所示.由三维结构及2D NMR测定分析,A环和-内酯环呈椅式构象,C环呈船式构象. Rabdoepigibberellolide:无色针状结晶(MeOH),C26H34O9, mp 245~2 47 ℃; [α]D -93° (c 0.34, CHCl3); UV (MeOH) λmax 238 (log ε 4. 67) nm; IR (KBr) λmax cm-1: 3496, 1740, 1730, 1725, 1660, 1370, 124 8, 1233, 1195, 1182, 1030; EIMS m/z (rel. int. %): 490 [M]+ (18), 472 (4), 4 48 (92), 430 (13), 412 (8), 388 (100), 370 (15), 360 (10), 346 (79), 328 (62), 3 10 (22), 300 (28), 283 (52), 269 (42), 255 (25), 121 (45); 1 H和13C NMR 波谱数据见表1和表2.

  4. Optimization of accelerator parameters using normal form methods on high-order transfer maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snopok, Pavel [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2007-05-01

    in a way that is easy to understand, such important characteristics as the strengths of the resonances and the tune shifts with amplitude and various parameters of the system are calculated. Each major section is supplied with the results of applying various numerical optimization methods to the problems stated. The emphasis is made on the efficiency comparison of various approaches and methods. The main simulation tool is the arbitrary order code COSY INFINITY written by M. Berz, K. Makino, et al. at Michigan State University. Also, the code MAD is utilized to design the 750 x 750 GeV Muon Collider storage ring baseline lattice.

  5. Study on Medication Principles of Modern Famous Doctor Chen Youzhi Using TCM to Cancer Patients Based on Data Analysis%基于数据分析当代名医陈友芝中医治癌的用药规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇志成; 李廷保

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate medication principles of modern famous doctor Chen Youzhi applying TCM to cancer patients based on data mining. Methods: TCM prescriptions in Chen Youzhi′s cases of applying TCM to cancer patients were typed into the computer, data base was founded by Microsoft Office Excel 2003, medication principles were analyzed by statistical methods. Results: Altogether 354 pieces of TCM prescriptions were collected, involved 231 kinds of herbs, total medication frequency reached 4 136 times. Conclusion: Main drugs are of heat-clearing, tonification, promoting diuresis and damp-clearing, digestion, resolving sputum and relieving asthma and others in clinic;core single herbs in turn: BanZhiLian (Scutellaria barbata D. Don), FuLing [Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf], Jobstears seed, BaiHua SheShe Cao (Hedyotis diffusa Willd.), ShenQu (Massa Medicata Fermentata), JiaoGuLan [Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino], BaiShaoYao (White Paeony Root), ShouGong (Gekko japonicus Dumeril et Bibron), BeiMu (fritillary), KuShen (Sophora flavescens), ShanZha (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge), BaiZhu (Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.) and others.%目的:基于数据挖掘当代名医陈友芝中医药治疗癌症用药规律的研究。方法:将《陈友芝中医治癌百例》中医方剂录入计算机,使用Microsoft Office Excel 2003软件,建立数据库,运用统计学方法统计分析其用药规律。结果:整理治癌中药复方354首,使用中药231种,总用药次数4136次。结论:临床以清热药、补虚药、利水渗湿药、消食药、化痰平喘药等为主;核心单味药依次为半枝莲、茯苓、薏苡仁、白花蛇舌草、神曲、绞股蓝、白芍、守宫、贝母、苦参、山楂、白术等。

  6. 福建光泽天然林中南方铁杉的种内与种间竞争%Intra and interspecific competition in Tsuga chinensis var.tchekiangensis in a natural forest in Guangze, Fujian, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金旺

    2011-01-01

    Hegyi's single-tree competition index was selected from several competition indices and to be used for the intra-and interspecific competition intensities of Tsuga chinensis var. Tchekiangensis trees in a natural forest in Cuzngze, Fujian, China. The results showed that the intraspecific competition intensity of T. Chinensis var. Tchekiangensis was 52.03, and was higher than any other interspecific competition intensities, but lower than the sum of all the interspecific competition intensities (164.08). The order of the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensities received by T. Chinensis var. Tchekiangensis was: T. Chinensis var. Tchekiangensis > Schima superba > Rhododendron simiarum > Castanopsis eyrei > Sorbus dunnii > Cyclobalanopsis gracilis > Rhododendron latoucheae > Cleyera pachyphylla > Pinus taiwanensis > Lithocarpus iteaphyl-lus > Toxicodendron succedaneum > Acanthopanax evodiaefolius > Ternstroemia kwangtungensis > Cryptomeria fortwiei > Uquid-ambar formosana > Ilex ficoidea > Sorbus folgneri > Pieris polka > Dendropanax dentiger > Ilex purpurea > Halesia macgregorii. The competition intensities received by T. Chinensis var. Tchekiangensis were decreased with the increase in diameter at breast height ( DBH) of objective trees. When DBH of objective trees reached 30 cm, the competition intensities changed little. The relationships between competition intensities and DBH of objective trees were closely followed the power function.%通过各种竞争指数的比较,提出采用Hegyi单木竞争指数模型研究福建光泽天然林中南方铁杉在生长发育过程中受到的种内和种间竞争强度.结果表明,南方铁杉受到的种内竞争指数为52.03,高于任一其他树种的竞争指数,但低于种间竞争指数总和(164.08).南方铁杉受到的种间和种内竞争大小顺序为:南方铁杉>木荷>猴头杜鹃>甜槠>棕脉花楸>小叶青冈>鹿角杜鹃>厚叶红淡比>黄山松>鼠刺叶石栎>

  7. 高黎贡山五加科的植物地理学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嵘; 龙春林

    1999-01-01

    本文从属、种及地史文献资料三方面对高黎贡山五加科植物进行了植物地理学研究。结果表明 :1 高黎贡山五加科植物包括 1 5属 56种及 1 3变种。 2 从起源来看 ,高黎贡山五加科植物以热带起源为主 ,热带属占 66 7% (1 0属 ) ,温带属占 33 3% (5属 ) ,而与地中海地区和中亚地区的联系十分微弱。3 从种的分布区式样来看 :高黎贡山五加科植物以温带分布型为主 ,温带分布型的物种占全科种数的 88 4% (61种 ) ,这一统计结果与属的统计结果 (66 7%的属系热带属 )形成很大的反差 ,其原因在于掸邦 -马来亚板块上的高黎贡山植物区系源于赤道热带 ,在板块位移过程中 ,随着高黎贡山的北移 ,喜马拉雅山脉的强烈隆升 ,五加科这一起源于热带的古老木本植物 ,因不适于比赤道带冷得多的气候环境而先后被淘汰 ,部分属种则在新的环境中经过适应、演化和重新分化 ,除个别热带属的北缘种在高黎贡山北端独龙江河谷中幸存下来 (如树参属Dendropanax)以外 ,其余新分化出来的植物则是温带性的 (如常春木属Merrilliopanax) ,因此 ,现在高黎贡山五加科植物区系中 ,热带起源的属多于温带属 ,但温带种大大多于热带种。所有这些成分中 ,中国 -喜马拉雅分布的成分 (1 5种 )和中国特有的成分 (43种 )构成了高黎贡山五加科植物区系的基本

  8. 不结球白菜根尖体细胞染色体制片及其二倍体和四倍体有丝分裂过程观察%Chromosome preparation of somatic cell in root-tip of non-heading Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis ) and observation of mitosis process of its diploid and tetraploid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金双; 张蜀宁; 孙成振; 王雅美

    2011-01-01

    以不结球白菜(Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis Makino)根尖为材料,对染色体制片过程中根长(小于0.5 cm、0.5 ~ 1.0 cm、1.0~2.0 cm及大于2.0 cm)、预处理方法、预处理剂种类(2 mmol·L-1 8-羟基喹啉、2 mmol·L-1 8-羟基喹啉与质量浓度0.2g·L-1秋水仙素等体积混合液、质量浓度0.2g·L-1秋水仙素、饱和对二氯苯、质量浓度20或40 mg·L-1放线菌酮、质量浓度40mg·L-1放线菌酮与2 mmol·L-1 8-羟基喹啉等体积混合液)及预处理时间(1.0~3.5 h)进行了比较和筛选;在此基础上,对二倍体和四倍体不结球白菜根尖体细胞有丝分裂过程进行观察.结果表明:根长度对分裂相的数量有显著影响;根长1.0~2.0 cm,分裂相相对较多,占细胞总数的64.75%.冰冻预处理22 ~ 23 h,能获得一定量的分裂相.采用不同的预处理剂及预处理时间,分裂相的数量及染色体形态有明显差异;用质量浓度40 mg·L-1放线菌酮溶液处理3.5h,分裂相数量最多,但易导致染色体加倍;用质量浓度20mg·L-1放线菌酮预处理3.5h,染色体长且着丝点及随体清晰,且分裂相较多,占细胞总数的53.65%.因而,根长度以1.0 ~2.0 cm为宜,适宜的预处理方法为用质量浓度20 mg·L-1放线菌酮浸泡2.0~3.0 h.二倍体及四倍体不结球白菜根尖体细胞有丝分裂过程基本相似,在有丝分裂的间期、前期、中期、后期和末期染色体的行为基本一致,但在四倍体的有丝分裂过程中会出现多价体、染色体桥、落后染色体、染色体异常分离及内源有丝分裂等异常现象.%Using root-tip of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis Makino) as experimental material, root length (shorter than 0.5 cm, 0.5-1.0 cm, 1.0-2.0 cm and longer than 2.0 cm) , pretreatment method, pretreatment agent types (2 mmol · L-1 8-hydroxyquinoline, equivalent volume mixed solution of 2 mmol · L-1 8-hydroxyquinoline and 0. 2 g

  9. 甜菜夜蛾在四种寄主植物上的生命表参数比较研究%Comparative life table parameters of the beet armyworm,Spodoptera exigua, on four host plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董钧锋; 张友军; 朱国仁; 王少丽

    2012-01-01

    在控制条件下对甜菜夜蛾Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)在白菜、大葱、甘蓝和豇豆上的生命表参数进行了比较研究.结果表明,甜菜夜蛾幼虫在4种寄主植物上均为5个龄期.幼虫和蛹在大葱上的发育历期最长,在白菜上最短.甘蓝叶片饲养的甜菜夜蛾生殖力最高,单雌产卵量为1 015.8粒,豇豆叶片上饲养的生殖力最低,为496.1粒.甜菜夜蛾在甘蓝上的内禀增长率和净增殖率最高,分别为0.237和287.82,在大葱上最低,分别为0.172和173.90.在大葱上甜菜夜蛾幼虫存活率较低,在其他3种寄主植物上较高.甜菜夜蛾的特定年龄生殖率在甘蓝叶片上最高,第22天单雌产卵量高达453.6粒.研究结果表明,在选取的4种植物中,甘蓝是甜菜夜蛾的最适寄主.%The effects of four host plants on life table parameters of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) , were studied in the laboratory at ( 27 ± 1 )℃ , relative humidity of 65% ±5% and photoperiod of 18L: 6D. The host plants tested were Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour. ) Olsson) , Chinese onion (Alliumfistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) , cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. ) , and bean ( Vigna unguiculata W. ssp. sesquipedalis ( L. ) Verd). The results show that five larval stages of 5, exigua occur on the four host plants tested. The larval and pupal periods were longest on Chinese onion, and shortest on Chinese cabbage. Among the different host plants, S. exigua exhibited the highest fecundity on cabbage, with 1 015.8 eggs/female and the lowest on bean, with 496. 1 eggs/female. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) ranged from 0. 172 to 0. 237 , with the highest rate on cabbage and the lowest on Chinese onion. The highest net reproductive rate ( R0 ) was on cabbage, with 287.82 female/female/ generation and the lowest was on Chinese onion with 173. 90 female/female/generation. Larval survival was lower on Chinese onion than on the other

  10. Influence of Different NH4+/NO3- Ratios on Nitrate Accumulation in Different Genotypes of Chinese Cabbage%铵硝比例对不同基因型小白菜硝酸盐积累影响机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵首萍; 张瑞麟; 徐明飞; 郑纪慈

    2011-01-01

    Taking the different genotypes of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino) cultivars, hyper nitrate accumulator SYM and low nitrate accumulator HGQGC as materials, we investigated the accumulation of nitrate, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and the expression levels of NRT1and NRT2 in plant tissue. The results showed that different NH4+/NO3- ratios produced significant influence on nitrate accumulation and this influence varied with genotypes. SYM possessed stronger ability than HGQGC to absorb, accumulate and utilize nitrate especially under higher NO3- proportion treatments, and the NRA of HGQGC was more sensitive than SYM to different NH4+/NO3- ratios. The expressions of NRT1 and NRT2 mainly located in root, and the expression levels of NRT1 was higher significantly than that of NRT2. The expression levels of NRT1 and NRT2 can partly explain the different nitrate accumulations between SYM and HGQGC under different NH4+/NO3- ratios;however, the mechanism of it needs more research.%本研究以前期工作中筛选出的硝酸盐积累量存在显著差异的2个不同基因型小白菜品种为材料,在人工气候箱水培条件下研究了不同铵硝比例对小白菜硝酸盐积累量、硝酸还原酶活性(NRA)和硝酸盐吸收基因NRT1和NRT2的表达量的影响.结果表明,不同铵硝比例对小白菜硝酸盐积累量有显著影响,且存在基因型差异.四月慢对硝酸盐吸收、积累及同化利用的能力都强于华冠青梗菜,尤其是在高NO3-比例处理时.与华冠青梗菜相比,四月慢对NO3-的同化利用的能力更不易受铵硝比例的影响.NRT1和NRT2主要在根部表达,且NRT1的表达量显著高于NRT2,NRT1和NRT2的表达量变化规律只能在一定程度上解释小白菜不同基因型间硝酸盐积累量的差异,小白菜不同基因型品种间硝酸盐积累量差异的机理还需要进一步研究.

  11. Spectral analysis of magnetic anomalies in and around the Philippine Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Ishihara, T.

    2009-12-01

    that source distribution is random; therefore when magnetic anomalies represent linear features, this analysis based on ensembles of thin prisms may produce unreliable results. In this case, one-dimensional spectrum analysis based on a thin plate model composed of long bars is preferable. Makino and Okubo [1988] developed one-dimensional spectral analysis for marine linear magnetic anomalies. A linear relationship between the natural log of (power-density spectrum of magnetic profile) and wavelength gives the centroid depth of magnetic sources. The same method is applied to this area. This analysis requires a long profile to see deeper structure. It may not be possible to find good enough data. However, both methods give consistent results, and the obtained Zo distribution provides a comprehensive view of regional-scale features. The correlation between crustal thickness and Zo and its correspondence with tectonic regime indicates that Zo is useful to delineate regional crustal thermal structure. It is expected that Zo combined with multidisciplinary data should help to infer geophysical and geological information in the less explored regions.

  12. Study of pollen mother cell meiosis and male gametophyte development in autotetraploid of non-heading Chinese cabbage%普通白菜同源四倍体花粉母细胞减数分裂及其雄配子体发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔群香; 王倩; 唐红艳; 韩长奎

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal meiotic behaviors and male gametophytes development of autotetraploid of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis Makino) derived from microspore culture were studied by using H33258 fluorescence staining technique. The results showed that tetraploid with cell division period and chromosomes morphological change was similar to the diploid; Four homologous chromosomes formed quadrivalent, bivalent (or paired bivalent) and few trivalent and univalent at metaphase Ⅰ ; There were different styles for the quadrivalent at diakinesis stage, such as rod style, ring style, or in the shape of V, L, U, S and Y et al. There were ten quadrivalents or paired bivalents appeared in majority cells at metaphase Ⅰ , while multivalent and univalent appeared in a few cells. The tetrads were mostly vertical or tetrahedral. The form of the cytokinesis of meiosis was simultaneous type. The mature pollen grains were three karyotype, including a vegetative nucleus and two sperm nuclei, with four germinal furrow. Lagging chromosomes were observed during the whole division period from meiosis anaphase Ⅰ to telophase Ⅱ , and even at mitosis of microspore.%应用H33258荧光染色法研究普通白菜小孢子再生四倍体植株花粉母细胞减数分裂和雄配子体发育过程.结果表明:四倍体白菜花粉母细胞减数分裂过程及各时期染色体形态等变化与二倍体植株相似;4条同源染色体中期Ⅰ可出现四价体、二价体或配对二价体、少量三价体和单价体;终变期四价体呈棒状、环状、V形、L形、U形、S形、Y形等多种构型;中期Ⅰ多数细胞中出现10个四价体或配对二价体,个别细胞中出现多价体或单价体.四分体排列方式有垂直型和四面体型;花粉母细胞减数分裂的胞质分裂方式为同时型;成熟花粉粒为三核型,包括1个营养核和2个精核,具四萌发沟.从后期Ⅰ到末期Ⅱ,甚至小孢子有丝分裂,整个

  13. EDITORIAL: Oxide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, M.; Makino, T.

    2005-04-01

    non-equilibrium growth has rekindled the recent extensive investigation and progress in the field of ZnO epitaxy. In this special issue, Ohtomo and Tsukazaki, Cho et al, and Yi et al, respectively, describe the various fabrication processes such as pulsed laser deposition, molecular-beam epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. It should be noted that the last work among the above-mentioned papers has the potential to pave the way to nano-technology based on ZnO. This material has found other important applications as well, such as transparent conducting oxides (TCO). This field has a long research history, as is reviewed by Minami. Relatively speaking, ZnO was one of the earliest crystals (after Si, Ge, and InSb) to be prepared in a pure form, and the resultant long research history has given rise to the availability of large-area substrates. Recent progress in this topic is explained by two representative groups of authors in this field: Nause and Nemeth at Cermet Inc., and Maeda et al at Tokyo Denpa Co. Ltd. In order to overcome the bottleneck of p-type conduction and control the material's properties, a clear understanding of the physical processes in ZnO is necessary. Look et al are known as the first group to report on the growth and properties of p-type ZnO layers with a valid and reasonable set of experimental data (2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 1830). Here, Look contributes a more comprehensive review to this issue. Optical studies on single crystals were conducted and are reviewed here by Meyer et al and Chichibu et al. Band-gap engineering and fabrication of heterojunction or quantum structures are important technological issues. It should be emphasized that by choosing an appropriate set of concentrations (x and y), perfect lattice-matching between MgxZn1-xO and CdyZn1-yO can be attained (Makino T et al 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 1237). Exciton properties of multiple quantum well structures are reported by Makino et al in this issue. Other than

  14. Niche of the Major Tree Species Populations in Cathaya argyrophylla Forest in Guangxi%广西银杉林主要树种种群生态位分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠伟; 胡仁传; 黄日波; 谢强

    2012-01-01

    Using the plots of Cathaya argyrophylla community with different habitats in Guangxi as resource complexes (resource position) , and the species of important value as the state index on resource position the niche breadth (Levins index and Shannon Wiener diversity index), the proportion of niche similarity and niche overlap of the dominant species populations in C. argyrophylla community were quantitatively analyzed. The results show that; 1) The C. argyrophylla, Rhododendron simiarum, Pinus kwangtungensis, Dendropanax hainanensis, Pentaphylax euryoides and Dunnia sinensis have greater important value and wider niche breadth, and they are the dominant species resources in the community, with higher ability in the surveyed habitat and occupy an important position in C. argyrophylla forest. But Micheliafigo, Gordonia axillaris and Clethra bodinieri var. parviflora are on the contrary. 2) There is a larger niche similarity among most of the species in C. argyrophylla forest, the ecological characteristics of them are similar in resource utilization. The species with wider niche breadth will have a bigger niche similar-ity value, while the species with smaller niche width have lower similarity value with other species. 3) The niche o-verlap value is low among the major tree species in C. argyrophylla forest and the competition among main tree species is weak. The species with larger niche breadth have larger niche overlap value and higher probability in occupy or use the same resources with other species, while the species with smaller niche breadth have smaller niche overlap value and lower probability in occupy or use the same resources with other species. 4) C. argyrophylla has a large important value in all the quadrats, so it has great niche breadth value. C. argyrophylla is the dominant species and the constructive species in C. argyrophylla forest community.%以广西银杉林不同生境的样地作为不同资源的综合体(资源位),以各物种的重要

  15. Synthesis of polystyrene with high melting temperature through BDE/CuCl catalyzed polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN; Xiaolong

    2001-01-01

    Lecomte, P., Drapier, I., Dubios, P. et al., Controlled radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of palladium acetate, triphenyl phosphine, and carbon tetrachloride, Macromolecules, 1997, 30: 7631.[12]Kotani, Y., Kamigaito, Y., Sawamoto, M., Re(V)-mediated living radical polymerization of styrene: ReO2I(PPh3)2/RI initiating system, Macromolecules, 1999, 32: 2420.[13]Makino, T., Tokunaga, E., Hogen-Esch, T. E., Controlled atom transfer radical polymerizations of methyl methacrylate under micellar conditions, Polym. Prep., 1998, 39(1): 288.[14]Gaynor, S. G., Qiu, J., Matyjaszewski, K., Controlled/"living" radical polymerization applied to water-borne system, Macromolecule, 1998, 31: 5951.[15]Qiu, J., Gaynor, S. G., Matyjaszewski, K., Controlled/"living" radical polymerization of n-butyl methacrylate by reverse atom transfer radical polymerization, Macromolecules, 1999, 32: 2872.[16]Shipp, D. A., McMurtry, G. P., Gaynor, S. G. et al., Water-borne block copolymer synthesis and a simple and effective one-pot synthesis of acrylate-methacrylate block copolymers by atom transfer radical polymerization, Polym. Prep., 1999, 40(2): 448.[17]Nishikawa, T., Kamigaito, M., Sawamoto, M., Living radical polymerization in water and alcohols: suspension polymerization of methyl methacrylate with RuCl2(PPh3)3 complex, Macromolecules, 1999, 32: 2204.[18]Wan, X. L., Ying, S. K., "Living" radical emulsion polymerization of styrene under Cu0/Bpy/CCl4 and CuCl2/Bpy/AIBN system, Chinese J. Polym. Sci., 2000, (1): 27.[19]Wan, X. L., Ying, S. K., Controlled radical polymerization catalyzed by Cu/BDE complex in water medium, 1. Polymerization of styrene and synthesis of poly(St-b-MMA), J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2000, 75(1): 802.[20]Wan, X. L., Ying, S. K., Synthesis of block copolymers by emulsion "living"/controlled radical polymerization of vinyl monomers in sequence, Polym. Prep., 1999, 40: 1055.[21]Keller, R. N., Wycoff, H. D., The synthesis

  16. Редкие виды сосудистых растений на территории национального парка «Земля леопарда» (Приморский край, Россия

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Pimenova

    2016-06-01

    етственно делению территории НП. В результате было собрано более 1500 образцов сосудистых растений, хранящихся в гербарной коллекции БСИ ДВО РАН (VBGI. В статье приводится аннотированный перечень 28 редких видов, выявленных на территории НП «Земля леопарда» и подтвержденных гербарными образцами. К редким отнесены 3 вида, включенные в “The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species”(2014, 14 видов из Красной книги РФ (2008, 20 видов из Красной книги Приморского края (2008 и 5 видов, редко встречающихся на исследуемой территории в силу различных природных или антропогенных факторов. Из наиболее редких видов в статье приведены: Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., Codonopsis pilosula Nannf., Meehania urticifolia Makino, Clematis koreana Kom.

  17. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - Teses Defendidas 1998 - Doutorado - Instituto de Geociências - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    -se individualizar 14 biozonas, o que representa um incremento considerável em termos de resolução bioestratigráfica. Da base para o topo da seção, as biozonas receberam as seguintes denominações e atribuições cronoestratigráficas: Nannoconus fragilis, N-240, Aptiano-Albiano; Braarudosphaera ex. gr., Braarudosphaera africana, N-252, Albiano; Axopodorhabdus albianus, N-260.1, Albiano-Cenomaniano; Radiolithus planus, N-260.3, Cenomaniano-Turoniano; Eprolithus eptapetalus, N-260.4, Turoniano-Coniaciano; Eprolithus floralis, N-260.5, Conaciano-Santoniano; Lithastrinus moratus, N-260.7, Santoniano; Lithastrinus grillii, N-260.9, Santoniano-Campaniano; Eiffellithus eximius, N-265, Campaniano; Aspidolithus parcus s.l., N-270, Campaniano- Maastrichtiano; Uniplanarius trifidus, N-280, Maastrichtiano; Glaukolithus compactus, N-290.3a, Maastrichtiano; Gartnerago obliquum, N-290.3b, Maastrichtiano; Cribosphaera ehrenbergii, N-290-3c, Maastrichtiano. As unidades de código N-260.1 a N-260.9 foram agrupadas na superzona Lithastrinus sp. (N-260. Aquelas de código N- 290.3a até N-290.3c, por outro lado, foram consideradas como subzonas da unidade Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis, N-290. Durante as investigações bioestratigráficas, reconheceram-se 82 espécies, agrupadas em 50 gêneros. 127 Anuário do Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 21 / 1998 Nome: Maria Eugênia de Carvalho Marchesini Santos Título: Reconstituições Paleobiológicas nas Bacias do Parnaíba e de São Luís Orientador: Cândido Simões Ferreira Resumo: A bacia sedimentar do Parnaíba, situada em área epicontinental tem registros de antigas faunas e floras, indicativas da alternância de influências continentais e marinhas, durante a história fanerozóica. Possibilitam as análises estratigráficas referenciadas às variações globais do nível do mar. A história geológica compreende as interações entre os fenômenos geológicos e biológicos, pela reconstituição de antigos ecossistemas. Estes s