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Sample records for dendroctonus ponderosae coleoptera

  1. Efficacy of “Verbenone Plus” for protecting ponderosa pine trees and stands from Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attack in British Columbia and California

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    Christopher J. Fettig; Stephen R. McKelvey; Christopher P. Dabney; Dezene P.W. Huber; Cameron C. Lait; Donald L Fowler; John H. Borden

    2012-01-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, mortality in much of western North America. We review several years of research that led to the identification of Verbenone Plus, a novel four-component...

  2. Seasonal shifts in accumulation of glycerol biosynthetic gene transcripts in mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, larvae

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    Jordie D. Fraser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Winter mortality is a major factor regulating population size of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Glycerol is the major cryoprotectant in this freeze intolerant insect. We report findings from a gene expression study on an overwintering mountain pine beetle population over the course of 35 weeks. mRNA transcript levels suggest glycerol production in the mountain pine beetle occurs through glycogenolytic, gluconeogenic and potentially glyceroneogenic pathways, but not from metabolism of lipids. A two-week lag period between fall glycogen phosphorylase transcript and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase transcript up-regulation suggests that gluconeogenesis serves as a secondary glycerol-production process, subsequent to exhaustion of the primary glycogenolytic source. These results provide a first look at the details of seasonal gene expression related to the production of glycerol in the mountain pine beetle.

  3. Isolation and characterization of 16 microsatellite loci in the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

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    C. S. Davis; K. E. Mock; B. J. Bentz; S. M. Bromilow; N. V. Bartell; B. W. Murray; A. D. Roe; J. E. K. Cooke

    2009-01-01

    We isolated 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and developed conditions for amplifying these markers in four multiplex reactions. Three to 14 alleles were detected per locus across two sampled populations. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.902 and from 0.100 to 0.830, respectively...

  4. Efficacy of "Verbenone Plus" for protecting ponderosa pine trees and stands from Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attack in British Columbia and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Christopher J; McKelvey, Stephen R; Dabney, Christopher P; Huber, Dezene P W; Lait, Cameron G; Fowler, Donald L; Borden, John H

    2012-10-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, mortality in much of western North America. We review several years of research that led to the identification of Verbenone Plus, a novel four-component semiochemcial blend [acetophenone, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol + (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (-)-verbenone] that inhibits the response of D. brevicomis to attractant-baited traps, and examine the efficacy of Verbenone Plus for protecting individual trees and forest stands from D. brevicomis infestations in British Columbia and California. In all experiments, semiochemicals were stapled around the bole of treated trees at approximately equal to 2 m in height. (-)-Verbenone alone had no effect on the density of total attacks and successful attacks by D. brevicomis on attractant-baited P. ponderosa, but significantly increased the percentage of pitchouts (unsuccessful D. brevicomis attacks). Verbenone Plus significantly reduced the density of D. brevicomis total attacks and D. brevicomis successful attacks on individual trees. A significantly higher percentage of pitchouts occurred on Verbenone Plus-treated trees. The application of Verbenone Plus to attractant-baited P. ponderosa significantly reduced levels of tree mortality. In stand protection studies, Verbenone Plus significantly reduced the percentage of trees mass attacked by D. brevicomis in one study, but in a second study no significant treatment effect was observed. Future research should concentrate on determining optimal release rates and spacings of release devices in stand protection studies, and expansion of Verbenone Plus into other systems where verbenone alone has not provided adequate levels of tree protection.

  5. Contrasting geographic patterns of genetic differentiation in body size and development time with reproductive isolation in Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

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    Ryan R. Bracewell; Michael E. Pfrender; Karen E. Mock; Barbara J. Bentz

    2013-01-01

    Body size and development time are two critical phenotypic traits that can be highly adaptive in insects. Recent population genetic analyses and crossing experiments with the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) have described substantial levels of neutral molecular genetic differentiation, genetic differences in phenotypic traits, and reproductive...

  6. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, adults during early host colonization.

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    Caitlin Pitt

    Full Text Available We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton, and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  7. Emergence of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Scolytinae (Coleoptera) from mountain pine beetle-killed and fire-killed ponderosa pines in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

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    Sheryl L. Costello; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-...

  8. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  9. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

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    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  10. Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona

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    Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Andy Miller

    2008-01-01

    We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation...

  11. Responses by Dendroctonus frontalis and Dendroctonus mesoamericanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Ssemiochemical lures in Chiapas, Mexico: possible roles of pheromones during joint host attacks

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    Alicia Nino-Dominguez; Brian T. Sullivan; Jose H. Lopez-Urbina; Jorge E. Macias-Samano

    2016-01-01

    In southern Mexico and Central America, the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) commonly colonizes host trees simultaneously with Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armend

  12. Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA

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    Jose F. Negron; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow

    2008-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers...

  13. The response of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Temnochila chlorodia (Coleoptera: Trogossitidae) to Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) pheromone components and verbenone

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    Christopher J. Fettig; Stepehen R. McKelvey; Christopher P. Dabney; Robert R. Borys

    2007-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, 1860 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a common bark beetle species found throughout much of North America and China. In 2004, we observed that California fivespined ips, Ips paraconfusus Lanier, 1970 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), attack densities in logging debris were inversely related to D...

  14. Efficacy of verbenone for protecting ponderosa pine stands from western pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in California.

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    Fettig, Christopher J; McKelvey, Stephen R; Borys, Robert R; Dabney, Christopher P; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Nelson, Lori J; Seybold, Steven J

    2009-10-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., mortality in much of western North America. Currently, techniques for managing D. brevicomis infestations are limited. Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo [3.1.1] hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregation pheromone of several Dendroctonus spp., including D. brevicomis, and it has been registered as a biopesticide for control of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. We evaluated the efficacy of a 5-g verbenone pouch [82%-(-); 50 mg/d] applied at 125 Ulha for protecting P. ponderosa stands (2 ha) from D. brevicomis attack over a 3-yr period. No significant differences in levels of D. brevicomis-caused tree mortality or the percentage of unsuccessfully attacked trees were found between verbenone-treated and untreated plots during each year or cumulatively over the 3-yr period. Laboratory analyses of release rates and chemical composition of volatiles emanating from verbenone pouches after field exposure found no deterioration of the active ingredient or physical malfunction of the release device. The mean release rate of pouches from all locations and exposure periods was 44.5 mg/d. In a trapping bioassay, the range of inhibition of the 5-g verbenone pouch was determined to be statistically constant 2 m from the release device. We discuss the implications of these and other results to the development of verbenone as a semiochemical-based tool for management of D. brevicomis infestations in P. ponderosa stands.

  15. Attraction of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, to pheromone components of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in an allopatric zone

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    Deepa S. Pureswaran; Richard W. Hofstetter; Brian T. Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Subtle differences in pheromone components of sympatric species should be attractive only to the producing species and unattractive or repellent to the nonproducing species, and thereby maintain reproductive isolation and reduce competition between species. Bark beetles Dendroctonus brevicomis and D. frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are known to...

  16. Stand Characteristics and Downed Woody Debris Accumulations Associated with a Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) Outbreak in Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Klutsch, Jennifer G; Negron, Jose F; Costello, Sheryl L; Rhoades, Charles C; West, Daniel R; Popp, John; Caissie, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.)-dominated ecosystems in north-central Colorado are undergoing rapid and drastic changes associated with overstory tree mortality from a current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak. To characterize stand characteristics and downed woody debris loads during the first 7 years of the outbreak, 221 plots (0.02 ha) were randomly established in infested and uninfested stands distributed across the Arapaho National Forest, ...

  17. Attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for Dendroctonus jeffreyi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

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    Brian Strom; Smith S.L.; Brownie C.

    2013-01-01

    Jeffrey pine, Pinus jeffreyi Greville and Balfour, is a dominant yellow pine and important overstory component of forests growing on diverse sites from southwestern Oregon to Baja California to western Nevada. The Jeffrey pine beetle, Dedroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is monophagous on Jeffrey...

  18. Flight periodicity of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Colorado, U.S.A

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    Jose F. Negron; Willis C. Schaupp; Lee Pederson

    2011-01-01

    There are about 500 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the United States (Wood 1982). A number of them are important disturbance agents in forested ecosystems, occasionally creating large tracts of dead trees. One eruptive species is the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, which utilizes Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga...

  19. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

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    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  20. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

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    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  1. The Effect of Water Limitation on Volatile Emission, Tree Defense Response, and Brood Success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Two Pine Hosts, Lodgepole, and Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana) trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavig...

  2. Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of north-central Arizona.

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    Hayes, Christopher J; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; Anhold, John A

    2008-08-01

    Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure in north-central Arizona pine (Pinus spp.) forests, we collected data on stand structure, site conditions, and local bark beetle-induced tree mortality at each trap site. We also collected samples of bark from infested (brood) trees near trap sites to identify and determine the population density of bark beetles that were attacking ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, in the area surrounding the traps. Multiple regression models indicated that the number of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles captured in 2005 was inversely related to elevation of the trap site, and positively associated with the amount of ponderosa pine in the stand surrounding the site. Traps located closer to brood trees also captured more beetles. The relationship between trap catches and host tree mortality was weak and inconsistent in forest stands surrounding the funnel traps, suggesting that trap catches do not provide a good estimate of local beetle-induced tree mortality. However, pheromone-baited funnel trap data and data from gallery identification in bark samples produced statistically similar relative abundance profiles for the five species of bark beetles that we examined, indicating that funnel trap data provided a good assessment of species presence and relative abundance.

  3. Red Turpentine Beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Response to Host Semiochemicals in China

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    Jianghua Sun; Zhengwan Miao; Zhen Zhang; Zhongning Zhan; Nancy Gillette

    2004-01-01

    The response of the introduced red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, to host semiochemicals in Shanxi Province, China, was distinctly different from that reported in previous studies conducted in the western part of the native range of D. valens in the central Sierra Nevada, CA. This Þnding suggests either that...

  4. Phylogeographic analysis of the Douglas-fir beetle Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

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    Enrico A. Ruíz; Jane L. Hayes; John E. Rinehart; G. Zúñiga

    2007-01-01

    Population genetic structure studies made in genus Dendroctonus have been conducted from the perspectives of allopatric and sympatric models. In the first case, host effect and historical contingency were not recognized as a source of variation, while the later considered the host itself as a source of reproductive isolation. Nevertheless, both...

  5. Verbenone-releasing flakes protect individual Pinus contorta trees from attack by Dendroctonus ponderosae and Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

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    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Gary O. Fiddler; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood

    2006-01-01

    In a study site in interior northern California, twenty individual lodgepole pines Pinus contorta were sprayed with a suspension of DISRUPT Micro-Flake ® Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(3.1)hept-3-en-2-one) Bark Beetle Anti-Aggregant flakes (Hercon Environmental, Emigsville, Pennsylvania) in water, with sticker and...

  6. Evaluations of emamectin benzoate and propiconazole for protecting individual Pinus contorta from mortality attributed to colonization by Dendroctonus ponderosae and associated fungi.

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    Fettig, Christopher J; Munson, A Steven; Grosman, Donald M; Bush, Parshall B

    2014-05-01

    Protection of conifers from bark beetle colonization typically involves applications of liquid formulations of contact insecticides to the tree bole. An evaluation was made of the efficacy of bole injections of emamectin benzoate alone and combined with the fungicide propiconazole for protecting individual lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., from mortality attributed to colonization by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and progression of associated blue stain fungi. Injections of emamectin benzoate applied in mid-June did not provide adequate levels of tree protection; however, injections of emamectin benzoate + propiconazole applied at the same time were effective for two field seasons. Injections of emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + propiconazole in mid-September provided tree protection the following field season, but unfortunately efficacy could not be determined during a second field season owing to insufficient levels of tree mortality observed in the untreated control, indicative of low D. ponderosae populations. Previous evaluations of emamectin benzoate for protecting P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae have failed to demonstrate efficacy, which was later attributed to inadequate distribution of emamectin benzoate following injections applied several weeks before D. ponderosae colonization. The present data indicate that injections of emamectin benzoate applied in late summer or early fall will provide adequate levels of tree protection the following summer, and that, when emamectin benzoate is combined with propiconazole, tree protection is afforded the year that injections are implemented. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Response to host volatiles by native and introduced populations of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America and China.  Journal of Chemical Ecology 33: 131-146.

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    N. Erbilgin; S.R. Mori; J.H. Sun; J.D. Stein; D.R. Owen; L.D. Merrill; R. Campos Bolande; os; K.F. Raffa; T. Mendez Montiel; D.L. Wood; N.E.  Gillette

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) have specialized feeding habits, and commonly colonize only one or a few closely related host genera in their geographical ranges. The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, has a broad geographic distribution in North America and exploits volatile cues from a wide variety of pines...

  8. Determining the vulnerability of Mexican pine forests to bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus Erichson (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

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    Y. Salinas-Moreno; A. Ager; C.F. Vargas; J.L. Hayes; G. Zuniga

    2010-01-01

    Bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus are natural inhabitants of forests; under particular conditions some species of this genus can cause large-scale tree mortality. However, only in recent decades has priority been given to the comprehensive study of these insects in Mexico. Mexico possesses high ecological diversity in Dendroctonus-...

  9. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, chemical and physical defenses that affect mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, attack and tree mortality.

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    Ott, Daniel S; Yanchuk, Alvin D; Huber, Dezene P W; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2011-09-01

    Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction.

  10. The legacy of attack: implications of high phloem resin monoterpene levels in lodgepole pines following mass attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E L; Huber, D P W; Carroll, A L

    2012-04-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most serious pest of pines (Pinus) in western North America. Host pines protect themselves from attack by producing a complex mixture of terpenes in their resin. We sampled lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta variety latifolia) phloem resin at four widely separated locations in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, both just before (beginning of July) and substantially after (end of August) the mountain pine beetle dispersal period. The sampled trees then were observed the next spring for evidence of survival, and the levels of seven resin monoterpenes were compared between July and August samples. Trees that did not survive consistently had significantly higher phloem resin monoterpene levels at the end of August compared with levels in July. Trees that did survive mainly did not exhibit a significant difference between the two sample dates. The accumulation of copious defense-related secondary metabolites in the resin of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine has important implications for describing the environmental niche that the beetle offspring survive in as well as that of parasitoids, predators, and other associates.

  11. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka eLusebrink

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  12. Change in soil fungal community structure driven by a decline in ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Taylor, D Lee; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Cooke, Janice E K; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2017-01-01

    Western North American landscapes are rapidly being transformed by forest die-off caused by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), with implications for plant and soil communities. The mechanisms that drive changes in soil community structure, particularly for the highly prevalent ectomycorrhizal fungi in pine forests, are complex and intertwined. Critical to enhancing understanding will be disentangling the relative importance of host tree mortality from changes in soil chemistry following tree death. Here, we used a recent bark beetle outbreak in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada to test whether the effects of tree mortality altered the richness and composition of belowground fungal communities, including ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. We also determined the effects of environmental factors (i.e. soil nutrients, moisture, and phenolics) and geographical distance, both of which can influence the richness and composition of soil fungi. The richness of both groups of soil fungi declined and the overall composition was altered by beetle-induced tree mortality. Soil nutrients, soil phenolics and geographical distance influenced the community structure of soil fungi; however, the relative importance of these factors differed between ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. The independent effects of tree mortality, soil phenolics and geographical distance influenced the community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi, while the community composition of saprotrophic fungi was weakly but significantly correlated with the geographical distance of plots. Taken together, our results indicate that both deterministic and stochastic processes structure soil fungal communities following landscape-scale insect outbreaks and reflect the independent roles tree mortality, soil chemistry and geographical distance play in regulating the community composition of soil fungi. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Response of Lutz, Sitka, and white spruce to attack by Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and blue stain fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Barbara L. Illman

    1994-01-01

    Mechanical wounding and wounding plus inoculation with a blue-stain fungus, Leptographium abietinum (Peck), associated with the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), caused an induced reaction zone or lesion around the wound sites in Lutz spruce, Picea lutzii Little, Sitka spruce, P. sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., and white spruce, P. glauca (Moench) Voss, in...

  14. Evaluation of insecticides for protecting southwestern ponderosa pines from attack by engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom E. DeGomez; Christopher J. Hayes; John A. Anhold; Joel D. McMillin; Karen M. Clancy; Paul P. Bosu

    2006-01-01

    Insecticides that might protect pine trees from attack by engraver beetles (Ips spp.) have not been rigorously tested in the southwestern United States. We conducted two field experiments to evaluate the efficacy of several currently and potentially labeled preventative insecticides for protecting high-value ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa...

  15. Morphology of the Male Reproductive System and Spermiogenesis of Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Fei; Wei, Lu-Sha; Anthony Torres, Mark; Zhang, Xu; Wu, Shao-Ping; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Studying the reproductive attributes of pests is central to understanding their life cycle history and in crafting management strategies to regulate, if not bring down, their population below threshold levels. In this article, the morphology of the male reproductive tract, topology of the spermatozoa, and salient features of spermiogenesis in the Chinese white pine beetle, Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li was studied to provide baseline information for further pest management studies. Results showed that male reproductive tract of this species differs from those documented in other Coleopterans by having 20 testicular tubules in each testis and the presence of two types of accessory glands. The spermatozoon is seen having peculiar characteristics such as an "h"-shaped acrosomal vesicle with a "puff"-like expansion, one centriole, one large spongy body, and two accessory bodies. Despite with some morphological differences of the male reproductive organ, spermatogenesis in this organism is similar to other Coleopterans. Overall, detailed studies regarding the components of the primary male reproductive organ of this beetle species would expand the knowledge on the less-understood biology of Coleopteran pests and would help in designing regulatory measures to conserve endemic and indigenous pine trees in China. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gu

    Full Text Available The red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing.We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP, six chemosensory proteins (CSP, four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP, 22 odorant receptors (OR, four gustatory receptors (GR, three ionotropic receptors (IR, and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis.The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary

  17. Influence of temperature on spring flight initiation for southwestern ponderosa pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Gaylord; K. K. Williams; R. W. Hofstetter; J. D. McMillin; T. E. Degomez; M. R. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for flight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles...

  18. Verbenone interrupts attraction to host volatiles and reduces attack on Pinus tabuliformis (Pinaceae) by Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianghua Sun; Nancy Gillette; Zhengwan Miao; Zhongning Zhang Le Kang; Donald R. Owen; John D Stein

    2003-01-01

    The introduced red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, is one of the most economically important forest pests in the People's Republic of China, having killed more than 6 million pines in recent years. There is an urgent need to develop effective behavioral chemicals to monitor and control D. valens in the People...

  19. Primer registro de Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea asociado con Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae en Patagonia

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    Cecilia A. GOMEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes es un gorgojo de rostro corto, distribuido en la Argentina y Chile, que habita en ambientes áridos asociado con vegetación xerofítica y alcanza el rango más austral entre los miembros de la tribu Naupactini. Un relevamiento de insectos y de patógenos como plagas potenciales, realizado durante el 2005 en plantaciones de Pinus spp. en la Patagonia andina argentina, resultó en el hallazgo de adultos de N. ruizi que se alimentaban de acículas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. Este hallazgo es sorprendente dado que las especies de Naupactini, consumen casi exclusivamente angiospermas. Interpretamos que el cambio de huésped, habría ocurrido como consecuencia de una colonización reciente favorecida por la amplia distribución geográfica del gorgojo y su capacidad para sobrevivir en hábitats marginales, donde probablemente las plantas nativas son escasas y el nuevo huésped presenta una gran abundancia local.

  20. Large-scale thinning, ponderosa pine, and mountain pine beetle in the Black Hills, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt K. Allen; Angie Ambourn; Blaine Cook; Kenneth Marchand

    2017-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB), can cause extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, USA. Lower tree densities have been associated with reduced MPB-caused tree mortality, but few studies have reported on large-scale thinning and most data come from small plots that...

  1. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for Population Management of Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), in Felled Trees and Factors Limiting Pathogen Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Mann, Andrew J; Malesky, Danielle; Jankowski, Egan; Bradley, Clifford

    2018-03-24

    An isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) was tested for its ability to reduce survival and reproduction of spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), under laboratory and field conditions. Conidial suspension applied directly to adults or to filter papers that adults contacted had a median survival time of 3-4 d in laboratory assays and beetles died more rapidly when exposed to conidial suspension than when treated with surfactant solution only. In the field, conidial suspension was applied to the surface of felled and pheromone-baited Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees using a backpack sprayer. Mortality of colonizing parent beetles (F0), reproduction (abundance of F1 offspring in logs), and emergence of F1 beetles from logs was compared between treated and nontreated logs. Application of spore suspension increased mortality of F0 adults by 36% on average. Total F1 reproduction was reduced by 17% and emergence from logs was reduced by 13% in treated logs, but considerable variability in reproduction and emergence was observed. Viable spores were re-isolated from treated logs up to 90 d after application, indicating that spores are capable of long-term persistence on the tree bole microhabitat. Subsequent in vitro tests revealed that temperatures below 15°C and exposure to spruce monoterpenes likely limit performance of B. bassiana under field conditions, but exposure to low-intensity light or interactions with spruce beetle symbiotic fungi were not strongly inhibitory. It is concluded that matching environmental tolerances of biocontrol fungi to field conditions can likely improve their usefulness for control of spruce beetle in windthrown trees.

  2. Primer registro de Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea asociado con Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae en Patagonia First record of Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea associated to Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A. Gómez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes es un gorgojo de rostro corto, distribuido en la Argentina y Chile, que habita en ambientes áridos asociado con vegetación xerofítica y alcanza el rango más austral entre los miembros de la tribu Naupactini. Un relevamiento de insectos y de patógenos como plagas potenciales, realizado durante el 2005 en plantaciones de Pinus spp. en la Patagonia andina argentina, resultó en el hallazgo de adultos de N. ruizi que se alimentaban de acículas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. Este hallazgo es sorprendente dado que las especies de Naupactini, consumen casi exclusivamente angiospermas. Interpretamos que el cambio de huésped, habría ocurrido como consecuencia de una colonización reciente favorecida por la amplia distribución geográfica del gorgojo y su capacidad para sobrevivir en hábitats marginales, donde probablemente las plantas nativas son escasas y el nuevo huésped presenta una gran abundancia local.Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes is a broad-nosed weevil recorded from Argentina and Chile , that inhabits arid environments with xerophitic vegetation and reaches the southern most distribution of the tribe Naupactini. A survey of potential insect pests and pathogens of plantations of Pinus spp. and other forest species, conducted during 2005 in Argentinean Patagonian Andean forestations, allowed to find N. ruizi feeding on pine needles of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. This finding was unexpected, since species of Naupactini consume almost exclusively angiosperms. We interpret that the new host association may represent a recent host shift, probably facilitated by the broad range of the weevil, its capacity to survive in marginal habitats where natural hosts are scarce, and the local abundance of the new host.

  3. Respuesta kairomonal de coleópteros asociados a Dendroctonus frontalis y dos especies de Ips (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en bosques de Chiapas, México Kairomonal response of coleopterans associated with Dendroctonus frontalis and two Ips species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in forest of Chiapas, Mexico

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    Bernardo Domínguez-Sánchez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la diversidad de escarabajos descortezadores y la respuesta diferencial de sus coleópteros asociados a feromonas comerciales de agregación, en bosques de pino del estado de Chiapas, México. Durante los meses de junio a octubre del 2006, se colocaron 40 trampas multiembudo tipo Lindgren cebadas con las feromonas racémicas frontalina, ipsenol e ipsdienol y un testigo (sin feromona. La captura fue más abundante para los escarabajos descortezadores Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann con frontalina, y de Ips spp. con ipsenol e ipsdienol. Se registró respuesta kairomonal específica de los depredadores Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr y Elacatis sp. hacia las feromonas de agregación. Tanto para descortezadores como para depredadores, las mayores abundancias fueron registradas durante el verano y a comienzos del otoño. Temmnochila chlorodia exhibió una atracción diferencial hacia los semioquímicos evaluados, mientras que E. ablusus, Elacatis sp. y Leptostylus sp. fueron atraídos principalmente por las feromonas ipsenol e ipsdienol. Además, por primera vez para México se determinó la respuesta kairomonal del fitófago Leptostylus sp. (Cerambycidae. Estos resultados indican que hay una comunicación intra e inter específica entre los escarabajos descortezadores y sus especies asociadas que promueven interacciones de competencia y depredación.We assessed the bark beetle diversity and the response of associated predators to aggregation pheromones in pine forests in Chiapas, Mexico. From June to October 2006, 40 Lindgren funnel traps were established with different baits that included frontalin, ipsenol and ipsdienol pheromones and a control (without pheromone. We registered the attractiveness of frontalin to the bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann, and ipsenol and ipsdienol to Ips spp. Kairomonal specific response of the predators Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr and

  4. Response of Dendroctonus mexicanus (Hopkins) to two optical isomers of verbenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Diaz-Nunez; Guillermo Sanchez-Martinez; Nancy E. Gillette

    2006-01-01

    Given the need for diminishing the use of pesticides in natural environments, in this research we investigated the efficacy of two optical isomers of verbenone (4, 6, 6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1] hepto-3-en-e-1) as controls of the attack of Dendroctonus mexicanus (Hopkins) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).Two experiments were established in the...

  5. Biochemical evidence that Dendroctonus frontalis consists of two sibling species in Belize and Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Alicia Nino; Benjamin Moreno; Cavell Brownie; Jorge Macias-Samano; Stephen R. Clarke; Lawrence R. Kirkendall; Gerardo. and Zuniga

    2012-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a major economic pest of pines in the United States, Mexico, and Central America. We report biochemical investigations relevant to the taxonomic status and semiochemistry of two distinct morphotypes of D. frontalis recently detected in the Central American...

  6. Resiliency of an Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest to Bark Beetle Infestations Following Fuel-Reduction and Forest-Restoration Treatments

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    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in California. Twelve experimental plots, ranging in size from 77–144 ha, were established to create two distinct forest structural types: mid-seral stage (low structural diversity; LoD and late-seral stage (high structural diversity; HiD. Following harvesting, half of each plot was treated with prescribed fire (B. A total of 16,473 trees (8.7% of all trees died during the 10-year period. Mortality was primarily attributed to bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae (10,655 trees, specifically fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, pine engraver, Ips pini (Say, and, to a much lesser extent, Jeffrey pine beetle, D. jeffreyi Hopkins. Trees of all ages and size classes were killed, but mortality was concentrated in the smaller-diameter classes (19–29.2 and 29.3–39.3 cm at 1.37 m in height. Most mortality occurred three to five years following prescribed burns. Higher levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality were observed on LoD + B (8.7% than LoD (4.2%. The application of these and other results to the   management of interior P. ponderosa forests are discussed, with an emphasis on the maintenance of large trees.

  7. Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

    2009-01-01

    Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine...

  8. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  9. Ponderosa pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine is a wide-ranging conifer occurring throughout the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Since the 1800s, ponderosa pine forests have fueled the economies of the West. In western North America, ponderosa pine grows predominantly in the moist and dry forests. In the Black Hills of South Dakota and the southern portion of its range, the...

  10. Verbenone: Dose-Dependent Interruption of Pheromone-Based Attraction of Three Sympatric Species of Pine Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; John H. Borden; B. Staffan Lindgren

    1995-01-01

    Verbenone significantly reduced catches of Ips latidens (LeConte), I. pini (Say), and Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins in multiple-funnel traps, baited with aggregation pheromones, in stands of lodgepole pine in southern British Columbia. Interruption of attraction was dose dependent for all three species. There...

  11. A Review of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann Systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony I. Cognato

    2011-01-01

    The systematic history of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is reviewed. Morphological, biological, karyological, and molecular data clearly define and diagnose the species limits of D. frontalis. More complete phylogenetic analysis and characterization of population genetic variation will further clarify the evolutionary history of the D....

  12. Development of a satellite-based hazard rating system for Dendrctonus frontallis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Cook; Shane Cherry; Karen Humes; James Guldin; Christopher Williams

    2007-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is the most damaging forest insect pest of pines (Pinus spp.) throughout the southeastern United States. Hazard rating schemes have been developed for D. frontalis, but for these schemes to be accurate and effective, they...

  13. Intra-annual variation in responses by flying southern pine beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to pheromone component endo-brevicomin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Cavell Brownie; JoAnne P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endobrevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component...

  14. The Current Status of the Distribution Range of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Curculionidae: Solytinae) in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio-Mendoza, O; Armendáriz-Toledano, F; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, G; Negrón, José F; Zúñiga, G

    2017-09-01

    The distribution range of the western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is supported only by scattered records in the northern parts of Mexico, suggesting that its populations may be marginal and rare in this region. In this study, we review the geographical distribution of D. brevicomis in northern Mexico and perform a geometric morphometric analysis of seminal rod shape to evaluate its reliability for identifying this species with respect to other members of the Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex. Our results provide 30 new records, with 26 distributed in the Sierra Madre Occidental and 4 in the Sierra Madre Oriental. These records extend the known distribution range of D. brevicomis to Durango and Tamaulipas states in northern Mexico. Furthermore, we find high geographic variation in size and shape of the seminal rod, with conspicous differences among individuals from different geographical regions, namely west and east of the Great Basin and between mountain systems in Mexico. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. A test of high-dose verbenone for stand-level protection of lodgepole and whitebark pine from mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. J. Bentz; S. Kegley; K. Gibson; R. Their

    2005-01-01

    The effcacy of verbenone as a stand-level protectant against mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attacks was tested in lodgepole and whitebark pine stands at five geographically separated sites, including three consecutive years at one site. Forty and 20 high-dose pouches, with a verbenone emission rate up to 50 mg/d per pouch, were spaced in a grid...

  16. Effectiveness of Cedar Oil Products for Preventing Host Use by Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in a Modified Small-Bolt Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. L. Strom; L. M. Roton

    2011-01-01

    Insecticide products based on cedar oil are readily available, but evaluations against pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are lacking. In the southeastern U.S., the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm, is the major bark beetle pest for which tree protectants are applied. However, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) are more consistently...

  17. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. West

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB. We asked two questions: (1 do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin and (2 the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpene constituents differ between lodgepole and ponderosa pines. We collected oleoresins at three locations in the Southern Rocky Mountains from 56 pairs of the pine species of similar size and growing conditions. The amount of preformed-ponderosa pine oleoresins exuded in 24 h (mg was almost four times that of lodgepole pine. Total qualitative preformed monoterpenes did not differ between the two hosts, though we found differences in all but three monoterpenes. No differences were detected in α-pinene, γ-terpinene, and bornyl acetate. We found greater concentrations of limonene, β-phellandrene, and cymene in lodgepole pines, whereas β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and terpinolene were greater in ponderosa pine. Although we found differences both in quantitative and qualitative preformed oleoresin defenses, the ecological relevance of these differences to bark beetle susceptibility have not been fully tested.

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Lerch

    Full Text Available Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug. and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  19. Rapid Induction of Multiple Terpenoid Groups by Ponderosa Pine in Response to Bark Beetle-Associated Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefover-Ring, Ken; Trowbridge, Amy; Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is a major and widely distributed component of conifer biomes in western North America and provides substantial ecological and economic benefits. This tree is exposed to several tree-killing bark beetle-microbial complexes, including the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the phytopathogenic fungus Grosmannia clavigera that it vectors, which are among the most important. Induced responses play a crucial role in conifer defenses, yet these have not been reported in ponderosa pine. We compared concentrations of terpenes and a phenylpropanoid, two phytochemical classes with strong effects against bark beetles and their symbionts, in constitutive phloem tissue and in tissue following mechanical wounding or simulated D. ponderosae attack (mechanical wounding plus inoculation with G. clavigera). We also tested whether potential induced responses were localized or systemic. Ponderosa pines showed pronounced induced defenses to inoculation, increasing their total phloem concentrations of monoterpenes 22.3-fold, sesquiterpenes 56.7-fold, and diterpenes 34.8-fold within 17 days. In contrast, responses to mechanical wounding alone were only 5.2, 11.3, and 7.7-fold, respectively. Likewise, the phenylpropanoid estragole (4-allyanisole) rose to 19.1-fold constitutive levels after simulated attack but only 4.4-fold after mechanical wounding. Overall, we found no evidence of systemic induction after 17 days, which spans most of this herbivore's narrow peak attack period, as significant quantitative and compositional changes within and between terpenoid groups were localized to the wound site. Implications to the less frequent exploitation of ponderosa than lodgepole pine by D. ponderosae, and potential advantages of rapid localized over long-term systemic responses in this system, are discussed.

  20. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  1. Genetic architecture and phenotypic plasticity of thermally-regulated traits in an eruptive species, Dendroctonus ponderosae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Ryan B. Bracewell; Karen E. Mock; Michael E. Pfrender

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity in thermally-regulated traits enables close tracking of changing environmental conditions, and can thereby enhance the potential for rapid population increase, a hallmark of outbreak insect species. In a changing climate, exposure to conditions that exceed the capacity of existing phenotypic plasticity may occur. Combining information on genetic...

  2. Nitrogen-fixing and uricolytic bacteria associated with the gut of Dendroctonus rhizophagus and Dendroctonus valens (Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Jiménez, Jesús; Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; García-Domínguez, Aidé; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

    2013-07-01

    The bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus feed on phloem that is a nitrogen-limited source. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen recycling may compensate or alleviate such a limitation, and beetle-associated bacteria capable of such processes were identified. Raoultella terrigena, a diazotrophic bacteria present in the gut of Dendroctonus rhizophagus and D. valens, exhibited high acetylene reduction activity in vitro with different carbon sources, and its nifH and nifD genes were sequenced. Bacteria able to recycle uric acid were Pseudomonas fluorescens DVL3A that used it as carbon and nitrogen source, Serratia proteomaculans 2A CDF and Rahnella aquatilis 6-DR that used uric acid as sole nitrogen source. Also, this is the first report about the uric acid content in whole eggs, larvae, and adults (male and female) samples of the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens). Our results suggest that the gut bacteria of these bark beetles could contribute to insect N balance.

  3. The push-pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Nancy E; Mehmel, Constance J; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Wood, David L; Erbilgin, Nadir; Owen, Donald R

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in two studies. The first was conducted on replicated 4.04-ha plots in lodgepole pine stands (California, 2008) and the second on 0.81-ha plots in whitebark pine stands (Washington, 2010). In both studies, D. ponderosae population levels were moderate to severe. The treatments were 1) push-only (D. ponderosae antiaggregant semiochemicals alone); 2) push-pull (D. ponderosae antiaggregants plus perimeter traps placed at regular intervals, baited with four-component D. ponderosae aggregation pheromone); and 3) untreated controls. We installed monitoring traps baited with two-component D. ponderosae lures inside each plot to assess effect of treatments on beetle flight. In California, fewer beetles were collected in push-pull treated plots than in control plots, but push-only did not have a significant effect on trap catch. Both treatments significantly reduced the rate of mass and strip attacks by D. ponderosae, but the difference in attack rates between push-pull and push-only was not significant. In Washington, both push-pull and push-only treatments significantly reduced numbers of beetles caught in traps. Differences between attack rates in treated and control plots in Washington were not significant, but the push-only treatment reduced attack rates by 30% compared with both the control and push-pull treatment. We conclude that, at these spatial scales and beetle densities, push-only may be preferable for mitigating D. ponderosae attack because it is much less expensive, simpler, and adding trap-out does not appear to improve efficacy.

  4. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  6. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  7. Impacts of silvicultural thinning treatments on beetle trap captures and tree attacks during low bark beetle populations in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, M L; Hofstetter, R W; Wagner, M R

    2010-10-01

    Our research used a combination of passive traps, funnel traps with lures, baited trees, and surveys of long-term thinning plots to assess the impacts of different levels of stand basal area (BA) on bark beetle tree attack and on trap captures of Ips spp., Dendroctonus spp., and their predators. The study occurred at two sites in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests, from 2004 to 2007 during low bark beetle populations. Residual stand BA ranged from 9.0 to 37.0 m2/ha. More predators and bark beetles were collected in passive traps in stands of lower BA than in stands of higher BA; however, significance varied by species and site, and total number of beetles collected was low. Height of the clear panel passive traps affected trap catches for some species at some sites and years. When pheromone lures were used with funnel traps [Ips pini (Say) lure: lanierone, +03/-97 ipsdienol], we found no significant difference in trap catches among basal area treatments for bark beetles and their predators. Similarly, when trees were baited (Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte lure: myrcene, exo-brevicomin and frontalin), we found no significant difference for days to first bark beetle attack. Surveys of long-term thinning treatments found evidence of bark beetle attacks only in unthinned plots (approximately 37 m2/ha basal area). We discuss our results in terms of management implications for bark beetle trapping and control.

  8. The mountain pine beetle and whitebark pine waltz: Has the music changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Greta Schen-Langenheim

    2007-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (MPB), is a bark beetle native to western North American forests, spanning wide latitudinal and elevational gradients. MPB infest and reproduce within the phloem of most Pinus species from northern Baja California in Mexico to central British Columbia in...

  9. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  10. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Ruben Manso

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  11. Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Diana L; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Carroll, Allan L; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using a combination of morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of five gene regions. In all four populations, Grosmannia aurea was the most common associate (74-100% of all beetles) followed closely by Ophiostoma abietinum (29-75%). Other fungi isolated, in order of their relative prevalence with individual beetles were an undescribed Leptographium sp. (0-13%), Ophiostoma ips (0-15%), Ophiostoma piliferum (0-11%), a Pesotum sp. (0-11%) and Ophiostoma floccosum (0-1%). Comparisons of the DNA sequences of Leptographium strains isolated in this study, with ex-type isolates of G. aurea, Grosmannia robusta, Leptographium longiclavatum, and Leptographium terebrantis, as well as with sequences from GenBank, revealed a novel lineage within the Grosmannia clavigera complex. This lineage included some of the D. murrayane isolates as well as several isolates from previous studies referred to as L. terebrantis. However, the monophyly of this lineage is not well supported and a more comprehensive study will be needed to resolve its taxonomic status as one or more novel taxa.

  12. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  13. Nuclear genetic variation across the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa): Phylogeographic, taxonomic and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Mary F. Mahalovich; Robert E. Means

    2015-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is among the most broadly distributed conifer species of western North America, where it possesses considerable ecological, esthetic, and commercial value. It exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation, suggesting that it may be in the process of differentiating into distinct regional...

  14. Multipartite Symbioses Among Fungi, Mites, Nematodes, and the Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin Cardoza; John Moser; Kier Klepzizg; Raffa Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, is an eruptive forest pest of signifcant economic and ecological importance. D. rufipennis has symbiotic associations with a number of microorganisms, especially the ophiostomatoid fungus Leptographium abietinum. The nature of this interaction is only partially understood. Additionally, mite and nematode associates can...

  15. Insects associated with ponderosa pine in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Stevens; J. Wayne Brewer; David A. Leatherman

    1980-01-01

    Ponderosa pine serves as a host for a wide variety of insects. Many of these, including all the particularly destructive ones in Colorado, are discussed in this report. Included are a key to the major insect groups, an annotated list of the major groups, a glossary, and a list of references.

  16. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  17. Insect outbreak shifts the direction of selection from fast to slow growth rates in the long-lived conifer Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, Raul; Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2017-07-11

    Long generation times limit species' rapid evolution to changing environments. Trees provide critical global ecosystem services, but are under increasing risk of mortality because of climate change-mediated disturbances, such as insect outbreaks. The extent to which disturbance changes the dynamics and strength of selection is unknown, but has important implications on the evolutionary potential of tree populations. Using a 40-y-old Pinus ponderosa genetic experiment, we provide rare evidence of context-dependent fluctuating selection on growth rates over time in a long-lived species. Fast growth was selected at juvenile stages, whereas slow growth was selected at mature stages under strong herbivory caused by a mountain pine beetle ( Dendroctonus ponderosae ) outbreak. Such opposing forces led to no net evolutionary response over time, thus providing a mechanism for the maintenance of genetic diversity on growth rates. Greater survival to mountain pine beetle attack in slow-growing families reflected, in part, a host-based life-history trade-off. Contrary to expectations, genetic effects on tree survival were greatest at the peak of the outbreak and pointed to complex defense responses. Our results suggest that selection forces in tree populations may be more relevant than previously thought, and have implications for tree population responses to future environments and for tree breeding programs.

  18. Temperature alters the relative abundance and population growth rates of species within the Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Evans; Richard Hoffstetter; Matthew Ayres; Kier Klepzig

    2011-01-01

    Temperature has strong effects on metabolic processes ofindividuals and demographics of populations, but effects on ecological communities are not well known. Many economically and ecologically important pest species have obligate associations with other organisms; therefore, effects of temperature on these species might be mediated by strong interactions. The southern...

  19. Effect of prescribed burning on mortality of resettlement ponderosa pines in Grand Canyon National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Alan Kaufmann; W. Wallace Covington

    2001-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees established before Euro-American settlement are becoming rare on the landscape. Prescribed fire is the prime tool used to restore ponderosa pine ecosystems, but can cause high mortality in presettlement ponderosa pines. This study uses retrospective techniques to estimate mortality from prescribed burns within Grand Canyon...

  20. Heavy thinning of ponderosa pine stands: An Arizona case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Jr. Baker; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2000-01-01

    Growth and structural changes in a mosaic of even-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands were studied for 25 years to determine the long-term impacts of a heavy thinning treatment to a basal-area level of 25 ft2/acre. Basal area and volume growth of these stands has increased since thinning and likely will continue to...

  1. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Cochran

    1984-01-01

    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  2. Conserving genetic diversity in Ponderosa Pine ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.E. DeWald

    2017-01-01

    Restoration treatments in the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) ecosystems of the southwestern United States often include removing over 80 percent of post-EuroAmerican settlement-aged trees to create healthier forest structural conditions. These types of stand density reductions can have negative effects on genetic diversity. Allozyme analyses...

  3. Dwarf Mistletoe of Ponderosa Pine in the Southwest (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Lightle; Melvyn J. Weiss

    1974-01-01

    Southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobuim vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum) occurs essentially throughout the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) from northern Mexico through western Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico into Colorado and central Utah. In Arizona and New Mexico it is present on more than one-third of the commercial forest acreage and is...

  4. Pinus ponderosa : A checkered past obscured four species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Willyard; David S. Gernandt; Kevin Potter; Valerie Hipkins; Paula E. Marquardt; Mary Frances Mahalovich; Stephen K. Langer; Frank W. Telewski; Blake Cooper; Connor Douglas; Kristen Finch; Hassani H. Karemera; Julia Lefler; Payton Lea; Austin Wofford

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae ) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at...

  5. Pinus ponderosa: A checkered past obscured four species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willyard, Ann; Gernandt, David S; Potter, Kevin; Hipkins, Valerie; Marquardt, Paula; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Langer, Stephen K; Telewski, Frank W; Cooper, Blake; Douglas, Connor; Finch, Kristen; Karemera, Hassani H; Lefler, Julia; Lea, Payton; Wofford, Austin

    2017-01-01

    Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at least four subdivisions of P. ponderosa. These patterns have not been examined in the context of other Ponderosae species. We hypothesized that putative intraspecific subdivisions might each represent a separate taxon. We genotyped six highly variable plastid simple sequence repeats in 1903 individuals from 88 populations of P. ponderosa and related Ponderosae (P. arizonica, P. engelmannii, and P. jeffreyi). We used multilocus haplotype networks and discriminant analysis of principal components to test clustering of individuals into genetically and geographically meaningful taxonomic units. There are at least four distinct plastid clusters within P. ponderosa that roughly correspond to the geographic distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes. Some geographic regions have intermixed plastid lineages, and some mitochondrial and plastid boundaries do not coincide. Based on relative distances to other species of Ponderosae, these clusters diagnose four distinct taxa. Newly revealed geographic boundaries of four distinct taxa (P. benthamiana, P. brachyptera, P. scopulorum, and a narrowed concept of P. ponderosa) do not correspond completely with taxonomies. Further research is needed to understand their morphological and nuclear genetic makeup, but we suggest that resurrecting originally published species names would more appropriately reflect the taxonomy of this checkered classification than their current treatment as varieties of P. ponderosa. © 2017 Willyard et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  6. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky ...

  7. Habitat preferences of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, David J; Brandenburg, Dylan; Petit, Samantha; Gabel, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are a major component of terrestrial invertebrate communities and have been used as bioindicators of habitat change and disturbance. The Black Hills of South Dakota is a small area with a high biodiversity, but the ground beetles of this region are little studied. The habitat preferences of ground beetles in the Black Hills are unknown, and baseline data must be collected if these beetles are to be used in the future as bioindicators. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from pitfall traps at two sites in each of five kinds of habitats (grassland, bur oak-ironwood forests, ponderosa pine-common juniper forests, aspen-pine forests, and a spruce forest) from which habitat structure characteristics and plant abundance data also were collected. In total, 27 species of ground beetles were identified. Although some species, such as Dicaelus sculptilis Say were found in most habitats, other species showed distinct habitat preferences: Poecilus lucublandus (Say) preferred oak forests, Pasimachus elongatus LeConte preferred grasslands, and Calathus ingratus Dejean preferred high-elevation aspen-pine forests. Pterostichus adstrictus Escholtz was found only in woodlands, and Carabus taedatus Say strictly in higher elevation (over 1,500 m) aspen or coniferous woods, and may represent relict populations of boreal species. Elevation, exposure to sunlight, and cover of woody plants strongly influence the structure of carabid communities in the Black Hills.

  8. Exploring climate niches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) haplotypes in the western United States: implications for evolutionary history and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Shinneman; Robert E. Means; Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Tzen-Yuh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique...

  9. Density, heating value, and composition of pellets made from lodgepole pine (Pinus concorta Douglas) infested with mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, P.; Kadla, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Wood Science; Sokansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div., Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems; Bi, X.; Lim, C.J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Mani, S. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Faculty of Engineering; Melin, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Delta Research Corp., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    BC is currently experiencing the largest recorded mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in North America that has killed nearly 7 million hectares of pine. The dead trees gradually lose their suitability for dimension lumber and pulp chips due to excessive cracking and spoilage. The economic losses can be partly averted by recovering the killed wood and processing it into pellets for bioenergy and other applications. Currently, Canada exports roughly 750,000 tons of wood pellets to Europe as a fuel for heat and power. The most important physical properties of wood pellets are bulk and pellet density, heating value, moisture content, and durability. In light of the chemical and structural changes reported with MPB attack, it is important to develop engineering data on properties of MPB-affected pine for wood pellets. The objective of this study was to compare chemical composition, density, and heat value of pellets made from MPB-infested wood and to compare these properties with those measured for pellets made from uninfested wood. Chemical analysis showed minor decrease in lignin and sugar contents of pellets made from MPB wood. Pellets made from MPB-infested pine had a mean value for density larger than those made from uninfested pine but the difference was not statistically significant. Heating values of the pellets from MPB-infested wood were similar to those measured for pellets from uninfested wood. A preliminary observation of mold growth did not show any further staining or other decay fungi growth for the pellets made from MPB-infested wood. The pellets made from MPB-infested wood were found to be similar to pellets made from uninfested wood in density, heating value, and most chemical constituents. The overall conclusion was that MBP infested wood can be used to produce comparable pellets to non infested wood pellets. 37 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Pheromone-mediated mate location and discrimination by two syntopic sibling species of Dendroctonus bark beetles in Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia Nino-Dominguez; Brian T. Sullivan; Jose H. Lopez-Urbina; Jorge E. Macias-Samano

    2015-01-01

    Where their geographic and host ranges overlap, sibling species of tree-killing bark beetles may simultaneously attack and reproduce on the same hosts. However, sustainability of these potentially mutually beneficial associations demands effective prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanisms between the interacting species. The pine bark beetle, Dendroctonus...

  11. A new species of bark beetle, Dendroctonus mesoamericanus sp nov. (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in southern Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Armendariz-Toledano; Alicia Nino; Brian T. Sullivan; Lawrence R. Kirkendall; Gerado Zunig

    2015-01-01

    The bark beetle Dendroctonus mesoamericanus sp. nov. is described from a population in Parque Nacional Lagunas de Montebello, La Trinitaria, Chiapas, Mexico. This species belongs to the D. frontalis complex, which includes D. adjunctus Blandford 1897, D. approximatus Dietz 1890, D....

  12. Databestanden van de opgraving Colmont-Ponderosa 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, A.; Voormolen, B.

    2005-01-01

    Het veldwerk bestond uit vier onderdelen: oppervlaktekartering van de vindplaats Colmont-Ponderosa, geo-archeologisch booronderzoek, een archeologische proefopgraving, en een veldkartering in de omgeving (zgn. Eiland van Ubachsberg). In het kader van de waardering van oppervlaktevindplaatsen uit het

  13. 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia d´Avila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. has a social, cultural and economic importance in the southern states of Brazil. The pure stands of this culture was responsible for the increase of many species of insects. Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae is considered the main pest from an economic viewpoint because of its difficult control and potential for damage. The larval phase occurs inside the twings and trunks, what makes more difficult to deal with its detention and management. Cultural and mechanical management are the most indicated, such as collection of adults, prunning and burning of plant parts damaged by the insect, balanced nutrition, adequate plant density and maintenance of areas with native vegetation or also the introduction of policulture. These strategies may increase the agroecossystem balance and thus a reduction of the insect-pest to an aceptable level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assemble and the discuss the information on the bioecology and management of erva-mate borer.

  14. How resilient are southwestern ponderosa pine forests after crown fires?

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, M; Mast, J N

    2005-01-01

    The exclusion of low-severity surface fire from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) forests of the Southwest has changed ecosystem structure and function such that severe crown fires are increasingly causing extensive stand mortality. This altered fire regime has resulted from the intersection of natural drought cycles with human activities that have suppressed natural fires for over a century. What is the trajectory of forest recovery after such fires? This study explores the reg...

  15. Sex Pheromone of Conophthorus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in a Coastal Stand of Western White Pine (Pinaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Harold D. Pierce; Peter de Groot; Nicole Jeans-Williams; Robb Bennett; John H. Borden

    2000-01-01

    An isolated stand of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don, on Texada Island (49°40'N, 124°10'W), British Columbia, is extremely valuable as a seed-production area for progeny resistant to white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch. (Cronartiaceae). During the past 5 years, cone beetles, ...

  16. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA. Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicultural study of uneven-aged management techniques that was carried out in 1984, and which resulted in three separate units consisting of one control, one cut/no-burn treatment, and one cut/burn treatment. Seeds were collected during the 10 years following treatment in 15 traps systematically deployed within each of the stand’s three units. The total numbers of seeds collected in each unit were plotted over time to analyze crop synchrony, with Spearman rank correlation coefficient used to test for masting cycles and crop depletion after a mast year. Meteorological records over the period 1983-1994 were related to the occurrence of a mast event (defined as crops exceeding 50,000 viable seeds/ha. Main results: The seed production pattern was non-cyclical, synchronous, and independent of silvicultural treatment history. A mast-depletion effect was evident but was not statistically significant. Mast events seem to be promoted by the occurrence of optimum mean temperatures at the beginning of spring during both the first (11 °C and second (9 °C years of cone maturation. The probability of a mast year was also affected by summer temperature (number of late frost days; negative effect and precipitation amount (positive effect. All these factors would seemingly explain the observed synchronous pattern in cone production. Research highlights: The non-cyclical trend of ponderosa pine seed mast years is influenced by specific climate determinants. Fluctuations in mean early

  17. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel

    1989-01-01

    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  18. Changes in Gambel oak densities in southwestern ponderosa pine forests since Euro-American settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Abella; Peter Z. Fulé

    2008-01-01

    Densities of small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees have increased in southwestern ponderosa pine forests during a period of fire exclusion since Euro-American settlement in the late 1800s. However, less well known are potential changes in Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) densities during this period in these forests....

  19. Field guide to old ponderosa pines in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie Stroh Huckaby; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Paula J. Fornwalt; Jason M. Stoker; Chuck Dennis

    2003-01-01

    We describe the distinguishing physical characteristics of old ponderosa pine trees in the Front Range of Colorado and the ecological processes that tend to preserve them. Photographs illustrate identifying features of old ponderosa pines and show how to differentiate them from mature and young trees. The publication includes a photographic gallery of old ponderosa...

  20. INTERACTION OF GRASS COMPETITION AND OZONE STRESS ON C/N RATIO IN PONDEROSA PINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings were grown with three levels of blue wild-rye grass (Elymus glaucus Buckl.) (0,32, or 88 plants m-2) to determine if the presence of a natural competitor altered ponderosa pine seedling response to ozone. Gras...

  1. ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLY IN WHITE AND BROWN ROOT RESPIRATION OF PONDEROSA PINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory responses of fine ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) roots of differing morphology were measured to evaluate response to excision and to changes in the shoot light environment. Ponderosa pine seedlings were subject to either a 15:9 h light/dark environment over 24...

  2. Tree mortality in drought-stressed mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Scott C. Vojta

    2011-01-01

    We monitored tree mortality in northern Arizona (USA) mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) forests from 1997 to 2007, a period of severe drought in this area. Mortality was pervasive, occurring on 100 and 98% of 53 mixed-conifer and 60 ponderosa pine plots (1-ha each), respectively. Most mortality was attributable to a suite of forest...

  3. Differences in ponderosa pine isocupressic acid concentrations across space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) is distributed throughout the western half of North America, where it is the most widely adapted and ubiquitous conifer. Ponderosa Pine contains isocupressic acid, a diterpene acid, which has been shown to be responsible for its abortifacient activity. The objectiv...

  4. Tree canopy types constrain plant distributions in ponderosa pine-Gambel oak forests, northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Abella

    2009-01-01

    Trees in many forests affect the soils and plants below their canopies. In current high-density southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, managers have opportunities to enhance multiple ecosystem values by manipulating tree density, distribution, and canopy cover through tree thinning. I performed a study in northern Arizona ponderosa...

  5. PONDEROSA-C/S: client–server based software package for automated protein 3D structure determination

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Woonghee; Stark, Jaime L.; Markley, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Peak-picking Of Noe Data Enabled by Restriction Of Shift Assignments-Client Server (PONDEROSA-C/S) builds on the original PONDEROSA software (Lee et al. in Bioinformatics 27:1727–1728. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btr200, 2011) and includes improved features for structure calculation and refinement. PONDEROSA-C/S consists of three programs: Ponderosa Server, Ponderosa Client, and Ponderosa Analyzer. PONDEROSA-C/S takes as input the protein sequence, a list of assigned chemical shifts, and nucle...

  6. Feeding response of Ips paraconfusus to phloem and phloem metabolites of Heterobasidion annosum-inoculated ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNee, William R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Storer, Andrew J; Wood, David L; Gordon, Thomas R

    2003-05-01

    In studies of feeding by the bark beetle, Ips paraconfusus, two pine stilbenes (pinosylvin and pinosylvin methyl ether), ferulic acid glucoside, and enantiomers of the four most common sugars present in ponderosa pine phloem (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and raffinose) did not stimulate or reduce male feeding when assayed on wet alpha-cellulose with or without stimulatory phloem extractives present. When allowed to feed on wet alpha-cellulose containing sequential extracts (hexane, methanol, and water) of ponderosa pine phloem, methanol and water extractives stimulated feeding, but hexane extractives did not. Males confined in wet alpha-cellulose containing aqueous or organic extracts of culture broths derived from phloem tissue and containing the root pathogen. Heterobasidion annosum, ingested less substrate than beetles confined to control preparations. In an assay using logs from uninoculated ponderosa pines, the mean lengths of phloem in the digestive tracts increased as time spent feeding increased. Males confined to the phloem of basal logs cut from ponderosa pines artificially inoculated with H. annosum ingested significantly less phloem than beetles in logs cut from trees that were (combined) mock-inoculated or uninoculated and did not contain the pathogen. However, individual pathogen-containing treatments were not significantly different from uninoculated controls. It was concluded that altered feeding rates are not a major factor which may explain why diseased ponderosa pines are colonized by I. paraconfusus.

  7. Pezizalean mycorrhizas and sporocarps in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) after prescribed fires in eastern Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, K E; Smith, J E; Horton, T R; Weber, N S; Spatafora, J W

    2005-03-01

    Post-fire Pezizales fruit commonly in many forest types after fire. The objectives of this study were to determine which Pezizales appeared as sporocarps after a prescribed fire in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon, and whether species of Pezizales formed mycorrhizas on ponderosa pine, whether or not they were detected from sporocarps. Forty-two sporocarp collections in five genera (Anthracobia, Morchella, Peziza, Scutellinia, Tricharina) of post-fire Pezizales produced ten restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) types. We found no root tips colonized by species of post-fire Pezizales fruiting at our site. However, 15% (6/39) of the RFLP types obtained from mycorrhizal roots within 32 soil cores were ascomycetes. Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S nuclear ribosomal DNA gene indicated that four of the six RFLP types clustered with two genera of the Pezizales, Wilcoxina and Geopora. Subsequent analyses indicated that two of these mycobionts were probably Wilcoxina rehmii, one Geopora cooperi, and one Geopora sp. The identities of two types were not successfully determined with PCR-based methods. Results contribute knowledge about the above- and below-ground ascomycete community in a ponderosa pine forest after a low intensity fire.

  8. Thermal conditions within tree cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests: potential implications for cavity users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierling, Kerri T.; Lorenz, Teresa J.; Cunningham, Patrick; Potterf, Kelsi

    2017-11-01

    Tree cavities provide critical roosting and breeding sites for multiple species, and thermal environments in these cavities are important to understand. Our objectives were to (1) describe thermal characteristics in cavities between June 3 and August 9, 2014, and (2) investigate the environmental factors that influence cavity temperatures. We placed iButtons in 84 different cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in central Washington, and took hourly measurements for at least 8 days in each cavity. Temperatures above 40 °C are generally lethal to developing avian embryos, and 18% of the cavities had internal temperatures of ≥ 40 °C for at least 1 h of each day. We modeled daily maximum cavity temperature, the amplitude of daily cavity temperatures, and the difference between the mean internal cavity and mean ambient temperatures as a function of several environmental variables. These variables included canopy cover, tree diameter at cavity height, cavity volume, entrance area, the hardness of the cavity body, the hardness of the cavity sill (which is the wood below the cavity entrance which forms the barrier between the cavity and the external environment), and sill width. Ambient temperature had the largest effect size for maximum cavity temperature and amplitude. Larger trees with harder sills may provide more thermally stable cavity environments, and decayed sills were positively associated with maximum cavity temperatures. Summer temperatures are projected to increase in this region, and additional research is needed to determine how the thermal environments of cavities will influence species occupancy, breeding, and survival.

  9. Sampling methods for Graphoderus bilineatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koese, B.; Cuppen, J.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Onderzoek naar vangmethodes voor Graphoderus bilineatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) Als onderdeel van een integrale studie naar de waterroofkever Graphoderus bilineatus in Nederland (in opdracht van het ministerie van lnv), werd een vergelijkend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar verschillende

  10. Variations in the monoterpene composition of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1964-01-01

    A wide range in quantitative composition of the wood oleoresin monoterpenes was found among 64 ponderosa pines in the central Sierra Nevada by gas chromatographic analysis. An inverse relationship was found in the amount of β-pinene and Δ3-carene. Practically no difference in composition could be associated with (a) type of...

  11. Ponderosa pine seed-tree removal reduces stocking only slightly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1969-01-01

    After ponderosa pine seed trees were removed on the Challenge Experimental Forest, California, seedling stocking fell by 3.8 percent or about 212 seedlings per acre. This loss is slightly less than that incurred from natural mortality, and one that did not reduce regeneration levels below the minimum standard.

  12. Silviculture of southwestern ponderosa pine: The status of our knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert

    1974-01-01

    Describes the status of our knowledge of ponderosa pine silviculture in the southwestern States of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Economic value, impact on other uses, and the timber resource are discussed first, followed by ecological background, site quality, growth and yield, and silviculture and management. Relevant literature is discussed along with...

  13. Acoustic analysis of warp potential of green ponderosa pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; William T. Simpson

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of acoustic analysis as presorting criteria to identify warp-prone boards before kiln drying. Dimension lumber, 38 by 89 mm (nominal 2 by 4 in.) and 2.44 m (8 ft) long, sawn from open-grown small-diameter ponderosa pine trees, was acoustically tested lengthwise at green condition. Three acoustic properties (acoustic speed, rate of...

  14. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in southwestern ponderosa fine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen C. Hart; Paul C. Selmants; Sarah I. Boyle; Steven T. Overby

    2007-01-01

    Ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States were historically characterized by relatively open, parklike stands with a bunchgrass-dominated understory. This forest structure was maintained by frequent, low-intensity surface fires. Heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression, and favorable weather conditions following Euro-American settlement in the late 19th...

  15. Silvicultural recommendations for the management of ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Alfonso Mendoza Briseno; Mary Ann Fajvan; Juan Manuel Chacon Sotelo; Alejandro Velazquez Martinez; Antonio Quinonez. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Ponderosa pines are the most important timber producing species in Mexico, and they also represent a major portion of the Usa and Canada timber production. These pines form near pure stands with simple and stable stand structure. They suffer only occasional disturbances, and they sustain a limited capacity to hold biodiversity and other senvironmental services. The...

  16. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the ponderosa pine type, ponderosa pine and associated species type, and lodgepole pine type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Ponderosa Pine Type, Ponderosa Pine and Associated Species Type, Lodgepole Pine Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-052....

  17. Unthinned slow-growing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees contain muted isotopic signals in tree rings as compared to thinned trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analysed the oxygen isotopic values of wood (δ18Ow) of 12 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees from control, moderately, and heavily thinned stands and compared them with existing wood-based estimates of carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C), basal area increment (BAI), and g...

  18. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Weber; Frank C. Sorensen

    1992-01-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with shod, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation...

  19. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  20. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  1. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C; Shinneman, Douglas J; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2018-03-14

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  2. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, W. L.; Veblen, T. T.; Sherriff, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  3. COMBINED EFFECTS OF CO2 AND O3 ON ANTIOXIDATIVE AND PHOTOPROTECTIVE DEFENSE SYSTEMS IN NEEDLES OF PONDEROSA PINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine interactive effects of important environmental stresses on biochemical defense mechanisms of tree seedlings, we studied responses to elevated O3 and elevated atmospheric CO2 on antioxidative and photoprotective systems in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Do...

  4. Ectomycorrhizal communities of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine in the south-central Oregon pumice zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria O; Smith, Jane E; Luoma, Daniel L; Jones, Melanie D

    2016-05-01

    Forest ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest of the USA are changing as a result of climate change. Specifically, rise of global temperatures, decline of winter precipitation, earlier loss of snowpack, and increased summer drought are altering the range of Pinus contorta. Simultaneously, flux in environmental conditions within the historic P. contorta range may facilitate the encroachment of P. ponderosa into P. contorta territory. Furthermore, successful pine species migration may be constrained by the distribution or co-migration of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Knowledge of the linkages among soil fungal diversity, community structure, and environmental factors is critical to understanding the organization and stability of pine ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to establish a foundational knowledge of the EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in the Deschutes National Forest, OR, USA, and to examine soil characteristics associated with community composition. We examined EMF root tips of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in soil cores and conducted soil chemistry analysis for P. ponderosa cores. Results indicate that Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon salebrosus, and Inocybe flocculosa were dominant in both P. contorta and P. ponderosa soil cores. Rhizopogon spp. were ubiquitous in P. ponderosa cores. There was no significant difference in the species composition of EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta. Ordination analysis of P. ponderosa soils suggested that soil pH, plant-available phosphorus (Bray), total phosphorus (P), carbon (C), mineralizable nitrogen (N), ammonium (NH4), and nitrate (NO3) are driving EMF community composition in P. ponderosa stands. We found a significant linear relationship between EMF species richness and mineralizable N. In conclusion, P. ponderosa and P. contorta, within the Deschutes National Forest, share the same dominant EMF species, which implies that P. ponderosa may be able to successfully establish

  5. Inhibiting effect of ponderosa pine seed trees on seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1976-01-01

    Ponderosa pine seed trees, numbering 4, 8, and 12 per acre, were left standing for 9 years after harvest cutting on the Challenge Experimental Forest, Calif. Seedling heights were measured at ages 5, 9, and 14, and for all ages were poorest if within 20 feet of a seed tree. Seedlings 20 feet or less from a seed tree at the ages given lost the equivalent in years of...

  6. Translocation of 14-C in ponderosa pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1971-01-01

    The movement of 14-C from the old needles to the roots, and later to the new needles, was measured in 2-year-old ponderosa pine seedlings. The seedlings were in one of three growth stages at the time of the feeding of 14-CO-2: 9 days before spring bud break with no root activity; 7 days before spring bud break with high root activity; and 7 days after spring bud break...

  7. Northern Idaho ponderosa racial variation study - 50-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Steinhoff

    1970-01-01

    Ponderosa pine trees from 19 geographic sources planted on a test area in northern Idaho have been measured 12, 20, 40, and 50 years after outplanting. From the 12th through the 50th years after outplanting, trees from one nonlocal source have been tallest. Trees from the local source now rank second in height, having risen from sixth during the last 10 years. In...

  8. [Cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. banksian and P. tabulaeformis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuehua; Zhou, Yongxue; Fan, Junfeng; Liu, Yingzhou; Pang, Kejia

    2006-08-01

    By the method of artificial freezing, this paper made a comparative study on the cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. banksiana and P. tabulaeformis, with their inherent mechanisms approached. The results showed that the cold hardiness of these three species was in the sequence of P. banksiana > P. tabulaeformis > P. ponderosa. P. banksiana had high bound water/free water ratio (7.0) and ABA content (164.3 microg x g(-1) FW) but low K+ (2450 microg x g(-1) DW) and soluble sugar (12.0%) , P. tabulaeformis had higher contents of ABA (95.8 microg x g(-1) FW), K+ (4538 microg x g(-1) DW) and soluble sugar (18.68%) but low bound water/free water ratio (2.58), while P. ponderosa had high soluble sugar content (18.05%) but low bound water/free water ratio (2.18) and K+ (2275 microg x g(-1) DW) and ABA (63.3 microg x g(-1) FW) contents. These differences might be the reasons resulting in the different cold hardiness of these three species. Low chlorophyll content and high carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio might also contribute to the cold hardiness of P. banksiana. Therefore, though the test species are all of cold hardiness, their inherent mechanisms may be different.

  9. Response of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings to Stylet-Bearing Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglierchio, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Of 12 stylet-bearing nematodes used for inoculations, Pratylenchus penetrans, P. brachyurus, P. vulnus, Ditylenchus destructor, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla reproduced on Pinus ponderosa, while Xiphinema index, Aphelenchus avenae, Paratylenehus neoamblycephalus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Macroposthonia xenoplax did not. P. vulnus, P. brachyurus, P. penetrans, A. avenae, D. destructor, T. semipenetrans, and P. neoamblycephalus significantly suppressed both the shoot and root wet weights of ponderosa pine seedlings obtained from stands in five different locations. X. index significantly suppressed root wet weights, M. xenoplax siguificantly suppressed shoot wet weight, and M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla suppressed neither at the inoculation levels used. Injurious nematodes tended to suppress root growth more than shoot growth. Seedlings from two locations produced greater shoot growth wet weight than did seedlings from the other three locations. The more injurious nematodes tended to cause an increase in the water content of shoots. Frequency analyses of seedling population shoot-root ratios indicated that ponderosa pine seedlings could be selected for better shoot-root ratios as well as for resistance to several pathogenic nematodes. PMID:19300659

  10. Trapping Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) with pheromone baited multiple-funnel traps does not reduce Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Progar; N. Sturdevant; M.J. Rinella

    2010-01-01

    Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) (DFB) causes considerable mortality to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in western North American forests. We evaluated the use of semiochemical-baited multiple-funnel traps for the protection of small, high-value stands of trees, such as those occurring...

  11. A Synopsis of the Taxonomic Revisions in the Genus Ceratocystis Including a Review of Blue-Staining Species Associated with Dendroctonus Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelma J. Perry

    1991-01-01

    Taxonomic revisions in both the teleomorphic (sexual) and anamorphic (asexual) forms of the genus Ceratocystis Ellis & Halstead are chronicled in this review. Recognized species associated with Dendroctonus Erichson bark beetles are summarized, and several species that have been published as recombinations, species that were...

  12. Black stain root disease studies on ponderosa pine parameters and disturbance treatments affecting infection and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Otrosina; J.T. Kliejunas; S. Smith; D.R. Cluck; S.S. Sung; C.D. Cook

    2007-01-01

    Black stain root disease of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Doug. Ex Laws.), caused by Leptographium wageneri var. ponderosum (Harrington & Cobb) Harrington & Cobb, is increasing on many eastside Sierra Nevada pine stands in northeastern California. The disease is spread from tree to tree via root...

  13. Spatial patterns of ponderosa pine regeneration in high-severity burn patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Owen; Carolyn H. Sieg; Andrew J. Sanchez. Meador; Peter Z. Fule; Jose M. Iniguez; L. Scott. Baggett; Paula J. Fornwalt; Michael A. Battaglia

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary wildfires in southwestern US ponderosa pine forests can leave uncharacteristically large patches of tree mortality, raising concerns about the lack of seed-producing trees, which can prevent or significantly delay ponderosa pine regeneration. We established 4-ha plots in high-severity burn patches in two Arizona wildfires, the 2000 Pumpkin and 2002 Rodeo-...

  14. Estimating cubic volume of small diameter tree-length logs from ponderosa and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin E. Plank; James M. Cahill

    1984-01-01

    A sample of 351 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and 509 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) logs were used to evaluate the performance of three commonly used formulas for estimating cubic volume. Smalian's formula, Bruce's formula, and Huber's formula were tested to determine which...

  15. Fire effects on Gambel oak in southwestern ponderosa pine-oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Abella; Peter Z. Fulé

    2008-01-01

    Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) is ecologically and aesthetically valuable in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Fire effects on Gambel oak are important because fire may be used in pine-oak forests to manage oak directly or to accomplish other management objectives. We used published literature to: (1) ascertain...

  16. Site classification of ponderosa pine stands under stocking control in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers; William W. Oliver

    1978-01-01

    Existing systems for estimating site index of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) do not apply well to California stands where stocking is controlled. A more suitable system has been developed using trends in natural height growth, derived from stem analysis of dominant trees in California. This site index system produces polymorphic patterns of...

  17. Seasonal changes in above- and belowground carbohydrate concentrations of ponderosa pine along a pollution gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Grulke; Chris P. Andersen; William E. Hogsett

    2001-01-01

    Seasonal patterns of carbohydrate concentration in coarse and fine roots, stem or bole, and foliage of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) were described across five treeage classes from seedlings to mature trees at an atmospherically clean site. Relative to all other tree-age classes, seedlings exhibited greater tissue carbohydrate concentration...

  18. Growth models for ponderosa pine: I. Yield of unthinned plantations in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver; Robert F. Powers

    1978-01-01

    Yields for high-survival, unthinned ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) plantations in northern California are estimated. Stems of 367 trees in 12 plantations were analyzed to produce a growth model simulating stand yields. Diameter, basal area, and net cubic volume yields by Site Indices50 40 through 120 are tabulated for...

  19. Use of Hardwood Tree Species by Birds Nesting in Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Douglas A. Drynan

    2008-01-01

    We examined the use of hardwood tree species for nesting by bird species breeding in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the Sierra National Forest, California. From 1995 through 2002, we located 668 nests of 36 bird species nesting in trees and snags on four 60-ha study sites. Two-thirds of all species nesting in trees or snags used...

  20. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION ON SURVIVAL OF PONDEROSA PINE FINE ROOTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used minihizaotrons to assess the effects of elevated CO2N and season on the life-span of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws.) fine roots. CO2 levels were ambient air (A), ambient air + 175 ?mol mol-1 (A+175) and ambient air + 350 ?mol mol-1 (A+350). N treatments ...

  1. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  2. SEASONAL PATTERNS OF FINE ROOT PRODUCTION AND TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root minirhizotron tubes were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) stands around three different tree age classes (16, 45, and > 250 yr old) to examine root spatial distribution in relation to canopy size and tree distribution, and to determine if rates of fine...

  3. CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF OLD PINUS PONDEROSA TREES TO STAND DENSITY REDUCTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stand density reductions have been proposed as a method by which old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of North America can be converted back to pre-1900 conditions, thereby reducing the danger of catastrophic forest fires and insect attacks while increasing product...

  4. Coarse woody debris assay in northern Arizona mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Scott C. Vojta

    2010-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) provides important ecosystem services in forests and affects fire behavior, yet information on amounts and types of CWD typically is limited. To provide such information, we sampled logs and stumps in mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in north-central Arizona. Spatial variability was prominent for all CWD parameters....

  5. Predicting mortality of ponderosa pine regeneration after prescribed fire in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Battaglia; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2009-01-01

    Reduction of crown fire hazard in Pinus ponderosa forests in the Black Hills, SD, often focuses on the removal of overstorey trees to reduce crown bulk density. Dense ponderosa pine regeneration establishes several years after treatment and eventually increases crown fire risk if allowed to grow. Using prescribed fire to control this regeneration is...

  6. Effectiveness of litter removal to prevent cambial kill-caused mortality in northern Arizona ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Linda L. Wadleigh

    2010-01-01

    Removal of deep litter and duff from the base of mature southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) is commonly recommended to reduce mortality after prescribed burns, but experimental studies that quantify the effectiveness of such practices in reducing mortality are lacking. After a pilot study on each of four sites in northern Arizona, we monitored 15-16...

  7. Spacing and shrub competition influence 20-year development of planted ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver

    1990-01-01

    Growth and stand development of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were monitored for 20 years after planting at five different square spacings (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 ft) in the presence or absence of competing shrubs on the westside Sierra Nevada. Mean tree size was positively correlated and stand values negatively correlated with spacing in the...

  8. The 2002 Rodeo-Chediski Wildfire's impacts on southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems, hydrology, and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Cody L. Stropki; Hui Chen; Daniel G. Neary

    2011-01-01

    The Rodeo-Chediski Wildfire burned nearly 462,600 acres in north-central Arizona in the summer of 2002. The wildfire damaged or destroyed ecosystem resources and disrupted the hydrologic functioning within the impacted ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in a largely mosaic pattern. Impacts of the wildfire on ecosystem resources, factors important to hydrologic...

  9. Season of prescribed burn in ponderosa pine forests in eastern Oregon: impact on pine mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter G. Thies; Douglas J. Westlind; Mark. Loewen

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effects of season of prescribed burn on tree mortality was established in mixed-age ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) at the south end of the Blue Mountains near Burns, Oregon. Each of six previously thinned stands was subdivided into three experimental units and one of three treatments was randomly assigned to each:...

  10. Modern fire regime resembles historical fire regime in a ponderosa pine forest on Native American land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda B. Stan; Peter Z. Fule; Kathryn B. Ireland; Jamie S. Sanderlin

    2014-01-01

    Forests on tribal lands in the western United States have seen the return of low-intensity surface fires for several decades longer than forests on non-tribal lands. We examined the surface fire regime in a ponderosa pinedominated (Pinus ponderosa) forest on the Hualapai tribal lands in the south-western United States. Using fire-scarred trees, we inferred temporal (...

  11. Tanyproctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) of Socotra Island

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, D.; Sehnal, R.; Bezděk, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, suppl. 2 (2012), s. 153-182 ISSN 0374-1036 Grant - others:Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (CZ) LA10036/MSMT Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera * Scarabaeidae * Melolonthinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2012 http://www.aemnp.eu/PDF/52_s2/52_S2_153.pdf

  12. Chloroplastic responses of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings to ozone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul D; Palmer, Brent; Houpis, James L J; Smith, Mary K; Pushnik, James C

    2003-06-01

    Integrity of chloroplast membranes is essential to photosynthesis. Loss of thylakoid membrane integrity has been proposed as a consequence of ozone (O(3)) exposure and therefore may be a mechanistic basis for decreased photosynthetic rates commonly associated with ozone exposure. To investigate this hypothesis, Pinus ponderosa seedlings were exposed to ambient air or ozone concentrations maintained at 0.15 or 0.30 microliter l(-1) for 10 h day(-1) for 51 days during their second growing season. Over the course of the study, foliage samples were periodically collected for thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll and protein analyses. Additionally, gas-exchange measurements were made in conjunction with foliage sampling to verify that observed chloroplastic responses were associated with ozone-induced changes in photosynthesis. Needles exposed to elevated ozone exhibited decreases in chlorophyll a and b content. The decreases were dependent on the duration and intensity of ozone exposure. When based on equal amounts of chlorophyll, ozone-exposed sample tissue exhibited an increase in total protein. When based on equal amounts of protein, ozone-exposed samples exhibited an increase in 37 kDa proteins, possibly consisting of breakdown products, and a possible decrease in 68 kDa proteins, Rubisco small subunit. There was also a change in the ratio of Photosystem I protein complexes CPI and CPII that may have contributed to decreased photosynthesis. Net photosynthetic rates were decreased in the high ozone treatment suggesting that observed structural and biochemical changes in the chloroplast were associated with alterations of the photosynthetic process.

  13. PONDEROSA, an automated 3D-NOESY peak picking program, enables automated protein structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woonghee; Kim, Jin Hae; Westler, William M; Markley, John L

    2011-06-15

    PONDEROSA (Peak-picking Of Noe Data Enabled by Restriction of Shift Assignments) accepts input information consisting of a protein sequence, backbone and sidechain NMR resonance assignments, and 3D-NOESY ((13)C-edited and/or (15)N-edited) spectra, and returns assignments of NOESY crosspeaks, distance and angle constraints, and a reliable NMR structure represented by a family of conformers. PONDEROSA incorporates and integrates external software packages (TALOS+, STRIDE and CYANA) to carry out different steps in the structure determination. PONDEROSA implements internal functions that identify and validate NOESY peak assignments and assess the quality of the calculated three-dimensional structure of the protein. The robustness of the analysis results from PONDEROSA's hierarchical processing steps that involve iterative interaction among the internal and external modules. PONDEROSA supports a variety of input formats: SPARKY assignment table (.shifts) and spectrum file formats (.ucsf), XEASY proton file format (.prot), and NMR-STAR format (.star). To demonstrate the utility of PONDEROSA, we used the package to determine 3D structures of two proteins: human ubiquitin and Escherichia coli iron-sulfur scaffold protein variant IscU(D39A). The automatically generated structural constraints and ensembles of conformers were as good as or better than those determined previously by much less automated means. The program, in the form of binary code along with tutorials and reference manuals, is available at http://ponderosa.nmrfam.wisc.edu/.

  14. 90SR uptake by Pinus ponderosa and Pinus radiata seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Emmingham, W.H.; Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    Strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. Prior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90 Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. In this study, we inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inoculated and noninoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove 90 Sr from an organic growth medium. Ectomycorrhizal P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings are able to remove 3-5 times more 90 Sr from contaminated soil than seedlings without ectomycorrhizae. (Author)

  15. Exploring climate niches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) haplotypes in the western United States: Implications for evolutionary history and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with

  16. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J; Means, Robert E; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with discrete

  17. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Shinneman

    Full Text Available Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM, ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated

  18. PONDEROSA-C/S: client-server based software package for automated protein 3D structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woonghee; Stark, Jaime L; Markley, John L

    2014-11-01

    Peak-picking Of Noe Data Enabled by Restriction Of Shift Assignments-Client Server (PONDEROSA-C/S) builds on the original PONDEROSA software (Lee et al. in Bioinformatics 27:1727-1728. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btr200, 2011) and includes improved features for structure calculation and refinement. PONDEROSA-C/S consists of three programs: Ponderosa Server, Ponderosa Client, and Ponderosa Analyzer. PONDEROSA-C/S takes as input the protein sequence, a list of assigned chemical shifts, and nuclear Overhauser data sets ((13)C- and/or (15)N-NOESY). The output is a set of assigned NOEs and 3D structural models for the protein. Ponderosa Analyzer supports the visualization, validation, and refinement of the results from Ponderosa Server. These tools enable semi-automated NMR-based structure determination of proteins in a rapid and robust fashion. We present examples showing the use of PONDEROSA-C/S in solving structures of four proteins: two that enable comparison with the original PONDEROSA package, and two from the Critical Assessment of automated Structure Determination by NMR (Rosato et al. in Nat Methods 6:625-626. doi: 10.1038/nmeth0909-625 , 2009) competition. The software package can be downloaded freely in binary format from http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/download_packages.html. Registered users of the National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison can submit jobs to the PONDEROSA-C/S server at http://ponderosa.nmrfam.wisc.edu, where instructions, tutorials, and instructions can be found. Structures are normally returned within 1-2 days.

  19. Aboveground Tree Biomass for Pinus ponderosa in Northeastern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for spatial or temporal variability. Individual-tree aboveground biomass allometric equations are presented from an analysis of 79 felled trees from four separate management units at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: one unthinned and three separate thinned units. A simultaneous set of allometric equations for foliage, branch and bole biomass were developed as well as branch-level equations for wood and foliage. Foliage biomass relationships varied substantially between units while branch and bole biomass estimates were more stable across a range of stand conditions. Trees of a given breast height diameter and crown ratio in thinned stands had more foliage biomass, but slightly less branch biomass than those in an unthinned stand. The observed variability in biomass relationships within Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest suggests that users should consider how well the data used to develop a selected model relate to the conditions in any given application.

  20. Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Butovsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited.

  1. Characterisation of bioactive protein-bound polysaccharides from Amanita ponderosa cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, C; Martins, M R; Arteiro, J M; Caldeira, A T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of protein-polysaccharide complexes obtained from A. ponderosa cultures using a new microanalytical approach to monitoring quickly and easily the production process.

  2. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Tesoro Logistics-Rockies - Ponderosa Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains documents related to the synthetic minor NSR permit for the Tesoro Logistics-Rockies Ponderosa Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, UT.

  3. Effects of seeding ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) on vegetation recovery following fire in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Angela D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Allen, Craig D.

    2004-01-01

    Forty-nine vegetation transects were measured in 1997 and 1998 to determine the impact of grass seeding after the 1996 Dome Fire, which burned almost 6900 ha of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) forest in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. High- and moderate-burned areas in Santa Fe National Forest were seeded with a mixture that included the exotic ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Adjacent burned areas of Bandelier National Monument were not seeded, and were used as a control in the post-seeding study. On the seeded plots, foliar cover of ryegrass declined from 1997 to 1998 due to self-inhibition and/or reduced precipitation from 1997 to 1998. Foliar cover and diversity of native forbs were greater in 1997 than 1998, probably due to a wet growing season in 1997. Cover, species richness, and diversity of native forbs were highest in non-seeded areas of moderate- and high-burn intensities. Regeneration and survivorship of conifer seedlings decreased as ryegrass cover increased, particularly in areas of high-burn intensity. Exotic plant cover, mostly horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.], increased from 1997 to 1998 in non-seeded areas of moderate- and high-burn intensity. Both the initial success of seeding and the eventual impacts on native vegetation were strongly modulated by climate variability.

  4. Xylem vulnerability to cavitation in Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa from contrasting habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Deborah H; Sala, Anna

    2003-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa (ssp.) ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. & C. Laws) often co-occurs with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mayr) Franco). Despite previous reports showing higher shoot vulnerability to water-stress-induced cavitation in ponderosa pine, this species extends into drier habitats than Douglas-fir. We examined: (1) whether roots and shoots of ponderosa pine in riparian and slope habitats are more vulnerable to water-stress-induced cavitation than those of Douglas-fir; (2) whether species-specific differences in vulnerability translate into differences in specific conductivity in the field; and (3) whether the ability of ponderosa pine to extend into drier sites is a result of (a) greater plasticity in hydraulic properties or (b) functional or structural adjustments. Roots and shoots of ponderosa pine were significantly more vulnerable to water-stress-induced cavitation (overall mean cavitation pressure, Psi(50%) +/- SE = -3.11 +/- 0.32 MPa for shoots and -0.99 +/- 0.16 MPa for roots) than those of Douglas-fir (Psi(50%) +/- SE = -4.83 +/- 0.40 MPa for shoots and -2.12 +/- 0.35 MPa for roots). However, shoot specific conductivity did not differ between species in the field. For both species, roots were more vulnerable to cavitation than shoots. Overall, changes in vulnerability from riparian to slope habitats were small for both species. Greater declines in stomatal conductance as the summer proceeded, combined with higher allocation to sapwood and greater sapwood water storage, appeared to contribute to the ability of ponderosa pine to thrive in dry habitats despite relatively high vulnerability to water-stress-induced cavitation.

  5. Pelletized ponderosa pine bark for adsorption of toxic heavy metals from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoung Oh; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2007-01-01

    Bark flour from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) was consolidated into pellets using citric acid as cross-linking agent. The pellets were evaluated for removal of toxic heavy metals from synthetic aqueous solutions. When soaked in water, pellets did not leach tannins, and they showed high adsorption capacity for Cu(ll), Zn(ll), Cd(ll). and Ni(ll) under both equilibrium...

  6. Brush competition retards early stand development of planted ponderosa pine: update on a 24-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver

    1990-01-01

    Growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) was monitored for 24 years after planting at five different square spacings (6, 9. 12, 15, and 18 ft) in the presence or absence of competing brush on the westside Sierra Nevada. Spacing strongly influenced both mean dbh and basal area/ac. In plots maintained free of brush, diameters ranged from 5.1 in. at the 6-ft spacing to...

  7. Parasitism and olfactory responses of Dastarcus helophoroides (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) to different Cerambycid hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-Rong Wei; Zhong-Qi Yang; Therese M. Poland; Jia-Wei. Du

    2009-01-01

    Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) is an important natural enemy of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). It is distributed throughout most Provinces in China. We investigated whether there were differences among D. helophoroides populations collected from different hosts in different...

  8. Monoterpene emissions from a Ponderosa Pine forest. Does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madronich, M. B.; Guenther, A. B.; Wessman, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Determining the emissions rate of biogenic volatile organic carbon (BVOC) from plants is a challenge. Biological variability makes it difficult to assess accurately those emissions rates. It is known that photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), temperature, nutrients as well as the biology of the plant affect emissions. However, less is known about the variability of the emissions with respect to the life cycle of the plants. This study is focusing on the difference of monoterpene emission rates from mature Ponderosa Pine trees and saplings in the field. Preliminary calculations show that there is a significant difference between total monoterpene emissions in mature trees (0.24±0.04 μgC/gdwh) and saplings (0.37±0.02 μgC/gdwh).

  9. Reticulate evolution and incomplete lineage sorting among the ponderosa pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willyard, Ann; Cronn, Richard; Liston, Aaron

    2009-08-01

    Interspecific gene flow via hybridization may play a major role in evolution by creating reticulate rather than hierarchical lineages in plant species. Occasional diploid pine hybrids indicate the potential for introgression, but reticulation is hard to detect because ancestral polymorphism is still shared across many groups of pine species. Nucleotide sequences for 53 accessions from 17 species in subsection Ponderosae (Pinus) provide evidence for reticulate evolution. Two discordant patterns among independent low-copy nuclear gene trees and a chloroplast haplotype are better explained by introgression than incomplete lineage sorting or other causes of incongruence. Conflicting resolution of three monophyletic Pinus coulteri accessions is best explained by ancient introgression followed by a genetic bottleneck. More recent hybridization transferred a chloroplast from P. jeffreyi to a sympatric P. washoensis individual. We conclude that incomplete lineage sorting could account for other examples of non-monophyly, and caution against any analysis based on single-accession or single-locus sampling in Pinus.

  10. Effect of Oxygen on Verbenone Conversion From cis-Verbenol by Gut Facultative Anaerobes of Dendroctonus valens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction from North America, Dendroctonus valens LeConte has become a destructive forest pest in China. Although gut aerobic bacteria have been investigated and some are implicated in beetle pheromone production, little is known about the abundance and significance of facultative anaerobic bacteria in beetle gut, especially with regards to effects of oxygen on their role in pheromone production. In this study, we isolated and identified gut bacteria of D. valens adults in an anaerobic environment, and further compared their ability to convert cis-verbenol into verbenone (a multi-functional pheromone of D. valens under different O2 concentrations. Pantoea conspicua, Enterobacter xiangfangensis, Staphylococcus warneri were the most frequently isolated species among the total of 10 species identified from beetle gut in anaerobic conditions. Among all isolated species, nine were capable of cis-verbenol to verbenone conversion, and the conversion efficiency increased with increased oxygen concentration. This O2-mediated conversion of cis-verbenol to verbenone suggests that gut facultative anaerobes of D. valens might play an important role in the frass, where there is higher exposure to oxygen, hence the higher verbenone production. This claim is further supported by distinctly differential oxygen concentrations between gut and frass of D. valens females.

  11. Pine Defensive Monoterpene α-Pinene Influences the Feeding Behavior of Dendroctonus valens and Its Gut Bacterial Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letian Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to plant defense chemicals has negative effects on insect feeding activity and modifies insect gut microbial community composition. Dendroctonus valens is a very destructive forest pest in China, and harbors a large diversity and abundance of gut microorganisms. Host pine defensive chemicals can protect the pines from attack by the holobiont. In this study, boring length of D. valens feeding on 0 mg/g α-pinene and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media for 6 and 48 h were recorded, and their gut bacterial communities were analyzed in parallel. Nine milligram per gram α-pinene concentration significantly inhibited boring length of D. valens and altered its gut microbial community structure after 6 h. The inhibition of boring length from 9 mg/g α-pinene in diets ceased after 48 h. No significant differences of the bacterial communities were observed between the beetles in 0 and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 48 h. Our results showed that the inhibition of the feeding behavior of D. valens and the disturbance to its gut bacterial communities in 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 6 h were eliminated after 48 h. The resilience of gut bacterial community of D. valens may help the beetle catabolize pine defense chemical.

  12. New synonymy in Cuban Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examination of holotypes of Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini) in the Fernando de Zayas collection (Havana, Cuba) and the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University reveals that T. elongatus Zayas (1975) is a new synonym of T. rufipes Fisher (1942)....

  13. Evaluating the role of cutting treatments, fire and soil seed banks in an experimental framework in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody L. Wienk; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Guy R. McPherson

    2004-01-01

    Pinus ponderosa Laws. (ponderosa pine) forests have changed considerably during the past century, partly because recurrent fires have been absent for a century or more. A number of studies have explored the influence of timber harvest or burning on understory production in ponderosa pine forests, but study designs incorporating cutting and prescribed...

  14. Response of ponderosa pine stands to pre-commercial thinning on Nez Perce and Spokane Tribal forests in the Inland Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis E. Ferguson; John C. Byrne; William R. Wykoff; Brian Kummet; Ted Hensold

    2011-01-01

    Stands of dense, natural ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa) regeneration were operationally, precommercially thinned at seven sites - four on Nez Perce Tribal lands in northern Idaho and three on Spokane Tribal lands in eastern Washington. Five spacing treatments were studied - control (no thinning), 5x5 ft, 7x7 ft, 10x10 ft, and 14x14 ft. Sample trees...

  15. Coleoptera species of forensic importance from Brazil: an updated list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Massutti de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A list of the Coleoptera of importance from Brazil, based on published records was compiled. The checklist contains 345 species of 16 families allocated to 16 states of the country. In addition, three species of two families are registered for the first time. The fauna of Coleoptera of forensic importance is still not entirely known and future collection efforts and taxonomic reviews could increase the number of known species considerably in the near future.

  16. Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Casari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. Larva and pupa of Eutrypanus dorsalis (Germar, 1928, collected in trunks of Pinus elliottii Engelm., and Paratenthras martinsi Monné, 1998, collected in spathes of Scheelea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng. Burret, are described and illustrated. Larva and pupa of Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, collected in Hymenaea corbaril L., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Pterogyne nitens Tul., are redescribed and illustrated. A table with all described immatures of Lamiinae, and a comparison among the immatures of Acanthocinini are presented. Biological notes and new records are also included.

  17. Changes in forest structure since 1860 in ponderosa pine dominated forests in the Colorado and Wyoming Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike A. Battaglia; Benjamin Gannon; Peter M. Brown; Paula J. Fornwalt; Antony S. Cheng; Laurie S. Huckaby

    2018-01-01

    Management practices since the late 19th century, including fire exclusion and harvesting, have altered the structure of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) dominated forests across the western United States. These structural changes have the potential to contribute to uncharacteristic wildfire behavior and effects. Locally-...

  18. Role of selection versus historical isolation in racial differentiation of ponderosa pine in southern Oregon: an investigation of alternative hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank C. Sorensen; Nancy L. Mandel; Jan E. Aagaard

    2001-01-01

    Continuous populations identified as Pacific and North Plateau races of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. Laws. ex C. Laws.) are parapatric along the crest of the Cascade Range in southern Oregon. A 3-year common-garden study of bud phenology and seedling vigor was performed to estimate the nature and magnitude of differentiation between races, to...

  19. 3-PG simulations of young ponderosa pine plantations under varied management intensity: why do they grow so differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang Wei; Marshall John; Jianwei Zhang; Hang Zhou; Robert Powers

    2014-01-01

    Models can be powerful tools for estimating forest productivity and guiding forest management, but their credibility and complexity are often an issue for forest managers. We parameterized a process-based forest growth model, 3-PG (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth), to simulate growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) plantations in...

  20. Effects of low intensity prescribed fires on ponderosa pine forests in wilderness areas of Zion National Park, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry V. Bastian

    2001-01-01

    Vegetation and fuel loading plots were monitored and sampled in wilderness areas treated with prescribed fire. Changes in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest structure tree species and fuel loading are presented. Plots were randomly stratified and established in burn units in 1995. Preliminary analysis of nine plots 2 years after burning show litter was reduced 54....

  1. A field guide to predict delayed mortality of fire-damaged ponderosa pine: application and validation of the Malheur model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter G. Thies; Douglas J. Westlind; Mark Loewen; Greg. Brenner

    2008-01-01

    The Malheur model for fire-caused delayed mortality is presented as an easily interpreted graph (mortality-probability calculator) as part of a one-page field guide that allows the user to determine postfire probability of mortality for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.). Following both prescribed burns and wildfires, managers need...

  2. Effects of wildfire on densities of secondary cavity-nesting birds in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill K. Dwyer; William M. Block

    2000-01-01

    Many catastrophic wildfires burned throughout forests in Arizona during the spring and summer of 1996 owing to severely dry conditions. One result of these fires was a loss of preexisting tree cavities for reproduction. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests most cavities are found in dead trees; therefore, snags are a very important habitat...

  3. Comparative genetic responses to climate for the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: realized climate niches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish; Javier Lopez-Upton; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; J. Bradley St Clair; Laura P. Leites; Dennis G. Joyce

    2014-01-01

    The Random Forests classification algorithm was used to predict the occurrence of the realized climate niche for two sub-specific varieties of Pinus ponderosa and three varieties of Pseudotsuga menziesii from presence-absence data in forest inventory ground plots. Analyses were based on ca. 271,000 observations for P. ponderosa and ca. 426,000 observations for P....

  4. Comparative genetic responses to climate in the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: clines in growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Laura P. Leites; J. Bradley St Clair; Barry C. Jaquish; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Javier Lopez-Upton; Dennis G. Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Height growth data were assembled from 10 Pinus ponderosa and 17 Pseudotsuga menziesii provenance tests. Data from the disparate studies were scaled according to climate similarities of the provenances to provide single datasets for 781 P. ponderosa and 1193 P. menziesii populations. Mixed effects models were used for two sub-specific varieties of each species to...

  5. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF CO2 AND O3 ON A PONDEROSA PINE PLANT/LITTER/SOIL MESOCOSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    To study individual and combined impacts of two important atmospheric trace gases, CO2 and O3, on C and N cycling in forest ecosystems; a four-year experiment using a small-scale ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) seedling/soil/litter system was initiated in April, 1998. Th...

  6. Understory vegetation response after 30 years of interval prescribed burning in two ponderosa pine sites in northern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine A. Scudieri; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Sally M. Haase; Andrea E. Thode; Stephen S. Sackett

    2010-01-01

    Southwestern USA ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson var. scopulorum Engelm.) forests evolved with frequent surface fires and have changed dramatically over the last century. Overstory tree density has sharply increased while abundance of understory vegetation has declined primarily due to the near cessation of fires. We...

  7. The evolution of asymmetric genitalia in Coleoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilthuizen, Menno; de Jong, Paulien; van Beek, Rick; Hoogenboom, Tamara; Schlochtern, Melanie Meijer Zu

    2016-12-19

    The evolution of asymmetry in male genitalia is a pervasive and recurrent phenomenon across almost the entire animal kingdom. Although in some taxa the asymmetry may be a response to the evolution of one-sided, male-above copulation from a more ancestral female-above condition, in other taxa, such as Mammalia and Coleoptera, this explanation appears insufficient. We carried out an informal assessment of genital asymmetry across the Coleoptera and found that male genital asymmetry is present in 43% of all beetle families, and at all within-family taxonomic levels. In the most diverse group, Cucujiformia, however, genital asymmetry is comparatively rare. We also reconstructed the phylogeny of the leiodid tribe Cholevini, and mapped aspects of genital asymmetry on the tree, revealing that endophallus sclerites, endophallus, median lobe and parameres are, in a nested fashion, increasingly unlikely to have evolved asymmetry. We interpret these results in the light of cryptic female choice versus sexually antagonistic coevolution and advocate further ways in which the phenomenon may be better understood.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.; Savage, Melissa; Falk, Donald A.; Suckling, Kieran F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Schulke, Todd; Stacey, Peter B.; Morgan, Penelope; Hoffman, Martos; Klingel, Jon T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emerged that it is urgent to restore more natural conditions to these forests. Efforts to restore Southwestern forests will require extensive projects employing varying combinations of young-tree thinning and reintroduction of low-intensity fires. Treatments must be flexible enough to recognize and accommodate: high levels of natural heterogeneity; dynamic ecosystems; wildlife and other biodiversity considerations; scientific uncertainty; and the challenges of on-the-ground implementation. Ecological restoration should reset ecosystem trends toward an envelope of “natural variability,” including the reestablishment of natural processes. Reconstructed historic reference conditions are best used as general guides rather than rigid restoration prescriptions. In the long term, the best way to align forest conditions to track ongoing climate changes is to restore fire, which naturally correlates with current climate. Some stands need substantial structural manipulation (thinning) before fire can safely be reintroduced. In other areas, such as large wilderness and roadless areas, fire alone may suffice as the main tool of ecological restoration, recreating the natural interaction of structure and process. Impatience, overreaction to crown fire risks, extractive economics, or hubris could lead to widespread application of highly intrusive treatments that may further damage forest ecosystems. Investments in research and monitoring of restoration treatments are essential to refine

  9. Uptake and distribution of nitrogen from acidic fog within a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.)/litter/soil system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenn, M.E.; Leininger, T.D.

    1995-11-01

    The magnitude and importance of wet deposition of N in forests of the South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin have not been well characterized. We exposed 3-yr-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) seedlings growing in native forest soil to acidic fog treatments (pH 3.1) simulating fog chemistry from a pine forest near Los Angeles, California. Fog solutions contained either {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, or unlabeled N. The fog treatments were applied in open-top chambers in six 5-hr exposures. Soil treatments within each of the fog exposures were bare soil, soil overlain with L- and F-litter, and soil covered with plastic during the fog events to prevent fogwater from contacting soil. Seedlings were harvested and samples were collected 15 wk after the fog treatments. Uptake of {sup 15}N by roots was by far the dominant pathway for plant assimilation of fog-deposited {sup 15}N. Deposition of N in fog supplied 9.4% and 8.7% of the total N in current-year crown biomass in the litter-overlay and bare-soil treatments, respectively. Total N concentrations in every plant fraction except current-year stems were significantly higher in the bare-soil treatment than in the plastic-covered soil treatment. Less than 5% of the {sup 15}N deposited directly to the seedling crowns was retained by the plants in the covered-soil treatment, whereas 57% of the {sup 15}N deposited to the seedling/litter/soil systems was incorporated into plant biomass. The litter layers retained {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} more effectively than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} more effectively than {sup 15}NO{sub 3}. Data from this study suggest that N deposited from fog may be an important source of N for plant growth in forests of the SCAB where fog occurrence and pollution exposure coincide. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Plants of an Eucalyptus clone damaged by Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera Plantas de Eucalyptus atacadas por Scolytidae e Platypodidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Species of Scolytidae and Platypodidae were evaluated in a plantation using a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Wood disks with galleries were taken from 15 eucalyptus trees between 0.5 and 1.5 m height. After collection, all trees attacked were burned. Woodborers obtained from these disks were identified as Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus, Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. This is the first report of D. cristatus, a Brazilian native species, damaging eucalyptus, which shows its adaptation to this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o ataque de Scolytidae e Platypodidae em talhão de clone Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla na região de Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Discos de madeira com galerias desses insetos foram retirados de 15 árvores de eucalipto entre 0,5 e 1,5 m de altura. Após a coleta deste material, as árvores atacadas foram queimadas. Os indivíduos da ordem Coleoptera obtidos desses discos foram identificados como Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus e Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae e Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. O ataque de D. cristatus, espécie nativa do Brasil, ao eucalipto ainda não havia sido relatado, o que mostra sua adaptação a essa planta.

  11. Local and regional variation in the monoterpenes of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Smith; R.L. Peloquin; P.C. Passof

    1969-01-01

    A gas chromatographic analysis of the mono-terpenes of 927 ponderosa pines, representing to some degree a major portion of the species' range, showed considerable local and regional diversity in composition. Five major monoterpenes— α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and limonene—were analyzed. There is some evidence to support the...

  12. Pinus ponderosa: a taxonomic review with five subspecies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    2013-01-01

    Various forms of Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson are found from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 states and, perhaps, into Mexico. The status of many names previously associated with this species, but excluded here, has been clarified. Accumulated evidence based on variation in morphology and xylem monoterpenes,...

  13. Presence of carbaryl in the smoke of treated lodgepole and ponderosa pine bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris J. Peterson; Sheryl L. Costello

    2013-01-01

    Lodgepole and ponderosa pine trees were treated with a 2% carbaryl solution at recreational areas near Fort Collins, CO, in June 2010 as a prophylactic bole spray against the mountain pine beetle. Bark samples from treated and untreated trees were collected one day following application and at 4-month intervals for one year. The residual amount of carbaryl was...

  14. FireWorks curriculum featuring ponderosa, lodgepole, and whitebark pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Kapler Smith; Nancy E. McMurray

    2000-01-01

    FireWorks is an educational program for students in grades 1-10. The program consists of the curriculum in this report and a trunk of laboratory materials, specimens, and reference materials. It provides interactive, hands-on activities for studying fire ecology, fire behavior, and the influences of people on three fire-dependent forest types - Pinus ponderosa...

  15. Eighty-eight years of change in a managed ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen Y. Smith; Stephen F. Arno

    1999-01-01

    This publication gives an overview of structural and other ecological changes associated with forest management and fire suppression since the early 1900's in a ponderosa pine forest, the most widespread forest type in the Western United States. Three sources of information are presented: (1) changes seen in a series of repeat photographs taken between 1909 and...

  16. Understory vegetation response to mechanical mastication and other fuels treatments in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey M. Kane; J. Morgan Varner; Eric E. Knapp

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What influence does mechanical mastication and other fuel treatments have on: (1) canopy and forest floor response variables that influence understory plant development; (2) initial understory vegetation cover, diversity, and composition; and (3) shrub and non-native species density in a secondgrowth ponderosa pine forest....

  17. Effects of stand density on top height estimation for ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Ritchie; Jianwei Zhang; Todd Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    Site index, estimated as a function of dominant-tree height and age, is often used as an expression of site quality. This expression is assumed to be effectively independent of stand density. Observation of dominant height at two different ponderosa pine levels-of-growing-stock studies revealed that top height stability with respect to stand density depends on the...

  18. Resilience of ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests to mountain pine beetle disturbance and limited regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jenny S.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vandendriesche, Don

    2015-01-01

    After causing widespread mortality in lodgepole pine forests in North America, the mountain pine beetle (MPB) has recently also affected ponderosa pine, an alternate host species that may have different levels of resilience to this disturbance. We collected field data in ponderosa pine- and lodgepole pine-dominated forests attacked by MPB in Colorado and then simulated stand growth over 200 years using the Forest Vegetation Simulator. We compared scenarios of no disturbance with scenarios of MPB-caused mortality, both with and without regeneration. Results indicated that basal area and tree density recovered to predisturbance levels relatively rapidly (within 1‐8 decades) in both forest types. However, convergence of the disturbed conditions with simulated undisturbed conditions took longer (12‐20+ decades) and was delayed by the absence of regeneration. In MPB-affected ponderosa pine forests without regeneration, basal area did not converge with undisturbed conditions within 200 years, implying lower resilience in this ecosystem. Surface fuels accumulated rapidly in both forest types after MPB-induced mortality, remaining high for 3‐6 decades in simulations. Our results suggest that future patterns of succession, regeneration, fuel loading, climate, and disturbance interactions over long time periods should be considered in management strategies addressing MPB effects in either forest type, but particularly in ponderosa pine.

  19. CORRELATION BETWEEN OZONE EXPOSURE AND VISIBLE FOLIAR INJURY IN PONDEROSA AND JEFFREY PINES. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure was related to ozone-induced visible foliar injury in ponderosa and Jeffrey pines growing on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Measurements of ozone exposure, chlorotic mottle and fascicle retention were collected during the years ...

  20. ROOT GROWTH AND TURNOVER IN DIFFERENT AGED PONDEROSA PINE STANDS IN OREGON, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of pollution and climate change on soil carbon dynamics are poorly understood, in part due to a lack of information regarding root production and turnover in natural ecosystems. In order to examine how root dynamics change with stand age in ponderosa pine forests (...

  1. CARBON STORAGE AND FLUXES IN PONDEROSA PINE AT DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL STAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared carbon storage and fluxes in young and old ponderosa pine stands in Oregon, including plant and soil storage, net primary productivity, respiration fluxes, and eddy flux estimates of net ecosystem exchange. The young site (Y site) was previously an old-growth pondero...

  2. Latent resilience in ponderosa pine forest: effects of resumed frequent fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew J; Belote, R Travis; Cansler, C Alina; Parks, Sean A; Dietz, Matthew S

    2013-09-01

    Ecological systems often exhibit resilient states that are maintained through negative feedbacks. In ponderosa pine forests, fire historically represented the negative feedback mechanism that maintained ecosystem resilience; fire exclusion reduced that resilience, predisposing the transition to an alternative ecosystem state upon reintroduction of fire. We evaluated the effects of reintroduced frequent wildfire in unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forest in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana, USA. Initial reintroduction of fire in 2003 reduced tree density and consumed surface fuels, but also stimulated establishment of a dense cohort of lodgepole pine, maintaining a trajectory toward an alternative state. Resumption of a frequent fire regime by a second fire in 2011 restored a low-density forest dominated by large-diameter ponderosa pine by eliminating many regenerating lodgepole pines and by continuing to remove surface fuels and small-diameter lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir that established during the fire suppression era. Our data demonstrate that some unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forests possess latent resilience to reintroduced fire. A passive model of simply allowing lightning-ignited fires to burn appears to be a viable approach to restoration of such forests.

  3. EFFECTS OF CO2 AND O3 IN PONDEROSA PINE PLANT/LITTER/SOIL MESOCOSMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forested ecosysems are subjected to interacting conditions whose joint impacts may be quite different from those from single factors. To understand the impacts of CO2 and O3 on forest ecosystems, in April 1998, we initiated a four-year study of a Ponderosa pine seedling/soil/lit...

  4. Response of planted ponderosa pine seedlings to weed control by herbicide in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian C.C. Uzoh

    1999-01-01

    The effects of competing herbaceous vegetation on the growth of ponderosa pine seedlings with and without herbicide Pronone were characterized in this 1987-1990 study. Study areas were established in 36 plantations across western Montana on Champion International Corporation's timberland (currently owned by Plum Creek Timber Company). The study sites were divided...

  5. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  6. Wood and understory production under a range of ponderosa pine stocking levels, Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Carleton B. Edminster; Kieth E. Severson

    2000-01-01

    Stemwood and understory production (kg ha-1) were estimated during 3 nonconsecutive years on 5 growing stock levels of ponderosa pine including clearcuts and unthinned stands. Stemwood production was consistently greater at mid- and higher pine stocking levels, and understory production was greater in stands with less pine; however, there were no...

  7. Postfire environmental conditions influence the spatial pattern of regeneration for Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. H. Bonnet; Anna Schoettle; W. D. Shepperd

    2005-01-01

    Regeneration of ponderosa pine after fire depends on the patterns of seed availability and the environmental conditions that define safe sites for seedling establishment. A transect approach was applied in 2002 to determine the spatial distribution of regeneration from unburned to burned areas within the landscape impacted by the Jasper Fire of 2000 in the...

  8. Response of dwarf mistletoe-infested ponderosa pine to thinning: 2. Dwarf mistletoe propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Roth; James W. Barrett

    1985-01-01

    Propagation of dwarf mistletoe in ponderosa pine saplings is little influenced by thinning overly dense stands to 250 trees per acre. Numerous plants that appear soon after thinning develop from formerly latent plants in the suppressed under-story. Subsequently, dwarf mistletoe propagates nearly as fast as tree crowns enlarge but the rate differs widely among trees....

  9. Growth and physiological responses to varied environments among populations of Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Bert M. Cregg

    2005-01-01

    We investigated population responses in physiology, morphology, and growth of mature Pinus ponderosa trees to an environmental gradient across Nebraska, USA. Ten populations from western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming were grown in three 26-year-old provenance tests from the warmest and wettest site in the east (Plattsmouth) to the intermediate site in...

  10. Short-term ecological consequences of collaborative restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer S. Briggs; Paula J. Fornwalt; Jonas A. Feinstein

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration treatments are being implemented at an increasing rate in ponderosa pine and other dry conifer forests across the western United States, via the USDA Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) program. In this program, collaborative stakeholder groups work with National Forests (NFs) to adaptively implement and monitor...

  11. Comparative genetic responses to climate in the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: reforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Dennis G. Joyce; Laura P. Leites; J. Bradley St Clair; Javier Lopez-Upton

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on the climatic niche of the sub-specific varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii and on the adaptedness of their populations are considered from the viewpoint of reforestation. In using climate projections from an ensemble of 17 general circulation models targeting the decade surrounding 2060, our analyses suggest that a...

  12. Ponderosa pine growth response to soil strength in the volcanic ash soils of central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. Parker; D.A. Maguire; D.D. Marshall; P. Cochran

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical harvesting and associated logging activities have the capacity to compact soil across large portions of harvest units. Two thinning treatments (felled only versus felled and skidded) in 70- to 80-year-old ponderosa pine stands were replicated at three sites with volcanic soils in central Oregon. Growth in diameter, height, and volume of residual trees were...

  13. Lumber recovery from small-diameter ponderosa pine from Flagstaff, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; David W. Green

    2001-01-01

    Thousands of acres of densely stocked ponderosa pine forests surround Flagstaff, AZ. These stands are at high risk of fire, insect, and disease outbreak. Stand density management activity can be expensive, but product recovery from the thinned material could help defray removal costs. This project evaluated the yield and economic return of lumber recovered from small-...

  14. FOLIAR N RESPONSE OF PONDEROSA PINE SEEDLINGS TO ELEVATED CO2 AND O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interactions between needle N status and exposure to combined CO2 and O3 stresses were studied in Pinus ponderosa seedlings. The seedlings were grown for three years (April 1998 through March 2001) in outdoor chambers in native soils from eastern Oregon, and exposed to ambient ...

  15. EFFECTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON GROWTH AND BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN PINUS PONDEROSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future productivity of forests will be affected by combinations of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3. Because productivity of forests will, in part, be determined by growth of young trees, we evaluated shoot growth and biomass responses of Pinus ponderosa seedlings exposed to ...

  16. PARTITIONING OF WATER FLUX IN A SIERRA NEVADA PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION. (R826601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus pond...

  17. Clinal differentiation and putative hybridization in a contact zone of Pinus ponderosa and P. arizonica (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, B K; Telewski, F W; Plovanich-Jones, A E; Grimes, J E

    2001-06-01

    The widely distributed Pinus subsection Ponderosae is a species complex that has a transition zone among taxa in the southwestern United States. In southern Arizona and New Mexico at least two recognized taxa, Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum and Pinus arizonica or P. ponderosa var. arizonica, are known to coexist in close proximity. In this study, we report the existence of populations where the taxa are sympatric. One of the key characteristics distinguishing taxa is the number of needles per fascicle; P. ponderosa typically has three, P. arizonica has five. We examined the spatial distribution of needle-number types in a belt transect that covers a transition zone from nearly pure three-needle types at the top of Mount Lemmon to five-needle types downslope, in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona. The spatial distribution is inconsistent with there being both free interbreeding among types and selective neutrality of types. Trees with intermediate types, having combinations of three, four, and five needles and/or mean numbers of needles between 3.0 and 5.0, are spatially concentrated in the middle of the transition zone. The spatial distribution supports the occurrence of hybridization and introgression, and this is consistent with reported crossabilities of the types. The results suggest that selection is acting, either on needle number per se or on other traits of the ecotype with which it may be in linkage disequilibrium, to maintain the observed steep clinal differentiation.

  18. Modeling precipitation-runoff relationships to determine water yield from a ponderosa pine forest watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa S. Desta

    2006-01-01

    A stochastic precipitation-runoff modeling is used to estimate a cold and warm-seasons water yield from a ponderosa pine forested watershed in the north-central Arizona. The model consists of two parts namely, simulation of the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation using a stochastic, event-based approach and estimation of water yield from the watershed...

  19. Dynamic programming for optimization of timber production and grazing in ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; J. Douglas Brodie; David W. Hann

    1982-01-01

    Dynamic programming procedures are presented for optimizing thinning and rotation of even-aged ponderosa pine by using the four descriptors: age, basal area, number of trees, and time since thinning. Because both timber yield and grazing yield are functions of stand density, the two outputs-forage and timber-can both be optimized. The soil expectation values for single...

  20. Mountain pine beetle-killed trees as snags in Black Hills ponderosa pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp

    2009-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...

  1. Prescribed burning in the interior ponderosa pine type of northeastern California . . . a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald T. Gordon

    1967-01-01

    Three prescribed burns, made in 1959-62, in the interior ponderosa pine type of northeastern California are described in terms of meteorological factors, fire behavior, and effects of burning. Results were generally unsatisfactory. Factors that limit the usefulness of prescribed burning for reducing fuel hazard or for thinning in young-growth stands include stand...

  2. Summary (Songbird ecology in southwestern ponderosa pine forests: A literature review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Deborah M. Finch; Joseph L. Ganey; William H. Moir

    1997-01-01

    Most ornithological studies in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests have yielded results that are applicable only to the specific location and particular conditions of the study areas (for example, Green 1979 and Hurlbert 1984). In addition, varying interpretation of similar study results by investigators has limited our ability to extend or synthesize research results...

  3. Changes in canopy fuels and fire behavior after ponderosa pine restoration treatments: A landscape perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Roccaforte; P. Z. Fule

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) We modeled crown fire behavior and assessed changes in canopy fuels before and after the implementation of restoration treatments in a ponderosa pine landscape at Mt. Trumbull, Arizona. We measured 117 permanent plots before (1996/1997) and after (2003) thinning and burning treatments. The plots are evenly distributed across the...

  4. Phytotoxic grass residues reduce germination and initial root growth of ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Rietveld

    1975-01-01

    Extracts of green foliage of Arizona fescue and mountain muhly significantly reduced germination of ponderosa pine seeds, and retarded speed of elongation and mean radicle length. Three possible routes of release of the inhibitor were investigated: (1) leaching from live foliage, (2) root exudation, and (3) overwinter leaching from dead residues. The principal route...

  5. Economics of replacing young-growth ponderosa pine stands . . . a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis E. Teeguarden

    1968-01-01

    Compares the expected capital value growth of five ponderosa pine stands (70 to 80 years old) on the Challenge Experimental Forest, Yuba County, Calif., with the cost of delaying harvest (defined as sum of stock-holding and land-holding costs). Suggests that replacement of all five stands would be financially desirable under constant stumpage prices. Recommends...

  6. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  7. Photosynthetic performance of invasive Pinus ponderosa and Juniperus virginiana seedlings under gradual soil water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihmidine, S; Bryan, N M; Payne, K R; Parde, M R; Okalebo, J A; Cooperstein, S E; Awada, T

    2010-07-01

    Changes in climate, land management and fire regime have contributed to woody species expansion into grasslands and savannas worldwide. In the USA, Pinus ponderosa P.&C. Lawson and Juniperus virginiana L. are expanding into semiarid grasslands of Nebraska and other regions of the Great Plains. We examined P. ponderosa and J. virginiana seedling response to soil water content, one of the most important limiting factors in semiarid grasslands, to provide insight into their success in the region. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII, maximum carboxylation velocity, maximum rate of electron transport, stomatal limitation to photosynthesis, water potential, root-to-shoot ratio, and needle nitrogen content were followed under gradual soil water depletion for 40 days. J. virginiana maintained lower L(s), higher A, g(s), and initial F(v)/F(m), and displayed a more gradual decline in V(cmax) and J(max) with increasing water deficit compared to P. ponderosa. J. virginiana also invested more in roots relative to shoots compared to P. ponderosa. F(v)/F(m) showed high PSII resistance to dehydration in both species. Photoinhibition was observed at approximately 30% of field capacity. Soil water content was a better predictor of A and g(s) than Psi, indicating that there are other growth factors controlling physiological processes under increased water stress. The two species followed different strategies to succeed in semiarid grasslands. P. ponderosa seedlings behaved like a drought-avoidant species with strong stomatal control, while J. virginiana was more of a drought-tolerant species, maintaining physiological activity at lower soil water content. Differences between the studied species and the ecological implications are discussed.

  8. Decadal Recruitment and Mortality of Ponderosa pine Predicted for the 21st Century Under five Downscaled Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, K. E.; Cole, K. L.; Eischeid, J. K.; Garfin, G. M.; Shaw, J. D.; Cobb, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) is the dominant conifer in higher elevation regions of the southwestern United States. Because this species is so prominent, southwestern montane ecosystems will be significantly altered if this species is strongly affected by future climate changes. These changes could be highly challenging for land management agencies. In order to model the consequences of future climates, 20th Century recruitment events and mortality for ponderosa pine were characterized using measures of seasonal water balance (precipitation - potential evapotranspiration). These relationships, assuming they will remain unchanged, were then used to predict 21st Century changes in ponderosa pine occurrence in the southwest. Twenty-one AR4 IPCC General Circulation Model (GCM) A1B simulation results were ranked on their ability to simulate the later 20th Century (1950-2000 AD) precipitation seasonality, spatial patterns, and quantity in the western United States. Among the top ranked GCMs, five were selected for downscaling to a 4 km grid that represented a range in predictions in terms of changes in water balance. Predicted decadal changes in southwestern ponderosa pine for the 21st Century for these five climate change scenarios were calculated using a multiple quadratic logistic regression model. Similar models of other western tree species (Pinus edulis, Yucca brevifolia) predicted severe contractions, especially in the southern half of their ranges. However, the results for Ponderosa pine suggested future expansions throughout its range to both higher and lower elevations, as well as very significant expansions northward.

  9. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  10. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  11. Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, K.

    2003-01-01

    Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera) Data are presented on the distribution of selected species from two coleopteran families chosen to represent a random slice of the British fauna. The species have been chosen as exhibiting extremes of range

  12. Using Malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages...

  13. The Peritelini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Entiminae of the Vitale collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Baviera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The collection of Peritelini (Coleoptera Curculionidae Entiminae currently stored in the Vitale collection of Messina University is an element of great importance for studies of taxonomy and biogeography of these rarely collected weevils. All species are commented in relation to the contributions to this taxonomic group, published on several occasions by the authors.

  14. Physiological responses of ponderosa pine in western Montana to thinning, prescribed fire and burning season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Anna; Peters, Gregory D; McIntyre, Lorna R; Harrington, Michael G

    2005-03-01

    Low-elevation ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws.) forests of the northern Rocky Mountains historically experienced frequent low-intensity fires that maintained open uneven-aged stands. A century of fire exclusion has contributed to denser ponderosa pine forests with greater competition for resources, higher tree stress and greater risk of insect attack and stand-destroying fire. Active management intended to restore a semblance of the more sustainable historic stand structure and composition includes selective thinning and prescribed fire. However, little is known about the relative effects of these management practices on the physiological performance of ponderosa pine. We measured soil water and nitrogen availability, physiological performance and wood radial increment of second growth ponderosa pine trees at the Lick Creek Experimental Site in the Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, 8 and 9 years after the application of four treatments: thinning only; thinning followed by prescribed fire in the spring; thinning followed by prescribed fire in the fall; and untreated controls. Volumetric soil water content and resin capsule ammonium did not differ among treatments. Resin capsule nitrate in the control treatment was similar to that in all other treatments, although burned treatments had lower nitrate relative to the thinned-only treatment. Trees of similar size and canopy condition in the three thinned treatments (with and without fire) displayed higher leaf-area-based photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and mid-morning leaf water potential in June and July, and higher wood radial increment relative to trees in control units. Specific leaf area, mass-based leaf nitrogen content and carbon isotope discrimination did not vary among treatments. Our results suggest that, despite minimal differences in soil resource availability, trees in managed units where basal area was reduced had improved gas exchange and growth compared with trees in

  15. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  16. Soil Type Affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae Seedling Growth in Simulated Drought Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Lindsey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite, a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies.

  17. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Alexander J; Kilgore, Jason S

    2013-08-01

    Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies.

  18. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  19. COPROPHANAEUS MORENOI ARNAUD, 1982 (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE: SCARABAEINAE) IN THE GORGONA NATIONAL NATURAL PARK (COLOMBIAN PACIFIC OCEAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Cultid Medina, Carlos A; Giraldo López, Alan

    2012-01-01

    A new record of the dung beetle Coprophanaeus morenoi Arnaud, 1982 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), for the Gorgona Natural National Park (Gorgona NNP, Colombia) in the Colombian Pacific Ocean is presented. Se presenta un nuevo registro del escarabajo estercolero Coprophanaeus morenoi Arnaud, 1982 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), para el Parque Natural Nacional Gorgona, en el océano Pacifico colombiano.

  20. Het voorkomen van de glanskevers van het genus Caprophilus in Nederland (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude, de J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of nitidulid beetles of the genus Carpophilus in the Netherlands (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Some species of the genus Carpophilus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) may act as pests of stored products like cocoabeans, peanuts, dried fruits like figs and dates, imported from tropical or

  1. Insight into the hydraulics and resilience of Ponderosa pine seedlings using a mechanistic ecohydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Simeone, C.; Dobrowski, S.; Holden, Z.; Sapes, G.; Sala, A.; Begueria, S.

    2017-12-01

    In semiarid regions, drought-induced seedling mortality is considered to be caused by failure in the tree hydraulic column. Understanding the mechanisms that cause hydraulic failure and death in seedlings is important, among other things, to diagnose where some tree species may fail to regenerate, triggering demographic imbalances in the forest that could result in climate-driven shifts of tree species. Ponderosa pine is a common lower tree line species in the western US. Seedlings of ponderosa pine are often subject to low soil water potentials, which require lower water potentials in the xylem and leaves to maintain the negative pressure gradient that drives water upward. The resilience of the hydraulic column to hydraulic tension is species dependent, but from greenhouse experiments, we have identified general tension thresholds beyond which loss of xylem conductivity becomes critical, and mortality in Ponderosa pine seedlings start to occur. We describe this hydraulic behavior of plants using a mechanistic soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model. Before we use this models to understand water-stress induced seedling mortality at the landscape scale, we perform a modeling analysis of the dynamics of soil moisture, transpiration, leaf water potential and loss of plant water conductivity using detailed data from our green house experiments. The analysis is done using a spatially distributed model that simulates water fluxes, energy exchanges and water potentials in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Plant hydraulic and physiological parameters of this model were calibrated using Monte Carlo methods against information on soil moisture, soil hydraulic potential, transpiration, leaf water potential and percent loss of conductivity in the xylem. This analysis permits us to construct a full portrait of the parameter space for Ponderosa pine seedling and generate posterior predictive distributions of tree response to understand the sensitivity of transpiration

  2. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments 1

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less sh...

  3. Seed origin and size of ponderosa pine planting stock grown at several California nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank J. Baron; Gilbert H. Schubert

    1963-01-01

    Ponderosa pine planting stock (1-0 and 2-0) grown from five different seed collection zones in the California pine region differed noticeably in size. On the west side of the Sierra Nevada, seeds from zones above 4,000 feet yielded smaller seedlings than those from lower zones, but larger seedlings than those from east-side sources. Average dimensions (seedling weight...

  4. Species richness and soil properties in Pinus ponderosa forests: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, D.C.; Abella, S.R.; Covington, W.W.; Grace, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Question: How are the effects of mineral soil properties on understory plant species richness propagated through a network of processes involving the forest overstory, soil organic matter, soil nitrogen, and understory plant abundance? Location: North-central Arizona, USA. Methods: We sampled 75 0.05-ha plots across a broad soil gradient in a Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) forest ecosystem. We evaluated multivariate models of plant species richness using structural equation modeling. Results: Richness was highest at intermediate levels of understory plant cover, suggesting that both colonization success and competitive exclusion can limit richness in this system. We did not detect a reciprocal positive effect of richness on plant cover. Richness was strongly related to soil nitrogen in the model, with evidence for both a direct negative effect and an indirect non-linear relationship mediated through understory plant cover. Soil organic matter appeared to have a positive influence on understory richness that was independent of soil nitrogen. Richness was lowest where the forest overstory was densest, which can be explained through indirect effects on soil organic matter, soil nitrogen and understory cover. Finally, model results suggest a variety of direct and indirect processes whereby mineral soil properties can influence richness. Conclusions: Understory plant species richness and plant cover in P. ponderosa forests appear to be significantly influenced by soil organic matter and nitrogen, which are, in turn, related to overstory density and composition and mineral soil properties. Thus, soil properties can impose direct and indirect constraints on local species diversity in ponderosa pine forests. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  5. Genetic variation of piperidine alkaloids in Pinus ponderosa: a common garden study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Elizabeth A; Kelsey, Rick G; St Clair, J Bradley

    2009-02-01

    Previous measurements of conifer alkaloids have revealed significant variation attributable to many sources, environmental and genetic. The present study takes a complementary and intensive, common garden approach to examine genetic variation in Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa alkaloid production. Additionally, this study investigates the potential trade-off between seedling growth and alkaloid production, and associations between topographic/climatic variables and alkaloid production. Piperidine alkaloids were quantified in foliage of 501 nursery seedlings grown from seed sources in west-central Washington, Oregon and California, roughly covering the western half of the native range of ponderosa pine. A nested mixed model was used to test differences among broad-scale regions and among families within regions. Alkaloid concentrations were regressed on seedling growth measurements to test metabolite allocation theory. Likewise, climate characteristics at the seed sources were also considered as explanatory variables. Quantitative variation from seedling to seedling was high, and regional variation exceeded variation among families. Regions along the western margin of the species range exhibited the highest alkaloid concentrations, while those further east had relatively low alkaloid levels. Qualitative variation in alkaloid profiles was low. All measures of seedling growth related negatively to alkaloid concentrations on a natural log scale; however, coefficients of determination were low. At best, annual height increment explained 19.4 % of the variation in ln(total alkaloids). Among the climate variables, temperature range showed a negative, linear association that explained 41.8 % of the variation. Given the wide geographic scope of the seed sources and the uniformity of resources in the seedlings' environment, observed differences in alkaloid concentrations are evidence for genetic regulation of alkaloid secondary metabolism in ponderosa pine. The theoretical

  6. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate 137 Cs and 90 Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm 3 sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of 137 CS and 90 Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the 137 Cs and I.5% of the 90 Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the 137 Cs and 4.5% of the 90 Sr. Accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store 137 Cs and 90 Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils

  7. Limited response of ponderosa pine bole defenses to wounding and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, Monica L; Hofstetter, Richard W; Kolb, Thomas E; Wagner, Michael R

    2011-04-01

    Tree defense against bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and their associated fungi generally comprises some combination of constitutive (primary) and induced (secondary) defenses. In pines, the primary constitutive defense against bark beetles consists of preformed resin stored in resin ducts. Induced defenses at the wound site (point of beetle entry) in pines may consist of an increase in resin flow and necrotic lesion formation. The quantity and quality of both induced and constitutive defenses can vary by species and season. The inducible defense response in ponderosa pine is not well understood. Our study examined the inducible defense response in ponderosa pine using traumatic mechanical wounding, and wounding with and without fungal inoculations with two different bark beetle-associated fungi (Ophiostoma minus and Grosmannia clavigera). Resin flow did not significantly increase in response to any treatment. In addition, necrotic lesion formation on the bole after fungal inoculation was minimal. Stand thinning, which has been shown to increase water availability, had no, or inconsistent, effects on inducible tree defense. Our results suggest that ponderosa pine bole defense against bark beetles and their associated fungi is primarily constitutive and not induced.

  8. Effects of ozone exposures on epicuticular wax of ponderosa pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Turunen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) seedlings were exposed during the 1989 and 1990 growing seasons to ozone in open-top chambers placed in a forested location at Shirley Meadow, Greenhorn Mountain Range, Sierra Nevada. The ozone treatments were as follows: charcoal-filtered air (CF); charcoal-filtered air with addition of ambient concentrations of ozone (CF + O 3 ); and charcoal-filtered air with addition of doubled concentrations of ozone (CF + 2 x O 3 ). Ozone effects on ponderosa pine seedlings progressed and accumulated over two seasons of exposure. Throughout the first season, increased visible injury and accelerated senescence of the foliage were noted. Subsequently, during the second season of ozone exposure, various physiological and biochemical changes in the foliage took place. All these changes led to reduced growth and biomass of the seedlings. Epistomatal waxes of needles from the CA + 2 x O 3 treatment had an occluded appearance. This phenomenon may be caused by earlier phenological development of needles from the high-ozone treatments and disturbed development and synthesis of waxes. It may also be caused by chemical degradation of waxes by exposures to high ozone concentrations. (orig.)

  9. A Data Mining Approach to Improve Inorganic Characterization of Amanita ponderosa Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Salvador

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura. Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data.

  10. A Data Mining Approach to Improve Inorganic Characterization of Amanita ponderosa Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Cátia; Martins, M Rosário; Vicente, Henrique; Caldeira, A Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura). Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data.

  11. Moisture-driven xylogenesis in Pinus ponderosa from a Mojave Desert mountain reveals high phenological plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaco, Emanuele; Truettner, Charles; Biondi, Franco; Bullock, Sarah

    2018-04-01

    Future seasonal dynamics of wood formation in hyperarid environments are still unclear. Although temperature-driven extension of the growing season and increased forest productivity are expected for boreal and temperate biomes under global warming, a similar trend remains questionable in water-limited regions. We monitored cambial activity in a montane stand of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from the Mojave Desert for 2 consecutive years (2015-2016) showing opposite-sign anomalies between warm- and cold-season precipitation. After the wet winter/spring of 2016, xylogenesis started 2 months earlier compared to 2015, characterized by abundant monsoonal (July-August) rainfall and hyperarid spring. Tree size did not influence the onset and ending of wood formation, highlighting a predominant climatic control over xylem phenological processes. Moisture conditions in the previous month, in particular soil water content and dew point, were the main drivers of cambial phenology. Latewood formation started roughly at the same time in both years; however, monsoonal precipitation triggered the formation of more false rings and density fluctuations in 2015. Because of uncertainties in future precipitation patterns simulated by global change models for the Southwestern United States, the dependency of P. ponderosa on seasonal moisture implies a greater conservation challenge than for species that respond mostly to temperature conditions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Importance of resin ducts in reducing ponderosa pine mortality from bark beetle attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jeffrey M; Kolb, Thomas E

    2010-11-01

    The relative importance of growth and defense to tree mortality during drought and bark beetle attacks is poorly understood. We addressed this issue by comparing growth and defense characteristics between 25 pairs of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees that survived and trees that died from drought-associated bark beetle attacks in forests of northern Arizona, USA. The three major findings of our research were: (1) xylem resin ducts in live trees were >10% larger (diameter), >25% denser (no. of resin ducts mm(-2)), and composed >50% more area per unit ring growth than dead trees; (2) measures of defense, such as resin duct production (no. of resin ducts year(-1)) and the proportion of xylem ring area to resin ducts, not growth, were the best model parameters of ponderosa pine mortality; and (3) most correlations between annual variation in growth and resin duct characteristics were positive suggesting that conditions conducive to growth also increase resin duct production. Our results suggest that trees that survive drought and subsequent bark beetle attacks invest more carbon in resin defense than trees that die, and that carbon allocation to resin ducts is a more important determinant of tree mortality than allocation to radial growth.

  13. A decadal glimpse on climate and burn severity influences on ponderosa pine post-fire recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newingham, B. A.; Hudak, A. T.; Bright, B. C.; Smith, A.; Khalyani, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to affect plants at the margins of their distribution. Thus, ecosystem recovery after fire is likely to vary with climate and may be slowest in drier and hotter areas. However, fire regime characteristics, including burn severity, may also affect vegetation recovery. We assessed vegetation recovery one and 9-15 years post-fire in North American ponderosa pine ecosystems distributed across climate and burn severity gradients. Using climate predictors derived from downscaled 1993-2011 climate normals, we predicted vegetation recovery as indicated by Normalized Burn Ratio derived from 1984-2012 Landsat time series imagery. Additionally, we collected field vegetation measurements to examine local topographic controls on burn severity and post-fire vegetation recovery. At a regional scale, we hypothesized a positive relationship between precipitation and recovery time and a negative relationship between temperature and recovery time. At the local scale, we hypothesized southern aspects to recovery slower than northern aspects. We also predicted higher burn severity to slow recovery. Field data found attenuated ponderosa pine recovery in hotter and drier regions across all burn severity classes. We concluded that downscaled climate data and Landsat imagery collected at commensurate scales may provide insight into climate effects on post-fire vegetation recovery relevant to ponderosa pine forest managers.

  14. User guide for HCR Estimator 2.0: software to calculate cost and revenue thresholds for harvesting small-diameter ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Debra Larson; Eini C. Lowell; Robert B. Rummer

    2008-01-01

    The HCR (Harvest Cost-Revenue) Estimator is engineering and financial analysis software used to evaluate stand-level financial thresholds for harvesting small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) in the Southwest United States. The Windows-based program helps contractors and planners to identify costs associated with tree...

  15. Overstory Tree Mortality in Ponderosa Pine and Spruce-Fir Ecosystems Following a Drought in Northern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Oswald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought-caused tree dieback is an issue around the world as climates change and many areas become dryer and hotter. A drought from 1998–2004 resulted in a significant tree dieback event in many of the wooded areas in portions of the Jemez Mountains and the adjacent Pajarito Plateau in northern New Mexico. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and quantify the differences in tree mortality before and after a recent drought in ponderosa pine and spruce-fir ecosystems, and to assess the effect of mechanical thinning on ponderosa pine mortality. Significant increases in mortality were observed in the unthinned ponderosa pine ecosystem. Mortality varied significantly between species and within size classes. Mechanical thinning of ponderosa pines reduced overstory mortality to non-significant levels. A lack of rainfall, snowfall, and increases in daily minimum temperature contributed most to the mortality. Adaptive management, including the use of thinning activities, appear to moderate the impact of climate change on ponderosa pine forests in this region, increasing the long-term health of the ecosystem. The impact of climate change on the spruce-fir ecosystems may accelerate successional changes.

  16. 87Sr/86Sr sourcing of ponderosa pine used in Anasazi great house construction at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amanda C.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Quade, Jay; Patchett, P. Jonathan; Dean, Jeffery S.; Stein, John

    2005-01-01

    Previous analysis of 87Sr/86Sr ratios shows that 10th through 12th century Chaco Canyon was provisioned with plant materials that came from more than 75 km away. This includes (1) corn (Zea mays) grown on the eastern flanks of the Chuska Mountains and floodplain of the San Juan River to the west and north, and (2) spruce (Picea sp.) and fir (Abies sp.) beams from the crest of the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains to the west and south. Here, we extend 87Sr/86Sr analysis to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) prevalent in the architectural timber at three of the Chacoan great houses (Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo del Arroyo). Like the architectural spruce and fir, much of the ponderosa matches the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of living trees in the Chuska Mountains. Many of the architectural ponderosa, however, have similar ratios to living trees in the La Plata and San Juan Mountains to the north and Lobo Mesa/Hosta Butte to the south. There are no systematic patterns in spruce/fir or ponderosa provenance by great house or time, suggesting the use of stockpiles from a few preferred sources. The multiple and distant sources for food and timber, now based on hundreds of isotopic values from modern and archeological samples, confirm conventional wisdom about the geographic scope of the larger Chacoan system. The complexity of this procurement warns against simple generalizations based on just one species, a single class of botanical artifact, or a few isotopic values.

  17. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    OpenAIRE

    MOREIRA, M.D.; PICANÇO, M.C.; BARBOSA, L.C. de A.; GUEDES, R.N.C.; CAMPOS, M.R. de; SILVA, G.A.; MARTINS, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed...

  18. Geographic variation in bacterial communities associated with the red turpentine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron S. Adams; Sandye M. Adams; Cameron R. Currie; Nancy E. Gillette; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial communities are known to play important roles in insect life histories, yet their consistency or variation across populations is poorly understood. Bacteria associated with the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens LeConte from eight populations, ranging from Wisconsin to Oregon, were evaluated and compared. We used the culture-independent technique of denaturing...

  19. Two species within Dedroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): evidence from morphological, karyological, molecular, and crossing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Armendariz-Toledano; Alicia Nino; Brian Sullivan; Jorge Macias-Samano; Javier Victor; Stephen R. Clarke; Gerardo Zuniga

    2014-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann is considered one of the most important economic and ecological forest pests in the United States, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, two apparent morphological variants of this species were discovered occurring syntopically in Central America and southern Mexico. Morphotype A beetles lack a series of Þne parallel ridges on the...

  20. Sex- and Size-Related Patterns of Carrion Visitation in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2017-09-01

    The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on successional patterns of adult insects is largely limited, due to the lack of potential PMI markers. Sex and size of adult insects could be easily used for such estimation. In this study, sex- and size-related patterns of carrion attendance by adult insects were analyzed in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). For both species, abundance of males and females changed similarly during decomposition. A slightly female-biased sex ratio was recorded in N. littoralis. Females of N. littoralis started visiting carcasses, on average, one day earlier than males. There was a rise in size of males of N. littoralis at the end of decomposition, whereas for females of both species and males of C. maxillosus, no size-related patterns of carrion visitation were found. Current results demonstrate that size and sex of adult carrion beetles are poor indicators of PMI. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Estados inmaduros de Ancognatha ustulata (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini Immature stages of Ancognatha ustulata (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon César Neita-Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen y se ilustran por primera vez la larva de tercer estadio y la pupa de Ancognatha ustulata Burmeister, 1847 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini. Se aportan datos sobre la biología de la especie y su distribución en Colombia. Se proporciona una clave para la identificación de las larvas de tercer estadio conocidas de las especies del género Ancognatha Erichson.The third instar larva and pupa of Ancognatha ustulata Burmeister, 1847 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini are described and illustrated for the first time. New data on larval biology and distribution of the species in Colombia are included. A key to the known third stage larvae of Ancognatha Erichson is provided.

  2. Climate Drives Episodic Conifer Establishment after Fire in Dry Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica T. Rother

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, warming climate and increased fire activity have raised concern about post-fire recovery of western U.S. forests. We assessed relationships between climate variability and tree establishment after fire in dry ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. We harvested and aged over 400 post-fire juvenile ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii trees using an improved tree-ring based approach that yielded annually-resolved dates and then assessed relationships between climate variability and pulses of tree establishment. We found that tree establishment was largely concentrated in years of above-average moisture availability in the growing season, including higher amounts of precipitation and more positive values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Under continued climate change, drier conditions associated with warming temperatures may limit forest recovery after fire, which could result in lower stand densities or shifts to non-forested vegetation in some areas.

  3. Importance of log size on host selection and reproductive success of Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in ponderosa pine slash of northern Arizona and western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytten E. Steed; Michael R. Wagner

    2004-01-01

    Pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), often use thinning slash, and their populations are known to be influenced by the condition of this material. In our study, we evaluated the importance of three log diameters (5, 10, and 20 cm) and three lengths (60, 120, and 240 cm) on various parameters of bark beetle host attack, development, and emergence....

  4. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes

  5. Family-Group Names In Coleoptera (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bouchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names: Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. n. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae, Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae, Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae, Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae; Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein syn. n. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy syn. n. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae, Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein syn. n. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae, Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species

  6. Gene expression analysis of overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae suggests multiple systems involved in overwintering stress, cold hardiness, and preparation for spring development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-induced mortality has historically been a key aspect of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, population control, but little is known about the molecular basis for cold tolerance in this insect. We used RNA-seq analysis to monitor gene expression patterns of mountain pine beetle larvae at four time points during their overwintering period—early-autumn, late-autumn, early-spring, and late-spring. Changing transcript profiles over the winter indicates a multipronged physiological response from larvae that is broadly characterized by gene transcripts involved in insect immune responses and detoxification during the autumn. In the spring, although transcripts associated with developmental process are present, there was no particular biological process dominating the transcriptome.

  7. Quantum Yields in Mixed-Conifer Forests and Ponderosa Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L.; Marshall, J. D.; Zhang, J.

    2008-12-01

    Most process-based physiological models require canopy quantum yield of photosynthesis as a starting point to simulate carbon sequestration and subsequently gross primary production (GPP). The quantum yield is a measure of photosynthetic efficiency expressed in moles of CO2 assimilated per mole of photons absorbed; the process is influenced by environmental factors. In the summer 2008, we measured quantum yields on both sun and shade leaves for four conifer species at five sites within Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in northern Idaho and one conifer species at three sites in northern California. The MCEW forest is typical of mixed conifer stands dominated by grand fir (Abies grandis (Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl.). In northern California, the three sites with contrasting site qualities are ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson var. ponderosa) plantations that were experimentally treated with vegetation control, fertilization, and a combination of both. We found that quantum yields in MCEW ranged from ~0.045 to ~0.075 mol CO2 per mol incident photon. However, there were no significant differences between canopy positions, or among sites or tree species. In northern California, the mean value of quantum yield of three sites was 0.051 mol CO2/mol incident photon. No significant difference in quantum yield was found between canopy positions, or among treatments or sites. The results suggest that these conifer species maintain relatively consistent quantum yield in both MCEW and northern California. This consistency simplifies the use of a process-based model to accurately predict forest productivity in these areas.

  8. Recovery of ponderosa pine ecosystem carbon and water fluxes from thinning and stand-replacing fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Sabina; Montes-Helu, Mario; Hart, Stephen C; Hungate, Bruce A; Koch, George W; Moon, John B; Finkral, Alex J; Kolb, Thomas E

    2012-10-01

    Carbon uptake by forests is a major sink in the global carbon cycle, helping buffer the rising concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere, yet the potential for future carbon uptake by forests is uncertain. Climate warming and drought can reduce forest carbon uptake by reducing photosynthesis, increasing respiration, and by increasing the frequency and intensity of wildfires, leading to large releases of stored carbon. Five years of eddy covariance measurements in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)-dominated ecosystem in northern Arizona showed that an intense wildfire that converted forest into sparse grassland shifted site carbon balance from sink to source for at least 15 years after burning. In contrast, recovery of carbon sink strength after thinning, a management practice used to reduce the likelihood of intense wildfires, was rapid. Comparisons between an undisturbed-control site and an experimentally thinned site showed that thinning reduced carbon sink strength only for the first two posttreatment years. In the third and fourth posttreatment years, annual carbon sink strength of the thinned site was higher than the undisturbed site because thinning reduced aridity and drought limitation to carbon uptake. As a result, annual maximum gross primary production occurred when temperature was 3 °C higher at the thinned site compared with the undisturbed site. The severe fire consistently reduced annual evapotranspiration (range of 12-30%), whereas effects of thinning were smaller and transient, and could not be detected in the fourth year after thinning. Our results show large and persistent effects of intense fire and minor and short-lived effects of thinning on southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystem carbon and water exchanges. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Stand-replacing wildfires increase nitrification for decades in southwestern ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Valerie J; Hart, Stephen C; Ross, Christopher S; Kaye, Jason P; Fulé, Peter Z

    2014-05-01

    Stand-replacing wildfires are a novel disturbance within ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of the southwestern United States, and they can convert forests to grasslands or shrublands for decades. While most research shows that soil inorganic N pools and fluxes return to pre-fire levels within a few years, we wondered if vegetation conversion (ponderosa pine to bunchgrass) following stand-replacing fires might be accompanied by a long-term shift in N cycling processes. Using a 34-year stand-replacing wildfire chronosequence with paired, adjacent unburned patches, we examined the long-term dynamics of net and gross nitrogen (N) transformations. We hypothesized that N availability in burned patches would become more similar to those in unburned patches over time after fire as these areas become re-vegetated. Burned patches had higher net and gross nitrification rates than unburned patches (P < 0.01 for both), and nitrification accounted for a greater proportion of N mineralization in burned patches for both net (P < 0.01) and gross (P < 0.04) N transformation measurements. However, trends with time-after-fire were not observed for any other variables. Our findings contrast with previous work, which suggested that high nitrification rates are a short-term response to disturbance. Furthermore, high nitrification rates at our site were not simply correlated with the presence of herbaceous vegetation. Instead, we suggest that stand-replacing wildfire triggers a shift in N cycling that is maintained for at least three decades by various factors, including a shift from a woody to an herbaceous ecosystem and the presence of fire-deposited charcoal.

  10. Partitioning of water flux in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpius, M.R.; Panek, J.A.; Nikolov, N.T.; McKay, M.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2003-01-01

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus ponderosa) in this region. To investigate how year-round water fluxes were partitioned in a young ponderosa pine ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, water fluxes were continually measured from June 2000 to May 2001 using a combination of sap flow and eddy covariance techniques (above- and below-canopy). Water fluxes were modeled at our study site using a biophysical model, FORFLUX. During summer and fall water fluxes were equally partitioned between transpiration and soil evaporation while transpiration dominated the water fluxes in winter and spring. The trees had high rates of canopy conductance and transpiration in the early morning and mid-late afternoon and a mid-day depression during the dry season. We used a diurnal centroid analysis to show that the timing of high canopy conductance and transpiration relative to high vapor pressure deficit (D) shifted with soil moisture: during periods of low soil moisture canopy conductance and transpiration peaked early in the day when D was low. Conversely, during periods of high soil moisture canopy conductance and transpiration peaked at the same time or later in the day than D. Our observations suggest a general strategy by the pine trees in which they maximize stomatal conductance, and therefore carbon fixation, throughout the day on warm sunny days with high soil moisture (i.e. warm periods in winter and late spring) and maximize stomatal conductance and carbon fixation in the morning through the dry periods. FORFLUX model estimates of evaporation and transpiration were close to measured/calculated values during the dry period, including the drought, but underestimated transpiration and overestimated evaporation during the wet period. ?? 2003

  11. Testing a hydraulic trait based model of stomatal control: results from a controlled drought experiment on aspen (Populus tremuloides, Michx.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Douglas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, D. M.; Venturas, M.; Sperry, J.; Wang, Y.; Anderegg, W.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling approaches for tree stomatal control often rely on empirical fitting to provide accurate estimates of whole tree transpiration (E) and assimilation (A), which are limited in their predictive power by the data envelope used to calibrate model parameters. Optimization based models hold promise as a means to predict stomatal behavior under novel climate conditions. We designed an experiment to test a hydraulic trait based optimization model, which predicts stomatal conductance from a gain/risk approach. Optimal stomatal conductance is expected to maximize the potential carbon gain by photosynthesis, and minimize the risk to hydraulic transport imposed by cavitation. The modeled risk to the hydraulic network is assessed from cavitation vulnerability curves, a commonly measured physiological trait in woody plant species. Over a growing season garden grown plots of aspen (Populus tremuloides, Michx.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Douglas) were subjected to three distinct drought treatments (moderate, severe, severe with rehydration) relative to a control plot to test model predictions. Model outputs of predicted E, A, and xylem pressure can be directly compared to both continuous data (whole tree sapflux, soil moisture) and point measurements (leaf level E, A, xylem pressure). The model also predicts levels of whole tree hydraulic impairment expected to increase mortality risk. This threshold is used to estimate survivorship in the drought treatment plots. The model can be run at two scales, either entirely from climate (meteorological inputs, irrigation) or using the physiological measurements as a starting point. These data will be used to study model performance and utility, and aid in developing the model for larger scale applications.

  12. Densidad de la madera de Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws) en tres localidades de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    JOVANOVSKI, A; JARAMILLO, M; LOGUERCIO, G; ANTEQUERA, S

    2002-01-01

    Se estudió el ancho de anillo, la densidad básica de la madera y su variación y la relación entre ancho de anillo y densidad en Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex. Laws) creciendo en tres localidades de la Patagonia andina argentina. El ancho de anillo obtenido se corresponde con una conífera de rápido crecimiento, mientras que la densidad media es levemente menor que la de la especie creciendo en los sitios de origen en Estados Unidos. Ring-width growth, wood specific gravity and its variation, a...

  13. Influence of mountain pine beetle epidemic on winter habitat conditions for Merriam's turkeys: Management implications for current and future condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick P. Lehman; Mark A. Rumble; Michael A. Battaglia; Todd R. Mills; Lance A. Asherin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding response of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest development following a mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has important management implications for winter habitat conditions for Merriam’s wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami; hereafter, turkeys). Therefore, we quantified habitat changes over time for turkeys...

  14. Diesel fuel oil for increasing mountain pine beetle mortality in felled logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Mata; J. M. Schmid; D. A. Leatherman

    2002-01-01

    Diesel fuel oil was applied to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested bolts of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) in early June. Just prior to the fuel oil application and 6 weeks later, 0.5 ft2 bark samples were removed from each bolt and the numbers of live beetles counted....

  15. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larval development and predation of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samita Limbu; Melody A. Keena; David Long; Nancy Ostiguy; Kelli. Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera:...

  16. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  17. Aggregation pheromone compounds of the black larder beetle Dermestes haemorrhoidalis Kuster (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korada, R.R.; Griepink, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Gas chromatography with simultaneous flame ionisation and electroantennographic detection (GCEAD) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis (GCMS) of abdominal extracts of adult male Dermestes haemorrhoidalis Kuster (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) revealed the presence of

  18. A predictive distribution model for Graphoderus bilineatus in the Netherlands (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierdsema, H.; Cuppen, J.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Een voorspellend verspreidingsmodel voor de gestreepte waterroofkever Graphoderus bilineatus in Nederland (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) Op verzoek van de Provincie Zuid-Holland en het Ministerie van lnv is het huidige voorkomen en de biotoopvoorkeur van de gestreepte waterroofkever Graphoderus bilineatus

  19. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  20. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  1. Silvicultural systems and cutting methods for ponderosa pine forests in the Front Range of the central Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Alexander

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines are provided to help forest managers and silviculturists develop even- and/or uneven-aged cutting practices needed to convert old-growth and mixed ponderosa pine forests in the Front Range into managed stands for a variety of resource needs. Guidelines consider stand conditions, and insect and disease susceptibility. Cutting practices are designed to...

  2. Economics of thinning stagnated ponderosa pine sapling stands in the pine-grass areas of central Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Sassaman; James W. Barrett; Justin G. Smith

    1972-01-01

    Present net worth values earned by investments in precommercial thinning of stagnated ponderosa pine sapling stands are reported for three stocking levels. Thirteen timber management regimes are ranked by their returns from timber only, and 22 regimes are ranked according to their returns from timber and forage, with and without the allowable cut effect.

  3. Methods of cutting ponderosa pine in the Southwest - Establishment report: Even-aged yield study, Plot 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert

    1963-01-01

    The objectie of the study is to obtain information on the growth and yield of even-aged stands of different stocking levels. The plot will also serve as the start of a detailed growing stock study for the ponderosa pine region.

  4. CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON FINE ROOT LENGTH, PRODUCTION, AND MORTALITY: A 4-YEAR PONDEROSA PINE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a 4-year study of Pinus ponderosa fine root (<2 mm) responses to atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers at 3 CO2 levels (ambient, ambient+175 mol/mol, ambient+350 mol/mol) and 3 N-fertilization levels (0, 10, 20 g?m-2?yr-1). ...

  5. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  6. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION ON FINE ROOT DYNAMICS AND FUNGAL GROWTH IN SEEDLING PINUS PONDEROSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of elevated CO-2 and N fertilization on fine root growth of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. C. Laws., grown in native soil in open-top field-exposure chambers at Placerville, CA, were monitored for a 2-year period using minirhizotrons. The experimental design was a...

  7. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-02-16

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF 'donor' and ponderosa pine 'receiver' seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance.

  8. Soil pCO2, soil respiration, and root activity in CO2 - fumigated and nitrogen-fertilized ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale Johnson; Donn Geisinger; Roger Walker; John Newman; James Vose; Katherine Elliott; Timothy Ball

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the effects of C02 and N treatments on soil pC02, calculated CO2 efflux, root biomass and soil carbon in open-top chambers planted with Pinus ponderosa seedlings. Based upon the literature, it was hypothesized that both elevated CO...

  9. Abundance and characteristics of lignin liquid intermediates in wood (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) during hot water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Manuel Garcia-Perez; Eini Lowell

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of the conditions of hot water extraction (HWE) on abundance, properties, and structure of lignin depolymerization products. HWE of extracted softwood (ponderosa pine) was conducted using temperatures from 140 to 320°C for 90 min. HWE materials were then subjected to a soxhlet...

  10. Simulating historical disturbance regimes and stand structures in old-forest ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Hillis; Vick Applegate; Steve Slaughter; Michael G. Harrington; Helen Smith

    2001-01-01

    Forest Service land managers, with the collaborative assistance from research, applied a disturbance based restoration strategy to rehabilitate a greatly-altered, high risk Northern Rocky Mountain old-forest ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir stand. Age-class structure and fire history for the site have been documented in two research papers (Arno and others 1995, 1997)....

  11. Spatial variability of surface fuels in treated and untreated ponderosa pine forests of the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma Vakili; Chad M. Hoffman; Robert E. Keane; Wade T. Tinkham; Yvette Dickinson

    2016-01-01

    There is growing consensus that spatial variability in fuel loading at scales down to 0.5 m may govern fire behaviour and effects. However, there remains a lack of understanding of how fuels vary through space in wildland settings. This study quantifies surface fuel loading and its spatial variability in ponderosa pine sites before and after fuels treatment in the...

  12. Two-dimensional heat flow analysis applied to heat sterilization of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir square timbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson

    2004-01-01

    Equations for a two-dimensional finite difference heat flow analysis were developed and applied to ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir square timbers to calculate the time required to heat the center of the squares to target temperature. The squares were solid piled, which made their surfaces inaccessible to the heating air, and thus surface temperatures failed to attain...

  13. Primer registro de Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) en el Perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante-Navarrete, Abdhiel; Marquina-Montesinos, Edgar Luis; Elme-Tumpay, Araseli

    2017-01-01

    First report of Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Peru. The first record of Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Peru is reported, which also constitutes the highest record of the species. This introduced species is already established in the rest of the continent, but its presence in Peru is confirmed in this contribution. A distribution map and a key to distinguish the two species of this genus present in Peru are presented.

  14. Biologi Hama Kumbang Penggerek Pucuk Kelapa Sawit (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Di Rumah Kassa

    OpenAIRE

    Sejahtra, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Ahmad Sejahtra, "BIOLOGY SHOOT BORERS BEETLE PEST OF COCONUT PALM (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) AT KASSA HOUSE", Under supervised by Ms Marheni and Ms Fatima Zahara. This study aims to determine biological pest of oil palm bud weevil (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) at home kassa. The experiment was conducted on people's plantations in PERUMNAS Simalingkar starting from September 2010 until April 2011. Research using observational methods for this resear...

  15. Pheromone Production by an Invasive Bark Beetle Varies with Monoterpene Composition of its Naïve Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-06-01

    The secondary chemistry of host plants can have cascading impacts on the establishment of new insect herbivore populations, their long-term population dynamics, and their invasion potential in novel habitats. Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has recently expanded its range into forests of jack pine, Pinus banksiana Lamb., in western Canada. We investigated whether variations in jack pine monoterpenes affect beetle pheromone production, as the primary components of the beetle's aggregation pheromone, (-)-trans-verbenol and anti-aggregation pheromone (-)-verbenone, are biosynthesized from the host monoterpene α-pinene. Jack pine bolts were collected from five Canadian provinces east of the beetle's current range, live D. ponderosae were introduced into them, and their monoterpene compositions were characterized. Production of (-)-trans-verbenol and (-)-verbenone emitted by beetles was measured to determine whether pheromone production varies with monoterpene composition of jack pines. Depending on particular ratios of major monoterpenes in host phloem, jack pine could be classified into three monoterpenoid groups characterized by high amounts of (+)-α-pinene, 3-carene, or a more moderate blend of monoterpenes, and beetle pheromone production varied among these groups. Specifically, beetles reared in trees characterized by high (+)-α-pinene produced the most (-)-trans-verbenol and (-)-verbenone, while beetles in trees characterized by high 3-carene produced the least. Our results indicate that pheromone production by D. ponderosae will remain a significant aspect and important predictor of its survival and persistence in the boreal forest.

  16. Maize, switchgrass, and ponderosa pine biochar added to soil increased herbicide sorption and decreased herbicide efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Sharon A; Krack, Kaitlynn K; Bruggeman, Stephanie A; Papiernik, Sharon; Schumacher, Thomas E

    2016-08-02

    Biochar, a by-product of pyrolysis made from a wide array of plant biomass when producing biofuels, is a proposed soil amendment to improve soil health. This study measured herbicide sorption and efficacy when soils were treated with low (1% w/w) or high (10% w/w) amounts of biochar manufactured from different feedstocks [maize (Zea mays) stover, switchgrass (Panicum vigatum), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)], and treated with different post-processing techniques. Twenty-four hour batch equilibration measured sorption of (14)C-labelled atrazine or 2,4-D to two soil types with and without biochar amendments. Herbicide efficacy was measured with and without biochar using speed of seed germination tests of sensitive species. Biochar amended soils sorbed more herbicide than untreated soils, with major differences due to biochar application rate but minor differences due to biochar type or post-process handling technique. Biochar presence increased the speed of seed germination compared with herbicide alone addition. These data indicate that biochar addition to soil can increase herbicide sorption and reduce efficacy. Evaluation for site-specific biochar applications may be warranted to obtain maximal benefits without compromising other agronomic practices.

  17. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO 2 responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO 2 responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO 2 responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO 2 exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO 2 scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  18. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.; Helms, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment

  19. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO{sub 2} responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO{sub 2} responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO{sub 2} responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO{sub 2} exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO{sub 2} scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  20. Making a stand: five centuries of population growth in colonizing populations of Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Mark R; Jackson, Stephen T

    2012-05-01

    The processes underlying the development of new populations are important for understanding how species colonize new territory and form viable long-term populations. Life-history-mediated processes such as Allee effects and dispersal capability may interact with climate variability and site-specific factors to govern population success and failure over extended time frames. We studied four disjunct populations of ponderosa pine in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming to examine population growth spanning more than five centuries. The study populations are separated from continuous ponderosa pine forest by distances ranging from 15 to >100 km. Strong evidence indicates that the initial colonizing individuals are still present, yielding a nearly complete record of population history. All trees in each population were aged using dendroecological techniques. The populations were all founded between 1530 and 1655 cal yr CE. All show logistic growth patterns, with initial exponential growth followed by a slowing during the mid to late 20th century. Initial population growth was slower than expectations from a logistic regression model at all four populations, but increased during the mid-18th century. Initial lags in population growth may have been due to strong Allee effects. A combination of overcoming Allee effects and a transition to favorable climate conditions may have facilitated a mid-18th century pulse in population growth rate.

  1. Elevated CO2 and O3 effects on fine-root survivorship in ponderosa pine mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Donald L; Johnson, Mark G; Tingey, David T; Storm, Marjorie J

    2009-07-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations are rising, which may have opposing effects on tree C balance and allocation to fine roots. More information is needed on interactive CO(2) and O(3) effects on roots, particularly fine-root life span, a critical demographic parameter and determinant of soil C and N pools and cycling rates. We conducted a study in which ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings were exposed to two levels of CO(2) and O(3) in sun-lit controlled-environment mesocosms for 3 years. Minirhizotrons were used to monitor individual fine roots in three soil horizons every 28 days. Proportional hazards regression was used to analyze effects of CO(2), O(3), diameter, depth, and season of root initiation on fine-root survivorship. More fine roots were produced in the elevated CO(2) treatment than in ambient CO(2). Elevated CO(2), increasing root diameter, and increasing root depth all significantly increased fine-root survivorship and median life span. Life span was slightly, but not significantly, lower in elevated O(3), and increased O(3) did not reduce the effect of elevated CO(2). Median life spans varied from 140 to 448 days depending on the season of root initiation. These results indicate the potential for elevated CO(2) to increase the number of fine roots and their residence time in the soil, which is also affected by root diameter, root depth, and phenology.

  2. Hydraulic redistribution of water from Pinus ponderosa trees to seedlings: evidence for an ectomycorrhizal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Brooks, J Renée; Meinzer, Frederick C; Eberhart, Joyce L

    2008-01-01

    While there is strong evidence for hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by trees, it is not known if common mycorrhizal networks (CMN) can facilitate HR from mature trees to seedlings under field conditions. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings were planted into root-excluding 61-microm mesh barrier chambers buried in an old-growth pine forest. After 2 yr, several mature trees were cut and water enriched in D(2)O and acid fuchsin dye was applied to the stumps. Fine roots and mycorrhizal root tips of source trees became heavily dyed, indicating reverse sap flow in root xylem transported water from stems throughout root systems to the root hyphal mantle that interfaces with CMN. Within 3 d, D(2)O was found in mesh-chamber seedling foliage > 1 m from source trees; after 3 wk, eight of 10 mesh-chamber seedling stem samples were significantly enriched above background levels. Average mesh-chamber enrichment was 1.8 x greater than that for two seedlings for which the connections to CMN were broken by trenching before D(2)O application. Even small amounts of water provided to mycorrhizas by HR may maintain hyphal viability and facilitate nutrient uptake under drying conditions, which may provide an advantage to seedlings hydraulically linked by CMN to large trees.

  3. Height-related growth declines in ponderosa pine are not due to carbon limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Anna; Hoch, Günter

    2009-01-01

    Decreased gas exchange as trees grow tall has been proposed to explain age-related growth declines in trees. We examined changes of mobile carbon stores (starch, sugars and lipids) with tree height in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) at two sites differing in water availability, and tested the following hypotheses: (1) carbon supply does not become increasingly limited as trees grow tall; rather, the concentration of mobile carbon compounds increases with tree height reflecting greater reductions of carbon sink activities relative to carbon assimilation; and (2) increases of stored mobile carbon compounds with tree height are greater in drier sites. Height-related growth reductions were associated with significant increases of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and lipid concentrations in all tissues in the upper canopy and of NSC in the bole. Lipid concentrations in the bole decreased with tree height, but such decrease is not necessarily inconsistent with non-limiting carbon supply in tall trees. Furthermore, we found stronger increases of mobile carbon stores with tree height at the dry site relative to the moist site. Our results provide first direct evidence that carbon supply does not limit growth in tall trees and that decreases of water availability might negatively impact growth processes more than net-photosynthesis.

  4. Trends in Pinus ponderosa foliar pigment concentration due to chronic exposure of ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, L.; Houpis, J.; Anderson, P.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effects of ozone and acid rain on mature Ponderosa pine trees, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. has collaborated with University of California Berkeley, University of California Davis, California State University Chico, and the US Forest Service at the latter's Chico Tree Improvement Center. Foliar tissue from mature grafted scions of Pinus ponderosa were exposed to two times ambient ozone for ten months and to acid rain (3.0 pH) weekly for 10 weeks using branch exposure chambers. Pigment extracts were analyzed spectrophotometrically for concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid pigments, at 662 nm, 644 nm, and 470 nm, respectively. Pigment concentrations were expressed on a surface area basis. Preliminary results revealed that chlorophyll a showed a downward trend due to the ozone treatment. Acid rain caused no effects on these three pigments, however, chlorophyll b showed an upward trend due to the interaction of ozone and acid rain. The carotenoid pigments showed no changes due to the treatments either singly, or in combination

  5. Spatial pattern of allozyme variation in a contact zone of Pinus Ponderosa and P. arizonica (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Bryan K; Chung, Myong Gi; Telewski, Frank W

    2003-01-01

    The spatial distribution of genotypes for nine polymorphic allozyme loci was examined in a contact zone between Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum and another tree regarded as either a separate species, Pinus arizonica, or variety, Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica, in southern Arizona. Previous work had identified a steep elevational cline for a key taxonomic trait, number of leaf-needles per fascicle, on the south slope of Mt. Lemmon. The present results indicate that the taxa are not fully interbreeding in this contact zone, because allozyme genotypes are considerably more spatially structured than expected for the dispersal characteristics of pines. The amount of spatial differentiation is also much less than that observed for needle number. It appears that this is due to the lack of differentiation for allozyme gene frequencies for the two types of trees, which is further evidenced by analysis of samples from two other populations away from the contact zone. It is likely that if the two taxa were isolated in the past, it was not for long enough nor complete enough to allow mutation-drift to create substantial differentiation between them. Another possible explanation is that introgression after recontact is so advanced that any differences have been erased throughout the Santa Catalina mountain range.

  6. The tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Figueroa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the occurrence of the tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru based on the collection at Museo de Historia Natural of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and on data provided in literature. Each species is presented with citations of its diagnosis, distribution and related comments. Peruvian Phanaeini includes 30 species in nine genera: Coprophanaeus, Dendropaemon, Gromphas, Oruscatus, Oxysternon, Phanaeus, Sulcophanaeus, Tetramereia and Megatharsis. Oruscatus davus is the only species distributed in the high Andes; Phanaeus lunaris and P. achilles occur in the northern arid zone shared by Peru and Ecuador; the remaining species are Amazonian.

  7. Papel dos besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera na Entomologia Forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Emanuel dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho apresenta uma revisão do papel que os besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera desempenham na Entomologia Forense. Discussões sobre ocorrência em cadáveres humanos e carcaças animais, estimativas de Intervalo Pós-Morte (IPM, estudos realizados no Brasil e em outros países, principais famílias de importância forense e aspectos biológicos, ecológicos e biogeográficos das espécies são apresentadas.

  8. Checklist of beetles (Coleoptera of Canada and Alaska. Second edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All 8237 species-group taxa of Coleoptera known to occur in Canada and Alaska are recorded by province/territory or state, along with their author(s and year of publication, in a classification framework. Only presence of taxa in each Canadian province or territory and Alaska is noted. Labrador is considered a distinct geographical entity. Adventive and Holarctic species-group taxa are indicated. References to pertinent identification keys are given under the corresponding supraspecific taxa in the data archive.

  9. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  10. Revision of the genus Endochilus Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łączyński, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The members of the endemic African genus EndochilusWeise, 1898 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini) are redescribed, diagnosed, and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Endochilus compater Weise, Endochilus minor Weise, Endochilus plagiatus Sicard, Endochilus rubicundus Weise, and Endochilus styx Sicard. One new species is described: Endochilus abdominalissp. nov. Notes on the genus and nomenclatural history for each species are provided. A key for iden- tification of all species is presented. Adult characters concerning similarities of Endochilus to other genera of African Chilocorini are discussed. PMID:25373218

  11. Climate change will restrict ponderosa pine forest regeneration in the 21st century in absence of disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, M. D.; Bradford, J. B.; Hubbard, R. M.; Lauenroth, W. K.; Andrews, C.

    2016-12-01

    The persistence of ponderosa pine forests and the ability for these forests to colonize new habitats in the 21st century will be influenced by how climate change supports ponderosa pine regeneration through the demographic processes of seed production, germination and survival. Yet, the way that climate change may support or restrict the frequency of successful regeneration is unclear. We developed a quantitative, criteria-based framework to estimate ponderosa pine regeneration potential (RP: a metric from 0-1) in response to climate forcings and environmental conditions. We used the SOILWAT ecosystem water balance model to simulate drivers of air and soil temperature, evaporation and soil moisture availability for 47 ponderosa pine sites across the western United States, using meteorological data from 1910-2014, and projections from nine General Circulation Models and the RCP 8.5 emissions scenario for 2020-2099. Climate change simulations increased the success of early developmental stages of seed production and germination, and supported 49.7% higher RP in 2020-2059 compared to averages from 1910-2014. As temperatures increased in 2060-2099, survival scores decreased, and RP was reduced by 50.3% compared to 1910-2014. Although the frequency of years with high RP did not change in 2060-2099 (12% of years), the frequency of years with very low RP increased from 25% to 58% of years. Thus, climate change will initially support higher RP and more favorable years in 2020-2059, yet will reduce average RP and the frequency of years with moderate regeneration support in 2060-2099. Forest regeneration is complex and not fully-understood, but our results suggest it is likely that climate change alone will instigate restrictions to the persistence and expansion of ponderosa pine in the 21st century.

  12. Bio-filtration capacity, oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion of Dosinia ponderosa and Chione gnidia (Veneroida: Veneridae) from areas impacted and non-impacted by shrimp aquaculture effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Corella, Karime; Martínez-Córdova, Luis Rafael; Enríquez-Ocaña, Luis Fernando; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; López-Elías, José Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Mollusks are some of the most important, abundant and diverse organisms inhabiting not only aquatic ecosystems, but also terrestrial environments. Recently, they have been used for bioremediation of aquaculture effluents; nevertheless, for that purpose it is necessary to analyze the capacity of a particular species. In this context, an experimental investigation was developed to evaluate the performance of two bivalves C. gnidia and D. ponderosa, collected from areas with or without shrimp aquaculture effluents. For this, the filtration capacity (as clearance rate) as well as the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were measured following standard methods. The clearance rate was significantly higher for D. ponderosa from impacted areas, when com- pared to C. gnidia, from both areas. Contrarily, the oxygen consumption was greater for C. gnidia from impacted areas compared to D. ponderosa from both areas. The same tendency was observed for the ammonia excretion with the highest rates observed for C. gnidia from impacted areas, whereas no differences were observed among D. ponderosa from both areas. The results suggest that both species developed different strategies to thrive and survive under the impacted conditions; D. ponderosa improved its filtration efficiency, while C. gnidia modified its oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion. We concluded that both species, and particularly D. ponderosa, can be used for bioremediation purposes.

  13. Bio-filtration capacity, oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion of Dosinia ponderosa and Chione gnidia (Veneroida: Veneridae from areas impacted and non-impacted by shrimp aquaculture effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karime Ramos-Corella

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mollusks are some of the most important, abundant and diverse organisms inhabiting not only aquatic ecosystems, but also terrestrial environments. Recently, they have been used for bioremediation of aquaculture effluents; nevertheless, for that purpose it is necessary to analyze the capacity of a particular species. In this context, an experimental investigation was developed to evaluate the performance of two bivalves C. gnidia and D. ponderosa, collected from areas with or without shrimp aquaculture effluents. For this, the filtration capacity (as clearance rate as well as the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were measured following standard methods. The clearance rate was significantly higher for D. ponderosa from impacted areas, when com- pared to C. gnidia, from both areas. Contrarily, the oxygen consumption was greater for C. gnidia from impacted areas compared to D. ponderosa from both areas. The same tendency was observed for the ammonia excretion with the highest rates observed for C. gnidia from impacted areas, whereas no differences were observed among D. ponderosa from both areas. The results suggest that both species developed different strategies to thrive and survive under the impacted conditions; D. ponderosa improved its filtration efficiency, while C. gnidia modified its oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion. We concluded that both species, and particularly D. ponderosa, can be used for bioremediation purposes.

  14. Suitability of live and fire-killed small-diameter ponderosa and lodgepole pine trees for manufacturing a new structural wood composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, J M; Barnes, H M; Seale, R D; Jones, P D; Lowell, E C; Hummel, S S

    2010-08-01

    Finding alternative uses for raw material from small-diameter trees is a critical problem throughout the United States. In western states, a lack of markets for small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) can contribute to problems associated with overstocking. To test the feasibility of producing structural composite lumber (SCL) beams from these two western species, we used a new technology called steam-pressed scrim lumber (SPSL) based on scrimming technology developed in Australia. Both standing green and fire-killed ponderosa and lodgepole pine logs were used in an initial test. Fire-killed logs of both species were found to be unsuitable for producing SPSL but green logs were suitable for producing SPSL. For SPSL from green material, ponderosa pine had significantly higher modulus of rupture and work-to-maximum load values than did SPSL from lodgepole pine. Modulus of elasticity was higher for lodgepole pine. The presence of blows was greater with lodgepole pine than with ponderosa. Blows had a negative effect on the mechanical properties of ponderosa pine but no significant effect on the mechanical properties of SPSL from lodgepole pine. An evaluation of non-destructive testing methods showed that X-ray could be used to determine low density areas in parent beams. The use of a sonic compression wave tester for NDE evaluation of modulus of rupture showed some promise with SPSL but requires further research. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  16. Quantifying post-fire ponderosa pine snags using GIS techniques on scanned aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Kevin

    Snags are an important component of forest ecosystems because of their utility in forest-nutrient cycling and provision of critical wildlife habitat, as well as associated fuel management concerns relating to coarse woody debris (CWD). Knowledge of snag and CWD trajectories are needed for land managers to plan for long-term ecosystem change in post-fire regimes. This need will likely be exacerbated by increasingly warm and dry climatic conditions projected for the U.S. Southwest. One of the best prospects for studying fire-induced landscape change beyond the plot scale, but still at a resolution sufficient to resolve individual snags, is to utilize the available aerial photography record. Previous field-based studies of snag and CWD loads in the Southwest have relied on regional chronosequences to judge the recovery dynamic of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) burns. This previous research has been spatially and temporally restricted because of field survey extent limitations and uncertainty associated with the chronosequence approach (i.e., space-for-time substitution), which does not consider differences between specific site conditions and histories. This study develops highly automated methods for remotely quantifying and characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of large snags associated with severe forest fires from very high resolution (VHR) landscape imagery I obtained from scans of aerial photos. Associated algorithms utilize the sharp edges, shape, shadow, and contrast characteristics of snags to enable feature recognition. Additionally, using snag shadow length, image acquisition time, and location information, heights were estimated for each identified snag. Furthermore, a novel solution was developed for extracting individual snags from areas of high snag density by overlaying parallel lines in the direction of the snag shadows and extracting local maxima lines contained by each snag polygon. Field survey data coincident to imagery coverage

  17. Transient increases in methylbutenol emission following partial defoliation of Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis W.

    Methybutenol (MBO or 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol) is a five-carbon alcohol produced and emitted in large amounts by many species of pine native to Western North America. Upon entering the atmosphere, MBO may engage in a series of chemical reactions which may ultimately lead to the production of tropospheric ozone which is a damaging pollutant. While the physical factors controlling MBO emission are well understood, the ecological factors controlling MBO emission have yet to be addressed. This study examines the response of MBO emission from Pinus ponderosa to herbivory simulated by needle clipping. Following defoliation early in the season, MBO emission from some plants tripled but similar increase did not occur later in the season. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the variable response of MBO emission to defoliation may have been due to the action of insect herbivores early in the season, or may have been due to phenological changes in the plants over the course of the season.

  18. Changes in the rumen bacterial microbiome of cattle exposed to ponderosa pine needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K D; Stonecipher, C A; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Pfister, J A

    2017-05-01

    Consumption of ponderosa pine needles, as well as needles and bark from a number of other trees, can cause abortions in cattle. The abortifacient compounds in these trees are labdane resin acids, including isocupressic acid and agathic acid. Previous research has demonstrated that cattle conditioned to pine needles metabolize the labdane resin acids more quickly than naïve cattle. The results from that study indicated that changes had occurred in the rumen of conditioned cattle. Therefore, in this study, the changes that occurred in the rumen bacterial microflora of cattle during exposure to ponderosa pine needles were evaluated. Cattle were dosed with ground pine needles twice daily for 7 d. Rumen samples were collected on d 0, 3, 7, and 14 (7 d after treatment stopped) and ruminal bacterial microbiome analyses were performed. There were 372 different genera of bacteria identified in the rumen samples. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in the rumen bacterial composition between the time points. There were 18 genera that increased in abundance from d 0 to d 7. Twenty three genera decreased in abundance from d 0 to d 7. The results from this study demonstrated that exposure of cattle to pine needles caused a clear shift in the rumen microbiome composition. In general, this shift lasted less than 1 wk post exposure, which indicates that any prophylactic treatment to manipulate the ruminal metabolism of the abortifacient compounds in pine needles would need to be continuously administered to maintain the necessary microbial composition in the rumen.

  19. Carbon and water fluxes from ponderosa pine forests disturbed by wildfire and thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, S; Kolb, T E; Montes-Helu, M; Eckert, S E; Sullivan, B W; Hungate, B A; Kaye, J P; Hart, S C; Koch, G W; Finkral, A

    2010-04-01

    Disturbances alter ecosystem carbon dynamics, often by reducing carbon uptake and stocks. We compared the impact of two types of disturbances that represent the most likely future conditions of currently dense ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States: (1) high-intensity fire and (2) thinning, designed to reduce fire intensity. High-severity fire had a larger impact on ecosystem carbon uptake and storage than thinning. Total ecosystem carbon was 42% lower at the intensely burned site, 10 years after burning, than at the undisturbed site. Eddy covariance measurements over two years showed that the burned site was a net annual source of carbon to the atmosphere whereas the undisturbed site was a sink. Net primary production (NPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency were lower at the burned site than at the undisturbed site. In contrast, thinning decreased total ecosystem carbon by 18%, and changed the site from a carbon sink to a source in the first posttreatment year. Thinning also decreased ET, reduced the limitation of drought on carbon uptake during summer, and did not change water use efficiency. Both disturbances reduced ecosystem carbon uptake by decreasing gross primary production (55% by burning, 30% by thinning) more than total ecosystem respiration (TER; 33-47% by burning, 18% by thinning), and increased the contribution of soil carbon dioxide efflux to TER. The relationship between TER and temperature was not affected by either disturbance. Efforts to accurately estimate regional carbon budgets should consider impacts on carbon dynamics of both large disturbances, such as high-intensity fire, and the partial disturbance of thinning that is often used to prevent intense burning. Our results show that thinned forests of ponderosa pine in the southwestern United States are a desirable alternative to intensively burned forests to maintain carbon stocks and primary production.

  20. Growth, carbon-isotope discrimination, and drought-associated mortality across a Pinus ponderosa elevational transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, N.G.; Allen, Craig D.; Marshall, L.

    2010-01-01

    Drought- and insect-associated tree mortality at low-elevation ecotones is a widespread phenomenon but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. Enhanced growth sensitivity to climate is widely observed among trees that die, indicating that a predisposing physiological mechanism(s) underlies tree mortality. We tested three, linked hypotheses regarding mortality using a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) elevation transect that experienced low-elevation mortality following prolonged drought. The hypotheses were: (1) mortality was associated with greater growth sensitivity to climate, (2) mortality was associated with greater sensitivity of gas exchange to climate, and (3) growth and gas exchange were correlated. Support for all three hypotheses would indicate that mortality results at least in part from gas exchange constraints. We assessed growth using basal area increment normalized by tree basal area [basal area increment (BAI)/basal area (BA)] to account for differences in tree size. Whole-crown gas exchange was indexed via estimates of the CO2 partial pressure difference between leaf and atmosphere (pa−pc) derived from tree ring carbon isotope ratios (δ13C), corrected for temporal trends in atmospheric CO2 and δ13C and elevation trends in pressure. Trees that survived the drought exhibited strong correlations among and between BAI, BAI/BA, pa−pc, and climate. In contrast, trees that died exhibited greater growth sensitivity to climate than trees that survived, no sensitivity of pa−pc to climate, and a steep relationship between pa−pc and BAI/BA. The pa−pc results are consistent with predictions from a theoretical hydraulic model, suggesting trees that died had a limited buffer between mean water availability during their lifespan and water availability during drought – i.e., chronic water stress. It appears that chronic water stress predisposed low-elevation trees to mortality during drought via constrained gas exchange. Continued intensification of

  1. Restoring forest structure and process stabilizes forest carbon in wildfire-prone southwestern ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D; Liang, Shuang; Martin, Katherine L; North, Malcolm P; Koch, George W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2016-03-01

    Changing climate and a legacy of fire-exclusion have increased the probability of high-severity wildfire, leading to an increased risk of forest carbon loss in ponderosa pine forests in the southwestern USA. Efforts to reduce high-severity fire risk through forest thinning and prescribed burning require both the removal and emission of carbon from these forests, and any potential carbon benefits from treatment may depend on the occurrence of wildfire. We sought to determine how forest treatments alter the effects of stochastic wildfire events on the forest carbon balance. We modeled three treatments (control, thin-only, and thin and burn) with and without the occurrence of wildfire. We evaluated how two different probabilities of wildfire occurrence, 1% and 2% per year, might alter the carbon balance of treatments. In the absence of wildfire, we found that thinning and burning treatments initially reduced total ecosystem carbon (TEC) and increased net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB). In the presence of wildfire, the thin and burn treatment TEC surpassed that of the control in year 40 at 2%/yr wildfire probability, and in year 51 at 1%/yr wildfire probability. NECB in the presence of wildfire showed a similar response to the no-wildfire scenarios: both thin-only and thin and burn treatments increased the C sink. Treatments increased TEC by reducing both mean wildfire severity and its variability. While the carbon balance of treatments may differ in more productive forest types, the carbon balance benefits from restoring forest structure and fire in southwestern ponderosa pine forests are clear.

  2. Carbon Stocks and Climate Change: Management Implications in Northern Arizona Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bagdon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have observed climate-driven shifts of forest types to higher elevations in the Southwestern US and predict further migration coupled with large-scale mortality events proportional to increases in radiative forcing. Range contractions of forests are likely to impact the total carbon stored within a stand. This study examines the dynamics of Pinus ponderosa stands under three climate change scenarios in Northern Arizona using the Climate Forest Vegetation Simulator (Climate-FVS model to project changes in carbon pools. A sample of 90 stands were grouped according to three elevational ranges; low- (1951 to 2194 m, mid- (2194 to 2499 m, and high- (2499 to 2682 m. elevation stands. Growth, mortality, and carbon stores were simulated in the Climate-FVS over a 100 year timespan. We further simulated three management scenarios for each elevational gradient and climate scenario. Management included (1 a no-management scenario, (2 an intensive-management scenario characterized by thinning from below to a residual basal area (BA of 18 m2/ha in conjunction with a prescribed burn every 10 years, and (3 a moderate-management scenario characterized by a thin-from-below treatment to a residual BA of 28 m2/ha coupled with a prescribed burn every 20 years. Results indicate that any increase in aridity due to climate change will produce substantial mortality throughout the elevational range of ponderosa pine stands, with lower elevation stands projected to experience the most devastating effects. Management was only effective for the intensive-management scenario; stands receiving this treatment schedule maintained moderately consistent levels of basal area and demonstrated a higher level of resilience to climate change relative to the two other management scenarios. The results of this study indicate that management can improve resiliency to climate change, however, resource managers may need to employ more intensive thinning treatments than

  3. Sensitivity of ring growth and carbon allocation to climatic variation vary within ponderosa pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhoulas, Lucy P; Kane, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Most dendrochronological studies focus on cores sampled from standard positions (main stem, breast height), yet vertical gradients in hydraulic constraints and priorities for carbon allocation may contribute to different growth sensitivities with position. Using cores taken from five positions (coarse roots, breast height, base of live crown, mid-crown branch and treetop), we investigated how radial growth sensitivity to climate over the period of 1895-2008 varies by position within 36 large ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) in northern Arizona. The climate parameters investigated were Palmer Drought Severity Index, water year and monsoon precipitation, maximum annual temperature, minimum annual temperature and average annual temperature. For each study tree, we generated Pearson correlation coefficients between ring width indices from each position and six climate parameters. We also investigated whether the number of missing rings differed among positions and bole heights. We found that tree density did not significantly influence climatic sensitivity to any of the climate parameters investigated at any of the sample positions. Results from three types of analyses suggest that climatic sensitivity of tree growth varied with position height: (i) correlations of radial growth and climate variables consistently increased with height; (ii) model strength based on Akaike's information criterion increased with height, where treetop growth consistently had the highest sensitivity and coarse roots the lowest sensitivity to each climatic parameter; and (iii) the correlation between bole ring width indices decreased with distance between positions. We speculate that increased sensitivity to climate at higher positions is related to hydraulic limitation because higher positions experience greater xylem tensions due to gravitational effects that render these positions more sensitive to climatic stresses. The low sensitivity of root growth to all climatic variables

  4. Bole girdling affects metabolic properties and root, trunk and branch hydraulics of young ponderosa pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Pruyn, Michele L

    2008-10-01

    Effects of trunk girdling on seasonal patterns of xylem water status, water transport and woody tissue metabolic properties were investigated in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws.) trees. At the onset of summer, there was a sharp decrease in stomatal conductance (g(s)) in girdled trees followed by a full recovery after the first major rainfall in September. Eliminating the root as a carbohydrate sink by girdling induced a rapid reversible reduction in g(s). Respiratory potential (a laboratory measure of tissue-level respiration) increased above the girdle (branches and upper trunk) and decreased below the girdle (lower trunk and roots) relative to control trees during the growing season, but the effect was reversed after the first major rainfall. The increase in branch respiratory potential induced by girdling suggests that the decrease in g(s) was caused by the accumulation of carbohydrates above the girdle, which is consistent with an observed increase in leaf mass per area in the girdled trees. Trunk girdling did not affect native xylem embolism or xylem conductivity. Both treated and control trunks experienced loss of xylem conductivity ranging from 10% in spring to 30% in summer. Girdling reduced xylem growth and sapwood to leaf area ratio, which in turn reduced branch leaf specific conductivity (LSC). The girdling-induced reductions in g(s) and transpiration were associated with a decrease in leaf hydraulic conductance. Two years after girdling, when root-to-shoot phloem continuity had been restored, girdled trees had a reduced density of new wood, which increased xylem conductivity and whole-tree LSC, but also vulnerability to embolism.

  5. Community occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, northern Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W

    2012-01-01

    In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in northern Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine community responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on

  6. Forest thinning and soil respiration in a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianwu; Qi, Ye; Xu, Ming; Misson, Laurent; Goldstein, Allen H

    2005-01-01

    Soil respiration is controlled by soil temperature, soil water, fine roots, microbial activity, and soil physical and chemical properties. Forest thinning changes soil temperature, soil water content, and root density and activity, and thus changes soil respiration. We measured soil respiration monthly and soil temperature and volumetric soil water continuously in a young ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. & C. Laws.) plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California from June 1998 to May 2000 (before a thinning that removed 30% of the biomass), and from May to December 2001 (after thinning). Thinning increased the spatial homogeneity of soil temperature and respiration. We conducted a multivariate analysis with two independent variables of soil temperature and water and a categorical variable representing the thinning event to simulate soil respiration and assess the effect of thinning. Thinning did not change the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature or to water, but decreased total soil respiration by 13% at a given temperature and water content. This decrease in soil respiration was likely associated with the decrease in root density after thinning. With a model driven by continuous soil temperature and water time series, we estimated that total soil respiration was 948, 949 and 831 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the years 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively. Although thinning reduced soil respiration at a given temperature and water content, because of natural climate variability and the thinning effect on soil temperature and water, actual cumulative soil respiration showed no clear trend following thinning. We conclude that the effect of forest thinning on soil respiration is the combined result of a decrease in root respiration, an increase in soil organic matter, and changes in soil temperature and water due to both thinning and interannual climate variability.

  7. Catalogue of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This catalogue includes all valid family-group (8 subfamilies, 52 tribes, 14 subtribes, genus-group (349 genera, 86 subgenera, and species-group names (2825 species, 215 subspecies of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae known to occur in North America1 and their available synonyms. Data on extant, subfossil and fossil taxa are given. For each name the author and year and page number of the description are provided, with additional information (e.g., type species for genus-group names, author of synonymies for invalid taxa depending on the taxon rank. Several new nomenclatural acts are included. One new genus, Lepidocnemeplatia Bousquet and Bouchard, is described. Spelaebiosis Bousquet and Bouchard [for Ardoinia Özdikmen, 2004], Blapstinus marcuzzii Aalbu [for Blapstinus kulzeri Marcuzzi, 1977], and Hymenorus campbelli Bouchard [for Hymenorus oculatus Doyen and Poinar, 1994] are proposed as new replacement names. Supporting evidence is provided for the conservation of usage of Tarpela micans (Fabricius, 1798 nomen protectum over Tarpela vittata (Olivier, 1793 nomen oblitum. The generic names Psilomera Motschulsky, 1870 [= Stenomorpha Solier, 1836], Steneleodes Blaisdell, 1909 [= Xysta Eschscholtz, 1829], Ooconibius Casey, 1895 and Euconibius Casey, 1895 [= Conibius LeConte, 1851] are new synonyms (valid names in square brackets. The following 127 new synonymies of species-group names, listed in their original combination, are proposed (valid names, in their current combination, placed in square brackets: Bothrasida mucorea Wilke, 1922 [= Pelecyphorus guanajuatensis (Champion, 1884]; Parasida zacualpanicola Wilke, 1922 [= Pelecyphorus asidoides Solier, 1836]; Stenosides kulzeri Pallister, 1954, Stenosides bisinuatus Pallister, 1954, and Parasida trisinuata Pallister, 1954 [= Pelecyphorus dispar (Champion, 1892]; Asida favosa Champion, 1884 and Asida similata Champion, 1884 [= Pelecyphorus fallax (Champion, 1884]; Ologlyptus bicarinatus

  8. Biological invasion of Pinus ponderosa and Pinus contorta: case study of a forest plantation in Northwestern Patagonia; Invasion biologica de Pinus ponderosa y Pinus contorta: estudio de caso de una plantacion en la Patagonia noroccidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezzotti, A.; Sbrancia, R.; Mortoro, A.; Monte, C.

    2009-07-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, Pinus species from plantations can bring about processes of biological invasion that cause significant and permanent changes on the structure and functioning of surrounding natural ecosystems. The invasive character of Pinus ponderosa (P) and Pinus contorta (C) was examined for a 20-year old plantation located in the Alicura Forest Station (40 degree centigrade 40' S and 71 degree centigrade 00' W), through the analysis of abundance, age and spatial structures, and dispersal of natural regeneration. Seedlings and saplings were located largely within the plantation boundaries, and exhibited a density of 6.9 ind / ha (41 % for P and 59 % for C), a clustered spatial pattern with clumps dispersed not randomly, and a mean dispersal rate of 9.5 m / yr for P. ponderosa and 5.4 m / yr for P. contorta. Both species were invading the adjacent area, according to technical criteria based on ecological responses. However, regeneration niche is strongly hindering tree establishment and dispersal, probably due to high plant cover, presence of vertic soils, and absence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. These results can contribute to predict the capability of P. contorta and P. ponderosa to become invasive, in order to maximize the positive balance of forestry based on these species in northwestern Patagonia. (Author) 50 refs.

  9. Acoustic detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal-tissue feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect until after they have caused severe economic damage; consequently, infestations may remain undetected until they are widespread in an orchard....

  10. A review of precipitation and temperature control on seedling emergence and establishment for ponderosa and lodgepole pine forest regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Matthew; Wildeman, A.M.; Bradford, John B.; Hubbard, R.M.; Lauenroth, W.K.

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine forests in the 21st century depends to a large extent on how seedling emergence and establishment are influenced by driving climate and environmental variables, which largely govern forest regeneration. We surveyed the literature, and identified 96 publications that reported data on dependent variables of seedling emergence and/or establishment and one or more independent variables of air temperature, soil temperature, precipitation and moisture availability. Our review suggests that seedling emergence and establishment for both species is highest at intermediate temperatures (20 to 25 °C), and higher precipitation and higher moisture availability support a higher percentage of seedling emergence and establishment at daily, monthly and annual timescales. We found that ponderosa pine seedlings may be more sensitive to temperature fluctuations whereas lodgepole pine seedlings may be more sensitive to moisture fluctuations. In a changing climate, increasing temperatures and declining moisture availability may hinder forest persistence by limiting seedling processes. Yet, only 23 studies in our review investigated the effects of driving climate and environmental variables directly. Furthermore, 74 studies occurred in a laboratory or greenhouse, which do not often replicate the conditions experienced by tree seedlings in a field setting. It is therefore difficult to provide strong conclusions on how sensitive emergence and establishment in ponderosa and lodgepole pine are to these specific driving variables, or to investigate their potential aggregate effects. Thus, the effects of many driving variables on seedling processes remain largely inconclusive. Our review stresses the need for additional field and laboratory studies to better elucidate the effects of driving climate and environmental variables on seedling emergence and establishment for ponderosa and lodgepole pine.

  11. Using acoustic analysis to presort warp-prone ponderosa pine 2 by 4s before kiln-drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; William T. Simpson

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of acoustic analysis as presorting criteria to identify warp-prone boards before kiln-drying. Dimension lumber, 38 by 89 mm (nominal 2 by 4 in.) and 2.44 m (8 it) long, sawn from open-grown small-diameter ponderosa pine trees, was acoustically tested lengthwise at green condition. Three acoustic properties (acoustic speed, rate of...

  12. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype distribution patterns in Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae): range-wide evolutionary history and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D; Mahalovich, Mary F; Means, Robert E

    2013-08-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation across its range in western North America. This study aims to clarify P. ponderosa evolutionary history and phylogeography using a highly polymorphic mitochondrial DNA marker, with results offering insights into how geographical and climatological processes drove the modern evolutionary structure of tree species in the region. We amplified the mtDNA nad1 second intron minisatellite region for 3,100 trees representing 104 populations, and sequenced all length variants. We estimated population-level haplotypic diversity and determined diversity partitioning among varieties, races and populations. After aligning sequences of minisatellite repeat motifs, we evaluated evolutionary relationships among haplotypes. The geographical structuring of the 10 haplotypes corresponded with division between Pacific and Rocky Mountain varieties. Pacific haplotypes clustered with high bootstrap support, and appear to have descended from Rocky Mountain haplotypes. A greater proportion of diversity was partitioned between Rocky Mountain races than between Pacific races. Areas of highest haplotypic diversity were the southern Sierra Nevada mountain range in California, northwestern California, and southern Nevada. Pinus ponderosa haplotype distribution patterns suggest a complex phylogeographic history not revealed by other genetic and morphological data, or by the sparse paleoecological record. The results appear consistent with long-term divergence between the Pacific and Rocky Mountain varieties, along with more recent divergences not well-associated with race. Pleistocene refugia may have existed in areas of high haplotypic diversity, as well as the Great Basin, Southwestern United States/northern Mexico, and the High Plains.

  13. Resource Limitations Influence Growth and Vigor of Idaho Fescue, a Common Understory Species in Pacific Northwest Ponderosa Pine Forests

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    Craig A. Carr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in under-canopy resource availability associated with elevated ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. abundance can negatively influence understory vegetation. Experimental evidence linking under-canopy resource availability and understory vegetation is scarce. Yet this information would be beneficial in developing management strategies to recover desired understory species. We tested the effects of varying nitrogen (N and light availability on Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer, the dominant understory species in ponderosa pine/Idaho fescue plant associations in eastern Oregon. In a greenhouse experiment, two levels of N (50 kg∙N∙ha−1 and 0 kg∙N∙ha−1 and shade (80% shade and 0% shade were applied in a split-plot design to individual potted plants grown in soil collected from high abundance pine stands. Plants grown in unshaded conditions produced greater root (p = 0.0027 and shoot (p = 0.0017 biomass and higher cover values (p = 0.0378 compared to those in the shaded treatments. The addition of N had little effect on plant growth (p = 0.1602, 0.5129, and 0.0853 for shoot biomass, root biomass, and cover, respectively, suggesting that soils in high-density ponderosa pine stands that lack understory vegetation were not N deficient and Idaho fescue plants grown in these soils were not N limited. Management activities that increase under-canopy light availability will promote the conditions necessary for Idaho fescue recovery. However, successful restoration may be constrained by a lack of residual fescue or the invasion of more competitive understory vegetation.

  14. 13C discriminations of Pinus sylvestris vs. Pinus ponderosa at a dry site in Brandenburg (eastern Germany): 100-year growth comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ralf; Insinna, Patrick A; Götz, Bernhard; Junge, Sebastian; Boettger, Tatjana

    2007-06-01

    The carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C, per thousand) and discrimination (Delta, per thousand) of old grown North American Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex P. et C. Laws. and European Pinus sylvestris L. were determined using trees grown under almost identical growing conditions in a mixed stand in Bralitz, Northeast Germany. Single-tree delta(13)C analyses of tree-ring cellulose of both species were carried out at a yearly resolution for the period 1901-2001 and the results compared with growth (basal area increment). Annual mean delta(13)C values for P. ponderosa ranged from-21.6 per thousand to-25.2 per thousand and for P. sylvestris from-21.4 per thousand to-24.4 per thousand. Accordingly, (13)C discrimination (Delta) showed higher values for P. ponderosa throughout the investigation period. Five characteristic periods of Delta were identified for both the tree species, reflecting positive and negative influences of environmental factors. Good growing conditions such as after-thinning events had a positive effect on Delta, reflecting higher values, while poor conditions like aridity and air pollution had a negative influence, reflecting lower values. The dynamics of Delta were likewise reflected in the growth (basal area increment, BAI). Higher (13)C discrimination values of P. ponderosa led to higher BAIs of P. ponderosa in comparison with P. sylvestris. Correlation function analyses confirmed that P. sylvestris was more dependent on precipitation than P. ponderosa, which showed a closer relationship with temperature. The results confirm that under predominantly dry growing conditions, P. ponderosa showed better growth performance than P. sylvestris, indicating better common intrinsic water-use efficiency and, therefore, higher rates of net photosynthesis at a given transpiration. In view of the prospect of climate change, the results are very significant for assessing both trees' physiological properties and, hence, their potential for coping with future growing

  15. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonu...

  16. To live fast or not: growth, vigor and longevity of old-growth ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, M. R. [Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station

    1996-01-01

    Old ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine trees were studied to determine volume growth patterns in relation to leaf area. Ponderosa pine trees varied in age from 166 to 432 years and were about 77 inches in diameter; lodgepole pine trees ranged in age from 250 to 296 years and were 31 inches in diameter. Trees of both species had flat tops, heavy branches and foliage distribution characteristic of older trees. Annual volume increments were determined from crossdated radial increments measured on discs at four meter height intervals; leaf areas were determined based on leaf area/branch sapwood area ratios. Ponderosa pine volume growth was found to have been gradual at first, reaching a plateau that persisted for a century or more, followed by a rapid increase, and a sudden decrease in growth to less than one half of the earlier rate and persisting at these levels for several decades. In lodgepole pine growth decline was less frequent and less spectacular; growth in general was more even, with slight annual variations. Volume growth in the most recent years prior to felling weakly correlated with leaf area. Growth efficiencies were generally higher for trees having the lowest leaf areas. The fact that these persisted for many decades with low growth efficiencies suggests that defence mechanisms are more effective in old trees than in younger ones. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Trends in Snag Populations in Drought-Stressed Mixed-Conifer and Ponderosa Pine Forests (1997–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Ganey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Snags provide important biological legacies, resources for numerous species of native wildlife, and contribute to decay dynamics and ecological processes in forested ecosystems. We monitored trends in snag populations from 1997 to 2007 in drought-stressed mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws forests, northern Arizona. Median snag density increased by 75 and 90% in mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests, respectively, over this time period. Increased snag density was driven primarily by a large pulse in drought-mediated tree mortality from 2002 to 2007, following a smaller pulse from 1997 to 2002. Decay-class composition and size-class composition of snag populations changed in both forest types, and species composition changed in mixed-conifer forest. Increases in snag abundance may benefit some species of native wildlife in the short-term by providing increased foraging and nesting resources, but these increases may be unsustainable in the long term. Observed changes in snag recruitment and fall rates during the study illustrate the difficulty involved in modeling dynamics of those populations in an era of climate change and changing land management practices.

  18. An experimental demonstration of stem damage as a predictor of fire-caused mortality for ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.; Schwartz, M.

    2004-01-01

    We subjected 159 small ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws.) to treatments designed to test the relative importance of stem damage as a predictor of postfire mortality. The treatments consisted of a group with the basal bark artificially thinned, a second group with fuels removed from the base of the stem, and an untreated control. Following prescribed burning, crown scorch severity was equivalent among the groups. Postfire mortality was significantly less frequent in the fuels removal group than in the bark removal and control groups. No model of mortality for the fuels removal group was possible, because dead trees constituted trees. Mortality in the bark removal group was best predicted by crown scorch and stem scorch severity, whereas death in the control group was predicted by crown scorch severity and bark thickness. The relative lack of mortality in the fuels removal group and the increased sensitivity to stem damage in the bark removal group suggest that stem damage is a critical determinant of postfire mortality for small ponderosa pine.

  19. Areas of Agreement and Disagreement Regarding Ponderosa Pine and Mixed Conifer Forest Fire Regimes: A Dialogue with Stevens et al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis C Odion

    Full Text Available In a recent PLOS ONE paper, we conducted an evidence-based analysis of current versus historical fire regimes and concluded that traditionally defined reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa and mixed-conifer forests were incomplete, missing considerable variability in forest structure and fire regimes. Stevens et al. (this issue agree that high-severity fire was a component of these forests, but disagree that one of the several sources of evidence, stand age from a large number of forest inventory and analysis (FIA plots across the western USA, support our findings that severe fire played more than a minor role ecologically in these forests. Here we highlight areas of agreement and disagreement about past fire, and analyze the methods Stevens et al. used to assess the FIA stand-age data. We found a major problem with a calculation they used to conclude that the FIA data were not useful for evaluating fire regimes. Their calculation, as well as a narrowing of the definition of high-severity fire from the one we used, leads to a large underestimate of conditions consistent with historical high-severity fire. The FIA stand age data do have limitations but they are consistent with other landscape-inference data sources in supporting a broader paradigm about historical variability of fire in ponderosa and mixed-conifer forests than had been traditionally recognized, as described in our previous PLOS paper.

  20. A comparison of the metabolism of the abortifacient compounds from Ponderosa pine needles in conditioned versus naive cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K D; Gardner, D R; Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Zieglar, J; Hall, J O

    2012-12-01

    Isocupressic acid (ICA) is the abortifacient compound in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) needles, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle (Bos taurus). However, cattle rapidly metabolize ICA to agathic acid (AGA) and subsequent metabolites. When pine needles are dosed orally to cattle, no ICA is detected in their serum, whereas AGA is readily detected. Recent research has demonstrated that AGA is also an abortifacient compound in cattle. The observation has been made that when cattle are dosed with labdane acids for an extended time, the concentration of AGA in serum increases for 1 to 2 d but then decreases to baseline after 5 to 6 d even though they are still being dosed twice daily. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether cattle conditioned to pine needles metabolize ICA, and its metabolites, faster than naïve cattle. Agathic acid was readily detected in the serum of naïve cattle fed ponderosa pine needles, whereas very little AGA was detected in the serum of cattle conditioned to pine needles. We also compared the metabolism of ICA in vitro using rumen cultures from pine-needle-conditioned and naïve cattle. In the rumen cultures from conditioned cattle, AGA concentrations were dramatically less than rumen cultures from naïve cattle. Thus, an adaptation occurs to cattle conditioned to pine needles such that the metabolism AGA by the rumen microflora is altered.

  1. Late Holocene geomorphic record of fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests, Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, S.E.; Hull, Sieg C.; Anderson, D.E.; Kaufman, D.S.; Pearthree, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term fire history reconstructions enhance our understanding of fire behaviour and associated geomorphic hazards in forested ecosystems. We used 14C ages on charcoal from fire-induced debris-flow deposits to date prehistoric fires on Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA. Fire-related debris-flow sedimentation dominates Holocene fan deposition in the study area. Radiocarbon ages indicate that stand-replacing fire has been an important phenomenon in late Holocene ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and ponderosa pine-mixed conifer forests on steep slopes. Fires have occurred on centennial scales during this period, although temporal hiatuses between recorded fires vary widely and appear to have decreased during the past 2000 years. Steep slopes and complex terrain may be responsible for localised crown fire behaviour through preheating by vertical fuel arrangement and accumulation of excessive fuels. Holocene wildfire-induced debris flow events occurred without a clear relationship to regional climatic shifts (decadal to millennial), suggesting that interannual moisture variability may determine fire year. Fire-debris flow sequences are recorded when (1) sufficient time has passed (centuries) to accumulate fuels; and (2) stored sediment is available to support debris flows. The frequency of reconstructed debris flows should be considered a minimum for severe events in the study area, as fuel production may outpace sediment storage. ?? IAWF 2011.

  2. Morphological features of Camarosporium pini – the fungus associated to health state degradation in Austrian and Ponderosa pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanová Helena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is escalated occurrence of the pathogenic fungus Camarosporium pini in the needle tissue of symptomatic trees P. nigra and P. ponderosa var. jeffreyi growing in urbanized settings and parks. C. pini induces severe infections and initiates a blight and premature loss of second-year foliage in pine trees. The fungus was identified microscopically and on base of morphological keys. The affected needles displayed a distinct bluish-grey necrotic band in the centre. On the surface of infected needles, there were formed pycnidia producing brown, oval conidia with three transversal and one or two vertical walls. Disease symptoms, some important characteristics in pure culture, and distinctive morphological features of C. pini associated to the health state degradation in Austrian and Ponderosa pine are described and compared. Cumulative effects of these stressful biotic and various abiotic factors may explain the current situation concerning the decline in the P. nigra and P. ponderosa var. jeffreyi in Slovakia.

  3. Areas of Agreement and Disagreement Regarding Ponderosa Pine and Mixed Conifer Forest Fire Regimes: A Dialogue with Stevens et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odion, Dennis C; Hanson, Chad T; Baker, William L; DellaSala, Dominick A; Williams, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    In a recent PLOS ONE paper, we conducted an evidence-based analysis of current versus historical fire regimes and concluded that traditionally defined reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and mixed-conifer forests were incomplete, missing considerable variability in forest structure and fire regimes. Stevens et al. (this issue) agree that high-severity fire was a component of these forests, but disagree that one of the several sources of evidence, stand age from a large number of forest inventory and analysis (FIA) plots across the western USA, support our findings that severe fire played more than a minor role ecologically in these forests. Here we highlight areas of agreement and disagreement about past fire, and analyze the methods Stevens et al. used to assess the FIA stand-age data. We found a major problem with a calculation they used to conclude that the FIA data were not useful for evaluating fire regimes. Their calculation, as well as a narrowing of the definition of high-severity fire from the one we used, leads to a large underestimate of conditions consistent with historical high-severity fire. The FIA stand age data do have limitations but they are consistent with other landscape-inference data sources in supporting a broader paradigm about historical variability of fire in ponderosa and mixed-conifer forests than had been traditionally recognized, as described in our previous PLOS paper.

  4. Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin O. S. Clarke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. Brachylophora auricollis (Bruch, 1918 comb. nov. = Pasiphyle auricollis Bruch, 1918, originally described from Argentina (Salta, is redescribed and illustrated. Although with reduced elytra, the genus is transferred from Rhinotragini to Rhopalophorini based on the following characters: eyes well separated in both sexes, frons between eyes depressed and lacking frontal suture; pro-, meso-, and metasternum planar; mesothorax parallel-sided, not at all declivous before mesosternal process; metasternum large, together with mesosternum twice length of prosternum, metepisternum very wide, entire suture separating it from metasternum clearly visible when viewed from below; female ovipositor shortened with short cylindrical styles; and, more generally, structural features of hind legs, and surface ornamentation. Habitus similar to Coremia group. Bolivian specimens were netted as they visited flowers of Croton sp. (Euphorbiaceae.

  5. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

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    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  6. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Pires

    Full Text Available Abstract Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL, width (BOW and height (BOH of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width. These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces.

  7. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Paula-Bueno

    Full Text Available Abstract Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  8. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  9. Using tree recruitment patterns and fire history to guide restoration of an unlogged ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir landscape in the southern Rocky Mountains after a century of fire suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill R. Kaufmann; Laurie S. Huckaby; Paula J. Fornwalt; Jason M. Stoker; William H. Romme

    2003-01-01

    Tree age and fire history were studied in an unlogged ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir (Pinus ponderosa/Pseudotsuga menziesii) landscape in the Colorado Front Range mountains. These data were analysed to understand tree survival during fire and post-fire recruitment patterns after fire, as a basis for understanding the characteristics of, and restoration needs for, an...

  10. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. [Infestation of the human digestive system with beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Cantharidae): a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Hasan; Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur; Ekici, Pınar

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to report the digestive system infestation caused by the larvae of Coleoptera in a female pediatric patient. She was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of emergence of insect larvae from her vomit and feces, abdominal pain, inguinal pain, lack of appetite, hair loss, excessive cleaning behavior, extreme irritability, and distractibility. The larvae observed typically had the morphology of the larvae of insects related to the Cantharidae family in the Coleoptera order. For treatment, a single dose of albendazole (400 mg) was used. Consequently, in the present case, it was seen that the larvae of Coleoptera incidentally taken orally could continue to live for a period in the digestive tract of people, without losing vitality, and the larvae caused a variety of symptoms due to both their toxic agents and the possible irritation they caused.

  12. Effects of bark beetle attack on canopy fuel flammability and crown fire potential in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Martin E. Alexander; Michael J. Jenkins

    2015-01-01

    Large wildland fires in conifer forests typically involve some degree of crowning, with their initiation and propagation dependent upon several characteristics of the canopy fuels. Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia E ngelm.) forests and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus...

  13. Bio-edafology of the Coleoptera order, in three Colombia Natural Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camero R, Edgar; Chamorro B, Clara

    1997-01-01

    The characterization of Coleoptera families is showed to three different Colombian Natural Regions. This is given in relation with biological and environmental factors, different vegetation covers and soil uses. In addition to it, susceptible Coleoptera taxa are determined when natural conditions are disturbed. Methodically, a literature subject research was made, and Barber and Berlesse traps were used to organism extractions from superficial and under superficial soil. Horizons diversity, riches and constancy index were determined to each family. Results show different diversity, riches and constancy values to each family, as much in each natural region, such as to each soil use

  14. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK + MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK + MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the study

  15. Pelletized ponderosa pine bark for adsorption of toxic heavy metals from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshabalala, M. A.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Bark flour from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa was consolidated into pellets using citric acid as cross-linking agent. The pellets were evaluated for removal of toxic heavy metals from synthetic aqueous solutions. When soaked in water, pellets did not leach tannins, and they showed high adsorption capacity for Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II, and Ni(II under both equilibrium and dynamic adsorption conditions. The experimental data for Cd(II and Zn(II showed a better fit to the Langmuir than to the Freundlich isotherm. The Cu(II data best fit the Freundlich isotherm, and the Ni(II data fitted both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms equally. According to the Freundlich constant KF, adsorption capacity of pelletized bark for the metal ions in aqueous solution, pH 5.1 ± 0.2, followed the order Cd(II > Cu(II > Zn(II >> Ni(II; according to the Langmuir constant b, adsorption affinity followed the order Cd(II >> Cu(II ≈ Zn(II >> Ni(II. Although data from dynamic column adsorption experiments did not show a good fit to the Thomas kinetic adsorption model, estimates of sorption affinity series of the metal ions on pelletized bark derived from this model were not consistent with the series derived from the Langmuir or Freundlich isotherms and followed the order Cu(II > Zn(II ≈ Cd(II > Ni(II. According to the Thomas kinetic model, the theoretical maximum amounts of metal that can be sorbed on the pelletized bark in a column at influent concentration of ≈10 mg/L and flow rate = 5 mL/min were estimated to be 57, 53, 50, and 27 mg/g for copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel, respectively. This study demonstrated the potential for converting low-cost bark residues to value-added sorbents using starting materials and chemicals derived from renewable resources. These sorbents can be applied in the removal of toxic heavy metals from waste streams with heavy metal ion concentrations of up to 100 mg/L in the case of Cu(II.

  16. Forest Fire Smoldering Emissions from Ponderosa Pine Duff in Central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S. P.; Lincoln, E.; Page, W.; Richardson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Forest fire smoldering combustion is a significant contribution to pollution and carbon emissions. Smoldering combustion produces the majority of carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), volatile organic compounds (VOC), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted by forest fires when it occurs. The emission factor for PM2.5 and many VOCs are correlated with the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), which is the ratio of CO2 emitted, to the sum of emitted CO2 and CO. MCE is a measure of the relative ratio of flaming and smoldering combustion, but its relationship to the physical fire process is poorly studied. We measured carbon emission rates and individual emission factors for CO, CO2, CH4, and VOC's from smoldering combustion on Ponderosa pine /Douglas-Fir forest sites in central Washington. The emission factor results are linked with concurrent thermal measurements made at various depths in the duff and surface IR camera imagery. The MCE value ranged from .80 to .91 and are correlated with emission factors for 24 carbon compounds. Other data collected were fuel moistures and duff temperatures at depth increments. This goal of this research is the creation of a database to better predict the impacts of air pollution resulting from burns leading to smoldering combustion.

  17. Net Ecosystem Fluxes of Hydrocarbons from a Ponderosa Pine Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, R. C.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Ortega, J. V.; Smith, J. N.; Guenther, A. B.; Shen, S.; Martinez, L.; Koss, A.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Deventer, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Light (C2-C4) alkenes, light alkanes and isoprene (C5H8) are non-methane hydrocarbons that play important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. Natural terrestrial fluxes of the light hydrocarbons are poorly characterized, with global emission estimates based on limited field measurements. In 2014, net fluxes of these compounds were measured at the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory, a semi-arid ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and site of the prior BEACHON campaigns. Three field intensives were conducted between June 17 and August 10, 2014. Net ecosystem flux measurements utilized a relaxed eddy accumulation system coupled to an automated gas chromatograph. Summertime average emissions of ethene and propene were up to 90% larger than those observed from a temperate deciduous forest. Ethene and propene fluxes were also correlated to each other, similar to the deciduous forest study. Emissions of isoprene were small, as expected for a coniferous forest, and these fluxes were not correlated with either ethene or propene. Unexpected emissions of light alkanes were also observed, and these showed a distinct diurnal cycle. Understory flux measurements allowed for the partitioning of fluxes between the surface and the canopy. Full results from the three field intensives will be compared with environmental variables in order to parameterize the fluxes for use in modeling emissions.

  18. Ethene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions from a ponderosa pine forest measured by relaxed eddy accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Robert C.; Deventer, Malte Julian; Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Warneke, Carsten; Ortega, John; Shen, Steve; Martinez, Luis; Koss, Abigail; Lerner, Brian M.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Smith, James N.; Guenther, Alex B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-11-01

    Alkenes are reactive hydrocarbons that influence local and regional atmospheric chemistry by playing important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. The simplest alkene, ethene (ethylene), is a major plant hormone and ripening agent for agricultural commodities. The group of light alkenes (C2-C4) originates from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, but their biogenic sources are poorly characterized, with limited field-based flux observations. Here we report net ecosystem fluxes of light alkenes and isoprene from a semiarid ponderosa pine forest in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, USA using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique during the summer of 2014. Ethene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions have strong diurnal cycles, with median daytime fluxes of 123, 95, 39 and 17 µg m-2 h-1, respectively. The fluxes were correlated with each other, followed general ecosystem trends of CO2 and water vapor, and showed similar sunlight and temperature response curves as other biogenic VOCs. The May through October flux, based on measurements and modeling, averaged 62, 52, 24 and 18 µg m-2 h-1 for ethene, propene, butene and isoprene, respectively. The light alkenes contribute significantly to the overall biogenic source of reactive hydrocarbons: roughly 18 % of the dominant biogenic VOC, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The measured ecosystem scale fluxes are 40-80 % larger than estimates used for global emissions models for this type of ecosystem.

  19. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.

    1991-01-01

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution

  20. Host physiological condition regulates parasitic plant performance: Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum on Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Christopher P; Kolb, Thomas E; Geils, Brian W

    2005-12-01

    Much research has focused on effects of plant parasites on host-plant physiology and growth, but little is known about effects of host physiological condition on parasite growth. Using the parasitic dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum (Viscaceae) and its host Pinus ponderosa, we investigated whether changes in host physiological condition influenced mistletoe shoot development in northern Arizona forests. We conducted two studies in two consecutive years and used forest thinning (i.e., competitive release) to manipulate host physiological condition. We removed dwarf mistletoe shoots in April, before the onset of the growing season, and measured the amount of regrowth in the first season after forest thinning (Study I: n=38 trees; Study II: n=35 trees). Thinning increased tree uptake of water and carbon in both studies, but had no effect on leaf N concentration or delta13C. Mistletoe shoot growth was greater on trees with high uptake of water and carbon in thinned stands than trees with low uptake in unthinned stands. These findings show that increased resource uptake by host trees increases resources to these heterotrophic dwarf mistletoes, and links mistletoe performance to changes in host physiological condition.

  1. Temperature and light acclimation of photosynthetic capacity in seedlings and mature trees of Pinus ponderosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Momen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary step to understand the impact of possible rise in temperature on carbon dynamics of forests is to examine the temperature elasticity of key processes involved in carbon fixation in forest trees. For seedling and mature ponderosa pines of three genotypes, we used a response-surface methodology and ANOVA to evaluate changes in maximum net photosynthesis (An max, and corresponding light (LAn max and temperature (TAn max to diurnal and seasonal changes in ambient temperature during summer and autumn. As seasonal ambient temperature decreased: (1 An max did not change in seedlings or mature trees, (2 LAn max did not change in mature trees, but it decreased for current-yr foliage of seedlings from 964 to 872 µmol photons m-2 s-1, and (3 TAn max did not change in seedlings but it decreased in mature trees for both current- and one-yr-old foliage, from 26.8 to 22.2, and 24.6 to 21.7 C, respectively.

  2. Contributions of long-distance dispersal to population growth in colonising Pinus ponderosa populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Mark R; Jackson, Stephen T

    2013-03-01

    Long-distance dispersal is an integral part of plant species migration and population development. We aged and genotyped 1125 individuals in four disjunct populations of Pinus ponderosa that were initially established by long-distance dispersal in the 16th and 17th centuries. Parentage analysis was used to determine if individuals were the product of local reproductive events (two parents present), long-distance pollen dispersal (one parent present) or long-distance seed dispersal (no parents present). All individuals established in the first century at each site were the result of long-distance dispersal. Individuals reproduced at younger ages with increasing age of the overall population. These results suggest Allee effects, where populations were initially unable to expand on their own, and were dependent on long-distance dispersal to overcome a minimum-size threshold. Our results demonstrate that long-distance dispersal was not only necessary for initial colonisation but also to sustain subsequent population growth during early phases of expansion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessments by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard W. Mankin; Yigen Chen; Jian J. Duan; Therese M. Poland; Leah S. Bauer

    2011-01-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  4. Vertical Distribution and Daily Flight Periodicity of Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida Avocado Orchards Affected by Laurel Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menocal, Octavio; Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Crane, Jonathan H; Carrillo, Daniel

    2018-03-08

    Ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado ((Persea americana Mill. [Laurales: Lauraceae])) due to their association with pathogenic fungal symbionts, most notably Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), the causal agent of the laurel wilt (LW) disease. We evaluated the interaction of ambrosia beetles with host avocado trees by documenting their flight height and daily flight periodicity in Florida orchards with LW. Flight height was assessed passively in three avocado orchards by using ladder-like arrays of unbaited sticky traps arranged at three levels (low: 0-2 m; middle: 2-4 m; high: 4-6 m). In total, 1,306 individuals of 12 Scolytinae species were intercepted, but six accounted for ~95% of the captures: Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Euplatypus parallelus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The primary vector of R. lauricola, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was not detected. Females of X. volvulus showed a preference for flight at low levels and X. bispinatus for the low and middle levels; however, captures of all other species were comparable at all heights. At a fourth orchard, a baiting method was used to document flight periodicity. Females of X. saxesenii and Hypothenemus sp. were observed in flight 2-2.5 h prior to sunset; X. bispinatus, X. volvulus, and X. affinis initiated flight at ~1 h before sunset and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at 30 min prior to sunset. Results suggest that ambrosia beetles in South Florida fly near sunset (when light intensity and wind speed decrease) at much greater heights than previously assumed and have species-specific patterns in host

  5. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  6. Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred A. Jäch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraena matyoti sp. n. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae is described from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Hydraena mahensis Scott, 1913 is redescribed. The latter is here recorded from La Digue for the first time. A key to the species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 of the Seychelles is presented.

  7. Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäch, Manfred A; Delgado, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    Hydraena matyoti sp. n. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) is described from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Hydraena mahensis Scott, 1913 is redescribed. The latter is here recorded from La Digue for the first time. A key to the species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 of the Seychelles is presented.

  8. Review of the genus Ceresium Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification....

  9. Review of the genus Ceresium Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa-Sakiti, Hilda; Winder, Linton; Lingafelter, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification. PMID:26692805

  10. Use of nutrient self selection as a diet refining tool in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new method to refine existing dietary supplements for improving production of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was tested. Self selected ratios of 6 dietary ingredients by T. molitor larvae were used to produce a dietary supplement. This supplement was compared...

  11. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  12. Temperature influences on diapause induction and survival in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been the most important pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) wherever it occurs. Although eradication programs in the U.S. have reduced the range of this pest, the weevil remains an intractable problem in subtropical Tex...

  13. Development of an improved attractive lure for the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Peter de Groot; Stephen Burke; David Wakarchuk; Robert A. Haack; Reginald Nott; Taylor Scarr

    2003-01-01

    1) The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is an exotic pest of pine, Pinus spp., and was first discovered in North America in 1992. 2) Although primary attraction to host volatiles has been clearly demonstrated for T. piniperda, the existence and role of secondary attraction to...

  14. Tanyproctus (Tanyproctus) arher (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Tanyproctini), a new species from the Socotra Island, Yemen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezděk, Aleš; Sehnal, R.; Král, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3737, č. 2 (2013), s. 191-196 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera * Scarabaeoidea * Scarabaeidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2013 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2013/f/zt03737p196.pdf

  15. Stomanomala subcostata (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), the first record of ruteline chafer from Socotra Archipelago, Yemen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezděk, Aleš; Král, D.; Limbourg, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2017), s. 87-91 ISSN 0374-1036 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera * Scarabaeidae * Rutelinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2016 https://www.biotaxa.org/AEMNP/article/view/35053

  16. Microbial control of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, applied as BotaniGard ES, on newly colonised and well-established populations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were evaluated in the field using foliar and trunk sprays in Michigan in 2004-2005. Results from field trials at a newly colonised white ash...

  17. Study on the genus Daptus ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik Je Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A genus Daptus Fischer von Waldheim, 1823 of the tribe Harpalini Bonelli, 1810 (Coleoptera: Carabidae is reported for the first time from Korea, based on the Daptus vittatus Fischer von Waldheim from Incheon, Korea. Redescription of the species and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics, including genitalia characteristics of both sexes, are provided.

  18. Molecular Diagnostic for Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Amplification of Three Species-specific Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally...

  19. Flight propensty of Anoplophora glabripennis, an Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Francese; B. Wang; D. R. Lance; Z. Xu; S. Zong; Y. Luo; A. J. Sawyer; V. C. Mastro

    2003-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) (Motschulsky), is a recently introduced pest of hardwoods. Research to study its flight behavior was conducted in the field in Ningxia Autonomous Region, Peoples' Republic of China. To study the flight propensity of A. glabripennis, adult beetles were observed in population...

  20. Characterization of an Aggregation Pheromone in Hylesinus pruinosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Shepherd; Brian Sullivan; Bradley Hoosier; JoAnne Barrett; Tessa Bauman

    2010-01-01

    We conducted laboratory and field bioassays to characterize the pheromone system of an ash bark beetle, Hylesinus pruinosus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Solitary females in newly initiated galleries in ash logs produced (+)-exo-brevicomin, whereas male beetles paired with females produced (+)-endo-brevicomin, lesser quantities of...

  1. First contact pheromone identified for a longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the subfamily Prioninae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Spikes; Matthew A. Paschen; Jocelyn G. Miller; Jardel A. Moreira; Paul B. Hamel; Nathan M. Schiff; Matthew D. Ginzel

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of the reproductive behavior of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the subfamily Prioninae. Mallodon dasystomus (Say), the hardwood stump borer, is a widely distributed prionine that is native to the southern U.S. Here, we explored the chemically-mediated mating behavior of M dasystomus, and tested the hypothesis that males recognize...

  2. Variation in enantiospecific attraction of Ips avulsus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to the pheromone ipsdienol in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Miller; Jeremy Allison

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, we tested the responses of the small southern pine engraver, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to multiple-funnel traps baited with (+)-, (-)-, and (+/-)- ipsdienol. Three experiments were conducted in Georgia with all traps co-baited with one of the following lure combinations, respectively: experiment 1, ipsenol; experiment 2, lanierone and...

  3. Description of a new species of Bothynus Hope from Argentina and Bolivia (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Martin

    2017-12-04

    A new species of Bothynus Hope, 1837 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini) is described from the eastern Andes in South America. The new species is unique in the genus for having the elytra and part of the pronotum covered with small setae.

  4. Host range expansion and increased damage potential of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles in the Euwallacea nr. fornicatus complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) vector Fusarium spp. fungi pathogenic to susceptible hosts, including avocado. The Florida avocado production area in Miami-Dade County was surveyed for E. nr. fornicatus upon observations of initial damage in 2016...

  5. Behavioral assays for evaluating host preferences of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, the exotic ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was first discovered in Florida avocado groves. Introduction of its symbiotic Fusarium spp. fungi into galleries in the xylem tissue results in Fusarium-dieback disease. Unlike most ambros...

  6. Dispersal of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from discrete epicenters in two outlier sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.W. Siegert; D.G. McCullough; D.W. Williams; I. Fraser; T.M. Poland; S.J. Pierce

    2010-01-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem- feeding beetle native to Asia, has become one of the most destructive forest pests in North America. Since it was Þrst identified in 2002 in southeast Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, dozens of isolated A. planipennis populations have been...

  7. A comparison of trap type and height for capturing cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth E. Graham; Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Jocelyn G. Millar

    2012-01-01

    Wood-boring beetles in the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) play important roles in many forest ecosystems. However, increasing numbers of invasive cerambycid species are transported to new countries by global commerce and threaten forest health in the United States and worldwide. Our goal was to identify effective detection tools for a broad array of cerambycid...

  8. De brede geelgerande waterroofkever Dytiscus latissimus na 38 jaar weer in Nederland opgedoken (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van G.

    2006-01-01

    Dytiscus latissimus after 38 years rediscovered in the Netherlands in 2005 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) In 2005 two males of the water beetle Dytiscus latissimus were caught near Uffelte (province of Drenthe). The species is endangered throughout its range and was thought to be extinct in the

  9. Distribution and habitat of Graphoderus bilineatus in the Netherlands (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, J.G.M.; Koese, B.; Sierdsema, H.

    2006-01-01

    Verspreiding en biotopen van Graphoderus bilineatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) De verspreiding en biotopen van de gestreepte waterroofkever Graphoderus bilineatus zijn in 2004 en 2005 onderzocht in opdracht van de provincie Zuid-Holland en het Ministerie van lnv. Deze waterroofkever is wettelijk

  10. Canuschiza of Socotra Island (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae). Part 2. Canuschiza minuta species group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehnal, R.; Král, D.; Bezděk, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2017), s. 77-86 ISSN 0374-1036 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera * Scarabaeoidea * Scarabaeidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2016 https://www.biotaxa.org/AEMNP/article/view/35052

  11. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in the Conservation Reserve Program crop rotation systems in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) abundance and diversity were documented on Conservation Research Program (CRP) agricultural lands in Delta Junction, Alaska (64ºN, 145º W). Twenty species were documented based on a total sample of 6,116 specimens collected during 2006 and 2007. Two speci...

  12. Upper lethal temperature limits of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    1996-01-01

    The susceptibility of the egg, larval and adult stages of Anobium punctatum De Geer (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) to heat (46-54°C, 25-30% RH) was investigated. The larval stage was found to be most tolerant to heat. Very short exposure (5 min) of the larvae to temperatures of 52°C and above led to 100...

  13. A contribution to the rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Paederinae in north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mohammadi Dehcheshmeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, 19 species of rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, belonging to the subfamily Paederinae Fleming 1821, were collected from Mazandaran province, north of Iran, during 2015-2016. Two species, Rugilus angustatus Geoffroy 1758 and Astenus lyonessius (joy 1908 are reported for the first time from Iran.

  14. Repeated losses of TTAGG telomere repeats in evolution of beetles (Coleoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frydrychová, Radmila; Marec, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 115, - (2002), s. 179-187 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0750; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : chromosomes * Coleoptera * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.063, year: 2002

  15. Patterns of tree species usage by long-horned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Waqa-Sakiti, H.; Stewart, A.; Čížek, Lukáš; Hodge, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-64 ISSN 0030-8870 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2014 http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.2984/68.1.5

  16. Four new species of Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Annery; Morón, Miguel Ángel

    2017-12-07

    Four new species in the genus Phyllophaga Harris 1827, subgenus Cnemarachis Saylor 1942 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from Cuba are described: Phyllophaga barroi new species, Phyllophaga guanahacabibensis new species, Phyllophaga pauli new species, and Phyllophaga sabanalamarensis new species. Each species is illustrated using photographs of the habitus, diagnostic features, and male aedeagi. A map is provided showing the geographical distributions of the new species.

  17. Trapping Phyllophaga spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the United States and Canada using sex attractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. Robbins; Steven R. Alm; Charles D. Armstrong; Anne L. Averill; Thomas C. Baker; Robert J. Bauernfiend; Frederick P. Baxendale; S. Kris Braman; Rick L. Brandenburg; Daniel B. Cash; Gary J. Couch; Richard S. Cowles; Robert L. Crocker; Zandra D. DeLamar; Timothy G. Dittl; Sheila M. Fitzpatrick; Kathy L. Flanders; Tom Forgatsch; Timothy J. Gibb; Bruce D. Gill; Daniel O. Gilrein; Clyde S. Gorsuch; Abner M. Hammond; Patricia D. Hastings; David W. Held; Paul R. Heller; Rose T. Hiskes; James L. Holliman; William G. Hudson; Michael G. Klein; Vera L. Krischik; David J. Lee; Charles E. Linn; Nancy J. Luce; Kenna E. MacKenzie; Catherine M. Mannion; Sridhar Polavarapu; Daniel A. Potter; Wendell L. Roelofs; Brian M. Rovals; Glenn A. Salsbury; Nathan M. Schiff; David J. Shetlar; Margaret Skinner; Beverly L. Sparks; Jessica A. Sutschek; Timothy P. Sutschek; Stanley R. Swier; Martha M. Sylvia; Niel J. Vickers; Patricia J. Vittum; Richard Weidman; Donald C. Weber; R. Chris Williamson; Michael G. Villani

    2006-01-01

    The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera...

  18. Susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Lui; Leah S. Bauer

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to selected strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion or foliar exposure under laboratory conditions. Results showed that A. planipennis adults were...

  19. Entomopathogens in conjunction with imidacloprid could be used to manage wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil-dwelling larvae of click beetles (wireworms) (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are serious pests of several agricultural crops worldwide. Hypnoidus bicolor and Limonius californicus are two major wireworm species damaging to spring wheat, particularly in the Golden Triangle, an important cereal-grow...

  20. Effects of Climate Variability and Accelerated Forest Thinning on Watershed-Scale Runoff in Southwestern USA Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Marcos D.; Marshall, Robert M.; O'Donnell, Frances; Smith, Edward B.; Haney, Jeanmarie A.; Gori, David F.

    2014-01-01

    The recent mortality of up to 20% of forests and woodlands in the southwestern United States, along with declining stream flows and projected future water shortages, heightens the need to understand how management practices can enhance forest resilience and functioning under unprecedented scales of drought and wildfire. To address this challenge, a combination of mechanical thinning and fire treatments are planned for 238,000 hectares (588,000 acres) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests across central Arizona, USA. Mechanical thinning can increase runoff at fine scales, as well as reduce fire risk and tree water stress during drought, but the effects of this practice have not been studied at scales commensurate with recent forest disturbances or under a highly variable climate. Modifying a historical runoff model, we constructed scenarios to estimate increases in runoff from thinning ponderosa pine at the landscape and watershed scales based on driving variables: pace, extent and intensity of forest treatments and variability in winter precipitation. We found that runoff on thinned forests was about 20% greater than unthinned forests, regardless of whether treatments occurred in a drought or pluvial period. The magnitude of this increase is similar to observed declines in snowpack for the region, suggesting that accelerated thinning may lessen runoff losses due to warming effects. Gains in runoff were temporary (six years after treatment) and modest when compared to mean annual runoff from the study watersheds (0–3%). Nonetheless gains observed during drought periods could play a role in augmenting river flows on a seasonal basis, improving conditions for water-dependent natural resources, as well as benefit water supplies for downstream communities. Results of this study and others suggest that accelerated forest thinning at large scales could improve the water balance and resilience of forests and sustain the ecosystem services they provide. PMID

  1. Effects of climate variability and accelerated forest thinning on watershed-scale runoff in southwestern USA ponderosa pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D Robles

    Full Text Available The recent mortality of up to 20% of forests and woodlands in the southwestern United States, along with declining stream flows and projected future water shortages, heightens the need to understand how management practices can enhance forest resilience and functioning under unprecedented scales of drought and wildfire. To address this challenge, a combination of mechanical thinning and fire treatments are planned for 238,000 hectares (588,000 acres of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa forests across central Arizona, USA. Mechanical thinning can increase runoff at fine scales, as well as reduce fire risk and tree water stress during drought, but the effects of this practice have not been studied at scales commensurate with recent forest disturbances or under a highly variable climate. Modifying a historical runoff model, we constructed scenarios to estimate increases in runoff from thinning ponderosa pine at the landscape and watershed scales based on driving variables: pace, extent and intensity of forest treatments and variability in winter precipitation. We found that runoff on thinned forests was about 20% greater than unthinned forests, regardless of whether treatments occurred in a drought or pluvial period. The magnitude of this increase is similar to observed declines in snowpack for the region, suggesting that accelerated thinning may lessen runoff losses due to warming effects. Gains in runoff were temporary (six years after treatment and modest when compared to mean annual runoff from the study watersheds (0-3%. Nonetheless gains observed during drought periods could play a role in augmenting river flows on a seasonal basis, improving conditions for water-dependent natural resources, as well as benefit water supplies for downstream communities. Results of this study and others suggest that accelerated forest thinning at large scales could improve the water balance and resilience of forests and sustain the ecosystem services they provide.

  2. Effects of climate variability and accelerated forest thinning on watershed-scale runoff in southwestern USA ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Marcos D; Marshall, Robert M; O'Donnell, Frances; Smith, Edward B; Haney, Jeanmarie A; Gori, David F

    2014-01-01

    The recent mortality of up to 20% of forests and woodlands in the southwestern United States, along with declining stream flows and projected future water shortages, heightens the need to understand how management practices can enhance forest resilience and functioning under unprecedented scales of drought and wildfire. To address this challenge, a combination of mechanical thinning and fire treatments are planned for 238,000 hectares (588,000 acres) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests across central Arizona, USA. Mechanical thinning can increase runoff at fine scales, as well as reduce fire risk and tree water stress during drought, but the effects of this practice have not been studied at scales commensurate with recent forest disturbances or under a highly variable climate. Modifying a historical runoff model, we constructed scenarios to estimate increases in runoff from thinning ponderosa pine at the landscape and watershed scales based on driving variables: pace, extent and intensity of forest treatments and variability in winter precipitation. We found that runoff on thinned forests was about 20% greater than unthinned forests, regardless of whether treatments occurred in a drought or pluvial period. The magnitude of this increase is similar to observed declines in snowpack for the region, suggesting that accelerated thinning may lessen runoff losses due to warming effects. Gains in runoff were temporary (six years after treatment) and modest when compared to mean annual runoff from the study watersheds (0-3%). Nonetheless gains observed during drought periods could play a role in augmenting river flows on a seasonal basis, improving conditions for water-dependent natural resources, as well as benefit water supplies for downstream communities. Results of this study and others suggest that accelerated forest thinning at large scales could improve the water balance and resilience of forests and sustain the ecosystem services they provide.

  3. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  4. Madera de Pinus ponderosa en Patagonia Argentina : Jornada Forestal Tecnológica

    OpenAIRE

    Refort, María Mercedes; Keil, Gabriel Darío; Spavento, Elena

    2013-01-01

    El día 15 de noviembre de 2012 se realizó en el Edificio de Bosques de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales de la UNLP, la Primera Jornada Tecnológica sobre Madera de Pinus ponderosa en Patagonia Argentina, destinadas a profesionales de diferentes áreas, estudiantes, investigadores y docentes. Las Jornadas fueron organizadas por el Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Madera (LIMAD) y la Secretaría de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, UNLP y auspiciadas p...

  5. Restoration thinning and influence of tree size and leaf area to sapwood area ratio on water relations of Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, K; Kolb, T E; Montes-Helu, M; Koch, G W

    2006-04-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws) forest stand density has increased significantly over the last century (Covington et al. 1997). To understand the effect of increased intraspecific competition, tree size (height and diameter at breast height (DBH)) and leaf area to sapwood area ratio (A(L):A(S)) on water relations, we compared hydraulic conductance from soil to leaf (kl) and transpiration per unit leaf area (Q(L)) of ponderosa pine trees in an unthinned plot to trees in a thinned plot in the first and second years after thinning in a dense Arizona forest. We calculated kl and Q(L) based on whole- tree sap flux measured with heat dissipation sensors. Thinning increased tree predawn water potential within two weeks of treatment. Effects of thinning on kl and Q(L) depended on DBH, A(L):A(S) and drought severity. During severe drought in the first growing season after thinning, kl and Q(L) of trees with low A(L):A(S) (160-250 mm DBH; 9-11 m height) were lower in the thinned plot than the unthinned plot, suggesting a reduction in stomatal conductance (g(s)) or reduced sapwood specific conductivity (K(S)), or both, in response to thinning. In contrast kl and Q(L) were similar in the thinned plot and unthinned plot for trees with high A(L):A(S) (260-360 mm DBH; 13-16 m height). During non-drought periods, kl and Q(L) were greater in the thinned plot than in the unthinned plot for all but the largest trees. Contrary to previous studies of ponderosa pine, A(L):A(S) was positively correlated with tree height and DBH. Furthermore, kl and Q(L) showed a weak negative correlation with tree height and a strong negative correlation with A(S) and thus A(L):A(S) in both the thinned and unthinned plots, suggesting that trees with high A(L):A(S) had lower g(s). Our results highlight the important influence of stand competitive environment on tree-size-related variation in A(L):A(S) and the roles of A(L):A(S) and drought on whole-tree water relations in response to

  6. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  7. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  8. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Oba

    Full Text Available Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation. These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  9. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  10. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; br, picanco@ufv; br, guedes@ufv; br, mateusc3@yahoo com; br, agronomiasilva@yahoo com

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  11. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio; julioufv@yahoo.com.br

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD 50 from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g -1 a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  12. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-08-25

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given.

  13. Distribution of black carbon in Ponderosa pine litter and soils following the High Park wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C. M.; Haddix, M.; Paustian, K.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), the heterogeneous product of burned biomass, is a critical component in the global carbon cycle, yet timescales and mechanisms for incorporation into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park Fire, which took place in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire intenstiy and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane Ponderosa pine litter, 0-5 cm soils, and 5-15 cm soils four months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn intensity on %C, C stocks, %N and black carbon (g kg-1 C, and g m-2). We developed and implemented the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes, but that there was no difference in black carbon content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the litter in burned sites (19 g kg-1 C), while BC stocks were greatest in the 5-15 cm subsurface soils (23 g m-2). At the time of sampling, none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into to either the 0-5 cm or 5-15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B5CA : B6CA (less condensed to more condensed BC) indicated there was significantly more older, more processed BC at depth. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely transported off the surface through erosion events. Future work examining mechanisms for BC transport will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global carbon cycle.

  14. Development of genetic diversity, differentiation and structure over 500 years in four ponderosa pine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, M R; Parchman, T L; Jackson, S T

    2013-05-01

    Population history plays an important role in shaping contemporary levels of genetic variation and geographic structure. This is especially true in small, isolated range-margin populations, where effects of inbreeding, genetic drift and gene flow may be more pronounced than in large continuous populations. Effects of landscape fragmentation and isolation distance may have implications for persistence of range-margin populations if they are demographic sinks. We studied four small, disjunct populations of ponderosa pine over a 500-year period. We coupled demographic data obtained through dendroecological methods with microsatellite data to discern how and when contemporary levels of allelic diversity, among and within-population levels of differentiation, and geographic structure, arose. Alleles accumulated rapidly following initial colonization, demonstrating proportionally high levels of gene flow into the populations. At population sizes of approximately 100 individuals, allele accumulation saturated. Levels of genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) and Jost's D(est)) and diversity within populations (F(IS)) remained stable through time. There was no evidence of geographic genetic structure at any time in the populations' history. Proportionally, high gene flow in the early stages of population growth resulted in rapid accumulation of alleles and quickly created relatively homogenous genetic patterns among populations. Our study demonstrates that contemporary levels of genetic diversity were formed quickly and early in population development. How contemporary genetic diversity accumulates over time is a key facet of understanding population growth and development. This is especially relevant given the extent and speed at which species ranges are predicted to shift in the coming century. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Eddy covariance methane measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Long term methane flux measurements have been mostly performed with plant or soil enclosure techniques on specific components of an ecosystem. New fast response methane analyzers make it possible to use the eddy covariance (EC technique instead. The EC technique is advantageous because it allows continuous flux measurements integrating over a larger and more representative area including the complete ecosystem, and allows fluxes to be observed as environmental conditions change naturally without disturbance. We deployed the closed-path Fast Methane analyzer (FMA from Los Gatos Research Ltd and demonstrate its performance for EC measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation at the Blodgett Forest site in central California. The fluctuations of the CH4 concentration measured at 10 Hz appear to be small and their standard deviation is comparable to the magnitude of the signal noise (±5 ppbv. Consequently, the power spectra typically have a white noise signature at the high frequency end (a slope of +1. Nevertheless, in the frequency range important for turbulent exchange, the cospectra of CH4 compare very well with all other scalar cospectra confirming the quality of the FMA measurements are good for the EC technique. We furthermore evaluate the complications of combined open and closed-path measurements when applying the Webb-Pearman-Leuning (WPL corrections (Webb et al., 1980 and the consequences of a phase lag between the water vapor and methane signal inside the closed path system. The results of diurnal variations of CH4 concentrations and fluxes are summarized and compared to the monthly results of process-based model calculations.

  16. Mountain pine beetle selectivity in old-growth ponderosa pine forests, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A; Soulé, Peter T; Maxwell, Justin T

    2013-05-01

    A historically unprecedented mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak affected western Montana during the past decade. We examined radial growth rates (AD 1860-2007/8) of co-occurring mature healthy and MPB-infected ponderosa pine trees collected at two sites (Cabin Gulch and Kitchen Gulch) in western Montana and: (1) compared basal area increment (BAI) values within populations and between sites; (2) used carbon isotope analysis to calculate intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) at Cabin Gulch; and (3) compared climate-growth responses using a suite of monthly climatic variables. BAI values within populations and between sites were similar until the last 20-30 years, at which point the visually healthy populations had consistently higher BAI values (22-34%) than the MPB-infected trees. These results suggest that growth rates two-three decades prior to the current outbreak diverged between our selected populations, with the slower-growing trees being more vulnerable to beetle infestation. Both samples from Cabin Gulch experienced upward trends in iWUE, with significant regime shifts toward higher iWUE beginning in 1955-59 for the visually healthy trees and 1960-64 for the MPB-infected trees. Drought tolerance also varied between the two populations with the visually healthy trees having higher growth rates than MPB-infected trees prior to infection during a multi-decadal period of drying summertime conditions. Intrinsic water-use efficiency significantly increased for both populations during the past 150 years, but there were no significant differences between the visually healthy and MPB-infected chronologies.

  17. Eddy covariance fluxes of acyl peroxy nitrates (PAN, PPN and MPAN above a Ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment 2007 (BEARPEX-2007, we observed eddy covariance (EC fluxes of speciated acyl peroxy nitrates (APNs, including peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN and peroxymethacryloyl nitrate (MPAN, above a Ponderosa pine forest in the western Sierra Nevada. All APN fluxes are net downward during the day, with a median midday PAN exchange velocity of −0.3 cm s−1; nighttime storage-corrected APN EC fluxes are smaller than daytime fluxes but still downward. Analysis with a standard resistance model shows that loss of PAN to the canopy is not controlled by turbulent or molecular diffusion. Stomatal uptake can account for 25 to 50% of the observed downward PAN flux. Vertical gradients in the PAN thermal decomposition (TD rate explain a similar fraction of the flux, suggesting that a significant portion of the PAN flux into the forest results from chemical processes in the canopy. The remaining "unidentified" portion of the net PAN flux (~15% is ascribed to deposition or reactive uptake on non-stomatal surfaces (e.g. leaf cuticles or soil. Shifts in temperature, moisture and ecosystem activity during the summer – fall transition alter the relative contribution of stomatal uptake, non-stomatal uptake and thermochemical gradients to the net PAN flux. Daytime PAN and MPAN exchange velocities are a factor of 3 smaller than those of PPN during the first two weeks of the measurement period, consistent with strong intra-canopy chemical production of PAN and MPAN during this period. Depositional loss of APNs can be 3–21% of the gross gas-phase TD loss depending on temperature. As a source of nitrogen to the biosphere, PAN deposition represents approximately 4–19% of that due to dry deposition of nitric acid at this site.

  18. Masting in ponderosa pine: comparisons of pollen and seed over space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kailen A; Linhart, Yan B; Snyder, Marc A

    2011-03-01

    Many plant species exhibit variable and synchronized reproduction, or masting, but less is known of the spatial scale of synchrony, effects of climate, or differences between patterns of pollen and seed production. We monitored pollen and seed cone production for seven Pinus ponderosa populations (607 trees) separated by up to 28 km and 1,350 m in elevation in Boulder County, Colorado, USA for periods of 4-31 years for a mean per site of 8.7 years for pollen and 12.1 for seed cone production. We also analyzed climate data and a published dataset on 21 years of seed production for an eighth population (Manitou) 100 km away. Individual trees showed high inter-annual variation in reproduction. Synchrony was high within populations, but quickly became asynchronous among populations with a combination of increasing distance and elevational difference. Inter-annual variation in temperature and precipitation had differing influences on seed production for Boulder County and Manitou. We speculate that geographically variable effects of climate on reproduction arise from environmental heterogeneity and population genetic differentiation, which in turn result in localized synchrony. Although individual pines produce pollen and seed, only one-third of the covariation within trees was shared. As compared to seed cones, pollen had lower inter-annual variation at the level of the individual tree and was more synchronous. However, pollen and seed production were similar with respect to inter-annual variation at the population level, spatial scales of synchrony and associations with climate. Our results show that strong masting can occur at a localized scale, and that reproductive patterns can differ between pollen and seed cone production in a hermaphroditic plant.

  19. Short-term ecological consequences of collaborative restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jenny S.; Fornwalt, Paula J.; Feinstein, Jonas A.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration treatments are being implemented at an increasing rate in ponderosa pine and other dry conifer forests across the western United States, via the USDA Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) program. In this program, collaborative stakeholder groups work with National Forests (NFs) to adaptively implement and monitor ecological restoration treatments intended to offset the effects of many decades of anthropogenic stressors. We initiated a novel study to expand the scope of treatment effectiveness monitoring efforts in one of the first CFLR landscapes, Colorado’s Front Range. We used a Before/After/Control/Impact framework to evaluate the short-term consequences of treatments on numerous ecological properties. We collected pre-treatment and one year post-treatment data on NF and partner agencies’ lands, in 66 plots distributed across seven treatment units and nearby untreated areas. Our results reflected progress toward several treatment objectives: treated areas had lower tree density and basal area, greater openness, no increase in exotic understory plants, no decrease in native understory plants, and no decrease in use by tree squirrels and ungulates. However, some findings suggested the need for adaptive modification of both treatment prescriptions and monitoring protocols: treatments did not promote heterogeneity of stand structure, and monitoring methods may not have been robust enough to detect changes in surface fuels. Our study highlights both the effective aspects of these restoration treatments, and the importance of initiating and continuing collaborative science-based monitoring to improve the outcomes of broad-scale forest restoration efforts.

  20. Respiratory potential in sapwood of old versus young ponderosa pine trees in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruyn, Michele L; Gartner, Barbara L; Harmon, Mark E

    2002-02-01

    Our primary objective was to present and test a new technique for in vitro estimation of respiration of cores taken from old trees to determine respiratory trends in sapwood. Our secondary objective was to quantify effects of tree age and stem position on respiratory potential (rate of CO2 production of woody tissue under standardized laboratory conditions). We extracted cores from one to four vertical positions in boles of +200-, +50- and +15-year-old Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. trees. Cores were divided into five segments corresponding to radial depths of inner bark; outer, middle and inner sapwood; and heartwood. Data suggested that core segment CO2 production was an indicator of its respiratory activity, and that potential artifacts caused by wounding and extraction were minimal. On a dry mass basis, respiratory potential of inner bark was 3-15 times greater than that of sapwood at all heights for all ages (P sapwood at all heights and in all ages of trees, outer sapwood had a 30-60% higher respiratory potential than middle or inner sapwood (P sapwood. For all ages of trees, sapwood rings produced in the same calendar year released over 50% more CO2 at treetops than at bases (P sapwood volume basis, sapwood of younger trees had higher respiratory potential than sapwood of older trees. In contrast, the trend was reversed when using the outer-bark surface area of stems as a basis for comparing respiratory potential. The differences observed in respiratory potential calculated on a core dry mass, sapwood volume, or outer-bark surface area basis clearly demonstrate that the resulting trends within and among trees are determined by the way in which the data are expressed. Although these data are based on core segments rather than in vivo measurements, we conclude that the relative differences are probably valid even if the absolute differences are not.

  1. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON THE CARBON DIOXIDE, WATER, AND SENSIBLE HEAT FLUXES ABOVE A PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION IN THE SIERRA NEVADA, CA. (R826601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractFluxes of CO2, water vapor, and sensible heat were measured by the eddy covariance method above a young ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (CA) over two growing seasons (1 June¯10 September 1997 and 1 May&#...

  2. Isozyme markers associated with O3 tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staszak, J.; Grulke, N.E.; Marrett, M.J.; Prus-Glowacki, W.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of canopy ozone (O 3 ) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O 3 tolerance were analyzed in ∼20-, ∼80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) in Sequoia National Park, California. For both species, the number of alleles and genotypes per loci was higher in parental trees relative to saplings. In ponderosa pine, the heterozygosity value increased, and the fixation index indicated reduction of homozygosity with increasing tree age class. The opposite tendencies were observed for Jeffrey pine. Utilizing canopy attributes known to be responsive to O 3 exposure, ponderosa pine was more symptomatic than Jeffrey pine, and saplings were more symptomatic than old growth trees. We suggest that these trends are related to differing sensitivity of the two species to O 3 exposure, and to higher O 3 exposures and drought stress that younger trees may have experienced during germination and establishment. - Genetic variation in isozyme markers associated with ozone tolerance differed between parental trees and their progeny in two closely related species of yellow pine

  3. Allometry, nitrogen status, and carbon stable isotope composition of Pinus ponderosa seedlings in two growing media with contrasting nursery irrigation regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Robert E. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Nursery irrigation regimes that recharged container capacity when target volumetric water content reached 72%, 58%, and 44% (by volume) influenced Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson growth more than either a 1:1 (by volume) Sphagnum peat - vermiculite (PV) or a 7:3 (by volume) Sphagnum peat - sawdust (PS) medium. Exponential fertilization avoided...

  4. Responses of cavity-nesting birds to stand-replacement fire and salvage logging in ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests of southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria A. Saab; Jonathan G. Dudley

    1998-01-01

    From 1994 to 1996, researchers monitored 695 nests of nine cavity-nesting bird species and measured vegetation at nest sites and at 90 randomly located sites in burned ponderosa pine forests of southwestern Idaho. Site treatments included two types of salvage logging, and unlogged controls. All bird species selected nest sites with higher tree densities, larger...

  5. Changes in whole-tree water relations during ontogeny of Pinus flexilis and Pinus ponderosa in a high-elevation meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dylan G; Kolb, Thomas E; DeWald, Laura E

    2002-07-01

    We measured sap flux in Pinus ponderosa Laws. and Pinus flexilis James trees in a high-elevation meadow in northern Arizona that has been invaded by conifers over the last 150 years. Sap flux and environmental data were collected from July 1 to September 1, 2000, and used to estimate leaf specific transpiration rate (El), canopy conductance (Gc) and whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kh). Leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA/SA) increased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, but decreased with increasing tree size in P. ponderosa. Both Gc and Kh decreased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, and showed no clear trends with tree size in P. ponderosa. For both species, Gc was lower in the summer dry season than in the summer rainy season, but El did not change between wet and dry summer seasons. Midday water potential (Psi(mid)) did not change across seasons for either species, whereas predawn water potential (Psi(pre)) tracked variation in soil water content across seasons. Pinus flexilis showed greater stomatal response to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and maintained higher Psi(mid) than P. ponderosa. Both species showed greater sensitivity to VPD at high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; > 2500 micromol m-2 s-1) than at low PAR (Pinus species, and was influenced by changes in LA/SA. Whole-tree water use and El were similar between wet and dry summer seasons, possibly because of tight stomatal control over water loss. 2002 Heron Publishing--Victoria, Canada

  6. Isozyme markers associated with O{sub 3} tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staszak, J. [A Mickiewicz University, Genetics Department, ul. Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Grulke, N.E. [USDA Forest Service, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)], E-mail: ngrulke@fs.fed.us; Marrett, M.J. [5184 Tower Road, Riverside, CA 92506 (United States); Prus-Glowacki, W. [A Mickiewicz University, Genetics Department, ul. Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2007-10-15

    Effects of canopy ozone (O{sub 3}) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O{sub 3} tolerance were analyzed in {approx}20-, {approx}80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) in Sequoia National Park, California. For both species, the number of alleles and genotypes per loci was higher in parental trees relative to saplings. In ponderosa pine, the heterozygosity value increased, and the fixation index indicated reduction of homozygosity with increasing tree age class. The opposite tendencies were observed for Jeffrey pine. Utilizing canopy attributes known to be responsive to O{sub 3} exposure, ponderosa pine was more symptomatic than Jeffrey pine, and saplings were more symptomatic than old growth trees. We suggest that these trends are related to differing sensitivity of the two species to O{sub 3} exposure, and to higher O{sub 3} exposures and drought stress that younger trees may have experienced during germination and establishment. - Genetic variation in isozyme markers associated with ozone tolerance differed between parental trees and their progeny in two closely related species of yellow pine.

  7. Applied chemical ecology of the mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Nancy Gillette; Christopher J. Fettig; Kathryn Hrinkevich

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a primary agent of forest disturbance in western North America. Episodic outbreaks occur at the convergence of favorable forest age and size class structure and climate patterns. Recent outbreaks have exceeded the historic range of variability of D. ponderosae-caused tree mortality affecting ecosystem goods and...

  8. Tree Regeneration Spatial Patterns in Ponderosa Pine Forests Following Stand-Replacing Fire: Influence of Topography and Neighbors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin P. Ziegler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shifting fire regimes alter forest structure assembly in ponderosa pine forests and may produce structural heterogeneity following stand-replacing fire due, in part, to fine-scale variability in growing environments. We mapped tree regeneration in eighteen plots 11 to 15 years after stand-replacing fire in Colorado and South Dakota, USA. We used point pattern analyses to examine the spatial pattern of tree locations and heights as well as the influence of tree interactions and topography on tree patterns. In these sparse, early-seral forests, we found that all species were spatially aggregated, partly attributable to the influence of (1 aspect and slope on conifers; (2 topographic position on quaking aspen; and (3 interspecific attraction between ponderosa pine and other species. Specifically, tree interactions were related to finer-scale patterns whereas topographic effects influenced coarse-scale patterns. Spatial structures of heights revealed conspecific size hierarchies with taller trees in denser neighborhoods. Topography and heterospecific tree interactions had nominal effect on tree height spatial structure. Our results demonstrate how stand-replacing fires create heterogeneous forest structures and suggest that scale-dependent, and often facilitatory, rather than competitive, processes act on regenerating trees. These early-seral processes will establish potential pathways of stand development, affecting future forest dynamics and management options.

  9. Extreme late-summer drought causes neutral annual carbon balance in southwestern ponderosa pine forests and grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, Thomas; Dore, Sabina; Montes-Helu, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the impacts of extreme late-summer drought on carbon balance in a semi-arid forest region in Arizona. To understand drought impacts over extremes of forest cover, we measured net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), and total ecosystem respiration (TER) with eddy covariance over five years (2006–10) at an undisturbed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest and at a former forest converted to grassland by intense burning. Drought shifted annual NEP from a weak source of carbon to the atmosphere to a neutral carbon balance at the burned site and from a carbon sink to neutral at the undisturbed site. Carbon fluxes were particularly sensitive to drought in August. Drought shifted August NEP at the undisturbed site from sink to source because the reduction of GPP (70%) exceeded the reduction of TER (35%). At the burned site drought shifted August NEP from weak source to neutral because the reduction of TER (40%) exceeded the reduction of GPP (20%). These results show that the lack of forest recovery after burning and the exposure of undisturbed forests to late-summer drought reduce carbon sink strength and illustrate the high vulnerability of forest carbon sink strength in the southwest US to predicted increases in intense burning and precipitation variability. (letter)

  10. Stomata open at night in pole-sized and mature ponderosa pine: implications for O{sub 3} exposure metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grulke, N. E.; Alonso, R.; Nguyen, T.; Dobrowolski, W. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Station, Riverside, CA (United States); Cascio, C. [University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2004-09-01

    Nighttime stomatal behaviour in two tree size stands of ponderosa pine are described. Ponderosa pine is one of the most ozone-sensitive conifers in western North America. The study involved measurement of time required to reach equilibrium in response to small increases in low irradiances at sites differing in environmental stressors. The contribution of nighttime ozone uptake to total daily ozone uptake in early and later summer was also investigated. Nighttime stomata conductance ranged between one tenth and one fifth that of maximum day-time values. Pole-size trees (i.e. less than 40 years old) showed greater ozone conductance than mature trees (i.e. over 250 years old). In June, nighttime ozone uptake accounted for 9, 5, and 3 per cent of the total daily ozone uptake of pole-sized trees. In late summer, ozone uptake at night was less than two percent of daily uptake at all sites. It is suspected that nighttime uptake of oxidants may have harmful physiological effects, such as contributing to the declining health of forest trees, owing to the fact that oxidants absorbed at night are not detoxified as well during the day. 67 refs.,1 tab., 8 figs.

  11. Summer precipitation influences the stable oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of tree-ring cellulose in Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, John S; Ehleringer, James R

    2007-04-01

    The carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of tree-ring cellulose was examined in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) trees in the western USA to study seasonal patterns of precipitation inputs. Two sites (California and Oregon) had minimal summer rainfall inputs, whereas a third site (Arizona) received as much as 70% of its annual precipitation during the summer months (North American monsoon). For the Arizona site, both the delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of latewood cellulose increased as the fraction of annual precipitation occurring in the summer (July through September) increased. There were no trends in latewood cellulose delta(18)O with the absolute amount of summer rain at any site. The delta(13)C composition of latewood cellulose declined with increasing total water year precipitation for all sites. Years with below-average total precipitation tended to have a higher proportion of their annual water inputs during the summer months. Relative humidity was negatively correlated with latewood cellulose delta(13)C at all sites. Trees at the Arizona site produced latewood cellulose that was significantly more enriched in (18)O compared with trees at the Oregon or California site, implying a greater reliance on an (18)O-enriched water source. Thus, tree-ring records of cellulose delta(18)O and delta(13)C may provide useful proxy information about seasonal precipitation inputs and the variability and intensity of the North American monsoon.

  12. Extreme late-summer drought causes neutral annual carbon balance in southwestern ponderosa pine forests and grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Thomas; Dore, Sabina; Montes-Helu, Mario

    2013-03-01

    We assessed the impacts of extreme late-summer drought on carbon balance in a semi-arid forest region in Arizona. To understand drought impacts over extremes of forest cover, we measured net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), and total ecosystem respiration (TER) with eddy covariance over five years (2006-10) at an undisturbed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest and at a former forest converted to grassland by intense burning. Drought shifted annual NEP from a weak source of carbon to the atmosphere to a neutral carbon balance at the burned site and from a carbon sink to neutral at the undisturbed site. Carbon fluxes were particularly sensitive to drought in August. Drought shifted August NEP at the undisturbed site from sink to source because the reduction of GPP (70%) exceeded the reduction of TER (35%). At the burned site drought shifted August NEP from weak source to neutral because the reduction of TER (40%) exceeded the reduction of GPP (20%). These results show that the lack of forest recovery after burning and the exposure of undisturbed forests to late-summer drought reduce carbon sink strength and illustrate the high vulnerability of forest carbon sink strength in the southwest US to predicted increases in intense burning and precipitation variability.

  13. Short-Term Belowground Responses to Thinning and Burning Treatments in Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Forests of the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Overby

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-mediated decomposition and nutrient mineralization are major drivers of forest productivity. As landscape-scale fuel reduction treatments are being implemented throughout the fire-prone western United States of America, it is important to evaluate operationally how these wildfire mitigation treatments alter belowground processes. We quantified these important belowground components before and after management-applied fuel treatments of thinning alone, thinning combined with prescribed fire, and prescribed fire in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa stands at the Southwest Plateau, Fire and Fire Surrogate site, Arizona. Fuel treatments did not alter pH, total carbon and nitrogen (N concentrations, or base cations of the forest floor (O horizon or mineral soil (0–5 cm during this 2-year study. In situ rates of net N mineralization and nitrification in the surface mineral soil (0–15 cm increased 6 months after thinning with prescribed fire treatments; thinning only resulted in net N immobilization. The rates returned to pre-treatment levels after one year. Based on phospholipid fatty acid composition, microbial communities in treated areas were similar to untreated areas (control in the surface organic horizon and mineral soil (0–5 cm after treatments. Soil potential enzyme activities were not significantly altered by any of the three fuel treatments. Our results suggest that a variety of one-time alternative fuel treatments can reduce fire hazard without degrading soil fertility.

  14. Interactive effects of historical logging and fire exclusion on ponderosa pine forest structure in the northern Rockies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naficy, Cameron; Sala, Anna; Keeling, Eric G; Graham, Jon; DeLuca, Thomas H

    2010-10-01

    Increased forest density resulting from decades of fire exclusion is often perceived as the leading cause of historically aberrant, severe, contemporary wildfires and insect outbreaks documented in some fire-prone forests of the western United States. Based on this notion, current U.S. forest policy directs managers to reduce stand density and restore historical conditions in fire-excluded forests to help minimize high-severity disturbances. Historical logging, however, has also caused widespread change in forest vegetation conditions, but its long-term effects on vegetation structure and composition have never been adequately quantified. We document that fire-excluded ponderosa pine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains logged prior to 1960 have much higher average stand density, greater homogeneity of stand structure, more standing dead trees and increased abundance of fire-intolerant trees than paired fire-excluded, unlogged counterparts. Notably, the magnitude of the interactive effect of fire exclusion and historical logging substantially exceeds the effects of fire exclusion alone. These differences suggest that historically logged sites are more prone to severe wildfires and insect outbreaks than unlogged, fire-excluded forests and should be considered a high priority for fuels reduction treatments. Furthermore, we propose that ponderosa pine forests with these distinct management histories likely require distinct restoration approaches. We also highlight potential long-term risks of mechanical stand manipulation in unlogged forests and emphasize the need for a long-term view of fuels management.

  15. An integrated model of environmental effects on growth, carbohydrate balance, and mortality of Pinus ponderosa forests in the southern Rocky Mountains.

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    Christina L Tague

    Full Text Available Climate-induced tree mortality is an increasing concern for forest managers around the world. We used a coupled hydrologic and ecosystem carbon cycling model to assess temperature and precipitation impacts on productivity and survival of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa. Model predictions were evaluated using observations of productivity and survival for three ponderosa pine stands located across an 800 m elevation gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, during a 10-year period that ended in a severe drought and extensive tree mortality at the lowest elevation site. We demonstrate the utility of a relatively simple representation of declines in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC as an approach for estimating patterns of ponderosa pine vulnerability to drought and the likelihood of survival along an elevation gradient. We assess the sensitivity of simulated net primary production, NSC storage dynamics, and mortality to site climate and soil characteristics as well as uncertainty in the allocation of carbon to the NSC pool. For a fairly wide set of assumptions, the model estimates captured elevational gradients and temporal patterns in growth and biomass. Model results that best predict mortality risk also yield productivity, leaf area, and biomass estimates that are qualitatively consistent with observations across the sites. Using this constrained set of parameters, we found that productivity and likelihood of survival were equally dependent on elevation-driven variation in temperature and precipitation. Our results demonstrate the potential for a coupled hydrology-ecosystem carbon cycling model that includes a simple model of NSC dynamics to predict drought-related mortality. Given that increases in temperature and in the frequency and severity of drought are predicted for a broad range of ponderosa pine and other western North America conifer forest habitats, the model potentially has broad utility for assessing ecosystem vulnerabilities.

  16. An integrated model of environmental effects on growth, carbohydrate balance, and mortality of Pinus ponderosa forests in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Christina L.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Climate-induced tree mortality is an increasing concern for forest managers around the world. We used a coupled hydrologic and ecosystem carbon cycling model to assess temperature and precipitation impacts on productivity and survival of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). Model predictions were evaluated using observations of productivity and survival for three ponderosa pine stands located across an 800 m elevation gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, during a 10-year period that ended in a severe drought and extensive tree mortality at the lowest elevation site. We demonstrate the utility of a relatively simple representation of declines in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) as an approach for estimating patterns of ponderosa pine vulnerability to drought and the likelihood of survival along an elevation gradient. We assess the sensitivity of simulated net primary production, NSC storage dynamics, and mortality to site climate and soil characteristics as well as uncertainty in the allocation of carbon to the NSC pool. For a fairly wide set of assumptions, the model estimates captured elevational gradients and temporal patterns in growth and biomass. Model results that best predict mortality risk also yield productivity, leaf area, and biomass estimates that are qualitatively consistent with observations across the sites. Using this constrained set of parameters, we found that productivity and likelihood of survival were equally dependent on elevation-driven variation in temperature and precipitation. Our results demonstrate the potential for a coupled hydrology-ecosystem carbon cycling model that includes a simple model of NSC dynamics to predict drought-related mortality. Given that increases in temperature and in the frequency and severity of drought are predicted for a broad range of ponderosa pine and other western North America conifer forest habitats, the model potentially has broad utility for assessing ecosystem vulnerabilities.

  17. An integrated model of environmental effects on growth, carbohydrate balance, and mortality of Pinus ponderosa forests in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Christina L; McDowell, Nathan G; Allen, Craig D

    2013-01-01

    Climate-induced tree mortality is an increasing concern for forest managers around the world. We used a coupled hydrologic and ecosystem carbon cycling model to assess temperature and precipitation impacts on productivity and survival of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). Model predictions were evaluated using observations of productivity and survival for three ponderosa pine stands located across an 800 m elevation gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, during a 10-year period that ended in a severe drought and extensive tree mortality at the lowest elevation site. We demonstrate the utility of a relatively simple representation of declines in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) as an approach for estimating patterns of ponderosa pine vulnerability to drought and the likelihood of survival along an elevation gradient. We assess the sensitivity of simulated net primary production, NSC storage dynamics, and mortality to site climate and soil characteristics as well as uncertainty in the allocation of carbon to the NSC pool. For a fairly wide set of assumptions, the model estimates captured elevational gradients and temporal patterns in growth and biomass. Model results that best predict mortality risk also yield productivity, leaf area, and biomass estimates that are qualitatively consistent with observations across the sites. Using this constrained set of parameters, we found that productivity and likelihood of survival were equally dependent on elevation-driven variation in temperature and precipitation. Our results demonstrate the potential for a coupled hydrology-ecosystem carbon cycling model that includes a simple model of NSC dynamics to predict drought-related mortality. Given that increases in temperature and in the frequency and severity of drought are predicted for a broad range of ponderosa pine and other western North America conifer forest habitats, the model potentially has broad utility for assessing ecosystem vulnerabilities.

  18. Examining historical and current mixed-severity fire regimes in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis C Odion

    Full Text Available There is widespread concern that fire exclusion has led to an unprecedented threat of uncharacteristically severe fires in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws and mixed-conifer forests of western North America. These extensive montane forests are considered to be adapted to a low/moderate-severity fire regime that maintained stands of relatively old trees. However, there is increasing recognition from landscape-scale assessments that, prior to any significant effects of fire exclusion, fires and forest structure were more variable in these forests. Biota in these forests are also dependent on the resources made available by higher-severity fire. A better understanding of historical fire regimes in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America is therefore needed to define reference conditions and help maintain characteristic ecological diversity of these systems. We compiled landscape-scale evidence of historical fire severity patterns in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests from published literature sources and stand ages available from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program in the USA. The consensus from this evidence is that the traditional reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes are inaccurate for most forests of western North America. Instead, most forests appear to have been characterized by mixed-severity fire that included ecologically significant amounts of weather-driven, high-severity fire. Diverse forests in different stages of succession, with a high proportion in relatively young stages, occurred prior to fire exclusion. Over the past century, successional diversity created by fire decreased. Our findings suggest that ecological management goals that incorporate successional diversity created by fire may support characteristic biodiversity, whereas current attempts to "restore" forests to open, low-severity fire conditions may not align with historical reference conditions in

  19. Examining historical and current mixed-severity fire regimes in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odion, Dennis C; Hanson, Chad T; Arsenault, André; Baker, William L; Dellasala, Dominick A; Hutto, Richard L; Klenner, Walt; Moritz, Max A; Sherriff, Rosemary L; Veblen, Thomas T; Williams, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread concern that fire exclusion has led to an unprecedented threat of uncharacteristically severe fires in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws) and mixed-conifer forests of western North America. These extensive montane forests are considered to be adapted to a low/moderate-severity fire regime that maintained stands of relatively old trees. However, there is increasing recognition from landscape-scale assessments that, prior to any significant effects of fire exclusion, fires and forest structure were more variable in these forests. Biota in these forests are also dependent on the resources made available by higher-severity fire. A better understanding of historical fire regimes in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America is therefore needed to define reference conditions and help maintain characteristic ecological diversity of these systems. We compiled landscape-scale evidence of historical fire severity patterns in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests from published literature sources and stand ages available from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program in the USA. The consensus from this evidence is that the traditional reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes are inaccurate for most forests of western North America. Instead, most forests appear to have been characterized by mixed-severity fire that included ecologically significant amounts of weather-driven, high-severity fire. Diverse forests in different stages of succession, with a high proportion in relatively young stages, occurred prior to fire exclusion. Over the past century, successional diversity created by fire decreased. Our findings suggest that ecological management goals that incorporate successional diversity created by fire may support characteristic biodiversity, whereas current attempts to "restore" forests to open, low-severity fire conditions may not align with historical reference conditions in most ponderosa

  20. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

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    Banerjee Siddhartha S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m., and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m. phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito immatures. In the control tanks, mean larval density did not differ (p > 0.05 throughout the study period. Conclusion the larvae of the dytiscid beetle A. sulcatus proved to be an efficient predator of mosquito immatures and may be useful in biocontrol of medically important mosquitoes.

  1. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  2. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  3. Biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Soares Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae. Coleopterans of the family Melolonthidae comprise a large group of species that feed on different food sources, including plant roots, stems, and leaves, in addition to plant materials at different decomposition stages. Several species are found in the genus Leucothyreus, occurring in different regions of Brazil, including the various biomes in the country. Information on the biology of species of the genus Leucothyreus is scarce, therefore, we conducted studies on the biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard, 1850. The period of adult occurrence was determined with a light trap installed between a cropped and pasture area in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Adults collected in the field were used to form insect pairs and the studies were initiated in the entomology laboratory as the adults began ovipositing. Adults were observed flying in the field from October to December. Eggs were obtained as pairs were formed and a colony was established, the embryonic period lasting 14.6 days on average. The larval period in the 1st instar lasted 21.6 days, in the 2nd instar 19.6 days, and in the 3rd instar, 85.6 days. The head capsule width was 1.48 mm in the 1st instar, 2.44 mm in the 2nd, and 3.83 mm in 3rd larval instar. The pupal stage had an average duration of 35.5 days. The egg to adult period lasted 173.3 days. Morphometric information for the larval and adult stages is presented in this study.

  4. Effects of CO(sub 2) and nitrogen fertilization on soils planted with ponderosa pine; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO(sub 2) (ambient, 525, and 700(micro)l l(sup -1))and N fertilization (0, 10, and 20 g N m(sup 2) yr(sup -1)) on soil pCO(sub 2), CO(sub 2) efflux, soil solution chemistry, and soil C and nutrients in an open-top chamber study with Pinus ponderosa are described. Soil pCO(sub 2) and CO(sub 2) efflux were significantly greater with elevated CO(sub 2), at first (second growing season) in the 525(micro)l l(sup -1) and later (fourth and fifth growing seasons) in the 700(micro)l l(sup -1) CO(sub 2) treatments. Soil solution HCO(sub 3)(sup -) concentrations were temporarily elevated in the 525(micro)l l(sup -1) CO(sub 2) treatment during the second growing season, consistent with the elevated pCO(sub 2). Nitrogen fertilization had no consistent effect on soil pCO(sub 2) or CO(sub 2) efflux, but did have the expected negative effect on exchangeable Ca(sup 2+), K(sup+), and Mg(sup 2+), presumed to be caused by increased nitrate leaching. Elevated CO(sub 2) had no consistent effects on exchangeable Ca(sup 2+), K(sup+), and Mg(sup 2+), but did cause temporary reductions in soil NO(sup 3(sup -)) (second growing season). Statistically significant negative effects of elevated CO(sub 2) on soil extractable P were noted in the third and sixth growing seasons. However, these patterns in extractable P reflected pre-treatment differences, which, while not statistically significant, followed the same pattern. Statistically significant effects of elevated CO(sub 2) on total C and N in soils were noted in the third and sixth growing seasons, but these effects were inconsistent among N treatments and years. The clearest effect of elevated CO(sub 2) was in the case of C/N ratio in year 6, where there was a consistent, positive effect. The increases in C/N ratio with elevated CO(sub 2) in year six were largely a result of reductions in soil N rather than increases in soil C. Future papers will assess whether this apparent reduction in soil N could have been

  5. Distribution of black carbon in ponderosa pine forest floor and soils following the High Park wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C. M.; Haddix, M.; Paustian, K.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Biomass burning produces black carbon (BC), effectively transferring a fraction of the biomass C from an actively cycling pool to a passive C pool, which may be stored in the soil. Yet the timescales and mechanisms for incorporation of BC into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park fire (HPF), which occurred in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire severity and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane ponderosa pine forest floor (litter plus O-horizon) and soils at 0-5 and 5-15 cm depth 4 months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn severity on %C, C stocks, %N and BC. We used the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes but that there was no difference in BPCA-C content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the forest floor at burned sites (19 g BPCA-C kg-1 C), while BC stocks were greatest in the 5-15 cm subsurface soils (23 g BPCA-C m-2). At the time of sampling, unburned and burned soils had equivalent BC content, indicating none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into either the 0-5 or 5-15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B6CA : total BPCAs, an index of the degree of aromatic C condensation, suggested that BC in the 5-15 cm soil layer may have been formed at higher temperatures or experienced selective degradation relative to the forest floor and 0-5 cm soils. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely lost, either through erosion events, degradation or translocation to deeper soils. Future work examining mechanisms for BC losses from forest soils will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global

  6. Expression of functional traits during seedling establishment in two populations of Pinus ponderosa from contrasting climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Kelly L; Meinzer, Frederick C; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Marias, Danielle E

    2015-05-01

    First-year tree seedlings represent a particularly vulnerable life stage and successful seedling establishment is crucial for forest regeneration. We investigated the extent to which Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson populations from different climate zones exhibit differential expression of functional traits that may facilitate their establishment. Seeds from two populations from sites with contrasting precipitation and temperature regimes east (PIPO dry) and west (PIPO mesic) of the Oregon Cascade mountains were sown in a common garden experiment and grown under two water availability treatments (control and drought). Aboveground biomass accumulation, vegetative phenology, xylem anatomy, plant hydraulic architecture, foliar stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C), gas exchange and leaf water relations characteristics were measured. No treatment or population-related differences in leaf water potential were detected. At the end of the first growing season, aboveground biomass was 74 and 44% greater in PIPO mesic in the control and drought treatments, respectively. By early October, 73% of PIPO dry seedlings had formed dormant buds compared with only 15% of PIPO mesic seedlings. Stem theoretical specific conductivity, calculated from tracheid dimensions and packing density, declined from June through September and was nearly twice as high in PIPO mesic during most of the growing season, consistent with measured values of specific conductivity. Intrinsic water-use efficiency based on δ(13)C values was higher in PIPO dry seedlings for both treatments across all sampling dates. There was a negative relationship between values of δ(13)C and leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity across populations and treatments, consistent with greater stomatal constraints on gas exchange with declining seedling hydraulic capacity. Integrated growing season assimilation and stomatal conductance estimated from foliar δ(13)C values and photosynthetic CO2-response curves were 6 and 28

  7. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Welch, K D

    2008-12-01

    We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5 was a grazing study on rangeland during winter in South Dakota; diets were determined by using bite counts. Mean BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) was 7.5 for HBC cows and <4.0 for LBC cows during the experiments. During Exp. 1, LBC cows consumed more (P = 0.001) pine needles than did HBC cows (5.5 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.14 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). During Exp. 2, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC cows consumed variable, but greater, amounts of pine needles than did HBC cows (3.7 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.12 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). When fed a high-protein/low-energy diet, LBC cows ate more (P = 0.04) pine needles than did HBC cows. When fed a low-protein/high-energy diet, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) because LBC cows consumed more pine needles than did HBC cows for the first 3 d of the study, and then consumption by LBC animals decreased during the last 4 d. These experiments suggest that the protein:energy ratio may be an important factor in the ability of cows to tolerate terpenes, and that cows were not able to sustain an increased quantity of needle consumption on a low-protein diet. During the 25-d grazing study, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC animals selected more pine needles (up to 25% of daily bites) on some days compared with HBC cows. Weather influenced pine needle consumption because pine needle bites by LBC cows were related (r(2) = 0.60; P = 0.001) to days of greater snow depth and lower minimum daily temperatures. Both LBC and HBC cows increased selection of pine needles from trees during cold, snowy weather, but

  8. Strategies for preventing invasive plant outbreaks after prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Swanson, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Land managers use prescribed fire to return a vital process to fire-adapted ecosystems, restore forest structure from a state altered by long-term fire suppression, and reduce wildfire intensity. However, fire often produces favorable conditions for invasive plant species, particularly if it is intense enough to reveal bare mineral soil and open previously closed canopies. Understanding the environmental or fire characteristics that explain post-fire invasive plant abundance would aid managers in efficiently finding and quickly responding to fire-caused infestations. To that end, we used an information-theoretic model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of abiotic environmental characteristics (topoedaphic position, distance from roads), pre-and post-fire biotic environmental characteristics (forest structure, understory vegetation, fuel load), and prescribed fire severity (measured in four different ways) in explaining invasive plant cover in ponderosa pine forest in South Dakota’s Black Hills. Environmental characteristics (distance from roads and post-fire forest structure) alone provided the most explanation of variation (26%) in post-fire cover of Verbascum thapsus (common mullein), but a combination of surface fire severity and environmental characteristics (pre-fire forest structure and distance from roads) explained 36–39% of the variation in post-fire cover of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) and all invasives together. For four species and all invasives together, their pre-fire cover explained more variation (26–82%) in post-fire cover than environmental and fire characteristics did, suggesting one strategy for reducing post-fire invasive outbreaks may be to find and control invasives before the fire. Finding them may be difficult, however, since pre-fire environmental characteristics explained only 20% of variation in pre-fire total invasive cover, and less for individual species. Thus, moderating fire intensity or targeting areas

  9. Litter and dead wood dynamics in ponderosa pine forests along a 160-year chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S A; Burke, I C; Hobbs, N T

    2006-12-01

    Disturbances such as fire play a key role in controlling ecosystem structure. In fire-prone forests, organic detritus comprises a large pool of carbon and can control the frequency and intensity of fire. The ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA, where fire has been suppressed for a century, provide an ideal system for studying the long-term dynamics of detrital pools. Our objectives were (1) to quantify the long-term temporal dynamics of detrital pools; and (2) to determine to what extent present stand structure, topography, and soils constrain these dynamics. We collected data on downed dead wood, litter, duff (partially decomposed litter on the forest floor), stand structure, topographic position, and soils for 31 sites along a 160-year chronosequence. We developed a compartment model and parameterized it to describe the temporal trends in the detrital pools. We then developed four sets of statistical models, quantifying the hypothesized relationship between pool size and (1) stand structure, (2) topography, (3) soils variables, and (4) time since fire. We contrasted how much support each hypothesis had in the data using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). Time since fire explained 39-80% of the variability in dead wood of different size classes. Pool size increased to a peak as material killed by the fire fell, then decomposed rapidly to a minimum (61-85 years after fire for the different pools). It then increased, presumably as new detritus was produced by the regenerating stand. Litter was most strongly related to canopy cover (r2 = 77%), suggesting that litter fall, rather than decomposition, controls its dynamics. The temporal dynamics of duff were the hardest to predict. Detrital pool sizes were more strongly related to time since fire than to environmental variables. Woody debris peak-to-minimum time was 46-67 years, overlapping the range of historical fire return intervals (1 to > 100 years). Fires may therefore have burned under a

  10. ESPECIES DE DRYOPHTHORINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE ASOCIADAS A PLÁTANO Y BANANO (Musa spp. EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE RUBIO-GOMEZ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838. Palabras clave: picudos, plátano, banano, Polytus, Colombia. ABSTRACT This synopsis is about beetle’s subfamily Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to plantain and banana crops. Additionally keys illustrated for the species of the country are offered. Six species associated to these cultures are registered: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838. Key words: weevils, plantain, banana, Polytus, Colombia.

  11. A comparison of outbreak dynamics of the spruce bark beetle in Sweden and the mountain pine beetle in Canada (Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kärvemo, Simon; Schroeder, Leif Martin

    2010-01-01

    The European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) and the North American mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) may kill millions of trees during outbreak periods. Both species have also experienced large outbreaks in recent years. But the magnitude of the outbreaks of D. ponderosae is much larger. In this review we compare the outbreak history of I. typographus in Sweden with D. ponderosae in British Columbia in Canada. We also discuss some possible explanations for the difference in...

  12. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  13. EFFECTS OF WEEVILS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) CONTROL PRODUCTS, OVER THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION OF PLANTAIN

    OpenAIRE

    M. Muñoz, Liliana; Cañas, Guillermo L.; Urrea, Aura I.; Guarín, Juan H.

    2013-01-01

    In a farm in the municipality of Andes (Antioquia, Colombia), parcels were planted with Dominico Hartón plantain associated with Caturra-type coffee, where weevil damage (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) occurred in 100% of the plantain plants, corms of approximately 2 kg were planted under the same association system. From the sowing until harvest, six types of products were applied every two months on these plantations: chemical of the region (Clorpirifos and Carboxin + Thiram), Carbofur...

  14. Dryophthorinae Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Associted to Platain and Banana crops (Musaspp.) in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    SEPÚLVEDA-CANO, PAULA A; RUBIO-GÓMEZ, JOSÉ D

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824), Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758), Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838), Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758) y Polytus mell...

  15. A new Icimauna Martins & Galileo, 1991, from the Bolivian orocline (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Hemilophini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Perger, Robert

    2017-04-07

    The Neotropical longhorned beetle tribe Hemilophini has been reviewed by Martins & Galileo (2014a, b) and currently contains 542 species (Monné 2017). Some of the most conspicuous longhorned beetle taxa are found in this tribe, for example species with a pair of cephalic horns (Phoebe Audinet-Serville, 1835), or others that strongly resemble to noxious Lycidae (Coleoptera) (e.g. Apeba Martins & Galileo, 1991, Calocosmus Chevrolat, 1862, or Lycidola Thomson, 1864) (see Lingafelter 2013; Martins & Galileo 2014a, b).

  16. Novas espécies de Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae da Bolívia

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas da Bolívia, Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.New species of Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae from Bolivia. New species described from Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.

  17. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. This research aims to find out the white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera variability based on the morphological characteristic and protein banding pattern found in ”salak pondoh” farm in Regencies of Sleman, Yogyakarta and Magelang, Central Java. Each area has five sampling points. Morphological analysis on white grub was conducted using descriptive method and analysis on protein banding pattern was conducted using qualitative analysis based on the presence or absent of band pattern on the gel, and qualitatively based on the relative mobility value (Rf of protein. The result indicated that the white grub in Sleman and Magelang, based on morphology characteristic is only one species, namely Holothricia sp. Based on the protein banding pattern, the white grub sample have differences of protein band number and protein molecular weight. Key words: Salacca zalacca, white grub, morphology, protein banding pattern.Abstrak. Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Karakterisasi lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera pada pertanaman salak berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman lundi putih (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein yang ditemukan di lahan pertanaman salak pondoh di Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta dan Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah. Pada masing-masing wilayah diambil lima titik sampling. Analisis morfologi lundi putih digunakan metode deskriptif, dan analisis pola pita protein digunakan analisis kualitatif berdasarkan muncul tidaknya pola pita pada gel, dan secara kuantitatif berdasarkan nilai mobilitas relatif protein (RF. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sampel lundi putih di Kabupaten Sleman dan Magelang, berdasar karakter

  18. Fine fluorescent powder marking study of dispersal in the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Petr; Okrouhlík, Jan; Davídková, Markéta

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, JAN 07 (2016), s. 1-8 E-ISSN 1802-8829 Grant - others:Forests of the Czech Republic(CZ) 08/2009; MŠMT(CZ) LH12098 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera * Scolytidae * Ips typographus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2016/01/01.pdf

  19. Otiorhynchus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as pests in horticulture: genetics and management options with entomopathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) cause damage with detrimental economic effects to many horticultural crops due to the root feeding of their larvae as well as foliage feeding of their adults. Aside from the black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus, which is the best-known pest within this genus, numerous other Otiorhynchus species have been increasingly recognized as pests in recent years. Nocturnal adult weevils and soil-inhibiting larvae are in princip...

  20. A checklist of the genus Blosyrus Schoenherr (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae of the world

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    G. Mahendiran

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An annotated checklist of Blosyrus Schoenherr (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae comprising 101 species with their updated nomenclature, synonyms and distribution is given. The distribution pattern indicates that the genus is diversified mostly in the Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia regions. Out of 101 species, 92 occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. From India, eight species were recorded. In India, the distribution is mainly in West Bengal, Assam, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

  1. Aquatic Coleoptera assemblages in protected wetlands of North-western Spain

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    Amaia Pérez-Bilbao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are diverse and productive ecosystems endangered by human pressure, which degradation implies a biodiversity loss worldwide. Among the biological assemblages of these habitats, aquatic Coleoptera is one of the most diverse and useful groups when assessing the ecological conditions of the ecosystems they inhabit. The aims of the present study were to analyze the diversity and composition of aquatic Coleoptera assemblages in 24 wetlands protected by the Natura 2000 network of North-western Spain and the influence of environmental variables on the distribution of species, in order to detect differences between the different types of standing water habitats. A total of 11,136 individuals of 105 species belonging to 12 families of aquatic Coleoptera (Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Noteridae, Paelobiidae, Dytiscidae, Helophoridae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Scirtidae, Elmidae and Dryopidae were collected. In general, wetlands presented high richness and diversity values, Dytiscidae and Hydrophilidae having the highest species richness. Most of recorded species have a wide biogeographical distribution and only 12 endemic ones were captured. Cluster and Non-Metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (NMDS analyses showed the clustering of the studied ponds and lagoons in four groups based on biological data. In general, the wetlands of each group seem to have distinct aquatic Coleoptera faunas, as showed by the most representative species. A combination of altitude, SST and hydroperiod was the best explaining factor of the distribution of the species throughout the study area. This study shows the high biodiversity of standing water habitats in North-western Spain and the usefulness of water beetles in establishing habitat typologies.

  2. Distribution of the longhorned beetle Callipogon relictus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dae-Am; Kuprin, Alexander V; Bae, Yeon Jae

    2018-01-02

    The distribution of the longhorned beetle Callipogon (Eoxenus) relictus Semenov, 1899 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Northeast Asia was summarized for the first time, based on the examination of comprehensive material. Callipogon relictus is the only representative of the genus Callipogon in the Palearctic region. Its distribution ranges from Shanxi province (China) in the south, northward through the Korean Peninsula to Amur Oblast (Russia), and from Inner Mongolia (China) in the west to the coastal area of the Russian Far East.

  3. New faunistic records of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae from Hormozgan province, Iran

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    Azadbakhsh Saeed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a faunal study of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae from Hormozgan province in southern Iran, which was carried out from winter 2015 to winter 2016. A total of 30 species belonging to 18 genera were collected and identified. Two species – Calodromius mayeti and Elaphropus (Tachyura biblis – are reported from Iran for the first time; in addition, the occurrence of several species in Iran was confirmed.

  4. New distribution record of Cybocephalus kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico

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    Jean Carlos Curbelo-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New distribution record of Cybocephalus Kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico. A new record of Cybocephalus kathrynae T.R. Smith (Cybocephalidae is reported for Puerto Rico. Adults were collected from the flowers of Mammillaria nivosa (Cactaceae on Mona Island Reserve. Prior to this study, this beetle species was only reported for Monroe and Miami-Dade Counties, Florida, USA.

  5. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall...... trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  6. An annotated synopsis of the powder post beetles of Iran (Coleoptera: Bostrichoidea: Bostrichidae

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    Lan-Yu Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An annotated synopsis of Iranian Bostrichidae (Coleoptera: Bostrichoidea is provided as a basis for future studies, with notes on distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. In total, 31 species from 18 genera and 4 subfamilies (Bostrichinae, Dinoderinae, Lyctinae and Psoinae are listed from Iran. Sinoxylon anale Lesne, 1897, Sinoxylon perforans (Schrank, 1789, Stephanopachys linearis (Kugelann, 1792 and Xylopertha retusa (Olivier, 1790 are new records for Iran.

  7. 3-Methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one for area and individual tree protection against spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; A. Steven Munson; Darren C. Blackford; Andrew D. Graves; Tom W. Coleman; L. Scott. Baggett

    2017-01-01

    We tested 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH) and an Acer kairomone blend (AKB) as repellent semiochemicals for area and single tree protection to prevent spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) attacks at locations in Utah and New Mexico. In the area protection study, we compared host infestation rates of MCH applications at three densities (20, 40, and 80 g MCH...

  8. Evaluation of the antiaggregation pheromone, 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH), to protect live spruce from spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infestation in sourthern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell W. Ross; Gary E. Daterman; A. Steven Munson

    2004-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), produces the antiaggregation pheromone 3-methylcyclohex-2-en- 1-one (MCH) (Rudinsky et al. 1974). MCH has reduced the numbers of spruce beetles attracted to infested logs and synthetic semiochemical lures or reduced colonization rates throughout the beetles range (Kline

  9. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Nuevas citas de Coleoptera acuáticos y Megaloptera para la provincia de Chubut (Argentina New records of aquatic Coleoptera and Megaloptera from Chubut province (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Archangelsky

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se informa acerca de nuevos hallazgos de coleópteros acuáticos, de Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrophilidae y Elmidae para la provincia de Chubut (Argentina. También se cita por primera vez a las Sialidae (Megaloptera, género Protosialis Weele, para la República Argentina.New records of aquatic Coleoptera, in the families Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrophilidae and Elmidae, are reported for the Chubut province (Argentina. The Sialidae (Megaloptera, genus Protosialis Weele, is reported for the first time in Argentina.

  11. Differences in Proteins Synthesized in Needles of Unshaded and Shaded Pinus ponderosa var Scopulorum Seedlings during Prolonged Drought 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Nan C.; Copes, Donald O.; Zaerr, Joe B.

    1990-01-01

    Proteins were radiolabeled and extracted from needles of Pinus ponderosa var scopulorum (Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings progressively drought-stressed for about 1 month. A set of novel, low molecular weight proteins was detected in fluorographs of two-dimensional gels when relative water content of needles fell below 70%. Their synthesis was undetectable in the fully recovered seedlings within 48 hours after rewatering. In similarly stressed seedlings that were shaded to 10% full light, the low molecular weight polypeptides were not detected or appeared at very low levels. The shaded seedlings, in which drought tolerance was reduced, did not recover upon termination of the drought. The results suggest that protein synthesis induced by water deficit in drought-tolerant seedlings may contribute to resisting the effects of cellular dehydration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16667397

  12. Distributions of ectomycorrhizal and foliar endophytic fungal communities associated with Pinus ponderosa along a spatially constrained elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2018-05-13

    Understanding distributions of plant-symbiotic fungi is important for projecting responses to environmental change. Many coniferous trees host ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) in association with roots and foliar endophytic fungi (FE) in leaves. We examined how EM and FE associated with Pinus ponderosa each vary in abundance, diversity, and community structure over a spatially constrained elevation gradient that traverses four plant communities, 4°C in mean annual temperature, and 15 cm in mean annual precipitation. We sampled 63 individuals of Pinus ponderosa in 10 sites along a 635 m elevation gradient that encompassed a geographic distance of 9.8 km. We used standard methods to characterize each fungal group (amplified and sequenced EM from root tips; isolated and sequenced FE from leaves). Abundance and diversity of EM were similar across sites, but community composition and distributions of the most common EM differed with elevation (i.e., with climate, soil chemistry, and plant communities). Abundance and composition of FE did not differ with elevation, but diversity peaked in mid-to-high elevations. Our results suggest relatively tight linkages between EM and climate, soil chemistry, and plant communities. That FE appear less linked with these factors may speak to limitations of a culture-based approach, but more likely reflects the small spatial scale encompassed by our study. Future work should consider comparable methods for characterizing these functional groups, and additional transects to understand relationships of EM and FE to environmental factors that are likely to shift as a function of climate change. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Biosynthesis of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol emitted from needles of Pinus ponderosa via the non-mevalonate DOXP/MEP pathway of isoprenoid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, J; Lichtenthaler, H K

    2001-06-01

    The volatile hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) is emitted from the needles of several pine species from the Western United States and contributes to ozone formation in the atmosphere. It is synthesised enzymatically from dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). We show here that needles of Pinus ponderosa Laws. incorporated [1-2H1]-1-deoxy-D-xylulose (d-DOX) into the emitted MBO, but not D,L-[2-13C]mevalonic acid lactone. Furthermore, MBO emission was inhibited by fosmidomycin, a specific inhibitor of the second enzyme of the mevalonate-independent pathway of isopentenyl diphosphate and DMAPP formation, i.e. the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathway. We thus prove that MBO emitted from needles of P. ponderosa is primarily formed via the DOXP/MEP pathway.

  14. Ocorrência de Migdolus fryanus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae em plantios de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Occurrence of Migdolus fryanus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in Pinus caribaea hondurensis plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Wilcken

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de Migdolus fryanus Westwood (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae foram encontradas danificando raízes de mudas de P. caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénéel Barr. & Golf. no Estado de São Paulo. Isso aumenta a importância dessa espécie, cujos danos, em espécies florestais, têm aumentado, principalmente, em plantios de eucalipto. Esse é o primeiro registro de M. fryanus em plantios de Pinus, e o referido inseto pode ser considerado uma nova praga dessa espécie florestal. Detalhes das características morfológicas e biológicas, danos e possíveis métodos de controle de M. fryanus são discutidos.Larvae of Migdolus fryanus Westwood (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae were found damaging roots of young plants of P. caribaea hondurensis (Sénéel Barr. & Golf. in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This fact increases the importance of this species because the damages have been increasing in forest species specially in eucalyptus plantations. This is the first record of M. fryanus in pine plantations and this insect can be considered a pest of pine plants. Details on the morphology and biological characteristics, damage and possible control methods to M. fryanus are discussed.

  15. Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, M.E.; Gyenge, J.E.; de Urquiza, M.M.; Varela, S.

    2012-01-01

    More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to un...

  16. Back to the Future: Building resilience in Colorado Front Range forests using research findings and a new guide for restoration of ponderosa and dry-mixed conifer landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Miller; Rob Addington; Greg Aplet; Mike Battaglia; Tony Cheng; Jonas Feinstein; Jeff Underhill

    2018-01-01

    Historically, the ponderosa and dry mixed-conifer forests of the Colorado Front Range were more open and grassy, and trees of all size classes were found in a grouped arrangement with sizable openings between the clumps. As a legacy of fire suppression, today’s forests are denser, with smaller trees. Proactive restoration of this forest type will help to reduce fuel...

  17. Response of brown-headed cowbirds and three host species to thinning treatments in low-elevation ponderosa pine forests along the northern Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, W.H.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Spaulding, Sarah A.; Wanner, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Thinning ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests to achieve desired ecological conditions remains a priority in the North American west. In addition to reducing the risk of high-severity wildfires in unwanted areas, stand thinning may increase wildlife and plant diversity and provide increased opportunity for seedling recruitment. We initiated conservative (i.e. minimal removal of trees) ponderosa stand thinning treatments with the goals of reducing fire risk and improving habitat conditions for native wildlife and flora. We then compared site occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina), plumbeous vireos (Vireo plumbeus), and western wood-pewees (Contopus sordidulus) in thinned and unthinned (i.e., control) forest stands from 2007 to 2009. Survey stations located in thinned stands had 64% fewer trees/ha, 25% less canopy cover, and 23% less basal area than stations in control stands. Occupancy by all three host species was negatively associated with tree density, suggesting that these species respond favorably to forest thinning treatments in ponderosa pine forests. We also encountered plumbeous vireos more frequently in plots closer to an ecotonal (forest/grassland) edge, an association that may increase their susceptibility to edge-specialist, brood parasites like brown-headed cowbirds. Occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds was not related to forest metrics but was related to occupancy by plumbeous vireos and the other host species in aggregate, supporting previous reports on the affiliation between these species. Forest management practices that promote heterogeneity in forest stand structure may benefit songbird populations in our area, but these treatments may also confer costs associated with increased cowbird occupancy. Further research is required to understand more on the complex relationships between occupancy of cowbirds and host species, and between cowbird occupancy and realized rates of nest parasitism.

  18. Abridged life tables for Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Parasitoids of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) reared on artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological aspects and demographic parameters of Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoids of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) were investigated usi...

  19. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan by using sentinel eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristopher J. Abell; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Jian J. Duan; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2016-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoid species, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera:...

  20. Responses of Ips pini (Say), Pityogenes knechteli Swaine and Associated Beetles (Coleoptera) to Host Monoterpenes in Stands of Lodgepole Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; John H. Borden

    2003-01-01

    We conducted seven experiments in stands of mature lodgepole pine in southern British Columbia to elucidate the role of host volatiles in the semiochemical ecology of the pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), with particular reference to the behavioral responses of predators and competing species of bark beetles. Our results demonstrated that the...

  1. Comparison of trap types, placement, and colors for monitoring Anthonomus musculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults in highbush blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of highbush blueberries in the northeast USA. To date, however, no trapping system has been developed to successfully monitor this pest. In 2012-2014, studies were conducted in commercial blueberry farms in New Jers...

  2. Attraction of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and other buprestids to sticky traps of various colors and shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack; Therese M. Poland

    2013-01-01

    The family Buprestidae (Coleoptera) contains numerous economically significant species, including the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, first discovered in North America in 2002. Effective traps for monitoring spread and population densities of EAB and other buprestids are needed. Studies were conducted in 2008 to test different...

  3. Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females are lighter feeding on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae subjected to ventral nerve cord transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The movement observed in the Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae can be a type of defense strategy. This makes it significant to study the development and reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs Asopinae with the immobilized pupae of this prey. The aim was to evaluate the per...

  4. Self-selection of two diet components by Tennebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness. Life table analysis was used to determine the fitness of T. molitor developing in diet mixtures comprised of four dif...

  5. Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variation in instar number and the pattern of sequential instar development time of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied under 4 different diet regimes. Addition of dietary supplements consisting of dry potato or a mix of dry potato and dry egg whites significantly reduced...

  6. Biology and life history of Argopistes tsekooni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in China, a promising biological control agent of Chinese privet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y-Z Zhang; J. Sun; J.L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    The biology and life history of Argopistes tsekooni Chen (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a potential biological control agent of Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied under laboratory and outdoor conditions in Huangshan City of Anhui Province, China, in 2006. A. tsekooni larvae are leafminers that...

  7. Evaluating the use of plastic bags to prevent escape of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Ciaramitaro; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Andrea Diss-Torrance

    2008-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a highly destructive exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus) in North America. Human movement of infested logs, primarily pieces of firewood, is a major pathway for long distance spread of the beetle. Firewood may be confiscated at campgrounds, rest-areas, and...

  8. Biology and natural enemies of Agrilus fleischeri (Coleoptera:Buprestidae), a newly emerging destructive buprestid pest in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The jewel beetle Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a newly emerging major pest of poplar trees (Populus spp.) in northeast China and is responsible for the poplar mortality throughout its distribution range. In order to determine how to manage this pest effectively, we stud...

  9. Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against...

  10. Nuevos datos de distribución de los Cholevinae hipogeos del Atlas marroquí (Coleoptera, Leiodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresneda, J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available New distribution data for the hypogean Cholevinae from the Moroccan Atlas (Coleoptera, Leiodidae The authors report new findings on the distribution of Speonemadus maroccanus (Jeannel, 1936, Nargus (Demochrus rufipennis (Lucas, 1846, Choleva (Choleva kocheri Henrot, 1962 and Catops fuscus fuscoides Reitter, 1909. The geonemy of these species is updated and the research is illustrated with maps of their distribution.

  11. Effects of pheromone and plant volatile release rates and ratios on trapping Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.S. Meng; R.T. Trotter; M.A. Keena; T.C. Baker; S. Yan; E.G. Schwartzberg; K. Hoover

    2014-01-01

    Native to China and Korea, the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a polyphagous wood-boring pest for which a trapping system would greatly benefit eradication and management programs in both the introduced and native ranges. Over two field seasons, a total of 160 flight intercept panel traps...

  12. Survival and phenology of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) reared on a newly developed artificial diet free of host material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Hannah Nadel; Juli. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The final phase in the development of an artificial diet that contains no ash host material and the phenology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Bupresidae) on that diet are documented. A diet containing powdered ash phloem exists, but host material introduces potential variability and contamination, and the cost and...

  13. Acoustic assessment of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) effects on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larval activity and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...

  14. Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Andrew D. Graves; Mary Louise. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle...

  15. Limited predation potential by adult and larval lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) eggs and nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) co-occur in many habitats with many arthropods that are of suitable size as prey. The Pentatomidae (Hemiptera) are one such group of insects with eggs and early instars that could be susceptible to predation by Coccinellidae. The objective of this laboratory study wa...

  16. Rearing Xyleborus volvulus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Media Containing Sawdust from Avocado or Silkbay, with or without Raffaelea lauricola (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like other ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus volvulus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) lives in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with fungi that serve as food source. Until recently, X. volvulus was not considered a pest, and none of its symbionts were considered plant pathogens. However, recent ...

  17. Micro-CT unveils the secret life of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera, Curculionidae: Scolytinae) inside coffee berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide, and due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. In this pap...

  18. Spatio-temporal analysis of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Circulionidae: Scolytinae) Invasion in Eastern U.S. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.H. Koch; W.D. Smith

    2008-01-01

    The non-native redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), has recently emerged as a signiÞcant pest of southeastern U.S. coastal forests. SpeciÞcally, a fungal symbiont (Raffaelea sp.) of X. glabratus has caused mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia...

  19. Effect of temperature on reproduction and embryonic development of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L., (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Sørensen, Helle; Bligaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. Despite the importance of this pest, detailed information on reproduction to predict risk of crop damage is lacking. This study investigates the effect of temperature...

  20. Description and phylogeny of a new microsporidium from the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1766 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes a new genus and species of microsporidia which is a pathogen of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The beetles were collected from Istanbul in Turkey. All developmental stages are uninucleate and in direct contact with the host ...