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Sample records for dendritic zn slurry

  1. Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Lei, Hong

    2014-11-01

    With magnetic heads operating closer to hard disks, the hard disks must be ultra-smooth. The abrasive-free polishing (AFP) performance of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) as the initiator in H2O2-based slurry for hard disk substrate was investigated in our work, and the results showed that the slurry including CHP could improve the material removal rate (MRR) and also reduce surface roughness. Electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (EPR), electrochemical measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were conducted to investigate the acting mechanism with CHP during the polishing process. Compared with the H2O2 slurry, the EPR analysis shows that the CHP-H2O2 slurry provides a higher concentration of the HOO free radical. In addition, the AES analysis shows the oxidization reaction occurs in the external layer of the substrate surface. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements reveal that CHP can promote the electrochemical effect in AFP and lead to the increase of MRR.

  2. Radical change of Zn speciation in pig slurry amended soil: Key role of nano-sized sulfide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, Thiago Augusto; Legros, Samuel; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; Pinheiro, Adilson; Le Bars, Maureen; Levard, Clément; Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; da Veiga, Milton; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Spreading livestock manure as fertilizer on farmlands is a widespread practice. It represents the major source of heavy metal(loid)s (HM) input in agricultural soils. Since zinc (Zn) is present at high concentrations in manure, it poses special environmental concerns related to phytotoxicity, groundwater contamination, and introduction in the food chain. Therefore, investigations on the fate and behavior of manure-borne Zn, when it enters the soil environment, are necessary to predict the environmental effects. Nevertheless, long-term field studies assessing Zn speciation in the organic waste matrix, as well as within the soil after manure application, are lacking. This study was designed to fill this gap. Using SEM-EDS and XAS analysis, we reported the following new results: (i) ZnS made up 100% of the Zn speciation in the pig slurry (the highest proportion of ZnS ever observed in organic waste); and (ii) ZnS aggregates were about 1-μm diameter (the smallest particle size ever reported in pig slurry). Moreover, the pig slurry containing ZnS was spread on the soil over an 11-year period, totaling 22 applications, and the resulting Zn speciation within the amended soil was analyzed. Surprisingly, ZnS, i.e. the only species responsible for a nearly 2-fold increase in the Zn concentration within the amended soil, was not detected in this soil. Based on SEM-EDS and XAS observations, we put forward the hypothesis that Zn in the pig slurry consisted of nano-sized ZnS crystallites that further aggregated. The low stability of ZnS nanoparticles within oxic and complex environments such as the studied soil was the key explanation for the radical change in pig slurry-borne Zn speciation after long-term amendments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Easy Formation of Nanodisk-Dendritic ZnO Film via Controlled Electrodeposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azimah Abd Samad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile electrodeposition synthesis was introduced to prepare the nanodisk-dendritic ZnO film using a mixture solution of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 with potassium chloride (KCl that acted as a directing agent. This study aims to determine the best photoelectrochemical response for solar-induced water splitting. Based on our results obtained, it was found that an average diagonal of nanodisk was approximately 1.70 µm with the thickness of ≈150 nm that was successfully grown on the surface of substrate. The photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical responses of the resultant wurtzite type based-nanodisk-dendrite ZnO film as compared to the as-prepared ZnO film were monitored and evaluated. A photocurrent density of 19.87 mA/cm2 under ultraviolet rays and 14.05 mA/cm2 under visible light (500 nm was recorded for the newly developed nanodisk-dendritic ZnO thin film. It was believed that nanodisk-dendritic ZnO film can harvest more incident photons from the illumination to generate more photoinduced charge carriers to trigger the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical reactions. Moreover, strong light scattering effects and high specific surface area of 2D nanostructures aid in the incident light absorption from any direction.

  4. Triggered antioxidant defense mechanism in maize grown in soil with accumulation of Cu and Zn due to intensive application of pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Tiecher, Tadeu L; De Conti, Lessandro; Schmatz, Roberta; Brunetto, Gustavo; Schetinger, Maria R C; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2013-07-01

    The present study investigated changes in both the growth parameters and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of maize (Zea may L.) plants grown in Typic Hapludalf soil containing an accumulation of Cu and Zn. This accumulation developed because the soil received nineteen applications of pig slurry in no-tillage system over seven years. In this study, the maize plants were grown for fifteen and 25 days after emergence (DAE) in pots containing undisturbed and disturbed soil samples collected from a field experiment that received the rates 0, 20, 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry, which totalized the amount of 0, 380, 760 and 1520m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry in seven years, respectively, and phosphorus (P)+potassium (K) treatment (in disturbed soil samples). The maize plants grown in the undisturbed soil samples with an accumulation of Cu and Zn did not indicate an apparent decrease in growth. However, when compared to the treatment with PK fertilization, the maize plants grown in the disturbed soil with pig slurry treatments indicated higher lipid peroxidation and a number of senescent leaves, as well as a significant decrease in plant height. Additionally, when compared to the PK treatment, the leaf superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased and increased, respectively, with the addition of pig slurry treatments in the disturbed soil at 25 DAE. In general, when compared to the treatments with 20m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry and PK at fifteen and 25 DAE, the leaf ascorbic acid and non-protein thiol groups concentrations decreased with the addition of 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry. This result suggests that the excess of Cu and Zn in the pig slurry significantly changed the antioxidant system of the maize plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bulk-Quantity Synthesis and Conductive Properties of Comb-Like Dendritic ZnO Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhi-Min; ZHANG Hong-Zhou; XU Jun; YU Da-Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Adopting a simple low-temperature (~ 500℃) vapour process, we have synthesized bulk quantity comb-like dendritic ZnO nanostructures in large area.An atomic force microscope equipped with Au-coated probes was employed to elucidate the current-voltage characteristic of the individual ZnO nanocomb.The connection electrodes were defined by depositing Pt wires using focused ion beam (FIB).A rectification effect was observed,while it was slightly suppressed compared with that of the previous reports.The good conductive properties of the sample can be attributed to the Ga+ ions implantation through the FIB process of electrode definition.We suggest that the material and the FIB method can be developed to fabricate novel nanosized devices.

  6. Uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms from pulverised fuel ash (PFA) leachates and slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, K.B.; Mehra, A.; Farago, M.E.; Banerjee, D.K. [University of Derby, Derby (United Kingdom). School of Environmental and Applied Science

    2000-12-01

    The main solid waste product from coal-fired power stations is pulverised fuel ash (PFA). This study investigates the uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the aquatic plant E-crassipes grown in leachates and slurries prepared from two different PFA samples. PFA samples were obtained from Indraprastha Power Station (IPP stn.) in New Delhi, India and the Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station in the UK. Results show that E. crassipes has a high accumulation capacity for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn from leachates and slurries generated from two different PFAs and uptake of these metals is stronger in the roots than in the tops of the plant. As the metal concentrations in the growth medium increase in the 1:5 PFA:DIW ratio as compared to the 1:50 ratio, metal accumulation (as indicated by accumulation factor (AF) values) from both leachates and slurries is higher for plants grown in the 1:50 (PFA:DIW) ratios than in the 1:5 ratios. Lower metal accumulation in the plants grown in slurries than in leachates is related to the high turbidity of growth medium in slurries resulting in ash particles adhering to the root surfaces thus reducing the surface area of metal absorption. In terms of neutralisation capacity of the pH of the growth medium, Eichhornia is seen to be able to reduce the pH of all leachates. Accumulation of Cd and Zn by the plant is higher from the lower pH IPP leachates than the Ratcliffe leachates, indicating that these metals are more soluble and bioavailable in the acidic medium. Accumulation of Cu and Ni is independent of the pH of the leachates; indicating that there may be other contributory factors. 78 refs., 7 tabs.

  7. Primary cellular/dendritic spacing selection of Al-4.95%Zn alloy under near-rapid directional solidification condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Al-4.95% Zn alloy is directionally solidified in a modified Bridgman apparatus with higher temperature gradient to investigate response of cellular/dendritic microstructures and primary spacing to the variation of growth velocity under near-rapid directional solidification condition. The results show that, with increasing growth rate, there exists a transition from dendrite to fine cell and a wide distribution range in primary cellular/dendritic spacing at the given temperature gradient. The maximum, λmax, minimum, λmin, and average primary spacing, (-\\λ), as functions of growth velocity, v, can be given by λmax = 12 340 v-0.8353, λmin = 2953.7 v-07717, (-\\λ)= 7820.3 v-08333, respectively.

  8. Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shih-Yi [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiuh-Jen, E-mail: sjjiang@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Sahayam, A.C. [National Centre for Compositional Characterisation of Materials (CCCM), Hyderabad (India)

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to determine Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in several cereal samples. Thioacetamide was used as the modifier to enhance the ion signals. The background ions at the masses of interest were reduced in intensity significantly by using 1.0 mL min{sup −1} methane (CH{sub 4}) as reaction cell gas in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC). Since the sensitivities of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in different matrices were quite different, standard addition and isotope dilution methods were used for the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in these cereal samples. The method detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were about 1, 10, 4, 12 and 2 ng g{sup −1} for Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se, respectively, in original cereal samples. This procedure has been applied to the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se whose concentrations are in μg g{sup −1} (except Cr and Se) in standard reference materials (SRM) of National institute of standards and technology (NIST), NIST SRM 1568a Rice Flour and NIST SRM 1567a Wheat Flour and two cereal samples purchased from a local market. The analysis results of reference materials agreed with certified values at 95% confidence level according to Student's T-test. The results for the real world cereal samples were also found to be in good agreement with the pneumatic nebulization DRC ICP-MS results of the sample solutions. - Highlights: • Determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in cereal samples • Ultrasonic slurry sampling in combination with DRC-ICP-MS • Better sensitivity with thioacetamide modifier in ETV • Decreased sample preparation time with solid sampling • Validation with NIST SRM 1568a Rice Flour and NIST SRM 1567a Wheat Flour.

  9. Dendrite-Free Nanocrystalline Zinc Electrodeposition from an Ionic Liquid Containing Nickel Triflate for Rechargeable Zn-Based Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Cui, Tong; Pulletikurthi, Giridhar; Lahiri, Abhishek; Carstens, Timo; Olschewski, Mark; Endres, Frank

    2016-02-18

    Metallic zinc is a promising anode material for rechargeable Zn-based batteries. However, the dendritic growth of zinc has prevented practical applications. Herein it is demonstrated that dendrite-free zinc deposits with a nanocrystalline structure can be obtained by using nickel triflate as an additive in a zinc triflate containing ionic liquid. The formation of a thin layer of Zn-Ni alloy (η- and γ-phases) on the surface and in the initial stages of deposition along with the formation of an interfacial layer on the electrode strongly affect the nucleation and growth of zinc. A well-defined and uniform nanocrystalline zinc deposit with particle sizes of about 25 nm was obtained in the presence of Ni(II) . Further, it is shown that the nanocrystalline Zn exhibits a high cycling stability even after 50 deposition/stripping cycles. This strategy of introducing an inorganic metal salt in ionic liquid electrolytes can be considered as an efficient way to obtain dendrite-free zinc.

  10. Comparative Study of Structural and Photocatalytic Properties of M-Doped (M = Ce3+, Zn2+, Cu2+) Dendritic-Like CdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqian; Yang, Xiande; Ye, Ting; Xu, Chao; Xia, Fan; Meng, Dawei

    2017-03-01

    M-doped (M = Ce3+, Zn2+, Cu2+) dendritic-like CdS has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. As-prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated in degradation of methylene blue under simulated visible-light irradiation. XRD results revealed that M:CdS is a hexagonal phase at low doping concentration. XRD and EDS results indicated that Ce3+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ were successfully introduced into CdS. FESEM results indicated that CdS retains dendritic-like structure at low doping concentration. UV-Vis spectroscopy results indicated that doping with Ce3+, Zn2+ or Cu2+ can be used to improve the absorbing capability of dendritic-like CdS for visible light, and the doping content affects the bandgap. Photocatalytic results indicated that doping with Ce3+, Zn2+ or Cu2+ can improve the photocatalytic efficiency of dendritic-like CdS, with highest degradation rates of 93.2%, 91.2%, and 95.5% for Ce:CdS, Zn:CdS, and Cu:CdS, respectively. The photocatalytic mechanism of M:CdS in degradation of methylene blue is also described.

  11. Anomalous α-Mg Dendrite Growth During Directional Solidification of a Mg-Zn Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Sansan; Guo, Enyu; Wang, Mingyue; Callaghan, Mark D.; Jing, Tao; Zheng, Qiwei; Lee, Peter D.

    2016-09-01

    Dendritic morphology was investigated in a directionally solidified magnesium-zinc alloy using synchrotron X-ray tomography and electron backscattered diffraction. Unexpectedly, primary dendrites grew along {directions. Further, seven asymmetric sets of side branches formed, instead of six-fold symmetric arms, evolving with three coexisting morphologies per trunk of: traditional, seaweed structure, and free growth. The anomalous growth is attributed to the imposed thermal gradient and zinc-induced interfacial energy anisotropy variations.

  12. Field Emission Properties of the Dendritic Carbon Nanotubes Film Embedded with ZnO Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Response on the effects of individual differences of common carbon nanotubes on the field emission current stability and the luminescence uniformity of cathode film, a new type of cathode film made of dendritic carbon nanotubes embedded with Zinc oxide quantum dots is proposed. The film of dendritic carbon nanotubes was synthesized through high-temperature pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine on a silicon substrate coated with zinc oxide nanoparticles. The dendritic structure looks like many small branches protrude from the main branches in SEM and TEM images, and both the branch and the trunk are embedded with Zinc oxide quantum dots. The turn-on field of the dendritic structure film is ∼1.3 V/μm at a current of 2 μA, which is much lower than that of the common carbon nanotube film, and the emission current and the luminescence uniformity are better than that of the common one. The whole film emission uniformity has been improved because the multi-emission sites out from the dendritic structure carbon nanotubes cover up the failure and defects of the single emission site.

  13. Effects of subtoxic concentrations of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles on human lymphocytes, dendritic cells and exosome production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Willman, Britta; Gehrmann, Ulf; Cansu, Zekiye [Translational Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Krug, Harald F. [Laboratory for Materials — Biology Interactions, Swiss Federal Laboratories of Materials Testing and Research, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Gabrielsson, Susanne [Translational Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Scheynius, Annika, E-mail: annika.scheynius@ki.se [Translational Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in the paint and coating industry as well as in cosmetics, but the knowledge of their possible interactions with the immune system is very limited. Our aims were to investigate if commercially available TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles may affect different human immune cells and their production of exosomes, nano-sized vesicles that have a role in cell to cell communication. We found that the TiO{sub 2} or ZnO nanoparticles at concentrations from 1 to 100 μg/mL did not affect the viability of primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In contrast, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) reacted with a dose dependent increase in cell death and caspase activity to ZnO but not to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Non-toxic exposure, 10 μg/mL, to TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles did not significantly alter the phenotype of MDDC. Interestingly, ZnO but not TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced a down regulation of FcγRIII (CD16) expression on NK-cells in the PBMC population, suggesting that subtoxic concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles might have an effect on FcγR-mediated immune responses. The phenotype and size of exosomes produced by PBMC or MDDC exposed to the nanoparticles were similar to that of exosomes harvested from control cultures. TiO{sub 2} or ZnO nanoparticles could not be detected within or associated to exosomes as analyzed with TEM. We conclude that TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles differently affect immune cells and that evaluations of nanoparticles should be performed even at subtoxic concentrations on different primary human immune cells when investigating potential effects on immune functions. -- Highlights: ► ZnO nanoparticles induce cell death of MDDC but not of PBMC. ► ZnO nanoparticles induce caspase activation and DNA fragmentation in MDDC. ► TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are taken up by MDDC but have no effect on their phenotype. ► ZnO nanoparticles induce a significant reduction of CD16

  14. A kinetic study of methanol synthesis in a slurry reactor using a CuO/ZnO/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Adwani, H.A.

    1992-05-01

    A kinetic model that describes the methanol production rate over a CuO/ZnO/AI{sub 2}0{sub 3} catalyst (United Catalyst L-951) at typical industrial operating conditions is developed using a slurry reactor. Different experiments are conducted in which the H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio is equal to 2, 1, and 0.5, respectively, while the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio is held constant at 9. At each H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio the space velocity is set at four different values in the range of 3000-13,000 1/hr kg{sub cat}. The effect of H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio and space velocity on methanol production rate, conversions, and product composition is further investigated. The results indicate that the highest methanol production rate can be achieved at H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 1 followed by H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 0.5 and 2 respectively. The hydrogen and carbon monoxide conversions decrease with increasing space velocity for all H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratios tested. Carbon monoxide hydrogenation appears to be the main route to methanol at H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 0.5 and 2. On the other hand, carbon dioxide hydrogenation appears to be the main route to methanol at H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 1. At all H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratios, the extent of the reverse water gas shift reaction decreases with increasing space velocity. The effect of temperature on the kinetics is examined by using the same experimental approach at 508 K. It is found that a different reaction sequence takes place at each temperature. Also, a time on stream study is conducted simultaneously in order to investigate the characteristic of catalyst deactivation with time on stream. During the first 150 hours of time on stream, the catalyst loses approximately 2/3 of its initial activity before reaching a steady state activity.

  15. A kinetic study of methanol synthesis in a slurry reactor using a CuO/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Adwani, H.A.

    1992-05-01

    A kinetic model that describes the methanol production rate over a CuO/ZnO/AI{sub 2}0{sub 3} catalyst (United Catalyst L-951) at typical industrial operating conditions is developed using a slurry reactor. Different experiments are conducted in which the H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio is equal to 2, 1, and 0.5, respectively, while the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio is held constant at 9. At each H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio the space velocity is set at four different values in the range of 3000-13,000 1/hr kg{sub cat}. The effect of H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio and space velocity on methanol production rate, conversions, and product composition is further investigated. The results indicate that the highest methanol production rate can be achieved at H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 1 followed by H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 0.5 and 2 respectively. The hydrogen and carbon monoxide conversions decrease with increasing space velocity for all H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratios tested. Carbon monoxide hydrogenation appears to be the main route to methanol at H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 0.5 and 2. On the other hand, carbon dioxide hydrogenation appears to be the main route to methanol at H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 1. At all H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratios, the extent of the reverse water gas shift reaction decreases with increasing space velocity. The effect of temperature on the kinetics is examined by using the same experimental approach at 508 K. It is found that a different reaction sequence takes place at each temperature. Also, a time on stream study is conducted simultaneously in order to investigate the characteristic of catalyst deactivation with time on stream. During the first 150 hours of time on stream, the catalyst loses approximately 2/3 of its initial activity before reaching a steady state activity.

  16. Cu-Zn-Al-Zr浆状催化剂二甲醚合成宏观动力学%Global kinetics of direct synthesis of dimethyl ether from syngas in slurry reactor over Cu-Zn-Al-Zr catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振; 张海涛; 应卫勇; 房鼎业

    2011-01-01

    在压力3MPa~7MPa,温度220℃~260℃,空速0.4 L·g-1·h-1~1.2 L·g1·h-1,气体摩尔分率yH2 0.75~0.65,y∞ 0.14~0.20,y(00)2 0.04~0.08,搅拌转速1000 r·min-1的反应条件下,于500mL高压搅拌釜中进行了合成气在Cu-Zn-Al-Zr浆状催化剂上一步法合成二甲醚工艺过程的宏观动力学研究.基于CO加氢合成甲醇、CO2加氢合成甲醇及甲醇脱水为二甲醚三个独立反应,建立了Langmuir-Hinshelwood型宏观动力学模型.采用通用遗传算法和Levenberg-Marquardt优化算法相结合的方法对实验数据进行拟合、参数寻优,获得模型参数估值,经统计检验和残差分析证实了模型的可靠性.%The global kinetics of the slurry synthesis of dimethyl ether from syngas in a stirred autoclave over Cu-Zn-Al-Zr catalyst was studied at pressure of 3-7MPa, temperature of 220-260'C, WHSV of 0.4-1.2 L-g'-h"1 and mole fractions of H2, CO and CO2 in feed gas of 0.75-0.65, 0.14-0.20 and 0.04-0.08, respectively. Three reactions, CO hydrogenation to methanol, C02 hydrogenation to methanol and methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether, were chosen as the independent reactions and based on that a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type global kinetic model was built. The model parameters were estimated by fitting experimental data and parameter optimization based on general Genetic Algorithm and Levenberg- Marquardt methods, and the reliability of model was verified by statistical test and residual error analysis.

  17. Influence of acid and alkaline silica sol on the performance of Cu/Zn/Al slurry catalysts%酸碱性硅溶胶对浆状Cu/Zn/Al催化剂性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯; 张小雨; 张琳; 边仲凯; 黄伟; 赵志换

    2015-01-01

    在完全液相法研究发现的基础上,选用酸、碱性硅溶胶,制备Cu/Zn/Al/Si浆状催化剂,采用X射线衍射( XRD)、氢气程序升温还原( H2-TPR)、红外光谱分析( FT-IR)、氮气吸附、氨气程序升温脱附( NH3-TPD)、X射线光电子能谱( XPS)、透射电子显微镜( TEM)等对催化剂进行了表征。结果表明,两类硅溶胶引入Cu/Zn/Al催化体系后,与前驱体制备环境一致的酸性硅溶胶能显著提高催化剂的CO的转化率和二甲醚的选择性,最高分别可达65.38%和76.26%。酸性硅溶胶削弱了Cu与其他组分的相互作用力,催化剂表现为易于还原、晶粒度大,暴露出丰富的反应所需的Cu0活性晶面。此外,硅溶胶的酸碱性质还改变催化剂酸中心的强度和数量且使强、弱酸中心均向低温方向迁移,酸性硅胶制备的催化剂中弱酸中心数量多,进而提高了催化剂活性和二甲醚的选择性。大比表面积和介孔孔隙丰富的催化剂孔结构亦有利于催化剂活性和二甲醚选择性的提高。%A series of Cu/Zn/Al/Si slurry catalysts were prepared by the complete liquid-phase technology with acid and alkaline silica sol in the paper. The catalysts are characterized by means of XRD, H2-TPR, FT-IR, BET, NH3-TPD, XPS and TEM. When the acid silica sol is added, which has the similar environment with the process of precursor preparation, the conversion of CO and selectivity of dimethyl ether reach maxiumum, being 65. 38% and 76. 26% respectively. The acid silica sol weakens the force between Cu and other components, resulting in the Cu component is easy to be reduced and more active lattice planes of Cu0 on the catalyst are exposed. The acid/alkaline properties of silica sol influence acid site strength and the number of acid sites of catalysts and make both strong acidic sites and the weak acidic sites migrate to lower temperature position. In DME synthesis reaction, it is found that the acid

  18. Annulus electromagnetic stirring for preparing semisolid A357 aluminum alloy slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yue-long; XU Jun; ZHANG Zhi-feng; SHI Li-kai

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pouring temperature and annulus gap width on the microstructure of the semi-solid A357 aluminum alloy slurry prepared by annulus electromagnetic stirring(AEMS) technology were investigated. The results show that low pouring temperature and narrow annulus gap are advantageous to obtaining the small spherical primary α(Al) phase. The lower the pouring temperature is and the smaller the annulus gap width is, the more uniform, the smaller and the more spherical the microstructure is. The microstructures obtained by the ordinary electromagnetic stirring and AEMS were compared. The results indicate that the primary α(Al) particles are globular, small and distribute homogeneously in the slurry obtained by AEMS. But in the slurry obtained by the ordinary electromagnetic stirring, the primary α(Al) particles are small dendrites in the edge of the slurry and they are large and rosette-like or dendritic in the inner of the slurry.

  19. The Optimizing Conditions by Taguchi Method for Fabricating Semi-Solid Al-Zn-Mg Alloy Slurry by Cooling Plate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung-Yong; Park, Hyung-Won; Jeong, In-Sang; Lim, Su-Gun

    In order to optimize the condition for the semi-solid Al-Zn-Mg aluminium alloy fabricated by cooling plate method, the Taguchi design was used. The cooling plate method effectively separating the grains formed from the mold wall can be used to form a semi-solid material by flowing molten metal over an inclined Cu plate and casting in a mold for the near-net shape component. In Taguchi's design method, the higher signal vs noise (S/N) ratio the better. Therefore, the manufacturing conditions were arranged as a table of orthogonal arrays (L9(34)), and the influence of two factors, pouring temperature and cooling plate angle, was examined. From the observed microstructures, the grain size and aspect ratio were measured by image analyzer. The results indicated that the pouring temperature exerts the main effect on the spherical microstructures since the S/N ratio, which is the sensibility of the surrounding environment, was the highest. The optimum condition for the Al-Zn-Mg alloy was a cooling plate angle of 40° and a pouring temperature of 680°C. The grain size and aspect ratio were 70 μm and 1.3, respectively.

  20. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

    2010-12-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology.

  1. 浆态床合成二甲醚用CuZnAlSi催化剂的完全液相法制备及表征%Complete liquid phase preparation and characterization of CuZnAlSi catalysts for DME synthesis in slurry reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志红; 黄伟; 樊金串; 左志军; 谢克昌

    2009-01-01

    采用完全液相法制备了不同SiO_2含量的二甲醚(DME)合成CuZnAlSi双功能催化剂,并在浆态床反应器中评价其催化反应活性,通过in-situ XPS、XRD、BET、NH_3-TPD等方法对其物理化学性能进行研究.结果表明,CuZnAl催化剂中加入SiO_2组分,能够促进活性组分Cu的分散,并通过与AlOOH的作用调变催化剂的孔结构和表面酸性,从而提高催化剂在DME合成反应中的活性.准原位 XPS表征结果显示,还原后的催化剂表面Cu0和ZnO共同构成DME合成反应中的甲醇合成活性中心.SiO_2的加入可能导致Cu、Zn和Al组分间的相互作用减弱,催化剂稳定性降低.%A series of CuZnAlSi bifunctional catalysts with different SiO_2 contents were prepared by a complete liquid phase method, and the catalysts were characterized by using in-situ XPS, XRD, BET and NH_3-TPD. The catalytic performance was evaluated in a slurry reactor. Based on these results, it was deduced that SiO_2 in the CuZnAlSi catalyst could interact with A1OOH resulting in the change of some physicochemical properties, such as the pore structure and surface acidity, thus the catalytic activity for DME synthesis has got improved. It was found from the in-situ XPS characterization that the surface active species for the methanol synthesis in the process of DME production is composed by the reduced Cu~0 species and ZnO. However, the stability of the catalyst decreased owing to the introduction of SiO_2, which may due to a lower interaction among the components of Cu, Zn and Al.

  2. Dendritic Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Sevda Söker

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells, a member of family of antigen presenting cells, are most effective cells in the primary immune response. Dendritic cells originated from dendron, in mean of tree in the Greek, because of their long and elaborate cytoplasmic branching processes. Dendritic cells constitute approximately 0.1 to 1 percent of the blood’s mononuclear cell. Dendritic cells are widely distributed, and specialized for antigen capture and T cell stimulation. In this article, structures and functions of...

  3. Rotary cup slurry atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H. T.; Marnicio, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The theory of a two-phase flow in a rotating cup atomizer is described. The analysis considers the separation of the solid and liquid media thus realistically modeling the flow of two layers along the inner cup wall: a slurry of increasing solids concentration and a supernatent liquid layer. The analysis is based on the earlier work of Hinze and Milborn (1950) which addressed the flow within a rotary cup for a homogeneous liquid. The superimposition of a settling velocity under conditions of high centrifugal acceleration permits the extended analysis of the separation of the two phases. Appropriate boundary conditions have been applied to the film's free surface and the cup wall and to match the flow characteristics at the liquid-slurry interface. The changing slurry viscosity, increasing nonlinearly with growing solid loading, was also considered. A parameter study illustrates the potential for a cup design to provide optimal slurry and liquid film thicknesses for effective atomization.

  4. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  5. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  6. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  7. Flashing Slurry Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Bruce E.; Young, Jonathan

    2007-03-14

    The Hanford K Basin Closure Project involves the retrieval, transfer and processing of radioactive contaminated slurries containing partially corroded spent nuclear fuel from the K Basin spent fuel pools. The spent fuel is primarily metallic fuel from the operation of the Hanford reactors. The Sludge Treatment Project is being designed to treat and package this material in preparation for ultimate disposal. The processing of the contaminated slurries includes further corrosion of the remaining uncorroded uranium metal in a large heated vessel to form a more stable metal oxide for packaging and storage.

  8. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  9. Thinning of kaolin slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    After mixing kaolin with water attractive and repulsive forces between kaolin particles initiate process of coagulation and peptisation, respectively. The coagulation process in the kaolin slurry gives rise to voluminous aggregates of kaolin particles, where a great deal of water is fixed.

  10. Slurry transport medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W.; Schiffman, L.

    1980-06-03

    This invention provides for an improvement in slurry transport systems, especially coal slurry lines. Instead of the usual use of fresh water resources which, in some geographic areas, are scarce for slurry transport, concentrated brine is used which is prepared from abundant salt water resources. Because of the higher density of this concentrated brine, it is a superior carrier of pulverized material. It diminishes the separation and settling tendency of slurry components during transport and particularly during shutdown. Other advantages in the use of concentrated brine include: freezing point depression which permits ease of transport during winter and at lower temperatures; dust suppression of stored coal; avoidance of spontaneous combustion of stored coal; inhibit freeze packing of dewatered pipeline coal; and diminished extent of corrosion in ferrous metal pipelines as compared to that which might occur with lower concentration brines. Important in the economy of the process is that the concentrated brine can be recycled. An inexpensive method for producing the concentrated brine is given.

  11. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. 等温时间对自孕育法制备Mg-9Zn-2Al镁合金半固态浆料的影响%Effect of Isothermal Time on Mg-9Zn-2Al Magnesium Alloy Semi-Solid Slurry Prepared by Self-Inoculation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春; 李元东; 周春生; 刘彦峰; 袁训峰; 常亮亮

    2013-01-01

    Semi-solid slurry of Mg-9Zn-2Al magnesium alloy has been prepared online by self-inoculation method(SIM).The effect of isothermal time on semi-solid microstructure evolution has been investigated with isothermal temperature 585℃.Results showed that with isothermal time prolonging,the grain has been with a process of firstly being spheroidized and then mutilated and continuous to grow.An ideal isothermal time should be limited to 4~8min for average grain size of 47.5~48.8μm with roundness between 1.2 and 1.3.In isothermal process,Microstructure evolution mainly had three stages including high melting particle precipitation and transient nucleation at smaller undercooling,and grains continuous growing because of magnesium atoms cumulation on the primary phase,and coalescence and growing of α phase.%采用自孕育法在线制备Mg-9Zn-2Al镁合金半固态浆料,研究了等温温度为585℃时,等温时间对Mg-9Zn-2Al镁合金半固态组织演变的影响.结果表明,随着保温时间的延长,晶粒先球化而后恶化,并且不断长大,保温4~8 min时,其晶粒较好,尺寸为65~72 μm,圆整度在1.2~1.3之间.在此过程中,组织的演变主要经历高熔质点相的析出及较小过冷度下的瞬态形核、镁原子堆积促使初生相的长大和α相的合并长大三个阶段.

  13. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffeld, M.; Wang, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers ...

  14. [Inflammatory dendritic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Elodie; Amigorena, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells are a rare and heterogeneous population of professional antigen-presenting cells. Several murine dendritic cell subpopulations have been identified that differ in their phenotype and functional properties. In the steady state, committed dendritic cell precursors differentiate into lymphoid organ-resident dendritic cells and migratory tissue dendritic cells. During inflammation appears an additional dendritic cell subpopulation that has been termed « inflammatory dendritic cells ». Inflammatory dendritic cells differentiate in situ from monocytes recruited to the site of inflammation. Here, we discuss how mouse inflammatory dendritic cells differ from macrophages and from other dendritic cell populations. Finally, we review recent work on human inflammatory dendritic cells.

  15. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks. These wastes must be retrieved, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed for disposal. Before removal from the storage tanks, the sludge and liquid wastes will typically be combined to create a mixture of suspended solids, generally referred to as a slurry; the slurry is then pumped from the tank to the treatment facilities by pipelines. Since the wastes are radioactive, it is critically important that the slurries are transported safely and successfully. The consequences of pipeline plugging are unacceptable from the perspectives of schedule, cost, and safety. The baseline method of ensuring that the transport properties of the slurries are correct is to sample the slurry in the tank and analyze the sample in the laboratory. This method has some problems. First, there is a delay between the time that the sample is taken and the time that the analytical results are reported. For some types of analysis, this delay could be from 24 to 48 hours. Second, although the tank is being mixed to keep tile solids in suspension during this period, there is no way to determine whether the contents of the tank are homogenous unless multiple samples are collected at various depths and locations. Therefore, an on-line system that monitors slurry transport properties in real time is needed to evaluate the slurry prior to and during transfer.

  16. Trace element determination in different milk slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E M; Lorenzo, M L; Cabrera, C; López, M C; Sánchez, J

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the contents of trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest in 90 samples of whole, low-fat, skim, condensed, evaporated and powdered milks. Slurries of the samples were prepared with Triton X-100 and analysed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The temperature-time programme of the graphite oven was optimized for each element, and the accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity of the method were verified. Concentrations of the trace elements we investigated were: Pb 0-0.211 microgram/g, Cd 0-28.985 ng/g, Al 0.528-4.025 micrograms/g, Cu 0.041-0.370 microgram/g, Cr 0-0.177 microgram/g, Mn 0.024-0.145 microgram/g, Se 0-23.333 ng/g, Zn 0.297-0.827 microgram/g and Ni 0.058-1.750 micrograms/g. (A value of zero indicates that the element was undetectable by our methods.) Concentrations of the pairs of elements Cu-Cd, Mn-Cd, Mn-Cu, Zn-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Zn were significantly correlated (P milk analyzed.

  17. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  18. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  19. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

  20. Medical ice slurry production device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  1. Characterization of Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Slurries with Low Solid Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chucheep, Thiensak; Wannasin, Jessada; Canyook, Rungsinee; Rattanochaikul, Tanate; Janudom, Somjai; Wisutmethangoon, Sirikul; Flemings, Merton C.

    2013-10-01

    Semi-solid slurry casting is a metal-forming process that involves transforming liquid metal into slurry having a low solid fraction and then forming the slurry into solid parts. To successfully apply this slurry-forming process, it is necessary to fully understand the flow behavior of semi-solid slurries. This present work applied the rapid quenching method and the modified gravity fluidity casting to investigate the flow behavior, which involves characterizations of the initial solid fraction, fluidity, and microstructure of semi-solid slurries. Three commercial aluminum alloys were used in this study: 383 (Al-Si11Cu), 356 (Al-Si7MgFe), and 7075 (Al-Zn6MgCu) alloys. The results show that the initial solid fractions can be controlled by varying the rheocasting time. The rapid quenching mold can be used to determine the initial solid fractions. In this method, it is important to apply the correcting procedure to account for growth during quenching and to include all the solid phases. Results from the fluidity study of semi-solid slurries show that the fluidity decreases as the initial solid fraction increases. The decrease is relatively rapid near the low end of the initial solid fraction curves, but is quite slow near the high end of the curves. All the three alloys follow this trend. The results also demonstrate that the slurries that contain high solid fractions of up to 30 pct can still flow well. The microstructure characterization results show that the solid particles in the slurries flow uniformly in the channel. A uniform and fine microstructure with limited phase segregation is observed in the slurry cast samples.

  2. Slurry Injection Schemes on the Extent of Slurry Mixing and Availability during Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bahr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, slurry availability and the extent of the slurry mixing (i.e., among fresh slurry, spent slurry, and residual rinse-water were varied via three different injection schemes. An ultraviolet enhanced fluorescence technique was employed to qualitatively indicate slurry availability and its flow on the pad during polishing. This study investigated standard pad center area slurry application and a slurry injection system (SIS that covered only the outer half of the wafer track. Results indicated that the radial position of slurry injection and the alteration of fluid mechanics by the SIS played important roles in slurry mixing characteristics and availability atop the pad. Removal rates were found to decrease with slurry availability, while a higher degree of slurry mixing decreased the fraction of fresh slurry and consequently lowered the removal rate. By using a hybrid system (i.e., a combination of slurry injection via SIS and standard pad center slurry application, the polishing process benefited from higher slurry availability and higher fraction of fresh slurry than the conventional pad center slurry application and the shorter SIS, individually. This work underscores the importance of optimum slurry injection geometry and flow for obtaining a more cost-effective and environmentally benign chemical mechanical planarization process.

  3. Copper and zinc forms in soil fertilized with pig slurry in the bean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Grohskopf

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of pig slurry may have different influence on copper (Cu and zinc (Zn dynamics in the soil compared with mineral fertilization. The aim of this research was to determine the different forms of Cu and Zn in soil and their uptake by bean plants in response to the application of mineral fertilizer and pig slurry (PS. The treatments were: mineral fertilizer (Cu and Zn oxides and liquid pig slurry, at increasing rates (0/0, 1.7/6.0, 3.4/12.0 and 6.8/24.0 kg ha-1 Cu/Zn, respectively applied in a Rhodic Kandiudox. PS increased the Cu content in soil in the exchangeable form, Fe oxides and residual, while the mineral fertilizer increased Cu contents in the fraction associated with soil organic matter. Soil Zn contents in the fractions available, exchangeable and SOM were highest under mineral fertilization, while in the soluble fraction the contents were highest under PS. The fertilizers had not impact on Cu and Zn contents associated with Al oxides, and these elements were mostly associated with Fe oxides in the soil. PS promoted the highest biomass production in shoots and roots of the bean plants, reflecting in the highest accumulation of Cu and Zn.

  4. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  5. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003 compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils.

  6. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in......-house storage can reduce NH3 emissions, and also may influence other emissions. In this study, emissions of NH3 were quantified by measuring continuously during three complete finishing pig production periods of about 10 weeks each, and emissions of CH4 and H2S less frequently. Emissions were determined from...... sections with 30-32 pigs with or without daily adjustment of slurry pH to below 6. Ammonia losses from reference sections with untreated slurry were between 9.5 and 12.4% of N excreted, and from sections with acidified slurry between 3.1 and 6.2%. Acidification reduced total emissions of NH3 by 66 and 71...

  7. PREPARATION OF SEMI-SOLID AlSi7Mg ALLOY SLURRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.D. Zhao; W.M. Mao

    2008-01-01

    In this article, semi-solid AlSi7Mg alloy slurry was prepared by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The effects of pouring temperature and stirring power on the microstructure of the AlSi7Mg alloy slurry were studied. The results showed that the semi-solid AlSi7Mg alloy slurry, 127 mm in diameter, could be prepared by using the low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring technology and this new technology could save energy and make the pouring process convenient. When the liquid AlSi7Mg alloy was poured at 650°C or 630°C, the solidified microstructure of the AlSi7Mg alloy slurry, prepared by weak electromagnetic stirring, was remarkably improved when compared with that of the slurry prepared without stirring. The primary α-Al grains appeared rosette-like or spherical. When the pouring temperature was decreased, the shape of the primary α-Al grains gradually changed from dendritic-like grains to spherical grains. When the pouring temperature was appropriately increased, that is, raised to a certain superheat, the pouring processbecame easier and an ideal spherical microstructure of the AlSiTMg alloy slurry, prepared by weak electromagnetic stirring, could also be obtained. In this experiment,when the stirring power was 0.36 kW, the optimized pouring temperature parameter was 630°C. When the AISiTMg alloy slurry was prepared by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring, the pouring temperature was 630°C. Increasing the stirring power appropriately could gain better spherical primary α-Al grains, but if the stirring power was increased to a certain value, the shape of the primary α-Al grains did not improve further. In this experiment, the optimized stirring power parameter was 0.36 kW.

  8. Formation and Evolution of Non-dendritic Microstructures of Semisolid Alloys Prepared by Shearing/Cooling Roll Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The shearing/cooling roll (SCR) process was adopted to prepare semi-solid A2017 alloy. The formation and evolution of non-dendritic microstructures in semi-solid A2017 alloy were studied. It is shown that the microstructures of semi-solid billets transform from coarse dendrites into fine equiaxed grains as the pouring temperature of molten alloy decreases or roll-shoe cavity height is reduced. From the inlet to the exit of roll-shoe cavity, microstructure of semi-solid slurry near the shoe surface is in the order of coarse dendrites,degenerated dendrites or equiaxed grains, but fine equiaxed grains are near the roll surface. Microstructural evolution of semi-solid slurry prepared by SCR process is that the molten alloy nucleates and grows into dendrite firstly on the roll and shoe's surface. Under the shearing and stirring given by the rotating roll, the dendrites crush off and disperse into the melt. Under the shearing and stirring on semi-solid slurry with high volume fraction of solid, the dendrite arms fracture and form equiaxed grain microstructures.

  9. Preparation of coal slurry with organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2007-06-01

    In this study, various organic solvents were used to prepare coal slurries and the rheological and thermal properties of coal-organic solvent slurries were examined. Solvents with molecules containing unpaired electrons (high basicity) show high extraction power and cause swelling of coal. Therefore, coal-organic solvent slurries usually showed higher viscosities compared to coal-water slurry. In addition, coal slurries prepared by alcohols and cyclohexanone demonstrated lower settling rates but a high specific sedimentation volume presumably because these solvents swelled coal particles well and led to the formation of weak gel structures in the bulk. In addition, ethanol and cyclohexanone are capable of breaking a considerable amount of hydrogen bonds in coal and subsequently opening up the structures. Thus, more surface area is available for combustion and the combustion rate of coal slurries was increased.

  10. Blended coals for improved coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Tian-ye; WU Guo-guang; LI Qi-hui; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZENG Fang; WANG Guang-you; MENG Xian-liang

    2008-01-01

    Three coal samples of different ranks were used to study the effect of coal blending on the preparation of Coal Water Slurry (CWS). The results show that by taking advantage of two kinds of coal, the coal concentration in slurry made from hard-to-pulp coal can be effectively improved and increased by 3%-5% generally. DLT coal (DaLiuTa coal mine) is very poor in slurryability and the stability and rheology of the resulting slurry are not very good. When the amount of easily slurried coal is more than 30%, all properties of the CWS improve and the CWS meets the requirements for use as fuel. Coalification, porosity, surface oxygenic functional groups, zeta potential and grindability have a great effect on the performance of blended coal CWS. This leads to some differences in performance between the slurry made from a single coal and slurry made from blended coal.

  11. Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment - PVA Dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. IDGE used transparent organic liquids that form dendrites (treelike structures) similar to those inside metal alloys. Comparing Earth-based and space-based dendrite growth velocity, tip size and shape provides a better understanding of the fundamentals of dentritic growth, including gravity's effects. Shalowgraphic images of pivalic acid (PVA) dendrites forming from the melt show the subtle but distinct effects of gravity-driven heat convection on dentritic growth. In orbit, the dendrite grows as its latent heat is liberated by heat conduction. This yields a blunt dendrite tip. On Earth, heat is carried away by both conduction and gravity-driven convection. This yields a sharper dendrite tip. In addition, under terrestrial conditions, the sidebranches growing in the direction of gravity are augmented as gravity helps carry heat out of the way of the growing sidebranches as opposed to microgravity conditions where no augmentation takes place. IDGE was developed by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and NASA/Glenn Research Center. Advanced follow-on experiments are being developed for flight on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...

  13. BOILING SLURRY REACTOR AND METHOD FO CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, M.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1963-05-01

    The control of a boiling slurry nuclear reactor is described. The reactor consists of a vertical tube having an enlarged portion, a steam drum at the top of the vertical tube, and at least one downcomer connecting the steam drum and the bottom of the vertical tube, the reactor being filled with a slurry of fissionabie material in water of such concentration that the enlarged portion of the vertical tube contains a critical mass. The slurry boils in the vertical tube and circulates upwardly therein and downwardly in the downcomer. To control the reactor by controlling the circulation of the slurry, a gas is introduced into the downcomer. (AEC)

  14. Free dendritic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Free dendritic growth refers to the unconstrained development of crystals within a supercooled melt, which is the classical 'dendrite problem'. Great strides have been taken in recent years in both the theoretical understanding of dendritic growth and its experimental status. The development of this field will be sketched, showing that transport theory and interfacial thermodynamics (capillarity theory) were sufficient ingredients to develop a truly predictive model of dendrite formation. The convenient, but incorrect, notion of 'maximum velocity' was used for many years to estimate the behavior of dendritic transformations until supplanted by modern dynamic stability theory. The proper combinations of transport theory and morphological stability seem to able to predict the salient aspects of dendritic growth, especially in the neighborhood of the tip. The overall development of cast microstructures, such as equiaxed zone formation, rapidly solidified microstructures, etc., also seems to contain additional non-deterministic features which lie outside the current theories discussed here.

  15. Dendritic polyurea polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuerp, David; Bruchmann, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic polymers, subsuming dendrimers as well as hyperbranched or highly branched polymers are well established in the field of polymer chemistry. This review article focuses on urea based dendritic polymers and summarizes their synthetic routes through both isocyanate and isocyanate-free processes. Furthermore, this article highlights applications where dendritic polyureas show their specific chemical and physical potential. For these purposes scientific publications as well as patent literature are investigated to generate a comprehensive overview on this topic.

  16. Retreatment of silicon slurry by membrane processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, F. [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France); KEMESYS, 125 ZA Verdalai, 13790 Peynier (France); Coetsier, C.; Carretier, E. [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France); Ennahali, M.; Laborie, B. [KEMESYS, 125 ZA Verdalai, 13790 Peynier (France); Serafino, C.; Bulgarelli, F. [Rockwood Wafer reclaim France, ZI des Pradeaux, 13850 Greasque (France); Moulin, P., E-mail: philippe.moulin@univ-cezanne.fr [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Membrane processes were used to regenerate Silicon CMP slurry effluent {yields} A two-step ultrafiltration process was performed at laboratory and industrial scales {yields} A new hybrid process (membrane ultrafiltration and chemical addition) is developed {yields} A ratio of 0.65 of dissolved chemicals allows RR and TTV to be within specifications {yields} At industrial scale, the hybrid process enables the reuse of electronic effluents. - Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to develop a process to regenerate the polish liquid used in Chemical and Mechanical Polishing (CMP), called 'slurry', and more specifically Silicon CMP slurry. Physico-chemical analyses show a considerable dilution of slurry through washing waters used in polishing. Thus, this effluent has been characterised for a better identification of the deviations from the slurry of reference (Point Of Use). Hence, the principle is to regenerate this effluent by membrane processes. The ultrafiltration results obtained at laboratory scale have led to the development of an industrial prototype. An optimal utilisation of this treatment allows completing a two-step process: the reconcentration by ultrafiltration and a chemical adjustment by addition of concentrated slurry. A stable behaviour of the slurry at the different steps of the process has been observed. Polishing results are similar with retreated and POU slurries. Furthermore, the functioning at industrial scale permits to maintain the performances obtained on the laboratory pilot.

  17. Preparation of semi-solid slurry containing fine and globular particles for wrought aluminum alloy 2024

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The semi-solid slurry of wrought aluminum alloy 2024 was prepared by a well developed rheocasting process, low superheat pouring with shearing field(LSPSF). The appreciate combination of pouring temperature and rotation speed of barrel, can give rise to a transition of the growth morphology of primary α(Al) from coarse-dendritic to coarse-particle-like and further to fine-globular. The combined effects of both localized rapid cooling and vigorous mixing during the initial stage of solidification can enhance wall nucleation and nuclei survival, which leads to the formation of fine-globular primary α(Al). By using semi-solid slurry prepared by LSPSF, direct squeeze cast cup-shaped component with improved mechanical properties such as yield strength of 198MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 306 MPa and elongation of 10.4%, can be obtained.

  18. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. by pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. Compared to control, D2 increased NO3--N by 11.4X to 109 mg kg-1, Olsen-P by 6.9X to 423 mg kg-1, exchange K (2.5X to 1.6 cmol+ kg-1, Mg (1.7X to 1.8 cmol+ kg-1, diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-Zn (94X to 18.2 mg kg-1, and Fe (2X to 11.3 mg kg-1. Available NO3--N, Olsen-P, and DTPA-Zn have the best correlations with crop yield and nutrient uptake. These results indicate that the assessment of soil fertility status at 1-mo after pig slurry addition provides a good indicator for potential yield and uptake of barley. However, it is suggested that leachates should be monitored to effectively manage potential releases of nitrate and phosphate into the environment.

  19. Performance of a Centrifugal Slurry Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawas Yahya Bajawi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of speed, concentration and size of slurry on the performance of a centrifugal pump. For this purpose a facility was built where the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump was examined using aggregate slurry. Three sizes of slurry with three concentrations and at three impeller speeds were used for the performance investigations of a centrifugal slurry pump. As a reference performance the performance of centrifugal slurry pump was also tested with clean water. The performance of pump has been reported as variations of head, power and efficiency at various flow rates along with the system characteristics of the pump. The results reveal that the pump performance is grossly affected by the type of slurry, its concentration and size. Besides this the variation in speed also affects the performance as is observed in pumps with water. The maximum decrease in the head, with respect to clear water, at the operating point was found to be 47% for aggregate for size 20 mm, 15% concentration and 2600 rpm. The maximum decrement in efficiency at operating point for aggregate was found to be 47% for 4 mm size, 15% concentration and at 2200 rpm. The power increment requirement for aggregate was 9% for 4 mm size, 15% concentration and 2600 rpm.

  20. Detection of copper(II) and zinc(II) binding to humic acids from pig slurry and amended soils by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Diana; Plaza, César; Senesi, Nicola; Polo, Alfredo

    2006-09-01

    The effect of the consecutive annual additions of pig slurry at rates of 0 (control), 90 and 150 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1) after a 7-year period on the Cu(II) and Zn(II) binding behavior of soil HAs was investigated in a field experiment. A fluorescence titration method and a single site model were used for determining metal ion complexing capacities and stability constants of metal ion complexes of HAs isolated from pig slurry and unamended and amended soils. With respect to control soil HA, pig-slurry HA featured much smaller Cu(II) and Zn(II) binding capacities and stability constants. Pig-slurry application to soil decreased Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexing capacities and binding affinities of soil HA. These effects increased with increasing the rate per year of PS application to soil, and are expected to have a large impact on bioavailability, mobilization, and transport of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions in pig slurry-amended soils.

  1. Flow and segregation in sheared granular slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barentin, C.; Azanza, E.; Pouligny, B.

    2004-04-01

    We study the behaviour of a granular slurry, i.e., a very concentrated suspension of heavy (denser than the fluid) and polydisperse particles sheared between two parallel-plane circular disks. For small gaps, the slurry behaves as a 2d system with a characteristic radial size segregation of particles. For large gaps, the slurry responds as a 3d system, with considerable vertical segregation and a concomitant 2-phase (fluid, solid) flow structure. The thickness ζ of the fluid phase is the 2d-3d gap crossover. Surprisingly, ζ is found to be nearly unaffected by very large changes in the particle size distribution.

  2. Experimental measurements of turbulent slurry jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted in which a fibre optic probe system was used to measure turbulent slurry jets. This presentation outlined the experimental setup and included an illustration of a probe schematic and measurements as well as calibrations. The probe schematic had a large range, high sensitivity and minimal flow disturbance. Probe calibration had the advantage of even concentration distribution, but it had the disadvantage of having a different reflective index from water. Slurry jet results were discussed with particular reference to parameters; concentration profile; velocity profile; spreading; and momentum flux. It was concluded that the probe is effective for a wide range of measurements in high concentration slurry jets. Future studies will focus on slurry jets impinging onto a non-Newtonian fluid (laponite). tabs., figs.

  3. Combustion Behavior of Free Boron Slurry Droplets,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    weak disruptive behavior while pure JP-1t burn quiescently, except for a flash extinction which occurs at the termination of combustion. The...I AD-R158 628 COMBUSTION BEHAVIOR OF FREE BORON SLURRY DROPLETS(U) i/i I PRINCETON UNIV NJ DEPT OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENINEERIN., F TAKAHASHI...COMBUSTION BEHAVIOR OF FREE BORON SLURRY DROPLETS TAM by F. Takahashi, F.L. Dryer, and F.A. Williams Department of M~echanical and keyosase Engineering

  4. Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In

  5. Effect of Stirring Velocity in Micro Fused-Casting for Metal on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A356 Aluminum Alloy Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiaoqiang; LI Zhengyang; SHI Xiaojiao; YAN Qingzhi

    2016-01-01

    A novel micro fused-casting for metal (MFCM) process for producing A356 aluminum alloy slurry was proposed. MFCM means that the reifned metal slurry is pressed out from the outlet of bottom of crucible to the horizontal movable plate. With the aid of 3D manufacturing software, the melt is solidiifed and formed layer by layer. The stirring could keep the ingredients and the heat diffusion of metal slurry uniform in the crucible due to the shear force breaking down the dendrite arms. The solidus and liquidus temperatures of A356 alloy were 559.2 and 626.3℃, respectively, which were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Effect of different stirring velocities of MFCM on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 slurry was investigated with the pouring temperature controlled at 620℃. The microstructure and mechanical performance were the best when the stirring velocity was 1 200 r/min in MFCM. The microstructures of the A356 aluminum alloy slurry were mainly composed of ifne spherical or rose grains. The average roundness and average grain size reached 2.2 and 41 µm and the tensile strength of A356 alloy slurry reached 207.8 MPa, while the average vickers hardness was 81.1 HV.

  6. Fluidization mechanisms in slurry flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles S.

    1988-08-01

    A transducer is developed to measure particle pressures independently from fluid pressure. Initially it was thought that particle pressure was the only path by which the fluidization mechanism could be determined. The particle pressure transducer has been described in previous reports. A secondary project was developed to test these transducers and use them to measure the particle pressures generated against the side walls of gas-fluidized beds. This was a way to gain experience with the particle pressure transducer while awaiting the delivery of the pump and other components for the slurry pipe loop. Earlier this year, there was great difficulty in gaining repeatable results from the experiments. The culprit turned out to be static charge buildup in the granular mass. Hence, steam was injected into the air stream to help dissipate the charge buildup. This produced a further source of error that was eventually traced to the fiberoptic displacement transducer inside the probe. It developed that the transducer was sensitive to humidity. It has been suggested that this reaction might be a byproduct of the absorption of water onto the sensing surface changes its optical properties and hence its output signal.

  7. Studies of coal slurries property; Slurry no seijo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, M.; Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Hirosue, H. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously found that the increase of slurry temperature provides a significant effect of slurry viscosity reduction for the coal slurry with high concentration of 50 wt%. To investigate the detailed influence of slurry temperature for the coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt%, influence of temperature on the successive change of apparent viscosity was observed at the constant shear rate. When the concentration of coal was increased from 45 wt% to 50 wt%, viscosity of the slurry was rapidly increased. When heated above 70{degree}C, the apparent viscosity decreased during heating to the given temperature, but it increased successively after reaching to the given temperature. The apparent viscosity showed higher value than that of the initial viscosity. The coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt% showed the fluidity of Newtonian fluid at the lower shear rate region, but showed the fluidity of pseudo-plastic fluid at the higher shear rate region. The slurry having high apparent viscosity by the successive change showed higher apparent viscosity with increasing the higher even by changing the shear rate. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  8. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Seop [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  9. Optimization principles of dendritic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borst Alexander

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendrites are the most conspicuous feature of neurons. However, the principles determining their structure are poorly understood. By employing cable theory and, for the first time, graph theory, we describe dendritic anatomy solely on the basis of optimizing synaptic efficacy with minimal resources. Results We show that dendritic branching topology can be well described by minimizing the path length from the neuron's dendritic root to each of its synaptic inputs while constraining the total length of wiring. Tapering of diameter toward the dendrite tip – a feature of many neurons – optimizes charge transfer from all dendritic synapses to the dendritic root while housekeeping the amount of dendrite volume. As an example, we show how dendrites of fly neurons can be closely reconstructed based on these two principles alone.

  10. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  11. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil-plant system amended with biogas slurry in Taihu basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Lv, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Biogas slurry is a product of anaerobic digestion of manure that has been widely used as a soil fertilizer. Although the use for soil fertilizer is a cost-effective solution, it has been found that repeated use of biogas slurry that contains high heavy metal contents can cause pollution to the soil-plant system and risk to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of biogas slurry on the soil-plant system and the human health. We analyzed the heavy metal concentrations (including As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd) in 106 soil samples and 58 plant samples in a farmland amended with biogas slurry in Taihu basin, China. Based on the test results, we assessed the potential human health risk when biogas slurry containing heavy metals was used as a soil fertilizer. The test results indicated that the Cd and Pb concentrations in soils exceeded the contamination limits and Cd exhibited the highest soil-to-root migration potential. Among the 11 plants analyzed, Kalimeris indica had the highest heavy metal absorption capacity. The leafy vegetables showed higher uptake of heavy metals than non-leafy vegetables. The non-carcinogenic risks mainly resulted from As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn through plant ingestion exposure. The integrated carcinogenic risks were associated with Cr, As and Cd in which Cr showed the highest risk while Cd showed the lowest risk. Among all the heavy metals analyzed, As and Cd appeared to have a lifetime health threat, which thus should be attenuated during production of biogas slurry to mitigate the heavy metal contamination.

  12. RAB-10 Regulates Dendritic Branching by Balancing Dendritic Transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A Taylor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a large dendritic arbor requires robust growth and the precise delivery of membrane and protein cargoes to specific subcellular regions of the developing dendrite. How the microtubule-based vesicular trafficking and sorting systems are regulated to distribute these dendritic development factors throughout the dendrite is not well understood. Here we identify the small GTPase RAB-10 and the exocyst complex as critical regulators of dendrite morphogenesis and patterning in the C. elegans sensory neuron PVD. In rab-10 mutants, PVD dendritic branches are reduced in the posterior region of the cell but are excessive in the distal anterior region of the cell. We also demonstrate that the dendritic branch distribution within PVD depends on the balance between the molecular motors kinesin-1/UNC-116 and dynein, and we propose that RAB-10 regulates dendrite morphology by balancing the activity of these motors to appropriately distribute branching factors, including the transmembrane receptor DMA-1.

  13. In-situ reduction of a methanol synthesis catalyst in a three-phase slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, A.; Ko, M.K.; Parameswaran, V.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    A new method for the reduction of metal oxide catalysts (CuO, ZnO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) has been developed for liquid phase methanol synthesis. The reducing agent is a 5% hydrogen in nitrogen mixture and the operation is carried out at 446.09 KPa. This method makes it possible to reduce finely crushed catalyst (-100 + 120 mesh) in a three phase slurry reactor. This method offers several advantages over methods in which the catalyst is reduced in a gas-solid contact mode and then slurried for use. The catalyst has been shown to be very effectively reduced and reaches its full production capacity after reduction.

  14. Performance of Semi-solid Slurry Produced by Twin-screw Stirring Mixer and Rheo-diecasting Process of AZ91D Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ze-hui; LUO Ji-rong; WU Shu-sen; LI Dong-nan

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure of semi-solid slurry of AZ91D alloy, which was produced by twin-screw stirring mixer under the different parameters, was investigated.Rheoforming by cold chamber die casting process was performed thereafter. The results indicate that with decreasing of the barrel temperature of the mixer and the pouring temperature of molten Mg alloy, the solid fraction of semi-solid slurry increases and the size of non-dendritic grains becomes smaller. While the shear rate increases, the solid fraction of semi-solid slurry decreases. The tensile strength and elongation of metal rheoformed by die casting are higher by about 37% and 44% respectively than those produced by conventional liquid die casting.

  15. Influence of Zn (II) ion on abrasive-free polishing of hard disk substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Hong, E-mail: hong_lei2005@163.com; Zhao, Rong, E-mail: zr890804@163.com; Chen, Ruling, E-mail: chen_ruling@163.com

    2014-07-01

    With higher requirement setting for hard disk substrate to minimize roughness and defects of the polished surface, abrasive-free polishing (AFP) of hard disk substrate has been put forward in this paper. The effect of Zn (II) ion on the AFP of hard disk substrate in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} based slurry was investigated by AFP tests. The results indicate that the material removal rate of hard disk substrate polished in slurry with Zn (II) ion is obviously higher than that without Zn (II) ion. And surface polished by slurry containing Zn (II) ion exhibits lower surface roughness and fewer nano-asperity peaks than that without Zn (II) ion. Furthermore, the acting mechanism of Zn (II) ion in AFP of hard disk substrate was analyzed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that metal Zn appears on the polished surface, implying the tribochemistry reaction occurs during AFP. The electrochemical reaction between metal Zn and oxide film Ni{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the surface of hard disk substrate during AFP can promote the chemical effect in AFP and lead to the increasing of material removal rate. - Highlights: • Zn (II) ion improves surface quality in abrasive-free polishing (AFP). • The removal rate increases with the increasing of Zn (II) ion content. • Tribo-chemistry reaction exists during AFP. • Zn (II) ion accelerates the electrochemistry reaction during AFP.

  16. Heavy cement slurries; Pastas pesadas de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Avelar da; Conceicao, Antonio C. Farias [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao; Marins, Carlos Cesar Silva [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Revestimento e Cimentacao

    1989-12-31

    When going deeper in a high pressure well, the only way to successfully cement your casing or linear is through the use of heavy cement slurry. In 1987 PETROBRAS geologists presented to the Drilling Department a series of deep, hot and high pressure wells to be drilled. The Casing and Cement Division of this department then started a program to face this new challenge. This paper introduces the first part of this program and shows how PETROBRAS is dealing with heavy weight slurries. We present the slurry formulations tested in laboratory, the difficulties found in mixing them in the field, rheology measurements, API free water and API fluid loss from both laboratory and field samples. (author) 3 tabs.

  17. Rheologicai properties of tailing paste slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新民; 李建雄; 肖智政; 肖卫国

    2004-01-01

    The initial shear stress (τ) and plastic cohesion (η) are the most important parameters reflecting the rheological properties of the paste slurry. The rheological parameters as well as the quantitative relationship among the consumption of different fill materials were obtained through the experiment and research on these parameters.They can be used to predict the scope of the values of τ and η in production for a given ratio, which can reduce the conveying resistance of fill slurry along the pipelines and avoid the blockage of the pipelines. It is found that the rheological model of the total tailing slurry belongs to the Bingham type, which has a feature of strong internal structure and large initial shear stress. The calculation formula for the resistance loss of pipelines conforms nicely to the field test and the actual production in Jinchuan Nickel Mine.

  18. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...... texture as an important factor influencing leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components in soils amended with manure slurry.......Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...... soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...

  19. Active properties of neuronal dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D; Magee, J C; Colbert, C M; Cristie, B R

    1996-01-01

    Dendrites of neurons in the central nervous system are the principal sites for excitatory synaptic input. Although little is known about their function, two disparate perspectives have arisen to describe the activity patterns inherent to these diverse tree-like structures. Dendrites are thus considered either passive or active in their role in integrating synaptic inputs. This review follows the history of dendritic research from before the turn of the century to the present, with a primary focus on the hippocampus. A number of recent techniques, including high-speed fluorescence imaging and dendritic patch clamping, have provided new information and perspectives about the active properties of dendrites. The results support previous notions about the dendritic propagation of action potentials and also indicate which types of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels are expressed and functionally active in dendrites. Possible roles for the active properties of dendrites in synaptic plasticity and integration are also discussed.

  20. KINETICS OF THE GAS-SLURRY METHANOL-HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS FROM CO/CO2/H-2 OVER A CS-CU/ZNO/AL2O3 CATALYST, INCLUDING SIMULTANEOUS FORMATION OF METHYL-ESTERS AND HYDROCARBONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BREMAN, BB; BEENACKERS, AACM; SCHUURMAN, HA; OESTERHOLT, E

    1995-01-01

    First kinetic results are presented for the gas-slurry methanol-higher alcohol synthesis from CO/CO2/H-2 (syngas) over a CU0.44Zn0.43Al0.12Cs0.031 catalyst (particle size: 50-75 mu m), slurried in n-octacosane. Experimental conditions varied as follows: pressure = 20-80 bar, temperature = 473-573 K,

  1. Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This video, captured during the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) flown on STS-87 as a part of the fourth United States Microgravity payload, shows the growth of a dendrite, and the surface solidification that occurred on the front and back windows of the growth chamber. Dendrites are tiny, tree like structures that form as metals solidify.

  2. Observations on microbial activity in acidified pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nielsen, Daniel Aagren;

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of pig slurry to pH 5.5 is used as a measure to reduce ammonia emission from pits and storages. The slurry is acidified with sulphuric acid in a process tank and pumped back to the slurry pits or to a storage tank. We investigated the effect of acidification on microbial activity...

  3. Denitrification in nitric-acid-treated cattle slurry during storage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Velthof, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Lowering the pH of cattle slurry with HNO3 was used to reduce NH3 volatilization during storage and after application. Incubation studies were carried out to examine possible NO3 losses and N2O emission from HNO3 treated slurry during storage. Batches of cattle slurry were treated with various

  4. SEPARATING LIQUID MODERATOR FROM A SLURRY TYPE REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, H.C.

    1961-07-01

    A system for evaporating moderator such as D/sub 2/O from an irradiated slurry or sloution characterized by two successive evaproators is described. In the first of these the most troublesome radioactivity dissipates before the slurry becomes too thick to be pumped out; in the second the slurry, now easier to handle, can be safely reduced to a sludge.

  5. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  6. Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubus, M.; Dach, J.; Starmans, D.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig

  7. Potassium sorbate as an inhibitor in copper chemical mechanical planarization slurry. Part I. Elucidating slurry chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Magi; Starosvetsky, David [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Vaes, Jan [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Ein-Eli, Yair, E-mail: eineli@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-04-01

    The integration of an advanced inhibitor, potassium sorbate (K[CH{sub 3}(CH){sub 4}CO{sub 2}]), in a copper CMP slurry based on hydrogen peroxide and glycine is reported. The first part of the study discusses the slurry chemistry by qualitatively describing the processes involved and proposes a mechanism for a hydrogen peroxide-glycine based slurry having sorbate anion as an inhibitor. For this purpose, the specific role of each chemical constituent in the slurry was elucidated at a fundamental level by electrochemical studies, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements, all linked to the CMP performance on blanket wafers. Once the polishing mechanism was resolved the influence of the inhibitor was evaluated by CMP processing of patterned wafers.

  8. Transport Processes in Dendritic Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Free dentritic growth refers to the unconstrained development of crystals within a supercooled melt, which is the classical dendrite problem. The development of theoretical understanding of dendritic growth and its experimental status is sketched showing that transport theory and interfacial thermodynamics (capillarity theory) are insufficient ingredients to develop a truly predictive model of dendrite formation. The convenient, but incorrect, notion of maximum velocity was used for many years to estimate the behavior of dendritic transformations until supplanted by modern dynamic stability theory. The proper combinations of transport theory and morphological stability seem to be able to predict the salient aspects of dendritic growth, especially in the neighborhood of the tip.

  9. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  10. Modification of dendritic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; del Angel, Alma Rosa; Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    Since 1890 Ramón y Cajal strongly defended the theory that dendrites and their processes and spines had a function of not just nutrient transport to the cell body, but they had an important conductive role in neural impulse transmission. He extensively discussed and supported this theory in the Volume 1 of his extraordinary book Textura del Sistema Nervioso del Hombre y de los Vertebrados. Also, Don Santiago significantly contributed to a detailed description of the various neural components of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex during development. Extensive investigation has been done in the last Century related to the functional role of these complex brain regions, and their association with learning, memory and some limbic functions. Likewise, the organization and expression of neuropsychological qualities such as memory, exploratory behavior and spatial orientation, among others, depend on the integrity and adequate functional activity of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. It is known that brain serotonin synthesis and release depend directly and proportionally on the availability of its precursor, tryptophan (TRY). By using a chronic TRY restriction model in rats, we studied their place learning ability in correlation with the dendritic spine density of pyramidal neurons in field CA1 of the hippocampus during postnatal development. We have also reported alterations in the maturation pattern of the ability for spontaneous alternation and task performance evaluating short-term memory, as well as adverse effects on the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal CA1 field pyramidal neurons and on the dendritic arborization and the number of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons from the third layer of the prefrontal cortex using the same model of TRY restriction. The findings obtained in these studies employing a modified Golgi method, can be interpreted as a trans-synaptic plastic response due to understimulation of serotoninergic receptors located in the

  11. Study of the twinned dendrite tip shape II: Experimental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado-Ordorica, M.A., E-mail: mario.salgado@novelis.com [Laboratoire de Simulation des Materiaux LSMX, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Burdet, P.; Cantoni, M. [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Microscopie Electronique CIME, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rappaz, M. [Laboratoire de Simulation des Materiaux LSMX, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    The favorable growth kinetics of twinned dendrites can be explained by their complex morphology, multiple side branching mechanisms, growth undercooling and tip morphology. Three models were proposed for the twinned dendrite tip shape: (i) a grooved tip satisfying the Smith condition at the triple line; (ii) a doublon , i.e. a double-tip dendrite that grows with a narrow and deep liquid channel in its center; and (iii) a pointed (or edgy) tip, with consideration of the solid-liquid interfacial energy anisotropy. In the first part of this work, phase field simulations of half a twinned dendrite with an appropriate boundary condition to reproduce the Smith condition supported the doublon conjecture, with a narrow liquid channel ending its solidification with the formation of small liquid droplets. In this part, experimental observations of twinned dendrite tips reveal the presence of a small, but well-defined, groove, thus definitely eliminating the edged tip hypothesis. Focused ion beam nanotomography and energy-dispersive spectroscopy chemical analysis in a transmission electron microscope reveal the existence of a positive solute gradient in a region localized within 2 {mu}m around the twin plane. In Al-Zn specimens, small particles aligned within the twin plane further support the doublon conjecture and the predicted formation of small liquid droplets below the doublon root.

  12. Chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil after nine years of pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton da Veiga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the pig slurry application effects on chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil managed under no-tillage system. Treatments consisted of 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 per year of pig slurry application, and a control with replacement of P and K exported through harvested grains. Attributes related to soil chemical reaction, exchange complex, and nutrient contents were determined in soil samples collected in the ninth year of experimentation from 0 - 0.025, 0.025 - 0.05, 0.05 - 0.10, 0.10 - 0.20, 0.20 - 0.40 and 0.40 - 0.60 m soil depths. The continuous application of high doses of pig slurry on the Oxisol surface under no-tillage acidifies the soil and increases Al, P, Cu, and Zn contents down to 0.2-m depth, and K levels down to 0.6-m depth.

  13. Low frequency aeration of pig slurry affects slurry characteristics and emissions of greenhouse gases and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Salvador; Hunt, John; Misselbrook, Tom H

    2017-07-01

    Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m(3) of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m(3) h(-1)), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control. A final phase of 9 days was established with no aeration in any tank. Emissions of NH3, CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O were measured. In the initial phase no differences in emissions were detected, but during the second phase aeration increased NH3 emissions by 20% with respect to the controls (8.48 vs. 7.07 g m(-3) [slurry] d(-1), P effect was detected for CO2, and no relevant N2O emissions were detected during the experiment. Our results demonstrate that low frequency aeration of stored pig slurry increases slurry pH and increases NH3 emissions.

  14. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  15. Microencapsulated paraffin in phase-change-slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwander, S.; Schossig, P.; Henning, H.M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Phase-Change-Slurries (PCS) are mixtures of a Phase-Change-Material (PCM) and a carrier-.uid. Such PCS of microencapsulated paraf.n as PCM and water as carrier-.uid are investigated at Fraunhofer ISE. The shell of the microcapsule prevents an interaction between the paraf.n and the water. At ISE a test-facility was built to study the stability of the capsules while pumped with conventional pumps through common used heating components like pipes, heat exchangers, volume-.ow measurement instruments, pressure relief valves etc. To analyze the stability of the capsules SEM-pictures are taken after pumping them several weeks to control the optical state of the capsules. The speci.c heat of fusion is checked by DSC-Measurements. Thermal measurements are carried out to investigate the thermal behavior of the Slurry while pumped through heat exchangers. The results show that the PC-Material can be melted and frozen while.owing through the heat exchangers. The presented results illustrate that microencapsulated PC-Slurries can enhance the heatcapacity of a heat-carrier-.uid and they are also stable enough to be used with common heating or cooling devices. (orig.)

  16. Multivalent dendritic molecules as broad spectrum bacteria agglutination agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuzhang; Abu-Esba, Lica; Turkyilmaz, Serhan; White, Alexander G; Smith, Bradley D

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the first set of synthetic molecules that act as broad spectrum agglutination agents and thus are complementary to the specific targeting of antibodies. The molecules have dendritic architecture and contain multiple copies of zinc(II)-dipicolylamine (ZnDPA) units that have selective affinity for the bacterial cell envelope. A series of molecular structures were evaluated, with the number of appended ZnDPA units ranging from four to thirty-two. Agglutination assays showed that the multivalent probes rapidly cross-linked ten different strains of bacteria, regardless of Gram-type and cell morphology. Fluorescence microscopy studies using probes with four ZnDPA units indicated a high selectivity for bacteria agglutination in the presence of mammalian cells and no measurable effect on the health of the cells. The high bacterial selectivity was confirmed by conducting in vivo optical imaging studies of a mouse leg infection model. The results suggest that multivalent ZnDPA molecular probes with dendritic structures have great promise as selective, broad spectrum bacterial agglutination agents for infection imaging and theranostic applications.

  17. Hydrodynamic Characteristics in an External Loop Airlift Slurry Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Qing; Tang Xiaojin; Hu Lifeng; Wang Shaobing; Zhang Zhanzhu

    2016-01-01

    Three different types of gas distributors were used in an external loop airlift slurry reactor to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics. To predict the important hydrodynamic parameters, such as the total gas holdup, the slurry circulating velocity, the bubble size distribution, and the slip velocity between the gas phase and the slurry phase, the cor-relations are developed. The calculated results fit the experimental data very well. According to the influence of the solid holdup on the bubble size, the fluid flow in the reactor can be divided into two regimes, while a 10% value is regarded as the critical solid holdup value. Whenεs is≤10%, the bubble size is determined by both the gas phase and the slurry phase. Whenεs is ≥10%, the bubble size is determined mainly by the slurry phase. By analyzing the relationship between the slip velocity and the gas holdup, the bubble coalescence plays a key role in the slurry reactor.

  18. Microstructure Formation and Degradation Mechanism of Cementitious Plugging Agent Slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Peiyu; ZHOU Yongxiang; YANG Zhenjie; QIN Jian

    2007-01-01

    The hydration products and microstructure of class G oil well cement and a newly developed plugging agent (YLD) slurries cured in the simulated temperature and pressure environment, which was of similar temperature and pressure with those at the bottom of oil well in a normal depth, were investigated using XRD, TG and SEM. Severe leakage is confirmed at the interface between hardened slurries and steel tube during the dynamically curing process, which induces the quick loss of cementing property of slurries. This should be the dominating cause of degradation of class G oil well cement slurry. A secondary hydration process can take place at the eroded interface of hardened YLD plugging agent slurry. Newly formed C-S-H gel has a self-healing effect to repair the damaged interface, which unceasingly maintains the cementing property of the YLD plugging agent slurry. Therefore, the effective using period of YLD plugging agent can be prolonged.

  19. Injection of Aqueous Slurry for Making Zirconia Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shun'ai; LI Maoqiang

    2009-01-01

    Zirconia aqueous slurry was prepared with fine zirconia powder.Injection process for making zirconia fiber was demonstrated,including preparation of aqueous slurry,injection of slurry,fiber setting in acetone,and fiber firing.The principle of the process was discussed.The effects of solid loading in the zirconia slurry,addition of dispersant in the slurry,and ball milling time on the rheological properties of the slurry,especially yield stress,were illustrated.The role of acetone as curing agent was discussed.Zirconia poly-crystalline fber with at 1 530 ℃ for 5 h.Microstructure of the sintered zirconia fiber was investigated.

  20. Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    ER D C TR -0 8 -4 Basic Research/Military Construction Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry Jorge L...distribution is unlimited. Basic Research/Military Construction ERDC TR-08-4 March 2008 Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change... microencapsulated PCM (MPCM) slurries is enhanced significantly, even when using low volume fractions. MPCM slurries have potential to decrease costs and improve

  1. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with addition...... of sulfate and methionine (P production in the sulfate-amended slurries resulted in little accumulation of MT and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under neutral...

  2. Continuous concentration and constant volume washing of tetraphenylborate slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, J.L.

    1999-12-08

    SRTC has completed filtration testing of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurries with and without sludge. These tests were slightly different from previous SRS tests in that they used continuous mode concentration and constant volume washing evolutions. The extent of TPB recovery during washing was measured. The resulting washed precipitate slurry, with sludge, was stored at ambient temperature and under a nitrogen-inerted atmosphere to study TPB stability. Samples of both unwashed and washed slurries were submitted for rheology measurements.

  3. Combustion and economics of coal slurry fuels: a look at coal-fuel oil slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, T.; Matsuoka, H.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of reducing dependence on petroleum, research has been going ahead into the development of various alternative fuels. Of these, coal slurry fuels are regarded as being first in line for commercialization. The authors discuss the combustion of coal-oil fuels. The combustion of fuel oil, pulverized coal and coal-water slurry is also examined. In each case, combustion properties and associated problems are discussed. Finally, the economics of these fuels are examined and trends in research and development surveyed. 23 references.

  4. Phase field modeling of dendrite growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutuo ZHANG; Chengzhi WANG; Dianzhong LI; Yiyi LI

    2009-01-01

    Single dendrite and multi-dendrite growth for A1-2 mol pct Si alloy during isothermal solidification are simulated by phase field method. In the case of single equiaxed dendrite growth, the secondary and the necking phenomenon can be observed. For multi-dendrite growth, there exists the competitive growth among the dendrites dur-ing solidification. As solidification proceeds, growing and coarsening of the primary arms occurs, together with the branching and coarsening of the secondary arms.When the diffusion fields of dendrite tips come into contact with those of the branches growing from the neighboring dendrites, the dendrites stop growing and being to ripen and thicken.

  5. Continuous in-house acidification affecting animal slurry composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Cocolo, Giorgia; Jonassen, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    . A full-scale study was therefore performed, comparing pig slurry from normal in-house slurry management with pig slurry from housing with daily in-house acidification to pH 5.5. The effect on organic, inorganic and particles was evaluated. Increasing dissolved P, Mg and Ca contents indicated mineral...... dissolution in acidified slurry. Acceleration of carbohydrate hydrolysis was indicated, while deceleration of microbial acidogenesis, acetogenesis, methanogenesis and sulphate reduction was indicated. The particles were larger following acidification treatment causing a lower viscosity, likely due...

  6. A METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF GAS CONTENT IN SLURRY PIPELINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Most commercial slurries in hydrotransport pipelines usually contain some gas which can considerably degrade the pump performance, but this small amount of gas content can not be measured accurately online or continually using conventional methods. Based on analysis of effects of gas on pressure wave speed in slurries, an investigation was carried out to validate the feasibility of the method to determine gas content in slurries using sound speed. Moreover, its practical measuring methods were also discussed. It was found that the non-invasive measurement of the sound level noise spectrum across the pipeline should be a promising online measuring method of the slurry gas content.

  7. Combinatorial study of ceramic tape-casting slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifu; Wang, Yiling; Li, Yongxiang

    2012-03-12

    Ceramic tape-casting slurries are complex systems composed of ceramic powder, solvent, and a number of organic components. Conventionally, the development of ceramic tape-casting slurries is time-consuming and of low efficiency. In this work, combinatorial approaches were applied to screen the ethanol and ethyl-acetate binary solvent based slurry for ceramic green tape-casting. The combinatorial libraries were designed considering the variation of the amount of PVB (Poly vinyl-butyral) binder, polyethylene-400, and butyl-benzyl-phthalate plasticizers, and glyceryl triacetate dispersant. A parallel magnetic stirring process was used to make the combinatorial slurry library. The properties mapping of the slurry library was obtained by investigating the sedimentation and rheological characteristics of the slurries. The slurry composition was refined by scaling up the experiments and comparing the microstructure, mechanical property, and sintering behavior of green tapes made from the selected slurries. Finally, a kind of ethanol-ethyl acetate binary solvent based slurry system suitable for making X7R dielectric ceramic green tapes was achieved.

  8. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  9. System and method for continuous solids slurry depressurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Thomas Frederick; Steele, Raymond Douglas; Cordes, Stephen Michael

    2017-07-11

    A system includes a first pump having a first outlet and a first inlet, and a controller. The first pump is configured to continuously receive a flow of a slurry into the first outlet at a first pressure and to continuously discharge the flow of the slurry from the first inlet at a second pressure less than the first pressure. The controller is configured to control a first speed of the first pump against the flow of the slurry based at least in part on the first pressure, wherein the first speed of the first pump is configured to resist a backflow of the slurry from the first outlet to the first inlet.

  10. Nitrogen fertiliser value of digested dairy cow slurry, its liquid and solid fractions, and of dairy cow slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of crop availability of livestock slurry nitrogen (N is necessary to maximise crop N use efficiency and to minimise environmental losses. Results from field and laboratory incubation experiments suggest that first-year crop availability of slurry N comes mainly from its ammonium fraction because net mineralisation of organic N is often negligible in the short term. A two-year field experiment during 2011 and 2012 in northern Italy was undertaken with several aims: to estimate the N fertiliser value of raw dairy cow slurry, digested dairy cow slurry, and the liquid and solid fractions of the digested slurry, and to verify if applied ammonium recovery was similar both among slurries and between slurries and inorganic N fertiliser (ammonium sulphate. Different fertilisers were applied before silage maize cultivation followed by an unfertilised Italian ryegrass crop. The results showed that ammonium recovery was significantly higher in mineral-fertilised (75% versus slurry-fertilised (30% treatments, except in digested slurry (65%. This indicates that ammonium applied with organic materials is less efficient than when applied with mineral fertiliser. For the digested slurry and its liquid fraction, most of the applied ammonium was available to the maize during its application year (55% due to a low carbon (C/organic N ratio. The apparent N recovery of the raw slurry and digested slurry solid fraction increased substantially between the first (-1.4% and second (20% years, as these materials had high C/organic N ratios; they likely immobilised N for several months post application, producing residual effects during the Italian ryegrass and next maize crops.

  11. 6.0mol·L-1KOH溶液中锌单晶(002)和(100)晶面的电化学行为%Electrochemical Performance of Zn(002) and Zn(100) Single Crystals in 6.0mol·L-1 KOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华清; 周上祺; 陈昌国; 王秋虹

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the electrochemical performance of the electrodes of zinc polycrystal, Zn(002) and Zn(100) single crystals were studied by the Tafel line extrapolation of the potentio-dynamic polarization curves, the cyclic voltammetry and the charge/discharge experiment. The results shows that in 6.0 mol·L-1 KOH solution the corrosion rate of Zn polycrystal, Zn(100) and Zn(002) single crystals decreases in turn; and the reversibility and the charge/discharge performance of Zn single crystal was superior to Zn polycrystal. The dendrite growth of the surface of Zn polycrystal was easier than Zn single crystal during the stages of charge/discharge.

  12. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, E. W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

  13. Rapid determination of zinc and iron in foods by flow-injection analysis with flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry and slurry nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, J C; Strong, F C; Martin, N J

    1990-07-01

    A rapid method of determining zinc and iron in food by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with slurry nebulization into an air-acetylene flame has been developed. A V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer, coupled to a single-line flow-injection analysis (FIA) system, was employed to introduce the slurry into the spray chamber. Under the FIA conditions described, an injection frequency of 120/hr is possible, with negligible carry-over and memory effects. The calibration graphs were obtained by using various concentrations (up to 0.1 g/ml) of white bean homogenate as standards, rather than solutions. The method has been applied to various kinds of foods, including grains, vegetables, fruits and sausage. Homogenization of semi-prepared samples to form slurries took only 4 min. Relative deviations between results by the slurry and solution methods for both elements averaged 2-3%. Detection limits by the slurry method were 0.3 mug/ml Zn and 0.6 mug/ml Fe.

  14. Solidification and Re-melting Phenomena During Slurry Preparation Using the RheoMetal™ Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandeh, M.; Sabzevar, Mohsen Haddad; Jarfors, A. E. W.; Wessén, M.

    2017-08-01

    The melting sequence of the enthalpy exchange material (EEM) and formation of a slurry in the RheoMetal™ process was investigated. The EEM was extracted and quenched, together with a portion of the slurry at different processing times before complete melting. The EEM initially increased in size/diameter due to melt freezing onto its surface, forming a freeze-on layer. The initial growth of this layer was followed by a period of a constant diameter of the EEM with subsequent melting and decrease of diameter. Microstructural characterization of the size and morphology of different phases in the EEM and in the freeze-on layer was made. Dendritic equiaxed grains and eutectic regions containing Si particles and Cu-bearing particles and Fe-rich particles were observed in the as-cast EEM. The freeze-on layer consisted of dendritic aluminum tilted by about 30 deg in the upstream direction, caused by the rotation of the EEM. Energy dispersion spectroscopy analysis showed that the freeze-on layer had a composition corresponding to an alloy with higher melting point than the EEM and thus shielding the EEM from the surrounding melt. Microstructural changes in the EEM showed that temperature rapidly increased to 768 K (495 °C), indicated by incipient melting of the lowest temperature melting eutectic in triple junction grain boundary regions with Al2Cu and Al5Mg8Si6Cu2 phases present. As the EEM temperature increased further the binary Al-Si eutectic started to melt to form a region of a fully developed coherent mushy state. Experimental results and a thermal model indicated that as the dendrites spheroidized near to the interface at the EEM/freeze-on layer reached a mushy state with 25 pct solid fraction, coherency was lost and disintegration of the freeze-on layer took place. Subsequently, in the absence of the shielding effect from the freeze-on Layer, the EEM continued to disintegrate with a coherency limit of a solid fraction estimated to be 50 pct.

  15. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (k(L

  16. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients

  17. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients

  18. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at relativel

  19. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa

  20. Why is acidification of slurry a success only in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    . Several technologies have been used in the buildings, in the storage and when applying manure. One technology now used widely in Denmark (20% of all slurry) is acidification of slurry where the application of sulphuric acid reduces the ammonia emission. However, the technology has hardly been used...

  1. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at

  2. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at relativel

  3. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-11-15

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes.

  4. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa

  5. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (k(L

  6. Numerical simulation of turbulent slurry flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Mohammad Reza; Spiteri, Reymond J.; Bergstrom, Donlad J.

    2016-11-01

    Slurry flows, i.e., the flow of an agglomeration of liquid and particles, are widely employed in many industrial applications, such as hydro-transport systems, pharmaceutical batch crystallizers, and wastewater disposal. Although there are numerous studies available in the literature on turbulent gas-particle flows, the hydrodynamics of turbulent liquid-particle flows has received much less attention. In particular, the fluid-phase turbulence modulation due to the particle fluctuating motion is not yet well understood and remains challenging to model. This study reports the results of a numerical simulation of a vertically oriented slurry pipe flow using a two-fluid model based on the kinetic theory of granular flows. The particle stress model also includes the effects of frictional contact. Different turbulence modulation models are considered, and their capability to capture the characteristic features of the turbulent flow is assessed. The model predictions are validated against published experimental data and demonstrate the significant effect of the particles on the fluid-phase turbulence.

  7. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  8. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  9. Dendrite Injury Triggers DLK-Independent Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axon injury triggers regeneration through activation of a conserved kinase cascade, which includes the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. Although dendrites are damaged during stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure, it is not known whether mature neurons monitor dendrite injury and initiate regeneration. We probed the response to dendrite damage using model Drosophila neurons. Two larval neuron types regrew dendrites in distinct ways after all dendrites were removed. Dendrite regeneration was also triggered by injury in adults. Next, we tested whether dendrite injury was initiated with the same machinery as axon injury. Surprisingly, DLK, JNK, and fos were dispensable for dendrite regeneration. Moreover, this MAP kinase pathway was not activated by injury to dendrites. Thus, neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved DLK cascade that triggers axon regeneration.

  10. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...

  11. Sorption of 17b-Estradiol to Pig Slurry Separates and Soil in the Soil-Slurry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of freshwater by estrogens from manure applied to agricultural land is of grave concern because of the potentially harmful effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent developments in liquid manure (slurry) management include partial removal of particulate slurry dry matter (PSDM...

  12. Effect of fermentation temperature on hydrogen production from cow waste slurry by using anaerobic microflora within the slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Moriya, Naoko; Yasuda, Tomoko; Tanaka, Yasuo; Haga, Kiyonori

    2007-02-01

    We examined hydrogen production from a dairy cow waste slurry (13.4 g of volatile solids per liter) by batch cultures in a temperature range from 37 to 85 degrees C, using microflora naturally present within the slurry. Without the addition of seed bacteria, hydrogen was produced by simply incubating the slurry, using the microflora within the slurry. Interestingly, two peaks of fermentation temperatures for hydrogen production from the slurry were observed at 60 and 75 degrees C (392 and 248 ml H2 per liter of slurry, respectively). After the termination of the hydrogen evolution, the microflora cultured at 60 degrees C displayed hydrogen-consuming activity, but hydrogen-consuming activity of the microflora cultured at 75 degrees C was not detected, at least for 24 days. At both 60 and 75 degrees C, the main by-product was acetate, and the optimum pH of the slurry for hydrogen production was around neutral. Bacteria related to hydrogen-producing moderate and extreme thermophiles, Clostridium thermocellum and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus, were detected in the slurries cultured at 60 and 75 degrees C, respectively, by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses, using the V3 region of 16S rDNA.

  13. Modeling field-scale vertical movement of zinc and copper in a pig slurry-amended soil in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Cella, Cesar; Simůnek, Jirka; van Oort, Folkert

    2012-12-01

    Organic amendments often represent a source of trace metals (TMs) in soils, which may partly leach into the groundwater. The objectives of this study were (1) to validate Hydrus-2D for modeling the transport of Zn and Cu in an Alfisol amended with pig slurry (PS) by comparing numerical simulations and experimental field data, and (2) to model the next 50 years of TM movements under scenarios of suspended or continued PS amendments. First, between 2000 and 2008, we collected detailed Zn and Cu data from a soil profile in Santa Maria, Brazil. Two hypotheses about Zn and Cu reactivity with the solid phase were tested, considering physical, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics of six soil layers. Using a two-site sorption model with a sorption kinetic rate adjusted based on laboratory EDTA extractions, Hydrus simulations of the vertical TM transport were found to satisfactorily describe the soil Zn and Cu concentration profiles. Second, the long-term fate of Zn and Cu in the soil was assessed using the validated parameterized model. Numerical simulations showed that Zn and Cu did not present risks for groundwater pollution. However, future Cu accumulation in the surface soil layer would exceed the Brazilian threshold for agricultural soils.

  14. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    of cattle slurry, contained too little P to be suitable for fertilizer production, as did pig slurry, to which sulphuric acid had been added prior to separation. Low solubility of P means the ashes should be treated before being used as a fertilizer. The acid consumption in a simple fertilizer production......The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...... from slurry separation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer production from recycling of the ash. Manure fibre has a positive calorific value and may be used as a CO2-neutral fuel for combustion. The ashes from combustion are rich in P, an essential fertilizer compound. The study is based on samples of animal...

  15. Photocatalytic decolorization of azo-dye with zinc oxide powder in an external UV light irradiation slurry photoreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Junpei [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Tokumura, Masahiro [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Znad, Hussein T. [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Kawase, Yoshinori [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)]. E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

    2006-11-02

    Photocatalytic decolorization of azo-dye Orange II in water has been examined in an external UV light irradiation slurry photoreactor using zinc oxide (ZnO) as a semiconductor photocatalyst. The effects of process parameters such as light intensity, initial dye concentration, photocatalyst loading and initial solution pH on the decolorization rate of Orange II have been systematically investigated. A two-stage photocatalytic decolorization of Orange II, the first stage of fast decolorization rate and the subsequent second stage of rather slow decolorization rate, was found. The efficiency of decolorization of Orange II increased as initial Orange II concentration decreased and UV light intensity increased. There was the optimal ZnO concentration being around 1000 mg L{sup -1}. The optimal pH was around 7.7, which was at the natural pH of the dye solution. The effect of aeration rate on the decolorization of Orange II has been also investigated and the enhancement of decolorization of Orange II with increasing aeration rate was found. By using a model for the light intensity profile in the external UV light irradiation slurry photoreactor, the simulation model for the decolorization of Orange II with ZnO photocatalyst has been developed. The proposed model in which the slow decolorization in the second stage as well as the initial fast decolorization is also taken into account could simulate the experimental results for UV light irradiation satisfactorily. The proposed simulation model in which the change of light intensity with time due to the decolorization of Orange II and the light scatter due to solid photocatalysts are considered will be very useful for practical engineering design of the slurry photoreactor of wastewater including textile dyes.

  16. Optimal Current Transfer in Dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Alex D.

    2016-01-01

    Integration of synaptic currents across an extensive dendritic tree is a prerequisite for computation in the brain. Dendritic tapering away from the soma has been suggested to both equalise contributions from synapses at different locations and maximise the current transfer to the soma. To find out how this is achieved precisely, an analytical solution for the current transfer in dendrites with arbitrary taper is required. We derive here an asymptotic approximation that accurately matches results from numerical simulations. From this we then determine the diameter profile that maximises the current transfer to the soma. We find a simple quadratic form that matches diameters obtained experimentally, indicating a fundamental architectural principle of the brain that links dendritic diameters to signal transmission. PMID:27145441

  17. Electrical advantages of dendritic spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T Gulledge

    Full Text Available Many neurons receive excitatory glutamatergic input almost exclusively onto dendritic spines. In the absence of spines, the amplitudes and kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs at the site of synaptic input are highly variable and depend on dendritic location. We hypothesized that dendritic spines standardize the local geometry at the site of synaptic input, thereby reducing location-dependent variability of local EPSP properties. We tested this hypothesis using computational models of simplified and morphologically realistic spiny neurons that allow direct comparison of EPSPs generated on spine heads with EPSPs generated on dendritic shafts at the same dendritic locations. In all morphologies tested, spines greatly reduced location-dependent variability of local EPSP amplitude and kinetics, while having minimal impact on EPSPs measured at the soma. Spine-dependent standardization of local EPSP properties persisted across a range of physiologically relevant spine neck resistances, and in models with variable neck resistances. By reducing the variability of local EPSPs, spines standardized synaptic activation of NMDA receptors and voltage-gated calcium channels. Furthermore, spines enhanced activation of NMDA receptors and facilitated the generation of NMDA spikes and axonal action potentials in response to synaptic input. Finally, we show that dynamic regulation of spine neck geometry can preserve local EPSP properties following plasticity-driven changes in synaptic strength, but is inefficient in modifying the amplitude of EPSPs in other cellular compartments. These observations suggest that one function of dendritic spines is to standardize local EPSP properties throughout the dendritic tree, thereby allowing neurons to use similar voltage-sensitive postsynaptic mechanisms at all dendritic locations.

  18. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-03-20

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  19. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, M. E.; Koss, M. B.; Malarik, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    The growth of dendrites is one of the commonly observed forms of solidification encountered when metals and alloys freeze under low thermal gradients, as occurs in most casting and welding processes. In engineering alloys, the details of the dendritic morphology directly relates to important material responses and properties. Of more generic interest, dendritic growth is also an archetypical problem in morphogenesis, where a complex pattern evolves from simple starting conditions. Thus, the physical understanding and mathematical description of how dendritic patterns emerge during the growth process are of interest to both scientists and engineers. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is a basic science experiment designed to measure, for a fundamental test of theory, the kinetics and morphology of dendritic growth without complications induced by gravity-driven convection. The IDGE, a collaboration between Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, in Troy NY, and NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) was developed over a ten year period from a ground-based research program into a space flight experiment. Important to the success of this flight experiment was provision of in situ near-real-time teleoperations during the spaceflight experiment.

  20. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  1. Microstructural evaluation of oil well cementing slurries using alternative materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Maria D.M.; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Martinelli, Antonio E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    n this work, cementing slurries were prepared with densities between 12.2 and 13.8 lb/gal with addition of clay materials (vermiculite and paligorskite) and pozzolans (metakaolin), comparing with neat reference slurries, from 15.6 to 15.8 lb/gal. The cements employed were the Portland G and ordinary Portland. These mixes were evaluated microstructurally through microhardness testing and acquisition of electronic images by ESEM and X-ray maps by EDS. A semi-quantitative analysis software was developed to identify phase distributions from the X-ray maps. It was found that the addition of metakaolin generated slurries with microhardness comparable to or superior to neat slurries, although a new phase was introduced in the hardened material. On the other hand, clay materials generated slurries with lower microhardness. It was observed in these cases a lower hydration degree, possibly due to water absorption by the clays' grains. One exception was the light slurry with paligorskite, which has an excess of water compared to the others. However, the higher water-cement ratio produced a lower microhardness due to the presence of voids, visible by ESEM. Clay inclusions also decreased the microhardness of the slurries. Based on these results, we can recommend metakaolin as the best performing addition to be further evaluated in the field. (author)

  2. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Grohskopf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fertilizer, organized in a randomized block design with four replications. The N contents were determined in the plant tissue and in the forms of total N and acid hydrolyzed fractions: ammonium-N, hexosamine-N, α-amino-N, amide-N, and unidentified-N. Annual application of pig slurry or mineral fertilizer increased the total-N content in the 0-10 cm depth layer. The main fractions of organic N in the soil were α-amino-N when pig slurry was applied and unidentified-N in the case of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry increased the N fractions considered as labile: α-amino-N, ammonium-N, and amide-N. The increase in these labile organic N fractions in the soil through pig slurry application allows greater N uptake by the maize and oat crops in a no-tillage system.

  3. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  4. Latex migration in battery slurries during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sanghyuk; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Yamamura, Masato

    2013-07-02

    We used real-time fluorescence microscopy to investigate the migration of latex particles in drying battery slurries. The time evolution of the fluorescence signals revealed that the migration of the latex particles was suppressed above the entanglement concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), while it was significantly enhanced when CMC fully covered the surfaces of the graphite particles. In particular, a two-step migration was observed when the graphite particles flocculated by depletion attraction at high CMC/graphite mass ratios. The transient states of the nonadsorbing CMC and graphite particles in a medium were discussed, and the uses of this novel measurement technique to monitor the complex drying processes of films were demonstrated.

  5. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hietala, J. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wendland, R.D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Collins, F. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  6. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hietala, J. (Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Wendland, R.D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Collins, F. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  7. Load directly from railcar to slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, J.M. [General Chemical Corp., Claymont, DE (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Many process plants must unload soluble, granular chemicals from railcars and trucks and then dissolve or slurry them before use. Material handling problems such as agglomeration, plugging, spillage, dusting and noise can make these efforts inefficient and drive up capital, maintenance and labor costs. Pneumatic and gravity flow technologies are beset with these problems. To solve them, General Chemical Corp. has developed a device called the GCH Hydrator that unloads directly into water. The apparatus and associated process is adaptable to many chemicals. The Hydrator has been successfully used in paper making, chemical processing, petroleum refining, metals recovery and water treatment. Specific sites include: white liquor makeup in paper making; sulfur dioxide scrubbing in chemical processing and refining; acid neutralization in metals recovery, paper making, and sulfuric acid manufacture; and pH and alkalinity control in water treatment facilities.

  8. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  9. Secondary breakup of coal water slurry drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng

    2011-11-01

    To investigate secondary atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), deformation and breakup of eight kinds of CWS drops are presented using high speed digital camera. Based on morphology, deformation and breakup regimes of CWS drops can be termed some different modes: deformation, multimode breakup (including two sub-modes: hole breakup and tensile breakup), and shear breakup. Correlations on the ranges of breakup modes are also obtained. The conventional Weber number and Ohnesorge number are found to be insufficient to classify all breakup modes of CWS drops, so two other non-dimensional numbers based on rheology of CWS are suggested to use in the deformation and breakup regime map. Finally, total breakup time is studied and correlated, which increases with Ohnesorge number.

  10. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... with a reference scenario. The treatment scenarios were field acidification, in-house acidification, screw press separation with and without composting of the solid fraction, decanter centrifuge separation with and without ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction, and four anaerobic digestion scenarios...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...

  11. Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, D.P.

    1981-02-15

    This report describes the basic parameters which directly influence the behavior of a coal slurry pipeline transportation system and determine the limitations of the system performance. The purpose of this technology assessment is to provide an identification and understanding of the critical factors which must be given consideration in the design and evaluation of such a slurry haulage system intended for use in an underground coal mine. The slurry haulage system will be utilized to satisfy the transportation requirements of conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location near the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located on the surface. Coal-water slurries, particularly those consisting of homogeneous suspensions of small particles, frequently behave as non-Newtonian, Bingham-plastic fluids. For successful operation, slurry transport systems should be designed to operate in the turbulent flow regime and at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity. The deposition velocity is defined as the slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe. Due to the importance of accurately determining the deposition velocity and the uncertainties of current methods for predicting the deposition velocity of coarse particle slurries, it is recommended that experimental efforts be performed as a part of the system design. The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the mine's projected coal output in order to avoid operational delays and the necessity for in-mine coal storage. The slurry pumps must generate sufficient discharge pressure to overcome the resultant friction losses in horizontal and vertical pipe sections and to satisfy the slurry hoisting requirements.

  12. Microbial Community Dynamics During Biogas Slurry and Cow Manure Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yan; LI Jie; LIU Jing-jing; L Yu-cai; WANG Xiao-fen; CUI Zong-jun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the microbial community dynamics and maturation time of two compost systems: biogas slurry compost and cow manure compost, with the aim of evaluating the potential utility of a biogas slurry compost system. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), gene clone library, temperature, C/N ratio, and the germination index were employed for the investigation, cow manure compost was used as the control. Results showed that the basic strip and dominant strips of the DGGE bands for biogas slurry compost were similar to those of cow manure compost, but the brightness of the respective strips for each system were different. Shannon-Weaver indices of the two compost systems differed, possessing only 22%similarity in the primary and maturity stages of the compost process. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, 88 bacterial clones were detected. Further, 18 and 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in biogas slurry and cow manure compost, respectively. The 18 OTUs of the biogas slurry compost belonged to nine bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Bacillus sp. and Carnobacterium sp.;the 13 OTUs of the cow manure compost belonged to eight bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Psychrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Clostridium sp. Results demonstrated that the duration of the thermophilic phase (more than 50°C) for biogas slurry compost was 8 d less than the according duration for cow manure compost, and the maturation times for biogas slurry and cow manure compost were 45 and 60 d, respectively. It is an effective biogas slurry assimilate technology by application of biogas slurry as nitrogen additives in the manufacture of organic fertilizer.

  13. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  14. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  15. Crop yield and nutrient balance influenced by shoot biomass management and pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Pandolfo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Crop systems that export large amounts of nutrients from the farm may require higher doses of animal manure than those needed for grain production. This study aimed to evaluate the yield of crops and to determine the simplified nutrient balance in three management systems of shoot biomass of crops (cover-grain, cover-silage and hay-silage associated with five fertilization treatments (control, soluble fertilizer and three doses of pig slurry. The experimental design was a split plot, arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates. The management systems of shoot biomass did not affect the yield of the winter pasture, but there was an increase in yield with the application of pig slurry. The summer crops responded differently to fertilization, depending on the purpose for which they were grown, whether for grain or silage. In the three management systems of shoot biomass, there was an excess of Zn and Cu from the application of 25 m3 ha-1; N from 50 m3ha-1; and P, K and Ca + Mg at the dose of 100 m3ha-1.

  16. Effects of long term raw pig slurry inputs on nutrient and metal contamination of tropical volcanogenic soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel-Grillon, P; Roth, E; Laporte-Magoni, C; Le Mestre, M

    2015-11-15

    In small Polynesian islands, family pig breeding is usually conducted without recovery of pig slurry. Raw pig slurry is spread onto the soil without any treatment. So far, most of the studies were carried out in temperate climate and for industrial digested pig slurry applications on agricultural lands. In the present case study, conducted in Uvéa Island, the aim is to determine if long term application of raw pig slurry on tropical soils, naturally rich in heavy metals has a significant influence on elements concentrations and mobility. Two types of tropical soils and two pig breeding systems, pig enclosure on small concrete pens or pig enclosure in large land pens, were investigated. Here we demonstrate that raw pig slurry inputs on soils can lead to an increase of total nitrogen and phosphorus content with high Contamination Factors. The Pollution Load Index values (1.3; 5.3; 2.5; 2.3) were indicative of multi-heavy metals pollution (Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni) in mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area and they are exchangeable while they are immobilized or less mobile in inland pure ferralitic soils. For mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area, family pig breeding represents a drainage risk of soluble species (phosphorus, inorganic nitrogen, Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni). For inland ferralitic soils, family pig breeding is more compatible with a sustainable management of the environment in Uvéa Island and by extension in volcanic tropical islands with respect to the investigated chemical elements.

  17. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  18. Suppression of Dendrite Formation and Corrosion on Zinc Anode of Secondary Aqueous Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kyung E K; Hoang, Tuan K A; Doan, The Nam Long; Yu, Yan; Zhu, Xiao; Tian, Ye; Chen, P

    2017-03-22

    Novel zinc anodes are synthesized via electroplating with organic additives in the plating solution. The selected organic additives are cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyethylene-glycol (PEG-8000), and thiourea (TU). The synthesized zinc anode materials, namely, Zn-CTAB, Zn-SDS, Zn-PEG, and Zn-TU, are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that each additive produces distinctively different crystallographic orientation and surface texture. The surface electrochemical activity is characterized by linear polarization when the zinc is in contact with the battery's electrolyte. Tafel fitting on the linear polarization data reveals that the synthetic zinc materials using organic additives all exhibit 6-30 times lower corrosion currents. When using Zn-SDS as the anode in the rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery, the float current decreases as much as 2.5 times. The batteries with Zn-SDS, Zn-PEG, and Zn-TU anodes display the capacity retention of 79%, 76%, and 80% after 1000 cycles of charge-discharge at 4C rate, whereas only 67% obtained from the batteries using the anode prepared from commercial zinc foil. Among these electroplated anodes, Zn-SDS is the most suitable for aqueous batteries thanks to its low corrosion rate, low dendrite formation, low float current, and high capacity retention after 1000 cycles.

  19. Packing and viscosity of concentrated polydisperse coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veytsman, B.; Morrison, J.; Scaroni, A.; Painter, P. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Inst.

    1998-09-01

    The viscosity of polydisperse slurries close to the packing limit is discussed. It is shown that the divergence of the viscosity at the close packing limit causes the dependence of the slurry viscosity on loading to be universal. Ways of increasing the maximal loading of polydisperse slurries are described. A new theory of packing of powders based on a generalization of the Furnas telescopic tube method is proposed. Unlike the original Furnas model, this theory allows the calculation of the maximal packing for powders with an arbitrary size distribution of particles. The application of the theory to the problem of reducing the viscosity of coal-water slurries is discussed. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Separation of phosphorus from pig slurry using chemical additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estevez Rodriguez, M.D.; Gomez del Puerto, A.M.; Montealegre Meléndez, M.L.;

    2005-01-01

    of water and therefore transport costs can be reduced by separating the P from a high volume of slurry into a small dry-matter- and P-rich solid fraction. This study tested different combinations of coagulants (ferric salts) and flocculants (polyacrylamide polymers) that can contribute to an efficient...... retention of P in a solid fraction. The laboratory studies showed that 98% of the P in slurry was retained in the solid fraction retained on the filter net (12% to 28% retained W:W) after the addition of coagulants and flocculants. Linear cationic polyacrylamide polymers proved to be more efficient at lower...... irrespective of the amounts added (12% to 18%). The cost of an efficient separation of slurry using coagulants and flocculants and including the cost of screw press separation was estimated to be $2.4 m(-3) slurry....

  1. Dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulose for whole slurry ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2013-03-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) followed by the whole slurry fermentation of the pretreated EFB slurry was investigated. The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 1% (w/v) sulfuric acid with 3 min ramping to 190 °C in a microwave digester. Pretreated and washed EFB exhibited enzymatic digestibility of 88.5% of theoretical glucose yield after 48 h of hydrolysis. When the whole slurry of pretreated and neutralized EFB was used in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sulfuric acid-pretreated EFB resulted in 52.5% of theoretical ethanol yield based on total glucan in the untreated initial EFB after 72 h of SSF. When pretreated EFB slurry was treated with activated carbon before subjecting to SSF, the SSF furnished 87.5% ethanol yield based on the initial glucan content in untreated EFB (after 48 h of SSF). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises......This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving...... different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate...

  3. New-Generation Sealing Slurries For Borehole Injection Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryczek, Stanisław; Gonet, Andrzej; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Złotkowski, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The development of techniques and technologies thanks to which parameters of the ground medium can be modified makes specialists look for new recipes of geopolymers - binders for the reinforcing and sealing of unstable and permeable grounds. The sealing slurries are expected to meet a number of strict requirements, therefore it is important to find new admixtures and additives which could modify the fresh and hardened slurry. Special attention has been recently paid to the fluid ash - a by-product of the combustion of hard coals. However, the use of this additive is associated with the application of appropriate superplastifier. Laboratory analyses of rheological parameters of fresh sealing slurries and the ways of improving their liquidity by a properly selected third-generation superplastifier are presented in the paper. The slurries were based on Portland cement CEM I, milled granulated large-furnace slag and fly ash from fluidized-bed combustion of hard coal.

  4. Multi-element determinations of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) coal slurries using ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Mujuru; R.I. McCrindle; B.M. Botha; P.P. Ndibewu [Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa). Department of Chemistry

    2009-04-15

    A slurry nebulisation technique was applied for elemental analysis of bituminous coals SARM 18, SARM 19 and four coals from three different seams in Witbank, South Africa, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, S, Si and Ti) and trace elements (Ba, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and Zr) in coal were determined. Various slurry preparations were evaluated using two dispersants (glycerol and Triton X-100) and by varying the concentration of dispersants, between 0.1% and 1.0% (v/v). The effect of initially solubilising the ground coal in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was investigated by varying the volume of DMF added. The effect of wet grinding with DMF was investigated. Wet grinding with DMF was shown to drastically reduce particle sizes (50.0% < 0.28 m and 90.0% < 6.17 {mu}m) as compared to dry grinding (50.0% < 5.25 {mu}m and 90.0% < 11.1 {mu}m). The reduced particle sizes and increased transport efficiency of the coal slurries led to improved analytical recoveries of elements in the reference coal, SARM 18. The best analytical recoveries for all elements were achieved using 0.1% Triton X-100 with 10.0% DMF. Results obtained by ICP-OES after wet grinding of the coal with DMF, using 0.1% Triton X-100, also gave excellent recoveries (Al, 100%; Ca, 103%; Cr, 106%; Fe, 102%; Mg, 100%; Mn, 104%; Ni, 109%; Si, 102%; Ti, 95.0%; and V, 108%). The results obtained with 10.0% DMF and 0.1% Triton X-100 were in agreement with certified values for all selected elements according to paired t-test at the 95.0% confidence level. Selected elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and V) were also analysed with X-ray fluorescence for comparison with results obtained from ICP-OES. Analysis by ICP-OES of microwave digested coal was also carried out. It is suggested that the DMF slurry technique could be used for routine analysis of bituminous coals. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Coding and decoding with dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsi, Athanasia; Kastellakis, George; Psarrou, Maria; Anastasakis, Stelios; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of complex, voltage dependent mechanisms in the dendrites of multiple neuron types, great effort has been devoted in search of a direct link between dendritic properties and specific neuronal functions. Over the last few years, new experimental techniques have allowed the visualization and probing of dendritic anatomy, plasticity and integrative schemes with unprecedented detail. This vast amount of information has caused a paradigm shift in the study of memory, one of the most important pursuits in Neuroscience, and calls for the development of novel theories and models that will unify the available data according to some basic principles. Traditional models of memory considered neural cells as the fundamental processing units in the brain. Recent studies however are proposing new theories in which memory is not only formed by modifying the synaptic connections between neurons, but also by modifications of intrinsic and anatomical dendritic properties as well as fine tuning of the wiring diagram. In this review paper we present previous studies along with recent findings from our group that support a key role of dendrites in information processing, including the encoding and decoding of new memories, both at the single cell and the network level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinoptilolite as an ammonia binder in pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, G P; Debal, V; Hesta, M; Millet, S; De Wilde, R O

    2001-01-01

    Six gilts and six barrows are used in a 2 x 2 experiment with two phase feeding versus multiphase feeding and celite addition versus clinoptilolite addition. Nitrogen and ammonia concentration in the slurry on dry matter basis was reduced by 30% and 35% respectively by multiphase feeding, together with a decreased ratio of ammonia over nitrogen. Ammonia fixation in pig slurry by clinoptilolite increased from 21% after 14 days of supplementation upto 35% at 8 weeks after the supplementation period.

  7. Resistance coefficient during ice slurry flow through pipe sudden constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ł. Mika

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse environmental effects of some commonly-used refrigerants, efforts are still underway to find new cooling mediumsthat would be safer to the ozone layer and would not increase the greenhouse effect. Ice slurry as a new ecological coolant suits theprocesses requiring the preservation of constant and equal temperature in the cooling process of the full section of the cooled solid. Thanks to that, ice slurry can find a wide potential application in such branches of industry, as heat treatment, materials engineering, or foundry. In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as diameter’s reductions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the slurry flow in which the flow qualities depend mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the resistance coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction. The volume fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The recommended and non-recommended range of the Reynolds number for the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction were presented in this paper. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common reductions of copper pipes. Further studies on the determination of the resistance coefficient in the remaining fittings elements of the pipeline were recommended in the paper as well as the further theoretical studies intended to determine the theoretical relations to calculate the resistance coefficient in all the fittings elements in the pipeline (on the basis of the experimental studies and to elaborate the calculation pattern of the entire ice slurry system.

  8. Dendritic Cells—Ontogeny—

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takeuchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC play key rolls in various aspects of immunity. The functions of DC depend on the subsets as well as their location or activation status. Understanding developmental lineages, precursors and inducing factors for various DC subsets would help their clinical application, but despite extensive efforts, the precise ontogeny of various DC, remain unclear and complex. Because of their many functional similarities to macrophages, DC were originally thought to be of myeloid-lineage, an idea supported by many in vitro studies where monocytes or GM-CSF (a key myeloid growth factor has been extensively used for generating DC. However, there has been considerable evidence which suggests the existence of lymphoid-lineage DC. After the confusion of myeloid-/lymphoid-DC concept regarding DC surface markers, we have now reached a consensus that each DC subset can differentiate through both myeloid- and lymphoid-lineages. The identification of committed populations (such as common myeloid- and lymphoid progenitors as precursors for every DC subsets and findings from various knockout (KO mice that have selected lymphoid- or myeloid-lineage deficiency appear to indicate flexibility of DC development rather than their lineage restriction. Why is DC development so flexible unlike other hematopoitic cells? It might be because there is developmental redundancy to maintain such important populations in any occasions, or such developmental flexibility would be advantageous for DC to be able to differentiate from any “available” precursors in situ irrespective of their lineages. This review will cover ontogeny of conventional (CD8+/- DC DC, plasmacytoid DC and skin Langerhans cells, and recently-identified many Pre-DC (immediate DC precursor populations, in addition to monocytes and plasmacytoid DC, will also be discussed.

  9. Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of coal ash slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa K.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the rheological behaviour of fly ash (FA slurry without and with the addition of bottom ash (BA and BA slurry without and with the addition of FA. The FA slurries exhibited Bingham behaviour at solid mass concentrations ranging from 60–65% and mixing proportions from 10– 40%. A substantial reduction in yield stress was observed except for mixing proportion of 40% on which the yield stress and viscosity were increased drastically for all solid concentrations. Hence, it can be concluded that the yield stress and viscosity of FA slurry were very much influenced by adding BA up to the mixing proportion of 30%. The rheological behaviour of BA slurries with and without the addition of FA in proportions of 10–50% was investigated and exhibited Newtonian behaviours for solid mass concentrations ranging from 30–50% without and with the addition of FA. The viscosity increases with increasing the solid concentrations and proportion of FA. Based on these experimental data, a correlation was developed to predict the relative viscosity of BA slurries as a function of solid volume fraction and FA mass proportion of 0–50% and the RMSE and R2 values showed good agreement between the experimental and the predicted data.

  10. Contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzhi Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the cementation of deep wells, contamination at the contact surface between cement slurry and drilling fluid will present a technical challenge, which may threaten operation safety. To deal with the problem, lab tests and analysis were performed specifically on the compatibility of fluids during cementation in Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields. Impacts of commonly used additives for drilling fluids were determined on fluidity and thickening time of conventional cement slurry. Through the infrared spectrum analysis, SEM and XRD, infrared spectrum data of kalium polyacrylamide (KPAM and bio-viscosifier were obtained, together with infrared spectrum, SEM and XRD data of cement slurry with additives. Contamination mechanisms of the cement slurry by conventional additives for drilling fluid were reviewed. Test results show that both KPAM and bio-viscosifier are such high-molecular materials that the long chains in these materials may easily absorb cement particles in the slurry to form mixed network structures; as a result, cement particles were prone to agglomeration and eventually lost their pumpability. Finally, assessment of and testing methods for the contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry were further improved to form standards and codes that may help solve the said problems. This study will provide technological supports for the preparation of drilling fluids with desirable properties prior to cementation, the selection of optimal drilling fluids additives, and the development of innovative drilling fluids additives.

  11. The Deterministic Dendritic Cell Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The Dendritic Cell Algorithm is an immune-inspired algorithm orig- inally based on the function of natural dendritic cells. The original instantiation of the algorithm is a highly stochastic algorithm. While the performance of the algorithm is good when applied to large real-time datasets, it is difficult to anal- yse due to the number of random-based elements. In this paper a deterministic version of the algorithm is proposed, implemented and tested using a port scan dataset to provide a controllable system. This version consists of a controllable amount of parameters, which are experimented with in this paper. In addition the effects are examined of the use of time windows and variation on the number of cells, both which are shown to influence the algorithm. Finally a novel metric for the assessment of the algorithms output is introduced and proves to be a more sensitive metric than the metric used with the original Dendritic Cell Algorithm.

  12. Dendritic cells star in Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Klechevsky, Eynav; Kato, Hiroki; Sponaas, Anne-Marit

    2005-01-01

    The fast-moving field of dendritic cell (DC) biology is hard to keep pace with. Here we report on advances from the recent Keystone Symposium, “Dendritic Cells at the Center of Innate and Adaptive Immunity,” organized in Vancouver, BC on Feb. 1–7, 2005 by Anne O'Garra, Jacques Banchereau, and Alan Sher. New insights into the molecular mechanisms of DC function and their influence on immune regulation, their role in infectious and autoimmune disease, and new clinical applications are highlight...

  13. Slurry and processing technique of CLBO crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sheng-li; LIU Yu-ling; NIU Xin-huan; TAN Bai-mei

    2006-01-01

    CsLiB6O10(CLBO) is a new-type nonlinear optical crystal material. CLBO has many good performances,especially the frequency multiplication performance in deep ultraviolet band. CLBO has important application prospect on solid-state UV laser,broad band tunable laser and laser nucleus flame igniter. Though,CLBO will be air slaking and cracking when the ambient humidity is more than 40%,which brings more difficult on CLBO surface finishing. According to the performance and structure characteristic of CLBO crystal,a new water-free slurry applying for CLBO crystal chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) was investigated. The abrasive is SiO2. The influence of polishing processing parameter on polishing process for CLBO crystal was discussed,and the parameter optimal value of polishing plate speed,pressure,pH value and abrasive concentration were determined. Through such parameters,high efficiency and precision plane polishing was gotten. The CLBO CMP process was studied,the results show that low pressure and high speed can improve the CLBO crystal surface removal rate and flatness.

  14. Slurry combustion. Volume 1, Text: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-06-21

    The project described in this Report was to investigate the possibility of using sorbent added to coal-water fuel (CWF) mixtures as a means of reducing SOX emissions when burning Ohio coal. The results are significantly encouraging, with SOX concentrations reduced by amounts ranging from 25% to 65%, depending on the sorbent type and the firing conditions, where one major condition identified was the residence time in the flame gases. With the sorbent-loaded slurrys, the trend generally showed increasing SO{sub 2} capture with increasing sorbent loading. There were significant differences between the two different mixture formulations, however: The calcite/No. 8-seam mixture showed significantly higher SO{sub 2} capture at all times (ranging from 45% to 65%) than did the dolomite/No. 5 seam mixture (ranging from 25% to 45%). If the successes so far achieved are not to be wasted, advantage should be taken of these encouraging results by extending the work at both the present scale to determine the other unknown factors controlling sorption efficiency, and at larger scale to start implementation in commercial systems.

  15. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  16. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    While much is understood about dendritic cells and their role in the immune system, the study of these cells is critical to gain a more complete understanding of their function. Dendritic cell isolation from mouse body tissues can be difficult and the number of cells isolated small. This protocol describes the growth of large number of dendritic cells from the culture of mouse bone marrow cells. The dendritic cells grown in culture facilitate experiments that may require large number of dendritic cells without great expense or use of large number of mice.

  17. Influence of the Mixing Ways of Reactants on ZnO Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lining Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO particles with various morphologies were synthesized by mixing ZnSO4 and NaOH solutions at 25°C followed by aging of the suspensions at 40–80°C for 2.0 h, keeping the initial molar ratio of Zn2+ to OH− at 1 : 4. ZnO irregular plates were prepared by adding NaOH to ZnSO4 while ε-Zn(OH2 rhombic particles were produced using the opposite mixing way. After aging of the slurries at 80°C for 2.0 h, the ZnO plates were kept stable while the ε-Zn(OH2 rhombic particles were converted to ZnO whiskers with a length of 1.0–4.0 μm and a diameter of 0.03–0.3 μm. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the formation of the Zn-bearing precipitates (ZnO or ε-Zn(OH2 at room temperature was connected closely with the solution composition.

  18. Wiring Zinc in Three Dimensions Re-writes Battery Performance - Dendrite-Free Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    rechargeable batteries . Broader context Zinc -based batteries have high practical specic energy (up to 400 W h kg1 in Zn– air cells) and many advantages over...Kordesch, J. Power Sources, 1994, 52, 217. 24 D. Linden, Zinc / air cells, Handbook of Batteries , 2nd edn, 1984, ch. 13. 25 The electroreduced Zn...Wiring zinc in three dimensions re-writes battery performance—dendrite-free cycling† Joseph F. Parker, Christopher N. Chervin, Eric S. Nelson, Debra

  19. Influence of Solution Heat Treatment on Structure and Mechanical Properties of ZnAl22Cu3 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalik R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of solution heat treatment at 385°C over 10 h with cooling in water on the structure, hardness and strength of the ZnAl22Cu3 eutectoid alloy is presented in the paper. The eutectoid ZnAl22Cu3 alloy is characterized by a dendritic structure. Dendrites are composed of a supersaturated solid solution of Al in Zn. In the interdendritic spaces a eutectoid mixture is present, with an absence of the ε (CuZn4 phase. Solution heat treatment of the ZnAl22Cu3 alloy causes the occurrence of precipitates rich in Zn and Cu, possibly ε phase. Solution heat treatment at 385°C initially causes a significant decrease of the alloy hardness, although longer solution heat treatment causes a significant increase of the hardness as compared to the as-cast alloy.

  20. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  1. Evidence that dendritic mitochondria negatively regulate dendritic branching in pyramidal neurons in the neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Toshiya; Murakami, Fujio

    2014-05-14

    The precise branching patterns of dendritic arbors have a profound impact on information processing in individual neurons and the brain. These patterns are established by positive and negative regulation of the dendritic branching. Although the mechanisms for positive regulation have been extensively investigated, little is known about those for negative regulation. Here, we present evidence that mitochondria located in developing dendrites are involved in the negative regulation of dendritic branching. We visualized mitochondria in pyramidal neurons of the mouse neocortex during dendritic morphogenesis using in utero electroporation of a mitochondria-targeted fluorescent construct. We altered the mitochondrial distribution in vivo by overexpressing Mfn1, a mitochondrial shaping protein, or the Miro-binding domain of TRAK2 (TRAK2-MBD), a truncated form of a motor-adaptor protein. We found that dendritic mitochondria were preferentially targeted to the proximal portion of dendrites only during dendritic morphogenesis. Overexpression of Mfn1 or TRAK2-MBD depleted mitochondria from the dendrites, an effect that was accompanied by increased branching of the proximal portion of the dendrites. This dendritic abnormality cannot be accounted for by changes in the distribution of membrane trafficking organelles since the overexpression of Mfn1 did not alter the distributions of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, or endosomes. Additionally, neither did these constructs impair neuronal viability or mitochondrial function. Therefore, our results suggest that dendritic mitochondria play a critical role in the establishment of the precise branching pattern of dendritic arbors by negatively affecting dendritic branching.

  2. Gas migration through cement slurries analysis: A comparative laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Velayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing is an essential part of every drilling operation. Protection of the wellbore from formation fluid invasion is one of the primary tasks of a cement job. Failure in this task results in catastrophic events, such as blow outs. Hence, in order to save the well and avoid risky and operationally difficult remedial cementing, slurry must be optimized to be resistant against gas migration phenomenon. In this paper, performances of the conventional slurries facing gas invasion were reviewed and compared with modified slurry containing special gas migration additive by using fluid migration analyzer device. The results of this study reveal the importance of proper additive utilization in slurry formulations. The rate of gas flow through the slurry in neat cement is very high; by using different types of additives, we observe obvious changes in the performance of the cement system. The rate of gas flow in neat class H cement was reported as 36000 ml/hr while the optimized cement formulation with anti-gas migration and thixotropic agents showed a gas flow rate of 13.8 ml/hr.

  3. Improvements of marine clay slurries using chemicalephysical combined method (CPCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongqing Wu; Wenyu Xu; Romy Tjuar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness, applicability and validity of chemicalephysical combined methods (CPCMs) for treatment of marine clay (MC) slurries were evaluated. The method CPCM1 combines chemical stabilization and vacuum preloading (VP), while CPCM2 is similar to CPCM1 but includes both the application of surcharge and use of geo-bags to provide confinement during surcharge preloading. The key advantage of CPCM2 using geo-bags is that the surcharge can be immediately applied on the chemically stabilized slurries. Two types of geo-bags were investigated under simulated land filling and dyke conditions, respectively. The test results show that the shear strength (cu) of treated slurry by CPCM2 is generally much higher than that by CPCM1. Besides, the use of CPCM2 can significantly reduce the treatment time due to the short drainage paths created by geo-bags. Overall, CPCM2 allows faster consolidation and higher preloading that help to achieve higher mechanical properties of the stabilized slurry. There are consistent relationships between cU and water content of slurries treated by CPCM2. Several important observations were also made based on comparisons of experimental data.

  4. Gaseous emissions and modification of slurry composition during storage and after field application: Effect of slurry additives and mechanical separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Twum, Maxwell Yeboah; Polastre, Adele; Subedi, Raghunath; Santos, Ana Sofia; Mendes Ferreira, Luis Miguel; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2017-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of slurry treatment by additives (EU200(®) (EU200), Bio-buster(®) (BB), JASS(®) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4)) and mechanical separation on the physical-chemical characteristics, gaseous emissions (NH3, CH4, CO2 and N2O) during anaerobic storage at ∼20 °C (experiment 1) and NH3 losses after field application (experiment 2). The treatments studied in experiment 1 were: whole slurry (WS), WS+H2SO4 to a pH of 6.0, WS+EU200 and WS+BB. Treatments for experiment 2 were: WS, slurry liquid fraction (LF), composted solid fraction (CSF), LFs treated with BB (LFB), JASS(®) (LFJ), H2SO4 to a pH of 5.5 (LFA) and soil only (control). The results showed an inhibition of the degradation of organic materials (cellulose, hemicellulose, dry matter organic matter and total carbon) in the WS+H2SO4 relative to the WS. When compared to the WS, the WS+H2SO4 increased electrical conductivity, ammonium (NH4(+)) and sulphur (S) concentrations whilst reducing slurry pH after storage. The WS+H2SO4 reduced NH3 volatilization by 69% relative to the WS but had no effect on emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O during storage. Biological additive treatments (WS+EU200 and WS+BB) had no impact on slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions relative to the WS during storage. After field application, the cumulative NH3 lost in the LF was almost 50% lower than the WS. The losses in the LFA were reduced by 92% relative to the LF. The LFB and LFJ had no impact on NH3 losses relative to the LF. A significant effect of treatment on NH4(+) concentration was found at the top soil layer (0-5 cm) after NH3 measurements with higher concentrations in the LF treatments relative to the WS. Overall, the use of the above biological additives to decrease pollutant gases and to modify slurry characteristics are questionable. Reducing slurry dry matter through mechanical separation can mitigate NH3 losses after field application. Slurry acidification can increase the

  5. Rheological behavior of molten Al-SiC slurries and comparison of their behavior with metallic slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary, D. Sohrabi Baba; Akhlagh, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this study a new precise rotational viscometer was developed and used to measure the viscosity of molten A356 alloy containing 5, 15, and 25vol.% of 90-106 μm SiC particles at 650 and 690 °C. Three types of typical curves viscosity (η) versus volume fraction of SiC particles, shear time (t), and shear rate (γ) were derived advantage from the results of viscosity measurements. It would present the viscosity got lowered by decreasing particle volume fraction and by increasing the amounts of shear time and shear rate. In the next step, the influence of the number of aggregates on apparent viscosity was studied by the special tests, developed in this research. Also the formation of aggregates in Al-SiC composite slurries was explained and compared with metallic slurries. It concluded that the origin of aggregation in Al-SiC slurries was long range electrical forces while in metallic slurries it was micro welds between particles. it would show the rheological behavior of Al-SiC slurries could be justified according to the nature and the numbers of their aggregates. At the end, the implications of findings in order to predict the gradient of particles in functionally graded Al-SiC composites, produced by casting, were discussed.

  6. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward.

  7. Semisolid Slurry Preparation of Die Steel with High Chromium Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei-min; ZHAO Ai-min; ZHANG Li-juan; ZHONG Xue-you

    2004-01-01

    The semisolid slurry preparation of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV with high chromium content was studied. The results show that the semisolid slurry of both steels with solid of 40 %-60 % can be made by electromagnetic stirring method and is easy to be discharged from the bottom little hole of the stirring chamber. The sizes of the spherical primary austenite in the slurry of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV are 50-100 μm and 80-150 μm, respectively. The homogeneous temperature field and solute field for both steel melts are obtained. The strong temperature fluctuation in the melt with many fine primary austenite grains occurs and the remelting of the secondary arm roots at the same time is accelerated because of the electromagnetic stirring. These are the most important reasons for deposition of spherical primary austenite grains.

  8. Tape casting of cobalt ferrite from nonaqueous slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Gang; Zhou, Dongxiang; Yang, Junyou; Fu, Qiuyun

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of CoFe2O4 thick films using the tape casting method from nonaqueous slurry. CoFe2O4 particles with average size of ˜800 nm were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Sediment volumes and viscosity were tested to study the effects of dispersant in reducing aggregations in slurry. Slurry with 0.25 wt% dispersant amounts and 41.3 wt% solid content showed the optimal stability and rheological properties. A tape velocity of 8 cm/s was used in this study considering the non-Newtonian flow behavior at low shear rate. CoFe2O4 ceramic films sintered at 1150 °C for 2 h have dense structure (relative density of 94%) and exhibited ferromagnetic properties with in-plane saturation magnetization of ˜324 emu/cm3.

  9. Study on combustion characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu [and others

    1997-07-01

    Petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) is one of prospect substitute of oil burned in many industrial boilers and utilities in China. It is a mixture of pulverized petroleum coke, residual oil and slurry oil. We carried out a series of experiments to study its ignition and combustion mechanism. Experimental results show that the ignition temperature of petroleum coke is higher than normal anthracite and meager coal, and it is difficult to be burned in oil-fired furnace directly. The petroleum coke`s combustion property is improved greatly after mixing with residual oil and slurry oil. The combustion process of POS can be divided into three phases: preheating, kindling and homogenous combustion, burning of the petroleum coke residue. The combustion condition of POS is close to bituminous and coal-oil-mixture (COM).

  10. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, M. G. Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita;

    2016-01-01

    macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect...... and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns...... of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils...

  11. A Fast and Efficient Dehydration Process for Waste Drilling Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, slurry system was converted to colloid from fluid with the colloidization of high polymer coagulants with high viscosity. The solid-liquid separation of the waste slurry was realized by the process of chemical colloidal gel breaking, coagulation function, acidification gelout. In addition, the surface morphology of slurry cake was investigated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The results indicate that mud separation effect is decides on the type of flocculants, gel breaker. The solid content of mud cake increases from 40.5% to 77.5% when A-PA and H20 are employed as the flocculants, gelout, with the dosage of zero point four grams and zero point five grams.

  12. Reflotation of Coal Slurries from OKD company, Mine Lazy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Èernotová L.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the work is a verification of selective flotation on the black coal slurries sampled from slurry ponds of Mine Lazy, OKD company. Reflotation was realized with 6 collectors: Flotakol NX, Flotalex Ekofol 440, Montanol, MP 125 and AF 2. The technology of main flotation was applied. The variance analysis was used for the selectivity evaluation of particular collectors, whereby both the yield and flotation concentrate quality were tested. The goal of the flotation experiments was to achieve the flotation concentrate quality under 10% of ash. From the results follows that by using basic flotation it is possible (with the slurry samples to reach the marketable coal concentrates with the ash content under 10% by Flotalex collector application.

  13. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer.

  14. Concentrated biogas slurry enhanced soil fertility and tomato quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Cheng-Fang Song; Miao-Xian Zhang; Sheng-Dao Shan (Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Inst. of Environmental Technology, Zhejiang Forestry University, Linan (China))

    2010-05-15

    Biogas slurry is a cheap source of plant nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its further development. In this paper, a one-growing-season field study was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition of microflora in both nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils. The results showed that application of concentrated slurry could bring significant changes to tomato cultivation, including increases in organic matter, available N, P, and K, total N and P, electrical conductivity, and fruit contents of amino acids, protein, soluble sugar, beta-carotene, tannins, and vitamin C, together with the R/S ratios and the culturable counts of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in soils. It was concluded that the application is a practicable means in tomato production and will better service the area of sustainable agriculture

  15. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  16. An advanced alkaline slurry for barrier chemical mechanical planarization on patterned wafers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chenwei; Liu Yuling; Niu Xinhuan; Tian Jianying; Gao Baohong; Zhang Xiaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an alkaline barrier slurry (named FA/O slurry) for barrier removal and evaluated its chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) performance through comparison with a commercially developed barrier slurry.The FA/O slurry consists of colloidal silica,which is a complexing and an oxidizing agent,and does not have any inhibitors.It was found that the surface roughness of copper blanket wafers polished by the FA/O slurry was lower than the commercial barrier slurry,demonstrating that it leads to a better surface quality.In addition,the dishing and electrical tests also showed that the patterned wafers have a lower dishing value and sheet resistance as compared to the commercial barrier slurry.By comparison,the FA/O slurry demonstrates good planarization performance and can be used for barrier CMP.

  17. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

    1991-07-01

    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  18. Contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in soils irrigated with biogas slurry: a case study of Taihu basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Wu, Hai suo; Zhou, Ling jun

    2015-04-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in different soils resulting from irrigation with biogas slurry obtained from Taihu basin may create a potential public health risk. We quantified the concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, As, and Cd.) in soils. Results indicated that the concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb in soil exceeded the maximum permitted levels set by Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB15618-2008). The highest mean level in the soil was noted for Zn, followed by Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, As, and Cd, while maximum geoaccumulation index (Igeo) was found for Cd in all soil samples which ranged from strongly polluted to extremely polluted. Pollution levels varied with metals and soil types. Moreover, the concentrations of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Pb in soils showed significant correlations with OM; pH showed positive correlations with Cd, Cu, As, and Cr; pH and OM were the most important factors controlling the uptake of heavy metals by soils. Multivariate principal component analysis showed anthropogenic contributions of Zn, Pb, Cu, As, and Cd in the different kinds of soils. The target hazard quotient (HQ) values of six metals in soils were less than 1, which suggested that non-carcinogenic risks of metal exposure to soils were generally assumed to be safe. The assessment results of carcinogenic risks in soils showed higher risks than an acceptable range of 1E-06 to 1E-04 that would pose potential cancer risks to the farmers due to the work of leafy and root vegetables grown locally.

  19. Numerical simulation of slurry jets using mixture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xin HUAI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slurry jets in a static uniform environment were simulated with a two-phase mixture model in which flow-particle interactions were considered. A standard k-ε turbulence model was chosen to close the governing equations. The computational results were in agreement with previous laboratory measurements. The characteristics of the two-phase flow field and the influences of hydraulic and geometric parameters on the distribution of the slurry jets were analyzed on the basis of the computational results. The calculated results reveal that if the initial velocity of the slurry jet is high, the jet spreads less in the radial direction. When the slurry jet is less influenced by the ambient fluid (when the Stokes number St is relatively large, the turbulent kinetic energy k and turbulent dissipation rate ε, which are relatively concentrated around the jet axis, decrease more rapidly after the slurry jet passes through the nozzle. For different values of St, the radial distributions of streamwise velocity and particle volume fraction are both self-similar and fit a Gaussian profile after the slurry jet fully develops. The decay rate of the particle velocity is lower than that of water velocity along the jet axis, and the axial distributions of the centerline particle streamwise velocity are self-similar along the jet axis. The pattern of particle dispersion depends on the Stokes number St. When St = 0.39, the particle dispersion along the radial direction is considerable, and the relative velocity is very low due to the low dynamic response time. When St = 3.08, the dispersion of particles along the radial direction is very little, and most of the particles have high relative velocities along the streamwise direction.

  20. Experimental investigation of ice slurry heat transfer in horizontal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per; Palm, Bjoern; Melinder, Aake [Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    Heat transfer of ice slurry flow based on ethanol-water mixture in a circular horizontal tube has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethanol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The heat transfer tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 22% depending on test performed. Measured heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry are found to be higher than those for single phase fluid, especially for laminar flow conditions and high ice mass fractions where the heat transfer is increased with a factor 2 in comparison to the single phase flow. In addition, experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry flow were compared to the analytical results, based on the correlation by Sieder and Tate for laminar single phase regime, by Dittus-Boelter for turbulent single phase regime and empirical correlation by Christensen and Kauffeld derived for laminar/turbulent ice slurry flow in circular horizontal tubes. It was found that the classical correlation proposed by Sieder and Tate for laminar forced convection in smooth straight circular ducts cannot be used for heat transfer prediction of ice slurry flow since it strongly underestimates measured values, while, for the turbulent flow regime the simple Dittus-Boelter relation predicts the heat transfer coefficient of ice slurry flow with high accuracy but only up to an ice mass fraction of 10% and Re{sub cf} > 2300 regardless of imposed heat flux. For higher ice mass fractions and regardless of the flow regime, the correlation proposed by Christensen and Kauffeld gives good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  1. Phase field modeling of dendritic coarsening during isothermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yutuo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic coarsening in Al-2mol%Si alloy during isothermal solidification at 880K was investigated by phase field modeling. Three coarsening mechanisms operate in the alloy: (a melting of small dendrite arms; (b coalescence of dendrites near the tips leading to the entrapment of liquid droplets; (c smoothing of dendrites. Dendrite melting is found to be dominant in the stage of dendritic growth, whereas coalescence of dendrites and smoothing of dendrites are dominant during isothermal holding. The simulated results provide a better understanding of dendrite coarsening during isothermal solidification.

  2. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  3. Technical report on treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Jo, Eun Sung; Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Ki Jung

    1999-06-01

    By literature survey, this report deals with the technology on typical pre-treatment and filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste, produced during the operation of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor, and produced during the decommission/decontamination of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor. It is reviewed pre-treatment procedure, both physical and chemical that optimise the dewatering characteristics, and also surveyed types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. Dewatering operations and devises on filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste are also analysed. (author)

  4. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Managing phosphorus (P) losses in soil leachate following land application of manure is key to curbing eutrophication in many regions. We compared P leaching from columns of variably textured, intact soils (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) subjected to surface application or injection of dairy cattle (Bos...... retention of particulate P and dissolved organic P, caused by placing slurry away from active flow paths in the fine-textured soil columns, as well as to chemical retention of dissolved inorganic P, caused by better contact between slurry P and soil adsorption sites. Dissolved organic P was less retained...

  5. Slurry Coating System Statement of Work and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The Slurry Coating System will be used to coat crystals with a polymer to support Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) research and development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The crystals will be suspended in water in a kettle. A polymer solution is added, temperature of the kettle is raised and aggregates of the crystals and polymer form. The slurry is heated under vacuum to drive off the solvents and slowly cooled while mixing to room temperature. The resulting aggregates are then filtered and dried. The performance characteristics and fielding constraints define a unique set of requirements for a new system. This document presents the specifications and requirements for the system.

  6. Electrochemical behaviors of silicon wafers in silica slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolan Song; Haiping Yang; Xunda Shi; Xi He; Guanzhou Qiu

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of n-type silicon wafers in silica-based slurry were investigated, and the influences of the pH value and solid content of the slurry on the corrosion of silicon wafers were studied by using electrochemical DC polarization and AC impedance techniques. The results revealed that these factors affected the corrosion behaviors of silicon wafers to different degrees and had their suitable parameters that made the maximum corrosion rate of the wafers. The corrosion potential of (100) surface was lower than that of (111), whereas the current density of (100) was much higher than that of (111).

  7. Optical properties and surface morphology of ZnTe thin films prepared by multiple potential steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromboni, Murilo F.; Lucas, Francisco W. S.; Mascaro, Lucia H., E-mail: lmascaro@ufscar.br [Universidade de Federal de Sao Carlos (LIEC/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica. Lab. de Eletroquimica e Ceramica

    2014-03-15

    In this work, the ZnTe thin films were electrodeposited using potentiostatic steps, on Pt substrate. The effect of steps number, the deposition time for each element (Zn or Te) and layer order (Zn/Te or Te/Zn) in the morphology, composition, band gap energy and photocurrent was evaluated. Microanalysis data showed that the ratio Zn/Te ranged from 0.12 and 0.30 and the film was not stoichiometric. However, the band-gap value obtained from in all experimental conditions used in this work was 2.28 eV, indicating film growth of ZnTe. The samples with higher Zn showed higher photocurrent, which was of the order of 2.64 μA cm{sup -2} and dendritic morphology (author)

  8. Dendritic cells and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshinori; Aiba, Setsuya

    2007-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a biological response to simple chemicals in the skin. Although it is well known that allergic contact dermatitis is mediated by the immune system, it is still uncertain whether it is a kind of protective response or it is simply an unnecessary response. We have demonstrated the following: (1) haptens activate Langerhans cells in the initiation phase of murine allergic contact dermatitis in vivo, (2) haptens activate human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro, (3) the activation of dendritic cells by haptens is primarily mediated by the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and (4) the activation of p38 MAPK is mediated by stimulation related to an imbalance of intracellular redox. Based on these observations, we will discuss the biological significance of contact dermatitis. In addition, we will review some up-to-date findings on Langerhans cell biology.

  9. Lipid dynamics at dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotti, Carlos Gerardo; Esteban, Jose Antonio; Ledesma, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the structure and composition of the membrane protrusions forming dendritic spines underlie memory and learning processes. In recent years a great effort has been made to characterize in detail the protein machinery that controls spine plasticity. However, we know much less about the involvement of lipids, despite being major membrane components and structure determinants. Moreover, protein complexes that regulate spine plasticity depend on specific interactions with membrane lipids for proper function and accurate intracellular signaling. In this review we gather information available on the lipid composition at dendritic spine membranes and on its dynamics. We pay particular attention to the influence that spine lipid dynamism has on glutamate receptors, which are key regulators of synaptic plasticity.

  10. Microtubules in Dendritic Spine Development

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    It is generally believed that only the actin cytoskeleton resides in dendritic spines and controls spine morphology and plasticity. Here we report that microtubules (MTs) are present in spines and that shRNA knockdown of the MT-plus end binding protein EB3 significantly reduces spine formation. Furthermore, stabilization and inhibition of MTs by low doses of taxol and nocodazole enhance and impair spine formation elicited by BDNF, respectively. Therefore, MTs play an important role in the con...

  11. Melanoma immunotherapy: dendritic cell vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada-Requena, Ivan; Laboratorios de Inmunología #108, Laboratorio de investigación y Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencieas y Filosofía, Universidad Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú Empresa de Investigación y Desarrollo en Cáncer (EMINDES) SAC. Lima, Perú.; Núñez, César; Empresa de Investigación y Desarrollo en Cáncer (EMINDES) SAC. Lima, Perú.; Aguilar, José Luis; Laboratorios de Inmunología #108, Laboratorio de investigación y Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencieas y Filosofía, Universidad Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    This is a narrative review that shows accessible information to the scientific community about melanoma and immunotherapy.Dendritic cells have the ability to participate in innate and adaptive immunity, but are not unfamiliar to the immune evasion oftumors. Knowing the biology and role has led to generate in vitro several prospects of autologous cell vaccines against diversetypes of cancer in humans and animal models. However, given the low efficiency they have shown, we must implementstrateg...

  12. THE RESEARCH OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STOWING SLURRY WITH HIGH-WATER MATERIAL SOLIDIFYING TAILINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨本生; 刘文永

    1996-01-01

    High-water material, tailings from goldmine and water are mixed into a new slurry.Testing of rheological properties of stowing slurries A and B is made to determine type and rheo-logical parameters of the slurry. The main factors influencing rheological properties of the slurryare analyzed and the rational concentration and empirical resistance calculating formula of pipeline transportation are presented.

  13. Slurry pumping techniques for feeding high-pressure coal gasification reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, W. G.; Tarman, P. B.

    1977-01-01

    Operating experience in pumping coal and coal char slurries at pressures up to 1500 psig is discussed. The design specifications for the mixing tanks, pumps, piping, and slurry heaters are given along with pressure drop and minimum flow velocity data on water-lignite slurries.

  14. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  15. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  16. Effects of dairy slurry on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...

  17. Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective i

  18. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of manure fibres (MF) from 17 commercially separated pig slurries and seven raw pig slurries were characterised in terms of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), protein, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The average lignocellulose concentration in manure fibres and pig slurries...

  19. Superior cycle stability and high rate capability of Zn-Al-In-hydrotalcite as negative electrode materials for Ni-Zn secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruijuan; Yang, Zhanhong; Yang, Bin; Wang, Tingting; Chu, Zhihao

    2014-04-01

    Zn-Al-In layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are synthesized by hydrothermal method and investigated as negative electrode materials for Ni-Zn batteries. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the as-prepared samples are well-crystallized and hexagon structure. The electrochemical performances of Zn-Al-LDHs and Zn-Al-In-LDHs with different Zn/Al/In molar ration are investigated by the cyclic voltammograms (CV), Tafel polarization and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. Zn-Al-LDHs shows good stability in the first 300-cycles. However, during the subsequent cycles, the discharge capacity decreases with increasing of the cycles. Compared with Zn-Al-LDHs, Zn-Al-In-LDHs with different Zn/Al/In molar rations, especially the sample of Zn/Al/In = 3:0.75:0.25 (molar ration) have higher discharge capacity and more stable cycling performances. This battery can undergo at least 800 charge-discharge cycles at constant current of 1C without dendrite and short circuits. The discharge capacity of Zn-Al-In-LDHs after the 800th cycle remains about 380 mAh g-1. Zn-Al-In-LDHs possess a high rate capability to meet the needs of high-storage applications.

  20. Development of Dendritic Cell System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiWu; AleksandarDakic

    2004-01-01

    The dendritic cell system contains conventional dendritic cells (DCs) and plasmacytoid pre-dendritic cells (pDCs). Both DCs and pDCs are bone marrow derived calls. Although the common functions of DCs are antigen-processing and T-lymphocyte activation, they differ in surface markers, migratory patterns, and cytokine output. These differences can determine the fate of the T cells they activate. Several subsets of mature DCs have been described in both mouse and human and the developmental processes of these specialized DC subsets have been studied extensively. The original concept that all DCs were of myeloid origin was questioned by several recent studies, which demonstrated that in addition to the DCs derived from myeloid precursors, some DCs could also be efficiently generated from lymphoid-restricted precursors. Moreover, it has been shown recently that both conventional DCs and pDCs can be generated by the Fit3 expressing hemopoietic progenitors regardless of their myeloid- or lymphoid-origin. These findings suggest an early developmental flexibility of precursors for DCs and pDCs. This review summarizes some recent observations on the development of DC system in both human and mouse. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(2):112-118.

  1. Development of Dendritic Cell System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wu; Aleksandar Dakic

    2004-01-01

    The dendritic cell system contains conventional dendritic cells (DCs) and plasmacytoid pre-dendritic cells (pDCs). Both DCs and pDCs are bone marrow derived cells. Although the common functions of DCs are antigen-processing and T-lymphocyte activation, they differ in surface markers, migratory patterns, and cytokine output. These differences can determine the fate of the T cells they activate. Several subsets of mature DCs have been described in both mouse and human and the developmental processes of these specialized DC subsets have been studied extensively. The original concept that all DCs were of myeloid origin was questioned by several recent studies, which demonstrated that in addition to the DCs derived from myeloid precursors,some DCs could also be efficiently generated from lymphoid-restricted precursors. Moreover, it has been shown recently that both conventional DCs and pDCs can be generated by the Flt3 expressing hemopoietic progenitors regardless of their myeloid- or lymphoid-origin. These findings suggest an early developmental flexibility of precursors for DCs and pDCs. This review summarizes some recent observations on the development of DC system in both human and mouse.

  2. Dendritic web silicon for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    The dendritic web process for growing long thin ribbon crystals of silicon and other semiconductors is described. Growth is initiated from a thin wirelike dendrite seed which is brought into contact with the melt surface. Initially, the seed grows laterally to form a button at the melt surface; when the seed is withdrawn, needlelike dendrites propagate from each end of the button into the melt, and the web portion of the crystal is formed by the solidification of the liquid film supported by the button and the bounding dendrites. Apparatus used for dendritic web growth, material characteristics, and the two distinctly different mechanisms involved in the growth of a single crystal are examined. The performance of solar cells fabricated from dendritic web material is indistinguishable from the performance of cells fabricated from Czochralski grown material.

  3. Active dendrites enhance neuronal dynamic range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo L Gollo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the first experimental evidences of active conductances in dendrites, most neurons have been shown to exhibit dendritic excitability through the expression of a variety of voltage-gated ion channels. However, despite experimental and theoretical efforts undertaken in the past decades, the role of this excitability for some kind of dendritic computation has remained elusive. Here we show that, owing to very general properties of excitable media, the average output of a model of an active dendritic tree is a highly non-linear function of its afferent rate, attaining extremely large dynamic ranges (above 50 dB. Moreover, the model yields double-sigmoid response functions as experimentally observed in retinal ganglion cells. We claim that enhancement of dynamic range is the primary functional role of active dendritic conductances. We predict that neurons with larger dendritic trees should have larger dynamic range and that blocking of active conductances should lead to a decrease in dynamic range.

  4. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) inhibits cortical dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean C; Palmer, Lucy M; Nyffeler, Thomas; Müri, René M; Larkum, Matthew E

    2016-03-18

    One of the leading approaches to non-invasively treat a variety of brain disorders is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, despite its clinical prevalence, very little is known about the action of TMS at the cellular level let alone what effect it might have at the subcellular level (e.g. dendrites). Here, we examine the effect of single-pulse TMS on dendritic activity in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex using an optical fiber imaging approach. We find that TMS causes GABAB-mediated inhibition of sensory-evoked dendritic Ca(2+) activity. We conclude that TMS directly activates fibers within the upper cortical layers that leads to the activation of dendrite-targeting inhibitory neurons which in turn suppress dendritic Ca(2+) activity. This result implies a specificity of TMS at the dendritic level that could in principle be exploited for investigating these structures non-invasively.

  5. Dendritic Cells, New Tools for Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Review Dendritic cells , new tools for vaccination Jesus Colino, Clifford M. Snapper * Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the...2003 Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. Keywords: Vaccines; Immunotherapy; Dendritic cells 1. Introduction During...DATE 2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dendritic cells , new tools for vaccination 5a

  6. Low Power Dendritic Computation for Wordspotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Nease

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate how a network of dendrites can be used to build the state decoding block of a wordspotter similar to a Hidden Markov Model (HMM classifier structure. We present simulation and experimental data for a single line dendrite and also experimental results for a dendrite-based classifier structure. This work builds on previously demonstrated building blocks of a neural network: the channel, synapses and dendrites using CMOS circuits. These structures can be used for speech and pattern recognition. The computational efficiency of such a system is >10 MMACs/μW as compared to Digital Systems which perform 10 MMACs/mW.

  7. Neoplasms derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchetti, Fabio; Cigognetti, Marta; Fisogni, Simona; Rossi, Giuseppe; Lonardi, Silvia; Vermi, William

    2016-02-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms manifest in two clinically and pathologically distinct forms. The first variant is represented by nodular aggregates of clonally expanded plasmacytoid dendritic cells found in lymph nodes, skin, and bone marrow ('Mature plasmacytoid dendritic cells proliferation associated with myeloid neoplasms'). This entity is rare, although likely underestimated in incidence, and affects predominantly males. Almost invariably, it is associated with a myeloid neoplasm such as chronic myelomonocytic leukemia or other myeloid proliferations with monocytic differentiation. The concurrent myeloid neoplasm dominates the clinical pictures and guides treatment. The prognosis is usually dismal, but reflects the evolution of the associated myeloid leukemia rather than progressive expansion of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. A second form of plasmacytoid dendritic cells tumor has been recently reported and described as 'blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm'. In this tumor, which is characterized by a distinctive cutaneous and bone marrow tropism, proliferating cells derive from immediate CD4(+)CD56(+) precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The diagnosis of this form can be easily accomplished by immunohistochemistry, using a panel of plasmacytoid dendritic cells markers. The clinical course of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is characterized by a rapid progression to systemic disease via hematogenous dissemination. The genomic landscape of this entity is currently under intense investigation. Recurrent somatic mutations have been uncovered in different genes, a finding that may open important perspectives for precision medicine also for this rare, but highly aggressive leukemia.

  8. Chemical aspects of coal liquefaction by oxygen in alkaline slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, R.; Caprio, V.; Insola, A.

    1988-03-01

    Coal liquefaction by oxygen in alkaline slurries is reviewed from the chemical point of view. Available information is considered in the light of questions relating to coal liquefaction. A lack of chemical knowledge in this area is noted, especially on model compounds. 72 refs.

  9. Particle sedimentation monitoring in high-concentration slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshihiro; Kato, Zenji; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the sedimentation states of particles in high-concentration slurries were elucidated by monitoring their internal states. We prepared transparent high-concentration silica slurries by adjusting the refractive index of the aqueous glycerol liquid in which the particles were dispersed to match that of the silica particles. In addition, a fluorescent dye was dissolved in the liquid. Then, we directly observed the individual and flocculated particles in the slurries during sedimentation by confocal laser scanning fluorescent microscopy. The particles were found to sediment very slowly while exhibiting fluctuating motion. The particle sedimentation rate in the high-concentration slurry with the aqueous glycerol solution (η =0.068 Pa. s ) and a particle volume fraction on the order of 0.3 was determined to be 1.58 ± 0.66 μ m. min-1 on the basis of the obtained image sequences for 24.9 h. In-situ observation provides a large amount of information about the sedimentation behavior of particles in condensed matter.

  10. Coal slurry - a problem of the brown coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H.; Hielscher, R.; Mohry, J.

    1983-01-01

    Technological and economic aspects are examined for processing coal-containing waste water from brown coal preparation plants in the German Democratic Republic. In 1979, 106.8 Mm/sup 3/ of coal slurry were produced by the GDR brown coal industry, with a coal fine content ranging between 7.8 g/l and 20.4 g/l. This amounts to 2.6 Mt/y of coal which is 1% of the annual brown coal production. Technological variants of processing and utilizing coal slurry are discussed. At a number of major coal preparation plants, coal slurry is flushed into sedimentation lakes. After a 2 to 3 year drying period, a 6 to 10 m thick layer of coal is recovered. Technologies of coal slurry processing with the aim of recovering coal fines are enumerated. Equipment for these processes include, filters, centrifuges, dryers, etc. Recovered coal can be used as fuel or processed into fertilizer in combination with fly ash and other waste products. 12 references.

  11. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  12. Effects of cattle slurry manure management on grass yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Kok, I.P.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of application method, cattle slurry manure type and use of additives on grassland performance were studied in a 3-year field experiment on two farms on sandy soils in the northern part of the Netherlands. The objectives were to determine the effects on (1) nitrogen (N) utilization, (2)

  13. Rheokinetic Analysis of Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadiene Based Solid Propellant Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K Mahanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure kinetics of propellant slurry based on hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and toluene diisocyanate (TDI polyurethane reaction has been studied by viscosity build up method. The viscosity (ɳ–time (t plots conform to the exponential function ɳ = aebt, where a & b are empirical constants. The rate constants (k for viscosity build up at various shear rate (rpm, evaluated from the slope of dɳ/dt versus ɳ plots at different temperatures, were found to vary from 0.0032 to 0.0052 min-1. It was observed that the increasing shear rate did not have significant effect on the reaction rate constants for viscosity build up of the propellant slurry. The activation energy (Eɳ, calculated from the Arrhenius plots, was found to be 13.17±1.78 kJ mole-1, whereas the activation enthalpy (∆Hɳ* and entropy (∆Sɳ* of the propellant slurry, calculated from Eyring relationship, were found to be 10.48±1.78 kJ mole-1 and –258.51± 5.38 J mole-1K-1, respectively. The reaction quenching temperature of the propellant slurry was found to be -9 ° C, based upon the experimental data. This opens up an avenue for a “freeze-and-store”, then “warm-up and cast”, mode of manufacturing of very large solid rocket propellant grains.

  14. Overview of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Slurry Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis specially in slurry reactors ispresented, covering reaction kinetics, activity and selectivity of catalysts, productdistribution, effects of process parameters, mass transfer and solubility of gas. Someimportant aspects of further research are proposed for improving both theories andproduction.

  15. Overview of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Slurry Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁百全; 李涛; A.A.C.M.Beenackers; G.P.vanderLaan

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis specially in slurry reactors is presented, covering reaction kinetics, activity and selectivity of catalysts, product distribution, effects of process parameters, mass transfer and solubility of gas. Some important aspects of further research axe proposed for improving both theories and production.

  16. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and Colleges and Universities Scientific research project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  17. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involvi...

  18. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  19. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  20. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  1. Fabrication of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1 - x)4 solar cells by ethanol-ammonium solution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cong; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Yaguang; Jiang, Guoshun; Weifeng, Liu; Zhu, Changfei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1 - x)4 precursor films were produced by doctor blade process from SnS-Cu2O-ZnS slurry. To prepare the slurry, SnS, ZnS and Cu2O precipitates, which are outgrowths of stacked layer ZnS/Cu/SnS by CBD (chemical bath deposition)-annealing route, were dissolved in the mixture solvent of ethanol and NH3·H2O. Synthesized precursor films were then annealed at different conditions. The post-annealed films were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman measurements and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. SEM studies reveal that the rough and relatively compact absorber thin films are obtained via the sulfidation and sulfidation-selenization processes. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum results verify that the obtained films are composed of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 phases, which have high absorbance in visible range and direct band gap energy of 1.01-1.47 eV. The best devices yield total area power conversion efficiency of 1.99% and 2.95% corresponding to Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1 - x)4 thin film solar cells under AM1.5 illumination without any anti-reflection layer.

  2. An experimental technique for studying the dynamic stability of slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, S.K.; Chu, M.L.; Reddy, N.P.; Yazdani, S.

    1987-01-01

    In coal slurry transportation, repeated vertical accelerations larger than the gravitational acceleration are encountered. The sedimentation behavior of the slurry fuels under these conditions is an area of concern in fuel transportation. A laboratory-scale technique has been developed that can be used to study the sedimentation behavior of coal slurry fuels under conditions of repeated vertical accelerations. A coal slurry sample contained in a settling column is subjected to repeated vertical movement using a mechanical shaker. The coal concentration profile along the height of the settling column can be used to quantify the sedimentation behavior of the slurry.

  3. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga

    2013-01-01

    indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...... have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops....

  4. Effects of Cattle Slurry Acidification on Ammonia and Methane Evolution during Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    experiments, the pH of acidified cattle slurry increased gradually to between 6.5 and 7. Acidification of slurry reduced the evolution of CH4 by 67 to 87%. The greatest reduction was observed with aged cattle slurry, which had a much higher potential for CH4 production than fresh slurry. Sulfate...... and methionine amendment to cattle slurry without pH adjustment also significantly inhibited methanogenesis, probably as a result of sulfide production. The study suggests that complex microbial interactions involving sulfur transformations and pH determine the potential for CH4 emission during storage of cattle...

  5. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  6. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-09-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  7. Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor, Benzotriazole, in Cu Slurry on Cu Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Kwon; Kang, Young-Jae; Kim, Tae-Gon; Park, Jin-Goo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effect of benzotriazole (BTA) in Cu slurry on Cu polishing behavior was investigated as functions of H2O2 and slurry pH. The addition of BTA to slurry effectively prevented Cu from being etched by forming a passivation layer of Cu-BTA regardless of pH and H2O2 concentration in the slurry. The passivation layer on the Cu wafer exhibited a contact angle of 50° in solution with BTA and H2O2. The dynamic etching rate, i.e., the Cu polishing rate using abrasive-free slurry, also decreased when BTA was added to the slurry at pH 2, 4, and 6. The removal rate of Cu in slurry without BTA was strongly dependent on H2O2 concentration and pH. In slurry with BTA, Cu-BTA on the Cu surface prevented the etching of Cu. At pH 2 and 4, the removal rates were lower in slurry with BTA than in slurry without BTA. However, slurries of pH 6 or higher with BTA showed higher removal rates at higher concentrations of H2O2 than 10%, which was explained by the thick passivating oxide layer formed at higher pH and H2O2 concentrations.

  8. Nitrous-Oxide Flux from Nitric-Acid-Treated Cattle Slurry Applied to Grassland under Semi-Controlled Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from cattle slurry after surface application to grassland were measured under semi-controlled environmental conditions during three periods in 1991. Three types of cattle slurry were examined; untreated slurry and slurries treated with nitric acid (HNO3) to pH 6.0 and 4.5.

  9. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  10. In vivo dendrite regeneration after injury is different from dendrite development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tun; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2016-01-01

    Neurons receive information along dendrites and send signals along axons to synaptic contacts. The factors that control axon regeneration have been examined in many systems, but dendrite regeneration has been largely unexplored. Here we report that, in intact Drosophila larvae, a discrete injury that removes all dendrites induces robust dendritic growth that recreates many features of uninjured dendrites, including the number of dendrite branches that regenerate and responsiveness to sensory stimuli. However, the growth and patterning of injury-induced dendrites is significantly different from uninjured dendrites. We found that regenerated arbors cover much less territory than uninjured neurons, fail to avoid crossing over other branches from the same neuron, respond less strongly to mechanical stimuli, and are pruned precociously. Finally, silencing the electrical activity of the neurons specifically blocks injury-induced, but not developmental, dendrite growth. By elucidating the essential features of dendrites grown in response to acute injury, our work builds a framework for exploring dendrite regeneration in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27542831

  11. Test of experimental set-ups for electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from different contaminated harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    of the sediment slurry, the other without stirring. The removal of heavy metals was highest in the non-calcareous sediment, where 94% Cd, 91% Zn and 73% Cu were removed after 24 days. The highest removal obtained for the calcareous sediment was 81% Cd, 76% Zn, 75% Pb and 53% Cu after 21 days, with stirred...... was the most stable in these experiments, and thus, the stirred set-up is the best choice for experimental set-up. The order in which the heavy metals were removed from the harbour sediments was Cd>Zn>Pb>Cu....

  12. Recrystallization phenomena of solution grown paraffin dendrites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.F.A.; Stasse, O.; Suchtelen, van J.; Enckevort, van W.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Paraffin crystals were grown from decane solutions using a micro-Bridgman set up for in-situ observation of the morphology at the growth front. It is shown that for large imposed velocities, dendrites are obtained. After dendritic growth, aging or recrystallization processes set in rather quickly, c

  13. A Case of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köpeczi Judit Beáta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plasmacytoid dendritic cell leukemia is a rare subtype of acute leukemia, which has recently been established as a distinct pathologic entity that typically follows a highly aggressive clinical course in adults. The aim of this report is to present a case of plasmacytoid dendritic cell leukemia due to its rarity and difficulty to recognize and diagnose it.

  14. Early events in axon/dendrite polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-lin; Poo, Mu-ming

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation of axons and dendrites is a critical step in neuronal development. Here we review the evidence that axon/dendrite formation during neuronal polarization depends on the intrinsic cytoplasmic asymmetry inherited by the postmitotic neuron, the exposure of the neuron to extracellular chemical factors, and the action of anisotropic mechanical forces imposed by the environment. To better delineate the functions of early signals among a myriad of cellular components that were shown to influence axon/dendrite formation, we discuss their functions by distinguishing their roles as determinants, mediators, or modulators and consider selective degradation of these components as a potential mechanism for axon/dendrite polarization. Finally, we examine whether these early events of axon/dendrite formation involve local autocatalytic activation and long-range inhibition, as postulated by Alan Turing for the morphogenesis of patterned biological structure.

  15. Numerical simulation of facet dendrite growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi; CHEN Chang-le; HAO Li-mei

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulation based on phase field method was performed to describe the solidification of silicon. The effect of anisotropy, undercooling and coupling parameter on dendrite growth shape was investigated. It is indicated that the entire facet dendrite shapes are obtained by using regularized phase field model. Steady state tip velocity of dendrite drives to a fixed value when γ≤0.13. With further increasing the anisotropy value, steady state tip velocity decreases and the size is smaller. With the increase in the undercooling and coupling parameter, crystal grows from facet to facet dendrite. In addition, with increasing coupling parameter, the facet part of facet dendrite decreases gradually, which is in good agreement with Wulff theory.

  16. Assessment of trace metal air pollution in Paris using slurry-TXRF analysis on cemetery mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Marco; Zanella, Augusto; Rankovic, Aleksandar; Banas, Damien; Cantaluppi, Chiara; Abbadie, Luc; Lata, Jean -Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Mosses are useful, ubiquitous accumulation biomonitors and as such can be used for biomonitoring surveys. However, the biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution can be compromised in urban contexts if the targeted biomonitors are regularly disturbed, irregularly distributed, or are difficult to access. Here, we test the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled mosses growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. We focused on Grimmia pulvinata (Hedwig) Smith, a species abundantly found in all studied cemeteries and very common in Europe. The concentration of Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ti, and Zn was determined by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique coupled with a slurry sampling method (slurry-TXRF). This method avoids a digestion step, reduces the risk of sample contamination, and works even at low sample quantities. Elemental markers of road traffic indicated that the highest polluted cemeteries were located near the highly frequented Parisian ring road and under the influence of prevailing winds. The sites with the lowest pollution were found not only in the peri-urban cemeteries, adjoining forest or farming landscapes, but also in the large and relatively wooded cemeteries located in the center of Paris. Our results suggest that (1) slurry-TXRF might be successfully used with moss material, (2) G. pulvinata might be a good biomonitor of trace metals air pollution in urban context, and (3) cemetery moss sampling could be a useful complement for monitoring urban areas. Graphical abstract We tested the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled 110 moss cushions (Grimmia pulvinata) growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. The concentration of 20

  17. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Perazzolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestate cattle slurry and its respective separated fractions. Lab-scale experiment was carried in temperature-controlled room where each fraction (untreated, separated liquid and separated solid was stored in duplicate for a period of 32 days in 30 L vessel. Pilot-scale experiment was carried out both during the cold season and during warm season for 90 days of storage. In both experimentations samples of the manure were analysed periodically for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total ammonia nitrogen, dry matter and volatile solids and pH. These analyses allow estimating nitrogen losses in different storage conditions. Effects of mechanical separation and season were assessed by ANOVA (Wilcoxon test, P<0.05. In temperature controlled conditions nitrogen losses measured account for 13% and 26% of TKN for unseparated and separated slurries respectively. In field conditions during cold season nutrient losses were limited. On average unseparated and separated slurries lost respectively 6.8% and 12.6% of their initial TKN content. Much higher were the TKN losses from the slurries examined in warm season where losses raised up to 40% of the initial TKN content. Generally mechanical separation increases nutrient losses, but the differences were not significant in field conditions. The results highlighted that nutrient losses, in particular the nitrogen ones, can be considerable especially during summer storage. The latter, in case of separated slurries, are mainly related

  18. Stable icosahedral phase in Mg44Zn44Gd12 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xudong; DU Wenbo; WANG Zhaohui; LIU Ke; LI Shubo

    2012-01-01

    The microstructure of the as-cast Mg44Zn44Gd12 alloy was investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD),differentical scanning (DSC),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a detailed transmission electron microscope.The XRD,DSC and SEM results indicated that the as-cast Mg44Zn44Gd12 alloy were mainly composed of three types of phases:the primary solidification phase,the dendritic phase and the eutectic phase.The primary solidification phase had an icosahedral structure.The dendritic phase was the W-phase,and cutectic structure phase was the Mg7Zn3 phase.Microstructures of icosahedral phase (I-phase),W-phase and Mg7Zn3 phase in MguZn44Gd12 alloy were investigated.The results indicated that the I-phase in Mg44Zn44Gd12 alloy was a face-centered icosahedral quasicrystal with stoichiometric composition of Mg42Zn50Gd8 which had an excellent thermal stability up to 420℃.The solid solution of the Gd gradually decreased during solidification,which played an important role in activating the formation of Mg7Zn3 phase and W-phase from icosahedral phases.

  19. Emerging Roles of Filopodia and Dendritic Spines in Motoneuron Plasticity during Development and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refik Kanjhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motoneurons develop extensive dendritic trees for receiving excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to perform a variety of complex motor tasks. At birth, the somatodendritic domains of mouse hypoglossal and lumbar motoneurons have dense filopodia and spines. Consistent with Vaughn’s synaptotropic hypothesis, we propose a developmental unified-hybrid model implicating filopodia in motoneuron spinogenesis/synaptogenesis and dendritic growth and branching critical for circuit formation and synaptic plasticity at embryonic/prenatal/neonatal period. Filopodia density decreases and spine density initially increases until postnatal day 15 (P15 and then decreases by P30. Spine distribution shifts towards the distal dendrites, and spines become shorter (stubby, coinciding with decreases in frequency and increases in amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents with maturation. In transgenic mice, either overexpressing the mutated human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (hSOD1G93A gene or deficient in GABAergic/glycinergic synaptic transmission (gephyrin, GAD-67, or VGAT gene knockout, hypoglossal motoneurons develop excitatory glutamatergic synaptic hyperactivity. Functional synaptic hyperactivity is associated with increased dendritic growth, branching, and increased spine and filopodia density, involving actin-based cytoskeletal and structural remodelling. Energy-dependent ionic pumps that maintain intracellular sodium/calcium homeostasis are chronically challenged by activity and selectively overwhelmed by hyperactivity which eventually causes sustained membrane depolarization leading to excitotoxicity, activating microglia to phagocytose degenerating neurons under neuropathological conditions.

  20. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  1. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry: effects of acidification and sulfur addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik V; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Petersen, Søren O

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (HS) with addition of sulfate and methionine ( slurries resulted in little accumulation of MT and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under neutral conditions, in contrast to acidic conditions where the degradation was inhibited and both MT and DMS accumulated. Based on odor activity values, untreated slurry had little odor development from S compounds, especially the aged slurry. Acidification did not significantly increase odor contribution from any of the compounds in fresh or aged slurry. Generally, addition of a sulfate increased the contribution from HS dramatically, whereas acidification lowered the HS contribution but increased that of MT. Thus, acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid may potentially produce more odor from S compounds than untreated slurry. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joel T.; Mannheimer, Richard J.; Grimley, Terrence A.; Morrow, Thomas B.

    1989-06-01

    An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and fully-developed turbulent pipe flow regimes was the primary objective of this research. Experiments were conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry flow facility with an inside diameter of 51 mm (2 inches). Approximately, 550 liters (145 gal) of slurry were necessary in the operation of the loop. Detailed velocity profile measurements by a two-color, two-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) were accomplished in a transparent test section with an optically transparent slurry. These velocity measurements were apparently the first ever reported for a non-Newtonian slurry with a yield value. The transparent slurry was formulated for these experiments from silica with a particle size of one to two microns, mineral oil, and Stoddard solvent. From linear regression analysis of concentric-cylinder viscometer data, the slurry exhibited yield-power-law behavior with a yield stress of 100 dynes/cm(sup 2), and an exponent of 0.630 for a solids concentration of 5.65 percent by weight. Good agreement was attained with rheological data derived from the pressure drop data in the flow loop under laminar flow conditions. The rheological properties of the transparent slurry were similar to many industrial slurries, including coal slurries, which have a yield value.

  3. Exploration of remediation of acid rock drainage with clinoptilolite as sorbent in a slurry bubble column for both heavy metal capture and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Heping; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R

    2006-10-01

    Preliminary work was carried out to explore a novel process for high-efficiency high-capacity remediation of acid rock drainage. Zn and other metal ions were adsorbed and desorbed in a laboratory Plexiglas slurry bubble column with natural clinoptilolite particles as sorbent. The results indicate that both adsorption and desorption in this medium have considerable advantages over those in the packed beds and rotating columns, leading to faster batch adsorption and desorption, as well as greater uptake of zinc. The adsorption order of clinoptilolite particles to different metal ions appeared to be Fe>Al>Cu>Zn>Mg>Mn on the basis of normalized concentrations. Smaller particles had significantly higher capacity and rates of the adsorption than larger particles for the same operating conditions.

  4. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  5. Planarization effect evaluation of acid and alkaline slurries in the copper interconnect process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hu; Yan, Li; Yuling, Liu; Yangang, He

    2015-03-01

    We observed and analyzed the acid and HEBUT alkaline of Cu chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) slurry to evaluate their effects. Material analysis has shown that the planarity surfaces and the removal rate of alkaline slurry are better than the acid slurry during metal CMP processes. The global surface roughness and the small-scale surface roughness by 10 × 10 μm2 of copper film polished by the SVTC slurry are 1.127 nm and 2.49 nm. However, it is found that the surface roughnesses of copper films polished by the HEBUT slurry are 0.728 nm and 0.215 nm. All other things being equal, the remaining step heights of copper films polished by the SVTC slurry and HEBUT slurry are respectively 150 nm and 50 nm. At the end of the polishing process, the dishing heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 30 nm, the erosion heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 20 nm. The surface states of the copper film after CMP are tested, and the AFM results of two samples are obviously seen. The surface polished by SVTC slurry shows many spikes. This indicates that the HEBUT alkaline slurry is promising for inter-level dielectric (ILD) applications in ultra large-scale integrated circuits (ULSI) technology. Project supported by the Special Project Items No. 2 in National Long-Term Technology Development Plan (No. 2009ZX02308), the Doctoral Program Foundation of Xinjiang Normal University Plan (No. XJNUBS1226), the Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification, Ministry of Education, and the Inorganic Chemistry Key Disciplines of Xinjiang Normal University.

  6. Distributions of 15 elements on 58 absorbers from simulated Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, S.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 58 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, pillared layered materials, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) (pH 14.0). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 870 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2610 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing DSSF solutions.

  7. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanenchuk, C.A.; Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    A Co/MgO/SiO[sub 2] Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was operated simultaneously with a Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] water-gas-shift catalyst in a slurry reactor for over 400 hours. The process conditions were held constant at a temperature of 240[degrees]C, a pressure of 0.79 MPa, and a 1.1 H[sub 2]/CO feed of 0.065 Nl/min-g.cat. The Fischer-Tropsch activity remained constant at the level predicted by the operation of the Co/MgO/SiO[sub 2] catalyst alone. The water-gas-shift reaction was near equilibrium. The hydrocarbon product distribution of the combined catalyst system was stable and matched that of the CO/MgO/SiO[sub 2] operating alone under similar conditions. The combined catalyst system exhibited a high selectivity to n-alkanes. Neither catalysts's operation appeared to have a detrimental effect on that of the other, showing promise for future option.

  8. Pig slurry and nutrient accumulation and dry matter and grain yield in various crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry (PS represents an important nutrient source for plants and using it as fertilizer makes greater nutrient cycling in the environment possible. The aim of this study was to assess how PS application over a period of years can affect grain yield, dry matter production and nutrient accumulation in commercial grain and cover crops. The experiment was carried out in an experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, from May 2000 to January 2008. In this period, 19 grain and cover crops were grown with PS application before sowing, at rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1. The highest PS rate led to an increase in nutrient availability over the years, notably of P, but also of nutrients that are potentially toxic to plants, especially Cu and Zn. The apparent recovery of nutrients by commercial grain and cover crops decreased with the increasing number of PS applications to the soil. Accumulated dry matter production of the crops and maize grain yield were highest at an annual application rate of 80 m³ ha-1 PS. However, common bean yield increased up to 20 m³ ha-1 PS, showing that the crop to be grown should be considered to define the application rate.

  9. Recovery of clean coal from polymer flocculated raw coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, B.K.; Chen, Z. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (US)

    2004-11-01

    The recovery of fine clean coal from waste streams using column flotation is recognized as an efficient and economical technique. However, due to the low percent solids (around 3% by weight) found in these fine waste slurries, the flotation columns have low capacities and are, thus, underutilized. In this study, a 3% (by weight) solids suspension of Upper Freeport coal was flocculated with polymers and concentrated to 10% (by weight) solids. The flocculated slurry was then floated using 250 g/t No. 2 fuel oil and 250 g/t MIBC, which provided a clean coal with 12% ash at an 80% yield. The results showed that flocculated coal could be floated effectively. Zeta potential and contact-angle data showed that the presence of polymer on the surface of the coal did not affect its hydrophobicity, and in some cases it improved the hydrophobicity as indicated by larger contact angles.

  10. Flow resistance of ice slurry in bends and elbow pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgoda-Żelasko, B.; Żelasko, J.

    2014-08-01

    The present paper covers the flow of ice slurry made of a 10.6% ethanol solution through small-radius bends and elbow pipes. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the flow resistances of Bingham-fluid ice slurry in bends and elbows. The research, performed for three pipe diameters and a relative bend radius of 1<=D/di<=2, has made it possible to take into consideration the influence of friction resistances as well the of the flow geometry on the total local resistance coefficients. The study attempts to make the local resistance coefficient dependent on the Dean number defined for a generalized Reynolds number according to Metzner-Reade

  11. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO/sub 2/ from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)/sub 2/) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). Such a process would be applied to scrub /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)/sub 2/ slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)/sub 2/. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated.

  12. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.

    2013-06-14

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  13. New cement additive improves slurry properties and saves cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, R.; Hibbeler, J.; DiLullo, G.; Shotton, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    A new cement additive has been developed which improves slurry performance and reduces cost. The additive is a vitrified aggregate of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicates with potential cementitious reactivity, hereafter abbreviated CMAS. CMAS has been used successfully on oil and gas wells throughout Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the technical enhancements and cost effectiveness of slurries incorporating CMAS. Laboratory data is presented and working mechanisms are defined to highlight CMAS`s positive effect on; compressive strength, fluid loss control, free water control, gas migration control, resistance to strength retrogression and aggressive fluids. Finally, case studies and an economic analysis are presented to show the cost savings for actual well applications.

  14. Combustion tests of coal-water slurry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, G.A. Jr.; Johnson, S.A.; Vecci, S.J.

    1982-03-01

    The results of an experimental test program to determine the combustion characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels (65 to 75 percent dry coal by weight and exhibiting room temperature viscosities of about 1000 cp) are presented. The slurry tested contained 66 percent solids by weight and was produced from a beneficiated high volatile eastern bituminous coal. The CWS and its parent coal were each fired in B and W's 4.0 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr Basic Combustion Test Unit. Each fuel was also subjected to extensive laboratory analysis work. No burner or atomizer development work was done - the primary objective of the study being to demonstrate that the CWS could be fired with existing fuel oil handling equipment.

  15. Al slurry coatings for molten carbonate fuel cells separator plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueero, A.; Garcia, M.C.; Muelas, R.; Sanchez, A. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial, Madrid (Spain); Perez, F.J.; Duday, D.; Hierro, M.P.; Gomez, C. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ciencia de los Materiales

    2001-07-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Al slurry coated AISI 310 stainless steel, with and without diffusion heat treatment, was investigated as a wet seal material for molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) at 650 C. The results were compared with IVD Al coated AISI 310. Characterization of the samples before and after exposure to the eutectic 62 mol% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38 mol% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixture at 650 C for 1000 h by SEM-EDS and XRD was carried out. The presence of LiAlO{sub 2} on the coated samples was confirmed by XRD. The slurry Al-coated stainless steels performed at least as well as the IVD Al coating. (orig.)

  16. Freeforming of Ceramics and Composites from Colloidal Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CESARANO III,JOSEPH; DENHAM,HUGH B.; STUECKER,JOHN N.; BAER,THOMAS A.; GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.

    1999-12-01

    This report is a summary of the work completed for an LDRD project. The objective of the project was to develop a solid freeform fabrication technique for ceramics and composites from fine particle slurries. The work was successful and resulted in the demonstration of a manufacturing technique called robocasting. Some ceramic components may pow be fabricated without the use of molds or tooling by dispensing colloidal suspensions through an orifice and stacking two-dimensional layers into three-dimensional shapes. Any conceivable two-dimensional pattern may be ''written'' layer by layer into a three-dimensional shape. Development of the robocasting technique required the materials expertise for fabrication and theological control of very highly concentrated fine particle slurries, and development of robotics for process control and optimization. Several ceramic materials have been manufactured and characterized. Development of techniques for robocasting multiple materials simultaneously have also been developed to build parts with unique structures or graded compositions.

  17. Selection of design parameters for a slurry injection tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nyord, Tavs

    2013-01-01

    selected through applying the optimization approach. The four sweeps were tested at different working depths (75, 100, and 125 mm below soil surface) in a field with loamy sandy soil. The results showed that draft force and soil cross-sectional area tilled had similar trends as predicted......Injection has been recognized as an effective method for land application of liquid slurry. Optimization design is essential for developing higher-performance injection tools and identifying potential improvement of existing tools. In this study, design parameters of an injection tool were...... in the optimization in terms of the effects of sweep width and working depth. Among all the combinations of sweep width and working depth, the 180 mm sweep working at 100 mm depth had the best performance, as indicated by its lowest draft force and most favorable soil surface profile for covering injected slurry....

  18. Hydraulic calculation of gravity transportation pipeline system for backfill slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; HU Guan-yu; WANG Xin-min

    2008-01-01

    Taking cemented coal gangue pipeline transportation system in Suncun Coal Mine, Xinwen Mining Group, Shandong Province, China, as an example, the hydraulic calculation approaches and process about gravity pipeline transportation of backfill slurry were investigated. The results show that the backfill capability of the backfill system should be higher than 74.4m3/h according to the mining production and backfill times in the mine; the minimum velocity (critical velocity) and practical working velocity of the backfill slurry are 1.44 and 3.82m/s, respectively. Various formulae give the maximum ratio of total length to vertical height of pipeline (L/H ratio) of the backfill system of 5.4, and then the reliability and capability of the system can be evaluated.

  19. Summary of rheological studies related to HWVP slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, D.D.; Smith, P.A.; Terrones, G.; Larson, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous studies (Section 8) have,addressed the Theological properties of simulated process slurries at the Savannah River Laboratory for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and at Pacific Northwest Laboratory`(PNL) for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). These studies were reviewed to summarize existing data applicable to HWVP design. The reviewers determined that the existing data provide important information on the effects of feed variability, solids loading, temperature, formating, pH, and scale-up. However, these data cannot serve as a basis for fundamental slurry transport calculations because data are not reported in sufficient detail over a range of shear rates and in appropriate terms to be sufficient for transport calculations.

  20. Analysis of Slurry Drying in a Spray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittaya Julklang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying has recently been exploited to prepare a large variety of high-value particles. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the drying mechanism of slurry droplets consist of nanosized particles in an industrial-scale spray dryer. For this purpose, a mathematical model is developed comprising a comprehensive model for the heat and mass transfer for a single droplet and a model for the flow of droplets and gas, and the heat and mass transfer in the dryer. Using the developed model, the drying behaviour of slurry droplets in the spray dryer is investigated in the initial heating-up, constant rate and falling rate periods by analyzing the profiles of air temperature and humidity, and the droplet velocity, average temperature and moisture content in the dryer axial direction as well as the distributions of temperature and water vapor concentration in the droplet.

  1. Preparation of coal slurries deposited in ground settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Blaschke

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the hard coal washing process, considerable quantities of coal slimes are generated. They belong to grain size classes below 1, 0 mm (with the majority of grains below 0,035 mm and are often sold in order to prepare blends for the power generation. It is assessed that in Poland about 11 mln tons of such slimes were deposited. The slimes of a low ash content can be exploited and sold. The slime of high ash content must be washed. In Poland there is one coal preparation plant for slurries. The article describes the technology and presents the results of a simplified economic analysis of exploitation of the slurries and their washing.

  2. Integral Characteristics of Stability of Coal-Water Slurries and Coal-Water Slurries Containing Petrochemicals By Evaluation of Separation Into Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For wide use of coal and oil processing wastes in heat power industry we investigated the structural stability of coal-water slurries (CWS and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP. Three methods of evaluating slurry stability were considered. The method of evaluation of separation (into layers of the slurry was chosen to determine the stability of fuel compositions based on bituminous and brown coal, filter cakes of bituminous coals, waste motor, turbine, transformer, compressor oils, oil, oiled mixture and mazut. The experiments shown, that the addition of waste oils (with mass fraction of 10 % to investigated fuel compositions leads to increase of slurry segmental stability is almost by 2 times.

  3. Dendritic potassium channels in hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D; Hoffman, D A; Magee, J C; Poolos, N P; Watanabe, S; Colbert, C M; Migliore, M

    2000-05-15

    Potassium channels located in the dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons control the shape and amplitude of back-propagating action potentials, the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials and dendritic excitability. Non-uniform gradients in the distribution of potassium channels in the dendrites make the dendritic electrical properties markedly different from those found in the soma. For example, the influence of a fast, calcium-dependent potassium current on action potential repolarization is progressively reduced in the first 150 micrometer of the apical dendrites, so that action potentials recorded farther than 200 micrometer from the soma have no fast after-hyperpolarization and are wider than those in the soma. The peak amplitude of back-propagating action potentials is also progressively reduced in the dendrites because of the increasing density of a transient potassium channel with distance from the soma. The activation of this channel can be reduced by the activity of a number of protein kinases as well as by prior depolarization. The depolarization from excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) can inactivate these A-type K+ channels and thus lead to an increase in the amplitude of dendritic action potentials, provided the EPSP and the action potentials occur within the appropriate time window. This time window could be in the order of 15 ms and may play a role in long-term potentiation induced by pairing EPSPs and back-propagating action potentials.

  4. Catalytic oxidation of calcium sulfite in solution/aqueous slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-qin; WU Zhong-biao; WANG Da-hui

    2004-01-01

    Forced oxidation of calcium sulfite aqueous slurry is a key step for the calcium-based flue gas desulfurization(FGD) residue. Experiments were conducted in a semi-batch system and a continuous flow system on lab scales. The main reactor in semi-batch system is a 1000 ml volume flask. It has five necks for continuous feeding of gas and a batch of calcium sulfite solution/aqueous slurry. In continuous flow system, the main part is a jacketed Pyrex glass reactor in which gas and solution/aqueous slurry are fed continuously. Calcium sulfite oxidation is a series of complex free-radical reactions. According to experimental results and literature data, the reactions are influenced significantly by manganese as catalyst. At low concentration of manganese and calcium sulfite, the reaction rate is dependent on 1.5 order of sulfite concentration, 0.5 order of manganese concentration, and zero order of oxygen concentration in which the oxidation is controlled by chemical kinetics. With concentrations of calcium sulfite and manganese increasing, the reactions are independent gradually on the constituents in solution but are impacted by oxygen concentration. Manganese can accelerate the free-radical reactions, and then enhances the mass transfer of oxygen from gas to liquid. The critical concentration of calcium sulfite is 0.007 mol/L, manganese is 10-4 mol/L, and oxygen is of 0.2-0.4 atm.

  5. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  6. Treatment of brewery slurry in thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Straziscar, Matej; Ros, Milenko

    2007-10-01

    Treatment of brewery slurry in a thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was studied using conventional fully mixed semi-continuous digestion as a control. The process phases were adapted to fit the brewery slurry discharge schedule. ASBR experiments were conducted under different organic loading rates (OLR) from 3.23 to 8.57 kg of COD/m(3)day of reactor and control was conducted with OLR of 3.0 kg of COD/m(3)day. The ASBR COD degradation efficiency was from 79.6% to 88.9%, control experiment efficiency was 65%. ASBR VSS removal efficiency was from 78.5% to 90.5%, control experiment efficiency was 54%. The ASBR methane production yield was from 371 to 418 L/kg COD inserted, control experiment methane yield was 248 L/kg COD inserted. The ASBR process was superior to conventional fully mixed digestion, and is fully adaptable to brewery slurry discharge, needs no additional collection and settling pools and experiences no solids settling problems.

  7. Hydrodynamic Behavior of Three-Phase Airlift Loop Slurry Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任飞; 王金福; 王铁峰; 金涌

    2002-01-01

    A novel fiber optic probe system and a set of commercial ultrasonic Doppler velocimeters have been used to study the hydrodynamic behavior of a three-phase airlift loop (TPAL) slurry reactor. Experiments have been carried out in a loop reactor with 100 mm inner diameter and 2.5 m height, in which air, tap water and silica gel particles are used as the gas, liquid and solid phase, respectively. The radial profile of gas holdup, bubble size, bubble rising velocity, liquid circulating velocity, and the influence of the main operating conditions such as superficial gas velocity and solids concentration have been studied experimentally in the TPAL slurry reactor. The experimental results show that the bubble characteristics are different in various flow regimes and the radial profiles of some hydrodynamic parameters in the TPAL slurry reactor are more uniform than those in traditional three-phase reactors. The distribution of the bubble size and bubble rising velocity can be described by a lognormal function. The influence of superficial gas velocity on the hydrodynamic parameters is more remarkable than that of the solids concentration.

  8. Improved techniques for hyperbaric filtration of fine coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Wang, X.H.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2010-07-01

    Dewatering of fine clean coal slurry is one of the most important unit operations of a coal-cleaning circuit. However, an efficient and economic dewatering method is still eluding the coal industry. In this study hyperbaric (high pressure) filtration studies were conducted on a froth flotation product obtained from a coal preparation plant processing Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal. The fine coal slurry (42 weight percent minus 25 {mu}m) could be dewatered to a low moisture (24%) using 482kPa (70psi) pressure. This article describes two novel approaches for improving dewatering of the fine coal slurry using hyperbaric filtration, such as using a modified filter support and split-size dewatering. The modified filter support system and the split-sizing at 25 {mu}m (500mesh) provided 21.5% and 15.9% moisture filter cake, which was about 10% and 34% improvement in moisture reduction in the filter cake moisture, respectively. Combining both the approaches with the addition of a nonionic flocculant provided a filter cake with 10.5% moisture, which was about a 56% improvement in moisture reduction.

  9. Surfactant mediated slurry formulations for Ge CMP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. Bahar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, slurry formulations in the presence of self-assembled surfactant structures were investigated for Ge/SiO2 CMP applications in the absence and presence of oxidizers. Both anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS) and cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-C12TAB) micelles were used in the slurry formulations as a function of pH and oxidizer concentration. CMP performances of Ge and SiO2 wafers were evaluated in terms of material removal rates, selectivity and surface quality. The material removal rate responses were also assessed through AFM wear rate tests to obtain a faster response for preliminary analyses. The surfactant adsorption characteristics were studied through surface wettability responses of the Ge and SiO2 wafers through contact angle measurements. It was observed that the self-assembled surfactant structures can help obtain selectivity on the silica/germanium system at low concentrations of the oxidizer in the slurry. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  10. Rheology of slurries and environmental impacts in the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, David V

    2013-01-01

    The world's resource industries are the largest producers of waste. Much of this waste is produced as a fine particle slurry, which is pumped to a storage area, generally at a low concentration, where it behaves like a Newtonian fluid. Simply removing, reusing, and recycling water from the slurry represents a step toward a more sustainable practice in this industry. As the concentration of such a slurry is increased as a result of dewatering, the materials exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, which is characterized by shear thinning, a yield stress, and in some instances thixotropic behavior. Such high-concentration, nonideal (dirty) suspensions in the resource industries have meant that new rheological methods and techniques have been needed to measure and interpret the basic flow properties. Also, some older empirical techniques have needed to be modified and interpreted in a more fundamental way so that the results could be used in design. This article reviews these techniques and illustrates how the industry itself has motivated their development. Understanding and exploiting this rheology has resulted in dramatic improvement in the waste-disposal strategy for some industries, but many have failed to embrace the available technology. The reasons for this are discussed. The article concludes that a greater positive change in waste-management practice will occur in the future, motivated by several factors, including public perception, tighter regulation, and perhaps even commonsense life cycle accounting.

  11. Characterization of coal water slurry prepared for PRB coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yi; Akshay Gopan; Richard L. Axelbaum

    2014-01-01

    Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, which accounts for over 40% of the coal consumed for power generation in the United States, was investigated for preparation of coal water slurry ( CWS). The static stability and rheology of the CWS were characterized as a function of loading. The coal loading was varied from 30% to 50% and both ionic ( sodium polystyrene sulphonate (PSS)) and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants were employed as additives. The addition of PSS to PRB slurries was found to yield poor static stability. On the other hand, Triton X-100 was found to be an effective surfactant, reducing the sedimentation by more than 50% compared to the one without surfactant in 45% CWS. Adding Triton X-100 reduces the viscosity of the CWS for coal loadings of 30% and 40% . Although the viscosities for coal loading of 42. 5% and 45% are higher when Triton X-100 is added, the static stability is significantly better than for samples without surfactant. The highest coal loading for PRB slurry with acceptable viscosity for pumping is 42. 5% .

  12. Using /sup 15/N tracer technique to determine the nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in pot experiments with Festuca pratensis. 1. Nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in comparison with raw slurry in different soil substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, P. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig-Potsdam. Inst. fuer Duengungsforschung)

    1983-08-01

    Rising amounts of cattle and pig slurry dimensioned on the basis of its nitrogen content, and liquid and solid slurry fractions obtained after mechanical fractionation were tested on sandy, loess and low-bog soils. The dry matter yields and nitrogen utilization rates determined in a 2-years test show clear correlations with the soil class and the nitrogen amount, but also with the form of slurry nitrogen bond, the carbon/nitrogen ratio of the organic manures and their content of mineral substances. The nitrogen utilization rates are influenced and vary considerably in the variants under review. On the average of the variants 'soil' and 'nitrogen increase' more than 50% of the mineral nitrogen were utilized by the plants. About 30 to 40% of the raw slurry and liquid slurry nitrogen were taken up by the plants. About 18% of the nitrogen from the solid cattle slurry fraction was utilized on the average, the figure for solid pig slurry fraction was 32%.

  13. Non-linear dendrites can tune neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Daniel Cazé

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A signature of visual, auditory, and motor cortices is the presence of neurons tuned to distinct features of the environment. While neuronal tuning can be observed in most brain areas, its origin remains enigmatic, and new calcium imaging data complicate this problem. Dendritic calcium signals, in a L2/3 neuron from the mouse visual cortex, display a wide range of tunings that could be different from the neuronal tuning (Jia et al 2010. To elucidate this observation we use multi-compartmental models of increasing complexity, from a binary to a realistic biophysical model of L2/3 neuron. These models possess non-linear dendritic subunits inside which the result of multiple excitatory inputs is smaller than their arithmetic sum. While dendritic non-linear subunits are ad-hoc in the binary model, non-linearities in the realistic model come from the passive saturation of synaptic currents. Because of these non-linearities our neuron models are scatter sensitive: the somatic membrane voltage is higher when presynaptic inputs target different dendrites than when they target a single dendrite. This spatial bias in synaptic integration is, in our models, the origin of neuronal tuning. Indeed, assemblies of presynaptic inputs encode the stimulus property through an increase in correlation or activity, and only the assembly that encodes the preferred stimulus targets different dendrites. Assemblies coding for the non-preferred stimuli target single dendrites, explaining the wide range of observed tunings and the possible difference between dendritic and somatic tuning. We thus propose, in accordance with the latest experimental observations, that non-linear integration in dendrites can generate neuronal tuning independently of the coding regime.

  14. As-cast microstructure of Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys added erbium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jian-wei; JIN Tou-nan; XU Guo-fu; NIE Zuo-ren

    2005-01-01

    The effects of different contents of rare earth element, and erbium, on the as-cast microstructures of Al-6Zn-2Mg and Al-6Zn-2Mg-1.8Cu alloys were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy and EDS analysis. The results show that the netlike structure of as-cast alloys can be remarkably refined, and the distance of dendritic structure decreases, with Er addition. However, the improvement results on Al-Zn-Mg-Cu are not better than that of Al-Zn-Mg. Er and Al can interact to form Al3Er phase, which is coherent with α(Al) matrix, with trace Er addition to the Al-Zn-Mg alloy. The refinement effect of Al-Zn-Mg alloys is familiar with the formation and precipitation of coherent Al3Er phases. The ternary compound AlCuEr, similar with AlCuSc phase, will form when Er is added to Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, which suppresses the formation of Al3Er phase and doesn't solve in the following heat treatment.

  15. Dendritic tellurides acting as antioxidants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Huaping; WANG Yapei; WANG Zhiqiang; LIU Junqiu; Mario Smet; Wim Dehaen

    2006-01-01

    We have described the synthesis of a series of poly(aryl ether) dendrimers with telluride in the core and oligo(ethylene oxide) chains at the periphery which act as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mimics. These series of compounds were well characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS. Using different ROOH (H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide) for testing the antioxidizing properties of these compounds, we have found that from generation 0 to 2, the activity of the dendritic GPx mimics first decreased and then increased. This can be explained on the basis of a greater steric hindrance, going from generation 0 to 1, and stronger binding interactions going from generation 1 to 2. In other words, there exists a balance between binding interactions and steric hindrance that may optimize the GPx activity.

  16. Fate mapping of dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ursula Schraml

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are a heterogeneous group of mononuclear phagocytes with versatile roles in immunity. They are classified predominantly based on phenotypic and functional properties, namely their stellate morphology, expression of the integrin CD11c and major histocompatibility class II molecules, as well as their superior capacity to migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and stimulate naïve T cells. However, these attributes are not exclusive to DCs and often change within inflammatory or infectious environments. This led to debates over cell identification and questioned even the mere existence of DCs as distinct leukocyte lineage. Here, we review experimental approaches taken to fate map DCs and discuss how these have shaped our understanding of DC ontogeny and lineage affiliation. Considering the ontogenetic properties of DCs will help to overcome the inherent shortcomings of purely phenotypic- and function-based approaches to cell definition and will yield a more robust way of DC classification.

  17. Dendritic Cells for Anomaly Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Artificial immune systems, more specifically the negative selection algorithm, have previously been applied to intrusion detection. The aim of this research is to develop an intrusion detection system based on a novel concept in immunology, the Danger Theory. Dendritic Cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells and key to the activation of the human signals from the host tissue and correlate these signals with proteins know as antigens. In algorithmic terms, individual DCs perform multi-sensor data fusion based on time-windows. The whole population of DCs asynchronously correlates the fused signals with a secondary data stream. The behaviour of human DCs is abstracted to form the DC Algorithm (DCA), which is implemented using an immune inspired framework, libtissue. This system is used to detect context switching for a basic machine learning dataset and to detect outgoing portscans in real-time. Experimental results show a significant difference between an outgoing portscan and normal traffic.

  18. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal coupled with carbohydrate production by five microalgae cultures cultivated in biogas slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fen; Wang, Zhi; Zhouyang, Siyu; Li, Heng; Xie, Youping; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-12-01

    In this study, five microalgae strains were cultured for their ability to survive in biogas slurry, remove nitrogen resources and accumulate carbohydrates. It was proved that five microalgae strains adapted in biogas slurry well without ammonia inhibition. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris ESP-6 showed the best performance on carbohydrate accumulation, giving the highest carbohydrate content of 61.5% in biogas slurry and the highest ammonia removal efficiency and rate of 96.3% and 91.7mg/L/d respectively in biogas slurry with phosphorus and magnesium added. Additionally, the absence of phosphorus and magnesium that can be adverse for biomass accumulation resulted in earlier timing of carbohydrate accumulation and magnesium was firstly recognized and proved as the influence factor for carbohydrate accumulation. Microalgae that cultured in biogas slurry accumulated more carbohydrate in cell, making biogas slurry more suitable medium for the improvement of carbohydrate content, thus can be regarded as a new strategy to accumulate carbohydrate.

  19. Effects of Main Parameters on Rheological Properties of Oil-Coal Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-gang; HAO Li-fang; XIONG Chu-an; SUN Xiu-ying

    2006-01-01

    Oil-coal slurry prepared in coal direct liquefaction is a dispersed solid-liquid suspension system. In this paper, some factors such as solvent properties, solid concentrations and temperatures, which affect viscosity change of oil-coal slurry, were studied. The viscosity of coal slurry was measured using rotary viscometer, and the rheological properties have been investigated. The viscosity and rheological curves were plotted and regressed, respectively. The results show that the coal slurry behaves a pseudoplastic and thixotropic property. The rheological type of coal slurry was ascertained and its rheological equations were educed. The oil-coal slurry changes to non-Newtonian fluid from Newtonian fluid with the increasing of solid concentration.

  20. In-situ study of the thermal properties of hydrate slurry by high pressure DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Brun, F.; Erbeau, N. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2008-07-01

    Knowing the enthalpy of hydrate slurry is very essential for energy balance and industrial applications. No direct measurement processes had been developed in this field in the past time. A new experimental method with special device has been developed to carry out on-line measurement of the thermal properties for hydrate slurry under dynamic conditions. With this special device, it is possible to deliver the hydrate slurry to the high pressure DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) directly from the production tank or pipes. Thermal data acquisition will be performed afterwards by DSC. The investigated conditions were at pressure of 30 bar and temperature of {approx}+7 {sup o}C. The dissociation enthalpy of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry was about 54 kJ/kg, corresponding 10.8% of solid fraction. The on-line measurement results for CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry give a good tendency to apply this phase change slurry to the industrial refrigeration process. (author)

  1. 2D and 3D stability analysis of slurry trench in frictional/cohesive soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-yu HAN; Jin-jian CHEN; Jian-hua WANG; Xiao-he XIA

    2013-01-01

    A 2D and 3D kinematically admissible rotational failure mechanism is presented for homogeneous slurry trenches in frictional/cohesive soils.Analytical approaches are derived to obtain the upper bounds on slurry trench stability in the strict framework of limit analysis.It is shown that the factor of safety from a 3D analysis will be greater than that from a 2D analysis.Compared with the limit equilibrium method,the limit analysis method yields an unconservative estimate on the safety factors.A set of examples are presented in a wide range of parameters for 2D and 3D homogeneous slurry trenches.The factor of safety increases with increasing slurry and soil bulk density ratio,cohesion,friction angle,and with decreasing slurry level depth and trench depth ratio,trench width and depth ratio.It is convenient to assess the safety for the homogeneous slurry trenches in practical applications.

  2. Rheological behavior of Shengli coal-solvent slurry at low-temperatures and atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-gang; YAN Yan; GUO Xiang-kun; Xu De-ping

    2009-01-01

    We report the results from systematic studies of Shengli lignite coal-solvent slurries. Solvent type, temperature, coal to solvent ratio, particle granularity, shear rate and shear time were investigated. The viscosity of the solvents is time independent. However, the slurries are thixotropic. A change from pseudo-plastic to Newtonian behavior occurs as the temperature, or as the solvent to coal ratio, increases. The solvent used in the slurry affects the point at which the theology changes from pseudo-plastic to Newtonian. The REC slurry changes at 1 : 1.2 coal to solvent ratio and at 40 ℃. The HAR slurry changes at a 1:1.5 ratio and at 60 ℃. The theology of the slurries is pseudo-plastic at low shear rates but Newtonian at high shear rates.

  3. Chemical roles on Cu-slurry interface during copper chemical mechanical planarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yuhong; Pan, Yan; Lu, Xinchun

    2014-02-01

    In order to optimize the existing slurry for low down-pressure chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP), copper CMP was conducted in H2O2 based slurries with benzotriazole (BTA) and glycine at different pH values. The film composition was investigated by the Nano Hardness Tester and XPS tests. Furthermore, the film structure forming on the copper surface at different pH values was investigated by adopting electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology. In the acidic slurry, discontinuous and porous BTA film covering the Cu/Cu2O surface enhanced the mechanical effect during Cu CMP process, resulted in highest CMP removal rate. In neutral slurry, the lowest CMP removal rate and static corrosion rate were resulted from compacted passivation film on the copper surface. In the alkaline slurry, the mechanical effect was limited by the rapid chemical dissolution. The results will benefit optimization of the slurry and operate conditions during low down-pressure CMP process.

  4. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source......Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment Technologies such as anaerobic digestion....... In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...

  5. Characterization of zirconia-based slurries with different binders for titanium investment casting

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Ertuan; Kong Fantao; Chen Yanfei

    2012-01-01

    The materials and physical properties of primary slurry are crucial to the surface quality of the finished castings, especially for high reactivity titanium alloys. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of different binders on the physical properties of primary slurry for titanium alloy investment casting. The zirconia-based slurries with different binders were evaluated by comparing the parameters: viscosity, bulk density, plate weight, suspensibility, gel velocity and streng...

  6. Effects of cattle slurry acidification on ammonia and methane evolution during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid J; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification before storage is known to reduce NH(3) emissions, but recent observations have indicated that CH(4) emissions are also reduced. We investigated the evolution of CH(4) from fresh and aged cattle slurry during 3 mo of storage as influenced by pH adjustment to 5.5 with sulfuric acid. In a third storage experiment, cattle slurry acidified with commercial equipment on two farms was incubated. In the manipulation experiments, effects of acid and sulfate were distinguished by adding hydrochloric acid and potassium sulfate separately or in combination, rather than sulfuric acid. In one experiment sulfur was also added to slurry as the amino acid methionine in separate treatments. In each treatment 20-kg portions of slurry (n = 4) were stored for 95 d. All samples were subsampled nine to 10 times for determination of NH(3) and CH(4) evolution rates using a 2-L flow-through system. In all experiments, the pH of acidified cattle slurry increased gradually to between 6.5 and 7. Acidification of slurry reduced the evolution of CH(4) by 67 to 87%. The greatest reduction was observed with aged cattle slurry, which had a much higher potential for CH(4) production than fresh slurry. Sulfate and methionine amendment to cattle slurry without pH adjustment also significantly inhibited methanogenesis, probably as a result of sulfide production. The study suggests that complex microbial interactions involving sulfur transformations and pH determine the potential for CH(4) emission during storage of cattle slurry, and that slurry acidification may be a cost-effective greenhouse gas mitigation option. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Emprego da amostragem de suspensão na determinação de Cu e Zn em lapa antártica e Ni em sedimento de rio por espectrometria de absorção atômica com chama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Flávia de Lima

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate the feasibility of slurry sampling for environmental studies, different methodologies were developed for Cu and Zn in antarctic limpets and Ni in river sediment with FAAS detection. Studies focusing particle size, acid concentration, slurry stability, selectivity, among others were carried out in order to define the better conditions for slurry analysis. A study related to the depth profile for Ni in the Atibaia River sediment was made after optimization conditions for this element. For accuracy check, certified reference material was used as well as decomposition with microwave oven.

  8. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    to 11 mo at 2, 10, or 20°C. Furthermore, the fertilizer efficiency of sulfuric acid in acidified slurry was investigated in a pot experiment with spring barley. The sulfate content from acidification with sulfuric acid was relatively stable and even after 11 mo of storage the majority was in the plant...... not exceed those of the untreated slurry for several months after addition. The S fertilizer value of the acidified slurry was considerable as a result of the stable sulfate pool during storage. The high content of inorganic S in the acidified slurry may potentially lead to development of odorous volatile...

  10. Numerical simulation of the preparation of semi-solid metal slurry with damper cooling tube method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In semi-solid forming process, preparing the slurry with rosette or globular microstructure is very important. A new approach named the damper cooling tube method (DCT), to produce the semi-solid metal slurry, has been introduced. To optimize the technical parameters in designing the apparatus, the finite volume method was adopted to simulate the flow process. The temperature effects on the rheological properties of the slurries were also considered. The effects of the technical parameters on the slurry properties were studied in detail.

  11. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is a recent agricultural practice that may serve a double purpose: reducing ammonia emission and ensuring crop sulfur sufficiency. We investigated S transformations in untreated and acidified pig slurry stored for up to 11 mo at 2, 10, or 20 degrees C. Furthermore, the fertilizer efficiency of sulfuric acid in acidified slurry was investigated in a pot experiment with spring barley. The sulfate content from acidification with sulfuric acid was relatively stable and even after 11 mo of storage the majority was in the plant-available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in acidified slurry did not exceed those of the untreated slurry for several months after addition. The S fertilizer value of the acidified slurry was considerable as a result of the stable sulfate pool during storage. The high content of inorganic S in the acidified slurry may potentially lead to development of odorous volatile sulfur-containing compounds and investigations are needed into the relationship between odor development and the C and S composition of the slurry.

  12. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    . In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...... less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential...

  13. Dendritic cells are stressed out in tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Tomasz; Zou, Weiping

    2015-09-01

    A recently paper published in Cell reports that dendritic cells (DCs) are dysfunctional in the tumor environment. Tumor impairs DC function through induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress response and subsequent disruption of lipid metabolic homeostasis.

  14. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

  15. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolos, Nicholas P; Johnston, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Ion channel dysfunction or "channelopathy" is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Herein we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Artificial Dendritic Cells: Multi-faceted Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells are the crime scene investigators of the human immune system. Their function is to correlate potentially anomalous invading entities with observed damage to the body. The detection of such invaders by dendritic cells results in the activation of the adaptive immune system, eventually leading to the removal of the invader from the host body. This mechanism has provided inspiration for the development of a novel bio-inspired algorithm, the Dendritic Cell Algorithm. This algorithm processes information at multiple levels of resolution, resulting in the creation of information granules of variable structure. In this chapter we examine the multi-faceted nature of immunology and how research in this field has shaped the function of the resulting Dendritic Cell Algorithm. A brief overview of the algorithm is given in combination with the details of the processes used for its development. The chapter is concluded with a discussion of the parallels between our understanding of the human immune system a...

  17. “Dermal dendritic cells” comprise two distinct populations: CD1+ dendritic cells and CD209+ macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa,Maria Teresa; Loncaric, Anya; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Becker, Todd C.; Modlin, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    A key cell type of the resident skin immune system is the dendritic cell, which in normal skin is located in two distinct microanatomical compartments: Langerhans cells (LC) mainly in the epidermis and dermal dendritic cells (DDC) in the dermis. Here, the lineage of dermal dendritic cells was investigated using monoclonal antibodies and immunohistology. We provide evidence that “dermal dendritic cells” comprise at least two major phenotypic populations of dendritic appearing cells: immature D...

  18. Thermal characteristics and corrosion behaviour of Mg–Zn alloys for biomedical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amir Fereidouni Lotfabadi; Mohd Hasbullah Idris; Ali Ourdjini; Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir; Saeed Farahany; Hamid Reza Bakhsheshi-Rad

    2013-11-01

    The thermal parameters of Mg–Zn cast alloys with 0.5–9 wt% Zn were evaluated by using computer aided cooling curve thermal analysis (CA–CCTA), whereas the corrosion behaviour was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests. Thermal analysis results revealed that the dendrite coherency temperature (DCP) decreased from 642.2 to 600 °C with the addition of Zn from 0.5 to 9 wt%. The liquid fraction at coherency point ($f^{\\text{DCP}}_{\\text{L}}$) increased by 72% when Zn was increased up to 9 wt%. MgZn intermetallic phase was observed in samples with <3 wt% Zn. At higher percentages of Zn, the Mg51Zn20 intermetallic phase was also detected in addition to -Mg and MgZn by first derivative cooling curves under non-equilibrium solidification. All these phases were observed along the grain boundary when Zn was rejected from the solid/liquid interface and enriched in the triple conjunction of grain boundary. The grain size decreased from 185.2 to 71.5 m when Zn content was increased. The addition of Zn content had a significant effect on the corrosion rate and the corresponding mechanisms. The corrosion rate decreased from 2.1 to 1.81 mmpy as Zn content increased from 0.5 to 3 wt%; afterwards, however, this value increased with further increase of Zn. Mg–3Zn also had the lowest degradation rate and highest corrosion resistance which can be fully utilized for biodegradable orthopedic applications.

  19. Free energy and dendritic self-organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Kiebel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we pursue recent observations that, through selective dendritic filtering, single neurons respond to specific sequences of presynaptic inputs. We try to provide a principled and mechanistic account of this selectivity by applying the free energy principle to a dendrite that is immersed in its neuropil or environment. We assume that neurons self-organize to minimise a free energy bound on the self-information or surprise of presynaptic inputs that are sampled. We model this as a selective pruning of dendritic spines that are expressed on a dendritic branch. This pruning occurs when the optimized postsynaptic gain falls below a threshold. Crucially, postsynaptic gain is itself optimized with respect to free energy. Pruning suppresses free energy as the dendrite selects presynaptic signals that conform to its expectations, specified by a generative model implicit in its intracellular kinetics. Not only does this provide a principled account of how neurons organize and selectively sample the myriad of potential presynaptic inputs they are exposed to, but it also connects the optimization of elemental neuronal (dendritic processing to generic (surprise or evidence-based schemes in statistics and machine learning, such as Bayesian model selection and automatic relevance determination.

  20. Synaptic Control of Secretory Trafficking in Dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hanus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Localized signaling in neuronal dendrites requires tight spatial control of membrane composition. Upon initial synthesis, nascent secretory cargo in dendrites exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER from local zones of ER complexity that are spatially coupled to post-ER compartments. Although newly synthesized membrane proteins can be processed locally, the mechanisms that control the spatial range of secretory cargo transport in dendritic segments are unknown. Here, we monitored the dynamics of nascent membrane proteins in dendritic post-ER compartments under regimes of low or increased neuronal activity. In response to activity blockade, post-ER carriers are highly mobile and are transported over long distances. Conversely, increasing synaptic activity dramatically restricts the spatial scale of post-ER trafficking along dendrites. This activity-induced confinement of secretory cargo requires site-specific phosphorylation of the kinesin motor KIF17 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK. Thus, the length scales of early secretory trafficking in dendrites are tuned by activity-dependent regulation of microtubule-dependent transport.

  1. Electrochemical fabrication of superhydrophobic Zn surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Fangdong [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Shanxi Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changzhi 046000 (China); Song, Jinlong, E-mail: songjinlong@mail.dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Wang, Long; Qu, Qingsong [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Lu, Yao; Parkin, Ivan [Materials Chemistry Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H OAJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • A simple electrochemical processing in the mixed electrolyte composed of NaCl and NaNO{sub 3} was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic Zn surfaces. • A layer of micro-nano hierarchical structures was obtained on the processed Zn surfaces. • Reaction mechanism of Zn in mixed electrolyte was analyzed. - Abstract: A superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 165.3° and a tilting angle of 2° was fabricated on a zinc substrate by electrochemical processing using a mixed electrolyte composed of NaCl and NaNO{sub 3}, followed by overcoating with a fluorinated polymer. The fabrication process is based on the electrochemical processing of Zn under an applied electric field. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer system (XRD) were used to characterize surface morphology and crystal structures. Micrometer-scale pits, protrusions and numerous nanometer-scale dendrite structures were found on the surface. XRD results indicated that the new products formed on the treated surface. The anodic dissolution mechanism of Zn in the electrolyte was analyzed. The effects of processing time, processing current, electrolyte type and electrolyte concentration on surface micromorphology and superhydrophobicity of the samples were also investigated. The results show that the electrochemical processing does not require exacting processing parameters. This method is highly efficient and environmental friendly. The ideal processing conditions to create the optimum superhydrophobic surface are a processing time of 20 min, a current density of 0.2 A/cm{sup 2}, and a mixed electrolyte of 0.1 mol/L NaNO{sub 3} and 0.05 mol/L NaCl.

  2. In Situ Observation of Cell-to-Dendrite Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Xiu-Hong; HONG Yong; JIN Wei-Qing

    2005-01-01

    @@ The cell-to-dendrite transition of succinonitrile melt suspended on a loop-shaped Pt heater is observed in real time by a differential interference microscope coupled with Schlieren technique. The transition is divided into two parts: a dendrite coalition process and a subsequent dendrite elimination process. Firstly the dendrites from the same cell are united into a single dendrite. Secondly the competitive growth of dendrites from different cells leads to the elimination of dendrites. The two processes can be understood when involving crystallographic orientation. In addition, the tip velocity and primary spacing of a cell/dendrite are also measured. It turns out that the primary spacing has a significant jump, whereas the growth velocity has no abrupt change during the cell-to-dendrite transition.

  3. The effect of Cu/Zn molar ratio on CO2 hydrogenation over Cu/ZnO/ZrO2/Al2O3 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharun, Salina; Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Taha, Mohd F.

    2014-10-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methanol is an attractive way to recycle and utilize CO2. A series of Cu / ZnO / Al2O3/ZrO2 catalysts (CZAZ) containing different molar ratios of Cu/Zn were prepared by the co-precipitation method and investigated in a stirred slurry autoclave system. The catalysts were characterized by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive analysis (FESEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption-desorption. Higher surface area, SABET values (42.6-59.9 m2/g) are recorded at low (1) and high (5) Cu/Zn ratios with the minimum value of 35.71 m2/g found for a Cu/Zn of 3. The reducibility of the metal oxides formed after calcination of catalyst samples was also affected due to change in metal-support interaction. At a low reaction temperature of 443 K, total gas pressure of 3.0 MPa and 0.1 g/mL of the CZAZ catalyst, the selectivity to methanol decreased as the Cu/Zn molar ratio increased, and the maximum selectivity of 67.73 was achieved at Cu/Zn molar ratio of 1. With a reaction time of 3h, the best performing catalyst was CZAZ75 with Cu/Zn molar ratio of 5 giving methanol yield of 79.30%.

  4. Dendritic cells in melanoma - immunohistochemical study and research trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelcu, Roxana Ioana; Ion, Daniela Adriana; Holeab, Cosmin Adrian; Cioplea, Mirela Daniela; Brînzea, Alice; Zurac, Sabina Andrada

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous dendritic cells play multiple physiological roles and are involved in various pathophysiological processes. Research studies of dendritic cells abound in the medical literature. Nevertheless, the role of dendritic cells in melanoma regression phenomenon is not completely understood. We conducted a scientometric analysis in order to highlight the current state on research regarding dendritic cells and melanoma. We also performed an immunohistochemical study, using specific markers for dendritic cells (CD1a, langerin). We evaluated the frequency and distribution of dendritic cells in areas of tumor regression compared to the areas of inflammatory infiltrate of melanoma without regression. The immunohistochemical study we performed revealed that dendritic cells are more frequent in the regressed areas, comparing with non-regressed ones. In regressed areas, dendritic cells have a predominant nodular pattern (19 cases), followed by diffuse isolate pattern (eight cases) and mixed pattern (diffuse and nodular) (three cases). In melanoma without regression, most cases presented a diffuse pattern (27 cases) of dendritic cells distribution. In conclusion, our immunohistochemical study stressed differences between frequency and distribution of dendritic cells located in the melanoma with regression and melanoma without regression. These data suggest that dendritic cells are involved in the regression phenomenon. Following the literature analysis we obtained, we observed that dendritic cells profile in melanoma with regression was poorly studied. Insights into antitumor immune response and dendritic cells may be essential for the understanding of the potential prognostic role of dendritic cells in melanoma and for the development of new promising therapeutic strategies for melanoma.

  5. The CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry; Le coulis de glace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Eicher, S.; Brun, F. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Sari, O.; Hu, J. [Clean Cooling Solutions, spin off of University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec Ltd, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2007-12-15

    A new, very promising refrigerant was developed, which could be used in industrial processes as well as air conditioners: the CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry. Replacing hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC refrigerants has a high priority, due to the strong negative environmental impact of these fluids. New refrigerants have to be environment friendly, non-inflammable, cheap and made of natural materials. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries and/or a mixture of ice slurry and CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry meet these requirements. The University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland in Yverdon, together with industrial partners, investigated the properties of such slurries. The slurries were created using the Coldeco process: the refrigerating fluid is directly injected into the liquid brine. The evaporation of the refrigerating fluid cools the liquid down to its freezing point and homogeneously distributed small crystals appear in the liquid. A test rig was built to measure the physical and chemical properties of the slurries obtained in this way. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries have a higher energy storage capacitance (500 kJ/kg) than ice slurries (333 kJ/kg). The production of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries in large quantities in a continuous process was demonstrated. The solid particle concentration was 10%, the pressure amounted to 30 bar and the temperature 2 to 4 {sup o}C. Such slurries can be pumped and circulated in pipe networks. Stainless steel is the appropriate material for such networks. However, the main advantage of the new refrigerant will be, according to the authors, a reduced energy consumption compared to traditional refrigerating cycles: the difference between the temperature required by the user and the refrigerant temperature is reduced, thanks to the use of the latent heat in the new process.

  6. Relationships among slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions at different types of commercial Spanish pig farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becaccia, A.; Ferrer, P.; Ibañez, M.A.; Estellés, F.; Rodríguez, C.; Moset, V.; Blas, C. de; Calvet, P.; García-Rebollar, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse several factors of variation of slurry composition and to establish prediction equations for potential methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Seventy-nine feed and slurry samples were collected at two seasons (summer and winter) from commercial pig farms sited at two Spanish regions (Centre and Mediterranean). Nursery, growing-fattening, gestating and lactating facilities were sampled. Feed and slurry composition were determined, and potential CH4 and NH3 emissions measured at laboratory. Feed nutrient contents were used as covariates in the analysis. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated as a predicting tool for slurry composition and potential gaseous emissions. A wide variability was found both in feed and slurry composition. Mediterranean farms had a higher pH (p<0.001) and ash (p=0.02) concentration than those located at the Centre of Spain. Also, type of farm affected ether extract content of the slurry (p=0.02), with highest values obtained for the youngest animal facilities. Results suggested a buffer effect of dietary fibre on slurry pH and a direct relationship (p<0.05) with fibre constituents of manure. Dietary protein content did not affect slurry nitrogen content but decreased (p=0.003) total and volatile solids concentration. Prediction models of potential NH3 emissions (R2=0.89) and CH4 yield (R2=0.61) were obtained from slurry composition. Predictions from NIRS showed a high accuracy for most slurry constituents (R2>0.90) and similar accuracy of prediction of potential NH3 and CH4 emissions (R2=0.84 and 0.68, respectively) to models using slurry characteristics, which can be of interest to estimate emissions from commercial farms and establish mitigation strategies or optimize biogas production. (Author)

  7. Surface characteristics of ruthenium in periodate-based slurry during chemical mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; Jiang, Liang; Lu, Xinchun, E-mail: xclu@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The Ru surface chemical and mechanical property varies with KIO{sub 4} slurry pH. • In alkaline slurry, the corrosion proceeds uniformly like a direct dissolution. • In neutral and acidic slurries, Ru exhibits passivation behavior. • MRR is highest in neutral slurry due to inhomogeneous RuO{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O/RuO{sub 3} passivation. • Weak alkaline slurry is preferred to get good MRR and avoid toxic RuO{sub 4} formation. - Abstract: When the feature size of integrated circuit continues to shrink below 14 nm, ruthenium (Ru) has become one of the most promising candidates for the application of novel barrier layer. To reveal the material removal mechanism of Ru during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), surface characteristics of Ru in KIO{sub 4}-based slurry were investigated. The corrosion behavior of ruthenium was measured by the surface chemistry and morphology analysis. Then the mechanical properties of the passivated/corroded surface were evaluated by AES and tribocorrosion experiments. CMP experiments were carried out to make clear the effects of surface property during polishing. It was found that the Ru surface chemistry and mechanical properties vary obviously as a function of slurry pH. In neutral slurries, the Ru surface is covered with RuO{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O/RuO{sub 3} inhomogeneous passivation films, with the highest material removal rate obtained during the CMP process. It could be concluded that the material removal mechanism largely depends on the slurry pH values. In near neutral slurries, Ru is passivated with thick and heterogeneous oxides film, which proves the easiest to be mechanically removed during polishing. The weak alkaline slurry is preferred in order to achieve desirable polishing rate as well as avoid the formation of toxic RuO{sub 4}.

  8. Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

  9. Architecture of apical dendrites in the murine neocortex: dual apical dendritic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, M I; Pimienta, H; Caviness, V S; Jacobson, M; Crandall, J E; Kosik, K S

    1986-04-01

    A monoclonal antibody (5F9) against microtubule-associated protein 2 is a selective and sensitive marker for neocortical dendrites in the mouse. The marker stains all dendrites. It affords a particularly comprehensive picture of the patterns of arrangements of apical dendrites which are most intensely stained with this antibody. Dual systems of apical dendrites arise from the polymorphic neurons of layer VI, on the one hand, and the pyramidal neurons of layers II-V, on the other. Terminal arborization of the former is concentrated principally at the interface of layers V and IV, while that of the latter is in the molecular layer. Apical dendrites of both systems are grouped into fascicles. In supragranular layers and in upper layer VI-lower layer V, where apical dendrites are most abundant, the fascicles coalesce into septa. These generate a honeycomb-like pattern, subdividing these cortical levels into columnar spaces of approximately 20-40 micron diameter. At the level of layer IV, where the number of apical dendrites is greatly reduced, the fascicles are isolated bundles. These bundles have the form of circular, elliptical or rectangular columns in the primary somatosensory, temporal and frontal regions, respectively. Those in the barrel field are preferentially concentrated in the sides of barrels and the interbarrel septa. The configurations of the dendritic fascicles, particularly the midcortical bundles, may conform to the spatial configuration of investing axons of interneurons.

  10. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2016-12-15

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha(-1) and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO3-N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO3-N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly lower

  11. Deep conversion of black oils with Eni Slurry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, Nicoletta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2010-09-15

    Eni Slurry Technology represents a significant technological innovation in residue conversion and unconventional oils upgrading. EST allows the almost total conversion of heavy feedstocks into useful products, mainly transportation fuels, with a great major impact on the economic and environmental valorization of hydrocarbon resources. The peculiar characteristics of EST in terms of yields, products quality, absence of undesired by-products and feedstock flexibility constitute its superior economic and environmental attractiveness. The first full scale industrial plant based on this new technology will be realized in Eni's Sannazzaro refinery (23,000 bpd). Oil in is scheduled by 4th quarter 2012.

  12. Magnetic sorbents added to soil slurries lower Cr aqueous concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravantinos, Konstantinos; Isari, Ekavi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Werner, David

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) acts as a strong binding agent that lowers the pollutant concentration and, thus its toxicity. Another promising sorbent material in environmental applications is biochar (BC) which is obtained from the incomplete combustion of carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Both of these materials could be used as soil or sediment amendments that would lower the toxicity in the aqueous phase. A draw back of this technique is that although the pollutant will remain non- bioavailable for many years being sorbed into these sorbents, it actually stays into the system. The objective of this study was (a) to synthesize a magnetic powdered activated carbon (AC/Fe) and magnetic powdered biochar (BC/Fe) produced from a commercial AC sample and BC, respectively and (b) to evaluate the potential use of AC/Fe and BC/Fe to lower Cr concentration that desorb from two soils in their soil slurries. The two soil samples originate from the vicinity of a local metal shop. The BC was produced from olive pomace. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of each sorbent were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles and the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. For both AC/Fe, surface area measurements resulted in 66% those of corresponding AC. For BC/Fe, the surface area was 82% that of BC. Our previous studies have shown that both AC/Fe and BC/Fe are effective sorbents for mercury in aqueous solutions but with lower sorption capacity compared to the initial materials (50-75% lower). Batch experiments with all sorbent samples and each soil were conducted at room temperature (25oC) in order to compare the sorption properties of the materials. The soil slurries demonstrated low Cr concentrations (10.9 and 14.6

  13. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit

  14. Entrained flow gasification of coal/bio-oil slurries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ping; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    Coal/bio-oil slurry (CBS) is a new partial green fuel for bio-oil utilization. CBS reacts with gasification agents at high temperatures and converts into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This paper provides a feasibility study for the gasification of CBS in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor...... for syngas production. Experiments have shown that CBS can be successfully processed and gasified in the entrained flow reactor to produce syngas with almost no tar content and low residual carbon formation. High reactor temperature and steam/carbon ratio is favourable for H2 production. At 1400 °C...

  15. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  16. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized antigen presenting cells (APC) with a remarkable ability to take up antigens and stimulate major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted specific immune responses. Recent discoveries have shown that their role in initiating primary immune responses seems to be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC are considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC.

  17. Effects of the Growth Rate on Microstructures and Room Temperature Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified Mg-5.2Zn Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaojun; Yang, Guangyu; Xiao, Lei; Luo, Shifeng; Jie, Wanqi

    2016-06-01

    Effects of the growth rate on the microstructures and room temperature mechanical properties of Mg-5.2Zn alloy were investigated using Bridgman method at a constant temperature gradient 30 K/mm with different growth rates (v = 10 ~ 100 μm/s). The microstructure of directionally solidified Mg-5.2Zn alloy is composed of dendrite primary α(Mg) phase and interdendritic α(Mg) + Mg7Zn3 eutectic, which agrees well with the predicted microstructure using Scheil model. The morphology of the primary α(Mg) phase transforms from cellular, to cellular-dendritic, and then to dendritic with the increase of growth rate from 10 μm/s to 100 μm/s. According to the Kurz-Fisher model, the approximate criterion growth rate for cellular/dendrite transition is determined to be about 12.7 μm/s, which just lies in the experimental result interval. Using non-linear fitting analysis, λ 1 (the primary dendrite arm spacing) and λ 2 (secondary dendrite arm spacing) were found to be dependent on v (growth rate) in the form of λ 1 = 8.6964 × 10-6 v -0.23983, λ 2 = 1.7703 × 10-6 v -0.34161, which is in good agreement with the calculated values by the Trivedi model and Kattamis-Flemings model, respectively. Furthermore, tensile test shows that the directional solidified experimental Mg-5.2Zn alloy shows higher strength than the non-directional solidified alloy under the same cooling rate. The dendritic structure shows higher strength than the cellular structure due to the fact that brittle interdendrite eutectic was refined in dendritic structures.

  18. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

    1991-07-01

    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  19. Effects of Simulated Biogas Slurry Leaching Irrigation on Soil Infiltration%模拟沼液淋溶灌溉对土壤下渗水的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓蓉; 陈玉成; 史秋萍

    2013-01-01

    This research analyzed the change process of leachate with applying different concentration of biogas slurry by a dynamic leaching test,and defined the effects of biogas slurry irrigation on leachate.The results showed that after irrigated biogas slurry,the leachate's pH of yellow soil initially declined,and then rose,the leachate's pH of purple soil decreased slowly,but they all little changed.The contents of COD,TN,TP of both soil's leachate reduced significantly compared with biogas slurry,and they were positive correlation with the concentration of biogas slurry.The contents of leachate's Cu and Zn of two soils were less than class Ⅲ standard of GB/T 14848-9,but the contents of Pb and Cd exceeded the 4th class of GB/T 14848-9.The pollution risk of leachate's COD,TN,TP of yellow soil was less than that of purple soil,but the pollution risk of heavy metals was opposite.%采用动态淋洗试验分析施加不同浓度沼液后土壤下渗水的变化过程,以明确沼液灌溉对土壤下渗水的影响.结果表明,沼液浇灌后,黄壤下渗水pH呈先下降后升高的趋势,紫色土下渗水pH呈缓慢下降趋势,但二者变化均不大;2种土壤下渗水COD、TN、TP含量较沼液明显降低,且与浇灌沼液的浓度呈正相关关系;2种土壤下渗水Cu、Zn含量均在GB/T 14848-9第Ⅲ类标准以下,而Pb、Cd含量均超过GB/T14848-9第Ⅳ类标准.黄壤较紫色土对下渗水COD、TN、TP的污染风险小,而紫色土较黄壤对下渗水重金属的污染风险小.

  20. Microstructural Evolution of Solid-solution-treated Zn-22Al in the Semisolid State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.A.M.Arif; M.Z.Omar; N.Muhamad; J.Syarif; P.Kapranos

    2013-01-01

    The effect of solid-solution-treatment on the semisolid microstructure of Zn-22Al with developed dendrites was investigated.Forming Zn-22Al products by semisolid metal processing offers significant advantages,such as reductions in macro-segregation,porosity and forming costs.Thermal and microstructural analyses of the formed Zn-22Al alloy were performed by differential scanning calorimetry,scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy.The changes in the microstructures and phase transformation in response to various solidsolution-treatments were analysed.In this study,as-cast samples were held isothermally at 330 ℃ for 0.5-5 h and then partially remelted at a semisolid temperature of 438 ℃ for 1 h to produce a solid-globular grain structure in a liquid matrix.A non-dendritic semisolid microstructure could not be obtained when the traditionally cast Zn-22Al alloy with developed dendrites was subjected directly to partial remelting.After solid-solution-treatment at 330 ℃,the black interdendritic eutectics were dissolved,and the dendritic structures gradually transformed into uniform β structures when the treatment time was increased.The coarsened and merged dendrites were separated as a result of penetration by the liquid phase and melting of the residual eutectic at sites along the former grain boundaries.The microstructure of the solid-solutiontreated sample transformed into a small globular structure; the best shape factor of 0.9,corresponding to a particle size of 40 ± 16 μm,is achieved when the sample was treated for 3 h followed by direct partial remelting into its semisolid zone.

  1. The influence of adsorption capacity on enhanced gas absorption in activated carbon slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstvoogd, R.D.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The enhanced absorption of gases in aqueous activated carbbon slurries of fine particles is studied with a non-steady-state absorption model, taking into account the finite adsorption capacity of the carbon particles. It has been found that, for the different gas/activated carbon slurry systems stud

  2. Apparatus for measuring the permeability of crystal particles suspended in a slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, P.J.; Vreeken, V.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for measuring the permeability of crystal particles suspended in a slurry, comprising a filtering element (3) and driving means (4, 5, 6) for driving the slurry into the filtering element. The filtering element is connected with discharge means (8, 9) for the

  3. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or... water, sediment, or slurry impoundment which meets the requirements of § 77.216(a) shall adopt a program... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...

  4. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements; certification. 77.216-4 Section 77.216-4 Mineral...

  5. Semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy prepared by electromagnetic stirring and Sc, Zr additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-wen Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Slurry preparation is one of the most critical steps for semisolid casting, and its primary goal is to prepare slurry with uniformly distributed fine globules. In this work, electromagnetic stirring (EMS and the addition of Sc and Zr elements were used to prepare semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy in a large diameter slurry maker. The effects of different treatments on the microstructure, composition and their radial homogeneity were investigated. The results show that, compared to the slurry without any treatment, large volume slurry with finer and more uniform microstructure can be obtained when treated by EMS, Sc, or Zr additions individually. EMS is more competent in the microstructural and chemical homogenization of the slurry while Sc and Zr additions are more excellent in its microstructural refinement. The combined treatment of EMS, Sc and Zr produces premium 7A04 aluminum alloy slurry with uniformly distributed fine α-Al globules and composition. The interaction mechanism between EMS and Sc and Zr additions was also discussed.

  6. Development of ultra-lightweight slurries with high compressive strength for use in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Danilo; Fernandes, Thiago; Santos, Reened [Halliburton Energy Services Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Formations with low fracture gradients or depleted reservoirs often lead to difficult oil well cementing operations. Commonly employed cement slurries (14.0 to 15.8 lb/gal), generate an equivalent circulating density (ECD) higher than the fracture gradient and ultimately lead to formation damage, lost circulation and a decreased top of cement. Given the high price of oil, companies are investing in those and other wells that are difficult to explore. Naturally, lightweight cement slurries are used to reduce the ECD (10.0 to 14.0 lb/gal), using additives to trap water and stabilize the slurry. However, when the density reaches 11.0 lb/gal, the increase in water content may cause a change in characteristics. The focus of this study is extreme cases where it is necessary to employ ultra-lightweight cement slurries (5.5 to 10.0 lb/gal). Foamed slurries have been widely used, and the objective is to set an alternative by developing cement slurries containing uncompressible microspheres, aiming for a density of 7.5 lb/gal as well as high compressive strength. Another benefit in contrast to preparing foamed cement slurries is that there is no requirement for special equipment in the field. Routine laboratory tests such as fluid-loss control, sedimentation, thickening time, free water, compressive strength, and rheology (at room and high temperatures) were performed. Thus, it was concluded that the proposed cement slurries can be used in oil wells. (author)

  7. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  8. Erosion Characteristics of Aluminum-based Metal Matrix Composites in Slurry Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Jiangping

    2000-01-01

    The erosion resistance of the Al18B4O33 whisker reinforced AC4C Al composites in water and saline slurry were investigated using a jet-in-slit rig. Erosion tests were performed at slurry velocities between 6.4 m/s to 15.2 m/s and at normal impact angle. The detachment of flake and dislodgement of whisker were identified as the major mechanisms of material removal in slurry environments. The composites showed better erosion resistance due to the protection of the matrix by the whisker at low slurry velocities. Because of reduced fracture strain, the erosion rates of the composites were generally greater than that of the unreinforced alloy at high slurry velocities. Owing to interfacial reaction which resulted in decrease in hardness and fracture strain,the T6 treatment for the composites had a deleterious influence on the erosion resistance. By considering the material removal processes in the water slurry, a simple rationalization of the inverse dependence of slurry erosion rate on Hεf was obtained. In the saline slurry, there exists a strong synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion. The volume loss of the composites was enhanced through cracking of flakes and detaching of whisker induced by stress and corrosion.

  9. The impact of slurry application technique on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilized soils are generally estimated using emission factors. However, the emission factors for N2O emission of applied slurry are not well quantified. The effect of slurry application technique on N2O emission was quantified in field experiments in the N

  10. Effects of DCD addition to slurry on nitrate leaching in sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Zwart, K.B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of the addition of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) to cattle slurry, applied in autumn to an arable sandy soil, were investigated in a three-year field experiment in the Netherlands. Treatments included application of slurry with DCD in November and December, application

  11. Concentration of pig slurry by evaporation: anaerobic digestion as the key process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí, A; Campos, E; Flotats, X

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient redistribution between areas with a structural pig slurry surplus and those with a shortage, is limited by the high cost of transportation and spreading, due to the high water content in slurry (more than 90%) and its relative low nutrient concentration. Water can be removed from slurry by evaporation, through the application of waste heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective is to obtain clean water as condensate. The objective of this work was to study the batch vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction, to evaluate the economic feasibility and to evaluate condensate quality as a function of both pH (4, 5 and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Results showed that condensate characteristics (ammonia nitrogen, VFA, COD) were strongly dependent on these variables. Previous anaerobic digestion presented clear advantages: it provided a fraction of the required energy and it removed organic matter, preventing its volatilisation in the evaporation process and providing higher quality condensates. These advantages make the combined treatment strategy economically more feasible than the evaporation process alone.

  12. 采用蛇形通道制备较大容量A356铝合金半固态浆料%Preparation of semisolid A356 alloy slurry with larger capacity cast by serpentine channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小容; 毛卫民; 孙斌煜

    2011-01-01

    采用蛇形通道制备较大容量的A356铝合金半固态浆料,对制备的半固态浆料的整体组织和管道冷却能力对组织的影响进行研究.结果表明,采用冷却能力良好的蛇形通道可制备出理想的较大容量半固态A356铝合金浆料.蛇形通道连续通冷却水时,较大容量半固态A356铝合金浆料轴向和径向的组织均由颗粒状的初生相组成,浆料的整体均匀性良好;而未通冷却水的蛇形通道只能在较大容量浆料的心、中部获得颗粒状初生相,靠近浆料的边部区域则主要为树枝状初生相,整个浆料径向的组织不均匀.浇注温度达到680℃,可以解决合金熔体在浇注过程中容易堵塞的问题.%The integral microstructure of semisolid A356 alloy slurry with larger capacity cast by serpentine channel was studied and the influence of cooling ability of serpentine channel on the microstructure was investigated. The results indicate that ideal slurry with larger capacity can be prepared through serpentine channel with good cooling ability. When the serpentine channel was continuously cooled,both the longitudinal and the radial microstructure of the slurry was composed of granular primary phase and the integral microstructure uniformity of the slurry was good. However,uncooled serpentine channel can only produce larger slurry with fine grains in positions adjacent to its centre and with a large number of dendrites in positions close to its edge,thus,the radial microstructure of larger slurry is nonuniform. The pouring temperature is set up to 680 ℃ and the solid shell inside the channel can be avoided at this pouring temperature.

  13. PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial composition of a kaolin slurry showing altered rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Balázs, Margit; Tombácz, Etelka; Babcsán, Norbert; Kesserű, Péter; Kiss, István; Szvetnik, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Kaolin is an important industrial raw material and a basis of a range of different products. Microbial spoilage is a detrimental process observed especially in kaolin slurries, leading to low quality products and economic loss. Although the alteration of kaolin slurries in ceramic industry was observed, the process and the microbial background have not been analyzed in details. This study provides the first data using a cultivation independent molecular biological approach (PCR-DGGE) regarding the bacterial composition of an altered kaolin slurry. The results show that potential exopolymer (EPS) producer bacteria (e.g. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas) appear in the altered kaolin slurry, which may have an important role in the modification of kaolin slurries.

  14. Relevance of a perchloric acid extraction scheme to determine mineral and organic phosphorus in swine slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumer, Marie-Line; Béline, Fabrice; Spérandio, Mathieu; Morel, Christian

    2008-03-01

    To increase the phosphorus recycling potential from swine slurry, mineral phosphorus products which could be used as fertilizers should be obtained and new processes need to be investigated. A routine method is needed to better evaluate the dissolved and solid mineral phosphorus in swine slurry. Cold perchloric acid extraction method previously developed for wastewater or sludge analysis was adapted. Ionic chromatography was used to measure orthophosphate in extracts. Only one extraction step was needed to distinguish between mineral and organic phosphorus in slurry. Reproducibility of the method was high (less than 5% of variation on the measured fractions). Selectivity was assessed by adding several organic and mineral phosphorus sources in the slurry. Cold perchloric extraction followed by ionic chromatography was very selective in quantifying both the mineral and organic forms of phosphorus in swine slurry.

  15. Ultrasound stimulus effect on hydrogen bonding in networked alumina and polyacrylic acid slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Ngo Le; Takaomi, Kobayashi

    2010-01-01

    The influence of ultrasound (US) on the viscosity of aqueous slurry composing polyacrylic acid (PAA) and alumina was studied. For exposure to an aqueous slurry solution, US waves emitted at three different frequencies of 28, 45, and 100 kHz were used. Results show that the stimulus effect of US on viscosity change was a breakage of the hydrogen bonding networks of alumina and PAA in the slurry solution. That decrease in viscosity was enhanced strongly by US exposure as the output power was increased from 175 to 300 W. In addition, a lower US frequency was effective for slurry viscosity reduction. The reduced viscosity of the slurry also depended on the solution pH. After US was stopped, the viscosity increased gradually and recovered to its original value within about 15 min. The stimulus effect on the viscosity change was cycled by US.

  16. Planarization properties of an alkaline slurry without an inhibitor on copper patterned wafer CMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chenwei; Liu Yuling; Tian Jianying; Niu Xinhuan; Zheng Weiyan; Yue Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    The chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP) performance of an inhibitor-free alkaline copper slurry is investigated.The results of the Cu dissolution rate (DR) and the polish rate (PR) show that the alkaline slurry without inhibitors has a relatively high copper removal rate and considerable dissolution rate.Although the slurry with inhibitors has a somewhat low DR,the copper removal rate was significantly reduced due to the addition of inhibitors (Benzotriazole,BTA).The results obtained from pattern wafers show that the alkaline slurry withoutinhibitors has a better planarization efficacy; it can planarize the uneven patterned surface during the excess copper removal.These results indicate that the proposed inhibitor-free copper slurry has a considerable planarization capability for CMP of Cu pattern wafers,it can be applied in the first step ofCu CMP for copper bulk removal.

  17. Coating system of hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry; Suiso kyuzo gokin funmatsu surari no tofu sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, J.

    1995-03-31

    As the hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry has a high density and a high viscosity, it is necessary to apply a considerably high tension to the current collector sheet when the current collector sheet is continuously coated with the hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry. This invention provides a method of continuously coating the hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry on the running current collector sheet. In order to keep the viscosity of alloy powder slurry constant and to reduce the tension to be applied to the sheet during coating, a stirring jig is installed facing to the front surface and back surface of the current collector sheet and rotating in the sheet running direction and in the opposite direction. In this way, the thixotropic structure of the hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry is constantly broken, so that a gradual increase in viscosity does not take place. Resultingly, the homogeneous hydrogen storage alloy electrode can be continuously produced. 6 figs.

  18. The Influence of Clinoptilolite on Technological Properties of Fresh and Set Slag-Alkaline Slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Wiśniowski

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990 the AGH-UST scientists have been working on more efficient recipes of slag-alkaline slurries for sealing the soil and rock mass with hole injection methods.A special attention has been paid to the increasing efficiency of geoengineering works on a rational shaping of technological parameters of fresh and set slag-alkaline slurries.The properties of slurries containing clinoptiolite zeolites from the Košice area are presented in the paper.An addition of zeolites to the slurries increases the tightness of the set slurries. Zeolites favorably influence the course of crystallization of sodium zeolite and the hydroparameters in the slag-alkaline matrix.

  19. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  20. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-09-29

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined.

  1. Continuous production of CO2 hydrate slurry added antifreeze proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Y.; Ota, M.; Murakami, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ferdows, M. [Dhaka Univ., Dhaka (Bangladesh). Dept. of Mathematics; Endou, H. [Technova Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Ocean storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrate is possible in deep seas where low temperature and high pressure conditions exist. However, when hydrates are produced in large quantities, they can plug pipelines. The addition of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can prevent hydrate crystals from forming. The hydrate may then behave like a slurry which can be transported from a production place to a place of storage with minimal pressure loss. This study developed a production method for a CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry and presented the prospect of the inhibition effect for CO{sub 2} hydrate formation by adding AFPs. It revealed the shift in induction time, the formation rate and the torque of the agitator under conditions of AFPs at 0.01 mg/ml. It was concluded that compared to pure water, the induction time for hydrate production increased 244 per cent, the formation rate decreased 76 per cent and the ratio of the torque decreased 48 per cent by adding AFPs. The AFPs rendered the hydrate particles small and well dispersed. It was concluded that type 3 AFPs can effectively inhibit the production of structure s1 type hydrates. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Fractal Geometry of Particle Aggregates Formed in Calcium Sulfite Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪伟敏; 吴忠标; 官宝红; 赵伟荣; 郑平

    2007-01-01

    The solid-liquid separation is an important operation for the regenerated slurry of dual-alkali FGD system, and calcium sulfite could predominate in particle aggregates of the slurry. The settling velocity of calcium sulfite particles is a key parameter for the solid-liquid separation design. However, the settling velocity predicted by Stokes' Law could be suitable only for a spherical aggregate, but not for the irregular one. In this work, fractal geometry was introduced in order to characterize highly irregular geometric shapes. The sizes of calcium sulfite particle aggregates were analyzed using a metallographic phase microscope and image analysis. The results showed that particle aggregate had fractal features. The fractal dimensions could reveal the characteristics of the aggregates' geometry and aggregation process. An exponential relation between the fractal dimension D2 and the particle size l was determined as AμlD2. According to fractal theory, a parameter can be used to modify Stokes settling velocity close to actual settling velocity. The results could be valuable for the design of solid-liquid separation process.

  3. Slurry-phase Biological Treatment of Nitrophenol Using Bioaugmentation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; GANG ZHAO; LI-BO WU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the performance of soil-slurry bioreactor used for remediating contaminated soil with 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Methods The slurry bioreactor was used to degrade different concentrations of 4-nitrophenol with or without inoculating the acclimated activated sludge. HPLC system (Hewlett-Packard model 5050 with a UV detector) was used for the quantification of 4-nitrophenol. Results The indigenous microorganisms exhibited a little activity for simulated soil with 50 mg 4-NP/kg soil. However, at the concentration of 10 mg 4-NPkg soil, a considerable degradation occurred within two weeks. It appeared that high concentrations of 4-nitrophenol apparently produced an inhibitory effect on microbial activity. For system receiving 50 mg 4-NP/kg soil, the maximum rate of 4-NP degradation measured in the reactor inoculated with 25 g sludge/kg soil was approximately 10 times higher than the uninoculated reactor, suggesting that the degradation rate of 4-nitrophenol could be enhanced greatly by means of inoculating acclimated sludge. Conclusion The addition of sludge capable of degrading 4-nitrophenol can result in enhance the degradation rate of 4-nitrophenol.

  4. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINA-ZIRCONIA COMPOSITE BY SLURRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JYOTI PRAKASH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alumina has got some excellent properties like chemical inertness, thermal and mechanical strength against hazardous environment. Alumina is a good ceramic material which is being used for structuralapplications. To enhance the toughness and strength of the body some Zirconia is also used with it. The use of Zirconia in alumina is known as toughening of alumina. One difficulty arises, when alumina and alumina toughened composite are sintered , because the low sinterability of Alumina-Zirconia forced the compact to give very low density body. To overcome this problem alumina and alumina composites are made from slurry method which gives nearly theoretical density. The combined effect of alumina and Zirconia on the phase transformation and microstructure development of heat-treated Alumina-Zirconia composites has been studied. Slurry is prepared by adding water, dispersant, binder and anti-foaming agent. In the present study, Sintering schedule is optimized and kept constant for all samples. After sintering, mechanical behaviour of the composite has been studied.

  5. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States); Adams, T.L. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  6. Effect of chemical additives on flow characteristics of coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Mosa; A.-H. M. Saleh; T.A. Taha; A.M. El-Molla [Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt). Mining & Petroleum Engineering Department

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper, the effect of chemical additives or reagents on rheological characteristics of coal water slurry (CWS) was investigated. The power-law model was applied to determine the non-Newtonian properties of coal slurries. Three types of dispersants namely, sulphonic acid, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium carbonate were studied and tested at different concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5% by weight from total solids. Sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) and xanthan gum were tested as stabilizers at concentrations in the range of 0.05 to 0.25% by weight from total solids. It was found that apparent viscosity and flow properties of CWS are sensitive to the use of chemical additives (dispersants and stabilizers). Among studied dispersing agents, sulphonic acid recorded the best performance in modification and reducing CWS viscosity. The best dosage of all tested dispersants was found to be 0.75% by wt of solids. With regard to studied stabilizers, Na-CMC recorded better performance than xanthan gum. The best dosage of investigated stabilizers was found to be as 0.1 % by wt. from total solids. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

    1990-05-01

    Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50{mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. An analysis of the effects of slurry rheological properties (as indicated by the consistency index and the flow behavior index) and formulation (in terms of loading and coal particle top size) on the spray formation process was performed. The experimental data reported were then analyzed to explain the physical processes responsible for spray formation. The analysis began by considering an energy balance across a control volume that extended from the nozzle exit plant to the line of spray measurement. The inlet conditions were calculated using two-phase flow techniques and the outlet conditions were calculated by using conservation of momentum and assuming that the final velocities of the air and liquid were equal. Entrainment was considered negligible and losses were accounted for by realizing that only a small fraction of the atomizing air participated in the spray formation process with the remainder passing through the control volume unperturbed. Results are discussed. 41 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  9. Nerve Conduction Through Dendrites via Proton Hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Lemont B

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies of nerve conduction conducted by proton hopping, we have considered the axon, soma, synapse and the nodes of Ranvier. The role of proton hopping described the passage of information through each of these units of a typical nerve system. The synapse projects information from the axon to the dendrite and their associated spines. We have invoked the passage of protons via a hopping mechanism to illustrate the continuum of the impulse through the system, via the soma following the dendrites. This is proposed to be a continuum invoked by the proton hopping method. With the proposal of the activity through the dendrites, via proton hopping, a complete model of the nerve function is invoked. At each step to the way, a water pathway is present and is invoked in the proposed model as the carrier of the message via proton hopping. The importance of the dendrites is evident by the presence of a vast number of spines, each possessing the possibility to carry unique messages through the nervous system. With this model of the role of dendrites, functioning with the presence of proton hopping, a complete model of the nerve system is presented. The validity of this model will be available for further studies and models to assess it's validity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Methanogenic community changes, and emissions of methane and other gases, during storage of acidified and untreated pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Højberg, Ole; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    and Results: Pig slurry from two farms, acidified by different techniques, and untreated slurry were stored for 83 d in a pilot-scale facility. Methanogens were characterized before and after storage by TRFLP and qPCR targeting mcrA. Emissions of NH3 and CH4 during storage were quantified. Acidified slurry p...

  11. Phenanthrene Contaminated Soil Biotreatment Using Slurry Phase Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arbabi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are suspected toxins that accumulate in soils and sediments due to their insolubility in water and lack of volatility. Slurry-phase biological treatment is one of the innovative technologies that involve the controlled treatment of excavated soil in a bioreactor. Due to highly soil contamination from petroleum compounds in crude oil extraction and also oil refinery sites in Iran, this research was designed based on slurry phase biotreatment to find out a solution to decontamination of oil compounds polluted sites. Approach: Soil samples were collected from Tehran oil refinery site and Bushehr oil zones. Two compositions of soils (clay and silt were selected for slurry biotreatment experiment. Soil samples were contaminated with three rates of phenanthrene (a 3 ring PAH, 100, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 and mixed with distilled water in solid concentration of 30% by weight after washing out with strong solvent (hexane and putting in to the oven. Bacterial consortium was revived in culture medium which consisted of Mineral Salt Medium (MSM based on phenanthrene concentrations and ratio of C/N/P in the range of 100/10/2. Prepared soil samples were mixed with distilled water, nutrient and bacterial consortium together in the 250 mL glass Erlenmeyer and putted in the shaker incubator with 200 rpm revolutions and 25°C for 7 weeks (45 days. Samples were analyzed for residual phenanthrene, bacterial population every week. For statistical analysis, general linear model with repeated measures (type III analysis was applied. Results: The concentration of 100 mg Ll of phenanthrene in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 5 and 6 weeks, respectively. While concentration of 500 mg L-1 of phenanthrene both in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 6 weeks. But concentration of 1000 mg L-1both in clayey and silty soil samples has not met this limitation after 7

  12. Measurement of the Critical Deposition Velocity in Slurry Transport through a Horizontal Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erian, Fadel F.; Furfari, Daniel J.; Kellogg, Michael I.; Park, Walter R.

    2001-03-01

    Critical Deposition Velocity (CDV) is an important design and operational parameter in slurry transport. Almost all existing correlations that are used to predict this parameter have been obtained experimentally from slurry transport tests featuring single solid species in the slurry mixture. No correlations have been obtained to describe this parameter when the slurry mixture contains more than one solid species having a wide range of specific gravities, particle size distributions, and volume concentrations within the overall slurry mixture. There are no physical or empirical bases that can justify the extrapolation or modification of the existing single species correlations to include all these effects. New experiments must be carried out to obtain new correlations that would be suited for these types of slurries, and that would clarify the mechanics of solids deposition as a function of the properties of the various solid species. Our goal in this paper is to describe a robust experimental technique for the accurate determination of the critical deposition velocity associated with the transport of slurries in horizontal or slightly inclined pipes. Because of the relative difficulty encountered during the precise determination of this useful operational parameter, it has been the practice to connect it with some transitional behavior of more easily measurable flow parameters such as the pressure drop along the slurry pipeline. In doing so, the critical deposition velocity loses its unique and precise definition due to the multitude of factors that influence such transitional behaviors. Here, data has been obtained for single species slurries made up of washed garnet and water and flowing through a 1- inch clear pipe. The selected garnet had a narrow particle size distribution with a mean diameter of 100 mm, approximately. The critical deposition velocity was measured for garnet/water slurries of 10, 20, and 30 percent solids concentration by volume.

  13. Detecting Danger: The Dendritic Cell Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Cayzer, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) is inspired by the function of the dendritic cells of the human immune system. In nature, dendritic cells are the intrusion detection agents of the human body, policing the tissue and organs for potential invaders in the form of pathogens. In this research, and abstract model of DC behaviour is developed and subsequently used to form an algorithm, the DCA. The abstraction process was facilitated through close collaboration with laboratory- based immunologists, who performed bespoke experiments, the results of which are used as an integral part of this algorithm. The DCA is a population based algorithm, with each agent in the system represented as an 'artificial DC'. Each DC has the ability to combine multiple data streams and can add context to data suspected as anomalous. In this chapter the abstraction process and details of the resultant algorithm are given. The algorithm is applied to numerous intrusion detection problems in computer security including the detection of p...

  14. Single dendrite-targeting interneurons generate branch-specific inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb eStokes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Microcircuits composed of dendrite-targeting inhibitory interneurons and pyramidal cells are fundamental elements of cortical networks, however, the impact of individual interneurons on pyramidal dendrites is unclear. Here, we combine paired recordings and calcium imaging to determine the spatial domain over which single dendrite-targeting interneurons influence pyramidal cells in olfactory cortex. We show that a major action of individual interneurons is to inhibit dendrites in a branch-specific fashion.

  15. Semiautomated analysis of dendrite morphology in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Eric S; Langhammer, Chris L; Kutzing, Melinda K; Firestein, Bonnie L

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying dendrite morphology is a method for determining the effect of biochemical pathways and extracellular agents on neuronal development and differentiation. Quantification can be performed using Sholl analysis, dendrite counting, and length quantification. These procedures can be performed on dendrite-forming cell lines or primary neurons grown in culture. In this protocol, we describe the use of a set of computer programs to assist in quantifying many aspects of dendrite morphology, including changes in total and localized arbor complexity.

  16. Role of active dendritic conductances in subthreshold input integration

    OpenAIRE

    Rinzel John; Remme Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Dendrites of many types of neurons contain voltage-dependent conductances that are active at subthreshold membrane potentials. To understand the computations neurons perform it is key to understand the role of active dendrites in the subthreshold processing of synaptic inputs. We examine systematically how active dendritic conductances affect the time course of postsynaptic potentials propagating along dendrites, and how they affect the interaction between such signals. Voltage-dependent curr...

  17. Infection of Dendritic Cells by the Maedi-Visna Lentivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Susanna; Tiley, Laurence; McConnell, Ian; Blacklaws, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    The early stages of lentivirus infection of dendritic cells have been studied in an in vivo model. Maedi-visna virus (MVV) is a natural pathogen of sheep with a tropism for macrophages, but the infection of dendritic cells has not been proven, largely because of the difficulties of definitively distinguishing the two cell types. Afferent lymphatic dendritic cells from sheep have been phenotypically characterized and separated from macrophages. Dendritic cells purified from experimentally infe...

  18. Actin remodeling and polymerization forces control dendritic spine morphology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic spines are small membranous structures that protrude from the neuronal dendrite. Each spine contains a synaptic contact site that may connect its parent dendrite to the axons of neighboring neurons. Dendritic spines are markedly distinct in shape and size, and certain types of stimulation prompt spines to evolve, in fairly predictable fashion, from thin nascent morphologies to the mushroom-like shapes associated with mature spines. This striking progression is coincident with the (r...

  19. Dendritic Cells Stimulated by Cationic Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Micaela Tamara; Bergami-Santos, Patrícia Cruz; Cruz, Karen Steponavicius Piedade; Pinho, Mariana Pereira; Barbuto, José Alexandre Marzagão; De La Torre, Lucimara Gaziola

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer aims to harness the immune system to detect and destroy cancer cells. To induce an immune response against cancer, activated dendritic cells (DCs) must present tumor antigens to T lymphocytes of patients. However, cancer patients' DCs are frequently defective, therefore, they are prone to induce rather tolerance than immune responses. In this context, loading tumor antigens into DCs and, at the same time, activating these cells, is a tempting goal within the field. Thus, we investigated the effects of cationic liposomes on the DCs differentiation/maturation, evaluating their surface phenotype and ability to stimulate T lymphocytes proliferation in vitro. The cationic liposomes composed by egg phosphatidylcholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane and 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (50/25/25% molar) were prepared by the thin film method followed by extrusion (65 nm, polydispersity of 0.13) and by the dehydration-rehydration method (95% of the population 107 nm, polydispersity of 0.52). The phenotypic analysis of dendritic cells and the analysis of T lymphocyte proliferation were performed by flow cytometry and showed that both cationic liposomes were incorporated and activated dendritic cells. Extruded liposomes were better incorporated and induced higher CD86 expression for dendritic cells than dehydrated-rehydrated vesicles. Furthermore, dendritic cells which internalized extruded liposomes also provided stronger T lymphocyte stimulation. Thus, cationic liposomes with a smaller size and polydispersity seem to be better incorporated by dendritic cells. Hence, these cationic liposomes could be used as a potential tool in further cancer immunotherapy strategies and contribute to new strategies in immunotherapy.

  20. Sequence learning in differentially activated dendrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    . It is proposed that the neural machinery required in such a learning/retrieval mechanism could involve the NMDA receptor, in conjunction with the ability of dendrites to maintain differentially activated regions. In particular, it is suggested that such a parcellation of the dendrite allows the neuron...... to participate in multiple sequences, which can be learned without suffering from the 'wash-out' of synaptic efficacy associated with superimposition of training patterns. This is a biologically plausible solution to the stability-plasticity dilemma of learning in neural networks....

  1. Seaweed to dendrite transition in directional solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provatas, Nikolas; Wang, Quanyong; Haataja, Mikko; Grant, Martin

    2003-10-10

    We simulate directional solidification using a phase-field model solved with adaptive mesh refinement. For small surface tension anisotropy directed at 45 degrees relative to the pulling direction we observe a crossover from a seaweed to a dendritic morphology as the thermal gradient is lowered, consistent with recent experimental findings. We show that the morphology of crystal structures can be unambiguously characterized through the local interface velocity distribution. We derive semiempirically an estimate for the crossover from seaweed to dendrite as a function of thermal gradient and pulling speed.

  2. Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus Anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis1 Katherine C. Brittingham,* Gordon Ruthel,* Rekha G...germination and dissemination of spores. Found in high frequency throughout the respiratory track, dendritic cells (DCs) routinely take up foreign...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dendritic cells endocytose Bacillus anthracis spores: implications for anthrax pathogenesis, The Journal of

  3. Internal Zn allocation influences Zn deficiency tolerance and grain Zn loading in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impa Muthappa Somayanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the important factors that influences Zn deficiency tolerance and grain Zn loading in crops is the within-plant allocation of Zn. Three independent experiments were carried out to understand the internal Zn distribution patterns in rice genotypes grown in Zn-sufficient and Zn-deficient agar nutrient solution (ANS. In one of the experiments, two rice genotypes (IR55179 and KP contrasting in Zn deficiency tolerance were leaf-labeled with 65Zn. In the other two experiments, two Zn biofortification breeding lines (IR69428 and SWHOO were either root- or leaf-labeled with 65Zn. Rice genotype IR55179 showed significantly higher Zn deficiency tolerance than KP at 21 and 42 days after planting. When KP was Zn-deficient, it failed to translocate 65Zn from the labeled leaf to newly emerging leaves. Similarly, the root-to-shoot translocation of unlabeled Zn was lower in KP than in IR55179. These results suggest that some Zn-efficient rice genotypes have greater ability to translocate Zn from older to actively growing tissues than genotypes sensitive to Zn deficiency. Among the two Zn biofortication breeding lines that were leaf-labeled with 65Zn at 10 days before panicle initiation stage, 65Zn distribution in the grains at maturity was similar between both genotypes in Zn-sufficient conditions. However, under Zn-deficient conditions, SWHOO accumulated significantly higher 65Zn in grains than IR69428, indicating that SWHOO is a better remobilizer than IR69428. When the roots of these two Zn biofortication breeding lines were exposed to 65Zn solution at 10 days after flowering, IR69428 showed higher root uptake of 65Zn than SWHOO in Zn-sufficient conditions, but 65Zn allocation in the aerial parts of the plant was similar between both genotypes.

  4. Nutrient, metal and microbial loss in surface runoff following treated sludge and dairy cattle slurry application to an Irish grassland soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, D.P. [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland); Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Healy, M.G. [Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Fleming, G.T.A. [Microbiology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Grant, J. [Teagasc, Ashtown, Co. Dublin (Ireland); Wall, D. [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland); Morrison, L. [Earth and Ocean Sciences and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Cormican, M. [School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Fenton, O., E-mail: owen.fenton@teagasc.ie [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland)

    2016-01-15

    Treated municipal sewage sludge (“biosolids”) and dairy cattle slurry (DCS) may be applied to agricultural land as an organic fertiliser. This study investigates losses of nutrients in runoff water (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)), metals (copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr)), and microbial indicators of pollution (total and faecal coliforms) arising from the land application of four types of treated biosolids and DCS to field micro-plots at three time intervals (24, 48, 360 h) after application. Losses from biosolids-amended plots or DCS-amended plots followed a general trend of highest losses occurring during the first rainfall event and reduced losses in the subsequent events. However, with the exception of total and faecal coliforms and some metals (Ni, Cu), the greatest losses were from the DCS-amended plots. For example, average losses over the three rainfall events for dissolved reactive phosphorus and ammonium-nitrogen from DCS-amended plots were 5 and 11.2 mg L{sup −1}, respectively, which were in excess of the losses from the biosolids plots. When compared with slurry treatments, for the parameters monitored biosolids generally do not pose a greater risk in terms of losses along the runoff pathway. This finding has important policy implications, as it shows that concern related to the reuse of biosolids as a soil fertiliser, mainly related to contaminant losses upon land application, may be unfounded. - Highlights: • This study investigated surface runoff of contaminants from biosolids in field plots. • Contaminants investigated were nutrients, metals, microbes and trace elements. • Compared to slurry, biosolids do not pose a greater risk of contaminant losses. • Fears concerning contaminant losses from land applied biosolids may be unfounded.

  5. Effects of pH on rheological characteristics and stability of petroleum coke water slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Yan Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the effects of pH on slurrying properties of petroleum coke water slurry (PCWS were investigated. The slurrying concentration, rheological characteristics and stability of PCWS were studied with four different types of additives at pH varying from 5 to 11. The results showed that the slurrying concentration, rheological characteristics and stability of PCWS all increased at first and then decreased with increasing pH from 5 to 11, and a pH of around 9 was found to be the most favorable acid–alkali environment to all these three slurrying properties. It was also indicated that only in a moderate alkaline environment can the additives be active enough to react with particle surfaces sufficiently to obtain good slurrying concentration and form a stable three-dimensional network structure, which can support strong pseudoplastic characteristics and good stability. An acid environment was a very unfavorable factor to the slurrying properties of PCWS.

  6. Hydrophobic aggregation of fine particles in high muddied coal slurry water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Min, Fanfei; Liu, Lingyun; Peng, Chenliang; Lu, Fangqin

    2016-01-01

    The hydrophobic aggregation of fine particles in high muddied coal slurry water in the presence of four quaternary ammonium salts of 1231(dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride), 1431(tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride), 1631(cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) and 1831(octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) was investigated through the measurement of contact angles, zeta potentials, aggregation observation, adsorption and sedimentation. The results show that quaternary ammonium salts can enhance the hydrophobicity and reduce the electronegativity of particle surface, and thus induce a strong hydrophobic aggregation of slurry fine particles which promotes the settlement of coal slurry water. The adsorption of quaternary ammonium salts on slurry particles increases with the increase of alkyl chain length and reagent dosage, and will reach equilibrium when the dosage reaches a certain value. Weak alkaline conditions also can promote quaternary ammonium salts to be adsorbed on the coal slurry fine particles. In addition, reasonable energy input and a chemical environment of weak alkaline solution are conducive to hydrophobic aggregation settlement of high muddied coal slurry water with quaternary ammonium salts. The main mechanism of hydrophobic aggregation of coal slurry particles with quaternary ammonium salts is 'adsorption charge neutralization' and hydrophobic interaction.

  7. Emissions of greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) from cattle slurry storage in Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhe, L.; Ascue, J.; Nordberg, Å.

    2009-11-01

    Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored manure corresponded to 14% of overall GHG emissions from Swedish agriculture in 2006 according to calculations using standard values for a cool climate. The present study identified storage conditions for cattle slurry in different regions of Sweden, developed methodology for measuring GHGs from slurry stored under similar conditions to full-scale storage, and determined annual GHG emissions (methane and nitrous oxide) from stored cattle slurry under Swedish conditions. Temperature measurements in full-scale storage of cattle slurry on farms showed a mean annual slurry temperature of 9.7°C in south-west Sweden and 5.6°C in the north. The closed chamber methodology and equipment developed for measuring GHG emissions were implemented for one year in a pilot-scale plant with similar conditions to full-scale storage as regards slurry temperature, climate and filling/emptying routines. During winter (Oct-April), methane emissions from stored cattle slurry were 3.6 g CH4-C per kg VS, while during summer (May-Sept) they were 6.5 g CH4-C per kg VS. This corresponded to an annual methane conversion factor (MCF) of 2.7%. Losses of nitrous oxide were close to zero.

  8. Coal waste slurries as a fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutynski Marcin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes recent development in integrated gasification combined cycle technology and lists existing and planned IGCC plants. A brief outlook on the IGCC gasification technology is given with focus on entrained-flow gasifiers where the low-quality coal waste slurry fuel can be used. Desired properties of coal and ash for entrained-flow gasifiers are listed. The coal waste slurries, which were deposited at impoundments in Upper Silesian Coal Basin, were considered as a direct feed for such gasifiers. The average ash content, moisture content and lower heating value were analysed and presented as an average values. Entrained-flow commercial gasifiers can be considered as suitable for the coal slurry feed, however the ash content of coal slurries deposited in impoundments is too high for the direct use as the feed for the gasifiers. The moisture content of slurries calculated on as received basis meets the requirements of entrained-flow slurry feed gasifiers. The content of fines is relatively high which allow to use the slurries in entrained-flow gasifiers.

  9. Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: determination of trace metals in mineral coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M M; Goreti, M; Vale, R; Caramão, E B

    1999-12-06

    A procedure for lead, cadmium and copper determination in coal samples based on slurry sampling using an atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a transversely heated graphite tube atomizer is proposed. The slurries were prepared by weighing the samples directly into autosampler cups (5-30 mg) and adding a 1.5 ml aliquot of a diluent mixture of 5% v/v HNO(3), 0.05% Triton X-100 and 10% ethanol. The slurry was homogenized by manual stirring before measurement. Slurry homogenization using ultrasonic agitation was also investigated for comparison. The effect of particle size and the use of different diluent compositions on the slurry preparation were investigated. The temperature programmes were optimized on the basis of pyrolysis and atomization curves. Absorbance characteristics with and without the addition of a palladium-magnesium modifier were compared. The use of 0.05% m/v Pd and 0.03% m/v Mg was found satisfactory for stabilizing Cd and Pb. The calibration was performed with aqueous standards. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling. Better recoveries of the analytes were obtained when the particle size was reduced to <37 mum. Several certified coal reference materials (BCR Nos. 40, 180, and 181) were analyzed, and good agreement was obtained between the results from the proposed slurry sampling method and the certificate values.

  10. Pig slurry concentration by vacuum evaporation: influence of previous mesophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí, August; Flotats, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Water can be removed from pig slurry by evaporation, through the application of wasted heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective of water removal is to obtain water as condensate, which could be reused. The objective of this work was to study the vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction and to evaluate condensate composition as a function of both pH (4, 5, and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Batch experiments showed that condensate characteristics, total ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids (VFA), and chemical oxygen demand were strongly dependent on initial slurry pH. In addition to producing part of the required thermal energy, previous anaerobic digestion presented several other clear advantages. The consumption of VFA and other volatile organic compounds during anaerobic digestion reduced the volatilization of organic matter in the evaporation treatment and, consequently, provided a higher quality condensate.

  11. Hydrogen absorption of slurry system composed of different MgNi alloy and benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡官明; 陈长聘; 安越; 徐国华; 陈立新; 王启东

    2003-01-01

    The hydrogen absorption amount and kinetics of the slurry formed by suspending the MgNi alloy powderin liquid benzene were studied. It is discovered that hydrogen is absorbed by both the solid phase(alloy) and liquidphase(C6 H6) and the hydrogen absorption rate varies with the temperature and the content of the Mg-Ni in the slur-ry. Most hydrogen absorption curves of the slurry fall into two regions, in which the mechanism of hydriding reac-tion in the slurry system is different. In the former region, the hydriding of the alloy proceeds with hydrogen diffu-sing through C6 H6. The part in the second region is the outcome of the hydrogenation of C6 H6. At 548 K and underthe hydrogen pressure of 4.5 MPa the saturation capacity for the slurry of 80% C6 H6 (mass fraction)+20% MgNi(mass fraction) is 5.9% (mass fraction) hydrogen, which is 97% of the theoretic capacity of the slurry system.The hydride of the alloy MgNi, which is only the hydride of Mg2Ni phase, Mg2NiH4, is an efficient catalyst for thehydrogenation of C6 H6 into C6 H12 (C6 H6 +3H2→C6 H12 ) in the slurry system.

  12. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION IN SANITIZATION OF PIG SLURRY AND BIOMASS IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Grudziński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry is one of the production manure, which should be managed properly because of environmental threats it can cause. Pig slurry contains a wide range of microorganisms, most of which are opportunistic or obligatory pathogens for people and animals. Spreading it on fields without control can cause microbial contaminations of water and soil. Use of pig slurry as substrate in anaerobic digestion can be an effective way of sanitization. In this work role of methanogenic fermentation in pig slurry sanitization was laboratory examined. Study materials were biological samples: 1 sample of raw slurry and 3 samples of fermented biomass from different stages of fermentation. Total number of coliforms was determined by MPN (most probable number method, and presence of enterococci was verified in each sample. Study have shown that anaerobic digestion reduced total number of coliforms from initial amount of 7.0 x 106 [MPN/ml] in raw slurry to 3.7 x 104 [MPN/ml]. Total reduction was 99.47%. Moreover, after first fermentation, enterococci in the sample were undetectable. Results of this study proved anaerobic fermentation to be an affective way to neutralize microbial threat, that is pig slurry.

  13. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. T.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Grimley, T. A.; Morrow, T. B.

    1988-05-01

    An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and full turbulent pipe flow regimes is the primary objective of this research. Measurements include rheological characterization of the fluid and local fluid velocity measurements with a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Optical access to the flow is gained through a test section and model slurry which are both transparent. The model slurry is formulated from silica gel particles and hydrocarbon liquid mixture whose indices of refraction are matched so that light is not scattered from the particles. Experiments are being conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry. Flow measurements including turbulence quantities such as Reynolds stress were measured with a two-component two-color LDV. The present research indicates that non-Newtonian slurries are possible with concentrations of a few percent by weight of small particles whose sizes are two microns or less. A non-Newtonian slurry from small particles could maintain large particles (one millimeter size) at high concentrations in suspension almost indefinitely. Such a slurry would prevent particle fallout and its associated problems.

  14. Evaluating slurry broadcasting and injection to ley for phosphorus losses and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth in the size of dairy cattle farms and the concentration of farms into smaller areas in Finland may increase local water pollution due to increased manure production and slurry application to grass. Therefore, a field study was conducted to monitor losses of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff from a perennial ley. Cattle slurry was added once a year in June 1996-1997 (Study I) and biannually in June and October 1998-2000 (Study II). The slurry was surface broadcast or injected into the clay soil. The field had a slope of 0.9 to 1.7%. Mineral fertilizer was applied on control plots. Biannual slurry broadcasting increased DRP (p broadcasting slurry to wet soil followed by rainfall in fall 1998. Injection reduced the TP and DRP losses in surface runoff by 79 and 86%, respectively, compared with broadcasting (17 Oct. 1998-27 Oct. 1999). Corresponding numbers for fecal coliforms were 350 CFU (100 mL)(-1) and for somatic coliphages were 110 PFU (100 mL)(-1) in surface runoff after injection in October 1998. Slurry injection should be favored when spreading slurry amendments to grassland to avoid losses of P and fecal microorganisms in runoff to surface waters.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinases regulate the formation of dendritic spine head protrusions during chemically induced long-term potentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Szepesi

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are are small membranous protrusions that extend from neuronal dendrites and harbor the majority of excitatory synapses. Increasing evidence has shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, a family of extracellularly acting and Zn(2+-dependent endopeptidases, are able to rapidly modulate dendritic spine morphology. Spine head protrusions (SHPs are filopodia-like processes that extend from the dendritic spine head, representing a form of postsynaptic structural remodeling in response to altered neuronal activity. Herein, we show that chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP in dissociated hippocampal cultures upregulates MMP-9 activity that controls the formation of SHPs. Blocking of MMPs activity or microtubule dynamics abolishes the emergence of SHPs. In addition, autoactive recombinant MMP-9, promotes the formation of SHPs in organotypic hippocampal slices. Furthermore, spines with SHPs gained postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA receptors upon cLTP and the synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors was controlled by MMPs. The present results strongly imply that MMP-9 is functionally involved in the formation of SHPs and the control of postsynaptic receptor distribution upon cLTP.

  16. Interactions with Astroglia Influence the Shape of the Developing Dendritic Arbor and Restrict Dendrite Growth Independent of Promoting Synaptic Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Jennifer R.; Sterritt, Jeffrey R.; Crane, Andrés B.; Wallace, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    Astroglia play key roles in the development of neurons, ranging from regulating neuron survival to promoting synapse formation, yet basic questions remain about whether astrocytes might be involved in forming the dendritic arbor. Here, we used cultured hippocampal neurons as a simple in vitro model that allowed dendritic growth and geometry to be analyzed quantitatively under conditions where the extent of interactions between neurons and astrocytes varied. When astroglia were proximal to neurons, dendrites and dendritic filopodia oriented toward them, but the general presence of astroglia significantly reduced overall dendrite growth. Further, dendritic arbors in partial physical contact with astroglia developed a pronounced pattern of asymmetrical growth, because the dendrites in direct contact were significantly smaller than the portion of the arbor not in contact. Notably, thrombospondin, the astroglial factor shown previously to promote synapse formation, did not inhibit dendritic growth. Thus, while astroglia promoted the formation of presynaptic contacts onto dendrites, dendritic growth was constrained locally within a developing arbor at sites where dendrites contacted astroglia. Taken together, these observations reveal influences on spatial orientation of growth as well as influences on morphogenesis of the dendritic arbor that have not been previously identified. PMID:28081563

  17. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  18. Shape forming of ceramics via gelcasting of aqueous particulate slurries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dhara; R K Kamboj; M Pradhan; P Bhargava

    2002-11-01

    Gelcasting is a promising technique for shape forming of bulk dense or porous ceramic, metal structures. The process offers a number of advantages over processes such as slip casting, injection molding in forming complex ceramic shapes. It is shown here that the optimization of slurry rheology, choice of mold material, mold design and the drying conditions have a significant role in the overall success of the process. In this process, components of simple or complex shapes can be produced to near net shape by direct casting. If required complex shapes can also be produced by machining the green gelcast bodies. The process of gelcasting also has a lot of potential in forming highly porous ceramic shapes.

  19. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toseland, B.A.

    1998-10-29

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  20. Coal water slurry in 0.25 MW furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Cao, X.; Zhou, Z. (and others) [CUMT, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Thermal state comparative test between the normal coal water slurry (CWS)and black liquor CWS from Xinwen was performed in 0.25 MW furnace for the purpose of investigating the industrial application feasibility of black liquor CWS. Performances of flow, atomization, kindling, burning, fouling, slagging, and pollutant emission were studied. The fouling and slagging tendency for two CWSs were analyzed using a self-made heat flux meter. The results show that the black liquor CWS is a fuel with good flowability and atomization, easy firing, stable burning, low pollutant emission, low ash fusion point, and strong slagging tendency, in contrast with the normal CWS. So it is feasible for the black liquor CWS to be used in industrial boilers. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Jet slurry erosion performance of composite clad and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    B, Lohit R.; Horakeri, Gururaj S.; Bhovi, Prabakhar M.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, development of composite cladding consists of Cr23C6 (chromium carbide) as reinforcement particles 20 wt. % in Ni-based matrix 80 wt. % on austenitic stainless steel through exposure of microwave radiation has been carried out. The jet slurry erosion test was performed on microwave composite clad. The functional performance of composite clad has been evaluated for different parametric conditions like varying impingement velocity and impact angle. The increasing weight loss trend was observed with time for the first 30 min. after that the individual trend decreased; at high impingement velocity and maximum impact angle. SEM micrographs of eroded clad samples at various impact angle and impingement velocity were discussed. The maximum weight loss occurred at 90° angle and velocity of 60 m/s, and minimum at 30° angle and velocity of 20 m/s.

  2. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2002-09-30

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  3. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  4. Effects of pig slurry application on soils and soil humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, César; Senesi, Nicola; García-Gil, Juan C; Brunetti, Gennaro; D'Orazio, Valeria; Polo, Alfredo

    2002-08-14

    The effect of three annually consecutive additions of pig slurry at two rates (90 and 150 m3 x ha(-1) x year(-1) on soils and soil humic acids (HAs) was investigated in a field experiment under semiarid conditions. Soils and pig slurries were analyzed by standard methods. The HAs were isolated from soils and pig slurry by a conventional procedure based on alkaline extraction, acidic precipitation to pH 1, purification by repeated alkaline dissolutions and acidic precipitations, water washing, dialysis, and final freeze-drying. The HAs obtained were analyzed for elemental (C, H, N, S, and O) and acidic functional group (carboxylic and phenolic) composition, and by UV-vis, FT-IR, fluorescence, and ESR spectroscopies. With respect to the control soil, the pig slurry amended soils had greater pH and electrical conductivity, slightly larger total N content, and smaller values of C/N ratio. A decrease of total organic C was observed only in soils amended for 2 and 3 years at the higher slurry rate. With respect to control soil HA, pig slurry HA was characterized by larger contents of S- and N-containing groups, smaller acidic functional group and organic free radical contents, a prevalent aliphatic character, extended molecular heterogeneity, and smaller aromatic polycondensation and humification degrees. Amendment with pig slurry HA determines a number of modifications in soil HAs, including increase of C, S, and COOH contents, C/N ratios, and aliphaticity and decrease of extraction yields and N, O, phenolic OH, and organic free radical contents. These effects are generally more evident after the first year of slurry application and tend to disappear with increasing number of treatments. Most probably, over the years the slightly humified slurry HA is mineralized through extended microbial oxidation, whereas only the most recalcitrant components, such as S-containing, phenolic, and aliphatic structures, are partially accumulated by incorporation into soil HA.

  5. Environmental evaluation of transfer and treatment of excess pig slurry by life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Werf, Hayo van der; Paillat, Jean Marie; Le Bris, Bertrand

    2009-02-01

    Slurry management is a central topic in the agronomic and environmental analysis of intensive livestock production systems. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental performance of two scenarios of collective slurry management for the disposal of excess nitrogen from animal manure. The scenarios are the transfer of slurry and its injection to crop land, and the treatment of slurry in a collective biological treatment station. The study is based on a real case in the West of France, where a group of farmers is developing a collective plan for the disposal of almost 7000 m(3) of excess pig slurry. The evaluation is carried out by Life Cycle Assessment, where emissions and resource consumption are quantified and aggregated into four environmental impact categories: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, and non-renewable energy use. Ammonia emitted is the most important contributor to acidification and eutrophication, while methane contributes most to climate change. Both ammonia and methane are mostly emitted during the storage of slurry and, in the case of the treatment scenario, also during composting the solid fraction of the slurry. The two management strategies are similar with respect to climate change, whereas eutrophication and acidification are twice as large for treatment relative to transfer. Electricity needed for the treatment process is the main contributor to non-renewable energy use for the treatment scenario, while the transfer scenario represents a net energy saving, as energy saved by the reduction of mineral fertiliser use more than compensates for the energy needed for transport and injection of slurry. The overall environmental performance of transfer is better than that of treatment, as it involves less acidification, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use. The method employed and the results obtained in this study can provide elements for a transparent discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of contrasting

  6. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2000-12-31

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large-diameter reactors. Washington University's work during the reporting period involved the implementation of the automated calibration device, which will provide an advanced method of determining liquid and slurry velocities at high pressures. This new calibration device is intended to replace the original calibration setup, which depended on fishing lines and hooks to position the radioactive particle. The report submitted by Washington University contains a complete description of the new calibration device and its operation. Improvements to the calibration program are also discussed. Iowa State University utilized air-water bubble column simulations in an effort to determine the domain size needed to represent all of the flow scales in a gas-liquid column at a high superficial velocity. Ohio State's report summarizes conclusions drawn from the completion of gas injection phenomena studies, specifically with respect to the characteristics of bubbling-jetting at submerged single orifices in liquid-solid suspensions.

  7. Alcohol synthesis in a high-temperature slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.W.; Marquez, M.A.; McCutchen, M.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this contract is to develop improved process and catalyst technology for producing higher alcohols from synthesis gas or its derivatives. Recent research has been focused on developing a slurry reactor that can operate at temperatures up to about 400{degrees}C and on evaluating the so-called {open_quotes}high pressure{close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst using this reactor. A laboratory stirred autoclave reactor has been developed that is capable of operating at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C and pressures of at least 170 atm. The overhead system on the reactor is designed so that the temperature of the gas leaving the system can be closely controlled. An external liquid-level detector is installed on the gas/liquid separator and a pump is used to return condensed slurry liquid from the separator to the reactor. In order to ensure that gas/liquid mass transfer does not influence the observed reaction rate, it was necessary to feed the synthesis gas below the level of the agitator. The performance of a commercial {open_quotes}high pressure {close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst, the so-called {open_quotes}zinc chromite{close_quotes} catalyst, has been characterized over a range of temperature from 275 to 400{degrees}C, a range of pressure from 70 to 170 atm., a range of H{sub 2}/CO ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and a range of space velocities from 2500 to 10,000 sL/kg.(catalyst),hr. Towards the lower end of the temperature range, methanol was the only significant product.

  8. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2004-10-01

    In this project, an Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column was developed. The approach used an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and made use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. The bubble-bubble and particle-particle collisions are included the model. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found An experimental setup for studying two-dimensional bubble columns was developed. The multiphase flow conditions in the bubble column were measured using optical image processing and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques (PIV). A simple shear flow device for bubble motion in a constant shear flow field was also developed. The flow conditions in simple shear flow device were studied using PIV method. Concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow was also measured. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. An Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column was also developed. The liquid and bubble motions were analyzed and the results were compared with observed flow patterns in the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were also analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures were also studied. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data and discussed A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion was developed. The balance laws were obtained and the constitutive laws established.

  9. Impact of slurry management strategies on potential leaching of nutrients and pathogens in a sandy soil amended with cattle slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, D; Surgy, S; Napier, V; Menaia, J; Vasconcelos, E; Coutinho, J

    2014-12-15

    For farmers, management of cattle slurry (CS) is now a priority, in order to improve the fertilizer value of the slurry and simultaneously minimize its environmental impact. Several slurry pre-treatments and soil application methods to minimize ammonia emissions are now available to farmers, but the impact of such management strategies on groundwater is still unclear. A laboratory experiment was performed over 24 days in controlled conditions, with undisturbed soil columns (sandy soil) in PVC pipes (30 cm high and 5.7 cm in diameter). The treatments considered (4 replicates) were: a control with no amendment (CTR), injection of whole CS (WSI), and surface application of: whole CS (WSS), acidified (pH 5.5) whole CS (AWSS), the liquid fraction obtained by centrifugation of CS (LFS), and acidified (pH 5.5) liquid fraction (ALFS). An amount of CS equivalent to 240 kg N ha(-1) was applied in all treatments. The first leaching event was performed 72 h after application of the treatments and then leaching events were performed weekly to give a total of four irrigation events (IEs). All the leachates obtained were analyzed for mineral and organic nitrogen, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total carbon, and phosphorus. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were also quantified in the leachates obtained in the first IE. The results show that both acidification and separation had significant effects on the composition of the leachates: higher NO3(-) concentrations were observed for the LFS and ALFS relative to all the other treatments, throughout the experiment, and lower NO3(-) concentrations were observed for acidified relative to non-acidified treatments at IE2. Acidification of both the LF and WS led to higher NH4(+) concentrations as well as an increase of EC for treatment ALFS relative to the control, in the first IE, and lower pH values in the AWSS. Furthermore, the E. coli and total coliform concentrations in AWSS, LFS, and ALFS were significantly higher than in

  10. A simple method for the multi-elemental analysis of organic fertilizer by slurry sampling and total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Luciene V; Nascentes, Clésia C

    2016-01-15

    A simple and fast method for the multi-elemental determination of 18 inorganic constituents (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb) in organic fertilizers employing slurry sampling and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is presented. A 2(3) factorial design with a central point was employed to optimize the slurry sampling procedure. The internal standard and instrumental conditions were optimized by univariate studies. The selectivity of the method to determining Se, As, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd was assessed. The accuracy was evaluated by the analysis of four standard reference materials (SRM). The recoveries varied from 72% to 114%. For most of the elements, good agreement was achieved between the certified value and the value measured in the SRM. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) ranged from 0.5% to 14%. The evaluated method was applied to the determination of analytes in the press cake of palm, castor, curcas, sunflower, fodder turnip, white lupin, rapeseed and pequi, and their potential to be used as organic fertilizer was evaluated in accordance with Brazilian legislation.

  11. Active dendrites support efficient initiation of dendritic spikes in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sooyun; Guzman, Segundo J.; Hu, Hua; Jonas, Peter

    2012-01-01

    CA3 pyramidal neurons are important for memory formation and pattern completion in the hippocampal network. It is generally thought that proximal synapses from the mossy fibers activate these neurons most efficiently, whereas distal inputs from the perforant path have a weaker modulatory influence. We used confocally targeted patch-clamp recording from dendrites and axons to map the activation of rat CA3 pyramidal neurons at the subcellular level. Our results reveal two distinct dendritic dom...

  12. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  13. Biotreatment of hydrocarbons from petroleum tank bottom sludges in soil slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, M.D.; Neirotti, E.; Albornoz, C.; Mostazo, M.R.; Cozzo, M. [Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland Pando, Canelones (Uruguay). Centro de Investigaciones Tecnologicas

    1996-11-01

    Biotreatment of oil wastes in aqueous slurries prepared with sandy loam soil and inoculated with selected soil cultures was evaluated. After 90 days, oil removal was 47%. Removal of each hydrocarbon class was 84% for saturates, 20% for aromatics, and 44% for asphaltenes. Resins increased by 68%. The use of a soil with a lower level of fine particles or minor organic matter content, or reinoculation with fresh culture did not improve oil elimination. Residual oil recovered from slurries was biotreated. Oil removal was 22%. Slurry-phase biotreatment showed less variability and faster oil removal than solid-phase biotreatment. (author)

  14. Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halil Yanardaǧ, Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and β-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and β-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment

  15. Algorithms of Optimum Slurry Selection for Soil and Rock Sealing Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryczek Stanis³aw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Technical problems, usually caused by complex geological and hydrogeological conditions, are often encountered in mining, drilling and geoengineering operations, as well as in hydrotechnical and underground construction.Natural hazards in the above engineering operations are frequently liquidated by reinforcement and sealing of the ground with the use of injection methods with pre-selected sealing slurries.The authors present methods for slurry technological parameters normalization, depending on the scope and target of sealing operations, and algorithm of slurry selection of soil and rock sealing.

  16. Influence of Mineral Additives on the Technological Properties of Sealing Slurries for Geoengineering Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gonet

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing the efficiency of sealing and reinforcing the ground and rock mass with geoengineering methods is a proper selection of respective technological parameters in view of existing hydrogeological and geotechnical conditions.Selected mineral additives increase the sealing properties of fresh and set slurries. They also decrease the cost of the slurry, provide a method for utilizing the stored materials (additives, and consequently, lessen the risk of environmental pollution.The results of laboratory tests on the influence of selected mineral additives on technological properties of sealing slurries are presented in the paper.

  17. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  18. Inhibition of methane oxidation in slurry surface crust by inorganic nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Yun-Feng; Elsgaard, Lars; Petersen, Søren O

    2013-01-01

    Livestock slurry is an important source of methane (CH4). Depending on dry matter content, a floating crust may form where methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and CH4 oxidation activity have been found, suggesting that surface crusts may reduce CH4 emissions from slurry. However, it is not known how...... MOB in this environment interact with inorganic nitrogen (N). We studied inhibitory effects of ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3–) and nitrite (NO2–) on potential CH4 oxidation in a cattle slurry surface crust. Methane oxidation was assayed at salt concentrations up to 500 mM at 100 and 10,000 ppmv...

  19. Numerical Simulations of Equiaxed Dendrite Growth Using Phase Field Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Phase field method offers the prospect of being able to perform realistic numerical experiments on dendrite growthin a metallic system. In this paper, the equiaxed dendrite evolution during the solidification of a pure material wasnumerically simulated using the phase field model. The equiaxed dendrite growth in a two-dimensional square domainof undercooled melt (nickel) with four-fold anisotropy was simulated. The phase field model equations was solvedusing the explicit finite difference method on a uniform mesh. The formation of various equiaxed dendrite patternswas shown by a series of simulations, and the effect of anisotropy on equiaxed dendrite morphology was investigated.

  20. The role of dendritic cells in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-01-01

    Though present in low numbers, dendritic cells (DCs) are recognized as major players in the control of cancer by adaptive immunity. The roles of cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells and Th1 helper CD4+ T-cells are well-documented in murine models of cancer and associated with a profound prognostic impact when...... treatment regimens against cancer....

  1. Characterization of chicken dendritic cell markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. New mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect CD80 and CD83 were developed to characterize chicken dendritic cells (DCs). The characteristics of these molecules have been studied in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine but not ...

  2. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  3. Dendritic cells in peripheral tolerance and immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Monika; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Pedersen, Anders Elm

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells capable of influencing immunity exist as functionally distinct subsets, T cell-tolerizing and T cell-immunizing subsets. The present paper reviews how these subsets of DCs develop, differentiate and function in vivo and in vitro at the cellular and molecular level. In particular...

  4. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Dendritic mitochondria reach stable positions during circuit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faits, Michelle C; Zhang, Chunmeng; Soto, Florentina; Kerschensteiner, Daniel

    2016-01-07

    Mitochondria move throughout neuronal dendrites and localize to sites of energy demand. The prevailing view of dendritic mitochondria as highly motile organelles whose distribution is continually adjusted by neuronal activity via Ca(2+)-dependent arrests is based on observations in cultured neurons exposed to artificial stimuli. Here, we analyze the movements of mitochondria in ganglion cell dendrites in the intact retina. We find that whereas during development 30% of mitochondria are motile at any time, as dendrites mature, mitochondria all but stop moving and localize stably to synapses and branch points. Neither spontaneous nor sensory-evoked activity and Ca(2+) transients alter motility of dendritic mitochondria; and pathological hyperactivity in a mouse model of retinal degeneration elevates rather than reduces motility. Thus, our findings indicate that dendritic mitochondria reach stable positions during a critical developmental period of high motility, and challenge current views about the role of activity in regulating mitochondrial transport in dendrites.

  6. Differentiation of apical and basal dendrites in pyramidal cells and granule cells in dissociated hippocampal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You Kure; Fujishima, Kazuto; Kengaku, Mineko

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal cells and dentate granule cells develop morphologically distinct dendritic arbors, yet also share some common features. Both cell types form a long apical dendrite which extends from the apex of the cell soma, while short basal dendrites are developed only in pyramidal cells. Using quantitative morphometric analyses of mouse hippocampal cultures, we evaluated the differences in dendritic arborization patterns between pyramidal and granule cells. Furthermore, we observed and described the final apical dendrite determination during dendritic polarization by time-lapse imaging. Pyramidal and granule cells in culture exhibited similar dendritic patterns with a single principal dendrite and several minor dendrites so that the cell types were not readily distinguished by appearance. While basal dendrites in granule cells are normally degraded by adulthood in vivo, cultured granule cells retained their minor dendrites. Asymmetric growth of a single principal dendrite harboring the Golgi was observed in both cell types soon after the onset of dendritic growth. Time-lapse imaging revealed that up until the second week in culture, final principal dendrite designation was not stabilized, but was frequently replaced by other minor dendrites. Before dendritic polarity was stabilized, the Golgi moved dynamically within the soma and was repeatedly repositioned at newly emerging principal dendrites. Our results suggest that polarized growth of the apical dendrite is regulated by cell intrinsic programs, while regression of basal dendrites requires cue(s) from the extracellular environment in the dentate gyrus. The apical dendrite designation is determined from among multiple growing dendrites of young developing neurons.

  7. Interface morphology and solute partition during directional soldification process of Al-1.5Cu-3Zn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuyia Chen; Wanqib Jie [State Key Lab. of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical Univ., Xian (China)

    2005-07-01

    Interface morphology and solute partition during directional solidification process of Al-1.5Cu-3.0Zn alloy were investigated at temperature gradient of 80 K/cm and growth rate between 0.1 and 7.1 {mu}m/s. The solid-liquid interface was quenched during directional solidification and the micromorphology at the longitudinal section was examined by optic microscopy and SEM. The cellular growth interface and dendritic growth interface were observed and characterized. The distribution of Cu and Zn was measured by EDS, the equilibrium solute partition coefficients for Cu and Zn in Al-1.5Cu-3.0Zn alloy were obtained to be 0.31 and 0.58. The activity model and concentration model, developed by present authors, were used to calculate the equilibrium solute partition coefficients in Al-1.5Cu-3Zn alloy. The model-calculated results were compared with experimental data. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of planarization capability of copper slurry in the CMP process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Kangda; Wang Shengli; Liu Yuling; Wang Chenwei; Li Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation methods of planarization capability of copper slurry are investigated.Planarization capability and material removal rate are the most essential properties of slurry.The goal of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is to achieve a flat and smooth surface.Planarization capability is the elimination capability of the step height on the copper pattern wafer surface,and reflects the passivation capability of the slurry to a certain extent.Through analyzing the planarization mechanism of the CMP process and experimental results,the planarization capability of the slurry can be evaluated by the following five aspects:pressure sensitivity,temperature sensitivity,static etch rate,planarization efficiency and saturation properties.

  9. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O.

    are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...... slurry/digestates when incubated in soil under aerobic conditions. The experimental treatments included untreated pig slurry, sugarbeet root pulp, or pig slurry co-digested with 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 90% sugarbeet pulp. Proportions of VSd ranged from 25 to 67%. Methane emissions during storage...... of volatile solids (VS) is critical for predicting GHG emissions and the effect of biogas treatment. Volatile solids may be considered to have an easily degradable VS (VSd) and a slowly degradable VS (VSnd) fraction. A new approach to estimate VSd was investigated using the short-term evolution of CO2-C from...

  10. SYSTEM OF CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF THE MORTAR SLURRY PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kukuj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological schema of automatic flow line allowing to prepare with minimum charges of manual labor the refined from solid additives mortar slurry with stable density is presented in the article.

  11. Modeling of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in a Slurry Reactor with Water Permeable Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is an important chemical process for the production of liquid fuels and olefins. In recent years, the abundant availability of natural gas and the increasing demand of olefins, diesel, and waxes have led to a high interest to further develop this process. A mathematical model of a slurry membrane reactor used for syngas polymerization was developed to simulate and compare the maximum yields and operating conditions in the reactor with that in a conventional slurry reactor.The carbon polymerization was studied from a modeling point of view in a slurry reactor with a water permeable membrane and a conventional slurry reactor. Simulation results show that different parameters affect syngas conversion and carbon product distribution, such as the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio,and the membrane parameters such as membrane permeance.

  12. A new procedure for treatment of oily slurry using geotextile filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, M B; Cammarota, M C; Freire, D D C; Ehrlich, M

    2004-07-05

    A new procedure to mitigate the environmental impacts and reduce the cost of disposal of oil slurry is present in this paper. Waste from the petroleum industry has a high environmental impact. Systems for oil-water separation have been used to mitigate the contamination potential of these types of effluents. At the outlet of these systems, the oil is skimmed-off the surface, while the slurry is removed from the base. Due to the high concentration of contaminants, the disposal of this slurry is an environmentally hazardous practice. Usually this type of waste is disposed of in tanks or landfills after removal from the industrial plant. Basically, the proposed procedure utilizes drying beds with geotextile filters to both reduce the water content in the slurry and obtain a less contaminated effluent. Laboratory tests were carried out to simulate the drying system. Four types of filters were analyzed: two non-woven geotextiles, one woven geotextile, and a sand filter.

  13. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ŠOCH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a small quantity of microorganisms and parasites in samples taken from litter of separated slurry and only after three weeks a gradual proliferation of them began. From the viewpoint of the dairy cows´ state of health, the quantity and quality of their milk production, the cleanness of their body surface, the periods of their lying and other ascertained welfare parameters under given microclimatic conditions the application of separated slurry as plastic litter fully complied.

  14. Rheological properties of algae slurries for minimizing harvesting energy requirements in biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wileman, Angel; Ozkan, Altan; Berberoglu, Halil

    2012-01-01

    Rheological properties of microalgae slurries were measured as a function of biomass concentration from 0.5 to 80 kg/m(3) for Nannochloris sp., Chlorella vulgaris, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. At biomass concentrations smaller than 20 kg/m(3), all slurries displayed a Newtonian fluid behavior with less than 30% increase in the effective viscosity from that of the nutrient medium. However, at biomass concentrations larger than 60 kg/m(3), the slurries of the green algae, Nannochloris sp. and C. vulgaris, displayed a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with varying degrees of sensitivity to shear rate while that of the diatom, P. tricornutum, was still a Newtonian fluid up to 80 kg/m(3). Moreover, bioenergy pumping effectiveness showed significant deviation among different species in the non-Newtonian regime. Finally, dewatering the slurries to concentration factors larger than 80 did not further increase the total bioenergy harvest effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strength properties of cement slurries with lightweights applied in oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnov, A. S.; Boyko, I. A.; Khorev, V. S.

    2015-02-01

    The article is focused on the cement stone strength properties resulted from lightweight cement slurries that meet GOST-1581-96 (state Standards) requirements. Exfoliated vermiculite, hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (HAMs), diatomite and perlite were used as lightweighting additives.

  16. Slurry Chemical Corrosion and Galvanic Corrosion during Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Seiichi; Sakuma, Noriyuki; Homma, Yoshio; Ohashi, Naofumi

    2000-11-01

    Copper (Cu) corrosion during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was controlled in order to improve the Cu damascene interconnect process. Slurry chemical corrosion was found to be enhanced when the slurry was diluted by deionized (DI) water during rinsing just after CMP@. Since the corrosion inhibitor, benzotriazole (BTA), reduces the Cu removal rate, adding it to the rinse solution prevents chemical corrosion more effectively than adding it to the slurry. On the other hand, galvanic corrosion occurs at the interface between Cu and the barrier metal, and it can be prevented by selecting appropriate barrier metals. Because the difference between the electrochemical potentials of Cu and the barrier metal is small in the slurry, refractory metals such as Ta, TaN, and TiN were found to be appropriate barrier metals. On the other hand, W, WN, and Ti have large potential differences, so galvanic corrosion was clearly observed when Cu/W damascene interconnects were fabricated.

  17. Settlement prediction model of slurry suspension based on sedimentation rate attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai-jie GUO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a slurry suspension settlement prediction model for cohesive sediment in a still water environment. With no sediment input and a still water environment condition, control forces between settling particles are significantly different in the process of sedimentation rate attenuation, and the settlement process includes the free sedimentation stage, the log-linear attenuation stage, and the stable consolidation stage according to sedimentation rate attenuation. Settlement equations for sedimentation height and time were established based on sedimentation rate attenuation properties of different sedimentation stages. Finally, a slurry suspension settlement prediction model based on slurry parameters was set up with a foundation being that the model parameters were determined by the basic parameters of slurry. The results of the settlement prediction model show good agreement with those of the settlement column experiment and reflect the main characteristics of cohesive sediment. The model can be applied to the prediction of cohesive soil settlement in still water environments.

  18. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O.;

    , but environmental impacts, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, during storage and after field application should take into account. Mainly, methane (CH4) is produced during storage and nitrous oxide (N2O) after field application. Currently, direct (CH4, N2O) and indirect (NH3) GHG emissions during storage...... are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...... slurry/digestates when incubated in soil under aerobic conditions. The experimental treatments included untreated pig slurry, sugarbeet root pulp, or pig slurry co-digested with 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 90% sugarbeet pulp. Proportions of VSd ranged from 25 to 67%. Methane emissions during storage...

  19. Redistribution of contaminants from pig slurry after direct injection into soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, T B; Forslund, A;

    2010-01-01

    The redistribution of pig manure-borne contaminants after direct injection to soil was investigated in a field study. The spatial distribution of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B and other slurry components in and around the injection slit was measured on day 0.15, 1, 6......, 18, and 46/49 at Silstrup (sandy clay loam) and Estrup (sandy loam), Denmark. Transport of the slurry components away from the slit was slower at Silstrup in comparison to Estrup, probably because of a higher slurry dry matter content and soil clay content. Slurry NH4-N dissipated and....../or was nitrified gradually at Silstrup and more rapidly at Estrup, but had disappeared completely at both sites within 49 days. The rate of disappearance of E. coli at Estrup was lower than at Silstrup. Survival of E. coli was high in the upper soil layer at both sites. The overall persistence of the bacteriophage...

  20. Side-band injection of acidified cattle slurry as starter P-fertilization for maize seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lemming, Camilla; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    that the use of the additional mineral P could be excluded by increased availability of the P applied by animal manures. In a growth chamber experiment we investigated the effect of acidified slurry on the growth and nutrient uptake in maize seedlings. In special designed pot the slurries and mineral reference...... treatments were banded next to the seed row. Plants were harvested on nine dates with 4-6 days interval and an exponential growth function was fitted to the recordings. The P-uptake from acidified cattle slurry was clearly increased compared to raw slurry, and comparable to the mineral P-reference treatment......Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils has caused increasing environmental concerns. Maize cropped for fodder implies return of animal manures rich in nutrients. In addition, starter fertilization with mineral P is used in cold conditions for maize cropping. It was hypothesized...

  1. Improvement in water-slurry circulation at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabokov, A.K.; Fedotov, B.P.; Mitlash, V.V.

    1988-02-01

    The Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant (Donetskugleobogashchenie association) was put into operation in 1935. It processes 570 t/h of coal slurry with an ash content of 38.6% and produces grade T coal for coking and power generation. Coal preparation technology used is described. Shortcomings of the system cause 130 kg of high ash slurries to be recirculated per m/sup 3/ of hydrocyclone drain. Mathematical analysis of the present process and of two improved variants is presented. The analysis permits variants for clarification of the recirculated water to be developed and evaluated and the best one to be selected. The optimum variant permits the amount of thin recirculated slurry to be reduced to 48% and the amount of granular slurry to 13%. Implementation of this variant at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant will ensure annual savings of 20,000 rubles.

  2. A novel slurry concept for the fabrication of lithium-ion battery electrodes with beneficial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Boris; Dittmann, Jens; Schmitt, Marcel; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2014-11-01

    A novel slurry concept for the fabrication of Li-ion battery electrodes focusing on water based formulations is presented. Taking advantage of capillary forces inferred by adding a small fraction of a second fluid immiscible with the bulk continuous phase the low shear viscosity can be varied in a wide range without conventional polymeric rheology control agents disturbing the electric properties of the dry electrode. The new slurries provide superior storage stability and excellent shape accuracy of the final dry film. This reduces waste cut-off at the edges and increases the density of active ingredients, thus improving cost-efficiency. The viscosity at high shear rates remains unaffected, thus the slurries can be processed and coated using established equipment and process parameters. Adhesion to the conductor foil and electrochemical properties of the electrode layers and corresponding cells are similar to those made from conventional slurries.

  3. 功能添加剂对不饱和聚酯包覆剂黏度和凝胶时间的影响%Effects of Functional Additives on the Viscosity and Gel Time of Unsaturated Polyester Inhibitor Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨士山; 张伟; 王吉贵

    2011-01-01

    应用旋转流变仪和凝胶时间测定仪研究了不同功能添加剂对不饱和聚酯(UP)包覆层料浆的黏度和凝胶时间的影响.结果表明,粉状填料可提高UP包覆层料浆的黏度,层状硅酸盐(MMT)对包覆层料浆黏度影响最大,Sb2O3的影响最小;芳纶纤维(PPTA)和碳纤维(CF)均能显著影响UP包覆层料浆的黏度,当PPTA和2mmCF的质量分数分别为1%和6%时,UP料浆的流变性较差,无法进行浇注包覆;弹性体树脂(FUP)和丁腈橡胶(CTBN)增韧剂可提高UP包覆层料浆的黏度,磷酸二氯乙酯(PI)增塑剂可降低体系的黏度.PPTA和FUP能显著缩短凝胶时间,促进UP树脂聚合,MMT和CF可延长凝胶时间,对UP有一定的阻聚作用,Sb2 O3、ZnO、AI(OH)3、CTBN和PI对树脂凝胶时间的影响不明显.%The effects of various functional additives on the viscosity and gel time of unsaturated polyester(UP) inhibitor slurry were studied by a rheometer and a gel time detector. The results indicated that the viscosities of the slurry were increased by addition of the powder fillers,among which montmorillonite ( MMT) showed the greatest effect on the viscosity, Sb2O3 had the slightest effect (aromatic polyamide(PPTA) and carbon fiber(CF) could significantly increase the viscosities of the UP slurry either. It is difficult for the slurry to level off and cast in mould when the mass fraction of PPTA and CF approached to 1% and 6%. Intensifiers such as flexible unsaturated polyster (FUP)and carboxy terminated nitrile rubber(CTBN) could also increase the viscosities of the UP slurry,while plasticizer as dichloride ethyl phosphate(Pl) could decrease the viscosity. PPTA and FUP could greatly shorten the gel times of the slurry and accelerate the polymerization of the UP resin. MMT and CF had impeditive effect on the polymerization of the UP resin and could prolong the gel times of the slurry,the effects of Sb2O3 ,ZnO, A1(OH)3 ,CTBN and PI on the gel times of the slurry were not

  4. Asymmetry in signal propagation between the soma and dendrites plays a key role in determining dendritic excitability in motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojeong; Jones, Kelvin E; Heckman, C J

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that propagation of electrophysiological signals between the soma and dendrites of neurons differs depending on direction, i.e. it is asymmetric. How this asymmetry influences the activation of voltage-gated dendritic channels, and consequent neuronal behavior, remains unclear. Based on the analysis of asymmetry in several types of motoneurons, we extended our previous methodology for reducing a fully reconstructed motoneuron model to a two-compartment representation that preserved asymmetric signal propagation. The reduced models accurately replicated the dendritic excitability and the dynamics of the anatomical model involving a persistent inward current (PIC) dispersed over the dendrites. The relationship between asymmetric signal propagation and dendritic excitability was investigated using the reduced models while varying the asymmetry in signal propagation between the soma and the dendrite with PIC density constant. We found that increases in signal attenuation from soma to dendrites increased the activation threshold of a PIC (hypo-excitability), whereas increases in signal attenuation from dendrites to soma decreased the activation threshold of a PIC (hyper-excitability). These effects were so strong that reversing the asymmetry in the soma-to-dendrite vs. dendrite-to-soma attenuation, reversed the correlation between PIC threshold and distance of this current source from the soma. We propose the tight relation of the asymmetric signal propagation to the input resistance in the dendrites as a mechanism underlying the influence of the asymmetric signal propagation on the dendritic excitability. All these results emphasize the importance of maintaining the physiological asymmetry in dendritic signaling not only for normal function of the cells but also for biophysically realistic simulations of dendritic excitability.

  5. Microstructure and rheological properties of semi-solid 7075 slurries using SEED rheocasting process

    OpenAIRE

    Bolouri, A.; Zhao, Q. F.; Côté, P.; X. G. Chen

    2016-01-01

    The SEED rheocasting process was used to produce semisolid slurries of high strength 7075 aluminum wrought alloys. The effects of the SEED processing parameters on the microstructure of semisolid slurries were studied. The impact of grain refinement on the grain morphology and size was investigated. The rheological properties of semisolid 7075 alloys were characterized at different solid fractions using a parallel plate compression viscometer. Results indicated that the grain refinement could...

  6. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    M. ŠOCH; JANA ŠŤASTNÁ; V. PÁLKA; B VOSTOUPAL; Novák, P.; J. BROUČEK; B. ČERMÁK

    2013-01-01

    The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a sma...

  7. Improvement of high temperature oxidation resistance of γTiAl alloys by slurry coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Musallam, Nicolás Fashho

    2014-01-01

    This research document aims to deepen the understanding of slurry coatings as an effective barrier against the oxidation of promising Titanium-aluminide intermetallic alloys. For that purpose, the research is carried out with a Titanium- Aluminum alloy substrate {(Ti 45Al 2Nb 2Mn + 0.8%vol TiB2){ which was manufactured by means of two different techniques: Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Centrifugal Casting (CC). Additionally, two different slurry coatings have been applied...

  8. Microchannel Heat Sink with Micro Encapsulated Phase Change Material (MEPCM) Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-31

    beds or fluidized beds , depending on the concentration of the slurry. The authors assumed local thermal equilibrium for both liquid and solid...simulating MEPCM slurry flows assumed homogeneous distribution of particles. The model proposed by Tao et al. [16] use fluidized bed correlations to solve...directly fabricated in a silicon substrate and had direct circulation of water. It is so compact that heat is efficiently carried from the substrate

  9. Study and application of plasticity plaster-slurry for preventing coal spontaneous combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ai-hua(刘爱华); CAI Kang-xu(蔡康旭); GUO Da(郭达); ZHANG Fu-sheng(张复胜)

    2003-01-01

    Introduced the modulation scheme, function and mechanism of plasticity plaster-slurry preventing coal spontaneous combustion. The applications show that the plasticity plaster-slurry has good hygroscopicity and adsorptivity. To spray it on the coal wall of tunnel can shut off leakage wind fast and effectively. To press it into the coal body can absorb the heat and descend the temperature, surround the coal pieces, eliminate the possibility of the fiery district resuming combustion.

  10. The effect of cattle slurry electroflotation products as fertilizers on gaseous emissions and grassland yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Lekuona, A; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

    2008-01-01

    The climatic conditions of the Basque Country (northern Spain) provide the favorable conditions for the growth of grasslands and the development of livestock enterprises. The intensification of the farms is leading to serious environmental risks due to the great generation of manures and slurries and their subsequent inefficient management. Their application involves N losses that can be pollutant. The environmental company ADE BIOTEC S.L. is developing the process called "electroflotation" with the aim of reducing the volume of slurries from intensive livestock farms. The process consists basically of an electrolysis of the slurry catalyzed by iron which leads to the flocculation of the solid particles, giving as a final result a solid and a liquid fraction. The objective of this work was to assess the usefulness of these two fractions as fertilizers. With this aim, the environmental risk of their application was determined regarding gaseous emissions to the atmosphere (i.e., of NO, NH(3), N(2)O, and CO(2)) and their fertilizer capacity was investigated by determining their effects on grassland yield and N uptake in comparison to the untreated slurry. The untreated slurry and the solid and the liquid fractions were all applied at a rate of 70 kg NH(4)(+)-N ha(-1). The application of the products of electroflotation did not affect N(2)O and CO(2) losses, being of the same magnitude as those caused by the application of the original slurry. However, after their application, a reduction in NH(3) volatilization losses was induced in the short term and a reduction in NO losses was caused in the long term. The solid and liquid fractions both increased biomass yield with respect to the untreated slurry. The solid fraction even induced a higher N uptake than the liquid fraction and the untreated slurry.

  11. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Cattle Slurry with Maize Stalk at Mesophilic Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Adebayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion from batch digester containing varying ratio of mixture of cow slurry and maize stalk was studied at mesophilic temperature (37oC. Cattle slurry and maize stalks were co-digested at ratios 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 using the percentage volatile solid of each substrate. The experiment was carried out in a laboratory scale batch digester. The digester was fed with cattle slurry-maize stalks mixtures calculated for the selected ratios based on the volatile solid (VS concentration of the selected substrates. Co-digestion of cattle slurry with maize stalks at ratios 3:1, 1:1 and 3:1 at mesophilic temperature gave biogas yields of 0.426, 0.385 and 0.391m3 /kgoDM respectively while the methane yields were 0.297, 0.270 and 0.262m3CH4/kgoDM respectively. From the fresh mass of the substrate, biogas yields of 0.052, 0.059 and 0.090 m3 /kgFM were obtained for cattle slurry-maize stalks ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 respectively while the methane yields from the fresh mass for the same ratios were 0.036, 0.043 and 0.060 CH4/kgFM respectively. Co-digestion of cattle slurry with maize stalks was found to have methane concentrations of 69.66, 70.24 and 66.98% at cattle slurry/maize stalks combinations of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 respectively. The highest biogas yields (oDM of 0.426 m3 /kgoDM was obtained at the mixing ratio of 3:1; therefore the mixing ratio of 3:1 is recommended as the optimal for the codigestion of cattle slurry with maize stalks at mesophilic temperature.

  12. Effects of Several Factors on Viscosity of Alumina-spinel Slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Jianmin; LIU Kaiqi; LIU Zuocai

    2004-01-01

    The effects of several commercial dispersants, including AN- 2000, ammonium polyacrylate , sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, and of solids loading and of electro-fused magnesia on rheological propertiesof aqueous alumina-spinel slurries were studied.The results reveal that AN- 2000 is the most effective one among the selected dispersants for alumina-spinel slurries.With 0.5% weight of AN-2000, the 57vol% solids loadobtained at shear rate of 50s-1 .

  13. Flow resistance reduction of coal water slurry through gas phase addition

    OpenAIRE

    Robak Jolanta; Ignasiak Karina

    2016-01-01

    One of the main advantages of coal water slurry fuel (CWS) is a physical form that allows, among others, their transfer by pipelines over long distances. For this form of transport actions towards reducing the flow resistance of the transmitted medium are important. One of the treatments leading to reduction in the flow resistance of suspensions is to introduce gas into the stream of flowing slurry. The goal of that action is to either loosen the structure of densely packed grains or increase...

  14. 模拟沼液灌溉对紫色土土壤环境的影响%Impact of Simulated Biogas Slurry Irrigation on Soil Environment in Purple Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊川; 史秋萍; 陈玉成

    2013-01-01

    The soil incubation method was used to study the impact of biogas slurry irrigation on soil environment in purple soil.The results showed that after the biogas slurry irrigation,the soil pH increased,but it tended to be stable with the increase of irrigation time.This indicated that the biogas slurry irrigation could effectively control soil acidification.Soil TN content and TP content increased,but soil TP content increased slowly with increasing irrigation time,soil TN content initially increased and then decreased with increasing irrigation time.Biogas slurry irrigation in dry farming mode could increase a spot of soil organic matter content,but in the mode of rice soil organic matter content had a little decrease.The soil heavy metals such as Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd content changed little,which they did not exceed the national soil environment secondary standard after biogas slurry irrigation.Results indicated that biogas slurry irrigation did not cause heavy metal pollution in soil environment during a certain period of time.%采用土壤培养方法研究沼液灌溉对紫色土土壤环境的影响.结果表明,沼液灌溉后土壤pH值有所增加,但随灌溉时间增加会基本趋于稳定,沼液灌溉能够有效防治土壤酸化;土壤TN、TP含量在沼液灌溉后均有增加,但土壤TP含量随灌溉时间增加缓慢增加,土壤TN含量增加一段时间后达到最大值,随后呈下降趋势;旱作模式下沼液灌溉会使土壤有机质含量稍微增加,但水稻模式下有机质含量有少量下降;沼液灌溉后土壤重金属Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd的含量变化均不大,都未超过国家土壤环境二级标准,沼液灌溉在一定时期内不会引起土壤环境重金属污染.

  15. Stochastic ion channel gating in dendritic neurons: morphology dependence and probabilistic synaptic activation of dendritic spikes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Cannon

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity is mediated through changes in the probability of stochastic transitions between open and closed states of ion channels. While differences in morphology define neuronal cell types and may underlie neurological disorders, very little is known about influences of stochastic ion channel gating in neurons with complex morphology. We introduce and validate new computational tools that enable efficient generation and simulation of models containing stochastic ion channels distributed across dendritic and axonal membranes. Comparison of five morphologically distinct neuronal cell types reveals that when all simulated neurons contain identical densities of stochastic ion channels, the amplitude of stochastic membrane potential fluctuations differs between cell types and depends on sub-cellular location. For typical neurons, the amplitude of membrane potential fluctuations depends on channel kinetics as well as open probability. Using a detailed model of a hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron, we show that when intrinsic ion channels gate stochastically, the probability of initiation of dendritic or somatic spikes by dendritic synaptic input varies continuously between zero and one, whereas when ion channels gate deterministically, the probability is either zero or one. At physiological firing rates, stochastic gating of dendritic ion channels almost completely accounts for probabilistic somatic and dendritic spikes generated by the fully stochastic model. These results suggest that the consequences of stochastic ion channel gating differ globally between neuronal cell-types and locally between neuronal compartments. Whereas dendritic neurons are often assumed to behave deterministically, our simulations suggest that a direct consequence of stochastic gating of intrinsic ion channels is that spike output may instead be a probabilistic function of patterns of synaptic input to dendrites.

  16. Characterization of the March 2017 Tank 15 Waste Removal Slurry Sample (Combination of Slurry Samples HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-09

    Two March 2017 Tank 15 slurry samples (HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29) were collected during the second bulk waste removal campaign and submitted to SRNL for characterization. At SRNL, the two samples were combined and then characterized by a series of physical, elemental, radiological, and ionic analysis methods. Sludge settling as a function of time was also quantified. The characterization results reported in this document are consistent with expectations based upon waste type, process knowledge, comparisons between alternate analysis techniques, and comparisons with the characterization results obtained for the November 2016 Tank 15 slurry sample (the sample collected during the first bulk waste removal campaign).

  17. Influence of different fibre sources in diets for growing pigs on chemical composition of faeces and slurry and ammonia emission from slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate how three different fibre sources, sugar beet pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue, in diets for growing pigs influenced the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in faeces, pH-value in faeces and slurry, excretion of nitrogen in urine...... pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue in diets for growing pigs may alter the chemical composition of faeces and slurry, whereas, the effect on ammonia emission under dynamic conditions requires further investigations....

  18. High static gel strength cement slurries for gas flow-laboratory surveys and case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Ribeiro, Danilo [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pessoa, Laudemar [University of Adelaide (Australia). Math. Bachelor Master Petroleum Engineer

    2008-07-01

    Gas migration is a phenomenon involving fluid density control, well conditioning, good adherence of the cement slurry to the contacting surfaces, chemical-physical properties, cement hydration mechanisms, and the well's geometry. This problem is evident in several producing wells with a pressurized annulus. Recently, a trend of combining operational techniques with cement slurries capable of developing very high static gel strength (SGS) has developed. Slurry designs intended to confer high SGS almost always have greater rheologies. This can make it difficult to mix the slurry on surfaces or even move the slurry placement through the well, more so because gas-producing wells are typically deep and have complex geometry. This paper evaluates the industry's understanding of this problem. It compares the major solutions with current cement slurry designs and, in addition to the conventional specific gas well parameters, it emphasizes the high SGS and low rheologies on surface conditions. This study also documents the success and efficiency of cementing at a Brazilian sedimentary basin which was completed using designs recommended in this work. This paper does not consider the gas migration occurrence through the cementing matrix. (author)

  19. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2017-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  20. Relationships among slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions at different types of commercial Spanish pig farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Beccaccia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse several factors of variation of slurry composition and to establish prediction equations for potential methane (CH4 and ammonia (NH3 emissions. Seventy-nine feed and slurry samples were collected at two seasons (summer and winter from commercial pig farms sited at two Spanish regions (Centre and Mediterranean. Nursery, growing-fattening, gestating and lactating facilities were sampled. Feed and slurry composition were determined, and potential CH4 and NH3 emissions measured at laboratory. Feed nutrient contents were used as covariates in the analysis. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS was evaluated as a predicting tool for slurry composition and potential gaseous emissions. A wide variability was found both in feed and slurry composition. Mediterranean farms had a higher pH (p0.90 and similar accuracy of prediction of potential NH3 and CH4 emissions (R2=0.84 and 0.68, respectively to models using slurry characteristics, which can be of interest to estimate emissions from commercial farms and establish mitigation strategies or optimize biogas production.

  1. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  2. Performance of Fiber Cement Slurry in the Oil and Gas Well Cementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BuYuhuan; WangRuihe; ChengRongchao; LiYuhai

    2005-01-01

    Based on a carbon fiber cement slurry system developed in the previous work, the relationship between the carbon fiber and the performance of the cement slurry was experimentally investigated. Results show that the use of fiber has no effect on the slurry theological mode, but influences its rheological behavior. When the fiber proportion ranges from 0.12% to 0.19% and the fiber length from 400 to 1,400 μm the slurry rheological behavior can be improved. Under the normalpressure, the use of fiber can shorten the thickening time of the cement slurry. When the proportion of the constant-length fiber increases, the water loss of the cement slurry decreases first and then increases, and when the fiber length increases (the fiber proportion being kept constant), the water loss shows the same trend. This indicates that there are optimal values for the fiber length and proportion, which vary under the experimental conditions in the following respective ranges: 0.12%-0.37% and 700-1,400 μm.

  3. Properties of slurries made of fast pyrolysis oil and char or beech wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The properties of slurries made of pyrolysis oil mixed with wood, char or ground char were investigated with respect to phase transitions, rheological properties, elemental compositions, and energy density. Also the pumping properties of the slurries were investigated at temperatures of 25, 40...... and 60 C and solid loadings from 0 to 20 wt%. The phase transitions of the wood slurry samples were observed at lower solid loadings compared to the char slurry samples. The apparent viscosity of the slurry samples was found to be considerably impacted by solid loading (0e20 wt%) and temperature (25e60 C......), especially in the phase transition region. The slurry viscosities with 20 wt% char loading, 20 wt% ground char loading and 15 wt% wood loading (at a shear rate of 100 s1) are 0.7, 1.0 and 1.7 Pa.s, respectively at 60 C and these values increases 1.2e1.4 times at 40 C and 3e4 times at 25 C. The wood, char...

  4. Characterization of zirconia-based slurries with different binders for titanium investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ertuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The materials and physical properties of primary slurry are crucial to the surface quality of the finished castings, especially for high reactivity titanium alloys. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of different binders on the physical properties of primary slurry for titanium alloy investment casting. The zirconia-based slurries with different binders were evaluated by comparing the parameters: viscosity, bulk density, plate weight, suspensibility, gel velocity and strength. The results indicate that a higher viscosity of binder leads to a higher viscosity and suspensibility of slurry with the same powder/binder ratio. The retention rate and thickness of primary layer increase with an increase in the viscosity of the slurry, and a higher retention rate is associated with a thicker primary layer. The gel velocity of the slurry is correlated with the gel velocity of the binder. The green strength and the baked strength of the primary layer are determined by the properties of the binder after gel and by the production of the binder after fired, respectively.

  5. Kinetic modeling of cement slurry synthesized with Henna extract in oil well acidizing treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Aghajafari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidizing treatment in petroleum reservoirs is a short-term and viable strategy to preserve the productivity of a well. There is a major concern for the degradation of cement sheath integrity, leading to poor zonal isolation and environmental issues. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the cement behaves when attacked by hydrochloric acid. In this study, a cement slurry by incorporation of the Henna extract, as an environmentally friendly cement additive, was synthesized as a potential solution to solve this problem. The characteristics of the treated cement slurry were compared with a reference slurry (w/c = 0.44 which is composed of only cement and water. A kinetic study was carried out to evaluate the adsorption behavior of the cement slurries exposed to an acid solution with 0.1 M HCl in a range of 25 to 55 °C conditions. The features of the cement slurries were evaluated by multiple analytical techniques such as XRD, FTIR, TG, and DSC analysis. From the experimental data, it is concluded that the second-order Lagergren kinetic model revealed to be the best in describing kinetic isotherms taken, because the margin between experimental and calculated values was minor for this model. The results of the characterization and HCl interaction kinetic studies underlined the prominent protective role of Henna extract-modified cement slurry in the enhancement of the cement resistance against acid attack and utilization in environmentally favorable oil well acidizing treatments.

  6. Effect of Slurry Composition on Plate Weight in Ceramic Shell Investment Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Balwinder Singh; Kumar, Pradeep; Mishra, B. K.

    2008-08-01

    This paper deals with the study of the effect of primary slurry parameters on the plate weight (ceramic retention test) in ceramic shell investment casting process. Four controllable factors of the zircon flour and fused-silica powder based slurries were studied at three levels each by Taguchi’s parametric approach and single-response optimization of plate weight was conducted to identify the main factors controlling its stability. Variations in coating thickness with plate weight were calculated for each slurry and ceramic shell moulds were made on wax plate using primary slurry and coarse fused-silica sand as stucco. The Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) technique has been used to study the surface morphology of zircon flour and fused silca powder particles as well as primary coating (shell surface). X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to identify the various phases present in the ceramic slurry coating. Optical profilometer has been used to measure the surface roughness of the shells. The result reveals that the surface condition of shell can be improved by increasing the plate weight, corresponding to higher filler loading in the slurry. Confirmation experiments were conducted at an optimal condition showed that the surface quality of the ceramic shell mould were improved significantly. Castings were produced using Al-7%Si alloy in recommended parameters through ceramic shell investment casting process. Surface roughness of the produced casting were measured and presented in this paper.

  7. Microbial and Oligosaccharides Treatments of Feces and Slurry in Reducing Ammonia of the Poultry Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yusrizal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of Lactobacillus sp and fructooligosaccaride (FOS to reduce the volatile ammonia formation from chicken excreta and layer slurry. For each treatment-replication, 150 g of fecal material were collected from the poultry farm and placed in 500 ml beaker glass. The fecal sample was then treated with 2% Lactobacillus sp (2.6x106 cfu/g and 2% FOS and covered with plastic wraps. The volatile ammonia contents and pH were measured after one hour of standing (0 d and repeated at 48 h intervals for 6 d. For the dropping slurry study, 300 g of each layer dropping slurry sample were used. Results indicated that 2% Lactobacillus sp or FOS supplementations in the feces and dropping slurry after 1 h up to 6 d reduced the ammonia odor formation, fecal pH, and moisture content. The Lactobacillus sp and FOS treated manure resulted in increasing Lactobacillus sp count and reducing in E. coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in 6 days for both feces and layer dropping slurry. In addition, reducing moisture content was observed in treated manure. It is concluded that Lactobacillus sp and FOS reduced the volatile ammonia formation and pathogenic bacteria from chicken excreta and layer slurry.

  8. Thermophilic aeration of cattle slurry with whey and/or jam wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Kiuru, Tapio; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Korhonen, Kari; Koivunen, Jari; Ruokojärvi, Arja

    2005-01-01

    Thermophilic aeration of cattle slurry and food industrial by-products was studied with the aim to improve hygienic qualities of the slurry so that it could be used as a safe fertiliser for berries to be eaten raw. We also wanted to study if the process would be energetically favourable in an arctic climate. Cattle slurry alone or with whey and/or jam waste was treated. The tests were done in a well heat-insulated reactor with a 10 m(3) volume. Temperature increases up to over 70 degrees C could be recorded in 19 days even though some processes were carried out in winter time when the ambient air temperature was less than 0 degrees C. The heat energy formed was higher than the electrical energy needed to carry out the aeration. The hygienic qualities of the aerated product were good with only minor nitrogen losses. The end product could be useful as a fertiliser and soil improving compound to increase the organic matter content of agricultural soil. Cattle slurry alone was well suited as the raw material if attaining a high temperature was the main goal. A part of slurry could be replaced with food-industrial side products. Whey waste suited better for co-composting than jam waste but the mixture of whey, jam waste, and slurry was optimal for composting.

  9. Development and application of a new CMP slurry for phase change memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Liu, Weili; Liu, Bo; Song, Zhitang

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the development of a new chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) slurry for phase change material GeSbTe (GST) and its application in the manufacturing process of phase change memory based on GST is presented. The basic abrasive of the slurry was special colloid silica which was chosen from several kinds of colloid silica with different surface treatment and stable pH range. Oxidizer, chelator, inhibitor and protective agent were added to the colloid silica to accelerate the polishing rate and protect the surface. A series of CMP experiments were carried out on a 4-inch experimental platform to confirm and optimize the performance of the slurry with different ratio of reagents. After the recipe was frozen, the slurry was used in the CMP process of manufacturing the phase change memory on 12-inch wafers. The results on blanket wafers show that the remove rate, endurance life, residue control is at the same level with those of the old slurry, while the scratch control is much better than that of the old one. The final results on both metal line structure and blade structure show that the new slurry has much better performance than the old one on oxide loss, scratch and erosion control.

  10. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  11. Nitrogen losses from grass ley after slurry application surface broadcasting vs. injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. UUSI-KÄMPPÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As the livestock numbers on Finnish dairy farms have increased and most fields on dairy farms are under grass, it has become common to spread cattle slurry over grasslands. To estimate environmental effects of recurrent slurry applications, a 5-year field study was performed to compare nitrogen (N losses to water and ammonia losses to air by volatilization, when cattle slurry was either surface broadcast or injected into clay soil after grass cuttings. Slurry was spread on the grass in summer (1996–1997 or both in summer and autumn (1998–2000. Biomass N uptake before grass harvesting and amount of soil mineral N in spring and autumn were measured and field N balances were calculated. Despite cool weather, up to one third of the ammonium N of broadcast slurries was lost through ammonia volatilization after application in autumn, but injection effectively prevented losses. The mean surface runoff losses of total N were negligible (0.3–4.6 kg ha-1 yr-1 with the highest loss of 13 kg ha-1 yr-1 measured after slurry broadcasting to wet soil in autumn and followed with heavy rains. A substantial part (24–55% of the applied mineral N was not recovered by the foregoing measurements.;

  12. Microbial Contamination of Pumice Powder and Slurry in Dental Laboratories of Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Using contaminated pumice in polishing process of dental prostheses may result in cross-contamination of dentists, laboratory technicians, and patients. Objectives This study aimed to determine the presence and level of microbial contaminants in pumice powder and slurry used in dental laboratories of Hamadan city. Materials and Methods Forty specimens, including 20 pumice powders and 20 pumice slurries were collected from 10 randomly selected dental laboratories and inoculated onto selective and non-selective media in order to count the total colony-forming units (CFU. Isolated fungi and bacteria were identified using Gram-stain and deferential diagnostic tests. Results Results of this study showed 85% contamination rate for pumice powders and 100% for pumice slurries. Frequencies of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the powders were 68% and 32% respectively. For the slurries the frequencies were 61% Gram-positive and 39% Gram-negative. Organisms detected in pumice powders composed of Staphylococcus epidermidis, E. coli, Acinetobacter, B. cereus, Enterobacter, Candida, and diphtheroids. Organisms detected in pumice slurries included Staphylococcus epidermidis, E. coli, Citrobacter, S. aureus, Enterobacter, B. cereus, B. proteus, Candida, and diphtheroids. Conclusions According to this study, pumice powder and slurry used in dental laboratories of Hamadan are contaminated. Therefore, the Laboratory staff should be aware of the hazards posed by the presence of pathogens in dental laboratories.

  13. Tracing contamination sources in soils with Cu and Zn isotopic ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekiacova, Z; Cornu, S; Pichat, S

    2015-06-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are naturally present and ubiquitous in soils and are important micronutrients. Human activities contribute to the input of these metals to soils in different chemical forms, which can sometimes reach a toxic level for soil organisms and plants. Isotopic signatures could be used to trace sources of anthropogenic Cu and Zn pollution. The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is possible to identify (i) Cu and Zn contamination in soils and their sources, on the basis of their isotopic signatures, and (ii) situations that are a priori favorable or not for tracing Cu and Zn pollution using the isotopic approach. Therefore, we compiled data from the literature on Cu and Zn isotopes in soils, rocks and pollutants and added to this database the results of our own research. As only a few studies have dealt with agricultural contamination, we also studied a soil toposequence from Brittany, France, that experienced spreading of pig slurry for tens of years. In the surface horizons of the natural soils, the δ(65)Cu values vary from -0.15 to 0.44‰ and the δ(66)Zn from -0.03 to 0.43‰. Furthermore, vertical variations along soil profiles range from -0.95 to 0.44‰ for δ(65)Cu and from -0.53 to 0.64‰ for δ(66)Zn values. We concluded that pedogenetic processes can produce isotopic fractionation, yet, it is not always discernible and can be overprinted by an exogenous isotopic signature. Furthermore, some contaminants are enriched in heavy Cu or in light Zn compared to the rock or soil, but no generalization can be made. The anthropogenic inputs can be identified based on stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios if the isotope ratios of the sources are different from those of the soil, which needs to be tested for each individual case.

  14. Improvement of human dendritic cell culture for immunotoxicological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymery, N; Sibiril, Y; Parent-Massin, D

    2006-07-01

    A toxic injury such as a decrease in the number of immature dendritic cells caused by a cytotoxic effect or a disturbance in their maturation process can be responsible for immunodepression. There is a need to improve in vitro assays on human dendritic cells used to detect and evaluate adverse effects of xenobiotics. Two aspects were explored in this work: cytotoxic effects of xenobiotics on immature dendritic cells, and the interference of xenobiotics with dendritic cell maturation. Dendritic cells of two different origins were tested. Dendritic cells obtained either from umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells or, for the first time, from umbilical cord blood monocytes. The cytotoxicity assay on immature dendritic cells has been improved. For the study of the potential adverse effects of xenobiotics on the maturation process of dendritic cells, several parameters were selected such as expression of markers (CD86, CD83, HLA-DR), secretion of interleukins 10 and 12, and proliferation of autologous lymphocytes. The relevance and the efficiency of the protocol applied were tested using two mycotoxins, T-2 toxin and deoxynivalence, DON, which are known to be immunosuppressive, and one phycotoxin, domoic acid, which is known not to have any immunotoxic effect. Assays using umbilical cord monocyte dendritic cell cultures with the protocol defined in this work, which involves a cytotoxicity study followed by evaluation of several markers of adverse effects on the dendritic cell maturation process, revealed their usefulness for investigating xenobiotic immunotoxicity toward immune primary reactions.

  15. Remodeling of monoplanar Purkinje cell dendrites during cerebellar circuit formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kaneko

    Full Text Available Dendrite arborization patterns are critical determinants of neuronal connectivity and integration. Planar and highly branched dendrites of the cerebellar Purkinje cell receive specific topographical projections from two major afferent pathways; a single climbing fiber axon from the inferior olive that extend along Purkinje dendrites, and parallel fiber axons of granule cells that contact vertically to the plane of dendrites. It has been believed that murine Purkinje cell dendrites extend in a single parasagittal plane in the molecular layer after the cell polarity is determined during the early postnatal development. By three-dimensional confocal analysis of growing Purkinje cells, we observed that mouse Purkinje cells underwent dynamic dendritic remodeling during circuit maturation in the third postnatal week. After dendrites were polarized and flattened in the early second postnatal week, dendritic arbors gradually expanded in multiple sagittal planes in the molecular layer by intensive growth and branching by the third postnatal week. Dendrites then became confined to a single plane in the fourth postnatal week. Multiplanar Purkinje cells in the third week were often associated by ectopic climbing fibers innervating nearby Purkinje cells in distinct sagittal planes. The mature monoplanar arborization was disrupted in mutant mice with abnormal Purkinje cell connectivity and motor discoordination. The dendrite remodeling was also impaired by pharmacological disruption of normal afferent activity during the second or third postnatal week. Our results suggest that the monoplanar arborization of Purkinje cells is coupled with functional development of the cerebellar circuitry.

  16. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2005-09-29

    This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter ({alpha}) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number

  17. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2006-09-29

    This report covers the fourth year of a research project conducted under the University Coal Research Program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (water, carbon dioxide, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the fourth year of the project, an analysis of experimental data collected during the second year of this project was performed. Kinetic parameters were estimated utilizing product distributions from 27 mass balances. During the reporting period two kinetic models were employed: a comprehensive kinetic model of Dr. Li and co-workers (Yang et al., 2003) and a hydrocarbon selectivity model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) The kinetic model of Yang et al. (2003) has 24 parameters (20 parameters for hydrocarbon formation, and 4 parameters for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction). Kinetic parameters for the WGS reaction and FTS synthesis were estimated first separately, and then simultaneously. The estimation of these kinetic parameters employed the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method and the trust-region reflective Newton large-scale (LS) method. A genetic algorithm (GA) was incorporated into estimation of parameters for FTS reaction to provide initial estimates of model parameters. All reaction rate constants and activation energies were found to be positive, but at the 95% confidence level the intervals were large. Agreement between predicted and experimental reaction rates has been fair to good. Light hydrocarbons are predicted fairly accurately, whereas the model underpredicts values of higher molecular weight

  18. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV

  19. Sleeping dendrites: fiber-optic measurements of dendritic calcium activity in freely moving and sleeping animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Seibt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendrites are the post-synaptic sites of most excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the brain, making them the main location of cortical information processing and synaptic plasticity. Although current hypotheses suggest a central role for sleep in proper cognitive function and brain plasticity, virtually nothing is known about changes in dendritic activity across the sleep-wake cycle and how waking experience modifies this activity. To start addressing these questions, we developed a method that allows long-term recordings of EEGs/EMG combined with in vivo cortical calcium (Ca2+ activity in freely moving and sleeping rats. We measured Ca2+ activity from populations of dendrites of layer (L 5 pyramidal neurons (n = 13 rats that we compared with Ca2+ activity from populations of neurons in L2/3 (n = 11 rats. L5 and L2/3 neurons were labelled using bolus injection of OGB1-AM or GCaMP6 (1. Ca2+ signals were detected using a fiber-optic system (cannula diameter = 400µm, transmitting the changes in fluorescence to a photodiode. Ca2+ fluctuations could then be correlated with ongoing changes in brain oscillatory activity during 5 major brain states: active wake [AW], quiet wake [QW], NREM, REM and NREM-REM transition (or intermediate state, [IS]. Our Ca2+ recordings show large transients in L5 dendrites and L2/3 neurons that oscillate predominantly at frequencies In summary, we show that this technique is successful in monitoring fluctuations in ongoing dendritic Ca2+ activity during natural brain states and allows, in principle, to combine behavioral measurement with imaging from various brain regions (e.g. deep structures in freely behaving animals. Using this method, we show that Ca2+ transients from populations of L2/3 neurons and L5 dendrites are deferentially regulated across the sleep/wake cycle, with dendritic activity being the highest during the IS sleep. Our correlation analysis suggests that specific sleep EEG activity during NREM and IS

  20. Experimental study of the Ca–Mg–Zn system using diffusion couples and key alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Nan Zhang, Dmytro Kevorkov, Florent Bridier and Mamoun Medraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine diffusion couples and 32 key samples were prepared to map the phase diagram of the Ca–Mg–Zn system. Phase relations and solubility limits were determined for binary and ternary compounds using scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and x-ray diffraction (XRD. The crystal structure of the ternary compounds was studied by XRD and electron backscatter diffraction. Four ternary intermetallic (IM compounds were identified in this system: Ca3MgxZn15−x (4.6≤x≤12 at 335 °C, IM1, Ca14.5Mg15.8Zn69.7 (IM2, Ca2Mg5Zn13 (IM3 and Ca1.5Mg55.3Zn43.2 (IM4. Three binary compounds were found to have extended solid solubility into ternary systems: CaZn11, CaZn13 and Mg2Ca form substitutional solid solutions where Mg substitutes for Zn atoms in the first two compounds, and Zn substitutes for both Ca and Mg atoms in Mg2Ca. The isothermal section of the Ca–Mg–Zn phase diagram at 335 °C was constructed on the basis of the obtained experimental results. The morphologies of the diffusion couples in the Ca–Mg–Zn phase diagram at 335 °C were studied. Depending on the terminal compositions of the diffusion couples, the two-phase regions in the diffusion zone have either a tooth-like morphology or contain a matrix phase with isolated and/or dendritic precipitates.

  1. Growth of Cd0.96Zn0.04Te single crystals by vapor phase gas transport method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Tabatabai Yazdi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available   Cd0.96Zn0.04Te crystals were grown using vapor phase gas transport method (VPGT. The results show that dendritic crystals with grain size up to 3.5 mm can be grown with this technique. X-ray diffraction and Laue back-reflection patterns show that dendritic crystals are single-phase, whose single crystal grains are randomly oriented with respect to the gas-transport axis. Electrical measurements, carried out using Van der Pauw method, show that the as-grown crystals have resistivity of about 104 Ω cm and n-type conductivity.

  2. Security Risk Analysis on the Nutrients and Heavy Metals of Biogas Slurry in Agricultural Application%沼液养分和重金属农用安全风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继方; 袁海荣; 邹德勋; 刘研萍

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to provide scientific basis for the security application of biogas slurry in agriculture through the analysis on the security risk of nutrients and heavy metals of biogas slurry in agricultural application. [Method ] The components of the slurry produced by the anaerobic digestion of straws and manures were systematically analyzed. Different types of biogas slurry with different concentrations were used to conduct the germination test. [Result] The types and proportions of raw materials, and alkali pretreatment affected the compositions and nature of the biogas slurry. Alkali pretreatment could reduce the contents of heavy metals and improved the contents of nitrogen, phosphorous, organic matter and available components, The contents of heavy metals in the biogas slurry were as follows; Cd of 8. 76 μg/kg, Cr of 52 μgAg, Pb of 210 μg/kg, Hgof 0.512 μg/kg, As of 140 μg/kg, and the contents of Cu and Zn were the highest among the heavy metals, respectively, 279 μg/kg and 680 μg/kg. All the contents were under the limit standards of the urban wastes for agricultural use. The germination tests of the sceds verified that the slurry with the concentration of lower than 5% could accelerate the germination, while the salt stress could inhibit the growth of seedlings in the slurry. [Conclusion] When the dung are used as the raw materials for fermentation, appropriate control should be conducted on the feeding proportion or the heavy metals should be pre-removed; when the slurry is used as the liquid fertilizer to apply in the farmland, the dilution or desalting treatment should be conducted at first.%[目的]对沼液养分和重金属农用安全风险进行分析,以期为沼液的安全农用提供科学依据.[方法]对秸秆及粪便中温厌氧消化的沼液进行重金属养分分析,并利用不同类型和浓度的沼液进行种子发芽试验.[结果]物料的类型及配比、碱液预处理均对沼液的成分和性质产生

  3. Security Risk Heavy Metals Application Analysis on the of Biogas Slurry Nutrients and in Agricultural%沼液养分和重金属农用安全风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘研萍; 张继方; 邹德勋; 袁海荣; 李秀金

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to provide scientific basis for the security application of biogas slurry in agriculture through the analysis on the security risk of nu- trients and heavy metals of biogas slurry in agricultural application. [Method] The components of the slurry produced by the anaerobic digestion of straws and manures were systematically analyzed. Different types of biogas slurry with different concentrations were used to conduct the germination test. [Result] The types and proportions of raw materials, and alkali pretreatment affected the compositions and nature of the biogas slurry. Alkali pretreatment could reduce the contents of heavy metals and improved the contents of nitrogen, phosphorous, organic matter and available components. The contents of heavy metals in the biogas slurry were as follows: Cd of 8.76 μg/kg, Cr of 52μg/kg, Pb of 210 μg/kg, Hg of 0.512 μg/kg, As of 140μg/kg, and the contents of Cu and Zn were the highest among the heavy metals, respectively, 279 and 680 μg/kg. All the contents were under the limit standards of the urban wastes for agricultural use. The germination tests of the seeds verified that the slurry with the concentration of lower than 5% could accelerate the germination, while the salt stress could inhibit the growth of seedlings in the slurry. [Conclusion] When the dung are uses as the raw materials for fermentation, appropriate control should be conducted on the feeding proportion or the heavy metals should be pre-removed; when the slurry is used as the liquid fertilizer to apply in the farmland, the dilution or desalting treatment should be conducted at first.%[目的]对沼液养分和重金属农用安全风险进行分析,以期为沼液的安全农用提供科学依据。[方法]对秸秆及粪便中温厌氧消化的沼液进行重金属养分分析,并利用不同类型和浓度的沼液进行种子发芽试验。[结果]物料的类型及配比、碱液预处理均对沼液的成分和性质产

  4. Macrophages, Dendritic Cells, and Regression of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Feig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the number one cause of death in the Western world. It results from the interaction between modified lipoproteins and monocyte-derived cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, and other cellular elements of the arterial wall. This inflammatory process can ultimately lead to the development of complex lesions, or plaques, that protrude into the arterial lumen. Ultimately, plaque rupture and thrombosis can occur leading to the clinical complications of myocardial infarction or stroke. Although each of the cell types plays roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, in this review, the focus will be primarily on the monocyte derived cells- macrophages and dendritic cells. The roles of these cell types in atherogenesis will be highlighted. Finally, the mechanisms of atherosclerosis regression as it relates to these cells will be discussed.

  5. Dendritic nanocomposite for delivery of antibacterial agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pureti Madhu Kumar; PSrinivasa Babu; Shaik Rasheed; Ramadoss Karthikeyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and explore the use of PEGylated poly (propylene imine) dendritic architecture for the delivery of an anti bacterial bioactive, Trimethoprim. Methods: For this study, PEGylated poly(propylene imine) dendritic architecture was synthesized and loaded with Trimethoprim and targeted to the resistant producing strains of both gram positive and gram negative. The antibacterial activity was carried out by agar well-diffusion method to compare zone of inhibition with standard drug and plain PPI dendrimer. Results: The study showed that the Trimethoprim loaded dendrimer has significant antibacterial activity than the plain PPI dendrimer, but standard drug was not shown zone of inhibition upon both microorganisms butKlebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) the pure drug showed activity. Conclusions: In this study antibacterial activity of synthesized system is also relatively safer and holds potential to deliver any other antibacterial agent to the resistant producing strains.

  6. Sensitivity of Dendritic Cells to Microenvironment Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Juliana Maria; Rumjanek, Vivian Mary

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells capable of either activating the immune response or inducing and maintaining immune tolerance. They do this by integrating stimuli from the environment and changing their functional status as a result of plasticity. The modifications suffered by these cells have consequences in the way the organism may respond. In the present work two opposing situations known to affect dendritic cells are analyzed: tumor growth, leading to a microenvironment that favors the induction of a tolerogenic profile, and organ transplantation, which leads to a proinflammatory profile. Lessons learned from these situations may help to understand the mechanisms of modulation resulting not only from the above circumstances, but also from other pathologies. PMID:27088097

  7. Sensitivity of Dendritic Cells to Microenvironment Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Motta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells capable of either activating the immune response or inducing and maintaining immune tolerance. They do this by integrating stimuli from the environment and changing their functional status as a result of plasticity. The modifications suffered by these cells have consequences in the way the organism may respond. In the present work two opposing situations known to affect dendritic cells are analyzed: tumor growth, leading to a microenvironment that favors the induction of a tolerogenic profile, and organ transplantation, which leads to a proinflammatory profile. Lessons learned from these situations may help to understand the mechanisms of modulation resulting not only from the above circumstances, but also from other pathologies.

  8. Dendritic Cells for SYN Scan Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Artificial immune systems have previously been applied to the problem of intrusion detection. The aim of this research is to develop an intrusion detection system based on the function of Dendritic Cells (DCs). DCs are antigen presenting cells and key to activation of the human immune system, behaviour which has been abstracted to form the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA). In algorithmic terms, individual DCs perform multi-sensor data fusion, asynchronously correlating the the fused data signals with a secondary data stream. Aggregate output of a population of cells, is analysed and forms the basis of an anomaly detection system. In this paper the DCA is applied to the detection of outgoing port scans using TCP SYN packets. Results show that detection can be achieved with the DCA, yet some false positives can be encountered when simultaneously scanning and using other network services. Suggestions are made for using adaptive signals to alleviate this uncovered problem.

  9. ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young SJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100 substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively.

  10. ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100) substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively. PMID:20672085

  11. Divergent Effects of Dendritic Cells on Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    cells, Gr1+ inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, or TNF production were induced to develop chronic pancreatitis in the context of DC overexpansion...Z. Yao, W. Cao, and Y.J. Liu. 2005. TSLP-activated dendritic cells induce an inflammatory T helper type 2 cell response through OX40 ligand. J. Exp...Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions

  12. Signaling in dendritic spines and spine microdomains

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The specialized morphology of dendritic spines creates an isolated compartment that allows for localized biochemical signaling. Recent studies have revealed complexity in the function of the spine head as a signaling domain and indicate that (1) the spine is functionally subdivided into multiple independent microdomains and (2) not all biochemical signals are equally compartmentalized within the spine. Here we review these findings as well as the developments in fluorescence microscopy that a...

  13. Dendrite fragmentation by catastrophic elastic remelting

    OpenAIRE

    Ananiev, S.; Nikrityuk, P.; Eckert, K.

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a new fragmentation mechanism of dendrite arms. The theoretical basis of this mechanism is a shift in the thermodynamical equilibrium at the solid-liquid interface due to the presence of elastic energy. This effect is modelled by the generalized Gibbs-Thomson condition [1], where each term is calculated analytically using a simple Bernoulli-Euler beam model. The resulting nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations is integrated in time using a fully implicit scheme...

  14. Role of Dendritic Cells in Immune Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, Cherylyn A.

    1997-01-01

    Specific aims include: (1) Application of the bioreactor to enhance cytokine-regulated proliferation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC); (2) Based on clues from spaceflight: compare the frequency and function of DC in normal donors and immunocompromised cancer patients; and (3) Initiate studies on the efficiency of cytokine therapy and DC-assisted immunotherapy (using bioreactor-expanded DC) in animal models of experimental fungal infections.

  15. High temperature oxidation of slurry coated interconnect alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa Helen

    2012-01-01

    and resistance in this oxide scale. Slurry coated ferritic alloy samples were oxidized long term in air containing 1% water at 900˚C to measure the oxidation rate of the coated samples. The ferritic alloys included in the study were Crofer 22APU and Sandvik 1C44Mo20. Some complementary experiments were also.......85Sr0.15)CoO3 + 10% Co3O4, LSC, coatings were found to be relatively successful in decreasing the oxidation rate, the chromium content in the outermost part of ii the dense scale, and the electrical resistance in the growing oxide scales when applied onto Crofer 22APU. But, the positive effects...... on Crofer 22APU alloy samples and their failure on Sandvik 1C44Mo20 samples are believed to depend on the manganese access in the coating/alloy system. It appeared that a certain amount of manganese was acquired to stabilize the oxide growth on the alloy samples coated with cobalt rich coatings...

  16. Coal slurry combustion optimization on single cylinder engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, GE Transportation System has been conducting a proof of concept program to use coal water slurry (CWS) fuel to power a diesel engine locomotive since 1988. As reported earlier [1], a high pressure electronically controlled accumulator injector using a diamond compact insert nozzle was developed for this project. The improved reliability and durability of this new FIE allowed for an improved and more thorough study of combustion of CWS fuel in a diesel engine. It was decided to include a diesel pilot fuel injector in the combustion system mainly due to engine start and low load operation needs. BKM, Inc. of San Diego, CA was contracted to develop the electronic diesel fuel pilot/starting FIE for the research engine. As a result, the experimental combustion study was very much facilitated due to the ability of changing pilot/CWS injection timings and quantities without having to stop the engine. Other parameters studied included combustion chamber configuration (by changing CWS fuel injector nozzle hole number/shape/angle), as well as injection pressure. The initial phase of this combustion study is now complete. The results have been adopted into the design of a 12 cylinder engine FIE, to be tested in 1992. This paper summarizes the main findings of this study.

  17. Tank 29 salt removal method using slurry pump agitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, W.R.

    1993-11-30

    This report outlines a plan for removing salt from Tank 29. The plan is based, in part, upon the experience gained in the removal of salt from Tank 19 and sludge from Tank 16. Tank 19 was the first tank in which slurry pumps were used during salt dissolution. Salt in Tank 29 will be dissolved to form a nearly saturated salt solution. The goal of Waste Removal is to remove the salt from the tank and deliver it to In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) at a concentration greater than 6.7 molar Na{sup +} (including dilution from transfer steam) to meet ITP requirements. (The amount of wash water used in ITP will be enough to dilute 6.7 molar Na{sup +} salt solution to 5 molar Na{sup +} required for the precipitation step). The solution will be sent to (ITP) for precipitation of soluble cesium and strontium (radioactive elements). The precipitate will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for final disposal. A USQD (Unreviewed Safety Question Determination) for criticality safety issue resolution will be completed prior to salt removal.

  18. Developmental toxicity of Clarified Slurry Oil applied dermally to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Kerstetter, S.L.; Singer, E.J.; Mehlman, M.A. (Mobil Oil Corporation, Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1989-05-01

    Clarified Slurry Oil (CSO), the heavy residual fraction from the fluidized catalytic cracker, was applied to the shaven backs of groups of 10 pregnant rats at doses of 0, 4, 8, 30, 125, and 250 mg/kg/day. All groups received the test material on gestation days 0-19. CSO was applied undiluted and left uncovered on the skin; collars were placed on the rats to minimize ingestion of the test material. Signs of maternal toxicity, some of which were seen at dose levels as low as 8 mg/kg/day, included vaginal bleeding, decreased body weight gain, reduced food consumption, death, increased relative liver weights, atrophy of the thymus, and aberrant serum chemistry. The number of fetal resorptions/deaths was markedly increased and the number of viable offspring decreased by CSO at dosages of 30 mg/kg/day and above. The group receiving 250 mg/kg/day carried no viable offspring. Fetuses from pregnant females exposed to CSO at dose levels in excess of 8 mg/kg/day were smaller than those from control and 4 mg/kg/day groups, and their skeletons showed decreased ossification. Abnormal external development and visceral development were observed in living and dead fetuses exposed in utero to CSO at dose levels as low as 8 mg/kg/day. Based on these data, 4 mg/kg/day represents the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level for both maternal and developmental toxicity.

  19. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    The growth of dendrites is governed by the interplay between two simple and familiar processes---the irreversible diffusion of energy, and the reversible work done in the formation of new surface area. To advance our understanding of these processes, NASA sponsored a project that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia is 1994, 1996, and 1997 to record and analyze benchmark data in an apparent-microgravity ``laboratory.'' In this laboratory, energy transfer by gravity driven convection was essentially eliminated and one could test independently, for the first time, both components of dendritic growth theory. The analysis of this data shows that although the diffusion of energy can be properly accounted for, the results from interfacial physics appear to be in disagreement and alternate models should receive increased attention. Unfortunately, currently and for the foreseeable future, there is no access or financial support to develop and conduct additional experiments of this type. However, the benchmark data of 35mm photonegatives, video, and all supporting instrument data are now available at the IDGE Archive at the College of the Holy Cross. This data may still have considerable relevance to researchers working specifically with dendritic growth, and more generally those working in the synthesis, growth & processing of materials, multiscale computational modeling, pattern formation, and systems far from equilibrium.

  20. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell role in cutaneous malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Dana; Kurban, Mazen; Abbas, Ossama

    2016-07-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) correspond to a specialized dendritic cell population that exhibit plasma cell morphology, express CD4, CD123, HLA-DR, blood-derived dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2), and Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR9 within endosomal compartments. Through their production of type I interferons (IFNs) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines, pDCs provide anti-viral resistance and link the innate and adaptive immunity by controlling the function of myeloid DCs, lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells. While lacking from normal skin, pDCs are usually recruited to the skin in several cutaneous pathologies where they appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of several infectious, inflammatory/autoimmune, and neoplastic entities. Among the latter group, pDCs have the potential to induce anti-tumour immunity; however, the complex interaction of pDCs with tumor cells and their micro-environment appears to contribute to immunologic tolerance. In this review, we aim at highlighting the role played by pDCs in cutaneous malignancies with special emphasis on the underlying mechanisms.