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Sample records for dendroctonus ponderosae hopkins

  1. Phoretic symbionts of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier E. Mercado; Richard W. Hofstetter; Danielle M. Reboletti; Jose F. Negron

    2014-01-01

    During its life cycle, the tree-killing mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins interacts with phoretic organisms such as mites, nematodes, fungi, and bacteria. The types of associations these organisms establish with the mountain pine beetle (MPB) vary from mutualistic to antagonistic. The most studied of these interactions are those between beetle and...

  2. cis-Verbenol: An aggregation pheromone for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

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    Daniel R. Miller; Jean P. Lafontaine

    1991-01-01

    cis-Verbenol increased catches of mail mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, to multiple-funnel traps baited with myrcene and exo-brevicomin. Cis-Verbenol had no effect on the response of males to traps baited with myrcene, exo-brevicomin and trans-verbenol. In contrast, cis-verbenol increased catches of female D. ...

  3. Laboratory assays of select candidate insecticides for control of Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins Pesticide Management Science 67: 548−555

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Fettig; C.J. Hayes; S.R. McKelvey; S.R. Mori

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosaeHopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is the most destructive bark beetle in western North America. Dendroctonus ponderosae can be prevented from successfully colonizing and killing individual trees by ground-based sprays of insecticides applied directly to...

  4. Isolation and characterization of 16 microsatellite loci in the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

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    C. S. Davis; K. E. Mock; B. J. Bentz; S. M. Bromilow; N. V. Bartell; B. W. Murray; A. D. Roe; J. E. K. Cooke

    2009-01-01

    We isolated 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and developed conditions for amplifying these markers in four multiplex reactions. Three to 14 alleles were detected per locus across two sampled populations. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.902 and from 0.100 to 0.830, respectively...

  5. Stand characteristics and downed woody debris accumulations associated with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak in Colorado

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    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Jose F. Negron; Sheryl L. Costello; Charles C. Rhoades; Daniel R. West; John Popp; Rick Caissie

    2009-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.)-dominated ecosystems in north-central Colorado are undergoing rapid and drastic changes associated with overstory tree mortality from a currentmountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak. To characterize stand characteristics and downed woody debris loads during...

  6. Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow

    2008-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers...

  7. Seasonal shifts in accumulation of glycerol biosynthetic gene transcripts in mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, larvae

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    Jordie D. Fraser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Winter mortality is a major factor regulating population size of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Glycerol is the major cryoprotectant in this freeze intolerant insect. We report findings from a gene expression study on an overwintering mountain pine beetle population over the course of 35 weeks. mRNA transcript levels suggest glycerol production in the mountain pine beetle occurs through glycogenolytic, gluconeogenic and potentially glyceroneogenic pathways, but not from metabolism of lipids. A two-week lag period between fall glycogen phosphorylase transcript and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase transcript up-regulation suggests that gluconeogenesis serves as a secondary glycerol-production process, subsequent to exhaustion of the primary glycogenolytic source. These results provide a first look at the details of seasonal gene expression related to the production of glycerol in the mountain pine beetle.

  8. The legacy of attack: implications of high phloem resin monoterpene levels in lodgepole pines following mass attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins.

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    Clark, E L; Huber, D P W; Carroll, A L

    2012-04-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most serious pest of pines (Pinus) in western North America. Host pines protect themselves from attack by producing a complex mixture of terpenes in their resin. We sampled lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta variety latifolia) phloem resin at four widely separated locations in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, both just before (beginning of July) and substantially after (end of August) the mountain pine beetle dispersal period. The sampled trees then were observed the next spring for evidence of survival, and the levels of seven resin monoterpenes were compared between July and August samples. Trees that did not survive consistently had significantly higher phloem resin monoterpene levels at the end of August compared with levels in July. Trees that did survive mainly did not exhibit a significant difference between the two sample dates. The accumulation of copious defense-related secondary metabolites in the resin of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine has important implications for describing the environmental niche that the beetle offspring survive in as well as that of parasitoids, predators, and other associates.

  9. Efficacy of SPLAT® Verb for protecting individual Pinus contorta, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus lambertiana from mortality attributed to Dendroctonus ponderosae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Fettig; Brytten Steed; Beverly Bulaon; Leif Mortenson; Robert Progar; Clifford Bradley; Steven Munson; Agenor Mafra-Neto

    2016-01-01

    Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregant of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), the most notable forest insect pest in western North America. Several formulations are registered for tree protection, but efficacy is often inconsistent. We evaluated the...

  10. Phenology and density-dependent dispersal predict patterns of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Powell; Barbara J. Bentz

    2014-01-01

    For species with irruptive population behavior, dispersal is an important component of outbreak dynamics. We developed and parameterized a mechanistic model describing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) population demographics and dispersal across a landscape. Model components include temperature-dependent phenology, host tree colonization...

  11. Genetic architecture of differences in fitness traits among geographically separated Dendroctonus ponderosae populations

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    Barbara Bentz; Mike Pfrender; Ryan Bracewell; Karen Mock

    2007-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (MPB), is widely distributed across western North America spanning 25 degrees latitude and more than 2,500 m elevation. In a common garden experiment, Bentz and others (2001) observed that MPB populations from a southern location required significantly...

  12. Area-wide application of verbenone-releasing flakes reduces mortality of whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis caused by the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae

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    Nancy E. Gillette; E. Matthew Hansen; Constance J. Mehmel; Sylvia R. Mori; Jeffrey N. Webster; Nadir Erbilgin; David L. Wood

    2012-01-01

    DISRUPT Micro-Flake Verbenone Bark Beetle Anti-Aggregant flakes (Hercon Environmental, Inc., Emigsville, Pennsylvania) were applied in two large-scale tests to assess their efficacy for protecting whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis Engelm. from attack by mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) (MPB). At two locations, five...

  13. Response of Dendroctonus mexicanus (Hopkins) to two optical isomers of verbenone

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    Vicente Diaz-Nunez; Guillermo Sanchez-Martinez; Nancy E. Gillette

    2006-01-01

    Given the need for diminishing the use of pesticides in natural environments, in this research we investigated the efficacy of two optical isomers of verbenone (4, 6, 6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1] hepto-3-en-e-1) as controls of the attack of Dendroctonus mexicanus (Hopkins) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).Two experiments were established in the...

  14. Cryptic postzygotic isolation in an eruptive species of bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)

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    Ryan R. Bracewell; Michael E. Pfrender; Karen E. Mock; Barbara J. Bentz

    2011-01-01

    Studies of postzygotic isolation often involve well-differentiated taxa that show a consistent level of incompatibility, thereby limiting our understanding of the initial stages and development of reproductive barriers. Dendroctonus ponderosae provides an informative system because recent evidence suggests that distant populations produce hybrids with reproductive...

  15. Flight periodicity of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Colorado, U.S.A

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    Jose F. Negron; Willis C. Schaupp; Lee Pederson

    2011-01-01

    There are about 500 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the United States (Wood 1982). A number of them are important disturbance agents in forested ecosystems, occasionally creating large tracts of dead trees. One eruptive species is the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, which utilizes Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga...

  16. Efficacy of “Verbenone Plus” for protecting ponderosa pine trees and stands from Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attack in British Columbia and California

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    Christopher J. Fettig; Stephen R. McKelvey; Christopher P. Dabney; Dezene P.W. Huber; Cameron C. Lait; Donald L Fowler; John H. Borden

    2012-01-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, mortality in much of western North America. We review several years of research that led to the identification of Verbenone Plus, a novel four-component...

  17. Emergence of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Scolytinae (Coleoptera) from mountain pine beetle-killed and fire-killed ponderosa pines in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

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    Sheryl L. Costello; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-...

  18. Phylogeography of the bark beetle Dendroctonus mexicanus Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

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    Miguel A. Anducho-Reyes; Anthony I. Cognato; Jane L. Hayes; Gerardo. Zuniga

    2008-01-01

    Dendroctonus mexicanus is polyphagous within the Pinus genus and has a wide geographical distribution in Mexico and Guatemala. We examined the pattern of genetic variation across the range of this species to explore its demographic history and its phylogeographic pattern. Analysis of the mtDNA sequences of 173 individuals from...

  19. Functional genomics of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae midguts and fat bodies

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    Bearfield Jeremy C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae is a significant coniferous forest pest in western North America. It relies on aggregation pheromones to colonize hosts. Its three major pheromone components, trans-verbenol, exo-brevicomin, and frontalin, are thought to arise via different metabolic pathways, but the enzymes involved have not been identified or characterized. We produced ESTs from male and female midguts and associated fat bodies and used custom oligonucleotide microarrays to study gene expression patterns and thereby made preliminary identification of pheromone-biosynthetic genes. Results Clones from two un-normalized cDNA libraries were directionally sequenced from the 5' end to yield 11,775 ESTs following sequence cleansing. The average read length was 550 nt. The ESTs clustered into 1,201 contigs and 2,833 singlets (4,034 tentative unique genes. The ESTs are broadly distributed among GO functional groups, suggesting they reflect a broad spectrum of the transcriptome. Among the most represented genes are representatives of sugar-digesting enzymes and members of an apparently Scolytid-specific gene family of unknown function. Custom NimbleGen 4-plex arrays representing the 4,034 tentative unique genes were queried with RNA from eleven different biological states representing larvae, pupae, and midguts and associated fat bodies of unfed or fed adults. Quantitative (Real-Time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that the microarray data accurately reflect expression levels in the different samples. Candidate genes encoding enzymes involved in terminal steps of biosynthetic pathways for exo-brevicomin and frontalin were tentatively identified. Conclusions These EST and microarray data are the first publicly-available functional genomics resources for this devastating forestry pest.

  20. The resin composition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) attacked by the roundheaded pine beetle (Dendroctonus adjunctus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

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    Melissa J. Fischer; Kristen M. Waring; Richard W. Hofstetter; Thomas E. Kolb

    2008-01-01

    Dendroctonus adjunctus is an aggressive bark beetle species that attacks several species of pine throughout its range from southern Utah and Colorado south to Guatemala. A current outbreak of D. adjunctus provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between this beetle and pine resin chemistry in northern Arizona. We...

  1. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, adults during early host colonization.

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    Caitlin Pitt

    Full Text Available We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton, and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  2. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

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    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  3. Polygamy and an absence of fine-scale structure in Dendroctonus ponderosae (Hopk.) (Coleoptera: Curcilionidae) confirmed using molecular markers.

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    Janes, J K; Roe, A D; Rice, A V; Gorrell, J C; Coltman, D W; Langor, D W; Sperling, F A H

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of mating systems and fine-scale spatial genetic structure is required to effectively manage forest pest species such as Dendroctonus ponderosae (mountain pine beetle). Here we used genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the fine-scale genetic structure and mating system of D. ponderosae collected from a single stand in Alberta, Canada. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure was absent within the stand and the majority of genetic variation was best explained at the individual level. Relatedness estimates support previous reports of pre-emergence mating. Parentage assignment tests indicate that a polygamous mating system better explains the relationships among individuals within a gallery than the previously reported female monogamous/male polygynous system. Furthermore, there is some evidence to suggest that females may exploit the galleries of other females, at least under epidemic conditions. Our results suggest that current management models are likely to be effective across large geographic areas based on the absence of fine-scale genetic structure.

  4. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

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    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  5. The Effect of Water Limitation on Volatile Emission, Tree Defense Response, and Brood Success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Two Pine Hosts, Lodgepole, and Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana) trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavig...

  6. The resin composition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) attacked by the roundheaded pine beetle (Dendroctonus adjunctus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (P-53)

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    Melissa J. Fischer; Kristen M. Waring; Richard W. Hofstetter; Thomas E. Kolb

    2008-01-01

    Dendroctonus adjunctus is an aggressive bark beetle species that attacks several species of pine throughout its range from southern Utah and Colorado south to Guatemala. A current outbreak of D. adjunctus provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between this beetle and pine resin chemistry in northern Arizona. We compared the resin composition of trees...

  7. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, chemical and physical defenses that affect mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, attack and tree mortality.

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    Ott, Daniel S; Yanchuk, Alvin D; Huber, Dezene P W; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2011-09-01

    Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction.

  8. Antennal transcriptome analysis of the chemosensory gene families in the tree killing bark beetles, Ips typographus and Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

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    Andersson, Martin N; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Keeling, Christopher I; Bengtsson, Jonas M; Yuen, Macaire M S; Li, Maria; Hillbur, Ylva; Bohlmann, Jörg; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2013-03-21

    The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, and the North American mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are severe pests of coniferous forests. Both bark beetle species utilize aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass-attacks on host trees, while odorants from host and non-host trees modulate the pheromone response. Thus, the bark beetle olfactory sense is of utmost importance for fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfactory detection has been lacking in bark beetles and is limited in Coleoptera. We assembled antennal transcriptomes from next-generation sequencing of I. typographus and D. ponderosae to identify members of the major chemosensory multi-gene families. Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that the relative abundance of transcripts associated with specific GO terms was highly similar in the two species. Transcripts with terms related to olfactory function were found in both species. Focusing on the chemosensory gene families, we identified 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 6 chemosensory proteins (CSP), 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 43 odorant receptors (OR), 6 gustatory receptors (GR), and 7 ionotropic receptors (IR) in I. typographus; and 31 putative OBPs, 11 CSPs, 3 SNMPs, 49 ORs, 2 GRs, and 15 IRs in D. ponderosae. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the cerambycid beetle, Megacyllene caryae, and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The most notable result was found among the ORs, for which large bark beetle-specific expansions were found. However, some clades contained receptors from all four beetle species, indicating a degree of conservation among some coleopteran OR lineages. Putative GRs for carbon dioxide and orthologues for the conserved antennal IRs were included in the identified receptor sets. The protein families important for chemoreception have now been identified in

  9. Change in soil fungal community structure driven by a decline in ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak.

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    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Taylor, D Lee; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Cooke, Janice E K; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2017-01-01

    Western North American landscapes are rapidly being transformed by forest die-off caused by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), with implications for plant and soil communities. The mechanisms that drive changes in soil community structure, particularly for the highly prevalent ectomycorrhizal fungi in pine forests, are complex and intertwined. Critical to enhancing understanding will be disentangling the relative importance of host tree mortality from changes in soil chemistry following tree death. Here, we used a recent bark beetle outbreak in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada to test whether the effects of tree mortality altered the richness and composition of belowground fungal communities, including ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. We also determined the effects of environmental factors (i.e. soil nutrients, moisture, and phenolics) and geographical distance, both of which can influence the richness and composition of soil fungi. The richness of both groups of soil fungi declined and the overall composition was altered by beetle-induced tree mortality. Soil nutrients, soil phenolics and geographical distance influenced the community structure of soil fungi; however, the relative importance of these factors differed between ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. The independent effects of tree mortality, soil phenolics and geographical distance influenced the community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi, while the community composition of saprotrophic fungi was weakly but significantly correlated with the geographical distance of plots. Taken together, our results indicate that both deterministic and stochastic processes structure soil fungal communities following landscape-scale insect outbreaks and reflect the independent roles tree mortality, soil chemistry and geographical distance play in regulating the community composition of soil fungi. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

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    Inka eLusebrink

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  11. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  12. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  13. Density, heating value, and composition of pellets made from lodgepole pine (Pinus concorta Douglas) infested with mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, P.; Kadla, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Wood Science; Sokansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div., Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems; Bi, X.; Lim, C.J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Mani, S. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Faculty of Engineering; Melin, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Delta Research Corp., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    BC is currently experiencing the largest recorded mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in North America that has killed nearly 7 million hectares of pine. The dead trees gradually lose their suitability for dimension lumber and pulp chips due to excessive cracking and spoilage. The economic losses can be partly averted by recovering the killed wood and processing it into pellets for bioenergy and other applications. Currently, Canada exports roughly 750,000 tons of wood pellets to Europe as a fuel for heat and power. The most important physical properties of wood pellets are bulk and pellet density, heating value, moisture content, and durability. In light of the chemical and structural changes reported with MPB attack, it is important to develop engineering data on properties of MPB-affected pine for wood pellets. The objective of this study was to compare chemical composition, density, and heat value of pellets made from MPB-infested wood and to compare these properties with those measured for pellets made from uninfested wood. Chemical analysis showed minor decrease in lignin and sugar contents of pellets made from MPB wood. Pellets made from MPB-infested pine had a mean value for density larger than those made from uninfested pine but the difference was not statistically significant. Heating values of the pellets from MPB-infested wood were similar to those measured for pellets from uninfested wood. A preliminary observation of mold growth did not show any further staining or other decay fungi growth for the pellets made from MPB-infested wood. The pellets made from MPB-infested wood were found to be similar to pellets made from uninfested wood in density, heating value, and most chemical constituents. The overall conclusion was that MBP infested wood can be used to produce comparable pellets to non infested wood pellets. 37 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks. PMID:27783632

  15. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  16. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Lerch

    Full Text Available Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug. and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  17. Acetophenone superior to verbenone for reducing attraction of western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis to its aggregation pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Erbilgin; Nancy E. Gillette; Donald R. Owen; Sylvia R. Mori; Andrew S. Nelson; Fabian C.C. Uzoh; David L. Wood

    2008-01-01

    The western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests of ponderosa pines Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. & C. Lawson in Western U.S.A. We compared the effect of verbenone, a well known bark beetle anti-aggregation pheromone, with that...

  18. Resiliency of an Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest to Bark Beetle Infestations Following Fuel-Reduction and Forest-Restoration Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in California. Twelve experimental plots, ranging in size from 77–144 ha, were established to create two distinct forest structural types: mid-seral stage (low structural diversity; LoD and late-seral stage (high structural diversity; HiD. Following harvesting, half of each plot was treated with prescribed fire (B. A total of 16,473 trees (8.7% of all trees died during the 10-year period. Mortality was primarily attributed to bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae (10,655 trees, specifically fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, pine engraver, Ips pini (Say, and, to a much lesser extent, Jeffrey pine beetle, D. jeffreyi Hopkins. Trees of all ages and size classes were killed, but mortality was concentrated in the smaller-diameter classes (19–29.2 and 29.3–39.3 cm at 1.37 m in height. Most mortality occurred three to five years following prescribed burns. Higher levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality were observed on LoD + B (8.7% than LoD (4.2%. The application of these and other results to the   management of interior P. ponderosa forests are discussed, with an emphasis on the maintenance of large trees.

  19. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Andy Miller

    2008-01-01

    We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation...

  1. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  2. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel R. West; Elisa J. Bernklau; Louis B. Bjostad; William R. Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB). We asked two questions: (1) do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin) and (2) the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpen...

  3. Hopkins, Prof. Frederick Gowland

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Hopkins, Prof. Frederick Gowland Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1929. Date of birth: 20 June 1861. Date of death: 16 May 1947. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  4. Hopkins, Prof. Frederick Gowland

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Hopkins, Prof. Frederick Gowland Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1929. Date of birth: 20 June 1861. Date of death: 16 May 1947. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the ...

  5. Trapping Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) with pheromone baited multiple-funnel traps does not reduce Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Progar; N. Sturdevant; M.J. Rinella

    2010-01-01

    Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) (DFB) causes considerable mortality to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in western North American forests. We evaluated the use of semiochemical-baited multiple-funnel traps for the protection of small, high-value stands of trees, such as those occurring...

  6. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. West

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB. We asked two questions: (1 do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin and (2 the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpene constituents differ between lodgepole and ponderosa pines. We collected oleoresins at three locations in the Southern Rocky Mountains from 56 pairs of the pine species of similar size and growing conditions. The amount of preformed-ponderosa pine oleoresins exuded in 24 h (mg was almost four times that of lodgepole pine. Total qualitative preformed monoterpenes did not differ between the two hosts, though we found differences in all but three monoterpenes. No differences were detected in α-pinene, γ-terpinene, and bornyl acetate. We found greater concentrations of limonene, β-phellandrene, and cymene in lodgepole pines, whereas β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and terpinolene were greater in ponderosa pine. Although we found differences both in quantitative and qualitative preformed oleoresin defenses, the ecological relevance of these differences to bark beetle susceptibility have not been fully tested.

  7. Population densities and tree diameter effects associated with verbenone treatments to reduce mountain pine beetle-caused mortality of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Progar; D.C. Blackford; D.R. Cluck; S. Costello; L.B. Dunning; T. Eager; C.L. Jorgensen; A.S. Munson; B. Steed; M.J. Rinella

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: CurcuIionidae: Scolytinae), is among the primary causes of mature lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia mortality. Verbenone is the only antiaggregant semiochemical commercially available for reducing mountain pine beetle infestation of...

  8. A Review of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann Systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony I. Cognato

    2011-01-01

    The systematic history of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is reviewed. Morphological, biological, karyological, and molecular data clearly define and diagnose the species limits of D. frontalis. More complete phylogenetic analysis and characterization of population genetic variation will further clarify the evolutionary history of the D....

  9. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gu

    Full Text Available The red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing.We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP, six chemosensory proteins (CSP, four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP, 22 odorant receptors (OR, four gustatory receptors (GR, three ionotropic receptors (IR, and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis.The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary

  10. Diesel fuel oil for increasing mountain pine beetle mortality in felled logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Mata; J. M. Schmid; D. A. Leatherman

    2002-01-01

    Diesel fuel oil was applied to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested bolts of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) in early June. Just prior to the fuel oil application and 6 weeks later, 0.5 ft2 bark samples were removed from each bolt and the numbers of live beetles counted....

  11. Attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for Dendroctonus jeffreyi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, B L; Smith, S L; Brownie, C

    2013-04-01

    Jeffrey pine, Pinus jeffreyi Greville and Balfour, is a dominant yellow pine and important overstory component of forests growing on diverse sites from southwestern Oregon to Baja California to western Nevada. The Jeffrey pine beetle, Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is monophagous on Jeffrey pine and its primary insect pest. Despite the importance of P. jeffreyi, difficult terrain, environmental concerns, and lack of roads can constrain pest management activities. Semiochemicals are often easier to apply and more environmentally acceptable than other options, but they are lacking in this system. Attractants have been identified, but field bioassays have been limited because of infrequent or short duration outbreaks and a lack of beetles during nonoutbreak periods. Disruptant semiochemicals have not been assessed for D. jeffreyi during outbreak conditions; however, commercially available semiochemicals have been implicated as disruptants for this bark beetle. The objective of this study was to identify the most effective commercially available attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for D. jeffreyi. Our highest observed catch occurred with the blend of 5% 1-heptanol and 95% n-heptane. When this was used to challenge potential disruptant semiochemicals, the combination of S-(-)-verbenone and the green leaf volatile blend (cis-3-Hexenol and 1-Hexanol) reduced trap catch by ≍80%. However, frontalin was most effective, reducing the number of D. jeffreyi caught by >96%. Within each year of the study, the percentage female of D. jeffreyi caught with our attractant decreased from start to end of the experimental period. On average, our first collection in a year (mid-June to early July) was 59% female, whereas our last (mid-August) was 34%. Frontalin was equally or more effective against females (the pioneering sex) than males, providing optimism that semiochemical disruption may be possible for protecting Jeffrey pines from D

  12. Influences on the Founder of the Johns Hopkins University and the Johns Hopkins Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1994-01-01

    Explains how George Peabody, self-made millionaire and educational philanthropist, was one of three powerful men who influenced Johns Hopkins in founding Johns Hopkins University (the other two being Dr. Joseph Parrish and Dr. Patrick Macaulay). The article looks at how Hopkins, like Peabody, used his wealth for philanthropic purposes. (SM)

  13. Multiaged silviculture of ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin L. O' Hara

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) is highly suitable for management using multiaged systems. This suitability is primarily the result of a frequent, low severity disturbance regime, but also because it naturally occurs at low densities and has a long history of management to promote multiple age classes. Several different stocking...

  14. Effects of bark beetle attack on canopy fuel flammability and crown fire potential in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Martin E. Alexander; Michael J. Jenkins

    2015-01-01

    Large wildland fires in conifer forests typically involve some degree of crowning, with their initiation and propagation dependent upon several characteristics of the canopy fuels. Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia E ngelm.) forests and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus...

  15. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  16. Genetic architecture and phenotypic plasticity of thermally-regulated traits in an eruptive species, Dendroctonus ponderosae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Ryan B. Bracewell; Karen E. Mock; Michael E. Pfrender

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity in thermally-regulated traits enables close tracking of changing environmental conditions, and can thereby enhance the potential for rapid population increase, a hallmark of outbreak insect species. In a changing climate, exposure to conditions that exceed the capacity of existing phenotypic plasticity may occur. Combining information on genetic...

  17. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  18. Applied chemical ecology of the mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Nancy Gillette; Christopher J. Fettig; Kathryn Hrinkevich

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a primary agent of forest disturbance in western North America. Episodic outbreaks occur at the convergence of favorable forest age and size class structure and climate patterns. Recent outbreaks have exceeded the historic range of variability of D. ponderosae-caused tree mortality affecting ecosystem goods and...

  19. Ecology of southwestern ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Moir; Brian W. Geils; Mary Ann Benoit; Dan Scurlock

    1997-01-01

    Ponderosa pine forests are important because of their wide distribution, commercial value, and because they provide habitat for many plants and animals. Ponderosa pine forests are noted for their variety of passerine birds resulting from variation in forest composition and structure modified by past and present human use. Subsequent chapters discuss how ponderosa pine...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Pitt-Hopkins syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) PITT-HOPKINS SYNDROME Sources for This Page Amiel J, Rio M, de Pontual L, Redon R, Malan V, Boddaert N, Plouin P, Carter NP, Lyonnet S, Munnich A, Colleaux L. Mutations in TCF4, ... a severe epileptic encephalopathy associated with autonomic dysfunction. ...

  1. The Johns Hopkins radiology reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, P S; Simborg, D W; Gitlin, J N

    1976-05-01

    Radiologists can comprehensively report diagnostic radiographs by computer with a speed approaching that of dictation. This is the main mode of radiographic reporting used at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Support functions include information storage, retrieval, statistics, and billing. Costs are comparable to stenography. The system can be run from a large time-sharing computer or dedicated minicomputer. A commercial stand-alone version will soon be available.

  2. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  3. Hopkins in the Age of Maxwell Hopkins à l’époque de Maxwell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gallet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorsque l’on veut situer l’œuvre de Hopkins dans son contexte scientifique, on a l’habitude de le faire uniquement par rapport au débat évolutionniste, ou même darwinien, comme dans l’ouvrage de référence de T. Zaniello, Hopkins in the Age of Darwin. Ceci présuppose une vision sélective de ce contexte où figure notamment une autre grande révolution scientifique, dans le domaine de la physique fondamentale. Le représentant le plus éminent en est J. C. Maxwell, chaînon essentiel entre Newton et Einstein. Dans ses textes, Hopkins lui-même s’est intéressé surtout à cette autre révolution scientifique, allant jusqu’à commencer un livre critique envers Light, ouvrage de Tait, physicien de renom et ami de Maxwell. Hopkins s’en prend plus à l’épistémologie idéaliste illustrée, selon le poète, par Tait, qu’à la pensée davantage matérialiste d’un Tyndall. La raison en est sans doute son attachement à un réalisme philosophique dont dépend la notion d’ « inscape ».

  4. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Ruben Manso

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  5. Gerard Manley Hopkins and Walter Pater : the labyrinths of transience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Starčević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transience forming life's very essence left an indelible mark on the creative explorations of Gerard Manley Hopkins and Walter Pater. The permanently indeterminable presence of mutability made both of them face the umbrous and unknowable aspect of death, thus revealing unto them the task of determining the role of art in life ruled by ceaseless corrosion. Pater accepts the flux of mutability as the primary particle in the revelatory act of the authentic creative experience. The power of that which is frolicsome in art augments the constitution of life's essence submerged in the unsettled condition of fate. Hopkins the priest particularly in his theoretic excursions recognizes in art itself only an approximate value to the timeless grandeur of God's ubiquity. His poetry, however, presents a dissimilar narrative. The poetic image that Hopkins forges corresponds to the mode of exposed individuality of the Romantic spirit, which Pater perceives as the harmony of strangeness and beauty. During Hopkins' student days at Oxford, Pater's relationship to the young poet was not confined to coaching only. Much of their time they spent in conversation, meditating upon the essential principles of artistic expression. Pater influenced Hopkins greatly and contributed impressively to the discipline of his poetic heart. Traces of this companionship do not find the path to Hopkins' religious ruminations; they announce their own existence, although very subtly, upon the individual levels of Hopkins' poetic yearnings.

  6. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  7. Nuclear genetic variation across the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa): Phylogeographic, taxonomic and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Mary F. Mahalovich; Robert E. Means

    2015-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is among the most broadly distributed conifer species of western North America, where it possesses considerable ecological, esthetic, and commercial value. It exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation, suggesting that it may be in the process of differentiating into distinct regional...

  8. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, R.W.; Miller, P.R.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R. Jr.

    1968-05-01

    A total of 107 beetle-killed and 963 nearest-neighbor ponderosa pines were examined to determine the association between severity of atmospheric pollution injury and infestation by bark beetles. Trees exhibiting advanced symptoms of pollution injury were most frequently infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, and the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae. The degree of injury and incidence of bark beetle infestation were not related to total height, diameter, length of live and dead crown or crown class. As severity of oxidant injury increased, live crown ratio decreased and incidence of bark beetle infestation increased. One hundred noninfested trees in each of three disease categories, advanced, intermediate, and healthy, were examined for evidence of prior beetle attacks. Thirty-six percent of the advanced-diseased trees versus only 5% of the healthy trees were attacked. Thus, the beetles may discriminate between healthy and diseased trees at a distance, upon contact with the host, or both. These studies indicate strongly that atmospheric pollution injury predisposes ponderosa pine to bark beetle infestations. 3 references, 7 tables.

  9. The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope: The Final Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William V.; Blair, William P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Romelfanger, Mary L.

    2013-04-01

    The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) was a 0.9 m telescope and moderate-resolution (Δλ = 3 Å) far-ultraviolet (820-1850 Å) spectrograph that flew twice on the space shuttle, in 1990 December (Astro-1, STS-35) and 1995 March (Astro-2, STS-67). The resulting spectra were originally archived in a nonstandard format that lacked important descriptive metadata. To increase their utility, we have modified the original data-reduction software to produce a new and more user-friendly data product, a time-tagged photon list similar in format to the Intermediate Data Files (IDFs) produced by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer calibration pipeline. We have transferred all relevant pointing and instrument-status information from locally-archived science and engineering databases into new FITS header keywords for each data set. Using this new pipeline, we have reprocessed the entire HUT archive from both missions, producing a new set of calibrated spectral products in a modern FITS format that is fully compliant with Virtual Observatory requirements. For each exposure, we have generated quick-look plots of the fully-calibrated spectrum and associated pointing history information. Finally, we have retrieved from our archives HUT TV guider images, which provide information on aperture positioning relative to guide stars, and converted them into FITS-format image files. All of these new data products are available in the new HUT section of the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST), along with historical and reference documents from both missions. In this article, we document the improved data-processing steps applied to the data and show examples of the new data products.

  10. Competing vegetation in ponderosa pine plantations: ecology and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    1989-01-01

    Planted ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. var. ponderosa) seedlings in young plantations in California are at a disadvantage compared with competing shrubs, forbs, and grasses. In many instances, roots of competing plants begin expanding and exploiting the soil earlier and in greater numbers, thereby capturing the...

  11. Attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for Dendroctonus jeffreyi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Strom; Smith S.L.; Brownie C.

    2013-01-01

    Jeffrey pine, Pinus jeffreyi Greville and Balfour, is a dominant yellow pine and important overstory component of forests growing on diverse sites from southwestern Oregon to Baja California to western Nevada. The Jeffrey pine beetle, Dedroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is monophagous on Jeffrey...

  12. Verbenone Plus reduces levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle infestations in whitebark pine, a tree species of concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Beverly M. Bulaon; Christopher P. Dabney; Christopher J. Hayes; Stepehen R. McKelvey

    2012-01-01

    In western North America, recent outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, have been severe, long-lasting and well-documented. We review previous research that led to the identification of Verbenone Plus, a novel four-component semiochemical blend [acetophenone, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol + (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (–)-verbenone]...

  13. Mountain pine beetle voltinism and life history characteristics across latitudinal and elevational gradients in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; James Vandygriff; Camille Jensen; Tom Coleman; Patricia Maloney; Sheri Smith; Amanda Grady; Greta Schen-Langenheim

    2014-01-01

    Substantial genetic variation in development time is known to exist among mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations across the western United States. The effect of this variation on geographic patterns in voltinism (generation time) and thermal requirements to produce specific voltinism pathways have not been investigated. The influence of...

  14. Distribution of bark beetle attacks after whitebark pine restoration treatments: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen M. Waring; Diana L. Six

    2005-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), an important component of high elevation ecosystems in the western United States and Canada, is declining due to fire exclusion, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.), and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). This study was...

  15. Assessing the potential for maladaptation during active management of limber pine populations: A common garden study detects genetic differentiation in response to soil moisture in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin M. Borgman; Anna W. Schoettle; Amy L. Angert

    2015-01-01

    Active management is needed to sustain healthy limber pine (Pinus flexilis E. James) forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains (henceforth, Southern Rockies), as they are threatened by the interaction of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic, climate change, and the spread of the non-native pathogen that causes white pine blister...

  16. Persistent reduced ecosystem respiration after insect disturbance in high elevation forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. P. Moore; Nicole A. Trahan; Phil Wilkes; Tristan Quaife; Britton B. Stephens; Kelly Elder; Ankur R. Desai; Jose Negron; Russell K. Monson

    2013-01-01

    Amid a worldwide increase in tree mortality, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) have led to the death of billions of trees from Mexico to Alaska since 2000. This is predicted to have important carbon, water and energy balance feedbacks on the Earth system. Counter to current projections, we show that on a decadal scale, tree mortality causes no...

  17. The effect of salvage logging on surface fuel loads and fuel moisture in beetle-infested lodgepole pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Hood; Kellen N. Nelson; Charles C. Rhoades; Daniel B. Tinker

    2017-01-01

    Widespread tree mortality from mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks has prompted forest management activities to reduce crown fire hazard in the Rocky Mountain region. However, little is known about how beetle-related salvage logging and biomass utilization options affect woody surface fuel loads and fuel moisture dynamics. We compared...

  18. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  19. Mountain pine beetle attack alters the chemistry and flammability of lodgepole pine foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon

    2012-01-01

    During periods with epidemic mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forests, large amounts of tree foliage are thought to undergo changes in moisture content and chemistry brought about by tree decline and death. However, many of the presumed changes have yet to be...

  20. Estimating aboveground tree biomass for beetle-killed lodgepole pine in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodam Chung; Paul Evangelista; Nathaniel Anderson; Anthony Vorster; Hee Han; Krishna Poudel; Robert Sturtevant

    2017-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic has affected millions of hectares of conifer forests in the Rocky Mountains. Land managers are interested in using biomass from beetle-killed trees for bioenergy and biobased products, but they lack adequate information to accurately estimate biomass in stands with heavy mortality. We...

  1. Mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine: mortality and fire implications (Project INT-F-07-03)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Daniel R. West; Mike A Battaglia; Sheryl L. Costello; José F. Negrón; Charles C. Rhoades; John Popp; Rick Caissie

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has infested over 2 million acres of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest since an outbreak began approximately in 2000 in north central Colorado. The tree mortality from mountain pine beetle outbreaks has the potential to alter stand composition and stand...

  2. Why Mountain Pine Beetle Exacerbates a Principal-agent Relationship: Exploring Strategic Policy Responses to Beetle Attack in a Mixed Species Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogle, T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The management of public forestland is often carried out by private forest companies, in which case the landowner needs to exercise care in dealing with catastrophic natural disturbance. We use the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902) damage in British Columbia to explore how

  3. Mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for the production of submicron lignocellulose fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid Hoeger; Rolland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Orlando J. Rojas; J. Y. Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The elevated levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North American forests create forest management challenges. This investigation introduces the production of submicron or nanometer lignocellulose fibrils for value-added materials from the widely available resource represented by dead pines after...

  4. Effects of salvage logging on fire risks after bark beetle outbreaks in Colorado lodgepole pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryon J. Collins; Chuck C. Rhoades; Michael A. Battaglia; Robert M. Hubbard

    2012-01-01

    Most mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) forests in the central and southern Rocky Mountains originated after stand-replacing wildfires or logging (Brown 1975, Lotan and Perry 1983, Romme 1982). In recent years, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks have created a widespread, synchronous disturbance (i.e.,...

  5. Probability of infestation and extent of mortality models for mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Jennifer G. Klutsch

    2017-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant agent of tree mortality in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forests throughout western North America. A large outbreak of mountain pine beetle caused extensive tree mortality in north-central Colorado beginning in the late 1990s. We use data from a network of plots established in...

  6. Tree regeneration and future stand development after bark beetle infestation and harvesting in Colorado lodgepole pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron J. Collins; Charles C. Rhoades; Robert M. Hubbard; Michael A. Battaglia

    2011-01-01

    In the southern Rocky Mountains, current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks and associated harvesting have set millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) forest onto new stand development trajectories. Information about immediate, post-disturbance tree regeneration will provide insight on...

  7. Pilot-scale demonstration of SPORL for bioconversion of lodgepole pine to bioethanol and lignosulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifeng Zhou; Junyong Zhu; Roland Gleisner; Xueqing Qiu; Eric Horn; Jose Negron

    2016-01-01

    The process sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) has been the focus of this study. Pilot-scale (50 kg) pretreatment of wood chips of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were conducted at 165°C...

  8. Post-harvest seedling recruitment following mountain pine beetle infestation of Colorado lodgepole pine stands: A comparison using historic survey records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron J. Collins; Charles C. Rhoades; Jeffrey Underhill; Robert M. Hubbard

    2010-01-01

    The extent and severity of overstory lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) mortality from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has created management concerns associated with forest regeneration, wildfire risk, human safety, and scenic, wildlife, and watershed resources in western North America. Owing to the unprecedented...

  9. Volatile and within-needle terpene changes to Douglas-fir trees associated with Douglas-fir beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. D. Giunta; Justin Runyon; M. J. Jenkins; M. Teich

    2016-01-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with...

  10. The mountain pine beetle and whitebark pine waltz: Has the music changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Greta Schen-Langenheim

    2007-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (MPB), is a bark beetle native to western North American forests, spanning wide latitudinal and elevational gradients. MPB infest and reproduce within the phloem of most Pinus species from northern Baja California in Mexico to central British Columbia in...

  11. Mountain pine beetles use volatile cues to locate host limber pine and avoid non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis A. Gray; Justin B. Runyon; Michael J. Jenkins; Andrew D. Giunta

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not...

  12. Insects associated with ponderosa pine in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Stevens; J. Wayne Brewer; David A. Leatherman

    1980-01-01

    Ponderosa pine serves as a host for a wide variety of insects. Many of these, including all the particularly destructive ones in Colorado, are discussed in this report. Included are a key to the major insect groups, an annotated list of the major groups, a glossary, and a list of references.

  13. Development, cognition, and behaviour in Pitt-Hopkins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Balkom, I.D.; Vuijk, P.J.; Franssens, M.; Hoek, H.W.; Hennekam, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to collect detailed data on behavioural, adaptive, and psychological functioning in 10 individuals with Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), with specific attention to manifestations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method The participants (four females, six males), residing

  14. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Diana L; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Carroll, Allan L; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using a combination of morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of five gene regions. In all four populations, Grosmannia aurea was the most common associate (74-100% of all beetles) followed closely by Ophiostoma abietinum (29-75%). Other fungi isolated, in order of their relative prevalence with individual beetles were an undescribed Leptographium sp. (0-13%), Ophiostoma ips (0-15%), Ophiostoma piliferum (0-11%), a Pesotum sp. (0-11%) and Ophiostoma floccosum (0-1%). Comparisons of the DNA sequences of Leptographium strains isolated in this study, with ex-type isolates of G. aurea, Grosmannia robusta, Leptographium longiclavatum, and Leptographium terebrantis, as well as with sequences from GenBank, revealed a novel lineage within the Grosmannia clavigera complex. This lineage included some of the D. murrayane isolates as well as several isolates from previous studies referred to as L. terebrantis. However, the monophyly of this lineage is not well supported and a more comprehensive study will be needed to resolve its taxonomic status as one or more novel taxa.

  16. Insect outbreak shifts the direction of selection from fast to slow growth rates in the long-lived conifer Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Long generation times limit species’ rapid evolution to changing environments. Trees provide critical global ecosystem services, but are under increasing risk of mortality because of climate change-mediated disturbances, such as insect outbreaks. The extent to which disturbance changes the dynamics and strength of selection is unknown, but has important implications on the evolutionary potential of tree populations. Using a 40-y-old Pinus ponderosa genetic experiment, we provide rare evidence of context-dependent fluctuating selection on growth rates over time in a long-lived species. Fast growth was selected at juvenile stages, whereas slow growth was selected at mature stages under strong herbivory caused by a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak. Such opposing forces led to no net evolutionary response over time, thus providing a mechanism for the maintenance of genetic diversity on growth rates. Greater survival to mountain pine beetle attack in slow-growing families reflected, in part, a host-based life-history trade-off. Contrary to expectations, genetic effects on tree survival were greatest at the peak of the outbreak and pointed to complex defense responses. Our results suggest that selection forces in tree populations may be more relevant than previously thought, and have implications for tree population responses to future environments and for tree breeding programs. PMID:28652352

  17. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree Pinus ponderosa: A defense mechanism against microbial invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himejima, Masaki; Hobson, K.R.; Otsuka, Toshikazu; Wood, D.L.; Kubo, Isao (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1992-10-01

    The oleoresin of the ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) exhibited broad antimicrobial activity. In order to identify the active compounds, the oleoresin was steam distilled to give a distillate and residue. The distillate contained mainly monoterpenes and some sesquiterpenes, while the residue consisted chiefly of four structurally related diterpene acids. An antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds indicated that the monoterpenes were active primarily against fungi, but there was also some activity against gram-positive bacteria. The diterpene acids, in contrast, only exhibited activity against gram-positive bacteria. Although not all of the identified sesquiterpenes could be tested, longifolene showed activity only against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it appears that the oleoresin of P. ponderosa functions as a biochemical defense against microbial invasion.

  18. Determining the vulnerability of Mexican pine forests to bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus Erichson (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Salinas-Moreno; A. Ager; C.F. Vargas; J.L. Hayes; G. Zuniga

    2010-01-01

    Bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus are natural inhabitants of forests; under particular conditions some species of this genus can cause large-scale tree mortality. However, only in recent decades has priority been given to the comprehensive study of these insects in Mexico. Mexico possesses high ecological diversity in Dendroctonus-...

  19. Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of north-central Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Christopher J; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; Anhold, John A

    2008-08-01

    Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure in north-central Arizona pine (Pinus spp.) forests, we collected data on stand structure, site conditions, and local bark beetle-induced tree mortality at each trap site. We also collected samples of bark from infested (brood) trees near trap sites to identify and determine the population density of bark beetles that were attacking ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, in the area surrounding the traps. Multiple regression models indicated that the number of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles captured in 2005 was inversely related to elevation of the trap site, and positively associated with the amount of ponderosa pine in the stand surrounding the site. Traps located closer to brood trees also captured more beetles. The relationship between trap catches and host tree mortality was weak and inconsistent in forest stands surrounding the funnel traps, suggesting that trap catches do not provide a good estimate of local beetle-induced tree mortality. However, pheromone-baited funnel trap data and data from gallery identification in bark samples produced statistically similar relative abundance profiles for the five species of bark beetles that we examined, indicating that funnel trap data provided a good assessment of species presence and relative abundance.

  20. Heavy thinning of ponderosa pine stands: An Arizona case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Jr. Baker; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2000-01-01

    Growth and structural changes in a mosaic of even-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands were studied for 25 years to determine the long-term impacts of a heavy thinning treatment to a basal-area level of 25 ft2/acre. Basal area and volume growth of these stands has increased since thinning and likely will continue to...

  1. Lumber recovery from ponderosa pine in western Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin E. Plank

    1982-01-01

    Lumber grade yields and recovery ratios are shown for a sample of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) in western Montana. About 9 percent of the lumber produced was in Select grades, 48 percent in Shop grades, and 43 percent in Common grades. Information on log scale and yield is presented in tables by log grade and diameter class....

  2. Dwarf Mistletoe of Ponderosa Pine in the Southwest (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Lightle; Melvyn J. Weiss

    1974-01-01

    Southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobuim vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum) occurs essentially throughout the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) from northern Mexico through western Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico into Colorado and central Utah. In Arizona and New Mexico it is present on more than one-third of the commercial forest acreage and is...

  3. Growing stock levels in even-aged ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford A. Myers

    1967-01-01

    Growth of the most widely distributed pine in North America is under joint study by the western Forest and Range Experiment Stations of the U. S. Forest Service. Young, even-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) stands are being examined over a wide range of tree sizes, stand densities, and site index. The single plan that co-...

  4. Aboveground tree biomass for Pinus ponderosa in northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin W. Ritchie; Jianwei Zhang; Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for...

  5. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Cochran

    1984-01-01

    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  6. Sustaining Reliability on Accountability Measures at The Johns Hopkins Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronovost, Peter J; Holzmueller, Christine G; Callender, Tiffany; Demski, Renee; Winner, Laura; Day, Richard; Austin, J Matthew; Berenholtz, Sean M; Miller, Marlene R

    2016-02-01

    In 2012 Johns Hopkins Medicine leaders challenged their health system to reliably deliver best practice care linked to nationally vetted core measures and achieve The Joint Commission Top Performer on Key Quality Measures ®program recognition and the Delmarva Foundation award. Thus, the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality implemented an initiative to ensure that ≥96% of patients received care linked to measures. Nine low-performing process measures were targeted for improvement-eight Joint Commission accountability measures and one Delmarva Foundation core measure. In the initial evaluation at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, all accountability measures for the Top Performer program reached the required ≥95% performance, gaining them recognition by The Joint Commission in 2013. Efforts were made to sustain performance of accountability measures at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Improvements were sustained through 2014 using the following conceptual framework: declare and communicate goals, create an enabling infrastructure, engage clinicians and connect them in peer learning communities, report transparently, and create accountability systems. One part of the accountability system was for teams to create a sustainability plan, which they presented to senior leaders. To support sustained improvements, Armstrong Institute leaders added a project management office for all externally reported quality measures and concurrent reviewers to audit performance on care processes for certain measure sets. The Johns Hopkins Hospital sustained performance on all accountability measures, and now more than 96% of patients receive recommended care consistent with nationally vetted quality measures. The initiative methods enabled the transition of quality improvement from an isolated project to a way of leading an organization.

  7. Hopkins syndrome and phantom hernia: a rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth, K E; Guruprasad, C S; Sindhu, T G

    2011-06-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), other than paralytic poliomyelitis, are usually due to demyelination like Guillian Barre syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis and traumatic neuritis. Poliomyelitis like illness, Hopkins syndrome or Post Asthmatic Amotrophy, associated with bronchial asthma and hyperIgEemia has been reported in literature. We present a two and a half year old child who developed AFP with phantom hernia following an episode of bronchial asthma.

  8. Potential for biological control of native North American Dendroctonus beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Miller; John C. Moser; M. McGregor; J.C. Gregoire; M. Baisier; D.L. Dahlsten; R.A. Werner

    1987-01-01

    Bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus inflict serious damage in North American coniferous forests. Biological control, which has never been seriously attempted with bark beetles in the United States, should be reconsidered in light of results disclosed here. Impact of indigenous associates is discussed, as well as previous, unsuccessful attempts to...

  9. Strong indirect interactions of Tarsonemus mites (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) and Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria J. Lombardero; Matthew P. Ayres; Richard W. Hofstetter; John C. Moser; Kier D. Lepzig

    2003-01-01

    Phoretic mites of bark beetles are classic examples of commensal ectosymbionts. However, many such mites appear to have mutualisms with fungi that could themselves interact with beetles. We tested for indirect effects of phoretic mites on Dendroctonus frontalis, which auacks and kills pine trees in North America. Tarsonemus mites...

  10. Disruption Of Secondary Attraction Of The Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, By Pheromones Of Two Sympatric Spcies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; J. H. Borden

    1998-01-01

    Capture of spruce beetles, Dendroctonus rufipennis, in multiple-funnel traps baited with frontalin and -pinene was reduced by up to 42% in the presence of synthetic (+)-exo- and (+)-endo-brevicomin, aggregation pheromones of the sympatric species Dryocoetes affaber. (+)-endo-...

  11. Bringing international patients to American hospitals: the Johns Hopkins perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, J J

    1998-01-01

    American health care institutions are reaching out to the foreign market, assiduously cultivating patients from overseas. This innovative strategy, designed in part to help U.S. medical centers cope with cuts in federal funding, HMO pressures, and decreasing patient volumes, dovetails nicely with the current climate of global expansion in business and worldwide awareness of American medical expertise. This article describes the International Services Program at Johns Hopkins Hospital. The author and program director addresses its origins, implementation, outcomes, and the obstacles planners faced in launching a vigorous, international outreach initiative.

  12. Estimating value and volume of ponderosa pine trees by equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin E. Plank

    1981-01-01

    Equations for estimating the selling value and tally volume for ponderosa pine lumber from the standing trees are described. Only five characteristics are required for the equations. Development and application of the system are described.

  13. Comparison of orthologous cytochrome P450 genes relative expression patterns in the bark beetles Dendroctonus rhizophagus and Dendroctonus valens (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) during host colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón-Molina, G; Cesar-Ayala, A K; López, M F; Cano-Ramírez, C; Zúñiga, G

    2015-12-01

    Bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus are important components of coniferous forests. During host colonization, they must overcome the chemical defences of their host trees, which are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP or P450) enzymes to compounds that are readily excreted. In this study, we report the relative expression (quantitative real-time PCR) of four orthologous cytochrome P450 genes (CYP6BW5, CYP6DG1, CYP6DJ2 and CYP9Z20) in Dendroctonus rhizophagus and Dendroctonus valens forced to attack host trees at 8 and 24 h following forced attack and in four stages during natural colonization [solitary females boring the bark (T1); both male and female members of couples before oviposition (T2); both male and female members of couples during oviposition (T3), and solitary females inside the gallery containing eggs (T4)]. For both species gene expression was different compared with that observed in insects exposed to single monoterpenes in the laboratory, and the expression patterns were significantly different amongst species, sex, gut region and exposure time or natural colonization stage. The induction of genes (CYP6BW5v1, CYP6DJ2v1 and CYP9Z20v1 from D. rhizophagus, as well as CYP6DG1v3 from D. valens) correlated with colonization stage as well as with the increase in oxygenated monoterpenes in the gut of both species throughout the colonization of the host. Our results point to different functions of these orthologous genes in both species. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA. Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicultural study of uneven-aged management techniques that was carried out in 1984, and which resulted in three separate units consisting of one control, one cut/no-burn treatment, and one cut/burn treatment. Seeds were collected during the 10 years following treatment in 15 traps systematically deployed within each of the stand’s three units. The total numbers of seeds collected in each unit were plotted over time to analyze crop synchrony, with Spearman rank correlation coefficient used to test for masting cycles and crop depletion after a mast year. Meteorological records over the period 1983-1994 were related to the occurrence of a mast event (defined as crops exceeding 50,000 viable seeds/ha. Main results: The seed production pattern was non-cyclical, synchronous, and independent of silvicultural treatment history. A mast-depletion effect was evident but was not statistically significant. Mast events seem to be promoted by the occurrence of optimum mean temperatures at the beginning of spring during both the first (11 °C and second (9 °C years of cone maturation. The probability of a mast year was also affected by summer temperature (number of late frost days; negative effect and precipitation amount (positive effect. All these factors would seemingly explain the observed synchronous pattern in cone production. Research highlights: The non-cyclical trend of ponderosa pine seed mast years is influenced by specific climate determinants. Fluctuations in mean early

  15. Workshop held at Johns Hopkins University, March 2013

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) involve deeply integrated, tightly coupled computational and physical components. These systems, spanning multiple scientific and technological domains, are highly complex and pose several fundamental challenges. They are also critically important to society’s advancement and security. The design and deployment of the adaptable, reliable CPS of tomorrow requires the development of a basic science foundation, synergistically drawing on various branches of engineering, mathematics, computer science, and domain specific knowledge.   This book brings together 19 invited papers presented at the Workshop on Control of Cyber-Physical Systems, hosted by the Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering at The Johns Hopkins University in March 2013. It highlights the central role of control theory and systems thinking in developing the theory of CPS, in addressing the challenges of cyber-trust and cyber-security, and in advancing emerging cyber-physical applications ranging from s...

  16. Fire-injured ponderosa pine provide a pulsed resource for bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan S. Davis; Sharon Hood; Barbara J. Bentz

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles can cause substantial mortality of trees that would otherwise survive fire injuries. Resin response of fire-injured northern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) and specific injuries that contribute to increased bark beetle attack susceptibility and brood production are unknown. We monitored ponderosa pine...

  17. ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLY IN WHITE AND BROWN ROOT RESPIRATION OF PONDEROSA PINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory responses of fine ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) roots of differing morphology were measured to evaluate response to excision and to changes in the shoot light environment. Ponderosa pine seedlings were subject to either a 15:9 h light/dark environment over 24...

  18. Soil moisture and the distribution of lodgepole and ponderosa pine: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1953-01-01

    Despite a number of published studies and observations of the factors affecting the distribution of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var, latifolia) and Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), some misunderstanding still exists as to the significance of the extensive stands of lodgepole pine in the ponderosa pine...

  19. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel

    1989-01-01

    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  20. Tree canopy types constrain plant distributions in ponderosa pine-Gambel oak forests, northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Abella

    2009-01-01

    Trees in many forests affect the soils and plants below their canopies. In current high-density southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, managers have opportunities to enhance multiple ecosystem values by manipulating tree density, distribution, and canopy cover through tree thinning. I performed a study in northern Arizona ponderosa...

  1. Tree mortality in drought-stressed mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Scott C. Vojta

    2011-01-01

    We monitored tree mortality in northern Arizona (USA) mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) forests from 1997 to 2007, a period of severe drought in this area. Mortality was pervasive, occurring on 100 and 98% of 53 mixed-conifer and 60 ponderosa pine plots (1-ha each), respectively. Most mortality was attributable to a suite of forest...

  2. The metaphysical club at the Johns Hopkins University (1879-1885).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Peter J

    2005-11-01

    Of the earliest American universities, The Johns Hopkins in Baltimore holds a unique position for psychology. At Hopkins, many of America's first psychologists received their graduate training. Of special interest is the Hopkins Metaphysical Club, organized in 1879 by Charles Sanders Peirce. It provided a forum for research and scholarship by faculty and students. Papers related to topics of the "new" psychology began to appear in 1883, about the time G. Stanley Hall was given a 3-year appointment at Hopkins. When Peirce departed Hopkins in 1885, Hall was free to develop psychology in his image and disbanded the club. Nevertheless, the Metaphysical Club played an important role in the emergence of American scientific psychology.

  3. Colonization behaviors of mountain pine beetle on novel hosts: Implications for range expansion into northeastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberger, Derek W.; Venette, Robert C.; Maddox, Mitchell P.; Aukema, Brian H.

    2017-01-01

    As climates change, thermal limits may no longer constrain some native herbivores within their historical ranges. The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a tree-killing bark beetle native to western North America that is currently expanding its range. Continued eastward expansion through the newly invaded and novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees of the Canadian boreal forest could result in exposure of several species of novel potential host pines common in nort...

  4. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  5. Thermal conditions within tree cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests: potential implications for cavity users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierling, Kerri T.; Lorenz, Teresa J.; Cunningham, Patrick; Potterf, Kelsi

    2017-11-01

    Tree cavities provide critical roosting and breeding sites for multiple species, and thermal environments in these cavities are important to understand. Our objectives were to (1) describe thermal characteristics in cavities between June 3 and August 9, 2014, and (2) investigate the environmental factors that influence cavity temperatures. We placed iButtons in 84 different cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in central Washington, and took hourly measurements for at least 8 days in each cavity. Temperatures above 40 °C are generally lethal to developing avian embryos, and 18% of the cavities had internal temperatures of ≥ 40 °C for at least 1 h of each day. We modeled daily maximum cavity temperature, the amplitude of daily cavity temperatures, and the difference between the mean internal cavity and mean ambient temperatures as a function of several environmental variables. These variables included canopy cover, tree diameter at cavity height, cavity volume, entrance area, the hardness of the cavity body, the hardness of the cavity sill (which is the wood below the cavity entrance which forms the barrier between the cavity and the external environment), and sill width. Ambient temperature had the largest effect size for maximum cavity temperature and amplitude. Larger trees with harder sills may provide more thermally stable cavity environments, and decayed sills were positively associated with maximum cavity temperatures. Summer temperatures are projected to increase in this region, and additional research is needed to determine how the thermal environments of cavities will influence species occupancy, breeding, and survival.

  6. Transcultural adaptation of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Iwamoto, Viviane Ernesto; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Noronha, Adriana Moreira; Oliveira, Ana Paula de Sousa; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Marques, Ifigenia Augusta Braga; Vendramim, Patrícia; Lopes, Paula Cristina; Sant'Ana, Thais Helena Saes de

    2016-08-29

    to perform the transcultural adaptation and content validity analysis of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool to assess both fall risk and fall-related injury risk for hospitalized elderly in Brazil. the transcultural adaptation consisted of translating the scale to Portuguese (Brazil), back-translating it into its language of origin, establishing a consensus version, and having an expert committee verify its transcultural equivalence. Content assessment was conducted by a committee of judges, ending with the calculation of the items and scales' content validity index. Nurses tested the tool. the scale's translated version went through two evaluation rounds by the judges, based on which, the items with unsatisfactory performance were changed. The content validity index for the items was ≥80.0% and the global index 97.1%. The experimental application showed the scale is user-friendly. the scale presents valid content for the assessment of fall risk and risk of fall-related injuries and is easy to use, with the potential to contribute to the proper identification of risks and the establishment of care actions. realizar a adaptação transcultural para uso no Brasil e a avaliação da validade de conteúdo da Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool para avaliação de risco de quedas e de danos por quedas em pacientes adultos hospitalizados. adaptação transcultural consistiu na tradução da escala para a língua portuguesa (Brasil), retrotradução para a língua de origem, versão de consenso e análise da equivalência transcultural por um comitê de especialistas. A avaliação do conteúdo foi realizada por meio de um comitê de juízes, finalizando com o cálculo do índice de validade de conteúdo dos itens e da escala. Foi realizada a aplicação experimental do instrumento por enfermeiros. a versão traduzida da escala passou por duas rodadas de avaliação pelos juízes, a partir das quais os itens com desempenho insatisfatório foram modificados

  7. Graduate Management Project: An Evaluation of the Johns Hopkins Outpatient Surgery Center Patient Satisfaction Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evan, Barry

    1999-01-01

    .... Customer or patient satisfaction is a widely accepted measure of quality. Numerous organizations use satisfaction surveys as the foundation for organizational improvement and the Johns Hopkins Health System is no different...

  8. Neurology Falls. Patient Falls Risk Assessment, Neurology Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-06

    falls could be attributed to weakness or gait disorders; six in patients using assisted devices; two falls related to syncope or seizures; and two...multidisciplinary staff leading initiatives to facilitate innovative, patient - centered approaches to make Hopkins the safest place to receive patient care...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From July 2008 to Jan 2009 To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Patient Falls Risk Assessment, Neurology Clinic, Johns Hopkins

  9. Songbird ecology in southwestern ponderosa pine forests: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Deborah M. Finch

    1997-01-01

    This publication reviews and synthesizes the literature about ponderosa pine forests of the Southwest, with emphasis on the biology, ecology, and conservation of songbirds. Critical bird-habitat management issues related to succession, snags, old growth, fire, logging, grazing, recreation, and landscape scale are addressed. Overviews of the ecology, current use, and...

  10. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in southwestern ponderosa fine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen C. Hart; Paul C. Selmants; Sarah I. Boyle; Steven T. Overby

    2007-01-01

    Ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States were historically characterized by relatively open, parklike stands with a bunchgrass-dominated understory. This forest structure was maintained by frequent, low-intensity surface fires. Heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression, and favorable weather conditions following Euro-American settlement in the late 19th...

  11. An analysis of genetic architecture in populations of Ponderosa Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan B. Linhart; Jeffry B. Mitton; Kareen B. Sturgeon; Martha L. Davis

    1981-01-01

    Patterns of genetic variation were studied in three populations of ponderosa pine in Colorado by using electrophoretically variable protein loci. Significant genetic differences were found between separate clusters of trees and between age classes within populations. In addition, data indicate that differential cone production and differential animal damage have...

  12. Fire effects on ponderosa pine soils and their management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.W. Covington; S.S. Sackett

    1990-01-01

    Fire in southwestern ponderosa pine induces changes in soil properties including decreasing the amount of nutrients stored in fuels (forest floor, woody litter, and understory vegetation) increasing the amount of nutrients on the soil surface (the "ashbed effect"), and increasing the inorganic nitrogen and moisture content in the mineral soil. Soil...

  13. Silvicultural recommendations for the management of ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Alfonso Mendoza Briseno; Mary Ann Fajvan; Juan Manuel Chacon Sotelo; Alejandro Velazquez Martinez; Antonio Quinonez. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Ponderosa pines are the most important timber producing species in Mexico, and they also represent a major portion of the Usa and Canada timber production. These pines form near pure stands with simple and stable stand structure. They suffer only occasional disturbances, and they sustain a limited capacity to hold biodiversity and other senvironmental services. The...

  14. The effects of fepeated prescribed burning on Pinus ponderosa growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; Stephen S. Sackett; Lindsay J. Robinson; Sally M. Haase

    1994-01-01

    The effect of repeated prescribed burning on long term growth of Pinus ponderosa in northern Arizona was examined. Fire treatments for hazard reduction were initiated in 1976,and growthwas evaluated in 1988 for fire rotations of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years. Dendroecological analysis shows that there were only small changes in treegrowth (compared tocontrols) in the...

  15. The Robert E. Hopkins Center for Optical Design and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavislan, James M.; Brown, Thomas G.

    2008-08-01

    preparation for these students. While this extracurricular experience is truly world-class, an integrated design experience defined within our academic program is increasingly necessary for those going on to professional careers in engineering. This paper describes the philosophy behind a revision to our undergraduate curriculum that integrates a design experience and describes the engineering laboratory that has been established to make it a reality. The laboratory and design center has been named in honor of Robert E. Hopkins, former director and professor, co-founder of Tropel corporation, and a lifelong devotee to engineering innovation.

  16. Operative management of Marfan syndrome: The Johns Hopkins experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, W A; Cameron, D E; Redmond, J M; Greene, P S; Gott, V L

    1999-06-01

    Doctor Antoine Marfan described the first case of Marfan syndrome in 1896. It was over 50 years later that the development of aortic aneurysms and subsequent rupture was appreciated as the most life-threatening component of the syndrome. Doctor Vincent Gott, at our institution, performed the first Bentall procedure for an aneurysm of the ascending aorta in 1976. Since that time, the aortic root has been replaced in 231 Marfan patients. Of this group, 218 patients had a composite graft repair, 11 had an aortic root replacement with a homograft, and 2 patients had valve sparing procedures. There were 168 males and 63 females. Of the total 231 patients, 150 were operated on by Dr Gott. The remaining 81 patients were operated on by 10 other Hopkins surgeons. The average diameter of the ascending aorta was 6.8 cm, with a range from 4.5 to 10. The average aortic diameter of 43 patients who had an ascending aortic dissection was 7.3 cm. Fourteen of these patients had dissection with an aortic diameter of 6.5 cm or less. Among the 198 patients who underwent elective repair, there was no 30-day mortality. Thirty-three patients underwent urgent repair with 2 deaths, yielding a 30-day mortality of 6.1%. The mortality for the entire group of patients was 0.9%. Complications associated with this series of patients included 8 with endocarditis, 7 with thromboembolism, and 4 late coronary dehiscences. Actuarial survival was 88% at 5 years, 81% at 10 years, and 75% at 20 years. Multivariate analysis revealed New York Heart Association classification, male gender and urgent surgery as independent risk factors for mortality. Marfan patients with aortic aneurysms can undergo elective surgery with a low operative risk and excellent long-term survival with low morbidity. We feel that elective resection of an aneurysm in a Marfan patient should occur when it approaches a diameter of 5.5 cm. It is essential that a timely diagnosis be made in this group of young patients.

  17. Effects of stratification and temperature on seed germination speed and uniformity in central Oregon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Weber; Frank C. Sorensen

    1990-01-01

    Effects of stratification period and incubation temperature on seed germination speed and uniformity were investigated in a bulked seed lot of 200 ponderosa pine trees (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) sampled from 149 locations in central Oregon. Mean rate of embryo development towards germination (l/days to 50 percent germination) and standard...

  18. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the ponderosa pine type, ponderosa pine and associated species type, and lodgepole pine type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Ponderosa Pine Type, Ponderosa Pine and Associated Species Type, Lodgepole Pine Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-052....

  19. Surveying the endomicrobiome and ectomicrobiome of bark beetles: The case of Dendroctonus simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Audrey-Anne; Bergeron, Amélie; Constant, Philippe; Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Déziel, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2015-11-26

    Many bark beetles belonging to the Dendroctonus genus carry bacterial and fungal microbiota, forming a symbiotic complex that helps the insect to colonize the subcortical environment of the host tree. However, the biodiversity of those bacteria at the surface of the cuticle or inside the body parts of bark beetles is not well established. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome associated with the eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The ecto- and endomicrobiome and the subcortical galleries were investigated. Several bacterial genera were identified, among which Pseudomonas, Serratia and Yersinia are associated with the surface of the beetle cuticle, and genera belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and Gammaproteobacteria with the interior of the insect body. The index of dissimilarity indicates that the bacterial microbiome associated with each environment constitutes exclusive groups. These results suggest the presence of distinct bacterial microbiota on the surface of the cuticle and the interior of D. simplex body. Additionally, the bacterial diversity identified in the galleries is substantially different from the ectomicrobiome, which could indicate a selection by the insect. This study reports for the first time the identification of the eastern larch beetle microbiome.

  20. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Weber; Frank C. Sorensen

    1992-01-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with shod, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation...

  1. The current status of the distribution range of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Curculionidae: Solytinae) in northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Valerio-Mendoza; F. Armendariz-Toledano; G. Cuellar-Rodriguez; Jose F. Negron; G. Zuniga

    2017-01-01

    The distribution range of the western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is supported only by scattered records in the northern parts of Mexico, suggesting that its populations may be marginal and rare in this region. In this study, we review the geographical distribution of D. brevicomis in northern Mexico and perform a geometric...

  2. Dendroctonus brevicomis responses in behavioral assays: Implication to development of a semiochemical-based tool for tree protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Stephen R. McKelvey; Christopher P. Dabney; Dezene P.W. Huber

    2012-01-01

    Currently, techniques for managing western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), infestations are limited to tree removals (thinning) that reduce stand density and presumably host susceptibility, and/or the use of insecticides to protect individual trees. There continues to be significant interest in...

  3. Enantiospecific responses of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) and its clerid predator, Thanasimus dubius, to a-pinene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny C. Staeben; Brian Sullivan; John T. Nowak; Kamal J.K. Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    Multi-trophic interactions between pine bark beetles, their host trees, and predators are mediated in part by volatile terpenes in host tree oleoresin that can influence aggregation and/or host finding by both prey and predator species. The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, mass-attacks pine trees in response to its aggregation pheromone combined...

  4. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  5. Is Prey Specificity Constrained by Geography? Semiochemically Mediated Oviposition in Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera: Monotomidae) with Its Specific Prey, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and with Exotic Dendroctonus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2017-08-01

    Examples of totally specific predators are rare, and the mechanisms underlying this specificity are often poorly understood. In Eurasia, the Monotomid beetle Rhizophagus grandis is found only in the galleries of its prey, the bark beetle Dendroctonus micans. The specificity of R. grandis relies on kairomones which female predators use to adjust their oviposition to the number of prey larvae available in a gallery. Yet these chemical signals are still largely unknown. The North American D. punctatus and D. valens, which are not sympatric with R. grandis but have a similar ecology as D. micans, could also elicit predator oviposition, which would suggest that specificity in this predator-prey system is constrained by geography. In order to further identify these determinants of specificity, we used artificial oviposition boxes to compare the oviposition level of R. grandis in the presence of larvae of each of the three prey species. We jointly used sequential dynamic headspace extractions and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to investigate oviposition stimuli associated with each prey species and potential oviposition inhibitors emitted by the predator. We further assessed potential stimuli with the analysis of emissions from D. micans larvae reared alone. Overall, we identified and quantified 67 compounds, mostly terpenes. Several robust candidate stimulants or inhibitors of R. grandis' oviposition were identified. The three prey species elicited similar oviposition levels in R. grandis, which suggests that this predator could form new associations outside of its native range.

  6. Ectomycorrhizal communities of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine in the south-central Oregon pumice zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria O; Smith, Jane E; Luoma, Daniel L; Jones, Melanie D

    2016-05-01

    Forest ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest of the USA are changing as a result of climate change. Specifically, rise of global temperatures, decline of winter precipitation, earlier loss of snowpack, and increased summer drought are altering the range of Pinus contorta. Simultaneously, flux in environmental conditions within the historic P. contorta range may facilitate the encroachment of P. ponderosa into P. contorta territory. Furthermore, successful pine species migration may be constrained by the distribution or co-migration of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Knowledge of the linkages among soil fungal diversity, community structure, and environmental factors is critical to understanding the organization and stability of pine ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to establish a foundational knowledge of the EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in the Deschutes National Forest, OR, USA, and to examine soil characteristics associated with community composition. We examined EMF root tips of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in soil cores and conducted soil chemistry analysis for P. ponderosa cores. Results indicate that Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon salebrosus, and Inocybe flocculosa were dominant in both P. contorta and P. ponderosa soil cores. Rhizopogon spp. were ubiquitous in P. ponderosa cores. There was no significant difference in the species composition of EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta. Ordination analysis of P. ponderosa soils suggested that soil pH, plant-available phosphorus (Bray), total phosphorus (P), carbon (C), mineralizable nitrogen (N), ammonium (NH4), and nitrate (NO3) are driving EMF community composition in P. ponderosa stands. We found a significant linear relationship between EMF species richness and mineralizable N. In conclusion, P. ponderosa and P. contorta, within the Deschutes National Forest, share the same dominant EMF species, which implies that P. ponderosa may be able to successfully establish

  7. Old Black Hills ponderosa pines tell a story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Bunkers; L. Ronald Johnson; James R. Miller; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1999-01-01

    A single ponderosa pine tree found in the central Black Hills of SouthDakota revealed its age of more than 700 years by its tree rings taken from coring in 1992. The purpose of this study was to examine historic climatic patterns from the 13th century through most of the 20th century as inferred from ring widths of this and other nearby trees. The steep, rocky site...

  8. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype distribution patterns in Pinus ponderosa (pinaceae): range-wide evolutionary history and implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Mary F. Mahalovich; Robert E. Means

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation across its range in western North America. This study aims to clarify P. ponderosa evolutionary history and phylogeography using a highly polymorphic...

  9. Photosynthetic response, survival, and growth of three ponderosa pine stocktypes under water stress enhanced by vegetative competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah R. Pinto; John D. Marshall; R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis; Douglas R. Cobos

    2012-01-01

    Selecting the proper stock type for reforestation on dry sites can be critical for the long-term survival and growth of seedlings. In this study, we use a novel approach to understand stock type selection on a site where drought was induced with vegetative competition. Three ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson var. ponderosa C. Lawson) seedling stock...

  10. Cervid forage utilization in noncommercially thinned ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, M.C.; Jenks, J.A.; Deperno, C.S.; Sowell, B.F.; Jenkins, Kurt J.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate effects of noncommercial thinning, utilization of forages consumed by elk (Cervus elaphus L.), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus Raf.), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Raf.) was measured in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) stands in Custer State Park, S. D. Treatments consisted of unthinned (control; 22 to 32 m2/ha basal area), moderately thinned (12 to 22 m2/ha basal area), and heavily thinned (3 to 13 m2/ha basal area) stands of ponderosa pine. During June, July, and August, 1991 and 1992, about 7,000 individual plants were marked along permanent transects and percent-weight-removed by grazing was ocularly estimated. Sample plots were established along transects and plants within plots were clipped to estimate standing biomass. Pellet groups were counted throughout the study area to determine summer habitat use of elk and deer. Diet composition was evaluated using microhistological analysis of fecal samples. Average percent-weight-removed from all marked plants and percent-plants-grazed were used to evaluate forage utilization. Standing biomass of graminoids, shrubs, and forbs increased (P 0.05) across treatments. Forb use averaged less than 5% within sampling periods when measured as percent-weight-removed and percent-of-plants grazed and did not differ among treatments. Results of pellet group surveys indicated that cervids were primarily using meadow habitats. When averaged over the 2 years, forbs were the major forage class in deer diets, whereas graminoids were the major forage class in diets of elk.

  11. Observations of bird numbers and species following a historic wildfire in Arizona ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Cody L. Stropki; Hui Chen; Daniel G. Neary

    2009-01-01

    The Rodeo-Chediski Wildfire, the largest in Arizona's history, damaged or destroyed ecosystem resources or disrupted ecosystem functioning in a mostly mosaic pattern throughout the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests exposed to the burn. Impacts of the wildfire on the occurrence of birds and their diversities were studied on...

  12. Fire history in interior ponderosa pine communities of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Brown; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1996-01-01

    Chronologies of fire events were reconstructed from crossdated fire-scarred ponderosa pine trees for four sites in the south-central Black Hills. Compared to other ponderosa pine forests in the southwest US or southern Rocky Mountains, these communities burned less frequently. For all sites combined, and using all fires detected, the mean fire interval (MFI), or number...

  13. O3 uptake and drought stress effects on carbon acquisition of ponderosa pine in natural stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.E. Grulke; H.K. Preisler; C. Rose; J. Kirsch; L. Balduman

    2002-01-01

    • The effect of O3 exposure or uptake on carbon acquisition (net assimilation (A) or gross photosynthesis (Pg)), with and without drought stress, is reported here in 40-yr-old-ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees. • Maximum daily gas exchange was...

  14. Woodpecker use and fall rates of snags created by killing ponderosa pine infected with dwarf mistletoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine G. Parks; David A. Conklin; Larry Bednar; Helen. Maffei

    1999-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) killed as part of a forest management project to reduce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, were evaluated for wildlife value. One hundred and two dwarf mistletoe-infected trees were killed by basal burning, basal girdling, or by a...

  15. Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

    2009-01-01

    Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine...

  16. Predicting mortality of ponderosa pine regeneration after prescribed fire in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Battaglia; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2009-01-01

    Reduction of crown fire hazard in Pinus ponderosa forests in the Black Hills, SD, often focuses on the removal of overstorey trees to reduce crown bulk density. Dense ponderosa pine regeneration establishes several years after treatment and eventually increases crown fire risk if allowed to grow. Using prescribed fire to control this regeneration is...

  17. Lumber recovery from ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin E. Plank

    1985-01-01

    A sample of 400 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) trees was selected from each of two sale areas in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota. The logs were processed through two sawmills into 1-inch-thick boards. Estimates of volume and value recovery based on cubic volume and board foot volume are shown in tables and figures....

  18. The 2002 Rodeo-Chediski Wildfire's impacts on southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems, hydrology, and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Cody L. Stropki; Hui Chen; Daniel G. Neary

    2011-01-01

    The Rodeo-Chediski Wildfire burned nearly 462,600 acres in north-central Arizona in the summer of 2002. The wildfire damaged or destroyed ecosystem resources and disrupted the hydrologic functioning within the impacted ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in a largely mosaic pattern. Impacts of the wildfire on ecosystem resources, factors important to hydrologic...

  19. A height increment equation for young ponderosa pine plantations using precipitation and soil factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian C.C. Uzoh

    2001-01-01

    A height increment equation was used to determine the effects of site quality and competing herbaceous vegetation on the development of ponderosa pine seedlings (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum Engelm.). Study areas were established in 36 plantations across northwest and west-central Montana on Champion International Corporation's timberland (...

  20. Water potential in ponderosa pine stands of different growing-stock levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; R. K. Watkins; M. R. Kaufmann

    1991-01-01

    Water potential was measured in five ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) in each of four stands of different growing-stock levels at two locations in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Mean water potentials at dawn and midday varied significantly among growing-stock levels at one location, but differences were not consistent. Mean dawn and midday water potentials...

  1. Response of ponderosa pine plantations to competing vegetation control in Northern California, USA: A meta- analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Robert Powers; William Oliver; Young David

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to determine response of stand basal area growth to competing vegetation control (CVC) in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) plantations grown at 29 sites across northern California. These studies were installed during the last 50 years on site indices from 11 to 35 m at 50 years and often included other treatments...

  2. Effectiveness of litter removal to prevent cambial kill-caused mortality in northern Arizona ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Linda L. Wadleigh

    2010-01-01

    Removal of deep litter and duff from the base of mature southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) is commonly recommended to reduce mortality after prescribed burns, but experimental studies that quantify the effectiveness of such practices in reducing mortality are lacking. After a pilot study on each of four sites in northern Arizona, we monitored 15-16...

  3. Modern fire regime resembles historical fire regime in a ponderosa pine forest on Native American land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda B. Stan; Peter Z. Fule; Kathryn B. Ireland; Jamie S. Sanderlin

    2014-01-01

    Forests on tribal lands in the western United States have seen the return of low-intensity surface fires for several decades longer than forests on non-tribal lands. We examined the surface fire regime in a ponderosa pinedominated (Pinus ponderosa) forest on the Hualapai tribal lands in the south-western United States. Using fire-scarred trees, we inferred temporal (...

  4. Reintroducing fire into a ponderosa pine forest with and without cattle grazing: understory vegetation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; Michelle Buonopane; Walter G. Thies; Christine. Niwa

    2011-01-01

    Reestablishing historical fire regimes is a high priority for North American coniferous forests, particularly ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. These forests are also used extensively for cattle (Bos spp.) grazing. Prescribed fires are being applied on or planned for millions of hectares of these forests to reduce...

  5. Estimating cubic volume of small diameter tree-length logs from ponderosa and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin E. Plank; James M. Cahill

    1984-01-01

    A sample of 351 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and 509 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) logs were used to evaluate the performance of three commonly used formulas for estimating cubic volume. Smalian's formula, Bruce's formula, and Huber's formula were tested to determine which...

  6. Fire effects on Gambel oak in southwestern ponderosa pine-oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Abella; Peter Z. Fulé

    2008-01-01

    Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) is ecologically and aesthetically valuable in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Fire effects on Gambel oak are important because fire may be used in pine-oak forests to manage oak directly or to accomplish other management objectives. We used published literature to: (1) ascertain...

  7. Tradeoffs in overstory and understory aboveground net primary productivity in southwestern ponderosa pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyla E. Sabo; Stephen C. Hart; Carolyn Hull Sieg; John Duff Bailey

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies in ponderosa pine forests have quantified the relationship between overstory stand characteristics and understory production using tree measurements such as basal area. We built on these past studies by evaluating the tradeoff between overstory and understory aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in southwestern ponderosa pine forests at the...

  8. Twenty-year growth of ponderosa pine saplings thinned to five spacings in central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett James W.

    1982-01-01

    Diameter, height, and volume growth and yield are given for plots thinned to 1000, 500, 250, 125, and 62 trees per acre in a 40- to 70-year-old stand of suppressed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) saplings in central Oregon. Trees averaged about 1-inch in diameter and 8 feet in height at the time of thinning. Considerations for...

  9. Site classification of ponderosa pine stands under stocking control in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers; William W. Oliver

    1978-01-01

    Existing systems for estimating site index of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) do not apply well to California stands where stocking is controlled. A more suitable system has been developed using trends in natural height growth, derived from stem analysis of dominant trees in California. This site index system produces polymorphic patterns of...

  10. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health OpenCourseWare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanaraksa, Sukon; Gooding, Ira; Klaas, Brian; Yager, James D.

    2009-01-01

    The need for public health knowledge is ever increasing, but the educational options have been limited to coursework delivered by academics to individuals who can afford the cost of tuition at public health institutions. To overcome this disparity, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) has joined the Massachusetts Institute of…

  11. School-Based Health Clinics: An Analysis of the Johns Hopkins Study. Research Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demsko, Tobin W.

    School-based health clinics, adolescent pregnancy prevention programs offering comprehensive health services, represent the latest initiative to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancy. Researchers at Johns Hopkins University designed and administered a pregnancy prevention program which offered sexuality education and family planning services…

  12. Paradigm Lost: Public Administration at Johns Hopkins University, 1884-96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M. Curtis

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the history of public administration at Johns Hopkins University from the late 1800s when a curriculum was developed to educate public servants. Suggests that the program made notable contributions to progressivism but was eclipsed by scientific management; however, it has new relevance in the current climate. (Contains 46 references.)…

  13. Differences in the Structure of the Gut Bacteria Communities in Development Stages of the Chinese White Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus armandi)

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xia; Wang, Chunyan; Chen, Hui; Ma, Junning

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li, is arguably the most destructive forest insect in the Qinling Mountains in Northern China. Little is known about the structure of the bacterial communities associated with D. armandi even though this wood-boring insect plays important roles in ecosystem and biological invasion processes that result in huge economic losses in pine forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the bacterial communities presen...

  14. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  15. Differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, on Pinus palustris and Pinus taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, N.A.; Whited, B.M.; Slone, D.H.; Martinson, S.J.; Ayres, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of host use by herbivore pests can have serious consequences for natural and managed ecosystems but are often poorly understood. Here, we provide the first quantification of large differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and longleaf pine, Pinus palustris P. Mill., and evaluate putative mechanisms for the disparity. Spatially extensive survey data from recent epidemics indicate that, per square kilometre, stands of loblolly versus longleaf pine in four forests (380-1273 km2) sustained 3-18 times more local infestations and 3-116 times more tree mortality. Differences were not attributable to size or age structure of pine stands. Using pheromone-baited traps, we found no differences in the abundance of dispersing D. frontalis or its predator Thanasimus dubius Fabricius between loblolly and longleaf stands. Trapping triggered numerous attacks on trees, but the pine species did not differ in the probability of attack initiation or in the surface area of bark attacked by growing aggregations. We found no evidence for postaggregation mechanisms of discrimination or differential success on the two hosts, suggesting that early colonizers discriminate between host species before a pheromone plume is present. ?? 2007 NRC.

  16. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to four bark beetle pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longwa; Clarke, Stephen R; Sun, Jianghua

    2009-04-01

    The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), has caused extensive mortality of Pinus tabuliformis Carrière in north central China. The electrophysiological and behavioral activities of the four bark beetle pheromones, frontalin, exo-brevicomin, trans-verbenol, and cis-verbenol, singly or in combination with host-produced kairomones, were tested on red turpentine beetles. Both sexes showed a consistent electrophysiological response to the four test compounds. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, walking red turpentine beetles selected the host compound (+)-3-carene over any of the test compounds, but significantly higher numbers chose each tested pheromone over a blank control. The four compounds, tested singly or in combination, were not attractive to red turpentine beetles in field trapping studies in 2006 and 2007 and also did not significantly increase trap catch when combined with (+)-3-carene. Frontalin, alone or in combination with exo-brevicomin and trans-verbenol, significantly reduced the attractiveness of (+)-3-carene in 2006 but not in 2007. The possible roles of the pheromones in host and mate finding and selection are discussed.

  17. Sexual variation of bacterial microbiota of Dendroctonus valens guts and frass in relation to verbenone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Letian; Lu, Min; Xu, Dandan; Chen, Li; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-12-01

    Gut microbiota are widely involved in insect biology, and many factors can influence the microbiota in guts and frass. Dendroctonus valens is a very destructive forest pest in China, and the mass-attacking behavior is regulated by several semiochemicals, including verbenone, a multifunctional pheromone. The beetle harbors a variety of bacteria in its guts and frass and some of them are capable of verbenone production. D. valens is characterized by monogamy and female-initiated attacking behavior. Whether the bacterial communities fluctuate according to sex, and whether the variation influences the verbenone production, remains to be determined. In this study, the bacterial microbiota in D. valens guts and frass were analyzed, and verbenone production by their crude bacterial suspensions was compared in vitro. Bacterial diversity in female frass is more abundant compared to male frass, and the percentages and total amounts of main genera like Lactococcus and Pseudomonas in female frass are significantly higher than those in male frass. The verbenone produced by the female frass suspension is significantly higher than male frass. This study presents a comprehensive comparison of bacterial communities in guts and frass between both sexes of D. valens, highlighting the potential significance of female frass microbiota in verbenone production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Areas of potential suitability and survival of Dendroctonus valens in China under extreme climate warming scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S Y; Ge, X Z; Wang, T; Wen, J B; Zong, S X

    2015-08-01

    The areas in China with climates suitable for the potential distribution of the pest species red turpentine beetle (RTB) Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were predicted by CLIMEX based on historical climate data and future climate data with warming estimated. The model used a historical climate data set (1971-2000) and a simulated climate data set (2010-2039) provided by the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change (TYN SC 2.0). Based on the historical climate data, a wide area was available in China with a suitable climate for the beetle in which every province might contain suitable habitats for this pest, particularly all of the southern provinces. The northern limit of the distribution of the beetle was predicted to reach Yakeshi and Elunchun in Inner Mongolia, and the western boundary would reach to Keerkezi in Xinjiang Province. Based on a global-warming scenario, the area with a potential climate suited to RTB in the next 30 years (2010-2039) may extend further to the northeast. The northern limit of the distribution could reach most parts of south Heilongjiang Province, whereas the western limit would remain unchanged. Combined with the tendency for RTB to spread, the variation in suitable habitats within the scenario of extreme climate warming and the multiple geographical elements of China led us to assume that, within the next 30 years, RTB would spread towards the northeast, northwest, and central regions of China and could be a potentially serious problem for the forests of China.

  19. Description of Parasitorhabditis frontali n. sp. (Nemata: Rhabditida) from Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchan, G.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Yuceer, C.

    2010-01-01

    A new Parasitorhabditis species with males and females was discovered from the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis and its galleries in loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, growing in Mississippi. Females of the new species have a cupola-shaped tail with a small spike; males possess a 2 + (3+2) + 3 ray pattern on the tail fan with ray 10 reaching the margin, and a distinctive stomatal tooth. Parasitorhabditis frontali n. sp. has some similarities to P. hylurgi Massey, 1974 from Hylurgops pinifex in New York, USA, P. terebranus Massey, 1974 from D. terebrans (Olivier, 1795) in Texas USA, P. ligniperdae Fuchs, 1915 from Hylergops ligniperda (Fabricius, 1787) and P. dendroctoni Rühm, 1956 from D. micans (Kugelann, 1794) in Europe, P. ateri Fuchs, 1915 isolated from the beetle Hylastes ater (Paykull, 1800) in Germany, and P. malii Devdariani and Kakulia,1970 from Scolytus mali (Bechstein, 1805) within the republic of Georgia. Morphometrics for 44 species of Parasitorhabditis are provided to update older keys. Parasitorhabditis frontali n. sp. was initially grown on Malt Extract (ME) agar with its own microbial contaminants that included a bacterium and fungus. The nematode also grew and reproduced after slices of ME agar with nematodes and microbial contaminants were transferred to water agar. It was killed by E. coli on NGM agar plates commonly used to raise other Rhabditida. Drawings of diagnostic anatomy and low-temperature SEM images of bodies, heads, and tails are provided for cultured specimens from pine beetle frass. PMID:22736836

  20. Identification, Expression Patterns, and Functional Characterization of Chemosensory Proteins in Dendroctonus armandi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhumei; Dai, Lulu; Chu, Honglong; Fu, Danyang; Sun, Yaya; Chen, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The Chinese white pine beetle, Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a serious pest of coniferous forests in China. Thus, there is considerable interest in developing eco-friendly pest-control methods, with the use of semiochemicals as a distinct possibility. Olfaction is extremely important for fitness of D. armandi because it is the primary mechanism through which the insect locates hosts and mates. Thus, here we characterized nine full-length genes encoding chemosensory proteins (CSPs) from D. armandi . The genes were ubiquitously and multiply expressed across different developmental stages and adult tissues, indicating various roles in developmental metamorphosis, olfaction, and gustation. Ligand-binding assays implied that DarmCSP2 may be the carrier of D. armandi pheromones and various plant host volatiles. These volatiles were identified through RNA interference of DarmCSP2 as: (+)-α-pinene, (+)-β-pinene, (-)-β-pinene, (+)-camphene, (+)-3-carene, and myrcene. The systematic chemosensory functional analysis of DarmCSP2 in this study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying D. armandi olfaction and provided a theoretical foundation for eco-friendly pest control.

  1. Exploring climate niches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) haplotypes in the western United States: Implications for evolutionary history and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with

  2. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J; Means, Robert E; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with discrete

  3. PONDEROSA-C/S: client-server based software package for automated protein 3D structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woonghee; Stark, Jaime L; Markley, John L

    2014-11-01

    Peak-picking Of Noe Data Enabled by Restriction Of Shift Assignments-Client Server (PONDEROSA-C/S) builds on the original PONDEROSA software (Lee et al. in Bioinformatics 27:1727-1728. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btr200, 2011) and includes improved features for structure calculation and refinement. PONDEROSA-C/S consists of three programs: Ponderosa Server, Ponderosa Client, and Ponderosa Analyzer. PONDEROSA-C/S takes as input the protein sequence, a list of assigned chemical shifts, and nuclear Overhauser data sets ((13)C- and/or (15)N-NOESY). The output is a set of assigned NOEs and 3D structural models for the protein. Ponderosa Analyzer supports the visualization, validation, and refinement of the results from Ponderosa Server. These tools enable semi-automated NMR-based structure determination of proteins in a rapid and robust fashion. We present examples showing the use of PONDEROSA-C/S in solving structures of four proteins: two that enable comparison with the original PONDEROSA package, and two from the Critical Assessment of automated Structure Determination by NMR (Rosato et al. in Nat Methods 6:625-626. doi: 10.1038/nmeth0909-625 , 2009) competition. The software package can be downloaded freely in binary format from http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/download_packages.html. Registered users of the National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison can submit jobs to the PONDEROSA-C/S server at http://ponderosa.nmrfam.wisc.edu, where instructions, tutorials, and instructions can be found. Structures are normally returned within 1-2 days.

  4. Aboveground Tree Biomass for Pinus ponderosa in Northeastern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for spatial or temporal variability. Individual-tree aboveground biomass allometric equations are presented from an analysis of 79 felled trees from four separate management units at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: one unthinned and three separate thinned units. A simultaneous set of allometric equations for foliage, branch and bole biomass were developed as well as branch-level equations for wood and foliage. Foliage biomass relationships varied substantially between units while branch and bole biomass estimates were more stable across a range of stand conditions. Trees of a given breast height diameter and crown ratio in thinned stands had more foliage biomass, but slightly less branch biomass than those in an unthinned stand. The observed variability in biomass relationships within Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest suggests that users should consider how well the data used to develop a selected model relate to the conditions in any given application.

  5. Longitudinal Evaluation of Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool and Nurses' Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eun Young; Jin, Yinji; Jin, Taixian; Lee, Sun-Mi

    The Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool (JHFRAT) is relatively new in Korea, and it has not been fully evaluated. This study revealed that the JHFRAT had good predictive validity throughout the hospitalization period. However, 2 items (fall history and elimination patterns) on the tool were not determinants of falls in this population. Interestingly, the nurses indicated those 2 items were the most difficult items to assess and needed further training to develop the assessment skills.

  6. Creating an institutional conflict-of-interest policy at Johns Hopkins: progress and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward D

    2007-03-01

    Unlike policies that address biomedical conflict of interest for individuals, conflict-of-interest policies for academic medical institutions are rare and lack consensus principles. Johns Hopkins Medicine is currently developing an institutional conflict-of-interest policy that emphasizes case-by-case review and disclosure of conflicts to research subjects and the public. Implementation of the policy will focus on transparency, consistent enforcement throughout the institution, thorough employee education about the policy, and ongoing policy review.

  7. Novel Approaches to Arabic Speech Recognition: Report from the 2002 Johns Hopkins Summer Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    standardized corpus of dialectal Arabic currently available, the LDC CallHome (CH) corpus of Egyptian Colloquial Arabic . This is a collection of phone... dialectal Arabic . This paper reports on our project at the 2002 Johns Hopkins Summer Workshop, which focused on the recognition of dialectal Arabic . Three...language modeling and the integration of out- of- corpus language model data, and report significant word error rate improvements on the LDC Arabic

  8. Summary of the 2015 International Paediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Karl, Tom R; Asante-Korang, Alfred; Everett, Allen D; Collins, Susan B; Ramirez-Correa, Genaro A; Burns, Kristin M; Cohen, Mitchell; Colan, Steven D; Costello, John M; Daly, Kevin P; Franklin, Rodney C G; Fraser, Charles D; Hill, Kevin D; Huhta, James C; Kaushal, Sunjay; Law, Yuk M; Lipshultz, Steven E; Murphy, Anne M; Pasquali, Sara K; Payne, Mark R; Rossano, Joseph; Shirali, Girish; Ware, Stephanie M; Xu, Mingguo; Jacobs, Marshall L

    2015-08-01

    In the United States alone, ∼14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute was held on February 4 and 5, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children's Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children's Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary "think-tank". The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise the lessons from the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute, to describe the "state of the art" of the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure, and to discuss future directions for research in the domain of paediatric cardiac failure.

  9. Pelletized ponderosa pine bark for adsorption of toxic heavy metals from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoung Oh; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2007-01-01

    Bark flour from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) was consolidated into pellets using citric acid as cross-linking agent. The pellets were evaluated for removal of toxic heavy metals from synthetic aqueous solutions. When soaked in water, pellets did not leach tannins, and they showed high adsorption capacity for Cu(ll), Zn(ll), Cd(ll). and Ni(ll) under both equilibrium...

  10. Sound-Triggered Production of Antiaggregation Pheromone Limits Overcrowding of Dendroctonus valens Attacking Pine Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhudong; Xin, Yucui; Xu, Bingbing; Raffa, Kenneth F; Sun, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    For insects that aggregate on host plants, both attraction and antiaggregation among conspecifics can be important mechanisms for overcoming host resistance and avoiding overcrowding, respectively. These mechanisms can involve multiple sensory modalities, such as sound and pheromones. We explored how acoustic and chemical signals are integrated by the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens to limit aggregation in China. In its native North American range, this insect conducts nonlethal attacks on weakened trees at very low densities, but in its introduced zone in China, it uses mixtures of host tree compounds and the pheromone component frontalin to mass attack healthy trees. We found that exo-brevicomin was produced by both female and male D. valens, and that this pheromone functioned as an antiaggregating signal. Moreover, beetles feeding in pairs or in masses were more likely than were beetles feeding alone to produce exo-brevicomin, suggesting a potential role of sound by neighboring beetles in stimulating exo-brevicomin production. Sound playback showed that an agreement sound was produced by both sexes when exposed to the aggregation pheromone frontalin and attracts males, and an aggressive sound was produced only by males behaving territorially. These signals triggered the release of exo-brevicomin by both females and males, indicating an interplay of chemical and sonic communication. This study demonstrates that the bark beetle D. valens uses sounds to regulate the production of an antiaggregation pheromone, which may provide new approaches to pest management of this invasive species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Reconstructing SWE from a ponderosa pine chronology, Boise Front, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, D. E.; Cutter, A.

    2012-12-01

    Changing climate in the intermountain western US is expected to include changes in precipitation amounts and timing. One change anticipated is a the development of a trend toward earlier snowmelt and subsequent runoff. Snow water equivalent (SWE) data of snow pack recorded at SNOTEL sites is limited to the past 30 years, but by using tree rings we are able to reconstruct SWE at various points in the water season (January - May). A tree-ring chronology dating to the 1600's was developed using cores collected from ponderosa pine in the foothills above Boise, Idaho. Using a 100 year smoothing spline, the chronology shows a moderate (r = 0.40) correlation with prior water year late season (May) SWE recorded at the More's Creek Summit SNOTEL site NE of Boise. This paper examines the reconstructed SWE for the past 300 years, as well as the influence of climatic teleconnections on the region's precipitation.

  12. Peroxy Radical Chemistry and Partitioning under a Ponderosa Pine Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, G. M.; Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, L.; Kim, S.; Henry, S. B.; Boyle, E. S.; Karl, T.; Harley, P. C.; Turnipseed, A.; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F. M.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Guenther, A. B.; DiGangi, J. P.; Kaser, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Graus, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y. J.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2012-12-01

    As the first intermediates in the OH-initiated oxidation of hydrocarbons, peroxy radicals are central to the photochemistry of the lower atmosphere. Peroxy radical abundance and partitioning controls relative rates of radical propagation and termination in low-NOx regimes, and the coupled cycling of these molecules lies at the heart of recently-highlighted deficiencies in traditional chemical mechanisms. Using observations of hydroperoxy (HO2) and total peroxy (HO2 + RO2) radicals acquired during the summer 2010 BEACHON-ROCs campaign, we explore the processes affecting radical-mediated chemistry within a rural Ponderosa pine forest in central Colorado. Steady-state and fully-coupled 0-D modeling studies are used to provide complementary perspectives on our understanding of the radical budget in this environment. Analysis will focus on the nature and impact of unidentified radical sources and sinks and on how the composition of the peroxy radical pool modulates radical regeneration.

  13. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  14. Revealing the gut bacteriome of Dendroctonus bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae): diversity, core members and co-evolutionary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-García, Juan Alfredo; Briones-Roblero, Carlos Iván; Rivera-Orduña, Flor N; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2017-10-24

    Dendroctonus bark beetles comprise 20 taxonomically recognized species, which are one of the most destructive pine forest pests in North and Central America, and Eurasia. The aims of this study were to characterize the gut bacterial diversity, to determine the core bacteriome and to explore the ecological association between these bacteria and bark beetles. A total of five bacterial phyla were identified in the gut of 13 Dendroctonus species; Proteobacteria was the most abundant, followed by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. The α-diversity was low as demonstrated in previous studies and significant differences in β-diversity were observed. The core bacteriome was composed of Enterobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Raoultella, and Serratia. The tanglegram between bacteria and bark beetles suggests that members of bacterial community are acquired from the environment, possibly from the host tree. These findings improve the knowledge about the bacterial community composition, and provide the bases to study the metabolic functions of these bacteria, as well as their interaction with these bark beetles.

  15. Pheromone-Mediated Mate Location and Discrimination by Two Syntopic Sibling Species of Dendroctonus Bark Beetles in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Domínguez, Alicia; Sullivan, Brian T; López-Urbina, José H; Macías-Sámano, Jorge E

    2015-08-01

    Where their geographic and host ranges overlap, sibling species of tree-killing bark beetles may simultaneously attack and reproduce on the same hosts. However, sustainability of these potentially mutually beneficial associations demands effective prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanisms between the interacting species. The pine bark beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is syntopic in the Central American region with a recently described sibling species, Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armendáriz-Toledano and Sullivan, but mechanisms for their reproductive isolation are uncertain. We investigated whether semiochemicals mediate species discrimination by mate-seeking males of both species. In olfactometer bioassays, walking males of both species strongly preferred odors from gallery entrances of conspecific females. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry isolated 16 olfactory stimulants for males in these odors, but only two, ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin (both from D. mesoamericanus females), differed in quantity in female-associated odors between the species. In olfactometer bioassays, with 10, 1, or 0.1 female entrance equivalents of synthetic semiochemicals, the combination of ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin inhibited responses of male D. frontalis and enhanced responses of male D. mesoamericanus to two compounds associated with female entrances of both species (the pheromone component frontalin and host odor α-pinene). We conclude that ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin, pheromone components produced by females of just one of the two species (D. mesoamericanus), mediate interspecific mate discrimination by males of both species and provide an apparently symmetrical reproductive isolation mechanism.

  16. The Current Status of the Distribution Range of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Curculionidae: Solytinae) in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio-Mendoza, O; Armendáriz-Toledano, F; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, G; Negrón, José F; Zúñiga, G

    2017-09-01

    The distribution range of the western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is supported only by scattered records in the northern parts of Mexico, suggesting that its populations may be marginal and rare in this region. In this study, we review the geographical distribution of D. brevicomis in northern Mexico and perform a geometric morphometric analysis of seminal rod shape to evaluate its reliability for identifying this species with respect to other members of the Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex. Our results provide 30 new records, with 26 distributed in the Sierra Madre Occidental and 4 in the Sierra Madre Oriental. These records extend the known distribution range of D. brevicomis to Durango and Tamaulipas states in northern Mexico. Furthermore, we find high geographic variation in size and shape of the seminal rod, with conspicous differences among individuals from different geographical regions, namely west and east of the Great Basin and between mountain systems in Mexico. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf M. Oosthuizen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist when administered to a convenience sample of 241 fire-fighters from a metropolitan municipality. The results indicate that these two measuring instruments yielded acceptable internal-consistency reliability coefficients for most of the subscales of the questionnaires. Construct validity was investigated by means of exploratory factor analysis. It was concluded that the measuring instruments are fit to be used for diagnostic and developmental purposes and during counselling to enhance the psychological wellbeing of fire-fighters and their families.

  18. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Limits Chronic Constipation in a Child with Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Aquino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome (PTHS is a rare genetic disorder caused by insufficient expression of the TCF4 gene. Children with PTHS typically present with gastrointestinal disorders and early severe chronic constipation is frequently found (75%. Here we describe the case of a PTHS male 10-year-old patient with chronic constipation in whom Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT resulted in improved bowel functions, as assessed by the diary, the QPGS-Form A Section C questionnaire, and the Paediatric Bristol Stool Form Scale. The authors suggested that OMT may be a valid tool to improve the defecation frequency and reduce enema administration in PTHS patients.

  19. Johns Hopkins's first professorship in philosophy: a critical pivot point in the history of American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D

    2007-01-01

    The first professorship in philosophy at Johns Hopkins University was contested in the early 1880s by two of the most prominent and influential scholars in America: Charles Sanders Peirce and George Sylvester Morris. A third figure also vied for the position, although he was much less well known at the time: Granville Stanley Hall. Through a series of unexpected circumstances, Hall ultimately won the professorship and then used it to leverage an extraordinary career that included his opening the first American research laboratory in psychology, establishing the American Journal of Psychology, becoming president of Clark University, founding the American Psychological Association, and profoundly affecting the character of developmental psychology in America.

  20. A case of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome presented with Angelman-like syndromic phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Syuan-Yu; Chou, I-Ching; Lin, Wei-De; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2016-12-01

    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), caused by a TCF4 gene mutation, is a condition characterized by intellectual disability and developmental delay, breathing anomalies, epilepsy, and distinctive facial dysmorphism [1]. Its diverse clinical appearance causes pediatricians to confuse it with Angelman syndrome, which is considered one of the family members of Angelman-like syndrome. Herein, we report on a 4 y/o boy with PTHS and discuss its similarities and differences with Angelman syndrome. In doing so we hope to provide a feasible pathway to diagnose rare diseases, especially Angelman-like syndrome.

  1. Evaluating the role of cutting treatments, fire and soil seed banks in an experimental framework in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody L. Wienk; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Guy R. McPherson

    2004-01-01

    Pinus ponderosa Laws. (ponderosa pine) forests have changed considerably during the past century, partly because recurrent fires have been absent for a century or more. A number of studies have explored the influence of timber harvest or burning on understory production in ponderosa pine forests, but study designs incorporating cutting and prescribed...

  2. Variable responses by southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to the pheromone component endo-Brevicomin: influence of enantiomeric composition, release rate, and proximity to infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Sullivan; Mark Dulusky; Kenji Mori; Cavell Brownie

    2011-01-01

    The male-produced bicyclic acetal endo-brevicomin is a component of the pheromone blend that mediates colonization of host pines by the bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. Efforts to identify its behavioral function have been complicated by contrasting reports that it either enhances or reduces attraction of flying beetles. Our studies failed to support the...

  3. A Synopsis of the Taxonomic Revisions in the Genus Ceratocystis Including a Review of Blue-Staining Species Associated with Dendroctonus Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelma J. Perry

    1991-01-01

    Taxonomic revisions in both the teleomorphic (sexual) and anamorphic (asexual) forms of the genus Ceratocystis Ellis & Halstead are chronicled in this review. Recognized species associated with Dendroctonus Erichson bark beetles are summarized, and several species that have been published as recombinations, species that were...

  4. Responses of Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in behavioral assays: Implications to development of a semiochemical-based tool for tree protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Stephen R. McKelvey; Christopher P. Dabney; Dezene P.W. Huber

    2012-01-01

    Currently, techniques for managing western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), infestations are limited to tree removals (thinning) that reduce stand density and presumably host susceptibility, and/or the use of insecticides to protect individual trees. There continues to be significant interest in...

  5. Verbenone interrupts attraction to host volatiles and reduces attack on Pinus tabuliformis (Pinaceae) by Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianghua Sun; Nancy Gillette; Zhengwan Miao; Zhongning Zhang Le Kang; Donald R. Owen; John D Stein

    2003-01-01

    The introduced red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, is one of the most economically important forest pests in the People's Republic of China, having killed more than 6 million pines in recent years. There is an urgent need to develop effective behavioral chemicals to monitor and control D. valens in the People...

  6. The response of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Temnochila chlorodia (Coleoptera: Trogossitidae) to Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) pheromone components and verbenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Stepehen R. McKelvey; Christopher P. Dabney; Robert R. Borys

    2007-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, 1860 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a common bark beetle species found throughout much of North America and China. In 2004, we observed that California fivespined ips, Ips paraconfusus Lanier, 1970 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), attack densities in logging debris were inversely related to D...

  7. Implementation and evaluation of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine leadership program for women faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rachel B; González-Fernández, Marlís; Bodurtha, Joann; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Fivush, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Women continue to be underrepresented in top leadership roles in academic medicine. Leadership training programs for women are designed to enhance women's leadership skills and confidence and increase overall leadership diversity. The authors present a description and evaluation of a longitudinal, cohort-based, experiential leadership program for women faculty at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. We compared pre- and post-program self-assessed ratings of 11 leadership skills and specific negotiation behaviors from 3 cohorts of leadership program participants (n=134) from 2010 to 2013. Women reported significant improvements in skills across 11 domains with the exceptions of 2 domains, Public Speaking and Working in Teams, both of which received high scores in the pre-program assessment. The greatest improvement in rankings occurred within the domain of negotiation skills. Although women reported an increase in their negotiation skills, we were not able to demonstrate an increase in the number of times that women negotiated for salary, space, or promotion following participation in the program. The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Leadership Program for Women Faculty has demonstrable value for the professional development of participants and addresses institutional strategies to enhance leadership diversity and the advancement of women.

  8. Understory vegetation response after 30 years of interval prescribed burning in two ponderosa pine sites in northern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine A. Scudieri; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Sally M. Haase; Andrea E. Thode; Stephen S. Sackett

    2010-01-01

    Southwestern USA ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson var. scopulorum Engelm.) forests evolved with frequent surface fires and have changed dramatically over the last century. Overstory tree density has sharply increased while abundance of understory vegetation has declined primarily due to the near cessation of fires. We...

  9. 3-PG simulations of young ponderosa pine plantations under varied management intensity: why do they grow so differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang Wei; Marshall John; Jianwei Zhang; Hang Zhou; Robert Powers

    2014-01-01

    Models can be powerful tools for estimating forest productivity and guiding forest management, but their credibility and complexity are often an issue for forest managers. We parameterized a process-based forest growth model, 3-PG (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth), to simulate growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) plantations in...

  10. Changes in forest structure since 1860 in ponderosa pine dominated forests in the Colorado and Wyoming Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike A. Battaglia; Benjamin Gannon; Peter M. Brown; Paula J. Fornwalt; Antony S. Cheng; Laurie S. Huckaby

    2018-01-01

    Management practices since the late 19th century, including fire exclusion and harvesting, have altered the structure of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) dominated forests across the western United States. These structural changes have the potential to contribute to uncharacteristic wildfire behavior and effects. Locally-...

  11. Comparative trends in log populations in northern Arizona mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests following severe drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Scott C. Vojta

    2017-01-01

    Logs provide an important form of coarse woody debris in forest systems, contributing to numerous ecological processes and affecting wildlife habitat and fuel complexes. Despite this, little information is available on the dynamics of log populations in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and especially mixed-conifer forests. A recent episode of elevated tree...

  12. Impact of spring or fall repeated prescribed fire on growth of ponderosa pine in eastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter G. Thies; Douglas J. Westlind; Mark. Loewen

    2013-01-01

    Prescribed burning is used to reduce fuel loads and to return fire to its historic disturbance role in western forests. Managers need to know the effects of prescribed fire on tree growth. Growth of residual ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) was measured in an existing long-term study of the effects of season-of-prescribed burn in...

  13. Twenty-year growth of thinned and unthinned ponderosa pine in the Methow Valley of northern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Barrett

    1981-01-01

    Diameter, height and volume growth, and yield of thinned and unthinned plots are given for a suppressed, 47-year-old stand of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) in the Methow Valley of northern Washington that averaged about 3 inches in diameter and 23 feet tall before thinning. Considerations are discussed for choosing tree spacing...

  14. The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health: A Brief History of a Century of Epidemiologic Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Alfred

    2016-03-01

    During its first century, the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health has been home to several faculty members who have played leading roles in defining and expanding the field and science of epidemiology. They have done so by training leaders in the field, creating new methods and applications, and making relevant discoveries in the worlds of infectious and chronic diseases. These methodologic innovations and discoveries underlie many of today's major health policies and practices. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Influence of Starvation on the Structure of Gut-Associated Bacterial Communities in the Chinese White Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus armandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of starvation on the structure of the gut bacterial community in the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi. A total of 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs0.03 clusters belonging to nine genera were identified. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE profiles of bacterial PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments from the guts of starved male and female adults revealed that the bacterial community diversity increased after starvation. The dominant genus Citrobacter decreased significantly, whereas the genus Serratia increased in both starved female and starved male adults. The most predominant bacterial genus in D. armandi adults was Citrobacter, except for starved male adults, in which Serratia was the most abundant genus (27%. Our findings reveal that starvation affects gut bacterial dynamics in D. armandi, as has been observed in other insect species.

  16. Uptake and distribution of nitrogen from acidic fog within a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.)/litter/soil system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenn, M.E.; Leininger, T.D.

    1995-11-01

    The magnitude and importance of wet deposition of N in forests of the South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin have not been well characterized. We exposed 3-yr-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) seedlings growing in native forest soil to acidic fog treatments (pH 3.1) simulating fog chemistry from a pine forest near Los Angeles, California. Fog solutions contained either {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, or unlabeled N. The fog treatments were applied in open-top chambers in six 5-hr exposures. Soil treatments within each of the fog exposures were bare soil, soil overlain with L- and F-litter, and soil covered with plastic during the fog events to prevent fogwater from contacting soil. Seedlings were harvested and samples were collected 15 wk after the fog treatments. Uptake of {sup 15}N by roots was by far the dominant pathway for plant assimilation of fog-deposited {sup 15}N. Deposition of N in fog supplied 9.4% and 8.7% of the total N in current-year crown biomass in the litter-overlay and bare-soil treatments, respectively. Total N concentrations in every plant fraction except current-year stems were significantly higher in the bare-soil treatment than in the plastic-covered soil treatment. Less than 5% of the {sup 15}N deposited directly to the seedling crowns was retained by the plants in the covered-soil treatment, whereas 57% of the {sup 15}N deposited to the seedling/litter/soil systems was incorporated into plant biomass. The litter layers retained {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} more effectively than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} more effectively than {sup 15}NO{sub 3}. Data from this study suggest that N deposited from fog may be an important source of N for plant growth in forests of the SCAB where fog occurrence and pollution exposure coincide. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Psychometric validation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) subscales for depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bille, Jim; Møller, Stine Bjerrum

    2014-01-01

    patients with various diagnoses, was tested. RESULTS: The PCA of the SCL-D16 and the SCL-A14 separated the core depression items from the arousal items on the SCL-D16 and the psychic anxiety items from the somatic anxiety items on the SCL-A14. According to the Mokken analyses, only the SCL-D6, the SCL-ASS8...... and the IPS5 were unidimensional. Interestingly, the same three scales displayed discriminant validity for depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders, respectively. LIMITATIONS: The study is based on data from Denmark. This may limit the validity of the results. CONCLUSIONS: Three unidimensional......BACKGROUND: The psychometric validity of many subscales of the 90-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the "Hamilton-subscales" for depression (SCL-D16), anxiety (SCL-A14), their 6...

  18. One Hundred Years of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins: A Story of Meyer to McHugh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaulo, J Raymond

    2017-04-01

    This article describes a history of clinical methods and constructs that guide Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Phipps Clinic today. The contributions of Adolf Meyer and Paul McHugh are central and closely connected. Both emphasize the clinical examination as the central practice of psychiatry as a specialty within medicine. Meyer's comprehensive examination of the patient became the centerpiece of his approach and was the standard for psychiatrists in the English-speaking world. McHugh, with Phillip Slavney, developed a pluralistic and practical framework for interpreting that history and examination. Both argued against the uncritical use of the modern disease construct. McHugh argues that the disease construct, although fundamental, is but one of four useful "perspectives of psychiatry" and is, thus, an insufficient basis for psychiatric practice. The perspectives could be used as an organizing framework by all physicians who seek a practical and truly personalized approach to the care of patients.

  19. Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: report of a case with a TCF4 gene mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsini Alessandro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims We will discuss the clinical and genetic diagnosis of a child with severe psychomotor delay, who at 3 years of age presented with paroxysms of hyperpnea-apnea and seizures unrelated to breathing anomalies. Methods The child underwent genetic (karyotype, FISH telomeres and neuroradiological (cranial CT and MRI tests, which proved to be normal. He came under our clinical observation at 3 years and 5 months of age. Due to severe psychomotor delay and facial dysmorphisms we completed the genetic investigations based on his clinical feature and analysis of the available literature. Results The presence of severe mental retardation associated with anomalous breathing pattern may suggest the Joubert and Rett syndrome, however these were excluded on the basis of clinical and genetic examination. Angelman syndrome, suspected for facial dysmorphisms and absent language, was also excluded because of the presence of a normal pattern of methylation at SNRPN locus. Another possible diagnosis was the Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome (PHS, characterized by severe mental retardation, breathing anomalies (paroxisms of hyperpnea-apnea, dysmorphisms and sometimes epilepsy. Haploinsufficiency of TCF4 gene located at 18q21.2 region has been recently identified as causative of this syndrome. In our patient the research of TCF4 mutation by the Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany, showed a de novo mutation. Conclusions The diagnosis of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, an underdiagnosed cause of mental retardation, was based on clinical and genetic findings. Searching for TCF4 mutations is highly recommended when others overlapping syndromes was excluded. At our knowledge our patient is the first italian case of PHS diagnosed at molecular level.

  20. Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, October-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 December 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into five sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains a report on institutional problems for small-scale hydroelectric power development in the southeastern states and a list of documents published by APL in the hydroelectric program and in the geothermal program, above. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigations, contains an article on work on the geologic structure of the Danbury Quadrangle that is supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and an in-house supported study on a new method for assessing earthquakes in intraplate regions. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains four articles. The first is an evaluation of the Einstein refrigerator, supported by independent IR and D funds. The second concerns fly-wheel technology development at APL supported by the Department of Energy, Division of Energy Storage (DOE/STOR). The third is a report on APL energy conservation efforts at its own buildings, and the fourth is an article on liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety evaluation, supported by the National Academy of Sciences. The fifth section explores the value of establishing an Energy Research Institute at The Johns Hopkins University.

  1. Protecting Health and Saving Lives: The Part-Time/Internet-Based Master of Public Health Program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Linda; Gresh, Kathy; Vanchiswaran, Rohini; Werapitiya, Deepthi

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the part-time/Internet-based Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH). The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health was the first school of public health in the United States to offer a Master of Public Health program via the Internet. The JHSPH MPH Program…

  2. 76 FR 67195 - Announcing the Award of a Single-Source Program Expansion Supplement Grant to the Johns Hopkins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Announcing the Award of a Single-Source Program Expansion Supplement Grant to the Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, MD, To Support the Development of a Human Services National...

  3. On the shoulders of giants: Harvey Cushing's experience with acromegaly and gigantism at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1896-1912.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pendleton, C.; Adams, H.; Salvatori, R.; Wand, G.; Quinones-Hinojosa, A.

    2011-01-01

    A review of Dr. Cushing's surgical cases at Johns Hopkins Hospital revealed new information about his early operative experience with acromegaly. Although in 1912 Cushing published selective case studies regarding this work, a review of all his operations for acromegaly during his early years has

  4. Fellowship training at John Hopkins: programs leading to careers in librarianship and informatics as informaticians or informationists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jayne M; Roderer, Nancy K

    2005-01-01

    Preparing librarians to meet the information challenges faced in the current and future health care environments is critical. At Johns Hopkins University, three NLM-funded fellowship programs provide opportunities for librarians to utilize the rich environments of the Welch Medical Library and the Division of Health Sciences Informatics in support of life-long learning.

  5. Phenotype and natural history in 101 individuals with Pitt-Hopkins syndrome through an internet questionnaire system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Channa F.; Baas, Melanie; Bijlsma, Emilia K.; van Heukelingen, John; Routledge, Sue; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS; MIM# 610954) is a genetically determined entity mainly caused by mutations in TransCription Factor 4 (TCF4). We have developed a new way to collect information on (ultra-)rare disorders through a web-based database which we call 'waihonapedia' (waihona [meaning treasure

  6. Psychometric validation of the Chinese version of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool for older Chinese inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Min; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    To culturally adapt and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool among older inpatients in the mainland of China. Patient falls are an important safety consideration within hospitals among older inpatients. Nurses need specific risk assessment tools for older inpatients to reliably identify at-risk populations and guide interventions that highlight fixable risk factors for falls and consequent injuries. In China, a few tools have been developed to measure fall risk. However, they lack the solid psychometric development necessary to establish their validity and reliability, and they are not widely used for elderly inpatients. A cross-sectional study. A convenient sampling was used to recruit 201 older inpatients from two tertiary-level hospitals in Beijing and Xiamen, China. The Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool was translated using forward and backward translation procedures and was administered to these 201 older inpatients. Reliability of the tool was calculated by inter-rater reliability and Cronbach's alpha. Validity was analysed through content validity index and construct validity. The Inter-rater reliability of Chinese version of Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool was 97·14% agreement with Cohen's Kappa of 0·903. Cronbach's α was 0·703. Content of Validity Index was 0·833. Two factors represented intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors were explored that together explained 58·89% of the variance. This study provided evidence that Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool is an acceptable, valid and reliable tool to identify older inpatients at risk of falls and falls with injury. Further psychometric testing on criterion validity and evaluation of its advanced utility in geriatric clinical settings are warranted. The Chinese version of Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool may be useful for health care personnel to identify older Chinese inpatients at risk of falls and falls

  7. Phytotoxic grass residues reduce germination and initial root growth of ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Rietveld

    1975-01-01

    Extracts of green foliage of Arizona fescue and mountain muhly significantly reduced germination of ponderosa pine seeds, and retarded speed of elongation and mean radicle length. Three possible routes of release of the inhibitor were investigated: (1) leaching from live foliage, (2) root exudation, and (3) overwinter leaching from dead residues. The principal route...

  8. Development of post-fire crown damage mortality thresholds in ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Joel McMillin; Kurt K. Allen; Jose F. Negron; Linda L. Wadleigh; John A. Anhold; Ken E. Gibson

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that crown scorch volume and crown consumption volume are the major predictors of post-fire mortality in ponderosa pine. In this study, we use piecewise logistic regression models of crown scorch data from 6633 trees in five wildfires from the Intermountain West to locate a mortality threshold at 88% scorch by volume for trees with no crown...

  9. Growth and physiological responses to varied environments among populations of Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Bert M. Cregg

    2005-01-01

    We investigated population responses in physiology, morphology, and growth of mature Pinus ponderosa trees to an environmental gradient across Nebraska, USA. Ten populations from western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming were grown in three 26-year-old provenance tests from the warmest and wettest site in the east (Plattsmouth) to the intermediate site in...

  10. Presence of carbaryl in the smoke of treated lodgepole and ponderosa pine bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris J. Peterson; Sheryl L. Costello

    2013-01-01

    Lodgepole and ponderosa pine trees were treated with a 2% carbaryl solution at recreational areas near Fort Collins, CO, in June 2010 as a prophylactic bole spray against the mountain pine beetle. Bark samples from treated and untreated trees were collected one day following application and at 4-month intervals for one year. The residual amount of carbaryl was...

  11. Postfire environmental conditions influence the spatial pattern of regeneration for Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. H. Bonnet; Anna Schoettle; W. D. Shepperd

    2005-01-01

    Regeneration of ponderosa pine after fire depends on the patterns of seed availability and the environmental conditions that define safe sites for seedling establishment. A transect approach was applied in 2002 to determine the spatial distribution of regeneration from unburned to burned areas within the landscape impacted by the Jasper Fire of 2000 in the...

  12. Restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine forests: Implications and opportunities for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine S. Wightman; Steven S. Rosenstock

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) After a century of fire suppression, livestock grazing, and even-aged timber harvest practices, forest managers in the Southwest face an enormous challenge. Millions of acres of ponderosa pine forest are extremely susceptible to uncharacteristic, high intensity wildfires, the consequences of which were amply demonstrated by...

  13. Mountain pine beetle-killed trees as snags in Black Hills ponderosa pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp

    2009-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...

  14. Comparative genetic responses to climate in the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: reforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Dennis G. Joyce; Laura P. Leites; J. Bradley St Clair; Javier Lopez-Upton

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on the climatic niche of the sub-specific varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii and on the adaptedness of their populations are considered from the viewpoint of reforestation. In using climate projections from an ensemble of 17 general circulation models targeting the decade surrounding 2060, our analyses suggest that a...

  15. Response of dwarf mistletoe-infested ponderosa pine to thinning: 2. Dwarf mistletoe propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Roth; James W. Barrett

    1985-01-01

    Propagation of dwarf mistletoe in ponderosa pine saplings is little influenced by thinning overly dense stands to 250 trees per acre. Numerous plants that appear soon after thinning develop from formerly latent plants in the suppressed under-story. Subsequently, dwarf mistletoe propagates nearly as fast as tree crowns enlarge but the rate differs widely among trees....

  16. Response of planted ponderosa pine seedlings to weed control by herbicide in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian C.C. Uzoh

    1999-01-01

    The effects of competing herbaceous vegetation on the growth of ponderosa pine seedlings with and without herbicide Pronone were characterized in this 1987-1990 study. Study areas were established in 36 plantations across western Montana on Champion International Corporation's timberland (currently owned by Plum Creek Timber Company). The study sites were divided...

  17. Eighty-eight years of change in a managed ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen Y. Smith; Stephen F. Arno

    1999-01-01

    This publication gives an overview of structural and other ecological changes associated with forest management and fire suppression since the early 1900's in a ponderosa pine forest, the most widespread forest type in the Western United States. Three sources of information are presented: (1) changes seen in a series of repeat photographs taken between 1909 and...

  18. Growth of ten regional races of ponderosa pine in six plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton T. Munger

    1947-01-01

    Ponderosa pine occurs over a wide range--from the Great Plains to the Pacific and from British Columbia to Mexico. Within this range there is great variation in the form and life habits of this tree. It has been long recognized that "regional races" or strains are present. Some of these regional races have been recognized by some botanists as varieties, such...

  19. Resilience of ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests to mountain pine beetle disturbance and limited regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jenny S.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vandendriesche, Don

    2015-01-01

    After causing widespread mortality in lodgepole pine forests in North America, the mountain pine beetle (MPB) has recently also affected ponderosa pine, an alternate host species that may have different levels of resilience to this disturbance. We collected field data in ponderosa pine- and lodgepole pine-dominated forests attacked by MPB in Colorado and then simulated stand growth over 200 years using the Forest Vegetation Simulator. We compared scenarios of no disturbance with scenarios of MPB-caused mortality, both with and without regeneration. Results indicated that basal area and tree density recovered to predisturbance levels relatively rapidly (within 1‐8 decades) in both forest types. However, convergence of the disturbed conditions with simulated undisturbed conditions took longer (12‐20+ decades) and was delayed by the absence of regeneration. In MPB-affected ponderosa pine forests without regeneration, basal area did not converge with undisturbed conditions within 200 years, implying lower resilience in this ecosystem. Surface fuels accumulated rapidly in both forest types after MPB-induced mortality, remaining high for 3‐6 decades in simulations. Our results suggest that future patterns of succession, regeneration, fuel loading, climate, and disturbance interactions over long time periods should be considered in management strategies addressing MPB effects in either forest type, but particularly in ponderosa pine.

  20. Ponderosa pine needle length: an early indicator of release treatment effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Carl N. Skinner; Gary O. Fiddler

    1992-01-01

    Growth responses of ponderosa pine seedlings range from fast to slow after release and often demonstrate the effectiveness of the prescribed treatments. Although several morphological parameters have have identified as being sensitive to competition, no link to future growth and treatment effectiveness has been made. Shrubs and grasses in four 1- to 3-year-old...

  1. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  2. Latent resilience in ponderosa pine forest: effects of resumed frequent fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Larson; R. Travis Belote; C. Alina Cansler; Sean A. Parks; Matthew S. Dietz

    2013-01-01

    Ecological systems often exhibit resilient states that are maintained through negative feedbacks. In ponderosa pine forests, fire historically represented the negative feedback mechanism that maintained ecosystem resilience; fire exclusion reduced that resilience, predisposing the transition to an alternative ecosystem state upon reintroduction of fire. We evaluated...

  3. Summary (Songbird ecology in southwestern ponderosa pine forests: A literature review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Deborah M. Finch; Joseph L. Ganey; William H. Moir

    1997-01-01

    Most ornithological studies in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests have yielded results that are applicable only to the specific location and particular conditions of the study areas (for example, Green 1979 and Hurlbert 1984). In addition, varying interpretation of similar study results by investigators has limited our ability to extend or synthesize research results...

  4. Postive seedling-shrub relationships in natural regeneration of ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher R. Keyes; Douglas A. Maguire

    2005-01-01

    An understanding of natural regeneration processes, and the stand structural features that influence those processes, is vital to attaining goals associated with natural regeneration. This paper discusses natural regeneration concepts and the interactions that occur between shrubs and natural regeneration of ponderosa pine. The interactions observed recently in a...

  5. Thinning decreases mortality and increases growth of Ponderosa pine in northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary O. Fiddler; Troy A. Fiddler; Dennis R. Hart; Philip M. McDonald

    1989-01-01

    Overstocked 70- to 90-year-old stands of ponderosa pine on medium- to low-quality sites were thinned in 1980 to 40, 55, and 70 percent of normal basal area and compared to an unthinned control. Mortality, diameter, and height in these northern California stands were measured annually from 1980 to 1987. After 8 years, mortality, primarily from mountain pine beetle (

  6. Economics of replacing young-growth ponderosa pine stands . . . a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis E. Teeguarden

    1968-01-01

    Compares the expected capital value growth of five ponderosa pine stands (70 to 80 years old) on the Challenge Experimental Forest, Yuba County, Calif., with the cost of delaying harvest (defined as sum of stock-holding and land-holding costs). Suggests that replacement of all five stands would be financially desirable under constant stumpage prices. Recommends...

  7. Restoring forest structure and process stabilizes forest carbon in wildfire-prone southwestern ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Hurteau; Shuang Liang; Katherine L. Martin; Malcolm P. North; George W. Koch; Bruce A. Hungate

    2016-01-01

    Changing climate and a legacy of fire-exclusion have increased the probability of high-severity wildfire, leading to an increased risk of forest carbon loss in ponderosa pine forests in the southwestern USA. Efforts to reduce high-severity fire risk through forest thinning and prescribed burning require both the removal and emission of carbon from these forests, and...

  8. Lumber recovery from small-diameter ponderosa pine from Flagstaff, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; David W. Green

    2001-01-01

    Thousands of acres of densely stocked ponderosa pine forests surround Flagstaff, AZ. These stands are at high risk of fire, insect, and disease outbreak. Stand density management activity can be expensive, but product recovery from the thinned material could help defray removal costs. This project evaluated the yield and economic return of lumber recovered from small-...

  9. Wood and understory production under a range of ponderosa pine stocking levels, Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Carleton B. Edminster; Kieth E. Severson

    2000-01-01

    Stemwood and understory production (kg ha-1) were estimated during 3 nonconsecutive years on 5 growing stock levels of ponderosa pine including clearcuts and unthinned stands. Stemwood production was consistently greater at mid- and higher pine stocking levels, and understory production was greater in stands with less pine; however, there were no...

  10. Photosynthetic performance of invasive Pinus ponderosa and Juniperus virginiana seedlings under gradual soil water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihmidine, S; Bryan, N M; Payne, K R; Parde, M R; Okalebo, J A; Cooperstein, S E; Awada, T

    2010-07-01

    Changes in climate, land management and fire regime have contributed to woody species expansion into grasslands and savannas worldwide. In the USA, Pinus ponderosa P.&C. Lawson and Juniperus virginiana L. are expanding into semiarid grasslands of Nebraska and other regions of the Great Plains. We examined P. ponderosa and J. virginiana seedling response to soil water content, one of the most important limiting factors in semiarid grasslands, to provide insight into their success in the region. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII, maximum carboxylation velocity, maximum rate of electron transport, stomatal limitation to photosynthesis, water potential, root-to-shoot ratio, and needle nitrogen content were followed under gradual soil water depletion for 40 days. J. virginiana maintained lower L(s), higher A, g(s), and initial F(v)/F(m), and displayed a more gradual decline in V(cmax) and J(max) with increasing water deficit compared to P. ponderosa. J. virginiana also invested more in roots relative to shoots compared to P. ponderosa. F(v)/F(m) showed high PSII resistance to dehydration in both species. Photoinhibition was observed at approximately 30% of field capacity. Soil water content was a better predictor of A and g(s) than Psi, indicating that there are other growth factors controlling physiological processes under increased water stress. The two species followed different strategies to succeed in semiarid grasslands. P. ponderosa seedlings behaved like a drought-avoidant species with strong stomatal control, while J. virginiana was more of a drought-tolerant species, maintaining physiological activity at lower soil water content. Differences between the studied species and the ecological implications are discussed.

  11. The starlight night the sky in the writings of Shakespeare, Tennyson, and Hopkins

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, David H

    2016-01-01

    In this updated second edition renowned amateur comet-searcher David H. Levy expands on his work about the intricate relationship between the night sky and the works of English Literature. This revised and expanded text includes new sections on Alfred Lord Tennyson and Gerald Manley Hopkins (both amateur astronomers), extending the time period analyzed in the first edition from early modern literature to encompass the Victorian age. Although the sky enters into much of literature through the ages, British authors offer an especially fertile connection to the heavens, and Levy links the works of seminal authors from Shakespeare on to specific celestial events and scientific advances.  From the impact of comets and supernovae to eclipses, Levy’s ultimate goal in this book is to inspire his readers to do the same thing as their ancestors did so long ago—look up and appreciate the stars. His insights in this revised book spread farther and wider than ever before in this learned and enchanting tour of the ski...

  12. Validity and Reliability of Persian Version of Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool among Aged People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hadi hojati

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: It is crucial to identify aged patients in risk of falls in clinical settings. Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool (JHFRAT is one of most applied international instrument to assess elderly patients for the risk of falls. The aim of this study was to evaluate reliability and internal consistency of the JHFRAT. Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study for validity assessment of the tool, WHO’s standard protocol was applied for translation-back translation of the tool. Face and content validity of the tool was confirmed by ten person of expert faculty members for its applicability in clinical setting. In this pilot study, the inclusion criteria were being 60 or more years old, hospitalized in the last 8 hours prior to assessment and in proper cognitive condition assessed by MMSE. Subjects of the study were (n=70 elderly patients who were newly hospitalized in Shahroud Emam Hossein Hospital. Data were analyzed using SPSS software- version 16. Internal consistency of the tool was calculated by Cronbach’s alpha. Results: According to the results of the study Persian version of JHFRAT was a valid tool for application on clinical setting. The Persian version of the tool had Cronbach’s alpha equal to 0/733. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that Persian version of the JHFRAT is a valid and reliable tool to be applied for assessment of elderly senior citizens on admission in any clinical settings.

  13. Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, July-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 September 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into four sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigations, supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), reports on neotectonic investigations of the Manhattan Prong. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains three articles. The first is an evaluation of the Einstein refrigerator, supported by independent IR&D funds. The second concerns OTEC pilot plant performance calculations, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST). The third, describing a study of landfill methane recovery, is supported by the National Park Service.

  14. Interdisciplinary medical, nursing, and administrator education in practice: the Johns Hopkins experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Jo M; Muganlinskaya, Nailya; Shepherd, Megan; Awad, Michael; Reuland, Charles; Makary, Martin A; Kravet, Steven

    2006-08-01

    Reforming graduate medical, nursing and health administrators' education to include the core competencies of interdisciplinary teamwork and quality improvement (QI) techniques is a key strategy to improve quality in hospital settings. Practicing clinicians are best positioned in these settings to understand systems issues and craft potential solutions. The authors describe how, in ten months during 2004 and 2005 the school of medicine, the school of nursing, and an administrative residency program, all at Johns Hopkins University, implemented and evaluated the Achieving Competency Today II Program (ACT II), a structured and interdisciplinary approach to learning QI that was piloted at various sites around the United States. Six teams of learners participated, each consisting of a medical, nursing, and administrative resident. The importance of interdisciplinary participation in planning QI projects, the value of the patient's perspective on systems issues, and the value of a system's perspective in crafting solutions to issues all proved to be valuable lessons. Challenges were encountered throughout the program, such as (1) participants' difficulties in balancing competing academic, personal and clinical responsibilities, (2) difficulties in achieving the intended goals of a broad curriculum, (3) barriers to openly discussing interdisciplinary team process and dynamics, and (4) the need to develop faculty expertise in systems thinking and QI. In spite of these challenges steps have been identified to further enhance and develop interdisciplinary education within this academic setting.

  15. A community care initiative: Maryland and Hopkins students take to the streets in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCary, J; Schainker, E; Liu, P

    1999-01-01

    Medical students from University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University, with a grant from the Maryland Chapter of the American College of Physicians, held a free health fair in a Baltimore City neighborhood. The goals were to heighten awareness of common health problems, learn more about a medically underserved community, and increase access to primary care services in that community. The students planned booths to offer information and screening on 19 common health topics. Fair organizers worked with a local clinic, People's Community Health Center, and a neighborhood development organization, the Safe and Smart Center, to create an event that would engage and educate people on relevant issues. Approximately 100 medical students participated in the event and 350 people attended the fair. An optional survey filled out by fair participants revealed that a diverse group of people attended the event. Comments about the day from medical students and fair participants show that the event was enjoyable and offered a tremendous learning opportunity for both groups. This paper also discusses problems that arose during the planning stages as well as suggestions for those interested in planning a similar event.

  16. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test: an in-depth analysis of recall patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Hogervorst, Eef; W Rahardjo, Tri Budi

    2018-04-01

    One of the earliest signs of dementia is memory issues and verbal word lists, such as the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), are successfully used for screening. To gain insight in how memory is affected in dementia, and to further improve the efficacy of the HVLT, in-depth analysis of the recall patterns of dementia cases and controls was conducted. Dementia cases and controls were matched for factors that can affect performance, such as age, gender and education level. Word frequency, syllable length, and orthographic neighbourhood size did not differ in the Indonesian version of the HVLT, nor did these characteristics affect recall. However dementia cases showed consistent and poor recall across the three trials; with the worst recall for the "human shelter" category and best recall for the "animals" category. Dementia cases also showed impaired accessibility of all categories with reduced subsequent recall from accessed categories and reduced primacy and recency levels. Finally, dementia cases exhibited lower levels of re-remembering and recalling new words, and higher levels of immediate forgetting and never recalling words. It was concluded that utilising the extra information provided by the in-depth analyses of the recall patterns could be beneficial to improve dementia screening.

  17. Enhanced Tobacco Control Initiative at Johns Hopkins Health System: Employee Fairness Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Shabnum; Lucik, Meg; Safeer, Richard

    2018-02-01

    Organizations often fail to establish a clear awareness of what employees consider fair when implementing changes to employee benefits in the workplace. In 2016, the Johns Hopkins Health System (JHHS) enhanced their tobacco control efforts. In addition to enhanced smoking cessation benefits, employees were offered an increased reduction in their insurance premiums if they were nonsmokers. To qualify for the reduction, employees participated in testing rather than relying on self-reporting as had been done in the past. The shift to testing prompted a concern by some senior management at JHHS who did not want employees to feel they were not trusted. As the program unfolded at JHHS, the four-component model of procedural justice was applied to provide a framework for reviewing the implementation of the new voluntary tobacco testing at JHHS from a fairness lens. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the application of the four-component procedural model of justice to the tobacco testing process at JHHS. As approximately 75% of employees participated in the program, the experience at JHHS can be instructive to other employers who are looking to implement changes in their workplaces and how to minimize unintended consequences with their employees.

  18. Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entingh, Daniel J.

    1980-03-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government and an agency of the State of Maryland, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into four sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/DGE), contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigation, supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, reports on a neotectonic investigation in Connecticut. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains two articles, the first on OTEC core unit testing supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST), and the second on an analysis of the Community Annual Storage Energy System at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va. This work is supported by the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, Naval Facilities Engineering Command/Atlantic Division.

  19. Eluation of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for ampullary adenocarcinoma: the Johns Hopkins Hospital - Mayo Clinic collaborative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jessica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for ampullary carcinoma is unknown. Previous literature suggests that certain populations with high risk factors for recurrence may benefit from adjuvant chemoradiation. We combined the experience of two institutions to better delineate which patients may benefit from adjuvant chemoradiation. Methods Patients who underwent curative surgery for ampullary carcinoma at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (n = 290; 1992-2007 and at the Mayo Clinic (n = 130; 1977-2005 were reviewed. Patients with Results Median overall-survival was 39.9 months with 2- and 5-year survival rates of 62.4% and 39.1%. On univariate analysis, adverse prognostic factors for overall survival included T3/T4 stage disease (RR = 1.86, p = 0.002, node positive status (RR = 3.18, p Conclusions Node-positive patients with resected ampullary adenocarcinoma may benefit from 5-FU based adjuvant chemoradiation. Since a significant proportion of patients develop metastatic disease, there is a need for more effective systemic treatment.

  20. Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government and an agency of the State of Maryland, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 December 1979. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into five sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains reports on the progress of those geothermal-related tasks where effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, also supported by DOE/RA, contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Seismotectonic Studies, supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, reports on neotectonic investigations in Connecticut. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains two articles, the first on OTEC core unit testing supported by the Department of Energy, Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST), and the second on recovery of landfill methane, supported by the Argonne National Laboratory. The fifth section, New Energy Technologies, reports on Laboratory studies of an unconventional gas source--Eastern Devonian shales.

  1. Energy programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Quarterly report, October--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, U.S. Maritime Administration, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, U.S. Department of Commerce, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and storage methods. This report is divided into four sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Programs, contains reports on various geothermal investigations in the Atlantic Coastal Plain; a Geothermal Energy Market Survey and a development scenario for the Delmarva area of Maryland. The second, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Energy, contains the results of several major studies on dams and on the economic and institutional issues related to their redevelopment. The third section contains progress reports on two major tasks performed for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Program, Ocean Engineering and Heat Exchangers for OTEC systems. The fourth section, Conservation and Mechanical Storage of Energy, contains reports on flywheels and a JHU-funded heat pump application to the physical plant at APL.

  2. Energy Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Quarterly Report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government and an agency of the State of Maryland, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 30 June 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into three sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains three articles. The first is on data analysis of OTEC core unit condenser tests, and is supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST). The second is on the current status of the Community Annual Storage Energy System at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va., and is supported by the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, Naval Facilities Engineering Command/Atlantic Division. The third is on utilization of landfill methane and is supported by Argonne National Laboratory.

  3. Effects of CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilization on growth and nutrient content of juvenile ponderosa pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.W. [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States). Biological Sciences Center]|[Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Coll. of Agriculture; Ball, J.T. [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States). Biological Sciences Center; Walker, R.F. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Coll. of Agriculture; Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1998-03-01

    This data set presents measured values of plant diameter and height, biomass of plant components, and nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc) concentrations from a study of the effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) conducted in open-top chambers in Placerville, California, from 1991 through 1996. This data set contains values from 1991 through 1993.

  4. Tsinghua-Johns Hopkins Joint Center for Biomedical Engineering Research: scientific and cultural exchange in undergraduate engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisneski, Andrew D; Huang, Lixia; Hong, Bo; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    A model for an international undergraduate biomedical engineering research exchange program is outlined. In 2008, the Johns Hopkins University in collaboration with Tsinghua University in Beijing, China established the Tsinghua-Johns Hopkins Joint Center for Biomedical Engineering Research. Undergraduate biomedical engineering students from both universities are offered the opportunity to participate in research at the overseas institution. Programs such as these will not only provide research experiences for undergraduates but valuable cultural exchange and enrichment as well. Currently, strict course scheduling and rigorous curricula in most biomedical engineering programs may present obstacles for students to partake in study abroad opportunities. Universities are encouraged to harbor abroad opportunities for undergraduate engineering students, for which this particular program can serve as a model.

  5. Effect of Oxygen on Verbenone Conversion From cis-Verbenol by Gut Facultative Anaerobes of Dendroctonus valens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction from North America, Dendroctonus valens LeConte has become a destructive forest pest in China. Although gut aerobic bacteria have been investigated and some are implicated in beetle pheromone production, little is known about the abundance and significance of facultative anaerobic bacteria in beetle gut, especially with regards to effects of oxygen on their role in pheromone production. In this study, we isolated and identified gut bacteria of D. valens adults in an anaerobic environment, and further compared their ability to convert cis-verbenol into verbenone (a multi-functional pheromone of D. valens under different O2 concentrations. Pantoea conspicua, Enterobacter xiangfangensis, Staphylococcus warneri were the most frequently isolated species among the total of 10 species identified from beetle gut in anaerobic conditions. Among all isolated species, nine were capable of cis-verbenol to verbenone conversion, and the conversion efficiency increased with increased oxygen concentration. This O2-mediated conversion of cis-verbenol to verbenone suggests that gut facultative anaerobes of D. valens might play an important role in the frass, where there is higher exposure to oxygen, hence the higher verbenone production. This claim is further supported by distinctly differential oxygen concentrations between gut and frass of D. valens females.

  6. Pine Defensive Monoterpene α-Pinene Influences the Feeding Behavior of Dendroctonus valens and Its Gut Bacterial Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letian Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to plant defense chemicals has negative effects on insect feeding activity and modifies insect gut microbial community composition. Dendroctonus valens is a very destructive forest pest in China, and harbors a large diversity and abundance of gut microorganisms. Host pine defensive chemicals can protect the pines from attack by the holobiont. In this study, boring length of D. valens feeding on 0 mg/g α-pinene and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media for 6 and 48 h were recorded, and their gut bacterial communities were analyzed in parallel. Nine milligram per gram α-pinene concentration significantly inhibited boring length of D. valens and altered its gut microbial community structure after 6 h. The inhibition of boring length from 9 mg/g α-pinene in diets ceased after 48 h. No significant differences of the bacterial communities were observed between the beetles in 0 and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 48 h. Our results showed that the inhibition of the feeding behavior of D. valens and the disturbance to its gut bacterial communities in 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 6 h were eliminated after 48 h. The resilience of gut bacterial community of D. valens may help the beetle catabolize pine defense chemical.

  7. Differences in the structure of the gut bacteria communities in development stages of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xia; Wang, Chunyan; Chen, Hui; Ma, Junning

    2013-10-18

    The Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li, is arguably the most destructive forest insect in the Qinling Mountains in Northern China. Little is known about the structure of the bacterial communities associated with D. armandi even though this wood-boring insect plays important roles in ecosystem and biological invasion processes that result in huge economic losses in pine forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the bacterial communities present in the guts of D. armandi at different developmental stages using a culture-independent method involving PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments of bacteria from the guts of larvae, pupae, and male and female adults revealed bacterial communities of low complexity that differed according to the developmental stage. Citrobacter spp. and Pantoea spp. predominated in larvae and adults, whereas Methylobacterium was the dominant genus at the pupal stage. The main difference between the guts of male and female adults was the greater dominance of Citrobacter in females. Previous studies suggest that the bacterial community associated with D. armandi guts may influence insect development. The data obtained in this study regarding the phylogenetic relationships and the community structure of intestinal bacteria at different developmental stages of the D. armandi life cycle contribute to our understanding of D. armandi and could aid the development of new pest control strategies.

  8. Differences in the Structure of the Gut Bacteria Communities in Development Stages of the Chinese White Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus armandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junning Ma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li, is arguably the most destructive forest insect in the Qinling Mountains in Northern China. Little is known about the structure of the bacterial communities associated with D. armandi even though this wood-boring insect plays important roles in ecosystem and biological invasion processes that result in huge economic losses in pine forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the bacterial communities present in the guts of D. armandi at different developmental stages using a culture-independent method involving PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. Analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments of bacteria from the guts of larvae, pupae, and male and female adults revealed bacterial communities of low complexity that differed according to the developmental stage. Citrobacter spp. and Pantoea spp. predominated in larvae and adults, whereas Methylobacterium was the dominant genus at the pupal stage. The main difference between the guts of male and female adults was the greater dominance of Citrobacter in females. Previous studies suggest that the bacterial community associated with D. armandi guts may influence insect development. The data obtained in this study regarding the phylogenetic relationships and the community structure of intestinal bacteria at different developmental stages of the D. armandi life cycle contribute to our understanding of D. armandi and could aid the development of new pest control strategies.

  9. Development of global health education at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine: a student-driven initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dane; Edwardson, Jill; Cuneo, Charles Nicholas; Tackett, Sean; Aluri, James; Kironji, Antony; Cox, Jacob; Carroll, Bryn; Lie, Erina; Fofana, Mariam; Bollinger, Robert C; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Chen, Chi C G

    2015-01-01

    Global health is increasingly present in the formal educational curricula of medical schools across North America. In 2008, students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM) perceived a lack of structured global health education in the existing curriculum and began working with the administration to enhance global health learning opportunities, particularly in resource-poor settings. Key events in the development of global health education have included the introduction of a global health intersession mandatory for all first-year students; required pre-departure ethics training for students before all international electives; and the development of a clinical global health elective (Global Health Leadership Program, GHLP). The main challenges to improving global health education for medical students have included securing funding, obtaining institutional support, and developing an interprofessional program that benefits from the resources of the Schools of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing. Strategies used included objectively demonstrating the need for and barriers to more structured global health experiences; obtaining guidance and modifying existing resources from other institutions and relevant educational websites; and harnessing institution-specific strengths including the large Johns Hopkins global research footprint and existing interprofessional collaborations across the three schools. The Johns Hopkins experience demonstrates that with a supportive administration, students can play an important and effective role in improving global health educational opportunities. The strategies we used may be informative for other students and educators looking to implement global health programs at their own institutions.

  10. Leadership of the Department of Epidemiology of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Its First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, David D

    2016-03-01

    This commentary reviews the contributions of each of the 7 Chairs of the Department of Epidemiology from the Department's inception in 1919 to the advent of the Centennial Celebration of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in 2016. The founding Chair, Wade Hampton Frost (1919-1938), was among the handful of foundational thinkers in the discipline of epidemiology. Kenneth Maxcy (1938-1954) and Philip Sartwell (1954-1970) oversaw the Department through the epidemiologic transition from a preponderance of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases to a preponderance of noncommunicable diseases. Abraham Lilienfeld (1970-1975) and Leon Gordis (1975-1993) were perhaps best known for their mastery of teaching, influencing generations of both medical and public health students. Jonathan Samet (1994-2008) oversaw a major curriculum revision and expanded the Department significantly, and David Celentano (2008-) is working to rebalance the practice of epidemiology with the etiological foundations of epidemiology. All Chairs were a product of their times, and their research focus and portfolios influenced the direction of the Department. Future generations of Johns Hopkins students will be influenced directly or indirectly by the heritage of these Chairs' actions and those of their faculty. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Development of global health education at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine: a student-driven initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Moran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global health is increasingly present in the formal educational curricula of medical schools across North America. In 2008, students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM perceived a lack of structured global health education in the existing curriculum and began working with the administration to enhance global health learning opportunities, particularly in resource-poor settings. Key events in the development of global health education have included the introduction of a global health intersession mandatory for all first-year students; required pre-departure ethics training for students before all international electives; and the development of a clinical global health elective (Global Health Leadership Program, GHLP. The main challenges to improving global health education for medical students have included securing funding, obtaining institutional support, and developing an interprofessional program that benefits from the resources of the Schools of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing. Strategies used included objectively demonstrating the need for and barriers to more structured global health experiences; obtaining guidance and modifying existing resources from other institutions and relevant educational websites; and harnessing institution-specific strengths including the large Johns Hopkins global research footprint and existing interprofessional collaborations across the three schools. The Johns Hopkins experience demonstrates that with a supportive administration, students can play an important and effective role in improving global health educational opportunities. The strategies we used may be informative for other students and educators looking to implement global health programs at their own institutions.

  12. The push-pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Nancy E; Mehmel, Constance J; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Wood, David L; Erbilgin, Nadir; Owen, Donald R

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in two studies. The first was conducted on replicated 4.04-ha plots in lodgepole pine stands (California, 2008) and the second on 0.81-ha plots in whitebark pine stands (Washington, 2010). In both studies, D. ponderosae population levels were moderate to severe. The treatments were 1) push-only (D. ponderosae antiaggregant semiochemicals alone); 2) push-pull (D. ponderosae antiaggregants plus perimeter traps placed at regular intervals, baited with four-component D. ponderosae aggregation pheromone); and 3) untreated controls. We installed monitoring traps baited with two-component D. ponderosae lures inside each plot to assess effect of treatments on beetle flight. In California, fewer beetles were collected in push-pull treated plots than in control plots, but push-only did not have a significant effect on trap catch. Both treatments significantly reduced the rate of mass and strip attacks by D. ponderosae, but the difference in attack rates between push-pull and push-only was not significant. In Washington, both push-pull and push-only treatments significantly reduced numbers of beetles caught in traps. Differences between attack rates in treated and control plots in Washington were not significant, but the push-only treatment reduced attack rates by 30% compared with both the control and push-pull treatment. We conclude that, at these spatial scales and beetle densities, push-only may be preferable for mitigating D. ponderosae attack because it is much less expensive, simpler, and adding trap-out does not appear to improve efficacy.

  13. Book received: Alois Riegl, The Origins of Baroque Art in Rome, edited and translated by Andrew Hopkins and Arnold Witte, with essays by Alina Payne, Arnold Witte, and Andrew Hopkins; Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute including contents, acknowledgments and a note on the translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois Riegl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alois Riegl, The Origins of Baroque Art in Rome, edited and translated by Andrew Hopkins and Arnold Witte, with essays by Alina Payne, Arnold Witte, and Andrew Hopkins; Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute including contents, acknowledgments and a note on the translation.

  14. Introducing Pitt-Hopkins syndrome-associated mutations of TCF4 to Drosophila daughterless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tamberg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS is caused by haploinsufficiency of Transcription factor 4 (TCF4, one of the three human class I basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors called E-proteins. Drosophila has a single E-protein, Daughterless (Da, homologous to all three mammalian counterparts. Here we show that human TCF4 can rescue Da deficiency during fruit fly nervous system development. Overexpression of Da or TCF4 specifically in adult flies significantly decreases their survival rates, indicating that these factors are crucial even after development has been completed. We generated da transgenic fruit fly strains with corresponding missense mutations R578H, R580W, R582P and A614V found in TCF4 of PTHS patients and studied the impact of these mutations in vivo. Overexpression of wild type Da as well as human TCF4 in progenitor tissues induced ectopic sensory bristles and the rough eye phenotype. By contrast, overexpression of DaR580W and DaR582P that disrupt DNA binding reduced the number of bristles and induced the rough eye phenotype with partial lack of pigmentation, indicating that these act dominant negatively. Compared to the wild type, DaR578H and DaA614V were less potent in induction of ectopic bristles and the rough eye phenotype, respectively, suggesting that these are hypomorphic. All studied PTHS-associated mutations that we introduced into Da led to similar effects in vivo as the same mutations in TCF4 in vitro. Consequently, our Drosophila models of PTHS are applicable for further studies aiming to unravel the molecular mechanisms of this disorder.

  15. Hindi translation and validation of Cambridge-Hopkins Diagnostic Questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Allan, Richard P; Pundeer, Ashwini; Das, Sourav; Dhyani, Mohan; Goel, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome also known as Willis-Ekbom's Disease (RLS/WED) is a common illness. Cambridge-Hopkins diagnostic questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq) is a good diagnostic tool and can be used in the epidemiological studies. However, its Hindi version is not available. Thus, this study was conducted to translate and validate it in the Hindi speaking population. After obtaining the permission from the author of the CHRLSq, it was translated into Hindi language by two independent translators. After a series of forward and back translations, the finalized Hindi version was administered to two groups by one of the authors, who were blinded to the clinical diagnosis. First group consisted of RLS/WED patients, where diagnosis was made upon face to face interview and the other group - the control group included subjects with somatic symptoms disorders or exertional myalgia or chronic insomnia. Each group had 30 subjects. Diagnosis made on CHRLSq was compared with the clinical diagnosis. Analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) v 21.0. Descriptive statistics was calculated. Proportions were compared using chi-square test; whereas, categorical variables were compared using independent sample t-test. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the translated version of questionnaire were calculated. Average age was comparable between the cases and control group (RLS/WED = 39.1 ± 10.1 years vs 36.2 ± 11.4 years in controls; P = 0.29). Women outnumbered men in the RLS/WED group (87% in RLS/WED group vs 57% among controls; χ(2) = 6.64; P = 0.01). Both the sensitivity and specificity of the translated version was 83.3%. It had the positive predictive value of 86.6%. Hindi version of CHRLSq has positive predictive value of 87% and it can be used to diagnose RLS in Hindi speaking population.

  16. Hindi translation and validation of Cambridge-Hopkins Diagnostic Questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restless legs syndrome also known as Willis-Ekbom′s Disease (RLS/WED is a common illness. Cambridge-Hopkins diagnostic questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq is a good diagnostic tool and can be used in the epidemiological studies. However, its Hindi version is not available. Thus, this study was conducted to translate and validate it in the Hindi speaking population. Materials and Methods: After obtaining the permission from the author of the CHRLSq, it was translated into Hindi language by two independent translators. After a series of forward and back translations, the finalized Hindi version was administered to two groups by one of the authors, who were blinded to the clinical diagnosis. First group consisted of RLS/WED patients, where diagnosis was made upon face to face interview and the other group - the control group included subjects with somatic symptoms disorders or exertional myalgia or chronic insomnia. Each group had 30 subjects. Diagnosis made on CHRLSq was compared with the clinical diagnosis. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v 21.0. Descriptive statistics was calculated. Proportions were compared using chi-square test; whereas, categorical variables were compared using independent sample t-test. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the translated version of questionnaire were calculated. Results: Average age was comparable between the cases and control group (RLS/WED = 39.1 ± 10.1 years vs 36.2 ± 11.4 years in controls; P = 0.29. Women outnumbered men in the RLS/WED group (87% in RLS/WED group vs 57% among controls; χ2 = 6.64; P = 0.01. Both the sensitivity and specificity of the translated version was 83.3%. It had the positive predictive value of 86.6%. Conclusion: Hindi version of CHRLSq has positive predictive value of 87% and it can be used to diagnose RLS in Hindi speaking population.

  17. Properties of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) as screening instruments used in primary care in Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventevogel, Peter; de Vries, Gieljan; Scholte, Willem F.; Shinwari, Nasratullah Rasa; Faiz, Hafizullah; Nassery, Ruhullah; van den Brink, Wim; Olff, Miranda

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological studies in Afghanistan using mental health questionnaires yielded high prevalence rates for anxiety and depression. OBJECTIVES: To explore the validity in the Afghan cultural context of two mental health questionnaires, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25)

  18. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate 137 Cs and 90 Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm 3 sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of 137 CS and 90 Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the 137 Cs and I.5% of the 90 Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the 137 Cs and 4.5% of the 90 Sr. Accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store 137 Cs and 90 Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils

  19. Insight into the hydraulics and resilience of Ponderosa pine seedlings using a mechanistic ecohydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Simeone, C.; Dobrowski, S.; Holden, Z.; Sapes, G.; Sala, A.; Begueria, S.

    2017-12-01

    In semiarid regions, drought-induced seedling mortality is considered to be caused by failure in the tree hydraulic column. Understanding the mechanisms that cause hydraulic failure and death in seedlings is important, among other things, to diagnose where some tree species may fail to regenerate, triggering demographic imbalances in the forest that could result in climate-driven shifts of tree species. Ponderosa pine is a common lower tree line species in the western US. Seedlings of ponderosa pine are often subject to low soil water potentials, which require lower water potentials in the xylem and leaves to maintain the negative pressure gradient that drives water upward. The resilience of the hydraulic column to hydraulic tension is species dependent, but from greenhouse experiments, we have identified general tension thresholds beyond which loss of xylem conductivity becomes critical, and mortality in Ponderosa pine seedlings start to occur. We describe this hydraulic behavior of plants using a mechanistic soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model. Before we use this models to understand water-stress induced seedling mortality at the landscape scale, we perform a modeling analysis of the dynamics of soil moisture, transpiration, leaf water potential and loss of plant water conductivity using detailed data from our green house experiments. The analysis is done using a spatially distributed model that simulates water fluxes, energy exchanges and water potentials in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Plant hydraulic and physiological parameters of this model were calibrated using Monte Carlo methods against information on soil moisture, soil hydraulic potential, transpiration, leaf water potential and percent loss of conductivity in the xylem. This analysis permits us to construct a full portrait of the parameter space for Ponderosa pine seedling and generate posterior predictive distributions of tree response to understand the sensitivity of transpiration

  20. The west-wide ponderosa pine levels-of-growing-stock study at age 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver

    2005-01-01

    In the 1960s a series of levels-of-growing-stock studies was established in young, even-aged stands throughout the range of ponderosa pine in the western United States. Using a common study plan, installations were begun in the Black Hills of South Dakota, eastern and central Oregon, the Coconino Plateau of Arizona and the west slope of the Sierra Nevada in California...

  1. Moisture-driven xylogenesis in Pinus ponderosa from a Mojave Desert mountain reveals high phenological plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaco, Emanuele; Truettner, Charles; Biondi, Franco; Bullock, Sarah

    2018-04-01

    Future seasonal dynamics of wood formation in hyperarid environments are still unclear. Although temperature-driven extension of the growing season and increased forest productivity are expected for boreal and temperate biomes under global warming, a similar trend remains questionable in water-limited regions. We monitored cambial activity in a montane stand of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from the Mojave Desert for 2 consecutive years (2015-2016) showing opposite-sign anomalies between warm- and cold-season precipitation. After the wet winter/spring of 2016, xylogenesis started 2 months earlier compared to 2015, characterized by abundant monsoonal (July-August) rainfall and hyperarid spring. Tree size did not influence the onset and ending of wood formation, highlighting a predominant climatic control over xylem phenological processes. Moisture conditions in the previous month, in particular soil water content and dew point, were the main drivers of cambial phenology. Latewood formation started roughly at the same time in both years; however, monsoonal precipitation triggered the formation of more false rings and density fluctuations in 2015. Because of uncertainties in future precipitation patterns simulated by global change models for the Southwestern United States, the dependency of P. ponderosa on seasonal moisture implies a greater conservation challenge than for species that respond mostly to temperature conditions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Importance of resin ducts in reducing ponderosa pine mortality from bark beetle attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jeffrey M; Kolb, Thomas E

    2010-11-01

    The relative importance of growth and defense to tree mortality during drought and bark beetle attacks is poorly understood. We addressed this issue by comparing growth and defense characteristics between 25 pairs of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees that survived and trees that died from drought-associated bark beetle attacks in forests of northern Arizona, USA. The three major findings of our research were: (1) xylem resin ducts in live trees were >10% larger (diameter), >25% denser (no. of resin ducts mm(-2)), and composed >50% more area per unit ring growth than dead trees; (2) measures of defense, such as resin duct production (no. of resin ducts year(-1)) and the proportion of xylem ring area to resin ducts, not growth, were the best model parameters of ponderosa pine mortality; and (3) most correlations between annual variation in growth and resin duct characteristics were positive suggesting that conditions conducive to growth also increase resin duct production. Our results suggest that trees that survive drought and subsequent bark beetle attacks invest more carbon in resin defense than trees that die, and that carbon allocation to resin ducts is a more important determinant of tree mortality than allocation to radial growth.

  3. A Data Mining Approach to Improve Inorganic Characterization of Amanita ponderosa Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Salvador

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura. Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data.

  4. A Data Mining Approach to Improve Inorganic Characterization of Amanita ponderosa Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Cátia; Martins, M. Rosário

    2018-01-01

    Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura). Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data. PMID:29623092

  5. Stand-replacing wildfires increase nitrification for decades in southwestern ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Valerie J; Hart, Stephen C; Ross, Christopher S; Kaye, Jason P; Fulé, Peter Z

    2014-05-01

    Stand-replacing wildfires are a novel disturbance within ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of the southwestern United States, and they can convert forests to grasslands or shrublands for decades. While most research shows that soil inorganic N pools and fluxes return to pre-fire levels within a few years, we wondered if vegetation conversion (ponderosa pine to bunchgrass) following stand-replacing fires might be accompanied by a long-term shift in N cycling processes. Using a 34-year stand-replacing wildfire chronosequence with paired, adjacent unburned patches, we examined the long-term dynamics of net and gross nitrogen (N) transformations. We hypothesized that N availability in burned patches would become more similar to those in unburned patches over time after fire as these areas become re-vegetated. Burned patches had higher net and gross nitrification rates than unburned patches (P wildfire triggers a shift in N cycling that is maintained for at least three decades by various factors, including a shift from a woody to an herbaceous ecosystem and the presence of fire-deposited charcoal.

  6. Longitudinal Accuracy of Web-Based Self-Reported Weights: Results From the Hopkins POWER Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcin, Arlene; Coughlin, Janelle W; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Durkin, Nowella; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Charleston, Jeanne; Pozefsky, Thomas; Daumit, Gail L; Clark, Jeanne M; Louis, Thomas A; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-01-01

    Background Websites and phone apps are increasingly used to track weights during weight loss interventions, yet the longitudinal accuracy of these self-reported weights is uncertain. Objective Our goal was to compare the longitudinal accuracy of self-reported weights entered online during the course of a randomized weight loss trial to measurements taken in the clinic. We aimed to determine if accuracy of self-reported weight is associated with weight loss and to determine the extent of misclassification in achieving 5% weight loss when using self-reported compared to clinic weights. Methods This study examined the accuracy of self-reported weights recorded online among intervention participants in the Hopkins Practice-Based Opportunities for Weight Reduction (POWER) trial, a randomized trial examining the effectiveness of two lifestyle-based weight loss interventions compared to a control group among obese adult patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor. One treatment group was offered telephonic coaching and the other group was offered in-person individual coaching and group sessions. All intervention participants (n=277) received a digital scale and were asked to track their weight weekly on a study website. Research staff used a standard protocol to measure weight in the clinic. Differences (self-reported weight – clinic weight) indicate if self-report under (-) or over (+) estimated clinic weight using the self-reported weight that was closest in time to the clinic weight and was within a window ranging from the day of the clinic visit to 7 days before the 6-month (n=225) and 24-month (n=191) clinic visits. The absolute value of the differences (absolute difference) describes the overall accuracy. Results Underestimation of self-reported weights increased significantly from 6 months (mean -0.5kg, SD 1.0kg) to 24 months (mean -1.1kg, SD 2.0kg; P=.002). The average absolute difference also increased from 6 months (mean 0.7kg, SD 0.8kg) to 24 months

  7. Seasonal Phenology and Life-History of Dendroctonus simplex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Great Lakes Region of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Fraser R; Aukema, Brian H

    2016-08-01

    The eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is distributed throughout the North American boreal forest sympatric with its primary host, the eastern larch or tamarack, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch. Outbreaks of eastern larch beetles are typically small and associated with stressed tamaracks. Since 2000, however, an outbreak has killed >90,000 ha of tamarack in Minnesota and surrounding Great Lakes region. Identifying the causes of this epidemic is challenging due to knowledge gaps regarding the insect's biology. We present field data from 2011 to 2014 on degree days associated with spring emergence, dispersal, host colonization, and re-emergence from colonized hosts by mature adult beetles, as well as degree days associated with larval development, and prewinter emergence by adult progeny at study sites in northern Minnesota. After initial host colonization in early spring we found that a second brood was established in early summer by re-emerging parents. In 2012, a third brood was established. Across study years, first broods developed to adults by late summer, with many beetles relocating to the base of the host tree to overwinter. Second broods often reached adulthood and initiated prewinter emergence. The third brood of 2012 overwintered as adults, pupae, and late-instars, resuming development the following spring. Each spring, emergence of adult beetles from all broods established the previous year was highly synchronous. Knowledge of the biology of eastern larch beetles along the southern margin of their range aids in understanding how population dynamics may change with a changing climate. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The great spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans Kug.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Lithuania: occurrence, phenology, morphology and communities of associated fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, A; Lynikienė, J; Marčiulynas, A; Gedminas, A; Povilaitienė, A

    2017-08-01

    We studied the occurrence, morphology and phenology of Dendroctonus micans in Lithuania and the fungi associated with the beetle at different developmental stages. The occurrence of D. micans was assessed in 19 seed orchards (at least 40 years old) of Picea abies (L. Karst.) situated in different parts of the country. Bark beetle phenology was studied in two sites: a seed orchard of P. abies and a plantation of Picea pungens (Engelm.). D. micans morphology was assessed under the dissection microscope using individuals at different developmental stages that were sampled during phenology observations. Communities of fungi associated with D. micans were studied using both fungal culturing methods and direct high-throughput sequencing from D. micans. Results showed that the incidence D. micans was relatively rare and D. micans was mainly detected in central and eastern Lithuania. The life cycle included the following stages: adult, egg, I-V developmental stage larvae and pupa. However, development of D. micans was quicker and its nests larger under the bark of P. pungens than of P. abies, indicating the effect of the host species. Fungal culturing and direct high-throughput sequencing revealed that D. micans associated fungi communities were species rich and dominated by yeasts from a class Saccharomycetes. In total, 319 fungal taxa were sequenced, among which Peterozyma toletana (37.5% of all fungal sequences), Yamadazyma scolyti (30.0%) and Kuraishia capsulate (17.7%) were the most common. Plant pathogens and blue stain fungi were also detected suggesting their potentially negative effects to both tree health and timber quality.

  9. User guide for HCR Estimator 2.0: software to calculate cost and revenue thresholds for harvesting small-diameter ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Debra Larson; Eini C. Lowell; Robert B. Rummer

    2008-01-01

    The HCR (Harvest Cost-Revenue) Estimator is engineering and financial analysis software used to evaluate stand-level financial thresholds for harvesting small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) in the Southwest United States. The Windows-based program helps contractors and planners to identify costs associated with tree...

  10. Isozyme markers associated with O3 tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Staszak; Nancy Grulke; M.J. Marrett; W. Prus-Glowacki

    2007-01-01

    Effects of canopy ozone (O3) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O3 tolerance were analyzed in ~20-, ~80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.) in...

  11. Structural injury underlying mottling in ponderosa pine needles exposed to ambient ozone concentrations in the San Bernardino Mountains near Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Vollenweider; Mark E. Fenn; Terry Menard; Madeleine Gunthardt-Goerg; Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2013-01-01

    For several decades, southern California experienced the worst ozone pollution ever reported. Peak ozone concentrations have, however, declined steadily since 1980. In this study, the structural injuries underlying ozone symptoms in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) collected in summer 2006 from one of the most polluted sites in the San...

  12. Inoculum reduction measures to manage Armillaria root disease in a severely infected stand of ponderosa pine in south-central Washington: 35-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Shaw; D.W. Omdal; A. Ramsey-Kroll; L.F. Roth

    2012-01-01

    A stand of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) severely affected by Armillaria root disease was treated with five different levels of sanitation by root removal to reduce root disease losses in the regenerating stand. Treatments included the following: (1) all trees pushed over by machine, maximum removal of roots by machine ripping, and visible...

  13. Suitability of live and fire-killed small-diameter ponderosa and lodgepole pine trees for manufacturing a new structural wood composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Linton; H.M. Barnes; R.D. Seale; P.D. Jones; E. Lowell; S.S. Hummel

    2010-01-01

    Finding alternative uses for raw material from small-diameter trees is a critical problem throughout the United States. In western states, a lack of markets for small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ) can contribute to problems associated with overstocking. To test the feasibility of...

  14. 87Sr/86Sr sourcing of ponderosa pine used in Anasazi great house construction at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amanda C.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Quade, Jay; Patchett, P. Jonathan; Dean, Jeffery S.; Stein, John

    2005-01-01

    Previous analysis of 87Sr/86Sr ratios shows that 10th through 12th century Chaco Canyon was provisioned with plant materials that came from more than 75 km away. This includes (1) corn (Zea mays) grown on the eastern flanks of the Chuska Mountains and floodplain of the San Juan River to the west and north, and (2) spruce (Picea sp.) and fir (Abies sp.) beams from the crest of the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains to the west and south. Here, we extend 87Sr/86Sr analysis to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) prevalent in the architectural timber at three of the Chacoan great houses (Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo del Arroyo). Like the architectural spruce and fir, much of the ponderosa matches the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of living trees in the Chuska Mountains. Many of the architectural ponderosa, however, have similar ratios to living trees in the La Plata and San Juan Mountains to the north and Lobo Mesa/Hosta Butte to the south. There are no systematic patterns in spruce/fir or ponderosa provenance by great house or time, suggesting the use of stockpiles from a few preferred sources. The multiple and distant sources for food and timber, now based on hundreds of isotopic values from modern and archeological samples, confirm conventional wisdom about the geographic scope of the larger Chacoan system. The complexity of this procurement warns against simple generalizations based on just one species, a single class of botanical artifact, or a few isotopic values.

  15. Green foliage losses from ponderosa pines induced by Abert squirrels and snowstorms: A comparison. [Sciurus aberti; Pinus pondersosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, W.S.; Gaud, W.S. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Abert squirrels (Sciurus aberti) are obligate herbivores on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). The inner bark of pine shoots is considered one of the predominant food resources obtained by foraging squirrels. As squirrels forage for this resource they induce green needle losses from chosen feed trees. Amounts of induced green needle losses appear to vary according to the availability of alternative foods and squirrel population densities. Weather also induces green needle losses to ponderosa pines. Results of this study indicate that, at least in some years, heavy snowstorms can induce greater amounts of green needle losses than squirrels. Squirrel herbivory was not indicated as a factor in any tree mortality. However, losses due to snowstorms are more severe since they may cause the actual depletion of trees in the forest because of the tree mortality they inflict.

  16. Response to host volatiles by native and introduced populations of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America and China.  Journal of Chemical Ecology 33: 131-146.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Erbilgin; S.R. Mori; J.H. Sun; J.D. Stein; D.R. Owen; L.D. Merrill; R. Campos Bolande; os; K.F. Raffa; T. Mendez Montiel; D.L. Wood; N.E.  Gillette

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) have specialized feeding habits, and commonly colonize only one or a few closely related host genera in their geographical ranges. The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, has a broad geographic distribution in North America and exploits volatile cues from a wide variety of pines...

  17. Partitioning of water flux in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpius, M.R.; Panek, J.A.; Nikolov, N.T.; McKay, M.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2003-01-01

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus ponderosa) in this region. To investigate how year-round water fluxes were partitioned in a young ponderosa pine ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, water fluxes were continually measured from June 2000 to May 2001 using a combination of sap flow and eddy covariance techniques (above- and below-canopy). Water fluxes were modeled at our study site using a biophysical model, FORFLUX. During summer and fall water fluxes were equally partitioned between transpiration and soil evaporation while transpiration dominated the water fluxes in winter and spring. The trees had high rates of canopy conductance and transpiration in the early morning and mid-late afternoon and a mid-day depression during the dry season. We used a diurnal centroid analysis to show that the timing of high canopy conductance and transpiration relative to high vapor pressure deficit (D) shifted with soil moisture: during periods of low soil moisture canopy conductance and transpiration peaked early in the day when D was low. Conversely, during periods of high soil moisture canopy conductance and transpiration peaked at the same time or later in the day than D. Our observations suggest a general strategy by the pine trees in which they maximize stomatal conductance, and therefore carbon fixation, throughout the day on warm sunny days with high soil moisture (i.e. warm periods in winter and late spring) and maximize stomatal conductance and carbon fixation in the morning through the dry periods. FORFLUX model estimates of evaporation and transpiration were close to measured/calculated values during the dry period, including the drought, but underestimated transpiration and overestimated evaporation during the wet period. ?? 2003

  18. Testing a hydraulic trait based model of stomatal control: results from a controlled drought experiment on aspen (Populus tremuloides, Michx.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Douglas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, D. M.; Venturas, M.; Sperry, J.; Wang, Y.; Anderegg, W.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling approaches for tree stomatal control often rely on empirical fitting to provide accurate estimates of whole tree transpiration (E) and assimilation (A), which are limited in their predictive power by the data envelope used to calibrate model parameters. Optimization based models hold promise as a means to predict stomatal behavior under novel climate conditions. We designed an experiment to test a hydraulic trait based optimization model, which predicts stomatal conductance from a gain/risk approach. Optimal stomatal conductance is expected to maximize the potential carbon gain by photosynthesis, and minimize the risk to hydraulic transport imposed by cavitation. The modeled risk to the hydraulic network is assessed from cavitation vulnerability curves, a commonly measured physiological trait in woody plant species. Over a growing season garden grown plots of aspen (Populus tremuloides, Michx.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Douglas) were subjected to three distinct drought treatments (moderate, severe, severe with rehydration) relative to a control plot to test model predictions. Model outputs of predicted E, A, and xylem pressure can be directly compared to both continuous data (whole tree sapflux, soil moisture) and point measurements (leaf level E, A, xylem pressure). The model also predicts levels of whole tree hydraulic impairment expected to increase mortality risk. This threshold is used to estimate survivorship in the drought treatment plots. The model can be run at two scales, either entirely from climate (meteorological inputs, irrigation) or using the physiological measurements as a starting point. These data will be used to study model performance and utility, and aid in developing the model for larger scale applications.

  19. The past, present, and future of paediatric cardiology training at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, in the tradition of Dr Helen Taussig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Gary S; Murphy, Anne M; Brenner, Joel I; Ravekes, William J

    2016-12-01

    Johns Hopkins has been a leader in paediatric cardiology for over 85 years. In the 1940s, Dr Helen Taussig began training fellows in paediatric cardiology at Johns Hopkins at a time when the diagnosis and treatment of CHD were in the earliest stage. Under her leadership, the fellowship developed a strong foundation that has continued to evolve to meet the current needs of learners and educators. In the current era, the Johns Hopkins programme implements the current theories of adult education and actively engages our fellows in learning as well as teaching. The programme uses techniques such as flipped classroom, structured case-based small-group learning, observed and structured clinical examination, simulations, and innovative educational technology. These strategies combined with our faculty and rich history give our fellows a unique educational experience.

  20. Abundance and characteristics of lignin liquid intermediates in wood (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) during hot water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Manuel Garcia-Perez; Eini Lowell

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of the conditions of hot water extraction (HWE) on abundance, properties, and structure of lignin depolymerization products. HWE of extracted softwood (ponderosa pine) was conducted using temperatures from 140 to 320°C for 90 min. HWE materials were then subjected to a soxhlet...

  1. Soil pCO2, soil respiration, and root activity in CO2 - fumigated and nitrogen-fertilized ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale Johnson; Donn Geisinger; Roger Walker; John Newman; James Vose; Katherine Elliott; Timothy Ball

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the effects of C02 and N treatments on soil pC02, calculated CO2 efflux, root biomass and soil carbon in open-top chambers planted with Pinus ponderosa seedlings. Based upon the literature, it was hypothesized that both elevated CO...

  2. A review of precipitation and temperature control on seedling emergence and establishment for ponderosa and lodgepole pine forest regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. D. Petrie; A. M. Wildeman; J. B. Bradford; Robert Hubbard; W. K. Lauenroth

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine forests in the 21st century depends to a large extent on how seedling emergence and establishment are influenced by driving climate and environmental variables, which largely govern forest regeneration. We surveyed the literature, and identified 96 publications that reported data on dependent variables of seedling...

  3. Long-term effects of fuel treatments on aboveground biomass accumulation in ponderosa pine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate A. Clyatt; Christopher R. Keyes; Sharon M. Hood

    2017-01-01

    Fuel treatments in ponderosa pine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains are commonly used to modify fire behavior, but it is unclear how different fuel treatments impact the subsequent production and distribution of aboveground biomass, especially in the long term. This research evaluated aboveground biomass responses 23 years after treatment in two silvicultural...

  4. Simulating historical disturbance regimes and stand structures in old-forest ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Hillis; Vick Applegate; Steve Slaughter; Michael G. Harrington; Helen Smith

    2001-01-01

    Forest Service land managers, with the collaborative assistance from research, applied a disturbance based restoration strategy to rehabilitate a greatly-altered, high risk Northern Rocky Mountain old-forest ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir stand. Age-class structure and fire history for the site have been documented in two research papers (Arno and others 1995, 1997)....

  5. A closer look: decoupling the effects of prescribed fire and grazing on vegetation in a ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Becky K. Kerns; Michelle Buonopane

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have had little information about how prescribed fire and cattle grazing—common practices in many Western ponderosa pine forests—affects plant abundance and reproduction in the forest understory. Pacific Northwest Research Station scientists began to explore how these practices affect vegetation in a five-year study of postfire vegetation in eastern Oregon...

  6. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds.

  7. Fuel loads and simulated fire behavior in "old-stage" beetle-infested ponderosa pine of the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; Morris C. Johnson; Barbara J. Bentz; James C. Vandygriff; A. Steven. Munson

    2015-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North America have led to concerns regarding changes in fuel profiles and associated changes in fire behavior. Data are lacking for a range of infestation severities and time since outbreak, especially for relatively arid cover types. We surveyed fuel loads and simulated fire behavior for ponderosa pine stands of the...

  8. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  9. Spatial variability of surface fuels in treated and untreated ponderosa pine forests of the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma Vakili; Chad M. Hoffman; Robert E. Keane; Wade T. Tinkham; Yvette Dickinson

    2016-01-01

    There is growing consensus that spatial variability in fuel loading at scales down to 0.5 m may govern fire behaviour and effects. However, there remains a lack of understanding of how fuels vary through space in wildland settings. This study quantifies surface fuel loading and its spatial variability in ponderosa pine sites before and after fuels treatment in the...

  10. Silvicultural systems and cutting methods for ponderosa pine forests in the Front Range of the central Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Alexander

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines are provided to help forest managers and silviculturists develop even- and/or uneven-aged cutting practices needed to convert old-growth and mixed ponderosa pine forests in the Front Range into managed stands for a variety of resource needs. Guidelines consider stand conditions, and insect and disease susceptibility. Cutting practices are designed to...

  11. Two-dimensional heat flow analysis applied to heat sterilization of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir square timbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson

    2004-01-01

    Equations for a two-dimensional finite difference heat flow analysis were developed and applied to ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir square timbers to calculate the time required to heat the center of the squares to target temperature. The squares were solid piled, which made their surfaces inaccessible to the heating air, and thus surface temperatures failed to attain...

  12. Ponderosa pine in the Colorado Front Range: long historical fire and tree recruitment intervals and a case for landscape heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. R. Kaufmann; L. S. Huckaby; P. Gleason

    2000-01-01

    An unlogged forest landscape in the Colorado Front Range provides insight into historical characteristics of ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir landscapes where the past fire regime was mixed severity with mean fire intervals of 50 years or more. Natural fire and tree recruitment patterns resulted in considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity, whereas nearby forest...

  13. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM cases were identified. Risk factors, such as advanced age (≥68 years, low education (no or primary level, self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects.

  14. Rob Hopkins, 2008, The Transition Handbook. From Oil Dependency to Local Resilience, Green books, 224 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Semal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Le mouvement pour la Transition (ou Transition movement a été initié en 2005 à Totnes (Devon par Rob Hopkins, professeur de permaculture qui avait été sensibilisé au thème du pic du pétrole quelques mois auparavant : à l’époque, il s’agissait seulement d’élaborer une stratégie locale pour que Totnes puisse à l’avenir se passer de pétrole sans en souffrir. Mais d’autres groupes locaux ont rapidement suivi cet exemple, et en mai 2008, le « réseau de la Transition » comptait déjà 50 localités ...

  15. Hopkins' syndrome in the differential diagnosis of flaccid paralysis in children: clinical and neurophysiological features. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nora, Daniel B.; Gomes, Irenio; El Ammar, Gibran; Nunes, Magda L.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome de Hopkins (SH) é caracterizada por monoplegia ou diplegia, decorrente de lesão no corno anterior da medula, que se segue a um ataque agudo de asma, ocorre geralmente em crianças e sua etiologia ainda não está definida. Há 34 casos descritos no mundo, sendo este o primeiro relato na América do Sul e durante o primeiro ano de vida. CASO: Criança internada aos 4 meses de idade com quadro de sibilância e insuficiência respiratória. Cerca de 3 dias após melhora do quadro re...

  16. Singing Thy Sweet Radiance Encircling the Gem like World: A Comparative Study between Gerard Manley Hopkins and Rabindranath Tagore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kaosar Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabindranath Tagore, the first Nobel- Laureate in the Indian sub-continent journeyed all spheres of the domain of Bangla Literature in 19th century. His works are viewed in the West as spiritual and mercurial. On the other hand, Born in Victorian England and being influenced by the Oxford Movement, Hopkins decided to convert into restricted form of Catholicism, Jesuit life that made him culturally isolated. Despite having different religious and socio-cultural background their central philosophical concern is in most cases similar. Shading   light on their views about nature, devotion to God, spiritual agony, this article goes deep into their values and beliefs and makes an analogy between them.

  17. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P.D. [USDA Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Lab., Rhinelander, WI (United States); Houpis, J.L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Helms, J.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science Policy and Management

    1994-10-01

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment.

  18. Western juniper and ponderosa pine ecotonal climate-growth relationships across landscape gradients in southern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, K.C.; Pyke, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Forecasts of climate change for the Pacific northwestern United States predict warmer temperatures, increased winter precipitation, and drier summers. Prediction of forest growth responses to these climate fluctuations requires identification of climatic variables limiting tree growth, particularly at limits of free species distributions. We addressed this problem at the pine-woodland ecotone using tree-ring data for western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis var. occidentalis Hook.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Loud.) from southern Oregon. Annual growth chronologies for 1950-2000 were developed for each species at 17 locations. Correlation and linear regression of climate-growth relationships revealed that radial growth in both species is highly dependent on October-June precipitation events that recharge growing season soil water. Mean annual radial growth for the nine driest years suggests that annual growth in both species is more sensitive to drought at lower elevations and sites with steeper slopes and sandy or rocky soils. Future increases in winter precipitation could increase productivity in both species at the pine-woodland ecotone. Growth responses, however, will also likely vary across landscape features, and our findings suggest that heightened sensitivity to future drought periods and increased temperatures in the two species will predominantly occur at lower elevation sites with poor water-holding capacities. ?? 2008 NRC.

  19. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO 2 responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO 2 responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO 2 responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO 2 exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO 2 scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  20. Trends in Pinus ponderosa foliar pigment concentration due to chronic exposure of ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, L.; Houpis, J.; Anderson, P.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effects of ozone and acid rain on mature Ponderosa pine trees, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. has collaborated with University of California Berkeley, University of California Davis, California State University Chico, and the US Forest Service at the latter's Chico Tree Improvement Center. Foliar tissue from mature grafted scions of Pinus ponderosa were exposed to two times ambient ozone for ten months and to acid rain (3.0 pH) weekly for 10 weeks using branch exposure chambers. Pigment extracts were analyzed spectrophotometrically for concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid pigments, at 662 nm, 644 nm, and 470 nm, respectively. Pigment concentrations were expressed on a surface area basis. Preliminary results revealed that chlorophyll a showed a downward trend due to the ozone treatment. Acid rain caused no effects on these three pigments, however, chlorophyll b showed an upward trend due to the interaction of ozone and acid rain. The carotenoid pigments showed no changes due to the treatments either singly, or in combination

  1. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO{sub 2} responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO{sub 2} responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO{sub 2} responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO{sub 2} exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO{sub 2} scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  2. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.; Helms, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment

  3. Harvey Cushing's case series of trigeminal neuralgia at the Johns Hopkins Hospital: a surgeon's quest to advance the treatment of the 'suicide disease'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, H.; Pendleton, C.; Latimer, K.; Cohen-Gadol, A.A.; Carson, B.S.; Quinones-Hinojosa, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A review of Dr. Harvey Cushing's surgical cases at the Johns Hopkins Hospital provided insight into his early work on trigeminal neuralgia (TN). There was perhaps no other affliction that captured his attention in the way that TN did, and he built a remarkable legacy of successful

  4. Introduction to the 2015 Supplement to Cardiology in the Young: Proceedings of the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P

    2015-08-01

    In the United States of America alone, ~14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute was held on 4 and 5 February, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children's Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children's Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary "think-tank". Information about George R. Daicoff, MD, and Ed and Sarainne Andrews is provided in this introductory manuscript to the 2015 Supplement to Cardiology in the Young entitled: "Proceedings of the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute". Dr Daicoff founded the All Children's Hospital Pediatric Heart Surgery programme and directed this programme for over two decades. Sarainne Andrews made her generous bequest to All Children's Hospital in honour of her husband Ed and his friendship with Dr Daicoff in order to support cardiovascular surgery research efforts.

  5. The History That Is inside of Us: L. Thomas Hopkins and the Transformation of American History at Brewster High, 1912-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, O. L., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    On the day before the Thanksgiving school recess in 1912, teacher L. Thomas Hopkins made an unusual admission to his small American history class at Brewster High School on Massachusetts' Cape Cod. He told his students that he knew they disliked the course. He confessed that he, too, disliked how the course was going. Following a short period of…

  6. Isozyme markers associated with O(3) tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, J; Grulke, N E; Marrett, M J; Prus-Glowacki, W

    2007-10-01

    Effects of canopy ozone (O(3)) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O(3) tolerance were analyzed in approximately 20-, approximately 80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.) in Sequoia National Park, California. For both species, the number of alleles and genotypes per loci was higher in parental trees relative to saplings. In ponderosa pine, the heterozygosity value increased, and the fixation index indicated reduction of homozygosity with increasing tree age class. The opposite tendencies were observed for Jeffrey pine. Utilizing canopy attributes known to be responsive to O(3) exposure, ponderosa pine was more symptomatic than Jeffrey pine, and saplings were more symptomatic than old growth trees. We suggest that these trends are related to differing sensitivity of the two species to O(3) exposure, and to higher O(3) exposures and drought stress that younger trees may have experienced during germination and establishment.

  7. Suitability of live and fire-killed small-diameter ponderosa and lodgepole pine trees for manufacturing a new structural wood composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, J M; Barnes, H M; Seale, R D; Jones, P D; Lowell, E C; Hummel, S S

    2010-08-01

    Finding alternative uses for raw material from small-diameter trees is a critical problem throughout the United States. In western states, a lack of markets for small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) can contribute to problems associated with overstocking. To test the feasibility of producing structural composite lumber (SCL) beams from these two western species, we used a new technology called steam-pressed scrim lumber (SPSL) based on scrimming technology developed in Australia. Both standing green and fire-killed ponderosa and lodgepole pine logs were used in an initial test. Fire-killed logs of both species were found to be unsuitable for producing SPSL but green logs were suitable for producing SPSL. For SPSL from green material, ponderosa pine had significantly higher modulus of rupture and work-to-maximum load values than did SPSL from lodgepole pine. Modulus of elasticity was higher for lodgepole pine. The presence of blows was greater with lodgepole pine than with ponderosa. Blows had a negative effect on the mechanical properties of ponderosa pine but no significant effect on the mechanical properties of SPSL from lodgepole pine. An evaluation of non-destructive testing methods showed that X-ray could be used to determine low density areas in parent beams. The use of a sonic compression wave tester for NDE evaluation of modulus of rupture showed some promise with SPSL but requires further research. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mountain pine beetle-caused mortality over eight years in two pine hosts in mixed conifer stands of the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Jacobi, William R.; Negrón, José F.

    2014-01-01

    Eruptive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) populations have caused widespread mortality of pines throughout western North America since the late 1990s. Early work by A.D. Hopkins suggested that when alternate host species are available, MPB will prefer to breed in the host to which it has become adapted. In Colorado, epidemic MPB populations that originated in lodgepole pine expanded into mixed-conifer stands containing ponderosa pine, a related host. We evaluated the susceptibility of both hosts to successful MPB colonization in a survey of 19 sites in pine-dominated mixed-conifer stands spanning 140 km of the Front Range, CO, USA. In each of three 0.2-ha plots at each site, we (1) assessed trees in the annual flights of 2008–2011 to compare MPB-caused mortality between lodgepole and ponderosa pine; (2) recorded previous MPB-caused tree mortality from 2004–2007 to establish baseline mortality levels; and (3) measured characteristics of the stands (e.g. tree basal area) and sites (e.g. elevation, aspect) that might be correlated with MPB colonization. Uninfested average live basal area of lodgepole and ponderosa pine was 74% of total basal area before 2004. We found that for both species, annual percent basal area of attacked trees was greatest in one year (2009), and was lower in all other years (2004–2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011). Both pine species had similar average total mortality of 38–39% by 2011. Significant predictors of ponderosa pine mortality in a given year were basal area of uninfested ponderosa pine and the previous year’s mortality levels in both ponderosa and lodgepole pine. Lodgepole pine mortality was predicted by uninfested basal areas of both lodgepole and ponderosa pine, and the previous year’s lodgepole pine mortality. These results indicate host selection by MPB from lodgepole pine natal hosts into ponderosa pine the following year, but not the reverse. In both species, diameters of attacked trees within each year

  9. The Influence of Stand Development on Annual Carbon Exchange in Ponderosa Pine in Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpius, M. R.; Irvine, J.; Law, B. E.; Unsworth, M. H.

    2003-12-01

    It is commonly assumed that productivity, and therefore total carbon sequestration, is higher in young, actively growing stands than in old-growth stands. We show that ponderosa pine stands in Oregon did not fit this pattern. Carbon and water fluxes were measured continuously by eddy covariance above young-, mature-, and old-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex P. & C. Laws.) stands located within 10 km of each other in central Oregon. The general study area is on the east side of the Cascade Mountains and is classified as high desert: winters are cool and wet while summers are hot and dry, resulting in seasonal drought stress. The old site is composed of patches of multiple age classes: 27% (by ground area) old trees (> 250 years old), 25% young trees (cutting and summer maximum LAI is 3.0 (0.1 in understory shrubs). The young site (approx. 16 yrs. old) was previously an old-growth forest that was clearcut in 1978 and allowed to regenerate naturally, and the maximum summer LAI was 1.2 (0.4 in understory shrubs). The mature site had the highest gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) (1350 gC m-2 y-1) but also the highest ecosystem respiration (Re) (940 gC m-2 y-1). The old site had moderately high GEP (1200 gC m-2 y-1) and lower Re (690 gC m-2 y-1). The young site had the lowest GEP (730 gC m-2 y-1 in 2000-2001 and 790 gC m-2 y-1 in 2002) and the lowest Re (550 gC m-2 y-1 in 2000-2001 and 600 gC m-2 y-1 in 2002). Despite having the highest LAI, the mature site did not have the highest net ecosystem exchange (NEE). The balance of GEP and Re resulted in the highest NEE occurring at the old site (-580 +/-75 gC m-2 y-1), which experiences the least severe drought stress according to water potential and sapflow data. NEE at the mature site was moderately high (-435 +/-60 gC m-2 y-1) and was lowest at the young site (-170 +/-20 gC m-2 y-1 in 2000-2001 and -160 +/-20 gC m-2 y-1 in 2002) which experiences the most severe drought stress. The ratio of Re:GEP was 0.6, 0

  10. Restoring forest structure and process stabilizes forest carbon in wildfire-prone southwestern ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D; Liang, Shuang; Martin, Katherine L; North, Malcolm P; Koch, George W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2016-03-01

    Changing climate and a legacy of fire-exclusion have increased the probability of high-severity wildfire, leading to an increased risk of forest carbon loss in ponderosa pine forests in the southwestern USA. Efforts to reduce high-severity fire risk through forest thinning and prescribed burning require both the removal and emission of carbon from these forests, and any potential carbon benefits from treatment may depend on the occurrence of wildfire. We sought to determine how forest treatments alter the effects of stochastic wildfire events on the forest carbon balance. We modeled three treatments (control, thin-only, and thin and burn) with and without the occurrence of wildfire. We evaluated how two different probabilities of wildfire occurrence, 1% and 2% per year, might alter the carbon balance of treatments. In the absence of wildfire, we found that thinning and burning treatments initially reduced total ecosystem carbon (TEC) and increased net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB). In the presence of wildfire, the thin and burn treatment TEC surpassed that of the control in year 40 at 2%/yr wildfire probability, and in year 51 at 1%/yr wildfire probability. NECB in the presence of wildfire showed a similar response to the no-wildfire scenarios: both thin-only and thin and burn treatments increased the C sink. Treatments increased TEC by reducing both mean wildfire severity and its variability. While the carbon balance of treatments may differ in more productive forest types, the carbon balance benefits from restoring forest structure and fire in southwestern ponderosa pine forests are clear.

  11. Carbon Stocks and Climate Change: Management Implications in Northern Arizona Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bagdon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have observed climate-driven shifts of forest types to higher elevations in the Southwestern US and predict further migration coupled with large-scale mortality events proportional to increases in radiative forcing. Range contractions of forests are likely to impact the total carbon stored within a stand. This study examines the dynamics of Pinus ponderosa stands under three climate change scenarios in Northern Arizona using the Climate Forest Vegetation Simulator (Climate-FVS model to project changes in carbon pools. A sample of 90 stands were grouped according to three elevational ranges; low- (1951 to 2194 m, mid- (2194 to 2499 m, and high- (2499 to 2682 m. elevation stands. Growth, mortality, and carbon stores were simulated in the Climate-FVS over a 100 year timespan. We further simulated three management scenarios for each elevational gradient and climate scenario. Management included (1 a no-management scenario, (2 an intensive-management scenario characterized by thinning from below to a residual basal area (BA of 18 m2/ha in conjunction with a prescribed burn every 10 years, and (3 a moderate-management scenario characterized by a thin-from-below treatment to a residual BA of 28 m2/ha coupled with a prescribed burn every 20 years. Results indicate that any increase in aridity due to climate change will produce substantial mortality throughout the elevational range of ponderosa pine stands, with lower elevation stands projected to experience the most devastating effects. Management was only effective for the intensive-management scenario; stands receiving this treatment schedule maintained moderately consistent levels of basal area and demonstrated a higher level of resilience to climate change relative to the two other management scenarios. The results of this study indicate that management can improve resiliency to climate change, however, resource managers may need to employ more intensive thinning treatments than

  12. Carbon and water fluxes from ponderosa pine forests disturbed by wildfire and thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, S; Kolb, T E; Montes-Helu, M; Eckert, S E; Sullivan, B W; Hungate, B A; Kaye, J P; Hart, S C; Koch, G W; Finkral, A

    2010-04-01

    Disturbances alter ecosystem carbon dynamics, often by reducing carbon uptake and stocks. We compared the impact of two types of disturbances that represent the most likely future conditions of currently dense ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States: (1) high-intensity fire and (2) thinning, designed to reduce fire intensity. High-severity fire had a larger impact on ecosystem carbon uptake and storage than thinning. Total ecosystem carbon was 42% lower at the intensely burned site, 10 years after burning, than at the undisturbed site. Eddy covariance measurements over two years showed that the burned site was a net annual source of carbon to the atmosphere whereas the undisturbed site was a sink. Net primary production (NPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency were lower at the burned site than at the undisturbed site. In contrast, thinning decreased total ecosystem carbon by 18%, and changed the site from a carbon sink to a source in the first posttreatment year. Thinning also decreased ET, reduced the limitation of drought on carbon uptake during summer, and did not change water use efficiency. Both disturbances reduced ecosystem carbon uptake by decreasing gross primary production (55% by burning, 30% by thinning) more than total ecosystem respiration (TER; 33-47% by burning, 18% by thinning), and increased the contribution of soil carbon dioxide efflux to TER. The relationship between TER and temperature was not affected by either disturbance. Efforts to accurately estimate regional carbon budgets should consider impacts on carbon dynamics of both large disturbances, such as high-intensity fire, and the partial disturbance of thinning that is often used to prevent intense burning. Our results show that thinned forests of ponderosa pine in the southwestern United States are a desirable alternative to intensively burned forests to maintain carbon stocks and primary production.

  13. Systematics and genetic structure of Ponderosae taxa (Pinaceae) inhabiting the mountain islands of the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeldt, G E

    1999-05-01

    The systematics and genetic structure of taxa representing the Ponderosae subsection of genus Pinus were assessed for disjunct, isolated, and peripheral populations occupying the mountain islands of the Southwest. Wind-pollinated progenies of 290 trees were compared in common gardens according to ten variables reflecting allometric, needle, and phenologic characteristics of 2-yr-old trees. The tests also included populations of similar taxa from the Rocky Mountains to the north and the Sierra Madre to the south. Principal component and canonical discriminant analyses demonstrated that the taxa segregated into three distinct groups, one of which contained two subgroups. These groupings collectively accounted for all of the many and confusing taxonomic descriptions that exist for the Ponderosae of the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The results suggested that intertaxa hybrids or hybrid derivatives may have been segregating within the progenies of only three of the parental trees. Hybridization, therefore, appears to be infrequent and inconsequential to the interrelationships among taxa and to contemporary genetic structures of taxa. Univariate analyses showed that the three distinct groups displayed different genetic structures despite similarities in their geographic distributions. While genetic variation within populations of all groups was abundant, a group labeled "quinquefoliata" displayed little variation among populations; one labeled "engelmannii" had abundant interpopulation variation that was largely randomly distributed across the landscape; and in a group containing the subgroups called "scopulorum" and "taxon X," abundant interpopulation variability was arranged systematically along moderately steep clines. These disparate genetic structures showed no apparent effects of the isolated, disjunct, and peripheral conditions under which populations of these taxa exist.

  14. Biological invasion of Pinus ponderosa and Pinus contorta: case study of a forest plantation in Northwestern Patagonia; Invasion biologica de Pinus ponderosa y Pinus contorta: estudio de caso de una plantacion en la Patagonia noroccidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezzotti, A.; Sbrancia, R.; Mortoro, A.; Monte, C.

    2009-07-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, Pinus species from plantations can bring about processes of biological invasion that cause significant and permanent changes on the structure and functioning of surrounding natural ecosystems. The invasive character of Pinus ponderosa (P) and Pinus contorta (C) was examined for a 20-year old plantation located in the Alicura Forest Station (40 degree centigrade 40' S and 71 degree centigrade 00' W), through the analysis of abundance, age and spatial structures, and dispersal of natural regeneration. Seedlings and saplings were located largely within the plantation boundaries, and exhibited a density of 6.9 ind / ha (41 % for P and 59 % for C), a clustered spatial pattern with clumps dispersed not randomly, and a mean dispersal rate of 9.5 m / yr for P. ponderosa and 5.4 m / yr for P. contorta. Both species were invading the adjacent area, according to technical criteria based on ecological responses. However, regeneration niche is strongly hindering tree establishment and dispersal, probably due to high plant cover, presence of vertic soils, and absence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. These results can contribute to predict the capability of P. contorta and P. ponderosa to become invasive, in order to maximize the positive balance of forestry based on these species in northwestern Patagonia. (Author) 50 refs.

  15. Effects of nursery fertilizer and irrigation on ponderosa and lodgepole pine seedling size. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, J.P.

    1992-12-01

    Eight fertilizer treatments combined with three irrigation regimes were used when growing lodgepole and ponderosa pine seedlings on two soil types at Lucky Peak Nursery near Biose, ID. Seedlings of both species were larger on the sandy loam than the clay loam soil. Milorganite, an organic fertilizer derived from sewage sludge, reduced initial seedbeed densities but had no further effects. Ammonium nitrate increased seedling size on the clay loam, but not on the sandy loam soil. Increased irrigation was more effective in increasing seedling size on the sandy loam than on the clay loam soil. However, ponderosa pine receiving the least irrigation in the nursery grew the fastest for 3 years after being transplanted in the field, possibly because of drought conditioning.

  16. A review of precipitation and temperature control on seedling emergence and establishment for ponderosa and lodgepole pine forest regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Matthew; Wildeman, A.M.; Bradford, John B.; Hubbard, R.M.; Lauenroth, W.K.

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine forests in the 21st century depends to a large extent on how seedling emergence and establishment are influenced by driving climate and environmental variables, which largely govern forest regeneration. We surveyed the literature, and identified 96 publications that reported data on dependent variables of seedling emergence and/or establishment and one or more independent variables of air temperature, soil temperature, precipitation and moisture availability. Our review suggests that seedling emergence and establishment for both species is highest at intermediate temperatures (20 to 25 °C), and higher precipitation and higher moisture availability support a higher percentage of seedling emergence and establishment at daily, monthly and annual timescales. We found that ponderosa pine seedlings may be more sensitive to temperature fluctuations whereas lodgepole pine seedlings may be more sensitive to moisture fluctuations. In a changing climate, increasing temperatures and declining moisture availability may hinder forest persistence by limiting seedling processes. Yet, only 23 studies in our review investigated the effects of driving climate and environmental variables directly. Furthermore, 74 studies occurred in a laboratory or greenhouse, which do not often replicate the conditions experienced by tree seedlings in a field setting. It is therefore difficult to provide strong conclusions on how sensitive emergence and establishment in ponderosa and lodgepole pine are to these specific driving variables, or to investigate their potential aggregate effects. Thus, the effects of many driving variables on seedling processes remain largely inconclusive. Our review stresses the need for additional field and laboratory studies to better elucidate the effects of driving climate and environmental variables on seedling emergence and establishment for ponderosa and lodgepole pine.

  17. Resource Limitations Influence Growth and Vigor of Idaho Fescue, a Common Understory Species in Pacific Northwest Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Carr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in under-canopy resource availability associated with elevated ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. abundance can negatively influence understory vegetation. Experimental evidence linking under-canopy resource availability and understory vegetation is scarce. Yet this information would be beneficial in developing management strategies to recover desired understory species. We tested the effects of varying nitrogen (N and light availability on Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer, the dominant understory species in ponderosa pine/Idaho fescue plant associations in eastern Oregon. In a greenhouse experiment, two levels of N (50 kg∙N∙ha−1 and 0 kg∙N∙ha−1 and shade (80% shade and 0% shade were applied in a split-plot design to individual potted plants grown in soil collected from high abundance pine stands. Plants grown in unshaded conditions produced greater root (p = 0.0027 and shoot (p = 0.0017 biomass and higher cover values (p = 0.0378 compared to those in the shaded treatments. The addition of N had little effect on plant growth (p = 0.1602, 0.5129, and 0.0853 for shoot biomass, root biomass, and cover, respectively, suggesting that soils in high-density ponderosa pine stands that lack understory vegetation were not N deficient and Idaho fescue plants grown in these soils were not N limited. Management activities that increase under-canopy light availability will promote the conditions necessary for Idaho fescue recovery. However, successful restoration may be constrained by a lack of residual fescue or the invasion of more competitive understory vegetation.

  18. An experimental demonstration of stem damage as a predictor of fire-caused mortality for ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.; Schwartz, M.

    2004-01-01

    We subjected 159 small ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws.) to treatments designed to test the relative importance of stem damage as a predictor of postfire mortality. The treatments consisted of a group with the basal bark artificially thinned, a second group with fuels removed from the base of the stem, and an untreated control. Following prescribed burning, crown scorch severity was equivalent among the groups. Postfire mortality was significantly less frequent in the fuels removal group than in the bark removal and control groups. No model of mortality for the fuels removal group was possible, because dead trees constituted <4% of subject trees. Mortality in the bark removal group was best predicted by crown scorch and stem scorch severity, whereas death in the control group was predicted by crown scorch severity and bark thickness. The relative lack of mortality in the fuels removal group and the increased sensitivity to stem damage in the bark removal group suggest that stem damage is a critical determinant of postfire mortality for small ponderosa pine.

  19. To live fast or not: growth, vigor and longevity of old-growth ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, M. R. [Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station

    1996-01-01

    Old ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine trees were studied to determine volume growth patterns in relation to leaf area. Ponderosa pine trees varied in age from 166 to 432 years and were about 77 inches in diameter; lodgepole pine trees ranged in age from 250 to 296 years and were 31 inches in diameter. Trees of both species had flat tops, heavy branches and foliage distribution characteristic of older trees. Annual volume increments were determined from crossdated radial increments measured on discs at four meter height intervals; leaf areas were determined based on leaf area/branch sapwood area ratios. Ponderosa pine volume growth was found to have been gradual at first, reaching a plateau that persisted for a century or more, followed by a rapid increase, and a sudden decrease in growth to less than one half of the earlier rate and persisting at these levels for several decades. In lodgepole pine growth decline was less frequent and less spectacular; growth in general was more even, with slight annual variations. Volume growth in the most recent years prior to felling weakly correlated with leaf area. Growth efficiencies were generally higher for trees having the lowest leaf areas. The fact that these persisted for many decades with low growth efficiencies suggests that defence mechanisms are more effective in old trees than in younger ones. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Late Holocene geomorphic record of fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests, Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, S.E.; Hull, Sieg C.; Anderson, D.E.; Kaufman, D.S.; Pearthree, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term fire history reconstructions enhance our understanding of fire behaviour and associated geomorphic hazards in forested ecosystems. We used 14C ages on charcoal from fire-induced debris-flow deposits to date prehistoric fires on Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA. Fire-related debris-flow sedimentation dominates Holocene fan deposition in the study area. Radiocarbon ages indicate that stand-replacing fire has been an important phenomenon in late Holocene ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and ponderosa pine-mixed conifer forests on steep slopes. Fires have occurred on centennial scales during this period, although temporal hiatuses between recorded fires vary widely and appear to have decreased during the past 2000 years. Steep slopes and complex terrain may be responsible for localised crown fire behaviour through preheating by vertical fuel arrangement and accumulation of excessive fuels. Holocene wildfire-induced debris flow events occurred without a clear relationship to regional climatic shifts (decadal to millennial), suggesting that interannual moisture variability may determine fire year. Fire-debris flow sequences are recorded when (1) sufficient time has passed (centuries) to accumulate fuels; and (2) stored sediment is available to support debris flows. The frequency of reconstructed debris flows should be considered a minimum for severe events in the study area, as fuel production may outpace sediment storage. ?? IAWF 2011.

  1. Trends in Snag Populations in Drought-Stressed Mixed-Conifer and Ponderosa Pine Forests (1997–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Ganey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Snags provide important biological legacies, resources for numerous species of native wildlife, and contribute to decay dynamics and ecological processes in forested ecosystems. We monitored trends in snag populations from 1997 to 2007 in drought-stressed mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws forests, northern Arizona. Median snag density increased by 75 and 90% in mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests, respectively, over this time period. Increased snag density was driven primarily by a large pulse in drought-mediated tree mortality from 2002 to 2007, following a smaller pulse from 1997 to 2002. Decay-class composition and size-class composition of snag populations changed in both forest types, and species composition changed in mixed-conifer forest. Increases in snag abundance may benefit some species of native wildlife in the short-term by providing increased foraging and nesting resources, but these increases may be unsustainable in the long term. Observed changes in snag recruitment and fall rates during the study illustrate the difficulty involved in modeling dynamics of those populations in an era of climate change and changing land management practices.

  2. Incorporating variability in simulations of seasonally forced phenology using integral projection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsman, Devin W; Aukema, Brian H; McDowell, Nate G; Middleton, Richard S; Xu, Chonggang

    2018-01-01

    Phenology models are becoming increasingly important tools to accurately predict how climate change will impact the life histories of organisms. We propose a class of integral projection phenology models derived from stochastic individual-based models of insect development and demography. Our derivation, which is based on the rate summation concept, produces integral projection models that capture the effect of phenotypic rate variability on insect phenology, but which are typically more computationally frugal than equivalent individual-based phenology models. We demonstrate our approach using a temperature-dependent model of the demography of the mountain pine beetle ( Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), an insect that kills mature pine trees. This work illustrates how a wide range of stochastic phenology models can be reformulated as integral projection models. Due to their computational efficiency, these integral projection models are suitable for deployment in large-scale simulations, such as studies of altered pest distributions under climate change.

  3. A Comment on “Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two general approaches for reducing the negative impacts of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, on forests. Direct control involves short-term tactics designed to address current infestations by manipulating mountain pine beetle populations, and includes the use of fire, insecticides, semiochemicals, sanitation harvests, or a combination of these treatments. Indirect control is preventive, and designed to reduce the probability and severity of future infestations within treated areas by manipulating stand, forest and/or landscape conditions by reducing the number of susceptible host trees through thinning, prescribed burning, and/or alterations of age classes and species composition. We emphasize that “outbreak suppression” is not the intent or objective of management strategies implemented for mountain pine beetle in the western United States, and that the use of clear, descriptive language is important when assessing the merits of various treatment strategies.

  4. Gene expression analysis of overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae suggests multiple systems involved in overwintering stress, cold hardiness, and preparation for spring development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-induced mortality has historically been a key aspect of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, population control, but little is known about the molecular basis for cold tolerance in this insect. We used RNA-seq analysis to monitor gene expression patterns of mountain pine beetle larvae at four time points during their overwintering period—early-autumn, late-autumn, early-spring, and late-spring. Changing transcript profiles over the winter indicates a multipronged physiological response from larvae that is broadly characterized by gene transcripts involved in insect immune responses and detoxification during the autumn. In the spring, although transcripts associated with developmental process are present, there was no particular biological process dominating the transcriptome.

  5. Three studies on ponderosa pine management on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation: stocking control in uneven-aged stands, forest products from fire-damage trees, and fuels reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    John V. Arena

    2005-01-01

    Over 60,000 acres of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. and C. Lawson) forest on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation (WSIR) in Oregon are managed using an uneven-age system. Three on-going studies on WSIR address current issues in the management of pine forests: determining levels of growing stock for uneven-age management, fire effects on wood...

  6. Contributions by Host Trees and Insect Activity to Bacterial Communities in Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Galleries, and Their High Overlap With Other Microbial Assemblages of Bark Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Charles J; Hanshew, Alissa S; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-04-01

    Bark beetles are associated with a diversity of symbiotic microbiota that can mediate interactions with their host plants. Dendroctonus valens LeConte is a widely distributed bark beetle in North and Central America, and initiates solitary attacks on several species of Pinus in the Great Lakes region. In this study, we aimed to further characterize the bacterial community associated with D. valens feeding galleries using next-generation sequencing, and the possible contributions of both tree-resident and insect-associated bacteria to these consortia. We found that D. valens galleries harbor a diversity of microbial associates. Many of these associates were classified into a few taxonomic groups, of which Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant class. Of the Gammaproteobacteria detected, many formed clades with 16S-rRNA sequences of bacteria previously associated with D. valens Many of the bacteria sequences detected in the galleries were similar to bacteria that function in detoxification, kairomone metabolism, and nitrogen fixation and cycling. The abundance of bacteria in galleries were 7× and 44× higher than in the surrounding uninfested tissues, and that were not attacked by D. valens, respectively. This suggests that the bacteria present in beetle galleries are largely introduced by D. valens and proliferate in this environment. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Mattesia weiseri sp. nov., a new neogregarine (Apicomplexa: Lipotrophidae) pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Radek, Renate

    2015-08-01

    A new neogregarine pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is described based on light microscopy and ultrastructural characteristics. The pathogen infects the fat body and the hemolymph of the beetle. The infection was nonsynchronous so that different developmental stages could be observed simultaneously in the hemolymph. All life stages from sporozoite to oocyst of the pathogen including micronuclear and macronuclear merozoites were detected. The sporozoites measured about 8.7 × 1.9 μm and trophozoites, 11.9 × 3.3 μm. Micronuclear merozoites seen in the hemolymph were motile, elongate, slightly broader at the anterior pole, and measured 18.4 × 2.0 μm. Macronuclear merozoites had a size of ca. 16.4 × 2.3 μm. Gametogamy results in the formation of two paired oocysts within a gametocyst. The lemon-shaped oocyst measured 10.9 × 6.1 μm and had a very thick wall (375-450 nm). All morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the life cycle stages indicate that the described neogregarine in D. micans is clearly different from known Mattesia species infecting bark beetles, and from any other described Mattesia spp. Therefore, we create a new species, Mattesia weiseri sp. nov.

  8. Genetic heterogeneity in a cyclical forest pest, the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is differentiated into east and west groups in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Natalie M; Schrey, Aaron W; Heist, Edward J; Reeve, John D

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an economically important pest species throughout the southeastern United States, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Previous research identified population structure among widely distant locations, yet failed to detect population structure among national forests in the state of Mississippi. This study uses microsatellite variation throughout the southeastern United States to compare the southern pine beetle's pattern of population structure to phylogeographic patterns in the region, and to provide information about dispersal. Bayesian clustering identified east and west genetic groups spanning multiple states. The east group had lower heterozygosity, possibly indicating greater habitat fragmentation or a more recent colonization. Significant genetic differentiation (θ(ST) = 0.01, p groups. The observed population structure matches a previously identified phylogeographic pattern, division of groups along the Appalachian Mountain/Apalachicola River axis. Our results indicate that the species likely occurs as a large, stable metapopulation with considerable gene flow among subpopulations. Also, the relatively low magnitude of genetic differentiation among samples suggests that southern pine beetles may respond similarly to management across their range.

  9. Isolation and expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the antennae and gut of pine beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) following exposure to host monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Ramírez, Claudia; López, María Fernanda; Cesar-Ayala, Ana K; Pineda-Martínez, Verónica; Sullivan, Brian T; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2013-05-10

    Bark beetles oxidize the defensive monoterpenes of their host trees both to detoxify them and convert them into components of their pheromone system. This oxidation is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes and occurs in different tissues of the insect, including the gut (i.e., the site where the beetle's pheromones are produced and accumulated) and the antennae (i.e., the olfactory organs used for perception of airborne defensive monoterpenes as well as other host-associated compounds and pheromones). We identified ten new CYP genes in the pine beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus in either antennae or gut tissue after stimulation with the vapors of major host monoterpenes α-pinene, β-pinene and 3-carene. Five genes belong to the CYP4 family, four to the CYP6 family and one to the CYP9 family. Differential expression of almost all of the CYP genes was observed between sexes, and within these significant differences among time, stimuli, anatomical region, and their interactions were found upon exposure to host monoterpenes. Increased expression of cytochrome P450 genes suggests that they play a role in the detoxification of monoterpenes released by this insect's host trees. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Profiling medical school learning environments in Malaysia: a validation study of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Sean; Bakar, Hamidah Abu; Shilkofski, Nicole A; Coady, Niamh; Rampal, Krishna; Wright, Scott

    2015-01-01

    While a strong learning environment is critical to medical student education, the assessment of medical school learning environments has confounded researchers. Our goal was to assess the validity and utility of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES) for preclinical students at three Malaysian medical schools with distinct educational and institutional models. Two schools were new international partnerships, and the third was school leaver program established without international partnership. First- and second-year students responded anonymously to surveys at the end of the academic year. The surveys included the JHLES, a 28-item survey using five-point Likert scale response options, the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM), the most widely used method to assess learning environments internationally, a personal growth scale, and single-item global learning environment assessment variables. The overall response rate was 369/429 (86%). After adjusting for the medical school year, gender, and ethnicity of the respondents, the JHLES detected differences across institutions in four out of seven domains (57%), with each school having a unique domain profile. The DREEM detected differences in one out of five categories (20%). The JHLES was more strongly correlated than the DREEM to two thirds of the single-item variables and the personal growth scale. The JHLES showed high internal reliability for the total score (α=0.92) and the seven domains (α, 0.56-0.85). The JHLES detected variation between learning environment domains across three educational settings, thereby creating unique learning environment profiles. Interpretation of these profiles may allow schools to understand how they are currently supporting trainees and identify areas needing attention.

  11. Creating a Pediatric Joint Council to Promote Patient Safety and Quality, Governance, and Accountability Across Johns Hopkins Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael; Mueller, Brigitta U; Milstone, Aaron M; Remus, Denise R; Demski, Renee; Pronovost, Peter J; Miller, Marlene R

    2017-05-01

    Large multihospital health systems with multiple children's hospitals are relatively few in number. With a paucity of national pediatric measures for quality and patient safety, there are unique challenges to ensuring consistent levels of care across diverse health care delivery settings. At Johns Hopkins Medicine, a Pediatric Joint Council was created to help ensure high-quality and safe care across a health system encompassing two full-service children's hospitals and two community hospitals with significant pediatric volumes across two states. Across the health system, a governance, leadership, and management structure was developed to coordinate the quality and safety of patient care throughout the academic health system. Within the pediatric service line, the multidisciplinary Pediatric Joint Council included representation from each pediatric entity and was supported by project managers, quality improvement (QI) team leaders, QI leads from each entity, infection control, and clinical analysts. The Pediatric Joint Council was responsible for setting standards and improvement goals, as well as monitoring and improving performance of pediatric services across the health system and identifying training gaps and research opportunities. The Pediatric Joint Council model, as implemented, provides a focused structure for coordinated efforts across disparate pediatric entities, ensuring horizontal peer learning and entity-specific improvements, as well as vertical lines of accountability and central oversight with shared governance. This model has served to help identify areas in need of pediatric expertise and has facilitated the use of resources from across the entire health system focused on improving pediatric care. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Response of Ponderosa Pine to Variable Scale Climate Influences, Salmon River Canyon, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, D. E.; Kaplan, S. W.; Keim, R.; Grissino-Mayer, H.

    2005-12-01

    Growth of trees in sparse stands on low-productivity sites is often strongly controlled by climate variation. We examined tree rings in cores collected from 73 ponderosa pine trees (Pinus ponderosa) at a dry upland site near the confluence of French Creek and the main fork of the Salmon River. Cores were mounted, processed, and visually and statistically cross-dated following standard dendrochronological methods. Ultimately, 41 tree-ring measurement series with a continuous time span of 278 years were used to create ring-width indices of tree growth for the site. These indices were tested against annual and monthly climatic variables. Simultaneous dating of fires scars from trees and snags at the site enabled reconstruction of a 160-year fire history. There were strong (pring width indices and annual Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and precipitation, indicating trees grew best in wet years. Strongest correlations with monthly climate variables were for prior-year fall and winter temperature and precipitation, as well as November to April snow water equivalent (SWE). The seasonal variable found most strongly correlated with tree growth was September-January total precipitation, most of which falls as snow at this site, which explained 34 percent of the total variance in annual ring widths. The strong relationship with monthly SWE is corollary to the relationship observed in the fall-winter precipitation, but high correlation with SWE in April and May underscores the positive influence of late season snowpack on current year summer growth. The occurrence of fires was greater during years with low precipitation and high PDSI, but growth responses to climate variables were not affected by fires. Although no significant correlation existed between tree growth and Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, teleconnections with oceanic climatic influences were present in a positive relationship with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Index. The AMO was also correlated to

  13. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK + MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK + MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the study

  14. Ethene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions from a ponderosa pine forest measured by relaxed eddy accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Robert C.; Deventer, Malte Julian; Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Warneke, Carsten; Ortega, John; Shen, Steve; Martinez, Luis; Koss, Abigail; Lerner, Brian M.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Smith, James N.; Guenther, Alex B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-11-01

    Alkenes are reactive hydrocarbons that influence local and regional atmospheric chemistry by playing important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. The simplest alkene, ethene (ethylene), is a major plant hormone and ripening agent for agricultural commodities. The group of light alkenes (C2-C4) originates from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, but their biogenic sources are poorly characterized, with limited field-based flux observations. Here we report net ecosystem fluxes of light alkenes and isoprene from a semiarid ponderosa pine forest in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, USA using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique during the summer of 2014. Ethene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions have strong diurnal cycles, with median daytime fluxes of 123, 95, 39 and 17 µg m-2 h-1, respectively. The fluxes were correlated with each other, followed general ecosystem trends of CO2 and water vapor, and showed similar sunlight and temperature response curves as other biogenic VOCs. The May through October flux, based on measurements and modeling, averaged 62, 52, 24 and 18 µg m-2 h-1 for ethene, propene, butene and isoprene, respectively. The light alkenes contribute significantly to the overall biogenic source of reactive hydrocarbons: roughly 18 % of the dominant biogenic VOC, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The measured ecosystem scale fluxes are 40-80 % larger than estimates used for global emissions models for this type of ecosystem.

  15. Primer registro de Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea asociado con Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae en Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A. GOMEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes es un gorgojo de rostro corto, distribuido en la Argentina y Chile, que habita en ambientes áridos asociado con vegetación xerofítica y alcanza el rango más austral entre los miembros de la tribu Naupactini. Un relevamiento de insectos y de patógenos como plagas potenciales, realizado durante el 2005 en plantaciones de Pinus spp. en la Patagonia andina argentina, resultó en el hallazgo de adultos de N. ruizi que se alimentaban de acículas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. Este hallazgo es sorprendente dado que las especies de Naupactini, consumen casi exclusivamente angiospermas. Interpretamos que el cambio de huésped, habría ocurrido como consecuencia de una colonización reciente favorecida por la amplia distribución geográfica del gorgojo y su capacidad para sobrevivir en hábitats marginales, donde probablemente las plantas nativas son escasas y el nuevo huésped presenta una gran abundancia local.

  16. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.

    1991-01-01

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution

  17. Relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of Arab college students using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turkait, Fawziyah A; Ohaeri, Jude U; El-Abbasi, Abdul-Hamid M; Naguy, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The controversy over the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression is an enduring issue. Various models have been proposed to explain this relationship. We explored the following research questions. First, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), will the symptoms that define anxiety and depression (as in the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25, HSCL-25) appear together in 1 factor, or are they separable into the hypothesized dimensions of the disorders? Second, using confirmatory factor analysis, how will the structural integrity of the resulting factors compare with those of the various models that have been proposed to explain the relationship between the symptoms of anxiety and depression? This issue has not been investigated in an Arab setting. Participants (n = 624) were Kuwaiti national college students, who completed the HSCL-25 in class. EFA was done by principal axis factoring. Seven models were generated for comparison in confirmatory factor analysis, using 8 'fit' indices in Analysis of Moment Structures, version 16. The 5 factors from EFA were similar in construct to the subscales of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire, on which the tripartite model of anxiety and depression was validated ('core anxiety', 'core depression', 'general distress mixed', 'general distress anxiety', 'general distress depression'). The hierarchical bifactor model and the dimensional model characterized by the correlation of these factors were best at meeting the fit indices, followed by the correlated 2-factor anxiety/depression model. In line with theory, the correlation between the specific anxiety/depression factors was lower than that between each of them and the general distress mixed factor; and there was no significant gender difference in the summed score for core depression. The findings support the impression that, although the core symptoms of anxiety are separable from the core symptoms of depression, there is an overlapping set of symptoms which

  18. Validation of the self-completed Cambridge-Hopkins questionnaire (CH-RLSq) for ascertainment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard P; Burchell, Brendan J; MacDonald, Ben; Hening, Wayne A; Earley, Christopher J

    2009-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of restless legs syndrome (RLS) have been limited by lack of a well validated patient-completed diagnostic questionnaire that has a high enough specificity to provide a reasonable positive predictive value. Most of the currently used patient completed diagnostic questionnaires have neither been validated nor included items facilitating the differential diagnosis of RLS from conditions producing similar symptoms. The Cambridge-Hopkins diagnostic questionnaire for RLS (CH-RLSq) was developed with several iterations to include items covering the basic diagnostic features of RLS and to provide some basic differential diagnosis. This validation study sought to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the RLS diagnosis based on this questionnaire. The CH-RLSq was completed by 2005 blood donors who were asked to consent to being contacted for a telephone diagnostic interview. A scoring criterion was established for ascertainment of RLS based on the clinical definition of the disorder and the exclusion of "mimic" conditions. A weighted sample (N=185) of all completed questionnaires was selected for expert clinical diagnosis of RLS using the validated Hopkins Telephone Diagnostic Interview (HDTI). The telephone interviewers were blinded to all questionnaire responses. A telephone diagnosis was obtained on 183 of the sample's 185 questionnaires. The questionnaire's normalized sensitivity and specificity were 87.2% and 94.4%, respectively, for RLS compared to not RLS. The positive predictive values in this sample were 85.5%. The Cambridge-Hopkins RLS questionnaire provides a reasonable level of sensitivity and specificity for ascertainment of RLS in population-based studies.

  19. Effects of climate variability and accelerated forest thinning on watershed-scale runoff in southwestern USA ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Marcos D; Marshall, Robert M; O'Donnell, Frances; Smith, Edward B; Haney, Jeanmarie A; Gori, David F

    2014-01-01

    The recent mortality of up to 20% of forests and woodlands in the southwestern United States, along with declining stream flows and projected future water shortages, heightens the need to understand how management practices can enhance forest resilience and functioning under unprecedented scales of drought and wildfire. To address this challenge, a combination of mechanical thinning and fire treatments are planned for 238,000 hectares (588,000 acres) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests across central Arizona, USA. Mechanical thinning can increase runoff at fine scales, as well as reduce fire risk and tree water stress during drought, but the effects of this practice have not been studied at scales commensurate with recent forest disturbances or under a highly variable climate. Modifying a historical runoff model, we constructed scenarios to estimate increases in runoff from thinning ponderosa pine at the landscape and watershed scales based on driving variables: pace, extent and intensity of forest treatments and variability in winter precipitation. We found that runoff on thinned forests was about 20% greater than unthinned forests, regardless of whether treatments occurred in a drought or pluvial period. The magnitude of this increase is similar to observed declines in snowpack for the region, suggesting that accelerated thinning may lessen runoff losses due to warming effects. Gains in runoff were temporary (six years after treatment) and modest when compared to mean annual runoff from the study watersheds (0-3%). Nonetheless gains observed during drought periods could play a role in augmenting river flows on a seasonal basis, improving conditions for water-dependent natural resources, as well as benefit water supplies for downstream communities. Results of this study and others suggest that accelerated forest thinning at large scales could improve the water balance and resilience of forests and sustain the ecosystem services they provide.

  20. Effects of Climate Variability and Accelerated Forest Thinning on Watershed-Scale Runoff in Southwestern USA Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Marcos D.; Marshall, Robert M.; O'Donnell, Frances; Smith, Edward B.; Haney, Jeanmarie A.; Gori, David F.

    2014-01-01

    The recent mortality of up to 20% of forests and woodlands in the southwestern United States, along with declining stream flows and projected future water shortages, heightens the need to understand how management practices can enhance forest resilience and functioning under unprecedented scales of drought and wildfire. To address this challenge, a combination of mechanical thinning and fire treatments are planned for 238,000 hectares (588,000 acres) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests across central Arizona, USA. Mechanical thinning can increase runoff at fine scales, as well as reduce fire risk and tree water stress during drought, but the effects of this practice have not been studied at scales commensurate with recent forest disturbances or under a highly variable climate. Modifying a historical runoff model, we constructed scenarios to estimate increases in runoff from thinning ponderosa pine at the landscape and watershed scales based on driving variables: pace, extent and intensity of forest treatments and variability in winter precipitation. We found that runoff on thinned forests was about 20% greater than unthinned forests, regardless of whether treatments occurred in a drought or pluvial period. The magnitude of this increase is similar to observed declines in snowpack for the region, suggesting that accelerated thinning may lessen runoff losses due to warming effects. Gains in runoff were temporary (six years after treatment) and modest when compared to mean annual runoff from the study watersheds (0–3%). Nonetheless gains observed during drought periods could play a role in augmenting river flows on a seasonal basis, improving conditions for water-dependent natural resources, as well as benefit water supplies for downstream communities. Results of this study and others suggest that accelerated forest thinning at large scales could improve the water balance and resilience of forests and sustain the ecosystem services they provide. PMID

  1. Madera de Pinus ponderosa en Patagonia Argentina : Jornada Forestal Tecnológica

    OpenAIRE

    Refort, María Mercedes; Keil, Gabriel Darío; Spavento, Elena

    2013-01-01

    El día 15 de noviembre de 2012 se realizó en el Edificio de Bosques de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales de la UNLP, la Primera Jornada Tecnológica sobre Madera de Pinus ponderosa en Patagonia Argentina, destinadas a profesionales de diferentes áreas, estudiantes, investigadores y docentes. Las Jornadas fueron organizadas por el Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Madera (LIMAD) y la Secretaría de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, UNLP y auspiciadas p...

  2. Respuesta kairomonal de coleópteros asociados a Dendroctonus frontalis y dos especies de Ips (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en bosques de Chiapas, México Kairomonal response of coleopterans associated with Dendroctonus frontalis and two Ips species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in forest of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Domínguez-Sánchez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la diversidad de escarabajos descortezadores y la respuesta diferencial de sus coleópteros asociados a feromonas comerciales de agregación, en bosques de pino del estado de Chiapas, México. Durante los meses de junio a octubre del 2006, se colocaron 40 trampas multiembudo tipo Lindgren cebadas con las feromonas racémicas frontalina, ipsenol e ipsdienol y un testigo (sin feromona. La captura fue más abundante para los escarabajos descortezadores Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann con frontalina, y de Ips spp. con ipsenol e ipsdienol. Se registró respuesta kairomonal específica de los depredadores Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr y Elacatis sp. hacia las feromonas de agregación. Tanto para descortezadores como para depredadores, las mayores abundancias fueron registradas durante el verano y a comienzos del otoño. Temmnochila chlorodia exhibió una atracción diferencial hacia los semioquímicos evaluados, mientras que E. ablusus, Elacatis sp. y Leptostylus sp. fueron atraídos principalmente por las feromonas ipsenol e ipsdienol. Además, por primera vez para México se determinó la respuesta kairomonal del fitófago Leptostylus sp. (Cerambycidae. Estos resultados indican que hay una comunicación intra e inter específica entre los escarabajos descortezadores y sus especies asociadas que promueven interacciones de competencia y depredación.We assessed the bark beetle diversity and the response of associated predators to aggregation pheromones in pine forests in Chiapas, Mexico. From June to October 2006, 40 Lindgren funnel traps were established with different baits that included frontalin, ipsenol and ipsdienol pheromones and a control (without pheromone. We registered the attractiveness of frontalin to the bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann, and ipsenol and ipsdienol to Ips spp. Kairomonal specific response of the predators Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr and

  3. Short-term ecological consequences of collaborative restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jenny S.; Fornwalt, Paula J.; Feinstein, Jonas A.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration treatments are being implemented at an increasing rate in ponderosa pine and other dry conifer forests across the western United States, via the USDA Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) program. In this program, collaborative stakeholder groups work with National Forests (NFs) to adaptively implement and monitor ecological restoration treatments intended to offset the effects of many decades of anthropogenic stressors. We initiated a novel study to expand the scope of treatment effectiveness monitoring efforts in one of the first CFLR landscapes, Colorado’s Front Range. We used a Before/After/Control/Impact framework to evaluate the short-term consequences of treatments on numerous ecological properties. We collected pre-treatment and one year post-treatment data on NF and partner agencies’ lands, in 66 plots distributed across seven treatment units and nearby untreated areas. Our results reflected progress toward several treatment objectives: treated areas had lower tree density and basal area, greater openness, no increase in exotic understory plants, no decrease in native understory plants, and no decrease in use by tree squirrels and ungulates. However, some findings suggested the need for adaptive modification of both treatment prescriptions and monitoring protocols: treatments did not promote heterogeneity of stand structure, and monitoring methods may not have been robust enough to detect changes in surface fuels. Our study highlights both the effective aspects of these restoration treatments, and the importance of initiating and continuing collaborative science-based monitoring to improve the outcomes of broad-scale forest restoration efforts.

  4. Statistical Reasoning and Methods in Epidemiology to Promote Individualized Health: In Celebration of the 100th Anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Elizabeth L; Zeger, Scott L

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiology is concerned with determining the distribution and causes of disease. Throughout its history, epidemiology has drawn upon statistical ideas and methods to achieve its aims. Because of the exponential growth in our capacity to measure and analyze data on the underlying processes that define each person's state of health, there is an emerging opportunity for population-based epidemiologic studies to influence health decisions made by individuals in ways that take into account the individuals' characteristics, circumstances, and preferences. We refer to this endeavor as "individualized health." The present article comprises 2 sections. In the first, we describe how graphical, longitudinal, and hierarchical models can inform the project of individualized health. We propose a simple graphical model for informing individual health decisions using population-based data. In the second, we review selected topics in causal inference that we believe to be particularly useful for individualized health. Epidemiology and biostatistics were 2 of the 4 founding departments in the world's first graduate school of public health at Johns Hopkins University, the centennial of which we honor. This survey of a small part of the literature is intended to demonstrate that the 2 fields remain just as inextricably linked today as they were 100 years ago. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Isozyme markers associated with O3 tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staszak, J.; Grulke, N.E.; Marrett, M.J.; Prus-Glowacki, W.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of canopy ozone (O 3 ) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O 3 tolerance were analyzed in ∼20-, ∼80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) in Sequoia National Park, California. For both species, the number of alleles and genotypes per loci was higher in parental trees relative to saplings. In ponderosa pine, the heterozygosity value increased, and the fixation index indicated reduction of homozygosity with increasing tree age class. The opposite tendencies were observed for Jeffrey pine. Utilizing canopy attributes known to be responsive to O 3 exposure, ponderosa pine was more symptomatic than Jeffrey pine, and saplings were more symptomatic than old growth trees. We suggest that these trends are related to differing sensitivity of the two species to O 3 exposure, and to higher O 3 exposures and drought stress that younger trees may have experienced during germination and establishment. - Genetic variation in isozyme markers associated with ozone tolerance differed between parental trees and their progeny in two closely related species of yellow pine

  6. Isozyme markers associated with O{sub 3} tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staszak, J. [A Mickiewicz University, Genetics Department, ul. Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Grulke, N.E. [USDA Forest Service, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)], E-mail: ngrulke@fs.fed.us; Marrett, M.J. [5184 Tower Road, Riverside, CA 92506 (United States); Prus-Glowacki, W. [A Mickiewicz University, Genetics Department, ul. Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2007-10-15

    Effects of canopy ozone (O{sub 3}) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O{sub 3} tolerance were analyzed in {approx}20-, {approx}80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) in Sequoia National Park, California. For both species, the number of alleles and genotypes per loci was higher in parental trees relative to saplings. In ponderosa pine, the heterozygosity value increased, and the fixation index indicated reduction of homozygosity with increasing tree age class. The opposite tendencies were observed for Jeffrey pine. Utilizing canopy attributes known to be responsive to O{sub 3} exposure, ponderosa pine was more symptomatic than Jeffrey pine, and saplings were more symptomatic than old growth trees. We suggest that these trends are related to differing sensitivity of the two species to O{sub 3} exposure, and to higher O{sub 3} exposures and drought stress that younger trees may have experienced during germination and establishment. - Genetic variation in isozyme markers associated with ozone tolerance differed between parental trees and their progeny in two closely related species of yellow pine.

  7. A collaborative fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration stewardship project in a Montana mixed ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Slaughter; Laura Ward; Michael Hillis; Jim Chew; Rebecca McFarlan

    2004-01-01

    Forest Service managers and researchers designed and evaluated alternative disturbance-based fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration treatments in a greatly altered low-elevation ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface. Collaboratively planned improvement cutting and prescribed fire treatment alternatives were evaluated in simulations of...

  8. Using chemical markers to detect root disease in stressed ponderosa pine stands with a low incidence of disease in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; Walter G. Thies; Craig L. Schmitt

    2006-01-01

    A total of 284 ponderosa pine growing near the southern edge of the Blue Mountains in eastern Oregon were categorized into one of three crown classes based on the degree of "tufted", or "lion's tail" appearance of their branches, a potential symptom of black-stain root disease, then pushed over and their root systems examined for visual...

  9. Ecology, management, and restoration of pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine ecosystems: combined proceedings of the 2005 St. George, Utah and 2006 Albuquerque, New Mexico workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; John D. Shaw; Paulette L. Ford

    2008-01-01

    Southwestern pinon-juniper and juniper woodlands cover large areas of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and adjacent Colorado. Ponderosa pine forests are the most common timberland in the Southwest. All three ecosystems provide a variety of natural resources and economic benefits to the region. There are different perceptions of desired conditions. Public and private land...

  10. Individual tree diameter increment model for managed even-aged stands of ponderosa pine throughout the western United States using a multilevel linear mixed effects model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian C.C. Uzoh; William W. Oliver

    2008-01-01

    A diameter increment model is developed and evaluated for individual trees of ponderosa pine throughout the species range in the United States using a multilevel linear mixed model. Stochastic variability is broken down among period, locale, plot, tree and within-tree components. Covariates acting at tree and stand level, as breast height diameter, density, site index...

  11. Individual tree height increment model for managed even-aged stands of ponderosa pine throughout the western United States using linear mixed effects models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Uzoh; William W. Oliver

    2006-01-01

    A height increment model is developed and evaluated for individual trees of ponderosa pine throughout the species range in western United States. The data set used in this study came from long-term permanent research plots in even-aged, pure stands both planted and of natural origin. The data base consists of six levels-of-growing stock studies supplemented by initial...

  12. Applying survival analysis to managed even-aged stands of ponderosa pine for assessment of tree mortality in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Uzoh; Sylvia R. Mori

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of a growth and yield simulator is an estimate of mortality rates. The mortality models presented here are developed from long-term permanent plots in provinces from throughout the geographic range of ponderosa pine in the United States extending from the Black Hills of South Dakota to the Pacific Coast. The study had two objectives: estimation of...

  13. Allometry, nitrogen status, and carbon stable isotope composition of Pinus ponderosa seedlings in two growing media with contrasting nursery irrigation regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Robert E. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Nursery irrigation regimes that recharged container capacity when target volumetric water content reached 72%, 58%, and 44% (by volume) influenced Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson growth more than either a 1:1 (by volume) Sphagnum peat - vermiculite (PV) or a 7:3 (by volume) Sphagnum peat - sawdust (PS) medium. Exponential fertilization avoided...

  14. Changes in forest structure after a large, mixed-severity wildfire in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara L. Keyser; Leigh B. Lentile; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated changes in forest structure related to fire severity after a wildfire in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills, South Dakota, where 25% burned at low, 48% at moderate, and 27% at high severity. We compared tree mortality, fine (FWD) and coarse woody debris (CWD) and tree regeneration in areas burned under different severity. With low severity,...

  15. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. IV. Theory on the relationships between oxidant injury and bark beetle infestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Stark, R.W.; Parmeter, J.R. Jr.

    1968-05-01

    The authors suggest that a reduction of oleoresin exudation pressure, quantity, rate of flow, and an increase in the propensity of oleoresin to crystallize, and a reduction in phloem and sapwood moisture content enhance successful establishment of the western pine beetle and mountain pine beetle in ponderosa pine injured by photochemical atmospheric pollution. Hypotheses are presented which relate these results to host susceptibility.

  16. Extreme late-summer drought causes neutral annual carbon balance in southwestern ponderosa pine forests and grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, Thomas; Dore, Sabina; Montes-Helu, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the impacts of extreme late-summer drought on carbon balance in a semi-arid forest region in Arizona. To understand drought impacts over extremes of forest cover, we measured net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), and total ecosystem respiration (TER) with eddy covariance over five years (2006–10) at an undisturbed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest and at a former forest converted to grassland by intense burning. Drought shifted annual NEP from a weak source of carbon to the atmosphere to a neutral carbon balance at the burned site and from a carbon sink to neutral at the undisturbed site. Carbon fluxes were particularly sensitive to drought in August. Drought shifted August NEP at the undisturbed site from sink to source because the reduction of GPP (70%) exceeded the reduction of TER (35%). At the burned site drought shifted August NEP from weak source to neutral because the reduction of TER (40%) exceeded the reduction of GPP (20%). These results show that the lack of forest recovery after burning and the exposure of undisturbed forests to late-summer drought reduce carbon sink strength and illustrate the high vulnerability of forest carbon sink strength in the southwest US to predicted increases in intense burning and precipitation variability. (letter)

  17. Short-Term Belowground Responses to Thinning and Burning Treatments in Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Forests of the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Overby

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-mediated decomposition and nutrient mineralization are major drivers of forest productivity. As landscape-scale fuel reduction treatments are being implemented throughout the fire-prone western United States of America, it is important to evaluate operationally how these wildfire mitigation treatments alter belowground processes. We quantified these important belowground components before and after management-applied fuel treatments of thinning alone, thinning combined with prescribed fire, and prescribed fire in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa stands at the Southwest Plateau, Fire and Fire Surrogate site, Arizona. Fuel treatments did not alter pH, total carbon and nitrogen (N concentrations, or base cations of the forest floor (O horizon or mineral soil (0–5 cm during this 2-year study. In situ rates of net N mineralization and nitrification in the surface mineral soil (0–15 cm increased 6 months after thinning with prescribed fire treatments; thinning only resulted in net N immobilization. The rates returned to pre-treatment levels after one year. Based on phospholipid fatty acid composition, microbial communities in treated areas were similar to untreated areas (control in the surface organic horizon and mineral soil (0–5 cm after treatments. Soil potential enzyme activities were not significantly altered by any of the three fuel treatments. Our results suggest that a variety of one-time alternative fuel treatments can reduce fire hazard without degrading soil fertility.

  18. Examining Historical and Current Mixed-Severity Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odion, Dennis C.; Hanson, Chad T.; Arsenault, André; Baker, William L.; DellaSala, Dominick A.; Hutto, Richard L.; Klenner, Walt; Moritz, Max A.; Sherriff, Rosemary L.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Williams, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread concern that fire exclusion has led to an unprecedented threat of uncharacteristically severe fires in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws) and mixed-conifer forests of western North America. These extensive montane forests are considered to be adapted to a low/moderate-severity fire regime that maintained stands of relatively old trees. However, there is increasing recognition from landscape-scale assessments that, prior to any significant effects of fire exclusion, fires and forest structure were more variable in these forests. Biota in these forests are also dependent on the resources made available by higher-severity fire. A better understanding of historical fire regimes in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America is therefore needed to define reference conditions and help maintain characteristic ecological diversity of these systems. We compiled landscape-scale evidence of historical fire severity patterns in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests from published literature sources and stand ages available from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program in the USA. The consensus from this evidence is that the traditional reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes are inaccurate for most forests of western North America. Instead, most forests appear to have been characterized by mixed-severity fire that included ecologically significant amounts of weather-driven, high-severity fire. Diverse forests in different stages of succession, with a high proportion in relatively young stages, occurred prior to fire exclusion. Over the past century, successional diversity created by fire decreased. Our findings suggest that ecological management goals that incorporate successional diversity created by fire may support characteristic biodiversity, whereas current attempts to “restore” forests to open, low-severity fire conditions may not align with historical reference conditions in most ponderosa

  19. An integrated model of environmental effects on growth, carbohydrate balance, and mortality of Pinus ponderosa forests in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Christina L.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Climate-induced tree mortality is an increasing concern for forest managers around the world. We used a coupled hydrologic and ecosystem carbon cycling model to assess temperature and precipitation impacts on productivity and survival of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). Model predictions were evaluated using observations of productivity and survival for three ponderosa pine stands located across an 800 m elevation gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, during a 10-year period that ended in a severe drought and extensive tree mortality at the lowest elevation site. We demonstrate the utility of a relatively simple representation of declines in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) as an approach for estimating patterns of ponderosa pine vulnerability to drought and the likelihood of survival along an elevation gradient. We assess the sensitivity of simulated net primary production, NSC storage dynamics, and mortality to site climate and soil characteristics as well as uncertainty in the allocation of carbon to the NSC pool. For a fairly wide set of assumptions, the model estimates captured elevational gradients and temporal patterns in growth and biomass. Model results that best predict mortality risk also yield productivity, leaf area, and biomass estimates that are qualitatively consistent with observations across the sites. Using this constrained set of parameters, we found that productivity and likelihood of survival were equally dependent on elevation-driven variation in temperature and precipitation. Our results demonstrate the potential for a coupled hydrology-ecosystem carbon cycling model that includes a simple model of NSC dynamics to predict drought-related mortality. Given that increases in temperature and in the frequency and severity of drought are predicted for a broad range of ponderosa pine and other western North America conifer forest habitats, the model potentially has broad utility for assessing ecosystem vulnerabilities.

  20. An integrated model of environmental effects on growth, carbohydrate balance, and mortality of Pinus ponderosa forests in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Tague

    Full Text Available Climate-induced tree mortality is an increasing concern for forest managers around the world. We used a coupled hydrologic and ecosystem carbon cycling model to assess temperature and precipitation impacts on productivity and survival of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa. Model predictions were evaluated using observations of productivity and survival for three ponderosa pine stands located across an 800 m elevation gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, during a 10-year period that ended in a severe drought and extensive tree mortality at the lowest elevation site. We demonstrate the utility of a relatively simple representation of declines in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC as an approach for estimating patterns of ponderosa pine vulnerability to drought and the likelihood of survival along an elevation gradient. We assess the sensitivity of simulated net primary production, NSC storage dynamics, and mortality to site climate and soil characteristics as well as uncertainty in the allocation of carbon to the NSC pool. For a fairly wide set of assumptions, the model estimates captured elevational gradients and temporal patterns in growth and biomass. Model results that best predict mortality risk also yield productivity, leaf area, and biomass estimates that are qualitatively consistent with observations across the sites. Using this constrained set of parameters, we found that productivity and likelihood of survival were equally dependent on elevation-driven variation in temperature and precipitation. Our results demonstrate the potential for a coupled hydrology-ecosystem carbon cycling model that includes a simple model of NSC dynamics to predict drought-related mortality. Given that increases in temperature and in the frequency and severity of drought are predicted for a broad range of ponderosa pine and other western North America conifer forest habitats, the model potentially has broad utility for assessing ecosystem vulnerabilities.

  1. Impairment of different protein domains causes variable clinical presentation within Pitt-Hopkins syndrome and suggests intragenic molecular syndromology of TCF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedeschi, Maria Francesca; Marangi, Giuseppe; Calvello, Maria Rosaria; Ricciardi, Stefania; Leone, Francesca Pia Chiara; Baccarin, Marco; Guerneri, Silvana; Orteschi, Daniela; Murdolo, Marina; Lattante, Serena; Frangella, Silvia; Keena, Beth; Harr, Margaret H; Zackai, Elaine; Zollino, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability and a distinctive facial gestalt. It is caused by haploinsufficiency of the TCF4 gene. The TCF4 protein has different functional domains, with the NLS (nuclear localization signal) domain coded by exons 7-8 and the bHLH (basic Helix-Loop-Helix) domain coded by exon 18. Several alternatively spliced TCF4 variants have been described, allowing for translation of variable protein isoforms. Typical PTHS patients have impairment of at least the bHLH domain. To which extent impairment of the remaining domains contributes to the final phenotype is not clear. There is recent evidence that certain loss-of-function variants disrupting TCF4 are associated with mild ID, but not with typical PTHS. We describe a frameshift-causing partial gene deletion encompassing exons 4-6 of TCF4 in an adult patient with mild ID and nonspecific facial dysmorphisms but without the typical features of PTHS, and a c.520C > T nonsense variant within exon 8 in a child presenting with a severe phenotype largely mimicking PTHS, but lacking the typical facial dysmorphism. Investigation on mRNA, along with literature review, led us to suggest a preliminary phenotypic map of loss-of-function variants affecting TCF4. An intragenic phenotypic map of loss-of-function variants in TCF4 is suggested here for the first time: variants within exons 1-4 and exons 4-6 give rise to a recurrent phenotype with mild ID not in the spectrum of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (biallelic preservation of both the NLS and bHLH domains); variants within exons 7-8 cause a severe phenotype resembling PTHS but in absence of the typical facial dysmorphism (impairment limited to the NLS domain); variants within exons 9-19 cause typical Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (impairment of at least the bHLH domain). Understanding the TCF4 molecular syndromology can allow for proper nosology in the current era of whole genomic investigations. Copyright

  2. Strategies for preventing invasive plant outbreaks after prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Swanson, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Land managers use prescribed fire to return a vital process to fire-adapted ecosystems, restore forest structure from a state altered by long-term fire suppression, and reduce wildfire intensity. However, fire often produces favorable conditions for invasive plant species, particularly if it is intense enough to reveal bare mineral soil and open previously closed canopies. Understanding the environmental or fire characteristics that explain post-fire invasive plant abundance would aid managers in efficiently finding and quickly responding to fire-caused infestations. To that end, we used an information-theoretic model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of abiotic environmental characteristics (topoedaphic position, distance from roads), pre-and post-fire biotic environmental characteristics (forest structure, understory vegetation, fuel load), and prescribed fire severity (measured in four different ways) in explaining invasive plant cover in ponderosa pine forest in South Dakota’s Black Hills. Environmental characteristics (distance from roads and post-fire forest structure) alone provided the most explanation of variation (26%) in post-fire cover of Verbascum thapsus (common mullein), but a combination of surface fire severity and environmental characteristics (pre-fire forest structure and distance from roads) explained 36–39% of the variation in post-fire cover of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) and all invasives together. For four species and all invasives together, their pre-fire cover explained more variation (26–82%) in post-fire cover than environmental and fire characteristics did, suggesting one strategy for reducing post-fire invasive outbreaks may be to find and control invasives before the fire. Finding them may be difficult, however, since pre-fire environmental characteristics explained only 20% of variation in pre-fire total invasive cover, and less for individual species. Thus, moderating fire intensity or targeting areas

  3. Expression of functional traits during seedling establishment in two populations of Pinus ponderosa from contrasting climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Kelly L; Meinzer, Frederick C; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Marias, Danielle E

    2015-05-01

    First-year tree seedlings represent a particularly vulnerable life stage and successful seedling establishment is crucial for forest regeneration. We investigated the extent to which Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson populations from different climate zones exhibit differential expression of functional traits that may facilitate their establishment. Seeds from two populations from sites with contrasting precipitation and temperature regimes east (PIPO dry) and west (PIPO mesic) of the Oregon Cascade mountains were sown in a common garden experiment and grown under two water availability treatments (control and drought). Aboveground biomass accumulation, vegetative phenology, xylem anatomy, plant hydraulic architecture, foliar stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C), gas exchange and leaf water relations characteristics were measured. No treatment or population-related differences in leaf water potential were detected. At the end of the first growing season, aboveground biomass was 74 and 44% greater in PIPO mesic in the control and drought treatments, respectively. By early October, 73% of PIPO dry seedlings had formed dormant buds compared with only 15% of PIPO mesic seedlings. Stem theoretical specific conductivity, calculated from tracheid dimensions and packing density, declined from June through September and was nearly twice as high in PIPO mesic during most of the growing season, consistent with measured values of specific conductivity. Intrinsic water-use efficiency based on δ(13)C values was higher in PIPO dry seedlings for both treatments across all sampling dates. There was a negative relationship between values of δ(13)C and leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity across populations and treatments, consistent with greater stomatal constraints on gas exchange with declining seedling hydraulic capacity. Integrated growing season assimilation and stomatal conductance estimated from foliar δ(13)C values and photosynthetic CO2-response curves were 6 and 28

  4. Highlights of the 34th Annual Ralph E. Hopkins at Jackson Hole Seminars (JHS) on February 7-12, 2014, Jackson Hole, WY, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Donalisio; Schulte, Mary Beth; Miano, Roberto; Gustafson, Diedra; Nogueira, Leticia; Kim, Fernando J

    2014-04-01

    The prestigious Jackson Hole Seminars (JHS) successfully gathered several world leaders in academic urology and urologists in private practice for a unique scientific experience in Wyoming, USA. Unfortunately, this year Dr. Ralph Hopkins' seat was empty but his spirit continue to be the driving force for the meeting's excellence and friendship. The JHS has pioneered the concept of a Critique Panel comprised of previous speakers that would discuss in depth the presentations of the faculty chosen by the scientific board of the JHS. The 2014 JHS featured Dr. Fernando J. Kim, the President of JHS, Dr. Robert Flanigan, the Program Chair, and the Critique Panel that included: Drs. Peter Albertsen, Arthur Burnett, Michael Coburn, Ann Gormley, and Marshal Stoller. The invited speakers were: Drs. Leonard Gomella (1st prize), Olivier Traxer (2nd prize), Jennifer Anger, Anthony Bella, Jim Hu, and Allen Morey. Some of the in depth discussions and topics are highlighted.

  5. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  6. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castillo-Salgado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  7. Primer registro de Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea asociado con Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae en Patagonia First record of Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea associated to Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A. Gómez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes es un gorgojo de rostro corto, distribuido en la Argentina y Chile, que habita en ambientes áridos asociado con vegetación xerofítica y alcanza el rango más austral entre los miembros de la tribu Naupactini. Un relevamiento de insectos y de patógenos como plagas potenciales, realizado durante el 2005 en plantaciones de Pinus spp. en la Patagonia andina argentina, resultó en el hallazgo de adultos de N. ruizi que se alimentaban de acículas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. Este hallazgo es sorprendente dado que las especies de Naupactini, consumen casi exclusivamente angiospermas. Interpretamos que el cambio de huésped, habría ocurrido como consecuencia de una colonización reciente favorecida por la amplia distribución geográfica del gorgojo y su capacidad para sobrevivir en hábitats marginales, donde probablemente las plantas nativas son escasas y el nuevo huésped presenta una gran abundancia local.Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes is a broad-nosed weevil recorded from Argentina and Chile , that inhabits arid environments with xerophitic vegetation and reaches the southern most distribution of the tribe Naupactini. A survey of potential insect pests and pathogens of plantations of Pinus spp. and other forest species, conducted during 2005 in Argentinean Patagonian Andean forestations, allowed to find N. ruizi feeding on pine needles of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. This finding was unexpected, since species of Naupactini consume almost exclusively angiosperms. We interpret that the new host association may represent a recent host shift, probably facilitated by the broad range of the weevil, its capacity to survive in marginal habitats where natural hosts are scarce, and the local abundance of the new host.

  8. A Holistic Approach to Healthy School Meals: "How Hopkins High School Looked Beyond its Cafeteria when it Changed Meal Service from Fast Food to Nutritional Food. IssueTrak": A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufault, Timothy; Parsons, Meg

    2006-01-01

    The new cafeteria at Hopkins High School in Minnetonka, Minnesota is part restaurant, part study hall, part lounge area and part health-food store. From the beginning, the superintendent and food service leaders planned the facility to ensure that balanced diets with quickly prepared, but healthy, foods are offered to students to help them…

  9. Evaluation of multiple funnel traps and stand characteristics for estimating western pine beetle-caused tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Hayes; C.J. Fettig; L.D. Merrill

    2009-01-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., mortality in much of western North America. This study was designed to quantify relationships between western pine beetle trap catches [including those of its...

  10. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. II. Effect of injury upon physical properties of oleoresin, moisture content, and phloem thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Stark, R.W.; Miller, P.R.

    1968-05-01

    Studies were made during the summer, 1966, to determine the effects of air pollution injury (i.e., chlorotic decline) of ponderosa pine on various factors related to tree physiology. The results of these studies show that disease caused by photochemical atmospheric pollution affects certain physiological properties of ponderosa pine that may be related to increased susceptibility to bark beetles. Oleoresin exudation pressure, yield, and rate of flow were substantially reduced in severely affected trees, but crystallization of resin increased as the severity of the disease became greater. Both sapwood and phloem moisture contents were less in diseased trees. Phloem thickness in advanced-diseased trees was less than 60% of that in healthy trees.

  11. Response of brown-headed cowbirds and three host species to thinning treatments in low-elevation ponderosa pine forests along the northern Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, W.H.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Spaulding, Sarah A.; Wanner, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Thinning ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests to achieve desired ecological conditions remains a priority in the North American west. In addition to reducing the risk of high-severity wildfires in unwanted areas, stand thinning may increase wildlife and plant diversity and provide increased opportunity for seedling recruitment. We initiated conservative (i.e. minimal removal of trees) ponderosa stand thinning treatments with the goals of reducing fire risk and improving habitat conditions for native wildlife and flora. We then compared site occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina), plumbeous vireos (Vireo plumbeus), and western wood-pewees (Contopus sordidulus) in thinned and unthinned (i.e., control) forest stands from 2007 to 2009. Survey stations located in thinned stands had 64% fewer trees/ha, 25% less canopy cover, and 23% less basal area than stations in control stands. Occupancy by all three host species was negatively associated with tree density, suggesting that these species respond favorably to forest thinning treatments in ponderosa pine forests. We also encountered plumbeous vireos more frequently in plots closer to an ecotonal (forest/grassland) edge, an association that may increase their susceptibility to edge-specialist, brood parasites like brown-headed cowbirds. Occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds was not related to forest metrics but was related to occupancy by plumbeous vireos and the other host species in aggregate, supporting previous reports on the affiliation between these species. Forest management practices that promote heterogeneity in forest stand structure may benefit songbird populations in our area, but these treatments may also confer costs associated with increased cowbird occupancy. Further research is required to understand more on the complex relationships between occupancy of cowbirds and host species, and between cowbird occupancy and realized rates of nest parasitism.

  12. Síndrome de Hopkins no diagnóstico diferencial das paralisias flácidas na infância: aspectos clínicos e neurofisiológicos. Relato de caso Hopkins' syndrome in the differential diagnosis of flaccid paralysis in children: clinical and neurophysiological features. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Nora

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome de Hopkins (SH é caracterizada por monoplegia ou diplegia, decorrente de lesão no corno anterior da medula, que se segue a um ataque agudo de asma, ocorre geralmente em crianças e sua etiologia ainda não está definida. Há 34 casos descritos no mundo, sendo este o primeiro relato na América do Sul e durante o primeiro ano de vida. CASO: Criança internada aos 4 meses de idade com quadro de sibilância e insuficiência respiratória. Cerca de 3 dias após melhora do quadro respiratório, observou-se perda de força nos membros inferiores. Teve alta hospitalar com regressão do quadro respiratório mantendo a paraparesia. Reinternada aos 9 meses de idade por novo quadro de broncoespasmo, demonstrando paralisia flácida assimétrica (E>D e atrofia nos membros inferiores. EXAME NEUROLÓGICO: força e reflexos miotáticos normais nos membros superiores, arreflexia miotática nos membros inferiores e sensibilidade preservada. Exames de líquor, ressonância magnética de coluna lombossacra e potencial evocado somatossensitivo dos membros inferiores: normais. BIÓPSIA MUSCULAR: Grupamento de fibras. A eletroneuromiografia demonstrou sinais de lesão do neurônio motor do corno anterior da medula nos metâmeros lombossacros. CONCLUSÃO: A Síndrome de Hopkins, apesar de rara, deve ser lembrada no diagnóstico diferencial de paralisias flácidas, quando houver concomitância com asma.INTRODUCTION: Hopkins syndrome is a motor neuron disease which leads to a flaccid paralysis affecting one or more limbs resembling poliomyelites. It follows an asthmatic attack and the prognosis is poor. All the 34 related cases occured after 13 months of age and there is no report in South America. Our objective is to describe a case of Hopkins Syndrome in Brazil affecting a patient younger than 1 year. CASE: Male 4 months-old infant, started presenting wheezing that turned into respiratory failure which required mecanical ventilation. Three

  13. Development of The Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing Adult/Geriatric Primary Care Nurse Practitioner Program in HIV Prevention, Treatment, and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Jason E; Stewart, Jennifer; Kub, Joan; Cumpsty-Fowler, Carolyn; Lowensen, Kelly; Becker, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    In response to the call to create an AIDS Education and Training Center for Nurse Practitioner Education by the Health Resources and Services Administration, The Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing embarked on a transformative curriculum overhaul to integrate HIV prevention, treatment, and care into the Adult/Geriatric Nurse Practitioner Program. A six-step process outlined in the Curriculum Development for Medical Education was followed. A pilot cohort of Adult/Geriatric Nurse Practitioner students were enrolled, including 50% primary care setting and 50% HIV-focused primary care through a 12-month HIV continuity clinic experience. Through this pilot, substantive changes to the program were adopted. Programmatic outcomes were not compromised with the modification in clinical hours. The model of a 12-month HIV continuity clinical experience reduced the number of required preceptors. This model has important implications for the HIV workforce by demonstrating successful integration of HIV and primary care training for nurse practitioners. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mucopurulent cervicitis as a predictor of chlamydial infection and adverse pregnancy outcome. The Investigators of the Johns Hopkins Study of Cervicitis and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, R P; Hillier, S L

    1992-01-01

    The role of mucopurulent cervicitis in identifying pregnant women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection and poor pregnancy outcome was examined at the Johns Hopkins Hospital Obstetric Clinic in Baltimore, Maryland. The women studied were at high risk for chlamydial infection (14%), low birthweight (12%), and preterm delivery (13%). Yellow endocervical discharge on a cotton swab had a sensitivity of 23.9%, specificity of 89.4%, and positive predictive value of 28.6% for predicting chlamydial infection. The presence of greater than or equal to 30 polymorphonuclear cells per 1000 x field had a sensitivity of 25.0%, specificity of 87.6% and positive predictive value of 24.3%. Women with cervicitis defined by greater than or equal to 30 polymorphonuclear cells per 1000 x field were twice as likely to deliver a low-birthweight infant. Adjustment for potential confounding variables did not explain this association. The poor sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of mucopurulent cervicitis suggests that this parameter is not a useful screening tool for chlamydial infection in pregnant women. However, mucopurulent cervicitis may be an indicator of increased risk for poor pregnancy outcome.

  15. Selection effects in psychiatric epidemiology: a 14-year prospective study of the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 as a predictor of mortality in the Norwegian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Jan F; Klungsøyr, Ole; Sandanger, Inger; Svensson, Elisabeth

    2009-10-01

    Inconsistent findings in studies examining the association between mental health problems and mortality have suggested study design as a source of discrepancy. This study investigates if selection bias is introduced by an extensive personal interview, recruiting a healthier population, and furthermore examines the association between mental distress and mortality. The OsLof study consists of a random population-based sample of 2,014 persons above 18 years that participated in an interview in 1989, including the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 (HSCL-25). A second material was drawn as an approximate 1% sample of the Norwegian population (N = 31.907). Both samples were followed up until 2003, emigration or death. Hazard rates were estimated by Cox regression and piecewise exponential survival regression. Mortality rates were similar regardless of HSCL, and lower than in the 1% population sample, in the first 2 years of follow-up. A higher mortality rate in those with HSCL > or = 1.75 appeared after 8 years of follow-up, and after 12 years the mortality rate was 1.57 times higher than in the population sample. Studies of predictors ought to have a long follow-up, as several years might pass before differences in mortality are revealed. Due to selection effects, short follow-up might lead to erroneously believing predictors to be protective. This study was consistent with other studies with long follow-up, showing higher mortality associated with mental distress.

  16. Correspondence between clinical diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders and diagnostic screening via the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 in the Lundby Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattisson, Cecilia; Bogren, Mats; Horstmann, Vibeke

    2013-06-01

    To compare clinical assessments of mental disorders with the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 (HSCL-25) in a population-based sample consisting of middle-aged and elderly subjects. The Lundby Study is a prospective cohort study that evaluated mental disorders and personality traits in an unselected Swedish population. The study commenced in 1947, with follow-ups in 1957, 1972 and 1997 (n = 3563). Psychiatrists evaluated participants for mental disorders at several field investigations. In 1997, participants were also asked to complete the HSCL-25. Subjects with diagnoses of schizophrenia, dementia and certain other conditions were excluded leaving 1189 subjects aged 40-96 years. Diagnostic assessments by psychiatrists were compared with the results of the HSCL-25. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at two cut-off levels of the HSCL-25 (1.55 and 1.75), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. The performance of the HSCL-25 was analysed with regard to anxiety and depression subscales. The concordance of HSCL-25 with clinical best-estimate diagnoses was low. The anxiety subscale discriminated better than the depressive subscale. The correspondence between the clinical diagnoses made by psychiatrists and the HSCL-25 was not acceptable at a cut-off level 1.55. The HSCL-25 is limited in its ability to identify clinical syndromes. The HSCL-25 should be applied only as a preliminary screen for emotional distress and anxiety syndromes.

  17. Leaf anatomical changes in Populus trichocarpa, Quercus rubra, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa exposed to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, L.M.; Bassman, J.H.; Edwards, G.E.; Robberecht, R.; Franceshi, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Leaf anatomical characteristics are important in determining the degree of injury sustained when plants are exposed to natural and enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280–320 nm). The degree to which leaf anatomy can adapt to the increasing levels of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is poorly understood in most tree species. We examined four tree species, representing a wide range of leaf anatomical characteristics, to determine responses of leaf area, specific leaf weight, and leaf tissue parameters after exposure to ambient and enhanced levels of UV-B radiation. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with photosynthetically active radiation of 39 mol m −2 day −1 and under one of three daily irradiances of biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE) supplied for 10 h per day: (1) approximate ambient level received at Pullman, Washington on June 21 (1 x ); two times ambient (2 x ), or three times ambient (3 x ). We hypothesized the response of each species to UV-B radiation would be related to inherent anatomical differences. We found that the conifers responded anatomically to nearly an equal degree as the broad-leaved trees, but that different tissues were involved. Populus trichocarpa, an indeterminate broadleaf species, showed significantly thicker palisade parenchyma in recently mature leaves at the 3 x level and in older leaves under the 2 x level. In addition, individual leaf area was generally greater with increased UV-B irradiance. Quercus rubra, a semi-determinate broadleaf species, exhibited significantly thicker palisade parenchyma at the 2 x and 3 x levels as compared to controls. Psuedotsuga menziesii, an evergreen coniferous species with bifacially flattened needles, and Pinus ponderosa, an evergreen coniferous species with a complete hypodermis, showed no significant change in leaf area or specific leaf weight under enhanced UV-B radiation. Epidermal thickness was unchanged in P. menziesii. However, P. ponderosa

  18. Climatic Versus Biotic Constraints on Carbon and Water Fluxes in Seasonally Drought-affected Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, P. A.; Law, B. E.; Williams, M.; Irvine, J.; Kurpius, M.; Moore, D.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relative importance of climatic versus biotic controls on gross primary production (GPP) and water vapor fluxes in seasonally drought-affected ponderosa pine forests. The study was conducted in young (YS), mature (MS), and old stands (OS) over 4 years at the AmeriFlux Metolius sites. Model simulations showed that interannual variation of GPP did not follow the same trends as precipitation, and effects of climatic variation were smallest at the OS (50%), and intermediate at the YS (drought and interannual climatic variation. Interannual variation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was also lowest at the OS, where NEE is controlled more by interannual variation of ecosystem respiration, 70% of which is from soil, than by the variation of GPP, whereas variation in GPP is the primary reason for interannual changes in NEE at the YS and MS. Across spatially heterogeneous landscapes with high frequency of younger stands resulting from natural and anthropogenic disturbances, interannual climatic variation and change in leaf area are likely to result in large interannual variation in GPP and NEE.

  19. Impact of a New Palliative Care Program on Health System Finances: An Analysis of the Palliative Care Program Inpatient Unit and Consultations at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Sarina R; Lu, Chunhua; McQuade, John; Chan, Kelvin K W; Gill, Natasha; Cardamone, Michael; Torto, Deirdre; Langbaum, Terry; Razzak, Rab; Smith, Thomas J

    2017-05-01

    Palliative care inpatient units (PCUs) can improve symptoms, family perception of care, and lower per-diem costs compared with usual care. In March 2013, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI) added a PCU to the palliative care (PC) program. We studied the financial impact of the PC program on JHMI from March 2013 to March 2014. This study considered three components of the PC program: PCU, PC consultations, and professional fees. Using 13 months of admissions data, the team calculated the per-day variable cost pre-PCU (ie, in another hospital unit) and after transfer to the PCU. These fees were multiplied by the number of patients transferred to the PCU and by the average length of stay in the PCU. Consultation savings were estimated using established methods. Professional fees assumed a collection rate of 50%. The total positive financial impact of the PC program was $3,488,863.17. There were 153 transfers to the PCU, 60% with cancer, and an average length of stay of 5.11 days. The daily loss pretransfer to the PCU of $1,797.67 was reduced to $1,345.34 in the PCU (-25%). The PCU saved JHMI $353,645.17 in variable costs, or $452.33 per transfer. Cost savings for PC consultations in the hospital, 60% with cancer, were estimated at $2,765,218. $370,000 was collected in professional fees savings. The PCU and PC program had a favorable impact on JHMI while providing expert patient-centered care. As JHMI moves to an accountable care organization model, value-based patient-centered care and increased intensive care unit availability are desirable.

  20. Colonization behaviors of mountain pine beetle on novel hosts: Implications for range expansion into northeastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Derek W; Venette, Robert C; Maddox, Mitchell P; Aukema, Brian H

    2017-01-01

    As climates change, thermal limits may no longer constrain some native herbivores within their historical ranges. The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a tree-killing bark beetle native to western North America that is currently expanding its range. Continued eastward expansion through the newly invaded and novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees of the Canadian boreal forest could result in exposure of several species of novel potential host pines common in northeastern North America to this oligophagous herbivore. Due to the tightly co-evolved relationship between mountain pine beetle and western pine hosts, in which the insect utilizes the defensive chemistry of the host to stimulate mass attacks, we hypothesized that lack of co-evolutionary association would affect the host attraction and acceptance behaviors of this insect among novel hosts, particularly those with little known historical association with an aggressive stem-infesting insect. We studied how beetle behavior differed among the various stages of colonization on newly cut logs of four novel potential pine host species; jack, red (P. resinosa Ait.), eastern white (P. strobus L.) and Scots (P. sylvestris L.) pines, as well as two historical hosts, ponderosa (P. ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws. var. scopulorum Engelm.) and lodgepole (P. contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) pines. Overall, we found that beetle colonization behaviors at each stage in the colonization process differ between pine hosts, likely due to differing chemical and physical bark traits. Pines without co-evolved constitutive defenses against mountain pine beetle exhibited reduced amounts of defensive monoterpenoid chemicals; however, such patterns also reduced beetle attraction and colonization. Neither chemical nor physical defenses fully defended trees against the various stages of host procurement that can result in tree colonization and death.

  1. Hopkins Syndrome with Mycoplasma Infection

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1997-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy with acute flaccid paralysis of the right lower limb developing one week after treatment and recovery from an acute asthma attack is reported from the Department of Child Health, Milton Keynes General Hospital, UK.

  2. The relationship between prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen variability: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Johns Hopkins Active Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John H; Loeb, Stacy; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi; Carter, H Ballentine

    2012-05-01

    Study Type--Prognostic (cohort). Level of Evidence 2b. What's known on the subject? And what does the study add? Previous studies have attempted to characterize the normal biological variability in PSA among men without prostate cancer. These reports suggest that PSA variability is unrelated to age, but there are conflicting data on its association with the baseline PSA level. There are limited published data regarding the effects of prostate volume on PSA variability. A prior study assessing whether prostate volume changes would confound the use of PSA velocity in clinical practice reported that prostate volume changes were not significantly related to PSA changes. This study did not directly address the effect of baseline prostate volume on serial PSA variability. The objective of the current study was to further examine the relationship between prostate volume and PSA variability. Our hypothesis was that larger baseline prostate volume would be associated with increased PSA variability in men without known prostate cancer and in those with suspected small-volume disease. The results of the study suggest that baseline PSA, not prostate volume, is the primary driver of PSA variability in these populations. • To clarify the relationship between serial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) variability and prostate volume in both cancer-free participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) and patients with low-risk prostate cancer from the Johns Hopkins Active Surveillance Program (AS). • In all, 287 men from the BLSA and 131 patients from the AS were included in the analysis, all with at least two PSA measurements and concurrent prostate volume measurements. • PSA variability was calculated in ng/mL per year, and a linear mixed-effects model was used to determine the relative effects of prostate volume, baseline PSA and age on PSA change over time. • In a model with prostate volume, age and baseline PSA, there was no significant relationship

  3. Studies on black stain root disease in ponderosa pine. pp. 236-240. M. Garbelotto & P. Gonthier (Editors). Proceedings 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Otrosina; J. T. Kliejunas; S. S. Sung; S. Smith; D. R. Cluck

    2008-01-01

    Black stain root disease of ponderosa pine, caused by Lepfographium wageneri var. ponderosum (Harrington & Cobb) Harrington & Cobb, is increasing on many eastside pine stands in northeastern California. The disease is spread from tree to tree via root contacts and grafts but new infections are likely vectored by root...

  4. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for Population Management of Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), in Felled Trees and Factors Limiting Pathogen Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Mann, Andrew J; Malesky, Danielle; Jankowski, Egan; Bradley, Clifford

    2018-03-24

    An isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) was tested for its ability to reduce survival and reproduction of spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), under laboratory and field conditions. Conidial suspension applied directly to adults or to filter papers that adults contacted had a median survival time of 3-4 d in laboratory assays and beetles died more rapidly when exposed to conidial suspension than when treated with surfactant solution only. In the field, conidial suspension was applied to the surface of felled and pheromone-baited Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees using a backpack sprayer. Mortality of colonizing parent beetles (F0), reproduction (abundance of F1 offspring in logs), and emergence of F1 beetles from logs was compared between treated and nontreated logs. Application of spore suspension increased mortality of F0 adults by 36% on average. Total F1 reproduction was reduced by 17% and emergence from logs was reduced by 13% in treated logs, but considerable variability in reproduction and emergence was observed. Viable spores were re-isolated from treated logs up to 90 d after application, indicating that spores are capable of long-term persistence on the tree bole microhabitat. Subsequent in vitro tests revealed that temperatures below 15°C and exposure to spruce monoterpenes likely limit performance of B. bassiana under field conditions, but exposure to low-intensity light or interactions with spruce beetle symbiotic fungi were not strongly inhibitory. It is concluded that matching environmental tolerances of biocontrol fungi to field conditions can likely improve their usefulness for control of spruce beetle in windthrown trees.

  5. Thermotolerance and heat stress responses of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine seedling populations from contrasting climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marias, Danielle E; Meinzer, Frederick C; Woodruff, David R; McCulloh, Katherine A

    2017-03-01

    Temperature and the frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase throughout the 21st century. Germinant seedlings are expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat stress because they are in the boundary layer close to the soil surface where intense heating occurs in open habitats. We quantified leaf thermotolerance and whole-plant physiological responses to heat stress in first-year germinant seedlings in two populations each of Pinus ponderosa P. and C. Lawson (PIPO) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (PSME) from climates with contrasting precipitation and temperature regimes. Thermotolerance of detached needles was evaluated using chlorophyll fluorescence (FV/FM, FO) and electrolyte leakage. PSME was more heat tolerant than PIPO according to both independent assessments of thermotolerance. Following exposure of whole seedlings to a simulated heat wave at 45 °C for 1 h in a growth chamber, we monitored FV/FM, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) and carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) for 14 days. Heat treatment induced significant reductions in FV/FM in both species and a transient reduction in photosynthetic gas exchange only in PIPO 1 day after treatment. Heat treatment induced an increase in glucose + fructose concurrent with a decrease in starch in both species, whereas total NSC and sucrose were not affected by heat treatment. The negative relationship between glucose + fructose and starch observed in treated plants may be due to the conversion of starch to glucose + fructose to aid recovery from heat-induced damage. Populations from drier sites displayed greater δ13C values than those from wetter sites, consistent with higher intrinsic water-use efficiency and drought resistance of populations from drier climates. Thermotolerance and heat stress responses appeared to be phenotypically plastic and representative of the environment in which plants were grown, whereas intrinsic water-use efficiency

  6. Evaluación genética en etapa de vivero de áreas productoras de semillas (APS de Pino Ponderosa en Nordpatagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHINELLI, T.1;

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El Pino Ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws es la principal especie forestal implantada en secanoen la Patagonia. Su potencialidad productiva y la disponibilidad de tierras para su cultivo permiten proyectarla continuidad de su uso en plantaciones comerciales, para lo que es indispensable asegurar la provisión desemillas de adecuada calidad genética. Las semillas utilizadas en la última década se produjeron en una seriede rodales mediante ensayos para evaluar su descendencia. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar estosrodales ensayando su descendencia. En este primer reporte presentamos los resultados de una evaluaciónen etapa de vivero. Se ensayaron 31 procedencias locales seleccionadas (Áreas Productoras de Semillas,APS en dos sitios, midiendo altura y diámetro a la altura del cuello en plantines de 2 años de edad. A través de análisis de la varianza se probó un claro efecto de interacción entre las APS y los sitios, y también diferencias entre las APS dentro de cada sitio. Seguidamente, se establecieron rankings de las APS por sitio y variable evaluada. A través de comparaciones de a pares se formaron grupos homogéneos. También se estimó la estabilidad genotípica de las APS por medio del cálculo de sus ecovalencias. Los resultados son aún preliminares, pero el haber probado diferencias en tan temprana edad nos alerta sobre la importancia de la procedencia de las semillas a utilizar para la producción comercial. Se espera que estas diferencias se acentúen en edades más avanzadas. Para probarlo, ya se han establecido ensayos de plantación.

  7. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K.

    2014-07-12

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was light dependent and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions which explicitly accounts for the physico-chemical properties of emitted compounds, we are able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced through experimentation or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light dependent monoterpenes can comprise a large fraction of emissions. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  8. Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M. E.; Gyenge, J. E.; Urquiza, M. M.; Varela, S.

    2012-11-01

    More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to understand how management practices can help to increase their adaptability to climate change. Growth magnitude and period, specific hydraulic conductivity, and anatomical traits (early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter, cell-wall thickness, tracheid length and bordered pit dimensions) were measured in the ring 2008-2009, which was formed during drought conditions. This drought event decreased annual stem growth by 30-38% and 58-65% respect to previous mean growth, in open vs. closed stand trees, respectively, indicating a higher sensitivity of the latter, which is opposite to reports from the same species growing in managed native forests in USA. Some wood anatomical variables did differ in more water stressed trees (lower cell wall thickness of early wood cells and higher proportion of small-lumen cells in late wood), which in turn did not affect wood function (hydraulic conductivity and resistance to implosion). Other anatomical variables (tracheid length, pit dimensions, early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter of early wood cells) did not differ between tree sizes and plantation density. The results suggest that severe drought affects differentially the amount but not the function and quality of formed wood in ponderosa pine growing at different competition levels. (Author) 41 refs.

  9. Síndrome de Hopkins no diagnóstico diferencial das paralisias flácidas na infância: aspectos clínicos e neurofisiológicos. Relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Nora,Daniel B.; Gomes,Irenio; El Ammar,Gibran; Nunes,Magda L.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome de Hopkins (SH) é caracterizada por monoplegia ou diplegia, decorrente de lesão no corno anterior da medula, que se segue a um ataque agudo de asma, ocorre geralmente em crianças e sua etiologia ainda não está definida. Há 34 casos descritos no mundo, sendo este o primeiro relato na América do Sul e durante o primeiro ano de vida. CASO: Criança internada aos 4 meses de idade com quadro de sibilância e insuficiência respiratória. Cerca de 3 dias após melhora do quadro re...

  10. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Population densities and tree diameter effects associated with verbenone treatments to reduce mountain pine beetle-caused mortality of lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progar, R A; Blackford, D C; Cluck, D R; Costello, S; Dunning, L B; Eager, T; Jorgensen, C L; Munson, A S; Steed, B; Rinella, M J

    2013-02-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is among the primary causes of mature lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia mortality. Verbenone is the only antiaggregant semiochemical commercially available for reducing mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine. The success of verbenone treatments has varied greatly in previous studies because of differences in study duration, beetle population size, tree size, or other factors. To determine the ability of verbenone to protect lodgepole pine over long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks, we applied verbenone treatments annually for 3 to 7 yr at five western United States sites. At one site, an outbreak did not develop; at two sites, verbenone reduced lodgepole pine mortality in medium and large diameter at breast height trees, and at the remaining two sites verbenone was ineffective at reducing beetle infestation. Verbenone reduced mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine trees in treated areas when populations built gradually or when outbreaks in surrounding untreated forests were of moderate severity. Verbenone did not protect trees when mountain pine beetle populations rapidly increase.

  12. Successful Colonization of Lodgepole Pine Trees by Mountain Pine Beetle Increased Monoterpene Production and Exhausted Carbohydrate Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Marla; Hussain, Altaf; Cale, Jonathan A; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2018-02-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests have experienced severe mortality from mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North America for the last several years. Although the mechanisms by which beetles kill host trees are unclear, they are likely linked to pine defense monoterpenes that are synthesized from carbohydrate reserves. However, how carbohydrates and monoterpenes interact in response to MPB colonization is unknown. Understanding this relationship could help to elucidate how pines succumb to bark beetle attack. We compared concentrations of individual and total monoterpenes and carbohydrates in the phloem of healthy pine trees with those naturally colonized by MPB. Trees attacked by MPB had nearly 300% more monoterpenes and 40% less carbohydrates. Total monoterpene concentrations were most strongly associated with the concentration of sugars in the phloem. These results suggest that bark beetle colonization likely depletes carbohydrate reserves by increasing the production of carbon-rich monoterpenes, and other carbon-based secondary compounds. Bark beetle attacks also reduce water transport causing the disruption of carbon transport between tree foliage and roots, which restricts carbon assimilation. Reduction in carbohydrate reserves likely contributes to tree mortality.

  13. Changes in soil moisture affect carbon and water fluxes from trees and soils differently in a young semi-arid ponderosa pine stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehr, N. K.; Martin, J.; Pettijohn, J. C.; Law, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    A potential decline in the global trend in land evapotranspiration due to soil moisture limitation may alter the C balance of forest ecosystems, especially in water-limited Mediterranean and semi-arid climate zones. Despite the wide distribution of ponderosa pine forests in semi-arid climate zones of the USA, detailed studies on how these ecosystems may respond to changes in soil water availability are rather rare. To provide better insights on this relevant topic, we conducted a soil moisture manipulation experiment and investigated the response of tree and soil carbon and water fluxes in a young ponderosa pine stand in Oregon (Ameriflux site US-Me6) during summer 2010. Irrigation started with the onset of the dry season at the end of June, maintaining volumetric soil moisture content constantly above 20%. In contrast, in the control treatment soil moisture dried down with regional drought and was below 10% and 15% in 10 cm and 30 cm depth by the end of August. Results show that irrigation increased soil CO2 efflux by 40% at the end of July and reached a maximum of 60% in mid August, with about one-third to two-thirds originating from root-rhizosphere respiration (soil CO2 efflux under tree - soil CO2 efflux in the open). Photosynthesis (Amax), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (T) rates were not affected by irrigation in early summer. However, Amax, gs and T rates in both treatments suddenly decreased, most likely caused by increased VPD and decreased soil water availability (predawn needle water potentials) at the end of July. Irrigation dampened that decrease and caused Amax, gs and T to remain on average about 25% higher, following largely the course of VPD during August. In summary, our preliminary results indicate that higher soil water content affected in particular soil activity and root-rhizosphere respiration rates. Photosynthesis and transpiration appeared to depend to a lesser extent and later in the season on irrigation water, yet both

  14. Accounting for age Structure in Ponderosa Pine Ecosystem Analyses: Integrating Management, Disturbance Histories and Observations with the BIOME-BGC Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, K. A.; Law, B.; Thornton, P.

    2003-12-01

    Disturbance and management regimes in forested ecosystems have been recently highlighted as important factors contributing to quantification of carbon stocks and fluxes. Disturbance events, such as stand-replacing fires and current management regimes that emphasize understory and tree thinning are primary suspects influencing ecosystem processes, including net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in forests of the Pacific Northwest. Several recent analyses have compared simulated to measured component stocks and fluxes of carbon in Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa var. Laws) at 12 sites ranging from 9 to 300 years in central Oregon (Law et al. 2001, Law et al. 2003) using the BIOME-BGC model. Major emphases on ecosystem model developments include improving allocation logic, integrating ecosystem processes with disturbance such as fire and including nitrogen in biogeochemical cycling. In Law et al. (2001, 2003), field observations prompted BIOME-BGC improvements including dynamic allocation of carbon to fine root mass through the life of a stand. A sequence of simulations was also designed to represent both management and disturbance histories for each site, however, current age structure of each sites wasn't addressed. Age structure, or cohort management has largely been ignored by ecosystem models, however, some studies have sought to incorporate stand age with disturbance and management (e.g. Hibbard et al. 2003). In this analyses, we regressed tree ages against height (R2 = 0.67) to develop a proportional distribution of age structure for each site. To preserve the integrity of the comparison between Law et al. (2003) and this study, we maintained the same timing of harvest, however, based on the distribution of age structures, we manipulated the amount of removal. Harvest by Law et al. (2003) was set at stand-replacement (99%) levels to simulate clear-cutting and reflecting the average top 10% of the age in each plot. For the young sites, we set removal at 73%, 51% and

  15. Defense traits in the long-lived Great Basin bristlecone pine and resistance to the native herbivore mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Sharon A. Hood; Matt Hansen; Jim Vandygriff; Karen E. Mock

    2016-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) is a significant mortality agent of Pinus, and climate-driven range expansion is occurring. Pinus defenses in recently invaded areas, including high elevations, are predicted to be lower than in areas with longer term MPB presence. MPB was recently observed in high-elevation forests of the Great Basin (GB)...

  16. Model-based time-series analysis of FIA panel data absent re-measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski; Mike T. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) mortality from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) has swept across the Interior West. Aerial surveys monitor the areal extent of the epidemic, but only Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) field data support a detailed assessment at the tree level. Dynamics of the lodgepole pine population occur at a more...

  17. Genetic and phenotypic resistance in lodgepole pine to attack by mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin Yanchuk; Kimberly Wallin

    2007-01-01

    The recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in British Columbia provided an opportunity to examine genetic variation of differential attack and resistance in a 20-year old lodgepole pine open-pollinated (OP) family trial. Approximately 2,500 individuals from 180 OP parent-tree collections (~14 trees per parent), from...

  18. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, M.; Bentz, B. J.; Bewick, S.; Lenhart, S. M.; Liebhold, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 407, OCT 21 (2016), s. 25-37 ISSN 0022-5193 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bistability * bark beetle * Dendroctonus ponderosae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519316301928

  19. Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Reed; Brent E. Ewers; Elise Pendall; John Frank; Robert Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are major disturbances that affect a land area similar to that of forest fires across North America. The recent mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak and its associated blue stain fungi (Grosmannia clavigera) are impacting water partitioning processes of forests in the Rocky Mountain region as the spatially heterogeneous...

  20. Re-measurement of whitebark pine infection and mortality in the Canadian Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyndi M. Smith; Brenda Shepherd; Cameron Gillies; Jon Stuart-Smith

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) populations are under threat across the species' range from white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), fire exclusion and climate change (Tomback and Achuff 2010). Loss of whitebark pine is predicted to have cascading effects on the following ecological services: provision of...

  1. Lumber recovery from insect-killed lodgepole pine in the northern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin E. Plank

    1984-01-01

    A total of 496 logs from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorts Dougl. ex Loud.) trees killed by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.) were compared with 189 logs from similar live trees. Logs were processed through a stud mill. In most cases lumber recovery from trees dead 1 to 3 years was the same as that from live...

  2. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  3. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Agne; David C. Shaw; Travis J. Woolley; Mónica E. Queijeiro-Bolaños; Mai-He. Li

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes....

  4. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle

    2015-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  5. Tree response and mountain pine beetle attack preference, reproduction, and emergence timing in mixed whitebark and lodgepole pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Celia Boone; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2015-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is an important disturbance agent in Pinus ecosystems of western North America, historically causing significant tree mortality. Most recorded outbreaks have occurred in mid elevation lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). In warm years, tree mortality also occurs at higher elevations in mixed species stands.

  6. Evaluation of mountain beetle-infested lodgepole pine for cellulosic ethanol production by sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Luo; R. Gleisner; S. Tian; J. Negron; W. Zhu; E. Horn; X. J. Pan; J. Y. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The potentials of deteriorated mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees for cellulosic ethanol production were evaluated using the sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) process. The trees were harvested from two sites in the United States Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest, Colorado....

  7. Is lodgepole pine mortality due to mountain pine beetle linked to the North American Monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara A. Goeking; Greg C. Liknes

    2012-01-01

    Regional precipitation patterns may have influenced the spatial variability of tree mortality during the recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa) (MPB) outbreak in the western United States. Data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program show that the outbreak was especially severe in the state of Colorado where over 10 million lodgepole pines (...

  8. Nitrogen cycling following mountain pine beetle disturbance in lodgepole pine forests of Greater Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob M. Griffin; Monica G. Turner; Martin Simard

    2011-01-01

    Widespread bark beetle outbreaks are currently affecting multiple conifer forest types throughout western North America, yet many ecosystem-level consequences of this disturbance are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on nitrogen (N) cycling through litter, soil, and vegetation in...

  9. Assessing the impact of a mountain pine beetle infestation on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests in Colorado using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Annual forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory system began in Colorado in 2002, which coincided with the onset of a major mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic. The mortality event, coupled with 11 years of annual inventory data, provided an opportunity to assess the usefulness of the FIA annual inventory system for quantifying the effects...

  10. Evaluating future success of whitebark pine ecosystem restoration under climate change using simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Mary F. Mahalovich; Diana F. Tomback

    2017-01-01

    Major declines of whitebark pine forests throughout western North America from the combined effects of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, fire exclusion policies, and the exotic disease white pine blister rust (WPBR) have spurred many restoration actions. However, projected future warming and drying may further exacerbate the species’ decline and...

  11. Integrating models to investigate critical phenological overlaps in complex ecological interactions: The mountain pine beetle-fungus symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey Addison; James A. Powell; Barbara J. Bentz; Diana L. Six

    2015-01-01

    The fates of individual species are often tied to synchronization of phenology, however, few methods have been developed for integrating phenological models involving linked species. In this paper, we focus on mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its two obligate mutualistic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera and Ophiostoma montium. Growth rates of...

  12. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

  13. Effect of climate variability and management practices on carbon, water and energy fluxes of a young Ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada (CA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, L.; Tang, J.; McKay, M.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2003-04-01

    Despite the range and importance of semi-arid Ponderosa pine ecosystem in the United States, stand-scale fluxes of carbon, water and energy of these ecosystems have rarely been studied. Our research at the Blodgett Forest Research Station in the Sierra Nevada of California is advocated to better understand how these fluxes of a mid-elevation, young pine plantation vary interannually in response to climate variability, and how they are impacted by management practices such as shrub removal and thinning. Fluxes of CO2, H2O, and energy have been measured continuously since May 1999 by the eddy covariance method. Environmental parameters such as wind direction and speed, air temperature and humidity, net and photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, soil moisture, soil heat flux, rain, and atmospheric pressure are also monitored. Additional continuous measurements at the site have included O3 concentration and flux, and concentration and fluxes of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds. The data set covers periods characterized by various levels of drought stress. Shrub was removed in the spring 1999 and a precommercial thinning of 2/3 of the trees was applied in the spring 2000. Even during the winter, the young Ponderosa pine plantation at Blodgett acted mainly as a sink of carbon during the four years of measurement. The decrease of leaf area index and thus photosynthesis caused by thinning is the main factor that caused lower uptake, but increased respiration also occurred. These effects are limited in time and magnitude due to the rapidly increasing leaf area index after thinning. Beside this, the ability of this young pine plantation to act as a sink of carbon was also influenced by interannual variability of climate. Drought is a regular feature of the climate of California, making water availability the major controller of gas exchange in summer and fall. Freezing temperatures limit CO2 ecosystem uptake during the winter and tree growth in

  14. Characterization of vegetation properties: Canopy modeling of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands; Final report. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    This report is comprised of two studies. The first study focuses on plant canopies in pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine woodland, and waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory which involved five basic areas of research: (1) application of hemispherical photography and other gap fraction techniques to study solar radiation regimes and canopy architecture, coupled with application of time-domain reflectometry to study soil moisture; (2) detailed characterization of canopy architecture using stand mapping and allometry; (3) development of an integrated geographical information system (GIS) database for relating canopy architecture with ecological, hydrological, and system modeling approaches; (4) development of geometric models that simulate complex sky obstruction, incoming solar radiation for complex topographic surfaces, and the coupling of incoming solar radiation with energy and water balance, with simulations of incoming solar radiation for selected native vegetation and experimental waste cover design sites; and (5) evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the various field sampling techniques. The second study describes an approach to develop software that takes advantage of new generation computers to model insolation on complex topographic surfaces. SOLARFLUX is a GIS-based (ARC/INFO, GRID) computer program that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modelling insolation on complex surfaces, the theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modelling.

  15. Whole System Carbon Exchange of Small Stands of Pinus Ponderosa Growing at Different CO(sub 2) concentrations in open top chambers; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J. Timothy; Ross, Peter D.; Picone, John B.; Eichelmann, Hillar Y.; Ross, Gregory N.

    1996-01-01

    Functional understanding of the carbon cycle from the molecular to the global level is a high scientific priority requiring explanation of the relationship between fluxes at different spatial and temporal scales. We describe methods used to convert an open top chamber into both closed and open flow gas exchange systems utilized to measure such fluxes. The systems described consist of temporary modifications to an open top chamber, and are put in place for several days on one or several open top chambers. In the closed system approach, a chamber is quickly sealed for a short, predetermined time interval, the change in gas concentrations is measured, then the chamber is unsealed and ventilated. In the open flow system approach, airflow into the open top chamber is measured by trace gas injection, and the air stream concentration of CO(sub 2) and water vapor is measured before and after injection into the chamber. The closed chamber approach can resolve smaller fluxes, but causes transient increases in chamber air temperature, and has a high labor requirement. The open flow approach reduces the deviation of measuring conditions from ambient, may be semi-automated (requiring less labor), allows a more frequent sampling interval, but cannot resolve low fluxes well. Data demonstrating the capabilities of these systems show that, in open canopies of ponderosa pine, scaling fluxes from leaves to whole canopies is well approximated from summation of leaf P(sub s) rates. Flux measurements obtained from these systems can be a valuable contribution to our understanding whole system material fluxes, and challenge our understanding of ecosystem carbon budgets

  16. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T; Safford, Hugh D; North, Malcolm P; Fried, Jeremy S; Gray, Andrew N; Brown, Peter M; Dolanc, Christopher R; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Falk, Donald A; Farris, Calvin A; Franklin, Jerry F; Fulé, Peter Z; Hagmann, R Keala; Knapp, Eric E; Miller, Jay D; Smith, Douglas F; Swetnam, Thomas W; Taylor, Alan H

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the "stand age" variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical "mixed-severity" fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data.

  17. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T.; Safford, Hugh D.; North, Malcolm P.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Gray, Andrew N.; Brown, Peter M.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Falk, Donald A.; Farris, Calvin A.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Fulé, Peter Z.; Hagmann, R. Keala; Knapp, Eric E.; Miller, Jay D.; Smith, Douglas F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Taylor, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the “stand age” variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical “mixed-severity” fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data. PMID:27196621

  18. Whole System Carbon Exchange of Small Stands of Pinus Ponderosa Growing at Different CO{sub 2} concentrations in open top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J. Timothy; Ross, Peter D.; Picone, John B.; Eichelmann, Hillar Y.; Ross, Gregory N.

    1996-12-01

    Functional understanding of the carbon cycle from the molecular to the global level is a high scientific priority requiring explanation of the relationship between fluxes at different spatial and temporal scales. We describe methods used to convert an open top chamber into both closed and open flow gas exchange systems utilized to measure such fluxes. The systems described consist of temporary modifications to an open top chamber, and are put in place for several days on one or several open top chambers. In the closed system approach, a chamber is quickly sealed for a short, predetermined time interval, the change in gas concentrations is measured, then the chamber is unsealed and ventilated. In the open flow system approach, airflow into the open top chamber is measured by trace gas injection, and the air stream concentration of CO{sub 2} and water vapor is measured before and after injection into the chamber. The closed chamber approach can resolve smaller fluxes, but causes transient increases in chamber air temperature, and has a high labor requirement. The open flow approach reduces the deviation of measuring conditions from ambient, may be semi-automated (requiring less labor), allows a more frequent sampling interval, but cannot resolve low fluxes well. Data demonstrating the capabilities of these systems show that, in open canopies of ponderosa pine, scaling fluxes from leaves to whole canopies is well approximated from summation of leaf P{sub s} rates. Flux measurements obtained from these systems can be a valuable contribution to our understanding whole system material fluxes, and challenge our understanding of ecosystem carbon budgets.

  19. Instruction at the Hopkins Marine Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-29

    conselquence of events occurring late in sperm.- which may facilitate their binding to linker r togenesis, the spermatozoon nucleus becomes Itnoti. [3,5f. 91...segregation, including microfilaments in ascidians (3,5) and nematodes (6), and microtubules in nemertines (7) and amphibians (8). Sawada (5) and Jeffery...3) have proposed a model in which a cortical contraction of microfilaments may provide the motiLv force during the first phase of ooplasmic

  20. Effect of Climate Variability and Management Practices on Carbon, Water and Energy Fluxes of a Young Ponderosa Pine Plantation at the Blodgett Forest Ameriflux Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, L.; McKay, M.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2003-12-01

    Our research at Blodgett Forest in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California seeks to better understand how fluxes of CO2, H2O, and energy in a mid-elevation, young pine plantation change interannually in response to climate variability, and how they are impacted by management practices such as shrub removal and thinning. Ecosystem scale fluxes have been measured by the eddy covariance method since 1997, along with meteorological parameters. During winter, the young Ponderosa pine plantation at Blodgett acted mainly as a sink of carbon. Strong variations in winter carbon sequestration occurred due to changes in leaf area index and frequency of freezing temperatures. Interannual variations in springtime carbon flux occurred mainly due to differences in the timing of seasonally increasing temperatures. Drought is a regular feature of the California climate, making water availability the major controller of gas exchange in summer and fall. In late summer 2001, drought stress reduced ecosystem carbon uptake by 1/5, while the Bowen ratio increased by 1/3. Thinning is a widespread procedure in plantation management carried out to reduce stand density, improve forest health, and optimize tree growth. In spring 2000, 2/3 of the trees were removed by mastication, the process of mechanically chewing up unwanted trees, which is becoming a widespread method for pre-commercial thinning in the U.S. During and after thinning, the plantation remained a sink of carbon. Thinning at the Blodgett site reduced the leaf area index from ~3 to ~1.5 m2 m-2, and created branch and stem debris of 400-500 g m-2. During summer 2000, mastication decreased ecosystem carbon uptake by 1/3. Ecosystem water use efficiency decreased by 1/5 and the Bowen ratio increased by 1/3. This indicates the increasing heat lost as sensible versus latent heat as the water flux decreased due to the reduction in leaf area index. After thinning, leaf area index rapidly increased to ~2.5 m2 m-2 by the end of 2000

  1. Incorporation of 13C labeled Pinus ponderosa needle and fine root litter into soil organic matter measured by Py-GC/MS-C-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambelli, S.; Gleixner, G.; Dawson, T. E.; Bird, J. A.; Torn, M. S.

    2006-12-01

    Developing effective strategies for enhancing C storage in soils requires understanding the influence of plant C quality. In turn, plant C quality impacts the decay continuum between plant residue and humified, stable SOM. This remains one of the least understood aspects of soil biogeochemistry. We investigated the initial phase of incorporation of 13C labeled Pinus ponderosa needle and fine root litter into SOM. The two litter types were placed in separate microcosms in the A horizon in a temperate conifer soil. Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography coupled with on-line mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS-C- IRMS) were used to determine the identity and the 13C enrichment of pyrolysis products (fragments of carbohydrates, lignin, proteins and lipids). We compared the two initial litter types, needles and fine roots, to samples of the bulk soil (A horizon, soil humin fraction (from chemical solubility) obtained from each microcosm 1.5y after litter addition. Pyrolysis of plant material and SOM produced 56 suitable products for isotopic analysis; of them, 15 occurred in both the litter and bulk soil, 7 in both the litter and the humin fraction and 9 in both bulk soil and the humin fraction. The pyrolysis products found in common in the plant and soil were related either to polysaccharides or were non-specific and could have originated from various precursors. The data suggest that the majority of plant inputs, both from needles or fine roots, were degraded very rapidly. In the humin fraction, the most recalcitrant pool of C in soil, with a measured turnover time of 260y (this soil), only products from the fragmentation of polysaccharides and alkyl-benzene compounds were found. Comparisons of the enrichment normalized by input level suggest little difference between the incorporation of C from needles versus fine roots into SOM. The most enriched fragments in the humin fraction were products from polysaccharides degradation, indicating

  2. Assessing the threat posed by indigenous exotics: A case study of two North American bark beetle species

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Dodds; D. W. Gilmore; S. J. Seybold

    2010-01-01

    The Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, was detected in 2001 in northern Minnesota outside its natural range and the range of its native hosts, Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, and western larch, Larix occidentalis Nutt. Consecutive years of...

  3. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera records for Canadа

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hume Douglas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion loti (Kirby, 1808; Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808 (both Brentidae; Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881; Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876; Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873; Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758; Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832; Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876; Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892; Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876; Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836; Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875; Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876; Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916; Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801; Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866 (all Curculionidae. In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae; Northwest Territories – Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927 (Brentidae; Nunavut – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae; Alberta – Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae; Saskatchewan – Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae; Manitoba – Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837; Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876; Scolytus

  4. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P

    2013-01-01

    The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808); Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808) (both Brentidae); Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881); Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876); Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873); Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758); Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832); Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876); Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892); Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876); Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836); Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875); Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876); Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916); Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866) (all Curculionidae). In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon - Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae); Northwest Territories - Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Nunavut - Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae); Alberta - Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Saskatchewan - Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852); Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Manitoba - Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837); Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876; Scolytus schevyrewi

  5. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the patchwork of tree mortality across the landscape. While several studies have shown that selective mechanisms operate at the individual tree level, less attention has been given to beetles’ preference for variation in spatial forest patterns, namely forest fragmentation, and if such preference changes with changing population conditions. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of fragmentation on the location of mountain pine beetle caused mortality. Using a negative binomial regression model, we tested the significance of a fragmentation measure called the Aggregation Index for predicting beetle-caused tree mortality in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada in 2000 and 2005. The results explain that mountain pine beetle OPEN ACCESS Forests 2013, 4 280 exhibit a density-dependent dynamic behaviour related to forest patterns, with fragmented forests experiencing greater tree mortality when beetle populations are low (2000. Conversely, more contiguous forests are preferred when populations reach epidemic levels (2005. These results reinforce existing findings that bark beetles exhibit a strong host configuration preference at low population levels and that such pressures are relaxed when beetle densities are high.

  6. Prediction of Forest Canopy and Surface Fuels from Lidar and Satellite Time Series Data in a Bark Beetle-Affected Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Bright

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire behavior depends on the type, quantity, and condition of fuels, and the effect that bark beetle outbreaks have on fuels is a topic of current research and debate. Remote sensing can provide estimates of fuels across landscapes, although few studies have estimated surface fuels from remote sensing data. Here we predicted and mapped field-measured canopy and surface fuels from light detection and ranging (lidar and Landsat time series explanatory variables via random forest (RF modeling across a coniferous montane forest in Colorado, USA, which was affected by mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins approximately six years prior. We examined relationships between mapped fuels and the severity of tree mortality with correlation tests. RF models explained 59%, 48%, 35%, and 70% of the variation in available canopy fuel, canopy bulk density, canopy base height, and canopy height, respectively (percent root-mean-square error (%RMSE = 12–54%. Surface fuels were predicted less accurately, with models explaining 24%, 28%, 32%, and 30% of the variation in litter and duff, 1 to 100-h, 1000-h, and total surface fuels, respectively (%RMSE = 37–98%. Fuel metrics were negatively correlated with the severity of tree mortality, except canopy base height, which increased with greater tree mortality. Our results showed how bark beetle-caused tree mortality significantly reduced canopy fuels in our study area. We demonstrated that lidar and Landsat time series data contain substantial information about canopy and surface fuels and can be used for large-scale efforts to monitor and map fuel loads for fire behavior modeling at a landscape scale.

  7. Prediction of forest canopy and surface fuels from Lidar and satellite time series data in a bark beetle-affected forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Benjamin C.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Briggs, Jenny S.; Kennedy, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire behavior depends on the type, quantity, and condition of fuels, and the effect that bark beetle outbreaks have on fuels is a topic of current research and debate. Remote sensing can provide estimates of fuels across landscapes, although few studies have estimated surface fuels from remote sensing data. Here we predicted and mapped field-measured canopy and surface fuels from light detection and ranging (lidar) and Landsat time series explanatory variables via random forest (RF) modeling across a coniferous montane forest in Colorado, USA, which was affected by mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) approximately six years prior. We examined relationships between mapped fuels and the severity of tree mortality with correlation tests. RF models explained 59%, 48%, 35%, and 70% of the variation in available canopy fuel, canopy bulk density, canopy base height, and canopy height, respectively (percent root-mean-square error (%RMSE) = 12–54%). Surface fuels were predicted less accurately, with models explaining 24%, 28%, 32%, and 30% of the variation in litter and duff, 1 to 100-h, 1000-h, and total surface fuels, respectively (%RMSE = 37–98%). Fuel metrics were negatively correlated with the severity of tree mortality, except canopy base height, which increased with greater tree mortality. Our results showed how bark beetle-caused tree mortality significantly reduced canopy fuels in our study area. We demonstrated that lidar and Landsat time series data contain substantial information about canopy and surface fuels and can be used for large-scale efforts to monitor and map fuel loads for fire behavior modeling at a landscape scale.

  8. Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, W A; Dymond, C C; Stinson, G; Rampley, G J; Neilson, E T; Carroll, A L; Ebata, T; Safranyik, L

    2008-04-24

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) is a native insect of the pine forests of western North America, and its populations periodically erupt into large-scale outbreaks. During outbreaks, the resulting widespread tree mortality reduces forest carbon uptake and increases future emissions from the decay of killed trees. The impacts of insects on forest carbon dynamics, however, are generally ignored in large-scale modelling analyses. The current outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, is an order of magnitude larger in area and severity than all previous recorded outbreaks. Here we estimate that the cumulative impact of the beetle outbreak in the affected region during 2000-2020 will be 270 megatonnes (Mt) carbon (or 36 g carbon m(-2) yr(-1) on average over 374,000 km2 of forest). This impact converted the forest from a small net carbon sink to a large net carbon source both during and immediately after the outbreak. In the worst year, the impacts resulting from the beetle outbreak in British Columbia were equivalent to approximately 75% of the average annual direct forest fire emissions from all of Canada during 1959-1999. The resulting reduction in net primary production was of similar magnitude to increases observed during the 1980s and 1990s as a result of global change. Climate change has contributed to the unprecedented extent and severity of this outbreak. Insect outbreaks such as this represent an important mechanism by which climate change may undermine the ability of northern forests to take up and store atmospheric carbon, and such impacts should be accounted for in large-scale modelling analyses.

  9. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  10. Cambial injury in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta): mountain pine beetle vs fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Daniels, Lori D; Mansfield, Shawn D; Chang, Alice S

    2017-12-01

    Both mountain pine beetle (MPB) Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins and fire leave scars with similar appearance on lodgepole pine Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. that have never been compared microscopically, despite the pressing need to determine the respective effects of MPB and fire injury on tree physiology. We analysed changes in wood formation in naturally caused scars on lodgepole pine, and tested the hypotheses that (i) MPB and fire injury elicit distinct anomalies in lodgepole pine wood and (ii) anomalies differ in magnitude and/or duration between MPB and fire. Mountain pine beetle and fire injury reduced radial growth in the first year post-injury. Otherwise, radial growth and wood density increased over more than 10 years in both MPB and fire scars. We found that the general increase in radial growth was of greater magnitude (up to 27%) and of longer duration (up to 5 years) in fire scars compared with MPB scars, as shown in earlywood width. We also observed that the increase in latewood density was of greater magnitude (by 12%) in MPB scars, but of longer duration (by 4 years) in fire scars. Crystallinity decreased following MPB and fire injury, while microfibril angle increased. These changes in fibre traits were of longer duration (up to 4 years) in MPB scars compared with fire scars, as shown in microfibril angle. We found no significant changes in carbon and nitrogen concentrations. In conclusion, we stress that reduced competition and resistance to cavitation play an important role alongside cambial injury in influencing the type and severity of changes. In addition, more research is needed to validate the thresholds introduced in this study. Our findings serve as a foundation for new protocols to distinguish between bark beetle and fire disturbance, which is essential for improving our knowledge of historical bark beetle and fire regimes, and their interactions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  11. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  12. Influence of whitebark pine decline on fall habitat use and movements of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Cecily M; van Manen, Frank T; Haroldson, Mark A; Ebinger, Michael R; Cain, Steven L; Gunther, Kerry A; Bjornlie, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    When abundant, seeds of the high-elevation whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis) are an important fall food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Rates of bear mortality and bear/human conflicts have been inversely associated with WBP productivity. Recently, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have killed many cone-producing WBP trees. We used fall (15 August–30 September) Global Positioning System locations from 89 bear years to investigate tempo...

  13. Data Management Consulting at the Johns Hopkins University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvel, Virgil E., Jr.; Shen, Yi

    2013-01-01

    As research data complexity and quantity grows and funding agency requirements for data management are articulated, there is a growing need for data management services (DMS). Within these services, one important role emerging is that of data management consultant (DMC). Roles were analyzed that these professionals play through case study analysis…

  14. Mida roheline tarbija tahab / Catherine Roche ; intervjueerinud Michael S. Hopkins

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roche, Catherine, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    2008. a. tehtud uuringust, mille abil selgitati välja, mis põhjustel inimesed eelistavad tarbimisel rohelist tootevalikut. Skeemid: Valmisolek maksta rohelise eest rohkem sõltub tootekategooriast ja tajutavatest eelistest; Teadlikkus ja valik

  15. Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The long term goals of the Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment are to examine how exposures to environmental pollutants and allergens may relate to...

  16. The Falling Chain of Hopkins, Tait, Steele and Cayley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Youn, Seo Ho; Yasui, Kosuke

    2007-01-01

    A uniform, flexible and frictionless chain falling link by link from a heap by the edge of a table falls with an acceleration g/3 if the motion is nonconservative, but g/2 if the motion is conservative, g being the acceleration due to gravity. Unable to construct such a falling chain, we use instead higher-dimensional versions of it. A home…

  17. Meharry-Johns Hopkins Center for Prostate Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    questionnaire to assess their prostate cancer health seeking behavior. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, Dietary risk factors, Lycopene, Genetic ... predisposition , African-Americans, Cancer research training, Quality of life, Community outreach, Recruiting study participants, Cell line inhibition...Institute (NCI) state cancer profiles, the mortality rate is almost three times that of CA men (73.9 per 100,000 AA / 25.6 per 100,000 C). Genetic and

  18. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HOPKINS COUNTY, KY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  19. Height growth of ponderosa pine progenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Z. Callaham; A. A. Hasel

    1957-01-01

    Research at the Institute of Forest Genetics at Plaeerville, California since its inception in 1925, has been concerned with the variation in individual trees of a speices. We are interested in this variation as a guide to selection of outstanding individuals. Western forests have considerable diversity in soils, topography, species composition, and distribution of age...

  20. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  1. Analytical Modelling of Canopy Interception Loss from a Juvenile Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle-Moses, D. E.; Lishman, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    In the central interior of British Columbia (BC), Canada, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB) has severely affected the majority of pine species in the region, especially lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson). The loss of mature lodgepole pine stands, including those lost to salvage logging, has resulted in an increase in the number of juvenile pine stands in the interior of BC through planting and natural regrowth. With this change from mature forests to juvenile forests at such a large spatial scale, the water balance of impacted areas may be altered, although the magnitude of such change is uncertain. Previous studies of rainfall partitioning by lodgepole pine and lodgepole pine dominated canopies have focused on mature stands. Thus, rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were measured and canopy interception loss was derived during the growing season of 2010 in a juvenile lodgepole pine dominated stand located approximately 60 km NNW of Kamloops, BC at 51°12'49" N 120°23'43" W, 1290 m above mean sea level. Scaling up from measurements for nine trees, throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception loss accounted for 87.7, 1.8 and 10.5 percent of the 252.9 mm of rain that fell over 38 events during the study period, respectively. The reformulated versions of the Gash and Liu analytical interception loss models estimated cumulative canopy interception loss at 24.7 and 24.6 mm, respectively, compared with the observed 26.5 mm; an underestimate of 1.8 and 1.9 mm or 6.8 and 7.2% of the observed value, respectively. Our results suggest that canopy interception loss is reduced in juvenile stands compared to their mature counterparts and that this reduction is due to the decreased storage capacity offered by these younger canopies. Evaporation during rainfall from juvenile canopies is still appreciable and may be a consequence of the increased proportion of the canopy exposed to wind during events.

  2. Management of Western North American Bark Beetles with Semiochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Steven J; Bentz, Barbara J; Fettig, Christopher J; Lundquist, John E; Progar, Robert A; Gillette, Nancy E

    2018-01-07

    We summarize the status of semiochemical-based management of the major bark beetle species in western North America. The conifer forests of this region have a long history of profound impacts by phloem-feeding bark beetles, and species such as the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the spruce beetle (D. rufipennis) have recently undergone epic outbreaks linked to changing climate. At the same time, great strides are being made in the application of semiochemicals to the integrated pest management of bark beetles. In this review, we synthesize and interpret these recent advances in applied chemical ecology of bark beetles for scientists and land managers.

  3. Reevaluating the self-thinning boundary line for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; William W. Oliver; Robert F. Powers

    2013-01-01

    The self-thinning rule has been used extensively to predict population dynamics under intraspecific and interspecific competition. In forestry, it is an important silvicultural concept for maintaining stand health in the face of climate change and biotic stress, but uncertainty exists because traditional self-thinning limits were set subjectively without regard to site...

  4. Lack of genetic differentiation in aggressive and secondary bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Christopher J; Clancy, Karen M; Degomez, Tom E; McMillin, Joel D; Woolbright, Scott A; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M

    2008-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) play an important role as disturbance agents in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) forests of Arizona. However, from 2001 to 2003, elevated bark beetle activity caused unprecedented levels of ponderosa pine mortality. A better understanding of the population structure of these species will facilitate analysis of their dispersal patterns and improve management strategies. Here, we use fluorescently labeled amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) analysis to resolve genetic variation among and within sampling locations in northcentral Arizona of Ips pini (Say), Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, and D. frontalis Zimmermann. We generated genetic fingerprints for >500 beetle specimens and analyzed genetic diversity. For all species, gene flow estimates among sampling locations were high, and significant population subdivision was not discernible across a large portion of ponderosa pine forests in Arizona. However, a weak relationship was detected with I. pini population structure and elevation. Because of the lack of genetic differentiation detected throughout the large study area, our findings suggest these insects are capable of long distance dispersal and exhibit a high degree of gene flow across a broad region. We conclude that our results are consistent with strong dispersal patterns and large population sizes of all three species.

  5. Distribution and attack behaviour of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, recently introduced to China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gao, B.; Wen, X.; Guan, H.; Knížek, M.; Žďárek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2005), 155-160 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 639 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bark beetles * outbreak * forest pest Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  6. Effect of silhouette color on trap catches of Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Strom; R.A. Goyer

    2001-01-01

    With the exception of responses to semiochemicals, host selection behaviors of D. frontalis are largely unstudied. To better understand the host finding behavior of D. frontalis, and to identify potential visual disruptants, we evaluated the response of D. frontalis to multiple-funnel traps of eight different...

  7. Effect of ponderosa pine needle litter on grass seedling survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt R. McConnell; Justin G. Smith

    1971-01-01

    Hard fescue survival rates were followed for 6 years on four different pine needle treatment plots. Needle litter had a significant effect on initial survival of fescue seedlings, but subsequent losses undoubtedly resulted from the interaction of many factors.

  8. Wood properties of immature ponderosa pine after thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald C. Markstrom; Harry E. Troxell; C. E. Boldt

    1983-01-01

    Trees from growing stock levels of 20, 60, and 100 in sapling and pole stands were sampled at three vertical positions -zero, 25, and 50 percent of total height above the 1-foot stump. Wood grown during the 10-year period after initial thinning was compared for growth and wood properties. Wide differences in radial growth, induced by thinning treatments, were not...

  9. Ponderosa pine seedlings and competing vegetation: ecology, growth, and cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    1990-01-01

    Foresters often need information on the cost effediveness of manual and chemical release treatments for individual and combined species in young mixed-shrub communities. A study in northern Califomia evaluated five manual and chemical treatmcnts and their effect on several shrubs and grasses. Treatments were grubbing at age 1 to 2- and 4 ft (0.6- and 1.2-m) radii,...

  10. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  11. Artificial Earth Satellites Designed and Fabricated by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    region of the RF spectrum, the received frequencies were carefully examined and their variation, i.e., the doppler shift, calculated . Encouraged by the...The flight lasted 24 minutes. An ionospheric refraction value was calculated using the doppler data recovered by the portable station, and a...satellite signal strength received on earth. fFour fins were located with respect to the satellite center of mass so as to insure complete SNAP 9-A burnup

  12. Talbot-Lau X-ray Phase-Contrast Research at Johns Hopkins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutman, Dan [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Valdivia, Maria Pia [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Finkenthal, Michael [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-05-12

    The Talbot-Lau (T-L) grating interferometer enables X-ray differential phase-contrast (DPC) imaging with low coherence conventional X-ray tubes, being thus attractive for medical and other applications. We studied several variations of the conventional T-L interferometer design. First, to extend the T-L method to high X-ray energy we developed a symmetric interferometer having gratings inclined at a glancing angle (GAI). This simple setup enables achieving high fringe contrast up to 80 kVp or more. The high GAI contrast in turn enabled demonstrating for the first time DPC-CT of soft tissues with clinically compatible X-ray dose and energy. Industrial and security applications of the GAI appear also possible. Further on, we studied high magnification T-L interferometry for electron density diagnostic in high energy density plasmas. High magnification refraction radiography with laser driven backlighters can help understand inertial confinement fusion experiments for instance. For plasma diagnostic using a single radiographic image we develop Moiré fringe deflectometry. We also extended the T-L method below 10 keV using membrane and free standing gratings. Lastly, we explored using grazing incidence micro-periodic mirrors instead of gratings in the T-L interferometers. These enable in principle achieving very small interferometer periods over a broad energy range, at the price of a narrow field of view in one dimension. The possibility of using these designs for DPC imaging of materials under extreme conditions will also be examined.

  13. Graduate Management Project: An Evaluation of the Johns Hopkins Outpatient Surgery Center Patient Satisfaction Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evan, Barry

    1999-01-01

    ... and many started embracing the quality culture. These changes in the health care market along with a shift to consumerism have forced virtually all health care organizations to face the challenge of defining and measuring quality...

  14. 25th Johns Hopkins Workshop on Current Problems in Particle Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dominici, Daniele; Lusanna, L

    2001-01-01

    This volume offers a comprehensive overview of our understanding of gravity at both the experimental and the theoretical level. Critical reviews by experts cover topics ranging from astrophysics (anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background, gamma ray bursts, neutron stars and astroparticles), cosmology, the status of gravitational wave sources and detectors, verification of Newton's law at short distances, the equivalence principle, gravito-magnetism, measurement theory, time machines and the foundations of Einstein's theory, to string theory and loop quantum gravity.

  15. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia Wood with Portland Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Hartley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5–24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX. CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  16. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia) Wood with Portland Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Sorin A; Hartley, Ian D; Reid, Matthew E; Thring, Ronald W

    2010-12-17

    The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa) killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5-24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX). CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  17. Asymmetric Synthesis of exo-Isobrevicomin and exo-Brevicomin via Conjugated Addition of Primary Alkyl Iodides to a,b-Unsaturated Ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Andréa L. de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available (--exo-Isobrevicomin (1 and (+-exo-brevicomin (2 are volatile substances produced by males of the beetles Dendroctonus ponderosae, which inhabit pine trees found in the northern hemisphere, frequently causing the death of their host. In order to obtain these aggregation pheromones, which present the 6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane structure, the synthetic strategies utilized in this work had as key steps the Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation and the conjugated addition, promoted by the Zn(Cu couple in aqueous medium and accelerated by ultrasound. The conjugated addition of acetonides 13 and 14 to the respective unsaturated ketones (methyl vinyl ketone and ethyl vinyl ketone furnished the adducts 15 and 16. The intramolecular catalyzed cyclization of compounds 15 and 16 with phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40 produced exo-isobrevicomin (1 and exo-brevicomin (2.

  18. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (forests will alter fire severity, a result that has important implications for management and policy decisions.

  19. Temperature alters the relative abundance and population growth rates of species within the Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Evans; Richard Hoffstetter; Matthew Ayres; Kier Klepzig

    2011-01-01

    Temperature has strong effects on metabolic processes ofindividuals and demographics of populations, but effects on ecological communities are not well known. Many economically and ecologically important pest species have obligate associations with other organisms; therefore, effects of temperature on these species might be mediated by strong interactions. The southern...

  20. Structure and dynamics of the gut bacterial microbiota of the bark beetle, Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) across their life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Roblero, Carlos Iván; Hernández-García, Juan Alfredo; Gonzalez-Escobedo, Roman; Soto-Robles, L Viridiana; Rivera-Orduña, Flor N; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Bark beetles play an important role as agents of natural renovation and regeneration in coniferous forests. Several studies have documented the metabolic capacity of bacteria associated with the gut, body surface, and oral secretions of these insects; however, little is known about how the bacterial community structure changes during the life cycle of the beetles. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial community of the gut of the bark beetle D. rhizophagus during the insect's life cycle using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 4 bacterial phyla, 7 classes, 15 families and 23 genera were identified. The α-diversity was low, as demonstrated in previous studies. The dominant bacterial taxa belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families. This low α-diversity can be attributed to the presence of defensive chemical compounds in conifers or due to different morpho-physiological factors in the gut of these insects acting as strong selective factors. Members of the genera Rahnella, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Propionibacterium were found at all life stages, and the first three genera, particularly Rahnella, were predominant suggesting the presence of a core microbiome in the gut. Significant differences in β-diversity were observed, mainly due to bacterial taxa present at low frequencies and only in certain life stages. The predictive functional profiling indicated metabolic pathways related to metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates, and membrane transport as the most significant in the community. These differences in the community structure might be due to several selective factors, such as gut compartmentalization, physicochemical conditions, and microbial interactions.

  1. Structure and dynamics of the gut bacterial microbiota of the bark beetle, Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae across their life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iván Briones-Roblero

    Full Text Available Bark beetles play an important role as agents of natural renovation and regeneration in coniferous forests. Several studies have documented the metabolic capacity of bacteria associated with the gut, body surface, and oral secretions of these insects; however, little is known about how the bacterial community structure changes during the life cycle of the beetles. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial community of the gut of the bark beetle D. rhizophagus during the insect's life cycle using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 4 bacterial phyla, 7 classes, 15 families and 23 genera were identified. The α-diversity was low, as demonstrated in previous studies. The dominant bacterial taxa belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families. This low α-diversity can be attributed to the presence of defensive chemical compounds in conifers or due to different morpho-physiological factors in the gut of these insects acting as strong selective factors. Members of the genera Rahnella, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Propionibacterium were found at all life stages, and the first three genera, particularly Rahnella, were predominant suggesting the presence of a core microbiome in the gut. Significant differences in β-diversity were observed, mainly due to bacterial taxa present at low frequencies and only in certain life stages. The predictive functional profiling indicated metabolic pathways related to metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates, and membrane transport as the most significant in the community. These differences in the community structure might be due to several selective factors, such as gut compartmentalization, physicochemical conditions, and microbial interactions.

  2. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  3. Non-Lethal Defense III, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland, February 25 & 26, 1998, Revised Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-26

    Thorax, and Abdomen to Blunt Trauma," Annals New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 152 (1968). 8) Clare, V. R., A. P. Mickiewicz , J. H. Lewis, and L. M...Lewis, J.H., Mickiewicz , A.P., and Sturdivan, L.M. Body Armor - Blunt Trauma Data. Technical Report. EB-TR-75016, Edgewood Arsenal. May, 1975. 2

  4. Feasibility and acceptability of the DSM-5 Field Trial procedures in the Johns Hopkins Community Psychiatry Programs†

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Diana E.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Miller, Leslie; Cullen, Bernadette; Gerring, Joan; Greiner, Lisa H.; Newcomer, Alison; Mckitty, Mellisha V.; Regier, Darrel A.; Narrow, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) contains criteria for psychiatric diagnoses that reflect advances in the science and conceptualization of mental disorders and address the needs of clinicians. DSM-5 also recommends research on dimensional measures of cross-cutting symptoms and diagnostic severity, which are expected to better capture patients’ experiences with mental disorders. Prior to its May 2013 release, the American Psychiatric Association ...

  5. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    immune phenotyping PBMCs using FACS and analysis of donor specific antibodies . These additional experiments and data analysis will be performed in...sarcomeres, which were subsequently followed by moderate to severe IRI in the CSP flaps in vivo. CB are thick, irregular , transverse eosinophilic

  6. Proceedings of the Johns Hopkins workshop on current problems in particle theory 5: unified field theories and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Topics covered include: symmetric gauge theories; infinite lie algebras in physics; the mechanism for confinement in massive quark QCD; a search for possible composite models of quarks and leptons; the radiative structure of Fermion masses; fractional electric charge in QCD; heavy particle effects; Fermion mass heirarchies in theories of technicolor; statistical notions applied in the early universe; grand unification and cosmology - an environmental impact statement; first order phase transition in the early universe; the electric dipole moment of the neutron; cosmological constraints on Grand Unified Theories; and the consequences for CP invariance of instanton angles THETA in dynamically broken gauge theories. Individual items from this workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  7. A clinimetric analysis of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) in general population studies (Denmark, Norway, and Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Vassend, Olav; Bjørndal, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) is one of the most widely used self-reported scales covering several psychopathological states, the scalability of the SCL-90-R has been found very problematic. Aims: We have performed a clinimetric analysis of the SCL-90-R, taking both its...... the factor structure. The scalability of the traditional SCL-90-R subscales (somatization, hostility, and interpersonal sensitivity) as well as the affective subscales (depression and anxiety and ADHD) were tested by Mokken’s item response theory model. Results: Across the three general population studies...... psychopathology. The SCL-90-R subscales of somatization, hostility, and interpersonal sensitivity as well as the affective subscales of depression, anxiety, and ADHD) were all accepted by the Mokken test for scalability, i.e. their total scores are sufficient statistics....

  8. Feasibility and acceptability of the DSM-5 Field Trial procedures in the Johns Hopkins Community Psychiatry Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E; Wilcox, Holly C; Miller, Leslie; Cullen, Bernadette; Gerring, Joan; Greiner, Lisa H; Newcomer, Alison; McKitty, Mellisha V; Regier, Darrel A; Narrow, William E

    2014-06-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) contains criteria for psychiatric diagnoses that reflect advances in the science and conceptualization of mental disorders and address the needs of clinicians. DSM-5 also recommends research on dimensional measures of cross-cutting symptoms and diagnostic severity, which are expected to better capture patients' experiences with mental disorders. Prior to its May 2013 release, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) conducted field trials to examine the feasibility, clinical utility, reliability, and where possible, the validity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and dimensional measures. The methods and measures proposed for the DSM-5 field trials were pilot tested in adult and child/adolescent clinical samples, with the goal to identify and correct design and procedural problems with the proposed methods before resources were expended for the larger DSM-5 Field Trials. Results allowed for the refinement of the protocols, procedures, and measures, which facilitated recruitment, implementation, and completion of the DSM-5 Field Trials. These results highlight the benefits of pilot studies in planning large multisite studies. Copyright © 2013, American Psychiatric Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Feasibility and acceptability of the DSM-5 Field Trial procedures in the Johns Hopkins Community Psychiatry Programs†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Miller, Leslie; Cullen, Bernadette; Gerring, Joan; Greiner, Lisa H.; Newcomer, Alison; Mckitty, Mellisha V.; Regier, Darrel A.; Narrow, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) contains criteria for psychiatric diagnoses that reflect advances in the science and conceptualization of mental disorders and address the needs of clinicians. DSM-5 also recommends research on dimensional measures of cross-cutting symptoms and diagnostic severity, which are expected to better capture patients’ experiences with mental disorders. Prior to its May 2013 release, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) conducted field trials to examine the feasibility, clinical utility, reliability, and where possible, the validity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and dimensional measures. The methods and measures proposed for the DSM-5 field trials were pilot tested in adult and child/adolescent clinical samples, with the goal to identify and correct design and procedural problems with the proposed methods before resources were expended for the larger DSM-5 Field Trials. Results allowed for the refinement of the protocols, procedures, and measures, which facilitated recruitment, implementation, and completion of the DSM-5 Field Trials. These results highlight the benefits of pilot studies in planning large multisite studies. PMID:24615761

  10. Proceedings of the Johns Hopkins workshop on current problems in particle theory 5: unified field theories and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Topics covered include: symmetric gauge theories; infinite lie algebras in physics; the mechanism for confinement in massive quark QCD; a search for possible composite models of quarks and leptons; the radiative structure of Fermion masses; fractional electric charge in QCD; heavy particle effects; Fermion mass heirarchies in theories of technicolor; statistical notions applied in the early universe; grand unification and cosmology - an environmental impact statement; first order phase transition in the early universe; the electric dipole moment of the neutron; cosmological constraints on Grand Unified Theories; and the consequences for CP invariance of instanton angles THETA in dynamically broken gauge theories. Individual items from this workshop were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  11. Evaluating psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's Disease by a clinimetric analysis of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Morberg, Bo Mohr; Siri, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    , psychoticism, and neurasthenia (apathy), as well as the SCL-90-R GSI, were the most impaired psychiatric syndromes reaching a clinically significant effect size above 0.80, whereas the total SCL-28 GSI obtained an effect size of just 0.80. Our clinimetric analysis has shown that patients with PD not only...

  12. Archaeological Survey of Cooper Lake, Number 7. 1989. Cultural Resource Studies for Cooper Lake, Hopkins and Delta Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Tetromeryx shuleri), bison, camel , and possibly a large cat from Lake Tawakoni. Informant Jimmy Of all the avocational collectors interviewed, Ross has...Monthly Press, Austin. Stephenson, Robert L. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1950 Archaeological Survey of Texarkana 1975 Soil Taxonomy ...Philip Ceramic System in Southwestern Pottery 1958 Application of the Wheat-Gifford-Wasley Analysis. American Antiquity 12:226-237. Taxonomy to Eastern

  13. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    animal, including mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes. A neutrophilic and histiocytic predominance in the lymph nodes points more towards infection...bleeding and hematoma formation. Another animal Pig 23122 was euthanized on POD4 due to venous thrombosis resulting in graft loss. One animal

  14. Cultural Nationalism, Orientalism, Imperial Ambivalence: The Colored American Magazine and Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fang Cho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This essay examines African American novelist Pauline Hopkins’s deployment of the trope of respectable domesticity to contest black disenfranchisement in the context of African Americans’ ambivalent relationship to late-nineteenth-century US imperial expansion in the Asia Pacific. This essay analyzes Contending Forces (1900 in relation to two crucial yet underexplored contexts: first, Hopkins’s commentaries on international race relations; second, African American intellectuals’ commentaries on US imperial ventures in the Asia Pacific and on Chinese immigration in the Colored American Magazine, where Hopkins’s fictional works were serialized. Situated within these contexts of comparative racialization, Hopkins’s works offer critical responses to the masculine nationalist representations of black–Asian relations, illuminating the divisive effects of nationalist identification on differentially racialized subjects, the uneven effects of marriage on the black community, and this institution’s structural ties to imperialism and to the color-based class hierarchy within the imagined black community—all of which call for radical reimagining of race relations beyond the nation form.

  15. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    dose TAC maintenance Control Group: sub- therapeutic CNI 95% III 5 Full Induction + low- dose TAC + CTLA4-Ig maintenance Experimental Group: Tests ...large animal model for VCA (fully SLA- mismatched swine hind limb transplantation, A) We will test the central hypothesis that costimulatory blockade...University Baltimore, MD 21205-1832 REPORT DATE: October 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command

  16. LIFETIME AND TEMPORAL OCCURRENCE OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAE ON PONDEROSA PINE (PINUS PONDEROSA LAWS.) SEEDLINGS GROWN UNDER VARIED ATMOSPHERIC CO-2 AND NITROGEN LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change(elevated atmospheric CO-2,and altered air temperatures,precipitation amounts and seasonal patterns)may affect ecosystem processes by altering carbon allocation in plants,and carbon flux from plants to soil.Mycorrhizal fungi,as carbon sinks, are among the first soil...

  17. Fire history of a western Montana ponderosa pine grassland: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don V. Gayton; Marc H. Weber; Mick Harrington; Emily K. Heyerdahl; Elaine K. Sutherland; Bob Brett; Cindy Hall; Micahel Hartman; Liesl Peterson; Carolynne Merrel

    2006-01-01

    A primary goal in the management of forests and grasslands is to maintain community structure and disturbance processes within their historical range of variation. If, within a managed ecosystem, either is found to lie outside that range, restoration may be necessary. Both maintenance and restoration are currently guided by the principles of ecosystem management, which...

  18. Broadcast seeding ponderosa pine on the Challenge Experimental Forest . . . a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale O. Hall

    1967-01-01

    Hand baiting for rodent control and sowing patch cuttings in December 1965 produced 880 to 2,540 pine seedlings per acre by July 1966. A tractor-drawn drag used to cover seeds in some areas significantly improved germination in one trial. Costs per hundred seedlings per acre for dragged compartments were $1.08 and $1.33; for other compartments: $0.43, $1.14, and $1.88...

  19. Sex Pheromone of Conophthorus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in a Coastal Stand of Western White Pine (Pinaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Harold D. Pierce; Peter de Groot; Nicole Jeans-Williams; Robb Bennett; John H. Borden

    2000-01-01

    An isolated stand of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don, on Texada Island (49°40'N, 124°10'W), British Columbia, is extremely valuable as a seed-production area for progeny resistant to white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch. (Cronartiaceae). During the past 5 years, cone beetles, ...

  20. Wood-boring insect abundance in fire-injured ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl L. Costello; Jose F. Negron; William R. Jacobi

    2011-01-01

    Wood-boring larvae in the families Cerambycidae and Buprestidae are often found in high densities in burned trees after wildland fires. They play an important role in tree decomposition, often reducing the value of salvageable timber, and represent an important avian food source.