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Sample records for dendrobaena octaedra savigny

  1. Slow desiccation improves dehydration tolerance and accumulation of compatible osmolytes in earthworm cocoons (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina R; Holmstrup, Martin; Malmendal, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, is a common species in temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. The egg capsules ('cocoons') of D. octaedra are deposited in the upper soil layers where they may be exposed to desiccation. Many previous studies on desiccation tolerance in soil...... anhydrobiotic organism we propose that they belong in a transition zone between the desiccation sensitive and the truly anhydrobiotic organisms. Clearly, these earthworm embryos share many physiological traits with anhydrobiotic organisms....

  2. Cryoprotectants are metabolic fuels during long term frost exposure in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Jørgensen, Sofia; Overgaard, Johannes; Holmstrup, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Ectothermic animals that live in the subarctic and temperate regions must have strategies to deal with periods of frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant species that accumulates large concentrations of the cryoprotectant glucose upon ice formation in the extr......Ectothermic animals that live in the subarctic and temperate regions must have strategies to deal with periods of frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant species that accumulates large concentrations of the cryoprotectant glucose upon ice formation...

  3. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrup, Martin, E-mail: martin.holmstrup@dmu.d [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Sorensen, Jesper G. [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Overgaard, Johannes; Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bindesbol, Anne-Mette [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Slotsbo, Stine; Fisker, Karina V.; Maraldo, Kristine [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Waagner, Dorthe [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Labouriau, Rodrigo [Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Asmund, Gert [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-01-15

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as glycogen. In a field study the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, was collected from polluted areas, and from unpolluted reference areas. If present in the environment, cadmium, lead and copper accumulated to high concentrations in D. octaedra. In contrast, other toxic metals such as aluminium, nickel and zinc appeared to be regulated and kept at low internal concentrations compared to soil concentrations. Lead, cadmium and copper accumulation did not correlate with glycogen reserves of individual worms. In contrast, aluminium, nickel and zinc were negatively correlated with glycogen reserves. These results suggest that coping with different metals in earthworms is associated with differential energy demands depending on the associated detoxification strategy. - Detoxification and accumulation of cadmium and lead by earthworms carries little energetic expenses whereas strict internal regulation of aluminium and nickel has energetic costs.

  4. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Sorensen, Jesper G.; Overgaard, Johannes; Bayley, Mark; Bindesbol, Anne-Mette; Slotsbo, Stine; Fisker, Karina V.; Maraldo, Kristine; Waagner, Dorthe; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Asmund, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as glycogen. In a field study the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, was collected from polluted areas, and from unpolluted reference areas. If present in the environment, cadmium, lead and copper accumulated to high concentrations in D. octaedra. In contrast, other toxic metals such as aluminium, nickel and zinc appeared to be regulated and kept at low internal concentrations compared to soil concentrations. Lead, cadmium and copper accumulation did not correlate with glycogen reserves of individual worms. In contrast, aluminium, nickel and zinc were negatively correlated with glycogen reserves. These results suggest that coping with different metals in earthworms is associated with differential energy demands depending on the associated detoxification strategy. - Detoxification and accumulation of cadmium and lead by earthworms carries little energetic expenses whereas strict internal regulation of aluminium and nickel has energetic costs.

  5. Variation in gene expression within clones of the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.

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    Marina Mustonen

    Full Text Available Gene expression is highly plastic, which can help organisms to both acclimate and adapt to changing environments. Possible variation in gene expression among individuals with the same genotype (among clones is not widely considered, even though it could impact the results of studies that focus on gene expression phenotypes, for example studies using clonal lines. We examined the extent of within and between clone variation in gene expression in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra, which reproduces through apomictic parthenogenesis. Five microsatellite markers were developed and used to confirm that offspring are genetic clones of their parent. After that, expression of 12 genes was measured from five individuals each from six clonal lines after exposure to copper contaminated soil. Variation in gene expression was higher over all genotypes than within genotypes, as initially assumed. A subset of the genes was also examined in the offspring of exposed individuals in two of the clonal lines. In this case, variation in gene expression within genotypes was as high as that observed over all genotypes. One gene in particular (chymotrypsin inhibitor also showed significant differences in the expression levels among genetically identical individuals. Gene expression can vary considerably, and the extent of variation may depend on the genotypes and genes studied. Ensuring a large sample, with many different genotypes, is critical in studies comparing gene expression phenotypes. Researchers should be especially cautious inferring gene expression phenotypes when using only a single clonal or inbred line, since the results might be specific to only certain genotypes.

  6. New earthworm (Megadrili: Lumbricidae records from Bulgaria with the first finding of Dendrobaena platyura (Fitzinger, 1833 in the country

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    HRISTO VALCHOVSKI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of recent earthworm collectings in Bulgaria are presented. During the investigations altogether 18 species have been registered. Dendrobaena platyura (Fitzinger, 1833 is a new record for the country, and with D. hrabei (Černosvitov, 1934 and Octodrilus transpadanus (Rosa, 1884 also for the region of Stara Planina (Balkan Mts. D. hrabei, D. depressa (Rosa, 1893, D. octaedra (Savigny, 1826 and Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826 represent new records for Pirin Mts.

  7. Dual roles of glucose in the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, Sofia; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Ectothermic animals inhabiting the subarctic and temperate regions have evolved strategies to deal with periods of continuous frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is freeze tolerant and accumulates large concentrations of glucose upon freezing. The present study investigates...... the roles of glucose accumulation for long-term freeze tolerance in worms kept frozen at -2 degrees C for 47 days. During this period, worms were sampled periodically for determination of survival and for measurements of glucose, glycogen, lactate, alanine and succinate. In addition we performed...... increased slightly whereas succinate levels remained constant. However, it is argued that other waste products (particularly propionate) could be the primary end product of a continued anaerobic metabolism. Calorimetric measures of the metabolic rate of frozen worms were in accord with values calculated...

  8. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as gly......Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves...

  9. Seasonal changes in lipid composition and glycogen storage associated with freeze-tolerance of the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Overgaard, J.; Tollarová, Michaela; Hedlund, K.; Petersen, S. O.; Holmstrup, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 5 (2009), s. 569-577 ISSN 0174-1578 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : earthworms * freeze-tolerance * glycogen Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2009

  10. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life-cycle of Dendrobaena veneta was studied to assess the potential of this species in vermiculture. The development, growth and reproduction were investigated by rearing worms at 25°C on urine-free cattle manure with a moisture content of 80% over a period of 200 days. It was found that cocoons are produced at a ...

  11. Oxygen consumption of the earthworm species .i.Dendrobaena mrazeki./i

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šustr, Vladimír; Pižl, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, 5-6 (2009), s. 478-482 ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworms * Dendrobaena mrazeki * respiration rate Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.247, year: 2009

  12. Quantitative occurrence of micromycetes in soil and excrements of Dendrobaena mrazeki (Lumbricidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Pižl, Václav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2004), s. 32-34 ISSN 1336-1120 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworm * Dendrobaena mrazeki * saprotrophic microfungi Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Extending a combined dynamic energy budget matrix population model with a bayesian approach to assess variation in the intrinsic rate of population increase. An example in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Holmstrup, M.; Damgaard, C.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix models can be used to extrapolate effects of environmental toxicants on life history parameters to the population level. In applications of these models, life history parameters are usually treated as independent factors; however, they are actually strongly linked to each other. To interpret

  14. Temperature dependence and ontogenetic changes of metabolic rate of an endemic earthworm .i.Dendrobaena mrazeki./i.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šustr, Vladimír; Pižl, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2010), s. 289-293 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Dendrobaena * oxygen consumption * acclimation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.609, year: 2010

  15. A new species of Cymadusa Savigny, 1816 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Ampithoidae from northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz F. Andrade

    Full Text Available A new species of the amphipod family Ampithoidae Stebbing, 1899 is described from the northeastern Brazilian waters. The new described taxon is grouped in the genus Cymadusa Savigny, 1816, since it presents all the diagnostic characteristics of the genus. The examined material was collected by scuba diving in the Rocas Atoll, off Rio Grande do Norte state coast, Camamu Bay and Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia state. The new species described here is close to C. filosa Savigny, 1816, type species of the genus, by presenting anterior margin of gnathopod 1 poorly setose, male gnathopod 2 densely setose, with palmar corner not defined by a spine and dactylus subequal in length to palm, being considered part of the C. filosa complex. Among the species of this complex, the one which most resembles to the new taxon is C. imbroglio Rabindranath, 1972, which is distinguished by the absence of both the trapezoid process in the palm and spine at the palmar corner in the gnathopod 2. This is the second species of the genus Cymadusa recorded from Brazilian waters.

  16. Cadmium effect on the structure of supra- and subpharyngeal ganglia and the neurosecretory processes in earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siekierska, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium adversely affected ganglia of the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta. - Cadmium effects on the supra- and subpharyngeal ganglia, neurosecretion and RNA content in the neurosecretory cells were tested in earthworms Dendrobaena veneta exposed to 10 and 50 mg Cd kg -1 in soil after 20 days of the experiment. Accumulation of cadmium in the ganglia of nervous system was also measured using AAS method. Cadmium was accumulated in the nervous system. The accumulated amount was proportional to Cd soil concentration and the exposure time. A considerable fall in neurosecretion and RNA content in the neurosecretory cells and neurosecretion in the neuropile (the axons) of both tested ganglia was induced by 50 mg Cd kg -1 . It seemed that neurosecretion synthesis and its axonal transport could be suppressed. Cadmium caused degenerative changes as vacuolization of the neurosecretory cells and neuropile in both tested ganglia

  17. Immune system participates in brain regeneration and restoration of reproduction in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Laszlo; Pollak, Edit; Skopek, Zuzanna; Gutt, Ewa; Kruk, Jerzy; Morgan, A John; Plytycz, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Earthworm decerebration causes temporary inhibition of reproduction which is mediated by certain brain-derived neurohormones; thus, cocoon production is an apposite supravital marker of neurosecretory center functional recovery during brain regeneration. The core aim of the present study was to investigate aspects of the interactions of nervous and immune systems during brain regeneration in adult Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida; Oligochaeta). Surgical brain extirpation was combined, either with (i) maintenance of immune-competent coelomic cells (coelomocytes) achieved by surgery on prilocaine-anesthetized worms or (ii) prior extrusion of fluid-suspended coelomocytes by electrostimulation. Both brain renewal and cocoon output recovery were significantly faster in earthworms with relatively undisturbed coelomocyte counts compared with individuals where coelomocyte counts had been experimentally depleted. These observations provide empirical evidence that coelomocytes and/or coelomocyte-derived factors (e.g. riboflavin) participate in brain regeneration and, by implication, that there is close functional synergy between earthworm neural and immune systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative toxicity of tetra ethyl lead and lead oxide to earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswara Rao, J.; Kavitha, P.; Padmanabha Rao, A.

    2003-01-01

    Leaded gasoline contains tetra ethyl lead (TEL) as an antiknocking agent, which produces major amounts of lead oxide in automobile exhaust along with traces of TEL. To minimize the lead contamination, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is used as a substitute for producing unleaded gasoline. It has become increasingly apparent that young children are highly susceptible to the harmful effects of lead. Hence, a study was carried out to monitor lead toxicity in soil, using adult earthworms (Eisenia fetida, Savigny). Leaded gasoline (TEL) and lead oxide are 383- and 211-fold more toxic than unleaded gasoline (MTBE) in 7 days of exposure and 627- and 290-fold more toxic in 14 days, respectively. Results indicate that the presence of TEL in leaded gasoline and lead oxide has a significant effect on behavior, morphology, and histopathology of earthworms. Absorption of TEL into the tissues is comparatively less than that of lead oxide but toxic effects were severe. Rupture of the cuticle, extrusion of coelomic fluid and inflexible metameric segmentation were observed, causing desensitization of the posterior region leading to fragmentation in earthworms

  19. The earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida: A new experimental-organism for photobiomodulation and wound healing

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    Andrea Amaroli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM is a manipulation of cellular behavior using non-ablative low intensity light sources. This manipulation triggers a cascade of metabolic effects and physiological changes resulting in improved tissue repair, of benefit in the treatment of tissue injury, degenerative or autoimmune diseases. PBM has witnessed an exponential increase in both clinical instrument technology and applications. It is therefore of benefit to find reliable experimental models to test the burgeoning laser technology for medical applications. In our work, we proposed the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta for the study of non-ablative laser-light effects on wound healing. In our preliminary work, D. veneta has been shown to be positively affected by PBM. New tests using D. veneta were set up to evaluate the effectiveness of a chosen 808 nm-64 J/cm2–1W-CW laser therapy using the AB2799 hand-piece with flat-top bean profile, on the wound healing process of the earthworm. Effective outcome was assimilated through examining the macroscopic, histological, and molecular changes on the irradiated posterior-segment of excised-earthworms with respect to controls. Three successive treatments, one every 24 hours, were concluded as sufficient to promote the wound healing, by effects on muscular and blood vessel contraction, decrement of bacteria load, reduction of inflammatory processes and tissue degeneration. D. veneta was demonstrated to be a reliable experimental organism that meets well the 3Rs principles and the National Science Foundation statement. Through their genetic and evolutionary peculiarity, comparable to those of scientifically accredited models, D. veneta allows the effect of laser therapies by multidisciplinary methods, at various degree of complexity and costs to be investigated.

  20. Occurrence of the Earthworms Pontodrilus litoralis (Grube, 1855, Metaphire houlleti (Perrier, 1872, and Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826 from Taiwan

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    Huei-Ping Shen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two megascolecid earthworms Pontodrilus litoralis (Grube, 1855 and Metaphire houlleti (Perrier, 1872, and a lumbricid earthworm Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826 as the species newly recorded to Taiwan. P. litoralis is a small, euryhaline earthworm dwelling in the intertidal zone along coasts of the Penghu island and the southwestern Taiwan. M. houlleti is a medium, sexthecal earthworm from Pingtung of the southern Taiwan. It belongs to the houlleti-group of the genus Metaphire Sims and Easton, 1972. E. tetraedra is an earthworm dwelling in the torrents or damp habitat in mountain streams of the central Taiwan.

  1. Hematological Analysis of the Ascidian Botrylloides leachii (Savigny, 1816) During Whole-Body Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchoud, Simon; Zondag, Lisa; Lamare, Miles D; Wilson, Megan J

    2017-06-01

    Whole-body regeneration (WBR)-the formation of an entire adult from only a small fragment of its own tissue-is extremely rare among chordates. Exceptionally, in the colonial ascidian Botrylloides leachii (Savigny, 1816) a fully functional adult is formed from their common vascular system after ablation of all adults from the colony in just 10 d, thanks to their high blastogenetic potential. While previous studies have identified key genetic markers and morphological changes, no study has yet focused on the hematological aspects of regeneration despite the major involvement of the remaining vascular system and the contained hemocytes in this process. To dissect this process, we analyzed colony blood flow patterns using time-lapse microscopy to obtain a quantitative description of the velocity, reversal pattern, and average distance traveled by hemocytes. We also observed that flows present during regeneration are powered by temporally and spatially synchronized contractions of the terminal ampullae. In addition, we revised previous studies of B. leachii hematology as well as asexual development using histological sectioning and compared the role played by hemocytes during WBR. We found that regeneration starts with a rapid healing response characterized by hemocyte aggregation and infiltration of immunocytes, followed by increased activity of hemoblasts, recruitment of macrophage-like cells for clearing the tissues of debris, and their subsequent disappearance from the circulation concomitant with the maturation of a single regenerated adult. Overall, we provide a detailed account of the hematological properties of regenerating B. leachii colonies, providing novel lines of inquiry toward the decipherment of regeneration in chordates.

  2. Analysis of FAME for two species of earthworms Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny and Pheretima hawayana Rosa (Annelida-Oligochaeta

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    Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of fatty acid (FA is one of the most commonly used tools for investigating microbial populations in ecological studies. Fatty acids can be extracted and esterified to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME when analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the resulting profile contains some microbial biomarkers. The aim of the present study to analysis FAME present in two species of earthworms exhibit the same environment. The thin layer chromatography of earthworm Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny showed three major spots corresponding to FAME while that of earthworm Pheretima hawayana Rosa showed two major spots. The GC-MS analysis of Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny extract showed the presence of at least 23 peaks, only two peaks were identified from their Rt and Ms spectrum, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester. While the chromatogram of Pheretima hawayana Rosa extract showed at least 20 peaks, five of them were identified; butanedioic acid dimethyl ester, pentadecanoic acid 14-methyl ester, 2-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid methyl ester. In conclusion, in spite of the two species of earthworms from the same environment, but their content of FAME was different and that may explain why the biological activity of the whole body extract was different.

  3. Acute toxicity of chemical pesticides and plant-derived essential oil on the behavior and development of earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Eisenia fetida (Savigny).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    Comparative toxicity of two chemical pesticides (temephos and monocrotophos) versus a plant-derived betel leaf oil Piper betle (L.) to earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and redworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, historically: Eisenia foetida (Savigny 1826), was evaluated. Mortality rate was more prominent in temephos at 100 μg concentration to both the earthworms in filter paper test (FPT) as well as 10 mg concentration in artificial soil test (AST). In contrast, P. betle does not display much mortality rate to both the earthworms even at 1000 mg of treatment concentrations. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) value was observed at 3.89 and 5.26 mg/kg for temephos and monocrotophos against E. eugeniae and 3.81 and 5.25 mg/kg to E. fetida, respectively. Whereas, LC 50 value of betel leaf oil was only observed at 3149 and 4081 mg/kg to E. eugeniae and E. fetida, respectively. Correspondingly, the avoidance or attraction assay also displayed that earthworms were more sensitive to the soil containing chemical pesticides. Whereas, the avoidance percentage was decreased in the P. betle oil. Similarly, sublethal concentration of chemical pesticides (5 and 6.5 mg) significantly reduced the earthworm weight and growth rate. However, P. betle oil did not change the developmental rate in the duration of the assay (2, 7 and 14 days) even at 4000 mg treatment concentration. The enzyme ratio of CAT and SOD was also affected significantly after exposure to the chemical pesticides (6.5 mg/kg). Hence, our study implied the risk assessment associated with the chemical pesticides and also recommends plant-derived harmless P. betle oil against beneficial species as an alternative pest control agent.

  4. Long-term efficiency of soil stabilization with apatite and Slovakite: the impact of two earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta) on lead bioaccessibility and soil functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tica, D; Udovic, M; Lestan, D

    2013-03-01

    Remediation soil is exposed to various environmental factors over time that can affect the final success of the operation. In the present study, we assessed Pb bioaccessibility and microbial activity in industrially polluted soil (Arnoldstein, Austria) stabilized with 5% (w/w) of Slovakite and 5% (w/w) of apatite soil after exposure to two earthworm species, Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta, used as model environmental biotic soil factors. Stabilization resulted in reduced Pb bioaccessibility, as assessed with one-step extraction tests and six-step sequential extraction, and improved soil functioning, mirrored in reduced β-glucosidase activity in soil. Both earthworm species increased Pb bioaccessibility, thus decreasing the initial stabilization efficacy and indicating the importance of considering the long-term fate of remediated soil. The earthworm species had different effects on soil enzyme activity, which can be attributed to species-specific microbial populations in earthworm gut acting on the ingested soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aproximación al estudio de la morfología setígera en algunas especies ibéricas de los géneros Glycera Savigny, 1818 y Glycerella Arwidsson, 1899 (Polychaeta, Glyceridae

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    Moreira, J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The spiniger chaetae of several Iberian species of the polychaete genera Glycera Savigny, 1818 and Glycerella Arwidsson, 1899, namely Glycera alba Rathke, 1843, Glycera fallax Quatrefages, 1850, Glycera tesselata Grube, 1863, Glycera aff. tridactyla Schmarda, 1861, Glycera unicornis Savigny, 1818 and Glycerella magellanica (McIntosh, 1885, were compared and studied under the SEM, with particular attention to the joint between blade and shaft. This study showed differences in the number, size and shape of the teeth present at the joint; this fact points out the potential taxonomic value of the chaetal microstructure at the subgeneric level within the Glyceridae Grube, 1850, also representing a starting point for more detailed forthcoming studies. In addition, those differences might not be useful for operational taxonomic identification because of the need of the SEM but may represent an additional tool for studies on the systematics and phylogeny of glycerids.A partir del estudio al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB de las sedas espinígeras de varias especies del género Glycera Savigny, 1818 (Glycera alba Rathke, 1843; Glycera fallax Quatrefages, 1850; Glycera tesselata Grube, 1863; Glycera aff. tridactyla Schmarda, 1861 y Glycera unicornis Savigny, 1818 y Glycerella Arwidsson, 1899 (Glycerella magellanica (McIntosh, 1885, recogidas en la península Ibérica, se aborda un estudio comparado preliminar de la morfología setígera a nivel de la zona de articulación entre el mango y el artejo. Como resultado de este estudio se han revelado diferencias en el número, tamaño y forma de los dientes que componen esta zona, lo cual apunta a un potencial valor de la microestructura setígera como carácter taxonómico a nivel subgenérico en la familia Glyceridae Grube, 1850, abriendo la posibilidad de su empleo en futuros estudios de revisión del grupo. Estas diferencias, si bien no serían susceptibles de ser empleadas en la identificaci

  6. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-06-05

    Jun 5, 1990 ... that this species does have potential to combat organic waste problems. The complete life-cycle of D. veneta has not been documented yeL We therefore included this ... in plastic containers with gauze lids. Fifty grams of the stabilized culture medium per wonn was added when the experiment was started.

  7. A review of metal (Pb and Zn) sensitive and pH tolerant bioassay organisms for risk screening of metal-contaminated acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, E.Emily V.; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D.

    2013-01-01

    To improve risk estimates at the screening stage of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), short duration bioassays tailored to undisturbed soil cores from the contaminated site could be useful. However, existing standardized bioassays use disturbed soil samples and often pH sensitive organisms. This is a problem as naturally acidic soils are widespread. Changing soil properties to suit the test organism may change metal bioavailability, leading to erroneous risk estimates. For bioassays in undisturbed soil cores to be effective, species able to withstand natural soil properties must be identified. This review presents a critical examination of bioassay species' tolerance of acidic soils and sensitivity to metal contaminants such as Pb and Zn. Promising organisms include; Dendrobaena octaedra, Folsomia candida, Caenorhabditis elegans, Oppia nitens, Brassica rapa, Trifolium pratense, Allium cepa, Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum. The MetSTICK test and the Bait lamina test were also identified as suitable microorganism tests. -- Highlights: •Risk screening of metal contaminated soils should consider metal bioavailability. •Metal bioavailability is dependent on soil properties such as pH. •Many standardized bioassay organisms are sensitive to acidic soils. •This review identifies acid tolerant and metal sensitive bioassays and species. •The identified tests can improve risk screening of acidic metal contaminated soil. -- This review identifies bioassay species able to withstand naturally acidic soils while being sensitive to metal contaminants

  8. Effects of the increased radium content in soil on the soil fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutskij, D.A.; Druk, A.Ya.; Semenova, L.M.; Semyashkina, T.M.; Mikhal'tsova, Z.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of elevated radioactive background due to the presence of natural radionuclide of radium-226 on soil animals has been studied. The areas being studied (1-2 hectares) had the elevated radioactivity ranging from 50 to 4000 μR/hour and were located on an over-flood-lands terrace with meadow vegetation in the mid-taiga subzone. Histological examination of tegmental epithelium and middle intestine (tissues in direct contact with radium-contaminated soil) was performed on Dendrobaena octaedra (Sav.) and Dendrodrillus rubidus (Sav.) collected from areas with 4000μR/hour radioactivity. A comparison of the results with data obtained earlier for surface animals inhabiting the same areas has corroborated that settled animals inhabiting contaminated areas for a long time suffer from retardation of development and disturbances in the functioning of body epithelium and of the intestine. The effect of radiation on soil animals can be observed in areas with far lower radioactivity (100-200μR/hour), probably due to their closer contact with radium-contaminated soil. The most convenient object for monitoring of the effects of elevated background radioactivity is the earthworm, which is irradiated not only from outside but also from the smallowed soil

  9. Analysis of the behavior of mitochondria in the ovaries of the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta Rosa 1839.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Faron

    Full Text Available We examined six types of cells that form the ovary of the earthworm Dendrobena veneta ogonia, prooocytes, vitellogenic oocytes, trophocytes, fully grown postvitellogenic oocytes and somatic cells of the gonad. The quantitative stereological method revealed a much higher "volume density" of mitochondria in all of the types of germ-line cells except for the somatic cells. Fluorescent vital stain JC-1, however, showed a much higher oxidative activity of mitochondria in the somatic cells than in the germ-line cells. The distribution of active and inactive mitochondria within the studied cells was assessed using the computer program ImageJ. The analysis showed a higher luminosity of inactive mitochondria in all of the types of germ-line cells and a higher luminosity of active mitochondria in somatic cells. The OXPHOS activity was found in somatic cells mitochondria and in the peripheral mitochondria of the vitellogenic oocytes. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS revealed a differentiated distribution of ROS in the different cell types. The amount of ROS substances was lower in somatic cells than in younger germ-line cells. The ROS level was also low in the cytoplasm of fully grown postwitellogenic oocytes. The distribution of the MnSOD enzyme that protects mitochondria against destructive role of ROS substances was high in the oogonia and in prooocytes and it was very high in vitellogenic and postvitellogenic oocytes. However, a much lower level of this protective enzyme was observed in the trophocytes and the lowest level was found in the cytoplasm of somatic cells. The lower mitochondrial activity and higher level of MnSOD activity in germ-line cells when compared to somatic cells testifies to the necessity of the organisms to protect the mitochondria of oocytes against the destructive role of the ROS that are produced during oxidative phosphorylation. The protection of the mitochondria in oocytes is essential for the transfer of healthy organelles to the next generation.

  10. Progress in assisted natural remediation of an arsenic contaminated agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mench, Michel; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Beckx, Caroline; Ruttens, Ann

    2006-01-01

    A contaminated soil was collected in a field adjacent to a derelict As (III) smelter in Reppel (Bocholt, Belgium). A single soil treatment (% by soil weight) based on either iron grit (SS, 1%), beringite (B, 5%), or iron grit (1%) + beringite (5%) (BSS) was applied. Untreated and treated Reppel soils and a control soil were placed in lysimeters inside a greenhouse and cropped annually. The efficiency of soil treatments in decreasing As and metals in exposure sources and restoring soil functions was assessed 6 years after the treatments commenced. Decreases in extractable Cd, Mn, Zn and As occurred in the BSS soil. Only BSS treatment reduced both As and metal concentrations in leachates. BSS treatment produced best growth of lettuce and cabbage, the highest shoot and pod yields for dwarf bean, the lowest As, Cd and Zn concentrations in plant tissues, and partly restored Rhizobium nodulation on bean roots. The epigeic earthworm (Dendrobaena octaedra) could only survive in the BSS soil. Depurated living worms from the BSS soil had Cd concentration similar to those in control worms, but higher As, Ca, Fe, and Zn concentrations. Based on physiologically based extraction test (PBET), As bioaccessibility was reduced from 12% (untreated soil) to 7.4% (BSS) and 3% (SS), but only the SS treatment decreased the bioaccessibility of Cd (-30%) and Pb (-35%). The range of chemical and biological indicators suggested that BSS amendment was the most effective treatment for restoration of normal soil functions 6 years after initial treatment of the Reppel soil. - Restoration occurred in a contaminated soil six years after the combined application of iron grit and beringite

  11. Utilização de casca de arroz e esterco bovino como substrato Eisenia fetida Savigny (1826 Rice husk and cattle manure used as substrate for the Eisenia fetida Savigny (1826 multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Inês Antoniolli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de minhocas, principalmente para a alimentação animal, vem sendo adotada e estudada, pois esses organismos apresentam em sua constituição vitaminas e aminoácidos. Entre os materiais possíveis de serem utilizados na minhocultura, atualmente incentiva-se o aproveitamento de resíduos agroindustriais de alta disponibilidade, como a casca de arroz no Rio Grande do Sul. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de substratos à base de casca de arroz e esterco bovino na multiplicação e produção de biomassa de minhocas (Eisenia fetida. A população de minhocas foi avaliada quanto ao número de cocons, ao índice de multiplicação (população final/população inicial e à biomassa de minhocas frescas e secas. A avaliação foi realizada aos 60 dias após a instalação do experimento, com quatro repetições. A análise estatística dos resultados mostrou que a inclusão de casca de arroz favoreceu o desenvolvimento e a taxa de reprodução das minhocas. A maior biomassa de minhocas foi obtida nos tratamentos: 50% casca de arroz inteira e 50% esterco bovino, esterco bovino mais casca de arroz inteira tratada com hidróxido de amônio a 20 e 40%, e esterco bovino mais casca de arroz moída tratada com hidróxido de sódio a 10 e 40%. Conclui-se que a adição de casca de arroz ao esterco bovino favorece a multiplicação e o desenvolvimento de E. fetida.The use of earthworms for animal feeding has been adopted and studied, because these organisms are rich in vitamins and essential amino acids. Among the organic materials that could be used in the earthworm breeding, highly available agroindustrial residues such as rice husk are being currently used in Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this work was to evaluate substrate based on rice husk and cattle manure on the multiplication and biomass of earthworms (Eisenia fetida. In this work, the population of earthworms, the cocoon numbers, the multiplication index, as well as fresh and dry biomass of earthworms were evaluated. The evaluation was performed 60 days after the installation of the experiment and each treatment had four replications. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the inclusion of rice husk favored the development and rate of earthworm reproduction. The highest earthworm biomass was obtained in the treatments 50% rice husk and 50% cattle manure, cattle manure plus rice husk with ammonium hydroxide at 20 and 40%, and cattle bovine plus ground rice husk with sodium hydroxide at 10 and 40%. It was concluded that the addition of rice husk to the cattle manure was efficient in the multiplication and development of E. fetida.

  12. A Cu tolerant population of the earthworm Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1862) at Coniston Copper Mines, Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.E.; Hodson, M.E.; Langdon, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Dendrodrilus rubidus were sampled from a mine spoil soil at Coniston Copper Mine, an abandoned Cu mine in Cumbria, UK and a Cu-free control site. Earthworms were maintained for 14 d in both Kettering loam and a Moorland soil amended with Cu nitrate. Mortality, condition index, weight change and tissue concentration were determined. In both soils D. rubidus native to the mine site were able to tolerate significantly higher soil Cu concentrations (MWRT, p ≤ 0.001), and exhibited significantly less change in weight (t-test, p ≤ 0.001) and a lower loss in condition (t-test, p ≤ 0.001) than control earthworms. For a given soil Cu concentration tissue Cu concentrations were greater in the mine site earthworms. Low cocoon production and viability from the mine site population prevented the determination of toxicity parameters on the F1 generation and may be an indicator of the cost of tolerance to the population. - Dendrodrilus rubidus at an abandoned Cu mine tolerates high Cu concentrations by accumulating more Cu before toxic effects occur compared to non-native populations

  13. Analysis of FAME for two species of earthworms Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny and Pheretima hawayana Rosa (Annelida-Oligochaeta)

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar; Zedan Z. Ibraheim; Nasser A. El-Shimy; Rouwaida S. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of fatty acid (FA) is one of the most commonly used tools for investigating microbial populations in ecological studies. Fatty acids can be extracted and esterified to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) when analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the resulting profile contains some microbial biomarkers. The aim of the present study to analysis FAME present in two species of earthworms exhibit the same environment. The thin layer chromatography of earthworm Alloloboph...

  14. A revision of the genera Salpa Forskål, 1775, Pegea Savigny, 1816, and Ritteriella Metcalf, 1919 (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1974-01-01

    Based on material from all oceans the Salp genera Salpa, Pegea and Ritteriella are revised. Particularly the study of the number of muscle fibres has shown that Salpa maxima var. tuberculata, the subspecies Pegea confoederala bicaudata and the generally synonymized species Ritteriella retracta are

  15. Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in casts and burrows of an endemic earthworm .i.Dendrobaena mrazeki./i. and in litter of thermophilous oak forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Josef; Pižl, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2007), s. 390-397 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil oribatid mites * earthworms * casts and burrows Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  16. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel chemistries in botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to, or development of synthetic insecticides suitable for controlling the Lepidopteran pests, like Spodoptera litura (F.). Many botanical chemistries are biodegradable, and have lower mammalian toxicity. Eight natural chemical comp...

  17. First record of the Indo-Pacific species Iphione muricata Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 (Polychaeta: Iphionidae from the Mediterranean Sea, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GOREN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific scaleworm Iphione muricata was observed and caught in the Mediterranean Sea along the coast of Israel. Morphological and molecular diagnostic characters of the species are discussed. This is the first record of this alien species in the Mediterranean Sea, and its previous reports in the Suez Canal suggest its introduction via Lessepsian migration.

  18. Enzymatic dynamics into the Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826) gut during vermicomposting of coffee husk and market waste in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Arévalo, Berenice; Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Huerta, Esperanza; Cuevas, Raúl; Calixto-Romo, M Angeles

    2018-01-01

    Epigeic worms modify microbial communities through their digestive processes, thereby influencing the decomposition of organic matter in vermicomposting systems. Nevertheless, the enzyme dynamics within the gut of tropically adapted earthworms is unknown, and the enzymes involved have not been simultaneously studied. The activities of 19 hydrolytic enzymes within three different sections of the intestine of Eisenia fetida were determined over a fasting period and at 24 h and 30, 60, and 90 days of vermicomposting, and data were evaluated by multivariate analyses. There were found positive correlations between the maximal activity of glycosyl hydrolases and one esterase with the anterior intestine (coincident with the reduction of hemicellulose in the substrate) and the activity of the protease α-chymotrypsin with posterior intestine. The results suggest that activities of enzymes change in a coordinated manner within each gut section, probably influenced by selective microbial enzyme enrichment and by the availability of nutrients throughout vermicomposting.

  19. Genetic structure of earthworm populations at a regional scale: inferences from mitochondrial and microsatellite molecular markers in Aporrectodea icterica (Savigny 1826.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magally Torres-Leguizamon

    Full Text Available Despite the fundamental role that soil invertebrates (e.g. earthworms play in soil ecosystems, the magnitude of their spatial genetic variation is still largely unknown and only a few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of these organisms. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of seven populations of a common endogeic earthworm (Aporrectodea icterica sampled in northern France to explore how historical species range changes, microevolutionary processes and human activities interact in shaping genetic variation at a regional scale. Because combining markers with distinct modes of inheritance can provide extra, complementary information on gene flow, we compared the patterns of genetic structure revealed using nuclear (7 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial markers (COI. Both types of markers indicated low genetic polymorphism compared to other earthworm species, a result that can be attributed to ancient bottlenecks, for instance due to species isolation in southern refugia during the ice ages with subsequent expansion toward northern Europe. Historical events can also be responsible for the existence of two divergent, but randomly interbreeding mitochondrial lineages within all study populations. In addition, the comparison of observed heterozygosity among microsatellite loci and heterozygosity expected under mutation-drift equilibrium suggested a recent decrease in effective size in some populations that could be due to contemporary events such as habitat fragmentation. The absence of relationship between geographic and genetic distances estimated from microsatellite allele frequency data also suggested that dispersal is haphazard and that human activities favour passive dispersal among geographically distant populations.

  20. Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ventricosum), vegetable and khat (Catha edulis) through vermicomposting employing an epigeic earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886)

  1. Etude des interactions entre la plante Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh et le ver de terre Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) : application à la phytoremédiation de l'arsenic et de l'antimoine

    OpenAIRE

    Jana , Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony do not belong to the major pollutants of the environment but are offen foun associated with other contaminants. In France, more specifically in Auvergne region, a large number of old mining site where antimony was extracted are currently abandoned. As they present several risks for the neighbourhood populations, their habilitaion appears to be essential. The main idea if this PhD work is to test a catalysor: the earthworms in order to increase phytoremédiation efficacity....

  2. Contributions to Earhworm (Clitellata; Annelida Fauna of Turkish Thrace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Mete Mısırlıoğlu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, earthworm specimens gathered from 2 different localities which are located in Kırklareli-Babaeski were identified. At the end of the study, 3 species belonging to 2 genus were found: Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826, Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828, Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826. It is the first record of Aporrectodea rosea in Turkish Thrace.

  3. Biodiversity of Earthworms in Taiwan: a Species Checklist with the Confirmation and New Records of the Exotic Lumbricids Eisenia fetida and Eiseniella tetraedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Blakemore

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial megadrile earthworms variously reported from Taiwan including Lanyu Island (Botel Tobago number approximately 70 species with 29 of these, or 40%, non-natives for which 69% are Asiatic Megascolecidae and 21% are Lumbricidae of Holarctic origin. An additional 27 unnamed species have been identified from Ilan county north-eastern Taiwan by Chen et al. (2003 that, if published, would bring the total to around 100 known species. The checklist is also provided with the confirmation and new records of the exotic lumbricids Eisenia fetida (Savigny and Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny.

  4. Does the corpus iuris civilis show characteristics of an abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This means that ownership will pass from the transferor to the transferee even though the underlying ... Can it be said that Savigny based his theory on Roman law? ... Because of the dual nature of the contract of sale in Roman law (it

  5. Living apart together: the relationship between public and private international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    There have been times when public and private international law were closely related. As a means to solve conflicts of sovereign jurisdiction, conflicts law used to be considered as an integral part of the law of nations. Even after Savigny shifted the focus of private international law from the

  6. Remedial Investigation of Contaminant Mobility at Naval Weapons Station, Concord, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Houghton. 1983. Heavy Metal Uptake by Agronomic Crops Grown on Contaminated Soils and Cyperus esculentus Grown on Oxidized and Reduced Contaminated Soils...Respiratory Metabolism and Haemoglobin Concentration in an Earthworm Eisenia foetida (SAVIGNY 1826) Under Exposure of Lead Intoxication . Acta...Comparison of the Heavy-Metal Uptake of Cyperus esculentus and of Agronomic Plants Grown on Contaminated Sediments. Miscellaneous Paper D-83-1. US

  7. Diversity of earthworms (Clitellata: Lumbricidae from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchovski, H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study the diversity, zoogeographical position and distribution of earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria is presented. During the present investigation, altogether ten earthworm species belonging to seven genera were collected. Among them, seven taxa are reported for the first time from the Sredna Gora Mt.: Cernosvitovia rebeli, Dendrobaena alpina, Allolobophoridella eiseni, Dendrodrilus rubidus rubidus, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea and Lumbricus terrestris. On the basis of the new and literature data here we provide the first list of lumbricid earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain.

  8. New data to the earthworm fauna of Israel (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi, T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaborating several smaller earthworm samples collected in different parts of Israel resulted in recording 20 earthworm species including Bimastos parvus (Eisen, 1874 a North American peregrine which represents new record for the country. Three other species; Dendrobaena nevoi Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 1999, Healyella jordanis (Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 1999and Perelia shamsi Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 2005 were first recorded after their original descriptions. The present list of lumbricidearthworms recorded for Israel is raised to 28.

  9. Neotypification of Drawida hattamimizu Hatai, 1930 (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrili, Moniligastridae as a model linking mtDNA (COI sequences to an earthworm type, with a response to the ‘Can of Worms’ theory of cryptic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Blakemore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A neotype is designated for the large and ecologically interesting species of Japanese earthworm, Drawida hattamimizu Hatai, 1930. Its morphological redescription is unambiguously combined with the neotype’s sequence of the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI locus of the mitochondrial DNA, the first time an earthworm species’ type has been thus profiled. Probably it is an introduced exotic rather than a translocated native, with a patchy distribution that appears only partly defined in Japan where it is both a restricted and an endangered listed species. Brief comparison of sympatric Drawida japonica (Michaelsen, 1892 to the type-species Drawida barwelli (Beddard, 1886 – and this latter from Shiga appears as a new record for Japan – allows the diagnosis of Drawida Michaelsen, 1900 to be amended slightly. The contentious issue of molecular ‘cryptic species’ is queried in relation to the lack of molecular data from type-specimens, the unique name-bearing references employed in zoological nomenclature. Without such reference, neither eco-taxonomic nor genomic studies of earthworm taxa can progress. In this regard, questions are raised concerning the molecular identities and provisional divergences of cosmopolitan generotypes Allolobophora chlorotica chlorotica (Savigny, 1826, the Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826 species-complex sensu Blakemore (2002, and of ecotoxicological standard test-species icon Eisenia fetida fetida (Savigny, 1826. Resurrection of their respective synonyms is mooted. Resolution of relationships within and between earthworm genera and families without DNA testing of the representative type-species and type-genera is flagged as another crucial concern.

  10. Orientación al mercado y desempeño organizativo en los clústeres de servicios de salud

    OpenAIRE

    Amezquita Salazar, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Adam y Savigny (2012) plantean que la salud y otros sistemas sociales han sido descritos como sistemas adaptativos complejos, que se ajustan de manera dinámica, y a veces impredecibles, a los cambios dentro del propio sistema o en el contexto en el que operan. Esto ha llevado a que el sector de la salud, en su dinámica de crecimiento y búsqueda de competitividad, siga la tendencia que ha sido marcada desde un principio por las empresas de fabricación de bienes, buscando organizarse en concent...

  11. El rol del Estado en el Derecho Internacional Privado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben B. Santos Belandro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Introducción. El Estado como instrumento de la racionalidad jurídica. Primer contragolpe en favor de la restauración de los valores irreflexivos: Savigny. La racionalidad jurídica al servicio del Estado: el neo-territorialismo rioplatense. Segundo contragolpe contra el racionalismo formal: el materialismo de Quintín Alfonsín. El reconocimiento de otras formas de racionalidad descartan al Estado como el único intérprete. ¿Y el futuro?

  12. O uso de minhocas como bioindicadores de contaminaçao de solos

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRÉA, Mara Mercedes de

    2010-01-01

    O nicho ecológico das minhocas as caracteriza como organismos muito importantes no solo e como bioindicadores ambientais. Suas características, especialmente das espécies Eisenia fétida (Savigny, 1826) e E. andrei Bouché, 1972, as qualificaram para testes de toxicidade para fins de registro de agrotóxicos, junto aos órgãos regulamentadores de diversos países. Além da relativa facilidade de criação de E. fetida e E. andrei, as condições desses testes são internacionalmente aceitas e permitem p...

  13. SELECTIVIDAD DEL INSECTICIDA CARTAP EMPLEANDO BIOENSAYOS CON ORGANISMOS NO DESTINATARIOS

    OpenAIRE

    Iannacone, José; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Perú).; Alvariño, Lorena; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Perú).

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la ecotoxicidad del cartap (Bala® 50 PS) sobre ocho organismos animales no destinatarios: 1) Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca), 2) Emerita analoga (Stimpson, 1857) (Crustácea), 3) Chironomus calligraphus Goeldi, 1805 (Diptera), 4) Cyprinus carpio (Linné, 1758) (Osteichyties), 5) Eisenia foetida (Savigny, 1826) (Annelida), 6) Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera), 7) Trichogramma fuentesi Torre, 1980 (Hymenoptera) y 8...

  14. Distillation fraction-specific ecotoxicological evaluation of a paraffin-rich crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlacher, Elisabeth; Loibner, Andreas P.; Kendler, Romana; Scherr, Kerstin E.

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) with distinct chemical, physical and toxicological properties relevant for contaminated site risk assessment. Ecotoxicological effects of crude oil distillation fractions on luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), earthworms (Dendrobaena hortensis) and invertebrates (Heterocypris incongruens) were tested using two spiked soils and their elutriates. Fraction 2 (F2) had an equivalent carbon number (ECN) range of >10 to 16, and F3 from >16 to 39. F2 showed a substantially higher ecotoxicological effect than F3 for Vibrio and Dendrobaena. In contrast, severe inhibition of Heterocypris by the poorly soluble F3 is attributed to mechanical organ blockage. Immediate sequestration of PHC to the organic matter-rich soil effected reduced toxicity for all organisms. This study indicates that a more differentiated consideration (i) of PHC mixtures based on ECN range and (ii) of model soil properties employed for ecotoxicity testing should be included into PHC-contaminated site risk assessment. -- Highlights: ► Crude oil distillates show distinctly different effects on receptor organisms. ► Toxicity of the higher boiling point Fraction is attributed to physical effects. ► TPH sorption to the organic-matter rich soil occurred immediately after spiking. -- A differentiated consideration of the prevailing crude oil distillation fractions and of model soil properties employed for ecotoxicity testing should be included into the risk assessment of crude oil contaminated sites

  15. Distillation fraction-specific ecotoxicological evaluation of a paraffin-rich crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher, Elisabeth; Loibner, Andreas P; Kendler, Romana; Scherr, Kerstin E

    2013-03-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) with distinct chemical, physical and toxicological properties relevant for contaminated site risk assessment. Ecotoxicological effects of crude oil distillation fractions on luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), earthworms (Dendrobaena hortensis) and invertebrates (Heterocypris incongruens) were tested using two spiked soils and their elutriates. Fraction 2 (F2) had an equivalent carbon number (ECN) range of >10 to 16, and F3 from >16 to 39. F2 showed a substantially higher ecotoxicological effect than F3 for Vibrio and Dendrobaena. In contrast, severe inhibition of Heterocypris by the poorly soluble F3 is attributed to mechanical organ blockage. Immediate sequestration of PHC to the organic matter-rich soil effected reduced toxicity for all organisms. This study indicates that a more differentiated consideration (i) of PHC mixtures based on ECN range and (ii) of model soil properties employed for ecotoxicity testing should be included into PHC-contaminated site risk assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Blakemore

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879 species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and E. nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the E. fetida (Savigny, 1826 sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826 along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic E. nordenskioldi ssp. is appended.

  17. Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879) species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and Eisenia nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826) sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic Eisenia nordenskioldi ssp. is appended. PMID:23798894

  18. Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Homa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp., while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy.

  19. Second contribution to the knowledge of earthworms (Lumbricidae in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Mirjana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the results of qualitative analysis of Lumbricidae (Oligochaeta in Montenegro, during the period 1997-2003. The research has included natural and cultivated biotopes. The presence of 15 species was established and the habitats, localities and their zoogeographical position are given. In Montenegro we found four species for the first time Dendrobaena jastrebensis, D. vejdovskyi, Octodrilus bretcheri and Lumbricus terrestris. The complete list of earthworm species in Montenegro includes 45 taxa. With respects to the zoogeographic situation of the earthworms in Montenegro, the largest number belongs to endemic (10 and European (10 species. But 8 taxa are south-European, 9 Holarctic, 7 cosmopolitan, and 1 Palearctic. The degree of endemism of the earthworm fauna of Montenegro is quite high, exceeding 22.2%.

  20. Earthworm populations in soils contaminated by the Chernobyl atomic power station accident, 1986-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutzkii, D.A.; Pokarzhevskii, A.D.; Viktorov, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    A study of earthworm populations in the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl atomic power station was carried out in 1986-1988. Significant differences in earthworm population numbers were found between highly contaminated and control plots in summer and autumn 1986 and in April 1987. But in the autumn of 1988 the earthworm population numbers in contaminated plots were higher than in the control plots. The ratio of mature to immature specimens was higher in 1986 in the contaminated plots in comparison with the control plots. Only one species of earthworms, Dendrobaena octahedra, was found in contaminated forest plots during the first 2 yr following the accident but in the control forest plots Apporectodea caliginosa was also found. (author)

  1. Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metals Pollution Using Screening Methods (XRF, TGA/MS, XRPD and Earthworms Bioassay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findoráková, Lenka; Šestinová, Ol'ga; Hančul'ák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Zorkovská, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the use of screening methods (TG/DTA coupled with MS, XRF, AAS, XRPD and earthworm bioassay) for sediments pollution assessing by heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg) coming from the former mining workloads in the central Spis, Eastern Slovakia. The screening methods (XRF, AAS) indicated pollution of studied sediments by Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg. The earthworms Dendrobaena veneta caused in some studied samples decrease of heavy metals concentration after their 7 days’ exposure in sediments. The other screening methods such as thermal analysis and XRPD analysis, does not confirm the specifically changes in physicochemical properties comparing the properties before and after 7 days’ earthworm's exposure.

  2. An annotated checklist of earthworms of Greece (Clitellata: Megadrili).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Chalkia, Christina; Dányi, László; Csuzdi, Csaba

    2017-05-26

    The earthworm fauna of Greece is reviewed. According to the up-to-date checklist, the earthworm fauna of Greece consists of 67 species and subspecies, of which 59 taxa belong to the family Lumbricidae, three to Megascolecidae, two to Acanthodrilidae and to Ocnerodrilidae and one taxon to the family Criodrilidae. Three species are recorded for the first time from the country: Allolobophora kosowensis kosowensis Karaman, 1968, Amynthas gracilis (Kinberg, 1867) and Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1895). Eisenia spelaea var. athenica Černosvitov, 1938 is proposed to be a synonym of Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826). The earthworm fauna of Greece is characterized by a large number of strict endemic species belonging to the family Lumbricidae (9 taxa), together with the occurrence of another 10 Balkanic endemic species.

  3. Risk assessment of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, LAS, in agricultural soil revisited: Robust chronic toxicity tests for Folsomia candida (Collembola), Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Enchytraeidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Lopez, C. V.; Cassani, G.

    2007-01-01

    To obtain robust data on the toxicity of LAS, tests with the collembolan Folsomia candida L., the oligochaetes Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny (earthworm) and Enchytraeus crypticus Westheide and Graefe (enchytraeid) were performed in a sandy loam soil. Additionally limited tests with LAS spiked...... to sewage sludge, and subsequently mixed into soil, were performed. For the endpoint of interest, reproduction in soil, we found an EC10 of 205 mg LAS kg-1 soil [8.6-401] [95% confidence limits] for F. candida and an EC10 of 46 mg LAS kg-1 soil [13-80] for A. caliginosa after 28 days. E. crypticus...... was not affected by concentrations up to 120 mg LAS kg-1 soil. When adding (low contaminated) non-spiked sludge to soil, high stimulation of reproduction was ob-served for E. crypticus and A. caliginosa but not for F. candida. We argue that this difference in stimulative response between the tested species...

  4. L’école historique française du droit a-t-elle existé?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Sturmel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Jourdan ou Klimrath, émules français de Savigny dans la première moitié du XIXe siècle, sont des noms que les historiens du droit connaissent bien. Mais cela a-t-il toujours été le cas et surtout quelle a été la portée de leur action scientifique au XIXe siècle? Ce sont ces questions auxquelles l’article tente de répondre et cela de deux points de vue: d’une part en examinant la réception en France des thèses de ce que l’on a appelé l’Ecole historique française dans un temps où l’Ecole de l’exégèse exerce une domination sans partage; d’autre part, en observant les réactions allemandes devant cette production juridique historique française qui s’inscrit dans le courant savignien, observation basée notamment sur le dépouillement exhaustif de la Kritische Zeitschrift für Rechtswissenschaft und Gesetzgebung des Auslandes dirigée par Mittermaier. Que constate-t-on? Des deux côtés du Rhin, l’Ecole historique française a été étouffée. Ici, ses adeptes étaient accusés de pro germanisme; là, ils n’étaient finalement que les disciples de Savigny. Et pourtant leur action en faveur des sciences juridique et historique mérite pleinement qu’on voie en eux les fondateurs d’une véritable Ecole historique française du droit.

  5. Trace Metals and Metalloids in Forest Soils and Exotic Earthworms in Northern New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J.B.; Görres, J.H.; Jackson, B.P.; Friedland, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Trace metals and metalloids (TMM) in forest soils and invasive earthworms were studied at 9 uncontaminated sites in northern New England, USA. Essential (Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn, Se) and toxic (As, Cd, Pb, Hg and U) TMM concentrations (mg kg-1) and pools (mg m-2) were quantified for organic horizons (forest floor), mineral soils and earthworm tissues. Essential TMM tissue concentrations were greatest for mineral soil-feeding earthworm Octolasion cyaneum. Toxic TMM tissue concentrations were highest for organic horizon-feeding earthworms Dendobaena octaedra, Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis. Most earthworm species had attained tissue concentrations of Pb, Hg and Se potentially hazardous to predators. Bioaccumulation factors were Cd > Se > Hg > Zn > Pb > U > 1.0 > Cu > As > Mo > Ni. Only Cd, Se Hg and Zn were considered strongly bioaccumulated by earthworms because their average bioaccumulation factors were significantly greater than 1.0. Differences in bioaccumulation did not appear to be caused by soil concentrations as earthworm TMM tissue concentrations were poorly correlated with TMM soil concentrations. Instead, TMM bioaccumulation appears to be species and site dependent. The invasive Amynthas agrestis had the greatest tissue TMM pools, due to its large body mass and high abundance at our stands. We observed that TMM tissue pools in earthworms were comparable or exceeded organic horizon TMM pools; earthworm tissue pools of Cd were up 12 times greater than in the organic horizon. Thus, exotic earthworms may represent an unaccounted portion and flux of TMM in forests of the northeastern US. Our results highlight the importance of earthworms in TMM cycling in northern forests and warrant more research into their impact across the region. PMID:25883392

  6. Earthworms as vectors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A Prysor; Roberts, Paula; Avery, Lisa M; Killham, Ken; Jones, David L

    2006-10-01

    Survival and movement of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in both soil and vermicompost is of concern with regards to human health. Whilst it is accepted that E. coli O157:H7 can persist for considerable periods in soils, it is not expected to survive thermophilic composting processes. However, the natural behavior of earthworms is increasingly utilized for composting (vermicomposting), and the extent to which earthworms promote the survival and dispersal of the bacterium within such systems is unknown. The faecal material produced by earthworms provides a ready supply of labile organic substrates to surrounding microbes within soil and compost, thus promoting microbial activity. Earthworms can also cause significant movement of organisms through the channels they form. Survival and dispersal of E. coli O157:H7 were monitored in contaminated soil and farmyard manure subjected to earthworm digestion over 21 days. Our findings lead to the conclusion that anecic earthworms such as Lumbricus terrestris may significantly aid vertical movement of E. coli O157 in soil, whereas epigeic earthworms such as Dendrobaena veneta significantly aid lateral movement within compost. Although the presence of earthworms in soil and compost may aid proliferation of E. coli O157 in early stages of contamination, long-term persistence of the pathogen appears to be unaffected.

  7. THE USE OF SELECTED ANAESTHETIC DRUGS IN SEARCH OF A METHOD FOR IMPROVING EARTHWORMS’ WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Podolak-Machowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes selected effects of body contact of earthworms Dendrobaena veneta Rosa with local anaesthetic (LA drugs used for human anesthesia (lidocaine and prilocaine and anaesthetics for aquatic animals (MS-222. The findings showed safe and effective immobilization of earthworms with prilocaine at a concentration of 0.25-1%. At the applied concentrations lidocaine was safe, but less effective. On the other hand, MS-222, at the applied concentrations had a strongly irritating effect for earthworms and induced convulsive body movements connected with a discharge of coelomic fluid. The results may be relevant both for improving the welfare of earthworms during experiments and for the organization of research involving testing drugs on invertebrates. In this case, by using earthworms as an experimental model and by applying the method for measuring their mobility after contact with anaesthetics, which has been described in this article, it might be possible to replace experiments on guinea pigs, rabbits, rats and mice, which are expensive and require an approval of an ethics committee, with laboratory tests on earthworms.

  8. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  9. Organic Amendments and Earthworm Addition Improve Properties of Nonacidic Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Rutherford

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many mined areas, lack of topsoil limits conversion of disturbed landscapes to former or other productive uses. We examined the use of biosolids (10 or 20% by dry mass, with or without sawdust, pulp sludge, and the contribution of an earthworm species (Dendrobaena veneta to improve the properties of nonacidic mine tailings. Pulp sludge more rapidly immobilized excessive NH4 + concentrations from biosolids early in the study; however, total mineral N concentrations were similar in pulp sludge and sawdust treatments by week 29. Although NO3 −-N concentrations were generally greater in treatments with earthworms, these trends were not statistically significant (P>0.05. In general, Bray P concentrations were greater in the presence of earthworms. Soil thin sections showed that earthworms mixed organic residues into elongated spherical units within mine tailings. Organic residues in combination with earthworm addition may improve the chemical and microstructural properties of non-acidic mine tailings, producing a substrate conducive for plant establishment.

  10. Bisphenol A in artificial soil: Effects on growth, reproduction and immunity in earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, I; Trigo, D; Martínez-Guitarte, J L; Novo, M

    2018-01-01

    The application of biosolids in agricultural fields is increasing annually. They contain not only nutrients but also xenobiotics, such as Bisphenol A (BPA). These compounds are not regulated in the use of biosolids in agriculture, which highlights the need to assess their effects on soil life, of which earthworms are most abundant of the animal representatives. In this study the effect of BPA on life-history parameters, such as mortality, growth and reproduction, and on immunity, is evaluated for Dendrobaena veneta and Eisenia fetida. Sublethal concentrations were evaluated by a modified OECD artificial soil test. Decline in growth with increasing concentration of BPA was detected during the first two weeks and the opposite effect for the next two, although these differences were only significant at the highest concentration. Reproduction traits were only significantly different for E. fetida, for which the number of juveniles decreased at higher concentrations, thus showing different sensitivity in both species. By using a contact test, the potentially harmful effect of direct contact with BPA was shown to be much higher than in soil (resembling natural) conditions. Finally, results indicate that BPA may not affect the immune system of these animals, at least in terms of coelomocyte viability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of metals on life cycle parameters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahmani, Johanne; Hodson, Mark E.; Black, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. Seventeen metals were analysed in E. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. Soil organic carbon content, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions than survival or weight change. Soil properties other than metal concentration impacted toxicity. The most toxic soils were organic-poor (1-10 g C kg -1 ), sandy soils (c. 74% sand), with intermediate metal concentrations (e.g. 7150-13,100 mg Pb kg -1 , 2970-53,400 mg Zn kg -1 ). Significant relationships between soil properties and the life cycle parameters were determined. The best coefficients of correlation were generally found for texture, pH, Ag, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, and Zn both singularly and in multivariate regressions. Studies that use metal-amended artificial soils are not useful to predict toxicity of field multi-contaminated soils. - Soil pH, organic carbon content and texture can exert a greater influence on earthworm life cycle parameters than soil metal concentrations at metal-contaminated sites

  12. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2011-01-01

    Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

  13. Orienteering Club

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

  14. Effects of metals on life cycle parameters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmani, Johanne [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nahmani@univ-metz.fr; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. Seventeen metals were analysed in E. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. Soil organic carbon content, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions than survival or weight change. Soil properties other than metal concentration impacted toxicity. The most toxic soils were organic-poor (1-10 g C kg{sup -1}), sandy soils (c. 74% sand), with intermediate metal concentrations (e.g. 7150-13,100 mg Pb kg{sup -1}, 2970-53,400 mg Zn kg{sup -1}). Significant relationships between soil properties and the life cycle parameters were determined. The best coefficients of correlation were generally found for texture, pH, Ag, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, and Zn both singularly and in multivariate regressions. Studies that use metal-amended artificial soils are not useful to predict toxicity of field multi-contaminated soils. - Soil pH, organic carbon content and texture can exert a greater influence on earthworm life cycle parameters than soil metal concentrations at metal-contaminated sites.

  15. Lethal critical body residues as measures of Cd, Pb, and Zn bioavailability and toxicity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conder, J.M.; Lanno, R.P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Background. Earthworm heavy metal concentrations (critical body residues, CBRs) may be the most relevant measures of heavy metal bioavailability in soils and may be linkable to toxic effects in order to better assess soil ecotoxicity. However, as earthworms possess physiological mechanisms to secrete and/or sequester absorbed metals as toxicologically inactive forms, total earthworm metal concentrations may not relate well with toxicity. Objective. The objectives of this research were to: i) develop LD{sub 50}s (total earthworm metal concentration associated with 50% mortality) for Cd, Pb, and Zn; ii) evaluate the LD{sub 50} for Zn in a lethal Zn-smelter soil; iii) evaluate the lethal mixture toxicity of Cd, Pb, and Zn using earthworm metal concentrations and the toxic unit (TU) approach; and iv) evaluate total and fractionated earthworm concentrations as indicators of sublethal exposure. Methods. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny)) were exposed to artificial soils spiked with Cd, Pb, Zn, and a Cd-Pb-Zn equitoxic mixture to estimate lethal CBRs and mixture toxicity. To evaluate the CBR developed for Zn, earthworms were also exposed to Zn-contaminated field soils receiving three different remediation treatments. Earthworm metal concentrations were measured using a procedure devised to isolate toxicologically active metal burdens via separation into cytosolic and pellet fractions. (orig.)

  16. Toxicity of selected organic chemicals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.; Milligan, D.L.; Durkin, P.R.

    A number of methods recently have been developed to biologically evaluate the impact of man's activities on soil ecosystems. Two test methods, the 2-d contact test and the 14-d artificial soil test, were used to evaluate the impact of six major classes of organic chemicals on the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny). Of the organic chemicals tested, phenols and amines were the most toxic to the worms, followed in descending order of toxicity by the substituted aromatics, halogenated aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalates. No relationship was found between earthworm toxicity as determined by the contact test and rat, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout and mouse, Mus musculus L. LD/sub 50/ values. The physicochemical parameters of water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficient for the chemicals tested in the contact test did not show a significant relationship to the E. fetida LC/sub 50/ values. These studies indicate that: (i) earthworms can be a suitable biomonitoring tool to assist in measuring the impact of organic chemicals in wastes added to soils and (ii) contact and artificial soil tests can be useful in measuring biological impacts.

  17. Comparative toxicity of chemicals to earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, C.A.; Shirazi, M.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Neuhauser, E.F. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States))

    1994-02-01

    The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Allolobophora tuberculata (Eisen), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg), and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to summarize these data for each chemical in terms of sensitivity and toxicity, in addition to the LC50. The estimation of the Weibull parameters a and k summarize the entire concentration-response relationship. This technique should be applicable to a variety of testing protocols with different species whenever the goal is summarizing the shape of the concentration-response curves to fully evaluate chemical impact on organisms. In some cases for these data four orders of magnitude separate LC50s of the soil test and the contact test for the same chemical and species. All four species appear to be similar in range of toxicity and tolerance to these chemicals, suggesting that Eisenia fetida and may be representative of these four species and these chemicals.

  18. Selenium incorporated in vegetable material for the obtaining of worm flour and compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulbio Alcivar Cedeño

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was done to evaluate the quality of the earthworm flour fed with the addition of selenium. Two groups with three replicates were used; a food made of sterilized vegetable waste and other with the addition of soya (5% as a source of selenium. Temperature, humidity, and pH were controlled to ensure the optimal growth of earthworms. A 0.5 g sample of both groups replicates was weighed in order to determine the amount of Na, K, Fe, Ca, Zn, Mg, Mn, Cu, Li, Se, Hg and Pb. The humus quality provided by the samples was also qualitatively analyzed, and the amount of moisture, protein, dry matter, fat, ash, crude fiber and soluble carbohydrates were determined. The amount of the elements Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn and Li was satisfactory because the flour had concentrations similar to the conventional worm flour, which is first achieved for this type of product. The amount of protein and lipid was also high similar to the conventional foods derived from animals. No heavy metals were found. Remarkably, the use of Eisenia foetida Savigny extracts can be used as a dietary supplement in amounts less than 1 g per person, which minimizes the risk of heavy metals. The application of humus from earthworms that were fed with a diet that contained selenium, corn plants obtained were significantly different from the untreated ones.

  19. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2013-01-01

    Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

  20. Habitat and food selection by herbivorous amphipods associated with macroalgal beds on the southeast coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Rezende Tavares

    Full Text Available The factors that influence the selection of marine macrophytes by meso-herbivores are complex, and may include the nutritional quality of algae, the value of the habitat as a shelter, and the availability of algae in the environment. Here we investigated the existence of differential use of Sargassum filipendula C. Agardh, 1824 (Phaeophyta and Galaxaura stupocaulon Kjellman, 1900 (Rhodophyta as habitats and feeding resources by species of Hyalidae and Ampithoidae, in laboratory manipulation experiments and in an algal bed on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In the field, 19 fronds were collected from each alga and the associated amphipods were identified and counted. To evaluate food preference and habitat selection by amphipods, we conducted laboratory experiments using containers containing fragments of algae and individuals of Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1816 or Hyale nigra (Haswell, 1879. In natural conditions, the density of C. filosa was significantly higher on G. stupocaulon, while in the feeding and habitat preference experiment we found a higher density on S. filipendula. The densities of H. nigra did not differ between the algae in both experiments, probably as a result of the variety of food items in its diet, and its high mobility and wide distribution on different substrates. The different results for C. filosa suggest that the pattern of feeding and habitat selection can be affected by external characteristics of the algae; probably, refuge from predation is an important selective force acting on the use of algae by these animals.

  1. Influência do vermicomposto na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the large area of planted forest with species of the genus Eucalyptus and its uses for multiple purpose, its cultivation has an economic importance in Brazil. The use of substratum with good physic-chemical characteristics is an important point for the quality of the produced seedlings. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of vermicompost in containers with capacity of about 50 cm3 of substratum. The current study was conducted in a greenhouse with Eucalyptus grandis from January to April in 1997. The substratum used for seedlings production was the soil from horizon A (0-20 cm of São Pedro Unit Mapping (yellow red Podzolic with different vermicompost quantities (0; 5.0; 10.0; 15.0 and 20.0 cm3. The vermicompost was produced from red-worm from California (Eisenia foetida Savigny with cow dung. After 100 days, the results of development for the same seedlings were different depending on doses of vermicompost. It was verified that quantities over 15.0 cm3 (30% of vermicompost per container are not recommended for the seedling production.

  2. Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdon, Caroline J.; Hodson, Mark E.; Arnold, Rebecca E.; Black, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouche (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO 3 ) 2 to have concentrations in the range 1000 to 10 000 mg Pb kg -1 . After 28 days LC50 -95%confidencelimit +95%confidencelimit values were E. andrei5824 -361 +898 mg Pb kg -1 , L. rubellus2867 -193 +145 mg Pb kg -1 and A. caliginosa2747 -304 +239 mg Pb kg -1 and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841 -68 +150 mg Pb kg -1 , L. rubellus1303 -201 +240 mg Pb kg -1 and A. caliginosa1208 -206 +212 mg Pb kg -1 . At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing.

  3. Darwin’s earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrilacea with review of cosmopolitan Metaphire peguana–species group from Philippines

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    Blakemore, R.J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A chance visit to Darwin allowed inspection of and addition to Northern Territory (NT Museum’s earthworm collection. Native Diplotrema zicsii sp. nov. from Alligator River, Kakadu NP is described. Town samples were dominated by cosmopolitan exotic Metaphire bahli (Gates, 1945 herein keyed and compared morpho-molecularly with M. peguana (Rosa, 1890 requiring revision of allied species including Filipino Pheretima philippina (Rosa, 1891, P. p. lipa and P. p. victorias sub-spp. nov. A new P. philippina-group now replaces the dubia-group of Sims & Easton, 1972 and Amynthas carinensis (Rosa, 1890 further replaces their sieboldi-group. Lumbricid Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 and Glossoscolecid Pontoscolex corethrurus (Müller, 1857 are confirmed introductions to the NT. mtDNA barcodes newly include Metaphire houlleti (Perrier, 1872 and Polypheretima elongata (Perrier, 1872 spp.-complexes from the Philippines. Pithemera philippinensis James & Hong, 2004 and Pi. glandis Hong & James, 2011 are new synonyms of Pi. bicincta (Perrier, 1875 that is common in Luzon. Vietnamese homonym Pheretima thaii Nguyen, 2011 (non P. thaii Hong & James, 2011 is replaced with Pheretima baii nom. nov. Two new Filipino taxa are also described: Pleionogaster adya sp. nov. from southern Luzon and Pl. miagao sp. nov. from western Visayas.

  4. Abbreviated larval development of Tunicotheres moseri (Rathbun, 1918 (Decapoda, Pinnotheridae, a rare case of parental care in brachyuran crabs

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    Juan Bolaños

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunicotheres moseri (Rathbun, 1918 presents a rare case of post-hatching parental care not recorded previously among brachyuran decapods. The complete larval development takes place within a brooding enclosure of the parental female, formed by flexure of the broad abdomen against the sternum. The first crab instar is the earliest stage observed to leave this enclosure, doing so without active help from the parental female. The development of stages preceding the first crab was investigated by in vitro culture of eggs obtained from ovigerous crabs inhabiting the atrial cavity of the tunicate Phallusianigra Savigny, 1816, in Venezuela. Eggs were hatched in the laboratory and reared through two zoeal stages and the megalopa. Additional samples of the larval stages were obtained directly from abdominal enclosures of aquarium-held females. All larval stages were described and illustrated in detail. Morphological comparisons were made between larvae from two different populations. Comparisons were also made with other previously described larvae of Pinnotherinae, which led us to conclude that Tunicotheres should not be assigned to the Pinnotherinae sensu stricto. Relationships between the three known disjunct populations assigned to T.moseri remain questionable, especially since the potential for larval dispersal appears to be very limited.

  5. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

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    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  6. Earthworm introduction on calcareous minesoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Kost, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Burrowing activity of the nightcrawler, Lumbricus terrestis (L.t.), incorporates organic matter into mineral soil while creating long-lasting macropores. Thus L.t. has potential as a biological means of improving physical and chemical properties of surface mined areas. Efforts to establish L.t. population on forested acidic or calcareous minesoils have been successful, but thus far have not been able to establish L.t. in grassland ecosystems on calcareous minesoils. In May, 1989, the authors put 11 clitellate L.t. under sphagnum moss on calcareous gray cast overburden on standard graded topsoil, or on ripped and disked topsoil. All soils had cover of agronomic grasses and legumes. They found no L.t. at the 24 points of inoculation during sampling in fall of 1990 with formalin extractant, although smaller species, Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrobaena spp., were found. At another location, in May, 1990, they put 25 clitellate L.t. at 16 points in grasslands growing on gray cast overburden. Using formalin extraction, they found no L.t. in May 1992 at these locations. Working in this same area in November, 1992, they released 10 clitellate L.t. at 16 points under 10 cm of moist Alnus glutinosa leaf litter. Careful examination of the surface inoculation points in spring and fall of 1993 did not show obvious signs of earthworm activity. Their next step will be to use Earthworm Inoculation Units (earthworm-minesoil microcosms containing L.t. adults, immatures, and cocoons) as the source of the new populations

  7. Analysis of the cytoskeleton organization and its possible functions in male earthworm germ-line cysts equipped with a cytophore.

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    Małota, Karol; Świątek, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    We studied the organization of F-actin and the microtubular cytoskeleton in male germ-line cysts in the seminal vesicles of the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta using light, fluorescent and electron microscopy along with both chemically fixed tissue and life cell imaging. Additionally, in order to follow the functioning of the cytoskeleton, we incubated the cysts in colchicine, nocodazole, cytochalasin D and latrunculin A. The male germ-line cells of D. veneta are interconnected via stable intercellular bridges (IB), and form syncytial cysts. Each germ cell has only one IB that connects it to the anuclear central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore. During the studies, we analyzed the cytoskeleton in spermatogonial, spermatocytic and spermatid cysts. F-actin was detected in the cortical cytoplasm and forms distinct rings in the IBs. The arrangement of the microtubules changed dynamically during spermatogenesis. The microtubules are distributed evenly in whole spermatogonial and spermatocytic cysts; however, they primarily accumulate within the IBs in spermatogonia. In early spermatids, microtubules pass through the IBs and are present in whole cysts. During spermatid elongation, the microtubules form a manchette while they are absent in the cytophore and in the IBs. Use of cytoskeletal drugs did not alter the general morphology of the cysts. Detectable effects-the occurrence of nuclei in the late spermatids and manchette fragments in the cytophore-were observed only after incubation in nocodazole. Our results suggest that the microtubules are responsible for cytoplasmic/organelle transfer between the germ cells and the cytophore during spermatogenesis and for the positioning of the spermatid nuclei.

  8. Organic Matter Reduces Copper Toxicity for the Earthworm Eisenia fetida in Soils from Mining Areas in Central Chile Materia Orgánica Reduce la Toxicidad del Cobre para la Lombriz Eiseniafetida en Suelos de Áreas Mineras en Chile Central

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    Gonzalo Ávila

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Aconcagua River basin (Central Chile is one of the most important agricultural areas in the country. However, several copper (Cu mining operations are located in the basin. The objective of the study was to determine Cu toxicity for the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny 1826 in the agricultural soils of the basin. We determined the production of cocoons and juveniles of earthworms in the studied soils. The soils differed in the concentrations of organic matter (OM, range 2-6%, pH (range 7.3-8.3, texture (from loamy sand to clay loam, and total Cu concentrations (range 230-960 mg kg-1. Concentrations of Cu and OM in the soils were the variables that determined the earthworms’ biological response. In contrast, pH and texture did not affect this response. Cocoon and juvenile production decreased considerably in soils with elevated Cu concentrations (>500 mg kg-1, regardless of OM concentrations. Cocoon production decreased in the soils with Cu concentrations below 500 mg kg-1 when OM concentrations were below 3.5%. In contrast, cocoon production did not vary when OM concentrations were above 3.5%. The same effect of OM was observed on juvenile production. In this case, the threshold for OM concentration was 2.5%. It was concluded that it is important to consider OM concentrations in order to predict the biological response of earthworms in these soils.La cuenca del Río Aconcagua (Chile Central es una de las más importantes áreas agrícolas en el país. Por otro lado, varias industrias de la minería de cobre (Cu se encuentran ubicadas en esta cuenca. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la toxicidad de Cu para la lombriz Eiseniafetida (Savigny 1826 en los suelos agrícolas de la cuenca. Se determinó la producción de capullos y juveniles de la lombriz en suelos estudiados. Los suelos se diferenciaron por las concentraciones de materia orgánica (MO, rango 2-6%, pH (rango 7,3-8,3, textura (entre arenoso franca y franco arcillosa y

  9. El error como vicio del consentimiento frente a la protección de la confianza en la celebración del contrato

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    Martha Lucía Neme Villarreal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El devenir de la tutela del error en el curso de la historia de nuestra tradición jurídica nos ilustra sobre las infundadas generalizaciones que se han pretendido realizar de la máxima “errantis nulla voluntas” (“no existe voluntad de quien yerra”, así como sobre el ligamen que el tratamiento de la tutela del error ha tenido desde la antigüedad con las exigencias de diligencia por parte de quien pretende desconocer la validez del contrato celebrado, amparándose en su propio error y con la tutela de los intereses de la parte que recibe dicha declaración. Después de una breve ruptura originada en las concepciones de Savigny, asistimos a un retorno a la valoración de los efectos del error sobre el contrato que vuelve sobre los pasos de la tradición, al abandonar el énfasis de la perspectiva de la “voluntad” como elemento determinante de la existencia del contrato, para valorar el error a la luz de la tutela de la confianza que la parte que recibe la declaración ha cifrado en la validez de ella. Esto sin perjuicio de la valoración de los mandatos de la buena fe que imponen la consideración contemporáneamente de los intereses de ambas partes, lo cual implica el equo balance entre conceptos de inexcusabilidad del error y tutela de la confianza, por un lado, frente al carácter de reconocible del error y los eventos en sea exigible informarlo, por otro. Todo lo cual confluye en la adecuada ponderación entre el pleno ejercicio de la libertad que otorga la autonomía y las exigencias de autorresponsabilidad y protección de la confianza que implica dicho ejercicio.

  10. 90Sr accumulation of the earthworms and the influence of those upon the radionuclide dissipation in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usachev, V.L.; Martyushov, V.Z.; Krivolutskij, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The study is aimed at the obtaining of quantitative characteristics of 90 Sr accumulation process by puberal earthworms (Nicodrilius caliginosus Savigny) when they dwell in soils of different types (grey forest and leached black earth, and to evaluate the purticipation of earthworms in the processes of radiostrontium redistribution over the soil priofile. In the experiments on the study of accumulation dynamics it is shown, that in the first days after earthworm entrance into contaminated soil the intensive accumulation of the radionuclide by the animals takes place, at that, the rate of 90 Sr concentrating in the variant with grey forrest soil is 2.6 times lower, than in the case of leached black earth, and, it is somewhat lower to the end of the first stage. Stabilization of radiostrontium concentration in the earthworm organism took place in both variants of the experiment practically at the same level (KH=0.75). Radioactivity of caprolytes of the earthworms increased rapidly and all over the observation period it exceeded the radioactivity of soil on the average by 1.2-1.9. Experiments with the radionuclide redistribution have shown, that in experimental plastic vessels earthworms quite activily dispersed 90 Sr. In the variant with ''contaminated'' lower soil the earthworms in time transferred approximately 11% 90 Sr to the upper ''pure layers'', when the radionuclide was introduced in the upper layers of soil in ''non-contaminated'' loswer layers of soil approximately 8% 90 Sr was introduced. According to preliminary calculations the rate of 90 Sr dispersion by earthworms in soil constitutes approximately 0.003 cm/day and, provided the rate is constant, gradual distribution of the radionuclide over the soil profile under experimental conditions will take place in 55 years

  11. Wozu Rechtsgeschichte?

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    Joachim Rückert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available »Why legal history?« There is no general scientific answer, as usefulness is always concrete and practical. General clauses are illusions. So what do we do? As a good marketing effort today is always useful, let’s assume we make use of complex sweepstakes. They must be simple, constructive and attractive. Then they produce satisfaction with the product among participants, joy with the producer about the brand loyalty and a good distribution of the product itself – like the very successful sweepstakes of »Bild«, ADAC, Readers Digest etc. But seriously: What would constitute a good sweepstake on the market of legal history? So much is »out« already…, the »inner necessity«, the »eternal« Roman law, the »German « unswerving faith with oneself, the hop-skip-andjump from Roman law over Savigny towards the BGB of yesterday and today, the history of legal etymology and dogmatics, the hermeneutic circling, the return of one and the same legal types on the carrousel of law, the eternally critical view on law – and so on. They are out not without reason, because they are too mystic, too eternal, too pseudo-Roman, too doctrinal, too circular, too metaphorical, too socially logical, or just too arbitrary. My suggestion: »Stories of legal problems«. They interpret and represent norms based on vast amounts of decisions of certain problems under certain conditions. If there is a certain identity of problems, the history of problems can link the various solutions in a thrilling way. If the identity is missing, the threads are cut. One doesn’t step into the old traps but neither into chaos said to be impeding. A genuine sweepstake.

  12. The effects of repeated applications of the molluscicide metaldehyde and the biocontrol nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita on molluscs, earthworms, nematodes, acarids and collembolans: a two-year study in north-west Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Javier; Castillejo, José; Castro, Ramón

    2003-11-01

    spp were unaffected by the treatment, but Dendrobaena spp increased significantly in the plots treated with manure. The numbers of nematodes, acarids and collembolans in soil samples were compared between the untreated controls and the treatments with nematodes applied 3 days prior to planting to the planted area or to the surrounding area, without previous application of manure: the treatment had a significant effect on the number of nematodes in soil samples, but acarids and collembolans were unaffected.

  13. Information operator approach applied to the retrieval of vertical distributions of atmospheric constituents from ground-based FTIR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senten, Cindy; de Mazière, Martine; Vanhaelewyn, Gauthier; Vigouroux, Corinne; Delmas, Robert

    2010-05-01

    The retrieval of information about the vertical distribution of an atmospheric absorber from high spectral resolution ground-based Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra is an important issue in remote sensing. A frequently used technique at present is the optimal estimation method. This work introduces the application of an alternative method, namely the information operator approach (Doicu et al., 2007; Hoogen et al., 1999), for extracting the available information from such FTIR measurements. This approach has been implemented within the well-known retrieval code SFIT2, by adapting the optimal estimation method such as to take into account only the significant contributions to the solution. In particular, we demonstrate the feasibility of the method when applied to ground-based FTIR spectra taken at the southern (sub)tropical site Ile de La Réunion (21° S, 55° E) in 2007. A thorough comparison has been made between the retrieval results obtained with the original optimal estimation method and the ones obtained with the information operator approach, regarding profile and column stability, information content and corresponding full error budget evaluation. This has been done for the target species ozone (O3), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). It is shown that the information operator approach performs well and is capable of achieving the same accuracy as optimal estimation, with a gain of stability and with the additional advantage of being less sensitive to the choice of a priori information as well as to the actual signal-to-noise ratio. Keywords: ground-based FTIR, solar absorption spectra, greenhouse gases, information operator approach References Doicu, A., Hilgers, S., von Bargen, A., Rozanov, A., Eichmann, K.-U., von Savigny, C., and Burrows, J.P.: Information operator approach and iterative regularization methods for atmospheric remote sensing, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 103, 340-350, 2007

  14. Pilot scale aided-phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Charlotte; Mench, Michel; Jani, Yahya; Kaczala, Fabio; Notini, Peter; Hijri, Mohamed; Hogland, William

    2018-03-15

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to investigate the aided-phytoextraction of metals and the aided-phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in a co-contaminated soil. First, this soil was amended with compost (10% w/w) and assembled into piles (Unp-10%C). Then, a phyto-cap of Medicago sativa L. either in monoculture (MS-10%C) or co-cropped with Helianthus annuus L. as companion planting (MSHA-10%C) was sown on the topsoil. Physico-chemical parameters and contaminants in the soil and its leachates were measured at the beginning and the end of the first growth season (after five months). In parallel, residual soil ecotoxicity was assessed using the plant species Lepidium sativum L. and the earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, 1826, while the leachate ecotoxicity was assessed using Lemna minor L. After 5months, PH C10-C40, PAH-L, PAH-M PAH-H, Pb and Cu concentrations in the MS-10%C soil were significantly reduced as compared to the Unp-10%C soil. Metal uptake by alfalfa was low but their translocation to shoots was high for Mn, Cr, Co and Zn (transfer factor (TF) >1), except for Cu and Pb. Alfalfa in monoculture reduced electrical conductivity, total organic C and Cu concentration in the leachate while pH and dissolved oxygen increased. Alfalfa co-planting with sunflower did not affect the extraction of inorganic contaminants from the soil, the PAH (M and H) degradation and was less efficient for PH C10-C40 and PAH-L as compared to alfalfa monoculture. The co-planting reduced shoot and root Pb concentrations. The residual soil ecotoxicity after 5months showed a positive effect of co-planting on L. sativum shoot dry weight (DW) yield. However, high contaminant concentrations in soil and leachate still inhibited the L. sativum root DW yield, earthworm development, and L. minor growth rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in the Bacterial Community Structure of Remediated Anthracene-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Bello-López, Juan M.; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Rodríguez-Valentín, Analine; Luna-Guido, Marco L.; Dendooven, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Mixing soil or adding earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826)) accelerated the removal of anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, from a pasture and an arable soil, while a non-ionic surfactant (Surfynol® 485) inhibited the removal of the contaminant compared to the untreated soil. It was unclear if the treatments affected the soil bacterial community and consequently the removal of anthracene. Therefore, the bacterial community structure was monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the pasture and arable soil mixed weekly, amended with Surfynol® 485, E. fetida or organic material that served as food for the earthworms for 56 days. In both soils, the removal of anthracene was in the order: mixing soil weekly (100%) > earthworms applied (92%) > organic material applied (77%) > untreated soil (57%) > surfactant applied (34%) after 56 days. There was no clear link between removal of anthracene from soil and changes in the bacterial community structure. On the one hand, application of earthworms removed most of the contaminant from the arable soil and had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes, and an increase in that of the Proteobacteria compared to the unamended soil. Mixing the soil weekly removed all anthracene from the arable soil, but had little or no effect on the bacterial community structure. On the other hand, application of the surfactant inhibited the removal of anthracene from the arable soil compared to the untreated soil, but had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of Cytophagia (Bacteroidetes), Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes and an increase in that of the Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes) and Proteobacteria. Additionally, the removal of anthracene was similar in the different treatments of both the arable and pasture soil, but the

  16. Changes in the Bacterial Community Structure of Remediated Anthracene-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Delgado-Balbuena

    Full Text Available Mixing soil or adding earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 accelerated the removal of anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, from a pasture and an arable soil, while a non-ionic surfactant (Surfynol® 485 inhibited the removal of the contaminant compared to the untreated soil. It was unclear if the treatments affected the soil bacterial community and consequently the removal of anthracene. Therefore, the bacterial community structure was monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the pasture and arable soil mixed weekly, amended with Surfynol® 485, E. fetida or organic material that served as food for the earthworms for 56 days. In both soils, the removal of anthracene was in the order: mixing soil weekly (100% > earthworms applied (92% > organic material applied (77% > untreated soil (57% > surfactant applied (34% after 56 days. There was no clear link between removal of anthracene from soil and changes in the bacterial community structure. On the one hand, application of earthworms removed most of the contaminant from the arable soil and had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes, and an increase in that of the Proteobacteria compared to the unamended soil. Mixing the soil weekly removed all anthracene from the arable soil, but had little or no effect on the bacterial community structure. On the other hand, application of the surfactant inhibited the removal of anthracene from the arable soil compared to the untreated soil, but had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of Cytophagia (Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes and an increase in that of the Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Additionally, the removal of anthracene was similar in the different treatments of both the arable and pasture soil

  17. The Fantasy Men

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    Douglas J. Osler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable success of the Anglo-American legal system in establishing stable, democratic societies throughout the globe contrasts with the catastrophic failure, over the centuries, of the legal systems of continental Europe. Nevertheless, nationalistic sentiment in South Africa and Scotland reacted to increasing Common Law influence with a paradoxical idealisation of the Civil Law system. The various discourses of europäische Rechtsgeschichte behind the ideology are set in their historical and cultural contexts. The nationalistic discourse of Savigny, which reduced the whole of European legal history to a translatio studii of Roman law from Italy to France to Holland to German apotheosis, gave way in the wake of two world wars and the Holocaust to the new discourse of the ius commune, a legal paradigm for a future European Union based not on the historical reality of three centuries of religious, political and juridical conflict, but on a fantasy world of European legal unity from the beginning of the modern period until the 19th century national codifications. This was the post-war narrative of Helmut Coing, which, failing to anticipate the eclipse of the British Empire, steadfastly contrasted the shared legal tradition of continental Europe with the opposing system of the Anglo-American Common Law.With England now in the European Union the discourse has had to be modified. By exaggerating the importance of some minor and longrecognised continental influences on the Common Law, the contemporary discourse of the ius commune europaeum propagated by Reinhard Zimmermann succeeds in trumping the historical fantasy of a uniform continental legal past with the even more remote fantasy of a uniform continental and English legal culture. The old nationalist programme of a return to the 17th–18th century Roman-Dutch law, imbibed by Zimmermann as a law professor in Apartheid South Africa, can thus be presented as an appeal to the pan-European legal

  18. Ecologia populacional dos Amphipoda (Crustacea dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population ecolocy of Amphipoda (Crustacea from the phytals of Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

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    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Spalial and temporal density distributions of Amphipoda from the phytals of Caiobá are described. Air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (August and May to 23ºC (March, surface water temperature from 17ºC (August to 25ºC (March and the salinity from 29.3‰ (May to 32.8‰ (August. Two samples of 25cm² (for algae less than 5cm long, 100 cm² (for algae between 5-10cm long and whole plants (for algae more than 10cm long were removed with a spatula from the rocky surface at Caiobá Beach, in August/86, November/86, March/87 and May/87. After sorting, the algal substrata were weighted, their adsorption coefficient calculated and the sediment retained among the thallii weighted. The average distance between the branching was measured for all branched algae. The densities were calculated in relation to the weight of the algal substrate in grams. Eight phytals were considered: Ulva fasciata Delile, Padina gymnospora (Kútzing Vickers, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni, Gelidium sp., Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet &Thurel and Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg, over which nine Amphipoda species live: Ampithoe ramondi Audouin, 1816, Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1852, Elasmopus pectenicrus Bate, 1857, Hyale media Dana, 1857, Hyale sp.l, Jassa falcata Montagu, 1895 and Sunampithoe pelagica H. Milne-Edwards, 1830 (Gammaridea. Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1861 and Caprella penantis Leach, 1814 (Caprellidea. Amphipoda densities ranged from 0.27 ind.g-1 to 45.68. ind.g-1. The broad-thallii algae Porphyra, Ulva and Padina harbored lower densities of Amphipoda, whereas those finely branched Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus, the highest values and the less branched Sargassum and Gelidium, intermediate values. The high densities found in the finely branched algae had as main contribution the juvenile recruiting of most Amphipoda. The tide level might have influenced