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Sample records for demonstration wetland north

  1. 75 FR 34479 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  2. 78 FR 11220 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  3. 77 FR 71820 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  4. 77 FR 39252 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  5. 76 FR 31626 - Meeting Announcement; North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement; North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  6. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  7. 76 FR 69278 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY... Conservation Council will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act grant proposals for... accordance with the North American Wetlands Conservation Act (Pub. L. 101-233, 103 Stat. 1968, December...

  8. 78 FR 33857 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...; 91100-3740-GRNT 7C] Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical... meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA) grant proposals for recommendation to the Migratory...

  9. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  10. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  11. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: North Dakota Wetland Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on North Dakota Wetland Management Districts for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  12. Conservation of Mexican wetlands: role of the North American Wetlands Conservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's wetlands support a tremendous biological diversity and provide significant natural resource benefits to local communities. Because they are also critical stopover and wintering grounds for much of North America's waterfowl and other migratory birds, Mexico has become an important participant in continental efforts to conserve these resources through the North American Wetlands Conservation Act. Funding from the Act has supported partnerships in a number of Mexico's priority wetlands to conduct data analyses and dissemination, mapping, environmental education, wetland restoration, development of sustainable economic alternatives for local people, and reserve planning and management. These partnerships, with the close involvement of Mexico's Federal Government authority, the Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, have advanced conservation in a uniquely Mexican model that differs from that employed in the United States and Canada.

  13. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase

    2005-01-01

    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...

  14. The influence of local- and landscape-level factors on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2017-08-17

    We examined the relationship between local- (wetland) and landscape-level factors and breeding bird abundances on 1,190 depressional wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota during the breeding seasons in 1995–97. The surveyed wetlands were selected from five wetland classes (alkali, permanent, semipermanent, seasonal, or temporary), two wetland types (natural or restored), and two landowner groups (private or Federal). We recorded 133 species of birds in the surveyed wetlands during the 3 years. We analyzed the nine most common (or focal) species (that is, species that were present in 25 percent or more of the 1,190 wetlands): the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American Coot (Fulica americana), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our results emphasize the ecological value of all wetland classes, natural and restored wetlands, and publicly and privately owned wetlands in this region, including wetlands that are generally smaller and shallower (that is, temporary and seasonal wetlands) and thus most vulnerable to drainage. Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Gadwall, Common Yellowthroat, and Red-winged Blackbird had higher abundances on Federal than on private wetlands. Abundances differed among wetland classes for seven of the nine focal species: Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Mallard, American Coot, Common Yellowthroat, Yellow-headed Blackbird, Red-winged Blackbird. American Coot had higher abundances on restored wetlands than on natural wetlands overall, and Gadwall and Common Yellowthroat had higher abundances on private restored wetlands than on private natural wetlands. The Common Yellowthroat was the only species that had higher abundances on restored private wetlands than on

  15. Legacy source of mercury in an urban stream-wetland ecosystem in central North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Zhang, Tong; Cai, Yong; Richardson, Curtis J

    2015-11-01

    In the United States, aquatic mercury contamination originates from point and non-point sources to watersheds. Here, we studied the contribution of mercury in urban runoff derived from historically contaminated soils and the subsequent production of methylmercury in a stream-wetland complex (Durham, North Carolina), the receiving water of this runoff. Our results demonstrated that the mercury originated from the leachate of grass-covered athletic fields. A fraction of mercury in this soil existed as phenylmercury, suggesting that mercurial anti-fungal compounds were historically applied to this soil. Further downstream in the anaerobic sediments of the stream-wetland complex, a fraction (up to 9%) of mercury was converted to methylmercury, the bioaccumulative form of the metal. Importantly, the concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury were reduced to background levels within the stream-wetland complex. Overall, this work provides an example of a legacy source of mercury that should be considered in urban watershed models and watershed management.

  16. Relationship between the natural abundance of soil nitrogen isotopes and condition in North Dakota wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A statewide condition assessment of North Dakota wetlands in the summer of 2011 was conducted as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA). Two other wetland condition assessments, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI...

  17. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  18. EXPANSION OF PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS INTO TIDAL WETLANDS OF NORTH AMERICA. (U915648)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phragmites expansion into tidal wetlands of North America is most extensive along the northern and middle Atlantic coasts, but over 80% of the US coastal wetland area occurs along the Gulf of Mexico and southern Atlantic coasts and may be susceptible to ongoing expansio...

  19. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  20. Utilization of ERTS-1 data in North Carolina. [forested wetlands, water management, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.; Carson, R. J., III

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery has been used to study forested wetlands, dynamic processes off Coastal North Carolina, and land use patterns in the Wilmington, North Carolina area. The thrust of the investigation is still involvement of state and regional agencies in the use of ERTS-1 imagery in solving some of their day-to-day problems.

  1. Land use effects on pesticides in sediments of prairie pothole wetlands in North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Scott T.; Belden, Jason B.; Smith, Loren M.; Morrison, Shane A.; Daniel, Dale W.; Euliss, Betty R.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Kensinger, Bart J.; Tangen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Prairie potholes are the dominant wetland type in the intensively cultivated northern Great Plains of North America, and thus have the potential to receive pesticide runoff and drift. We examined the presence of pesticides in sediments of 151 wetlands split among the three dominant land use types, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), cropland, and native prairie, in North and South Dakota in 2011. Herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and fungicides were detected regularly, with no insecticide detections. Glyphosate was the most detected pesticide, occurring in 61% of all wetlands, with atrazine in only 8% of wetlands. Pyraclostrobin was one of five fungicides detected, but the only one of significance, being detected in 31% of wetlands. Glyphosate was the only pesticide that differed by land use, with concentrations in cropland over four-times that in either native prairie or CRP, which were equal in concentration and frequency of detection. Despite examining several landscape variables, such as wetland proximity to specific crop types, watershed size, and others, land use was the best variable explaining pesticide concentrations in potholes. CRP ameliorated glyphosate in wetlands at concentrations comparable to native prairie and thereby provides another ecosystem service from this expansive program.

  2. Validation of the wetlands map derived from MODIS imagery in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tana, Gegen; Letu, Husi; Tateishi, Ryutaro

    2012-10-01

    As wetlands are among the most important ecosystems in the world, it is becoming increasingly important to develop a wetlands map at continental or global scale. A wetlands map in North America was produced using 500 m MODIS data obtained in 2008. To assess the accuracy of the map, the quantitative accuracy assessment was performed. A stratified random sampling method was applied to collect the validation point. A total of 2400 sampling pixels were used for the accuracy assessment. The overall accuracy of the map was assessed at 80.3%. Furthermore, the wetlands map was also compared with the existing global land cover products GLC2000 and IGBP DISCover. Three wetland sites designated in the Ramsar Convention were used to compare with Landsat images. As a result, the spatial distributions of wetlands in the new map were closest to those were in Landsat images. The new map also gave more detailed spatial information on wetlands especially in the transition zone between aquatic and terrestrial area. This study indicates that MODIS data are capable for developing an improved wetlands map at a global scale.

  3. Impacts of climate change on land-use and wetland productivity in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashford, Benjamin S.; Adams, Richard M.; Wu, JunJie; Voldseth, Richard A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Werner, Brett; Johnson, W. Carter

    2016-01-01

    Wetland productivity in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is closely linked to climate. A warmer and drier climate, as predicted, will negatively affect the productivity of PPR wetlands and the services they provide. The effect of climate change on wetland productivity, however, will not only depend on natural processes (e.g., evapotranspiration), but also on human responses. Agricultural land use, the predominant use in the PPR, is unlikely to remain static as climate change affects crop yields and prices. Land use in uplands surrounding wetlands will further affect wetland water budgets and hence wetland productivity. The net impact of climate change on wetland productivity will therefore depend on both the direct effects of climate change on wetlands and the indirect effects on upland land use. We examine the effect of climate change and land-use response on semipermanent wetland productivity by combining an economic model of agricultural land-use change with an ecological model of wetland dynamics. Our results suggest that the climate change scenarios evaluated are likely to have profound effects on land use in the North and South Dakota PPR, with wheat displacing other crops and pasture. The combined pressure of land-use and climate change significantly reduces wetland productivity. In a climate scenario with a +4 °C increase in temperature, our model predicts that almost the entire region may lack the wetland productivity necessary to support wetland-dependent species.

  4. Pesticide concentrations in wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation, South and North Dakota, July 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2016-05-04

    During July 2015, water samples were collected from 18 wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation in northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota and analyzed for physical properties and 54 pesticides. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate was designed to provide an update on pesticide concentrations of the same 18 wetlands that were sampled for a reconnaissance-level assessment during July 2006. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the assessment of pesticide concentrations in selected Lake Traverse Indian Reservation wetlands during July 2015 and provide a comparison of pesticide concentrations between 2006 and 2015.Of the 54 pesticides that were analyzed for in the samples collected during July 2015, 47 pesticides were not detected in any samples. Seven pesticides—2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT); 2,4–D; acetachlor; atrazine; glyphosate; metolachlor; and prometon—were detected in the 2015 samples with estimated concentrations or concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level, and most pesticides were detected at low concentrations in only a few samples. Samples from all wetlands contained at least one detected pesticide. The maximum number of pesticides detected in a wetland sample was six, and the median number of pesticides detected was three.The most commonly detected pesticides in the 2015 samples were atrazine and the atrazine degradate CIAT (also known as deethylatrazine), which were detected in 14 and 13 of the wetlands sampled, respectively. Glyphosate was detected in samples from 11 wetlands, and metolachlor was detected in samples from 10 wetlands. The other detected pesticides were 2,4–D (4 wetlands), acetochlor (3 wetlands), and prometon (1 wetland).The same pesticides that were detected in the 2006 samples were detected in the 2015 samples, with the exception of simazine, which was detected only in one sample in 2006

  5. Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Rapid Assessment of Wetlands in the North Slope Region of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-31

    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 4 Wetlands Regulatory Assistance Program Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Rapid Assessment of Wetlands...in the North Slope Region of Alaska En vi ro nm en ta l L ab or at or y Jacob F. Berkowitz, Nathan R. Beane, Kevin D. Philley, and Matt...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Wetlands Regulatory Assistance Program ERDC/EL TR-17-14 August 2017 Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Rapid

  6. Effects of land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties of wetland catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangen, Brian A., E-mail: btangen@usgs.gov; Finocchiaro, Raymond G., E-mail: rfinocchiaro@usgs.gov; Gleason, Robert A., E-mail: rgleason@usgs.gov

    2015-11-15

    Wetland restoration has been suggested as policy goal with multiple environmental benefits including enhancement of atmospheric carbon sequestration. However, there are concerns that increased methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions associated with restoration may outweigh potential benefits. A comprehensive, 4-year study of 119 wetland catchments was conducted in the Prairie Pothole Region of the north-central U.S. to assess the effects of land use on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil properties. Results showed that the effects of land use on GHG fluxes and abiotic soil properties differed with respect to catchment zone (upland, wetland), wetland classification, geographic location, and year. Mean CH{sub 4} fluxes from the uplands were predictably low (< 0.02 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2} day{sup −1}), while wetland zone CH{sub 4} fluxes were much greater (< 0.001–3.9 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2} day{sup −1}). Mean cumulative seasonal CH{sub 4} fluxes ranged from roughly 0–650 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2}, with an overall mean of approximately 160 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2}. These maximum cumulative CH{sub 4} fluxes were nearly 3 times as high as previously reported in North America. The overall magnitude and variability of N{sub 2}O fluxes from this study (< 0.0001–0.0023 g N{sub 2}O m{sup −2} day{sup −1}) were comparable to previously reported values. Results suggest that soil organic carbon is lost when relatively undisturbed catchments are converted for agriculture, and that when non-drained cropland catchments are restored, CH{sub 4} fluxes generally are not different than the pre-restoration baseline. Conversely, when drained cropland catchments are restored, CH{sub 4} fluxes are noticeably higher. Consequently, it is important to consider the type of wetland restoration (drained, non-drained) when assessing restoration benefits. Results also suggest that elevated N{sub 2}O fluxes from cropland catchments likely would be reduced through restoration. The overall

  7. 78 FR 50441 - Iowa Wetland Management District, 35 Counties in North-Central and Northwest Iowa; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for the Iowa Wetland Management District (district, WMD) for public review... sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and Service policies. In... Fish and Wildlife Service Iowa Wetland Management District, 35 Counties in North-Central and...

  8. Emergy-based evaluation of system sustainability and ecosystem value of a large-scale constructed wetland in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Renqing

    2013-07-01

    Constructed wetland has been widely adopted to deal with degraded natural wetlands and water bodies; thus, more attention should be focused on ecological-economic sustainability and ecological efficiency of these projects for long-term success. Emergy accounting was conducted to investigate the energy and resource flows in constructed wetlands during the restoration process. Emergy-based indexes were adopted to evaluate the sustainability of a pilot large-scale constructed wetland in a large wetland restoration project in North China, carried out to enhance the river water quality and offset the degradation of natural wetland. Emergy and emdollar values for ecosystem services and natural capital were also calculated. The results showed that when outflow was considered as the product, the studied large-scale constructed wetland was more self-supporting and could be operated with lesser financial investment, although the waste treatment efficiency and the sustainability index were lower than conventional small-scale treatment constructed wetlands. Compared with natural wetlands, more visits from tourists and lesser financial investment coming in as feedback into the wetland would reduce system environment loading and promote system self-support ability, ultimately generating sustainability. In addition, the studied large-scale constructed wetland can effectively simulate energy and resource flows of natural wetland ecosystem and contribute a roughly equal value of ecosystem services in term of gross primary production. The studied large-scale constructed wetland can successfully achieve ecosystem functions as replacement for natural wetland and hasten the restoration process, although the restoration effectiveness of ecosystem structures in terms of living biomass and water using emergy-value accounting is still inconclusive.

  9. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Myra; Keitt, Bradford S; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie; Jarman, Walter M; Rodriguez-Pastor, Sue; Anderson, David J; Sievert, Paul R; Smith, Donald R

    2006-04-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Pacific are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans.

  10. Results of a modeling workshop concerning preservation and protection of wetlands in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.

    1981-01-01

    In a recently signed letter, the Governor of North Dakota and the Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Fish and Wildlife and Parks charged a joint state-federal study group with examination of two separate questions: 1) mitigation for the Garrison Diversion Project; and 2) planning for long-range protection and preservation of fish and wildlife habitat in North Dakota. The cochair for this study group (the Secretary of the Interior's Field Representative, Denver, Colorado, and the Natural Resources Coordinator for North Dakota) further articulated the charge concerning the second of these two questions to include three steps: 1) development of a general plan for preservation and protection of migratory waterfowl and their associated wetland habitat; 2) a comprehensive analysis of alternative strategies, including opportunities and constraints, for achieving the goals articulated in Step 1; and 3) design of a coordinated state-federal public information program to assist in plan implementation. In order to obtain input from a variety of interests, the joint study group initiated step 2 activities with a five-day workshop in Bismarck, N. D.; December 8-12, 1980. The objectives of the workshop were: 1) to identify alternative strategies for preserving and enhancing waterfowl production habitat in North Dakota; 2) to identify opportunities and constraints associated with those alternatives; and 3) to promote communication and understanding of the implications of those alternatives for all affected parties. To achieve these objectives, the workshop utilized a group of concepts and techniques collectively known as Adaptive Environmental Assessment (AEA). Developed by Dr. C. S. Holling and his co-workers at the University of British Columbia, the AEA process involves planners, managers, scientists, and other interested parties in a structures atmosphere whose focus is the construction and examination of a computerized simulation model of the resource system under

  11. Multi-element composition of soils of seasonal wetlands across North Dakota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellick, A H; Jacob, D L; DeKeyser, E S; Hargiss, C L M; Meyers, L M; Ell, M; Kissoon-Charles, L T; Otte, M L

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to assess if the soils of wetlands of different condition varied in terms of element composition. The rationale was that compared to wetlands of good condition, wetlands of poor condition-which in the region have typically been disturbed by agricultural activities, are lower in biodiversity and have fewer native species-would have been altered in their physical and chemical soil characteristics. This in turn would have altered the element composition of the soils. The concentrations of about 50 elements in the topsoil of 43 seasonal wetlands of varying condition, as measured by plant community based assessments, across North Dakota were determined. Organic matter content of the soils increased as condition increased, and it was the most important variable explaining 40 % of variation in the concentrations of elements. This can be partly explained by binding of elements to organic matter (S, Se) and for most other elements (that bind mostly to the inorganic fraction) by displacement by organic matter. The biogeochemistry of S is further implicated in the distribution of Ca, most likely via formation of insoluble gypsum (calcium sulfate).

  12. Isolation and characterization of actinobacteria from Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng Yu; Liu Zhang; Qiu Liu; Xiaohui Qi; Ying Ji; Beom Seok Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate various types of samples from the different marine environments as sources of actinomycetes from the Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China, and to screen their antimicrobial properties. Further, the identified actinomycetes were characterized based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics. Methods:Eight different production media were used to isolate actinomycets from different stations of marine soil sediments in Yalujiang coastal wetland and the genotypic positions were established by 16S rDNA. Results:A total of 172 actinomycetal isolates were obtained from 13 samples using five media. The most effective culture media in the isolation of actinobacteria were Gause’s Synthetic agar and Starch-casein agar. Among 172 isolates, 46 isolates (26.74%) showed antibacterial activity, 70.93%belonged to the genus Streptomyces, others were Micromonospora spp. and Rhodococcus spp. Out of the 46 isolates, two cultures were further supported by morphological characterization analysis. Conclusions: This is the first report about actinomycetes isolated from Yalujiang coastal wetland and it seems that the promising isolates from the unusual/unexplored wetland may prove to be an important step in the development of microbial natural product research.

  13. Isolation and characterization of actinobacteria from Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng; Yu; Liu; Zhang; Qiu; Liu; Xiaohui; Qi; Ying; Ji; Beom; Seok; Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate various types of samples from the different marine environments as sources of actinomycetes from the Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China, and to screen their antimicrobial properties. Further, the identified actinomycetes were characterized based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics.Methods: Eight different production media were used to isolate actinomycets from different stations of marine soil sediments in Yalujiang coastal wetland and the genotypic positions were established by 16 S r DNA.Results: A total of 172 actinomycetal isolates were obtained from 13 samples using five media. The most effective culture media in the isolation of actinobacteria were Gause’s Synthetic agar and Starch-casein agar. Among 172 isolates, 46 isolates(26.74%) showed antibacterial activity, 70.93% belonged to the genus Streptomyces, others were Micromonospora spp. and Rhodococcus spp. Out of the 46 isolates, two cultures were further supported by morphological characterization analysis.Conclusions: This is the first report about actinomycetes isolated from Yalujiang coastal wetland and it seems that the promising isolates from the unusual/unexplored wetland may prove to be an important step in the development of microbial natural product research.

  14. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  15. Environmental challenges to the mangrove wetlands of North Malabar (Kerala, India: Their sustainable development and influence on local people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel K. M.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands, including mangroves, perform several functions such as inundation control, and protection from erosion, storm, floods and tidal damage, and generate goods and products such as fish and forest resources. These functions are of fundamental importance for society. The present study aims to identify the challenges of the mangrove wetlands of north Malabar, their uses and socio-economic influence on local people, and the value of ecosystem services, and to suggest the way forward for sustainable development.

  16. A preliminary classification of wetland plant communities in north-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.

    1973-01-01

    A classification of wetland plant communities was developed for a study area in north-central Minnesota in order to analyze data on waterfowl use of habitat that were gathered by radio telemetry. The classification employs features of several earlier classifications in addition to new classes for bogs and lakeshore communities. Brief descriptions are given for each community, and the important plant species are listed. Discriminant function analysis was used for 40 plant species. Seventy-five percent of the stands studied were classified correctly by this technique. Average probabilities of assignment to communities were calculated and helped to identify distinct and poorly defined communities as well as the relationship among communities.

  17. Modeling sediment accumulation in North American playa wetlands in response to climate change, 1940-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Lucy; Skagen, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Playa wetlands on the west-central Great Plains of North America are vulnerable to sediment infilling from upland agriculture, putting at risk several important ecosystem services as well as essential habitats and food resources of diverse wetland-dependent biota. Climate predictions for this semi-arid area indicate reduced precipitation which may alter rates of erosion, runoff, and sedimentation of playas. We forecasted erosion rates, sediment depths, and resultant playa wetland depths across the west-central Great Plains and examined the relative roles of land use context and projected changes in precipitation in the sedimentation process. We estimated erosion with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) using historic values and downscaled precipitation predictions from three general circulation models and three emissions scenarios. We calibrated RUSLE results using field sediment measurements. RUSLE is appealing for regional scale modeling because it uses climate forecasts with monthly resolution and other widely available values including soil texture, slope and land use. Sediment accumulation rates will continue near historic levels through 2070 and will be sufficient to cause most playas (if not already filled) to fill with sediment within the next 100 years in the absence of mitigation. Land use surrounding the playa, whether grassland or tilled cropland, is more influential in sediment accumulation than climate-driven precipitation change.

  18. Floodplain Mapping and Wetland Connectivity to Lotic Aquatic Systems of Indiana and North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, C.; Hall, A.; D'Amico, E.; Sangwan, N.; Merwade, V.

    2015-12-01

    In a recent literature review of over 1,350 publications, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that wetlands in floodplains are physically, chemically, and biologically integrated with rivers and can improve downstream water quality. However, current knowledge on the extent of floodplains is limited, with national-scale maps unavailable with the exception of coarse-scale Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). Recently, novel approaches to rapidly and inexpensively map floodplains using widely available soil survey data have been developed, as have approaches using hydrogeomorphic metrics. To better understand wetland connectivity to other aquatic systems, we contrasted FIRMs with soil-based, hydrogeomorphic, and simple distance-based metrics in watersheds of Indiana and North Dakota. Soil-based, hydrogeomorphic, and distance-based measures were particularly useful in determining connectivity. For example, in the White River of Indiana, these three measures connected 74-86% of the watershed's wetland area while the FEMA FIRMs only connected 58% of the watershed's wetland area, with omissions coming from stark demarcations of FIRMs at seemingly arbitrary locations. Overall, we found that FEMA FIRMs were generally unsuitable for use in determining watershed-scale floodplains, as FIRMs tended to focus on urban areas at the expense of agricultural (or non-urban) regions. Distance-based connectivity measures likely over-estimated floodplain extent through the "creation" of non-existent floodplains on low-order streams. As with any method, the accuracy of the hydrogeomorphic and soil-based measures was highly dependent on the resolution and quality of the input data. However, these two methods in particular appear to hold great promise for accurately extending our knowledge of floodplains throughout the conterminous United States.

  19. Land use planning and social equity in North Carolina's compensatory wetland and stream mitigation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDor, Todd; Stewart, Audrey

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Clean Water Act requires compensatory mitigation for wetland and stream damage through restoration of damaged aquatic ecosystems. We evaluate the North Carolina's Ecosystem Enhancement Program (EEP), a state agency responsible for compensatory mitigation. We compare communities gaining and losing aquatic resources during mitigation, finding new types of socioeconomic disparities that contradict previous studies of mitigation program behavior. We find average distances between impact and mitigation sites for streams (43.53 km) and wetlands (50.3 km) to be larger in North Carolina than in off-site mitigation programs in other regions previously studied. We also find that aquatic resources in the State are lost from urbanized areas that are more affluent, white, and highly educated, and mitigated at sites in rural areas that are less affluent, less well educated, and have a higher percentage of minorities. We also analyze the relationship between urban growth indicators and EEP accumulation of compensation sites. Growth indicators and long-term population projections are uncorrelated with both projected transportation impacts and advance mitigation acquired by the EEP, suggesting that growth considerations can be more effectively incorporated into the EEP's planning process. We explore the possibility that spatial mismatches could develop between watersheds that are rapidly growing and those that are gaining mitigation. We make recommendations for ways that regulators incorporate growth indicators into the mitigation planning process.

  20. Land Use Planning and Social Equity in North Carolina's Compensatory Wetland and Stream Mitigation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendor, Todd; Stewart, Audrey

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Clean Water Act requires compensatory mitigation for wetland and stream damage through restoration of damaged aquatic ecosystems. We evaluate the North Carolina's Ecosystem Enhancement Program (EEP), a state agency responsible for compensatory mitigation. We compare communities gaining and losing aquatic resources during mitigation, finding new types of socioeconomic disparities that contradict previous studies of mitigation program behavior. We find average distances between impact and mitigation sites for streams (43.53 km) and wetlands (50.3 km) to be larger in North Carolina than in off-site mitigation programs in other regions previously studied. We also find that aquatic resources in the State are lost from urbanized areas that are more affluent, white, and highly educated, and mitigated at sites in rural areas that are less affluent, less well educated, and have a higher percentage of minorities. We also analyze the relationship between urban growth indicators and EEP accumulation of compensation sites. Growth indicators and long-term population projections are uncorrelated with both projected transportation impacts and advance mitigation acquired by the EEP, suggesting that growth considerations can be more effectively incorporated into the EEP's planning process. We explore the possibility that spatial mismatches could develop between watersheds that are rapidly growing and those that are gaining mitigation. We make recommendations for ways that regulators incorporate growth indicators into the mitigation planning process.

  1. Ecological assessment of lakeshore wetland rehabilitation on eastern route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; Fei MENG; Yifeng LU; Yuming JING; Huayong ZHANG; Bo ZHANG; Chenglu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the ecological effects of lakeshore wetland rehabilitation on the eastern route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project, species composition, cov-erage, height, and biomass of wetland communities at 22 sites of the study area on the shore of Nansi Lake in April and May 2007 were investigated. The wetlands under investigation were divided into platform fields, transition zones, and-shallow water zones according to differences in elevations, water levels, and human activities. The species richness index, Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, and Pielou Evenness index were adopted to delineate and dis-cuss the ecological effects of lakeshore wetland rehabilita-tion in 22 quadrates. Results showed that the species richness of the wetland areas after 2 years' rehabilitation amounted to 47 of 24 families, higher than 25 of 20 families in areas without rehabilitation. The biodiversity index and abundance index of rehabilitated areas were also higher than those of platform fields and fish ponds where there was no rehabilitation. In addition, the Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, and community evenness index of platform fields in rehabilitated wetland areas were 1.619, 0.745, and 0.860, respectively, higher than those of the plat-form fields before rehabilitating. The results suggested that the constructed lakeshore wetland played an important role in protecting the diversity of species.

  2. Phytoplankton community and limnology of Chatla floodplain wetland of Barak valley, Assam, North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Laskar H.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton diversity was investigated over a period of two years (2006 to 2008 in Chatla floodplain wetland in Barak valley, Assam, North-East India. Site 1 and site 2 are two inlets and site 3 is a lentic system associated with vegetation cover of Calamus tenuis and Baringtonia acutangula. The floodplain has a unique hydrology because of the presence of different types of habitats (inlets, fisheries, beels and outlets which maintains a network among the floodplains, rivers and streams. Phytoplankton community composition, density and diversity were studied in relation to environmental variables. All the variables were estimated by following standard methods. Phytoplankton was collected by plankton net and quantitative estimation was made by using Sedgwick Rafter counting cell. Phytoplankton community comprised 53 taxa represented by Chlorophyceae (31, Cyanophyceae (11, Bacillariophyceae (7, Euglenophyceae (1 and Dinophyceae (3. Phytoplankton taxa was dominated by Volvox sp., Nostoc sp., Eunotia sp., Navicula sp., Euglena spp. and density was found highest in site 3 and lowest in site 1. Shannon diversity index (H′ for phytoplankton community varied between 2.4 to 2.65 indicating fairly high species diversity. The varying magnitude of correlationship among environmental variables and phytoplankton species density as shown by Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA indicated that some of the environmental variables (water temperature, transparency, rainfall, nitrate and ammonia are the driving factors for governing the phytoplankton species assemblages in Chatla floodplain wetland. Fluctuation of phytoplankton density and community composition in different habitats indicated various niche apportionment as well as anthropogenic influences.

  3. Soligenous wetlands of North-western Poland as an environment for endangered mire species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław Wołejko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions and the occurrence of protected and rare species have been studied in 18 groundwater-fed wetland complexes in north-western Poland. The plant cover of studied objects consisted of 81 syntaxa of water-, spring-, rush and sedge-, mire-, meadow-, tall-forb-, willow carr- and alderwood communities, as well as of 4 syntaxa of the mesophytic forests. Their microhabitat differentiation has been discussed. The expression of environmental conditions in the groundwater-fed communities has been analysed on the basis of Ellenberg's indicator values and the occurrence of protected and rare species. A signifficant negative correlation has been found between the occurrence of rare species and the trophy index. The special position of the mesotrophic rich fen communities, concerning their role in preservation of a large number of endangered species, as well as of rare plant communities is emphasized.

  4. Analysing the origin of rain- and subsurface water in seasonal wetlands of north-central Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Tetsuya; Kanamori, Hironari; Kambatuku, Jack R.; Kotani, Ayumi; Asai, Kazuyoshi; Mizuochi, Hiroki; Fujioka, Yuichiro; Iijima, Morio

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the origins of rain- and subsurface waters of north-central Namibia’s seasonal wetlands, which are critical to the region’s water and food security. The region includes the southern part of the Cuvelai system seasonal wetlands (CSSWs) of the Cuvelai Basin, a transboundary river basin covering southern Angola and northern Namibia. We analysed stable water isotopes (SWIs) of hydrogen (HDO) and oxygen (H2 18O) in rainwater, surface water and shallow groundwater. Rainwater samples were collected during every rainfall event of the rainy season from October 2013 to April 2014. The isotopic ratios of HDO (δD) and oxygen H2 18O (δ 18O) were analysed in each rainwater sample and then used to derive the annual mean value of (δD, δ 18O) in precipitation weighted by each rainfall volume. Using delta diagrams (plotting δD vs. δ 18O), we showed that the annual mean value was a good indicator for determining the origins of subsurface waters in the CSSWs. To confirm the origins of rainwater and to explain the variations in isotopic ratios, we conducted atmospheric water budget analysis using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) data and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data. The results showed that around three-fourths of rainwater was derived from recycled water at local–regional scales. Satellite-observed outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and complementary satellite data from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) series implied that the isotopic ratios in rainwater were affected by evaporation of raindrops falling from convective clouds. Consequently, integrated SWI analysis of rain-, surface and subsurface waters, together with the atmospheric water budget analysis, revealed that shallow groundwater of small wetlands in this region was very likely to be recharged from surface waters originating from local rainfall, which was

  5. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek, North Dakota: an isotopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine hydrologic connectivity within Pipestem Creek, Nort...

  6. Comparing habitat preferences of a set of waterbird species wintering in coastal wetlands of North Africa: implication for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elafri Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year, the Coastal wetlands of North Africa support an important wintering waterbird population of many Palearctic and sub-Saharan species of various contrasting habitat requirements. In this study, we describe the habitat use by24 water-obligate species wintering in a coastal wetland of the Northeastern Algeria (the wetland of Lake Tonga, highlighting thereby the ecological mechanisms that support their coexistence and their resources partitioning. The analysis of resource exploitation (Relative frequency, Feinsinger niche breadth, Pianka niche overlap and Ivlev’s electivity indexes showed that waterbird species inhabiting the lake wetland have several similarities in using the different habitat categories, which lead us to cluster them into 5 guilds (G1: one rails, two grebes and eight ducks; G2: five wading species and one gull; G3: three herons; G4: cormorants, mallards, and on gull; finally, G5: only one species Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis.Almost all the species were specialists in resource utilization patterns (narrow niche breadths, both under 0.3 and therefore, vulnerable to fluctuations in resources, particularly the feeding habitats. Mean niche overlaps for all the pairs of species ranged from 0.05 to 0.68. The overall pattern in the community was higher niche overlaps between the species of a particular guild than those between other species. According to Ivlev’s electivity index, we found that only three microhabitats from seven were the most important for the discussed species, open water body was the most attractive, followed by meadows, muddy areas and floating- leafed vegetation. Similarities on habitat requirements derived from our region can provide important and optimal wetland management at multi-species assemblage level for this wetland and similar area around the African coast.

  7. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  8. Application of a geomorphic and temporal perspective to wetland management in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.M.; Euliss, N.H.; Wilcox, D.A.; Brinson, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The failure of managed wetlands to provide a broad suite of ecosystem services (e.g., carbon storage, wildlife habitat, ground-water recharge, storm-water retention) valuable to society is primarily the result of a lack of consideration of ecosystem processes that maintain productive wetland ecosystems or physical and social forces that restrict a manager's ability to apply actions that allow those processes to occur. Therefore, we outline a course of action that considers restoration of ecosystem processes in those systems where off-site land use or physical alterations restrict local management. Upon considering a wetland system, or examining a particular management regime, there are several factors that will allow successful restoration of wetland services. An initial step is examination of the political/social factors that have structured the current ecological condition and whether those realities can be addressed. Most successful restorations of wetland ecosystem services involve cooperation among multiple agencies, acquisition of funds from non-traditional sources, seeking of scientific advice on ecosystem processes, and cultivation of good working relationships among biologists, managers, and maintenance staff. Beyond that, in on-site wetland situations, management should examine the existing hydrogeomorphic situation and processes (e.g., climatic variation, tides, riverine flood-pulse events) responsible for maintenance of ecosystem services within a given temporal framework appropriate for that wetland's hydrologic pattern. We discuss these processes for five major wetland types (depressional, lacustrine, estuarine, riverine, and man-made impoundments) and then provide two case histories in which this approach was applied: Seney National Wildlife Refuge with a restored fen system and Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge where riverine processes have been simulated to restore native habitat. With adequate partnerships and administrative and political

  9. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) as indicators of atmospherically deposited pollutants in North African wetlands of conservation importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N. L.; Flower, R. J.; Appleby, P. G.

    Wetlands and lowland lakes in the coastal region of North Africa are being lost at an alarming rate as a result of increasing human demands for water and land. Those remaining wetlands, which have not been severely degraded, support high value ecosystems that not only contribute to regional biodiversity but also provide important resources for local human populations. However, information on the current status of these sites and the rates and directions of trends in environmental change over recent decades is generally lacking. In particular, regional data on the inputs of atmospheric pollutants to these important sites are absent. As part of the EU (INCO-MED) funded CASSARINA project, sediment cores were taken from eight coastal lakes in Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt. Chronologies for these cores were produced primarily using radionuclides and all were analysed for spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs). SCPs are produced only from high temperature fossil-fuel combustion and are thus unambiguous indicators of atmospheric deposition from industrial sources. SCP contamination trends appear to show a combination of influences from European and, more recently (post-1980), local North African sources. Contemporary data indicate contamination equivalent to that found in heavily impacted European mountain lakes or moderately impacted lowland lakes in the UK. Such levels of impact raise particular concerns over the future of Moroccan wetland lakes downwind of a recently expanded major coal-fired power station at Jorf Lasar.

  10. Isolation and characterization of actinobacteria from Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicheng Yu

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: This is the first report about actinomycetes isolated from Yalujiang coastal wetland and it seems that the promising isolates from the unusual/unexplored wetland may prove to be an important step in the development of microbial natural product research.

  11. Development of a hydrogeological conceptual wetland model in the data-scarce north-eastern region of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghof, Sonja; Gabiri, Geofrey; Stumpp, Christine; Chesnaux, Romain; Reichert, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    Understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions in wetlands is crucial because wetlands provide not only a high potential for agricultural production, but also sensitive and valuable ecosystems. This is especially true for the Kilombero floodplain wetland in Tanzania, which represents a data-scarce region in terms of hydrological and hydrogeological data. A comprehensive approach combining hydrogeological with tracer-based assessments was conducted, in order to develop a conceptual hydrogeological wetland model of the area around the city of Ifakara in the north-eastern region of Kilombero catchment. Within the study site, a heterogeneous porous aquifer, with a range of hydraulic conductivities, is underlain by a fractured-rock aquifer. Groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by silicate weathering and depends on groundwater residence times related to the hydraulic conductivities of the porous aquifer. Groundwater flows from the hillside to the river during most of the year. While floodwater close to the river is mainly derived from overbank flow of the river, floodwater at a greater distance from the river mainly originates from precipitation and groundwater discharge. Evaporation effects in floodwater increase with increasing distance from the river. In general, the contribution of flood and stream water to groundwater recharge is negligible. In terms of an intensification of agricultural activities in the wetland, several conclusions can be drawn from the conceptual model. Results of this study are valuable as a base for further research related to groundwater/surface-water interactions and the conceptual model can be used in the future to set up numerical flow and transport models.

  12. North Village Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redderson, Jeff

    2015-08-03

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of converting from a traditional direct exchange system to a ground source heat pump system on a large scale, multiple building apartment complex on a university campus. A total of ten apartment buildings were converted using vertical well fields and a ground source loop that connected the 24 apartments in each building into a common system. The system has yielded significant operational savings in both energy and maintenance and transformed the living environments of these residential buildings for our students.

  13. Effects of land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties of wetland catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Wetland restoration has been suggested as policy goal with multiple environmental benefits including enhancement of atmospheric carbon sequestration. However, there are concerns that increased methane (CH4) emissions associated with restoration may outweigh potential benefits. A comprehensive, 4-year study of 119 wetland catchments was conducted in the Prairie Pothole Region of the north-central U.S. to assess the effects of land use on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil properties.

  14. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  15. Pollution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of HCHs and DDTs in estuary wetland sediments from the Bohai Bay, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Tian, Shengyan; Jia, Rui; Liu, Xianbin

    2015-12-09

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) tend to persist in the environment for long periods of time. The concentration and distribution of HCHs and DDTs were investigated in surface sediments of Yongdingxinhe wetland and Binhai wetland by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). All isomers of HCHs and DDTs were detected in all of the samples. The concentrations of total HCHs (ΣHCHs) in two wetland sediments ranged from 69.81 to 379.28 ng · g (-1), with a mean value of 224.55 ng · g (-1). The concentrations of total DDTs (ΣDDTs) ranged from 98.32 to 129.10 ng · g (-1), with a mean value of 113.71 ng · g (-1). The results of an ecological risk assessment demonstrated that there was high-risk ecological effect of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) on the estuary wetlands. Lindane and technical DDTs were found to be the main sources of OCPs.

  16. Wetland vegetation in the North-eastern Sandy Highveld, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Burgoyne

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The wetland vegetation of the high mountain grasslands of Mpumalanga w as sampled by using stratification based on geology and land types. Floristic data were classified by TWINSPAN procedures and refined by using the Braun-Blanquet method. This resulted in the recognition of four major w etland plant communities w hich are subdiv ided into eleven minor plant communities. The major communities include the Phragmites australis Wetland occurring in relatively deep water, the  Miscanthus junceus Wetland from moist river banks and wet drainage lines, the  Eragrostis biflora-Stihurus allopecuroides Moist Grassland restricted to moist, poorly drained soils w ith a high water table, and Arundinella nepalensis Moist Grasslands on black vertic soils.

  17. Soil physicochemical conditions, denitrification rates, and nosZ abundance in North Carolina Coastal Plain restored wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ever since the United States adopted a national policy of wetland “No Net Loss”, a variety of measures have been aimed at restoring wetland biogeochemical function to former wetland areas. Nitrogen is a key element controlled by properly functioning wetlands, particularly when they are located adjac...

  18. A comparison of resident fish assemblages in managed and unmanaged coastal wetlands in North Carolina and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2014-01-01

    The dominant fish species within impounded coastal wetlands in the southeastern US may be different from the species that dominate natural marshes. We tested the hypothesis that resident fish assemblages inhabiting impounded coastal wetlands in South Carolina would differ from resident assemblages in natural marshes of the southeastern United States. We used rarefied species richness, Shannon's H' diversity,J' evenness, Morisita's index of similarity, and the percent similarity index to compare resident fish assemblages from two impoundments to 12 open-marsh resident fish assemblages from previously published studies in North and South Carolina. We used rotenone to sample fish assemblages in impoundments. The assemblages in natural marsh habitat had been sampled with rotenone and seines. We classified comparisons yielding a similarity index ≥0.50 as moderately similar and those with an index ≥0.75 as very similar. Fifty-three percent of the among-impoundment comparisons (Morisita's index) were at least moderately similar, whereas 7% of impoundment—natural marsh comparisons were moderately similar. A difference in tidal influence was the only parameter in the best-fitting model describing the observed Morisita's indices. The index of similarity decreased by 63% when tidal influence differed between compared assemblages. Species richness and diversity were greater in impoundments than natural marshes, but evenness was similar between habitat types. Our results support the hypothesis that resident fish assemblages in impounded wetlands and natural marshes are different, and suggest that a degree of tidal influence is the most important factor behind the difference.

  19. Uranium delivery and uptake in a montane wetland, north-central Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Zielinski, Robert A.; Otton, James K.; Pantea, Michael P.; Orem, William H.

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling of peat, underlying lakebed sediments, and coexisting waters of a naturally uraniferous montane wetland are combined with hydrologic measurements to define the important controls on uranium (U) supply and uptake. The major source of U to the wetland is groundwater flowing through locally fractured and faulted granite gneiss of Proterozoic age. Dissolved U concentrations in four springs and one seep ranged from 20 to 83 ppb (μg/l). Maximum U concentrations are ∼300 ppm (mg/kg) in lakebed sediments and >3000 ppm in peat. Uranium in lakebed sediments is primarily stratabound in the more organic-rich layers, but samples of similar organic content display variable U concentrations. Post-depositional modifications include variable additions of U delivered by groundwater. Uranium distribution in peat is heterogeneous and primarily controlled by proximity to groundwater-fed springs and seeps that act as local point sources of U, and by proximity to groundwater directed along the peat/lakebeds contact. Uranium is initially sorbed on various organic components of peat as oxidized U(VI) present in groundwater. Selective extractions indicate that the majority of sorbed U remains as the oxidized species despite reducing conditions that should favor formation of U(IV). Possible explanations are kinetic hindrances related to strong complex formation between uranyl and humic substances, inhibition of anaerobic bacterial activity by low supply of dissolved iron and sulfate, and by cold temperatures.

  20. Integration of Palmer Drought Severity Index and remote sensing data to simulate wetland water surface from 1910 to 2009 in Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Dahal, D.; Young, Caitlin; Chander, G.; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of wetland water in the Prairie Pothole Region are controlled by many factors; two of them are temperature and precipitation that form the basis of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Taking the 196km2 Cottonwood Lake area in North Dakota as our pilot study site, we integrated PDSI, Landsat images, and aerial photography records to simulate monthly water surface. First, we developed a new Wetland Water Area Index (WWAI) from PDSI to predict water surface area. Second, we developed a water allocation model to simulate the spatial distribution of water bodies at a resolution of 30m. Third, we used an additional procedure to model the small wetlands (less than 0.8ha) that could not be detected by Landsat. Our results showed that i) WWAI was highly correlated with water area with an R2 of 0.90, resulting in a simple regression prediction of monthly water area to capture the intra- and inter-annual water change from 1910 to 2009; ii) the spatial distribution of water bodies modeled from our approach agreed well with the water locations visually identified from the aerial photography records; and iii) the R2 between our modeled water bodies (including both large and small wetlands) and those from aerial photography records could be up to 0.83 with a mean average error of 0.64km2 within the study area where the modeled wetland water areas ranged from about 2 to 14km2. These results indicate that our approach holds great potential to simulate major changes in wetland water surface for ecosystem service; however, our products could capture neither the short-term water change caused by intensive rainstorm events nor the wetland change caused by human activities. ?? 2011.

  1. Simulation of the hydrogeologic effects of oil-shale mining on the neighbouring wetland water balance: case study in north-eastern Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Andres; Karro, Enn; Polikarpus, Maile; Jõeleht, Argo; Kohv, Marko; Hang, Tiit; Hiiemaa, Helen

    2013-11-01

    The water balance of wetlands plays an integral role in their function. Developments adjacent to wetlands can affect their water balance through impacts on groundwater flow and increased discharge in the area, and they can cause lowering of the wetland water table. A 430 km2 area was selected for groundwater modelling to asses the effect of underground mining on the water balance of wetlands in north-eastern Estonia. A nature conservation area (encompassing Selisoo bog) is within 3 km of an underground oil-shale mine. Two future mining scenarios with different areal extents of mining were modeled and compared to the present situation. Results show that the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the subsurface is of critical importance to potential wetland dewatering as a result of mining. Significant impact on the Selisoo bog water balance will be caused by the approaching mine but there will be only minor additional impacts from mining directly below the bog. The major impact will arise before that stage, when the underground mine extension reaches the border of the nature conservation area; since the restriction of activities in this area relates to the ground surface, the conservation area’s border is not sufficiently protective in relation to underground development.

  2. Constructed wetlands for wastewater and activated sludge treatment in north Greece: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsihrintzis, V A; Gikas, G D

    2010-01-01

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of urban, industrial and agricultural wastewater have become very popular treatment systems all over the world. In Greece, these systems are not very common, although the climate is favourable for their use. During recent years, there have been several attempts for the implementation of these systems in Greece, which include, among others, pilot-scale systems used for research, and full-scale systems designed and/or constructed to serve settlements or families. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of systems operating in Northern Greece, which have been studied by the Laboratory of Ecological Engineering and Technology of Democritus University of Thrace and others. A comparison is made of different system types, and the effect of various design and operational parameters is presented. Current research shows the good and continuous performance of these systems.

  3. Constructed Wetlands for Agricultural Wastewater Treatment in Northeastern North America: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Rozema

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands (CW are a treatment option for agricultural wastewater. Their ability to adequately function in cold climates continues to be evaluated as they are biologically active systems that depend on microbial and plant activity. In order to assess their performance and to highlight regional specific design considerations, a review of CWs in Eastern Canada and the Northeastern USA was conducted. Here, we synthesize performance data from 21 studies, in which 25 full-scale wetlands were assessed. Where possible, data were separated seasonally to evaluate the climatic effects on treatment performance. The wastewater parameters considered were five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, total suspended solids (TSS, E. coli, fecal coliforms, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, ammonia/ammonium (NH3/NH4+-N, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N, and total phosphorus (TP. Average concentration reductions were: BOD5 81%, TSS 83%, TKN 75%, NH4+-N 76%, NO3−-N 42%, and TP 64%. Average log reductions for E. coli and fecal coliforms were 1.63 and 1.93, respectively. Average first order areal rate constants (ka, m·y−1 were: BOD5 6.0 m·y−1, TSS 7.7 m·y−1, E. coli 7.0 m·y−1, fecal coliforms 9.7 m·y−1, TKN 3.1 m·y−1, NH4+-N 3.3 m·y−1, NO3−-N 2.5 m·y−1, and TP 2.9 m·y−1. In general, CWs effectively treated a variety of agricultural wastewaters, regardless of season.

  4. Constructed wetlands may lower inorganic nutrient inputs but enhance DOC loadings into a drinking water reservoir in North Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, C; Jones, T G; West, M; Ehbair, A M S; Dunn, C; Freeman, C

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor a newly constructed wetland (CW) in north Wales, UK, to assess whether it contributes to an improvement in water quality (nutrient removal) of a nearby drinking water reservoir. Inflow and outflow of the Free Water Surface (FWS) CW were monitored on a weekly basis and over a period of 6 months. Physicochemical parameters including pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured, as well as nutrients and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC, DIC) concentration. The CW was seen to contribute to water quality improvement; results show that nutrient removal took place within weeks after construction. It was found that 72 % of initial nitrate (N03 (-)), 53 % of initial phosphate (PO4 (3-)) and 35 % of initial biological oxygen demand (BOD) were removed, calculated as a total over the whole sampling period. From our study, it can be concluded that while inorganic nutrients do decline in CWs, the DOC outputs increases. This may suggest that CWs represent a source for DOC. To assess the carbon in- and output a C budget was calculated.

  5. Assessment of marine debris on the coastal wetland of Martil in the North-East of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshawafi, Adel; Analla, Mohamed; Alwashali, Ebrahim; Aksissou, Mustapha

    2017-04-15

    Plastic waste at the coastal wetland in Martil beach in the North-East of Morocco is one of the problems that have appeared recently. This study aims to characterize the marine debris in the coast of Martil during the year 2015. The sampling is seasonally by type and size. The result shows, for the macro debris, the abundance of plastic (57%), lumber and paper (21.93%), cloth and fabric (7.8%), glass (5.42%), metal (4.40%), and rubber (3.4%). Micro debris is also present in the area in several forms such as wood, plants, and others by 75,63%. This was followed by the foam (26,95%), line (7,8%), and the film (1,23%). The seasonal variation (S1: January-March and S3: July to September) are the most polluted months of the year. The sources of marine debris are mainly tourism (beach users), land (run off), and commercial fishing in the four seasons of the year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations and fluxes from Wetlands P7 and P8 of the Cottonwood Lake Study area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Tangen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the relationships among carbon mineralization, sulfate reduction and greenhouse gas emissions in prairie pothole wetlands. These data are for dissolved methane and carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes. Dissolved gas concentrations in the water column and fluxes to the atmosphere were estimated from April through November, 2015 for wetlands P7 and P8 of the Cottonwood Lake Study area, Stutsman County, North Dakota. Dissolved gases in the water column were collected every two weeks using a pumping-induced ebullition device. Gas flux samples were collected concurrently at the water-atmosphere interface using the vented static-chamber method. Gas concentrations of the gas samples were determined using gas chromatography. Air and water temperature and water depth also were collected concurrently. These data directly support the associated publication “Abundant carbon substrates drive extremely high sulfate reduction rates and methane fluxes in Prairie Pothole Wetlands” which is referenced within the Metadata.

  7. Narrative report for calendar year 1972 [Devils Lake Wetland Management District, North Dakota Easement Refuge District No. 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the calendar year of 1972. The report begins by giving a...

  8. Narrative report for calendar year 1971 [Devils Lake Wetland Management District, North Dakota Easement Refuge District No. 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the calendar year of 1971. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Mercury and methylmercury in water and bottom sediments of wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota 2003-04

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Certain ecosystem types, particularly wetlands, have environmental characteristics that can make them particularly sensitive to mercury inputs and that can result in...

  10. Implementation of cervical cancer screening: A demonstration in a rural community of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana Labani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: S trategies for implementation of cervical screening are the need of the hour while effective screening tests for early detection exist. Aim: To demonstrate the implementation of cervical cancer screening by aided visual tests in a North Indian rural community. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study in a rural setting. Subjects and Methods: Baseline survey of community perspectives of screening and identification of eligible women of age 30-59 years was performed by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs. Screening was targeted on 7604 women by the methods of visual inspection of cervix using acetic acid (VIA, by using lugol′s iodine (VILI tests and by Pap test. Screen positives were referred to colposcopy and further management. Data on evaluation parameters was collected. Statistical Analysis: Screening test performances were assessed by sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV for detection of histological CIN II+. Results: Study showed coverage of 65.6% of total eligible women (7604. Extent of agreement of visual testes (VIA/VILI between nurses and doctor was 77.3-100%. Screen positivity rates by VIA, VILI and Pap were 9.7%, 13.5% and 2.6%, respectively. Screen positives turned up for confirmatory diagnosis were 78%. Acceptance of treatment was 76%. Screen positivity of VIA and VILI declined (P < 0.001 with increase in age. Sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of VIA were 59.0%, 92.3% and 3.6% and of VILI were72.7%, 89.6% and 3.3% respectively. NPV was 99% in all the tests. Conclusion: Implementation of screening by aided visual tests was successfully demonstrated through utilization of ASHAs for motivation, achievement of good coverage and good response in clinical management of screen positives.

  11. Restoring Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    FERTILE LAND:The Qixing River Wetland in Heilongjiang Province was recently named a wetland of international importance at the Sixth Asian Wetland Symposium held in Wuxi City, east China’s Jiangsu Province, on October 13

  12. Neotropical coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Batzer, Darold P.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical region, which includes the tropical Americas, is one of the world's eight biogeographic zones. It contains some of the most diverse and unique wetlands in the world, some of which are still relatively undisturbed by humans. This chapter focuses on the northern segment of the Neotropics (south Florida, the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and Central America), an area that spans a latitudinal gradient from about 7 N to 29 N and 60 W to 112 W. Examples of coastal wetlands in this realm include the Everglades (Florida, USA), Ten Thousand Islands (Florida, USA), Laguna de Terminos (Mexico), Twin Cays (Belize), and Zapata Swamp (Cuba). Coastal wetlands are dominated by mangroves, which will be emphasized here, but also include freshwater swamps and marshes, saline marshes, and seagrass beds. The aim of this chapter is to provide a broad overview of Neotropical coastal wetlands of the North American continent, with an emphasis on mangroves, since this is the dominant vegetation type and because in-depth coverage of all wetland types is impossible here. Instead, the goal is to describe the environmental settings, plant and animal communities, key ecological controls, and some conservation concerns, with specific examples. Because this book deals with wetlands of North America, this chapter excludes coastal wetlands of South America. However, much of the information is applicable to mangrove, marsh, and seagrass communities of other tropicaI regions.

  13. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the North Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Spatterdock) e EIecicharis obtusa (Blunt Spikesedge) k Nyr?7phaea odorata (Waterlily) fTypha 3pp. (Cattails) Nf a* * Water levels within this wetland...include: Calamagros tie canadensis (Bluejoint reedgrass) Cyperus app. (Umbrella sedge) Eleocharis obtusa (Blunt spikesedge) Glhceria spp...Leatherleaf) Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar) Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green ash) Larix laricina (Tamarack) Osmunda spp. (Cinnamon fern

  14. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  15. Molecular systematics of eastern North American Phalangodidae (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores), demonstrating convergent morphological evolution in caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Marshal; Thomas, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    The phalangodid harvestmen (Opiliones: Laniatores) fauna of the southeastern United States has remained obscure since original descriptions of many genera and species over 60 years ago. The obscurity of this interesting group is pervasive, with uncertainty regarding basic systematic information such as generic limits, species limits, and geographic distributions. This situation is unfortunate, as the fauna includes several cave-obligate forms of interest from both conservation and evolutionary perspectives, and the group likely exhibits interesting biogeographic patterns because of their low dispersal ability. Here, we use DNA sequence data from two genes to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of southeastern phalangodid taxa, for a sample of all described genera from the region. Our results demonstrate that the southeastern fauna is likely monophyletic, and is most-closely related to western North American phalangodids with a similar penis morphology. Within the southeastern clade, trends in the evolution of penis morphology correspond broadly to molecular phylogenetic patterns, although penis evolution is overall relatively conservative in the group. Biogeographically, it appears that western taxa in the southeast (i.e., from west of the Appalachian Valley) are early diverging, with later diversification in the montane southern Blue Ridge, and subsequent diversification back towards the west. This W>E>W pattern has been observed in other groups from the southeast. The multiple cave-modified species in the region are genetically divergent and appear phylogenetically isolated; explicit topological hypothesis testing suggests that troglomorphism has evolved convergently in at least three independent lineages. The total number of species in the region remains uncertain-mitochondrial COI data reveal many highly divergent, geographically coherent groups that might represent undescribed species, but these divergent mitochondrial lineages do not always exhibit

  16. National Wetlands Inventory - Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the United States and its Territories. These data delineate...

  17. National Wetlands Inventory - Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the United States and its Territories. These data delineate...

  18. Hydrology of a natural hardwood forested wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Chescheir; Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents the hydrology of a natural forested wetland near Plymouth, NC, USA. The research site was located on one of the few remaining, undrained non-riverine, palustrine forested hardwood wetlands on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. A 137 ha watershed within the 350ha wetland was selected for intensive field study. Water balance components...

  19. [Threats to and conservation of North African wetlands: the case of the Ramsar site of Beni-Belaid (NE Algeria)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldjedri, Mohammed; de Bélair, Gérard; Mayache, Boualem; Muller, Serge D

    2011-10-01

    Because of their biogeographical and geomorphological context, the northeastern Algeria wetlands present high species and community richness. The vegetation study of the Ramsar site of Beni-Belaid (Kabylia) showed the existence of four main communities, distributed along gradients of hydrology and disturbance. The obtained results reveal worrying threats on short term: overgrazing results in the lake invasion by the sand eroded from the coastal dune; agriculture induces illegal cutting, water pollution and excessive groundwater pumping; finally, hunting and fishing are illegally practiced into the Ramsar site. The awareness of public authorities is needed in order: (1) to completely protect the wetland with the aim of restoring a riparian forest belt; and (2) to initiate a campaign for increasing the local population awareness, and its involvement in conservation programs. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological similarities between two Mediterranean wetlands: Sidi Boughaba (North-West Morocco and the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat Elkhiati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the underlying common processes within aquatic systems located in the same geographical region has long been used as a tool for the advancement of limnology. A limnological study of the Merja Sidi Boughaba in 2009 has shown that there are many common features between the physico-chemical and biological conditions of this site and previous data reported from some of the wetlands of the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain. Both are Ramsar sites located on extensive dune systems of the Atlantic coast with a Mediterranean climate. They have a common palaeoenvironmental history that is largely responsible for their similar hydrology and water composition. Oceanic influence has probably produced a slight disproportion of Mg2+ over Ca2+ through airborne sea salt deposition and the surface evaporation of groundwater feeding these wetlands during annual flood and drought cycles. The wide spectrum of environmental conditions encountered in the Doñana wetlands is epitomised by the Merja Sidi Boughaba, where water and sediment gradually change in the same water body from north to south: from humic-coloured waters and a sandy substrate to a calcium-rich substrate with turbid and silted waters which eventually dry out. As a consequence, the community of submersed macrophytes is very rich and dominated by dense charophyte beds. The high primary production coupled with high biodiversity found in the Merja Sidi Boughaba is also shared by the Doñana wetlands. The high conservation status of both sites enables a useful comparison to be made of the water quality of shallow aquatic systems at a regional scale which, contrary to the trophic classifications developed for deep stratified lakes in temperate regions, is not based on regressions between the concentrations of chlorophyll and total phosphorus (Tot-P but on the proportions of dissolved and particulate P pools. In these Mediterranean sites, nutrients are more efficiently recycled through the

  1. Geoelectrical Analyses of Sulfurous Wetland Sediments and Weathered Glacial Till in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Z. F.; Siegel, D. I.; Moucha, R.; Fiorentino, A. J., II; Mills, C. T.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Rosenberry, D. O.

    2015-12-01

    Millions of prairie wetlands occur in topographic depressions throughout the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America, an important ecoregion for amphibians and migratory birds. Climate is known to drive complex critical zone processes determining sulfur fate and transport in the PPR, but the specific mechanisms controlling the storage and release of salinity beneath the wetlands remain poorly understood. To help clarify this, we conducted a DC resistivity field survey of a closed-basin groundwater discharge wetland at the Cottonwood Lake Study Area, North Dakota; and collected wetland cores along one of the survey transects for laboratory analyses of resistivity, porewater/solid-phase geochemistry, and other physical properties. Inversions of our field survey delineate two primary geoelectrical layers beneath the wetland: the top ~8 m of wetland sediments and weathered glacial till (ρ25 = 4 - 5 Ω-m) overlying more resistive glacial till at depth (ρ25 = 7 - 12 Ω-m). Conductive lenses (ρ25 = 1 - 2 Ω-m) occur within the upper layer at 2 - 3 m depths in the center of the wetland and along a concentric band within the current ponded area, which corresponds to the location of the pond shoreline before extremely wet conditions in the 1990's expanded the wetland. The resistivities of wetland core segments (ρ25 = 2 - 7 Ω-m) match well with the upper layer inferred from the field survey, and show an inverse trend of bulk core to porewater resistivity for clay-rich intervals due to variations in moisture content. Our results demonstrate that geospatial patterns of subsurface salinity relate to wetland hydrodynamics during dry-wet climate cycles and should be considered when using geoelectrical methods to upscale geochemical measurements in PPR wetlands.

  2. In Situ Wetland Restoration Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    differences between treatment and control plots in species richness or diversity. Plant Biological , Toxicological and Nutrient Metrics  No adverse...Prior to the late 1960s/early 1970s, almost all municipal and industrial wastewater generated by CCSA facilities were discharged to Canal Creek and...samples from multiple plots containing the same treatment . Soils were shipped directly to biological laboratories for the 28 day bioaccumulation

  3. Bismarck, North Dakota, office commercial solar demonstration design and construction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-05

    The demonstration consisted of adding 5,000 square feet of flat, plate collector to an existing four story, 75,000 square feet office building. The existing mechanical system is an electric water to water heat pump system with 60,000 gallons of thermal storage. The retrofit design converted one 20,000 gallon tank for use as solar storage and added the 5,000 square feet of double glazed, selective surface, flat plate collector. The solar collector is mounted as a ground mounted array which is stepped down a hillside. The array is expected to provide 1,944 x 10/sup 6/ BTU of useable energy annually. That energy is equivalent to 34% of the building heating energy. Construction progressed smoothly, however, time delays occurred as a result of slow shipment of the solar collectors and an extremely severe winter at the construction site. Construction was not completed until late spring of 1978; therefore will not be made fully operational until winter 1978. No operational data has yet been collected. The panels have been stagnating since installation and no deterioration of the cupric oxide selective coating is apparent. One post construction problem has become apparent and is not yet repaired. That is a problem of bowing of some of the collector side panels. The bowing is apparently caused from a thermal expansion of the aluminum extrusion. A bracing member will be instaled to eliminate the problem.

  4. Interactions of carbon and water cycles in north temperate wetlands: Modeling and observing the impact of a declining water table trend on regional biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin N. Sulman; Ankur R. Desai; D.S. Mackay; S. Samanta; B.D. Cook; N. Saliendra

    2008-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon fluxes represent a major source of uncertainty in estimates of future atmospheric greenhouse gas accumulation and consequently models of climate change. In the Upper Great Lakes states (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan), wetlands cover 14% of the land area, and compose up to one third of the land cover in the forest-wetland landscapes that dominate...

  5. Bayesian maximum entropy integration of ozone observations and model predictions: an application for attainment demonstration in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Serre, Marc L

    2010-08-01

    States in the USA are required to demonstrate future compliance of criteria air pollutant standards by using both air quality monitors and model outputs. In the case of ozone, the demonstration tests aim at relying heavily on measured values, due to their perceived objectivity and enforceable quality. Weight given to numerical models is diminished by integrating them in the calculations only in a relative sense. For unmonitored locations, the EPA has suggested the use of a spatial interpolation technique to assign current values. We demonstrate that this approach may lead to erroneous assignments of nonattainment and may make it difficult for States to establish future compliance. We propose a method that combines different sources of information to map air pollution, using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) Framework. The approach gives precedence to measured values and integrates modeled data as a function of model performance. We demonstrate this approach in North Carolina, using the State's ozone monitoring network in combination with outputs from the Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP) modeling system. We show that the BME data integration approach, compared to a spatial interpolation of measured data, improves the accuracy and the precision of ozone estimations across the state.

  6. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 257.9 Section 257.9... Location Restrictions § 257.9 Wetlands. (a) Owners or operators of new units and lateral expansions shall not locate such units in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following demonstrations...

  7. Wetland Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Marilyn

    1994-01-01

    Examines what wetland conservation means to different groups of Louisiana's coastal residents. Describes coastal resources, reasons for their deterioration, conservation efforts, and the impact of a public perception that conservation of wetlands is closely tied to conservation of the existing lifestyle. (LZ)

  8. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  9. Freshwater Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  10. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  11. A Review of the Recent Scientific Literature on Irrigation Induced and Enhanced Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    heavily affected; for example, the California and Nevada wetlands in North America , the Macquarie Marshes in Australia, and the Aral Sea in central...more documentation exists concerning the importance of irrigated wetlands as habitat. About 72% of all reptiles , 77% of all amphibian species, 80...North America , South America , and Europe. Aquatic ecosystems, avian ecology, conservation, management, waterbirds, shorebirds, wetlands Erwin, R. M

  12. Restoring Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    Watching flocks of waterfowl taking off and landing in the large expanse of wetland near his home is a favorite pastime of Li Qiwen a middle-aged primary school teacher in Weichang Township,Luobei County in Heilongjiang Province.The wetland is home to hundreds of species of birds,including rare white storks and red-crowned cranes,as well as more common geese and ducks.

  13. What Makes a Wetland a Wetland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions of and activities about various kinds of wetlands. Contains seven learning activities ranging from creating wetland scenes with picture cutouts to actually exploring a wetland. Includes reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

  14. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands have been demonstrated effective in removing organic, metal, and nutrient elements including nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewaters, mine drainage, industrial effluents, and agricultural runoff. The technology is waste stream-specific, requiring...

  15. Virginia ESI: Wetlands (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the coastal wetlands for Virginia, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  16. Coastal Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area Cooperative Educational Services, New Haven, CT. Environmental Education Center.

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference materials, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Inland Wetlands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the materials. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but it can be adapted to other localities. The unit materials emphasize the structure,…

  17. Urban wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Salm, N.; Bellmann, C.; Hoeijmakers, S.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. This is a manual meant for designers who are interested in water purifications within the boundaries of a project, presenting constructed wetlands. It is a guide to quickly provide you with project relevant

  18. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  19. Analysis of wetland change in the Songhua River Basin from 1995 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L. H.; Jiang, W. G.; Luo, Z. L.; He, X. H.; Liu, Y. H.

    2014-03-01

    Wetlands in the Songhua River Basin in both 1995 and 2008 were mapped from land use/land cover maps generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. These maps were then divided into two categories, i.e. artificial wetland and natural wetland. From 1995 to 2008, the total area of wetland in the Songhua River Basin increased from 93 072.3 km2 to 99 179.6 km2 a net increase of 6107.3 km2. The area of natural wetland decreased by 4043.7 km2 while the area of artificial wetland increased by 10 166.2 km2. Swamp wetland and paddy field wetland became the dominant wetlands and the swamp wetland in the east of the Heilong River system and the north of the Wusuli River system disappeared, being transformed into paddy field wetland. The diversity of wetland landscape is worsening and the distribution of wetland landscape is becoming more unbalanced; the fragmentation of natural wetland has intensified whereas the patch connectivity of artificial wetland has increased. Changes in natural wetlands were primarily caused by climate and socio-economic changes, while changes in artificial wetland were mainly caused by the growth of population and gross domestic product.

  20. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  1. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  2. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    GHG emissions from subtropical wetlands while demonstrating the differences in these fluxes based on the surrounding ecosystem.

  3. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Mateos, David; Power, Mary E; Comín, Francisco A; Yockteng, Roxana

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages), and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils), remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha) and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical) climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal) hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.

  4. Kansas Playa Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  5. Ecological similarities between two Mediterranean wetlands : Sidi Boughaba (North-West Morocco) and Doñana National Park (South-West Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Najat Elkhiati; Mohamed Ramdani; Espinar, José L; Khalid Fahd; Laura Serrano

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the underlying common processes within aquatic systems located in the same geographical region has long been used as a tool for the advancement of limnology. A limnological study of the Merja Sidi Boughaba in 2009 has shown that there are many common features between the physico-chemical and biological conditions of this site and previous data reported from some of the wetlands of the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain). Both are Ramsar sites located on extensive dune systems o...

  6. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeun; Ryan, Maureen E; Hamlet, Alan F; Palen, Wendy J; Lawler, Joshua J; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916-2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of Oceanimonas sp. GK1 Isolated from Gavkhouni Wetland (Iran Demonstrates Presence of Genes for Virulence and Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Parsa Yeganeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The bacterium Oceanimonas sp. (O. sp. GK1 is a member of the Aeromonadaceae family and its genome represents several virulence genes involved in fish and human pathogenicity. In this original research study we aimed to identify and characterize the putative virulence factors and pathogenicity of this halotolerant marine bacterium using genome wide analysis. Materials and Methods: The genome data of O. sp. GK1 was obtained from NCBI. Comparative genomic study was done using MetaCyc database. Results: Whole genome data analysis of the O. sp. GK1 revealed that the bacterium possesses some important virulence genes (e.g. ZOT, RTX toxin, thermostable hemolysin, lateral flagella and type IV pili which have been implicated in adhesion and biofilm formation and infection in some other pathogenic bacteria. Conclusion: This is the first report of the putative pathogenicity of O. sp.GK1. The genome wide analysis of the bacterium demonstrates the presence of virulence genes causing infectious diseases in many warm- and cold-blooded animals.

  8. 76 FR 30186 - Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Birds and Wetlands Conservation Grant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Birds and Wetlands Conservation... administers grant programs associated with the North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA), Public Law... partnerships to carry out wetlands conservation projects in the United States, Canada, and Mexico for...

  9. Removing Sedimentation as a Technique for Restoring Palustrine Seasonal and Temporary Wetlands in the Northeast Drift Prairie of North Dakota – Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — EXECUTIVE SUMMARY On July 10, 2008, partners from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the North Dakota Natural Resources Trust, Delta Waterfowl Foundation, and the...

  10. An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Predator Fences, Waterfowl Nest Success and Nest Densities within a Fragmented Landscape in the Devils Lake Wetland Management District, northeastern North Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Abstract We evaluated the use of predator fences within 2 Waterfowl Production Areas (WPA) within the Devils Lake WMD, North Dakota, April 25 thru July 30, 2012....

  11. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered.

  12. Wetland Restoration in North American and Its Edification to Chinese Tai Lake Restoration%北美国家的湿地恢复及对中国太湖恢复的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 胡锋; 焦加国; 刘满强; 李辉信

    2011-01-01

    Wetland restoration, which means to restore the damaged wetland ecosystem to a former state, but a process for seeking improvement and perfection by combining nature with politics, economy and human beings. Taking a global view of the comprehension and practice in ecological restoration, a large discrepancy can be easily perceived between north American and China. This paper takes San Francisco Bay restoration and the Great Lakes restoration as examples, and thus five existing problems of China Tai Lake are well - illustrated, theoretical - technological system lag, unsystematic ecological restoration engineering, invest and financial methods simplification, nonadaptive restoring management system and weak publicity. The suggestions proposed in this paper will ulti- mately helps to strive for the effective route in our ecological restoration.%以美国旧金山海湾带和加拿大安大略省沼泽湿地生态恢复为例,探讨了其成功经验,并指出了我国太湖恢复建设主要存在五个方面问题:理论技术体系相对滞后;恢复工程实施系统性缺乏;投融资方式单一化;恢复管理体系不完善;公众参与力度薄弱。据此提出相关建议,力求探索完善我国太湖生态恢复的有效路径。

  13. Linking ecosystem processes to sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Smith, Loren M.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Browne, Bryant A.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of concern over problems associated with the future of managed wetlands in North America, nearly two dozen wetland scientists and managers met in February 2006 at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico and discussed a sustainable approach to wetland management. This approach links science with management by focusing on underlying wetland processes. From that meeting, several papers were developed and published in Wetlands to address these concerns (Euliss et al. 2008, Smith et al. 2008, Wilcox 2008). This article summarizes our first paper, Euliss et al. (2008), and a future Newsletter article will summarize Smith et al. (2008). Realization of the role that complex interactions play in maintaining ecosystems, coupled with increasing demands of humans for ecosystem services, has prompted much interest in ecosystem management. Not surprisingly, sustainability of ecosystems has become an explicitly stated goal of many natural resource agencies and, in some cases, has been legislatively mandated to ensure provision of resources for future generations. However, examples of sustainable ecosystem management are uncommon because management goals often focus on specific deliverables rather than processes that sustain ecosystems. This paper has three sections: (1) perspectives in which we provide a bit of history, (2), ecological consequences of a static view, and (3) suggestions to aid wetland managers link management goals with critical ecosystem processes responsible for provision of wetland services.

  14. Ohio Uses Wetlands Program Development Grants to Protect Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wetland water quality standards require the use of ORAM score to determine wetland quality. OEPA has also used these tools to evaluate wetland mitigation projects, develop performance standards for wetland mitigation banks and In Lieu Fee programs an.

  15. Examining water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in a southern ontario watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanhong; Liu, Yongbo; Ou, Chunping; Gabor, Shane

    2016-06-01

    Wetland conservation has two important tasks: The first is to halt wetland loss and the second is to conduct wetland restoration. In order to facilitate these tasks, it is important to understand the environmental degradation from wetland loss and the environmental benefits from wetland restoration. The purpose of the study is to develop SWAT based wetland modelling to examine water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in the 323-km(2) Black River watershed in southern Ontario, Canada. The SWAT based wetland modelling was set up, calibrated and validated to fit into watershed conditions. The modelling was then applied to evaluate various scenarios of wetland loss from existing 7590 ha of riparian wetlands (baseline scenario) to 100% loss, and wetland restoration up to the year 1800 condition with 11,237 ha of riparian wetlands (100% restoration). The modelling was further applied to examine 100% riparian wetland loss and restoration in three subareas of the watershed to understand spatial pattern of water quality effects. Modelling results show that in comparing to baseline condition, the sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) loadings increase by 251.0%, 260.5%, and 890.9% respectively for 100% riparian wetland loss, and decrease by 34.5%, 28.3%, and 37.0% respectively for 100% riparian wetland restoration. Modelling results also show that as riparian wetland loss increases, the corresponding environmental degradation worsens at accelerated rates. In contrast, as riparian wetland restoration increases, the environmental benefits improve but at decelerated rates. Particularly, the water quality effects of riparian wetland loss or restoration show considerable spatial variations. The watershed wetland modelling contributes to inform decisions on riparian wetland conservation or restoration at different rates. The results further demonstrate the importance of targeting priority areas for stopping riparian wetland loss

  16. 恢复·重生·延续——成都北湖湿地公园景观修复与再生%Recovery · Regeneration · Continuation——Chengdu North Lake Wetland Park landscape restoration and regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐毅

    2013-01-01

    Wetland park is a kind of both species and habitat protection,ecological tourism and ecological environment education function of wetland landscape area,similar to the small protected areas,but it differs from the reserve and general park.Construction of wetland park is to promote the regional social and economic sustainable development of the "catalyst",is also the wetland conservation and protection theory practice.This combination of Chengdu north lake wetland park landscape restoration and regeneration of the case,discuss how to make use of existing or degraded wetland resources,according to the law of ecology to the planning,construction and reconstruction,to restore its ecological system.Highlight the theme,natural and ecological characteristics of the three,the North Lake Wetland Park to build a set of ecological conservation,ecological tourism,science education,scientific research and other functions as one of the wetland ecological theme park.%湿地公园是一类兼有物种及栖息地保护、生态旅游和生态环境教育功能的湿地景观区域,类似于小型保护区,但又不同于自然保护区和一般意义的公园.湿地公园的建设是推动区域社会经济可持续发展的“催化剂”,也是湿地保护和保育理论的实践成果[1].本文结合成都北湖湿地公园景观修复与再生的案例,深入探讨了如何利用现有或已退化的湿地资源,按照生态学的规律来规划、改造和建设,恢复其生态系统,突出其主题性、自然性和生态性三大特点,将北湖湿地公园建成集生态保育、生态旅游、科普教育、湿地科研等多种功能为一体的生态型主题公园.

  17. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  18. Contribution to the freshwater gastrotrich fauna of wetland areas of southwestern Ontario (Canada) with redescriptions of seven species and a check-list for North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, Peter; Kånneby, Tobias

    2014-06-05

    This study gives additional, detailed information on the freshwater gastrotrich species described and reported from the southwestern regions of Ontario and New Brunswick, Canada by Schwank (1990). Aspidiophorus ontarioniensis, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) furculatus, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) ontariensis, Chaetonotus (Primochaetus) annae, Ichthydium malleum, Lepidodermella forficulata and Setopus lemnicola are all redescribed. In addition, a complete list of freshwater species currently known from North America is given.

  19. Development and validation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES and its validation against present day wetland observations. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent observations. Instead, wetland affected river discharge data are used to optimize global parameters of the model. The DWES is not a complete hydrological model by itself but implemented into the Max Planck Institute – Hydrology Model (MPI-HM. However, it can be transferred into other models as well.

    For present climate, the model validation reveals a good agreement between the occurrence of simulated and observed wetlands on the global scale. The best result is achieved for the northern hemisphere where not only the wetland distribution pattern but also their extent is simulated reasonably well by the DWES. However, the wetland fraction in the tropical parts of South America and Central Africa is strongly overestimated. The simulated extent dynamics correlate well with monthly inundation variations obtained from satellite for most locations. Also, the simulated river discharge is affected by wetlands resulting in a delay and mitigation of peak flows. Compared to simulations without wetlands, we find locally increased evaporation and decreased river flow into the oceans due to the implemented wetland processes.

    In summary, the validation analysis demonstrates the DWES' ability to simulate the global distribution of wetlands and their seasonal variations. Thus, the dynamical wetland extent scheme can provide hydrological boundary conditions for wetland related studies. In future applications, the DWES should be implemented into an earth system model

  20. Summary of operations and performance of the Utica aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands restoration project in December 2009-November 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-11

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the sixth year of system operation, from December 1, 2009, until November 30, 2010. In the project at Utica, the CCC/USDA is cooperating with multiple state and federal agencies to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town and to provide supplemental treated groundwater for use in the restoration of a nearby wetlands area. Argonne National Laboratory has assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the aquifer restoration effort and facilities during this review period. This document presents overviews of the aquifer restoration facilities (Section 2) and system operations (Section 3), then describes groundwater production results (Section 4), groundwater treatment results (Section 5), and associated groundwater monitoring, system modifications, and costs during the review period (Section 6). Section 7 summarizes the present year of operation. Performance prior to December 1, 2009, has been reviewed previously (Argonne 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009a, 2010).

  1. Five-year summary and evaluation of operations and performance of the Utica aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands restoration project in 2004-2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-09-13

    This document reviews the performance of the groundwater (and wetlands) restoration program implemented by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the first five years (2004-2009) of this initiative. The report summarizes treatment system operational data and regulatory compliance monitoring results for the site during this period, together with the results of the targeted groundwater sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) conducted in early 2010 (following completion of the fifth year of systems operation), to assess the initial five years of progress of the Utica remediation effort. On the basis of the 2003 groundwater sampling results, a remedial system employing 4 extraction wells (GWEX1-GWEX4), with groundwater treatment by spray irrigation and conventional air stripping, was implemented with the concurrence of the CCC/USDA and the agencies (Table 1.1). The principal components of the system are shown in Figure 1.3 and are briefly described in Section 1.2. Operation of well GWEX4 and the associated air stripper began on October 29, 2004, and routine operation of wells GWEX1-GWEX3 and the spray irrigation treatment units began on November 22, 2004.

  2. Plant biodiversity changes in Carboniferous tropical wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, C. J.; Uhl, D.; Cascales-Miñana, B.

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of species richness, polycohort and constrained cluster analyses, the plant biodiversity of Pennsylvanian (late Carboniferous) tropical wetlands (“coal swamps”) has been investigated in five areas in Western Europe and eastern North America: South Wales, Pennines, Ruhr, Saarland...

  3. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  4. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  5. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  6. Why are wetlands important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  7. Artesian Wetlands Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Artesian Wetlands Survey includes data on the wetlands in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. Data recorded includes location, area of influence, area inundated,...

  8. Wetland Program Pilot Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  9. Improving wetland mapping techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mapping wetland extent, structure and invasives using radar imagery. Acquiring optical, thermal, LIDAR, and RADAR images and analysis for improved wetland mapping,...

  10. Modoc wetlands study plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Study plan for Modoc Wetlands Study: An assessment of the probable responses of selected wildlife to wetlands management on the Modoc National Forest.

  11. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health intera...

  12. Redeeming the Weeping Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Renowned as the"Kidneys of the Earth,"wetlands are one of the three major ecosystems of the planet,along with forests and seas.With 10 percent of the world’s wetlands,China ranks number one in terms of the area of wetlands in Asia,and fourth in the world.China’s wetlands are abundant in type(containing all-natural and man-made types listed in the Convention

  13. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matthew J; Creed, Irena F; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B; Calhoun, Aram J K; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E; Jawitz, James W; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L Katherine; Lane, Charles R; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L; Mushet, David M; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C

    2016-02-23

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  14. Development and evaluation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stacke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES and evaluate its skill to represent the global wetland distribution. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent observations. Instead, wetland affected river discharge data are used to optimise global parameters of the model. The DWES is not a complete hydrological model by itself but implemented into the Max Planck Institute – Hydrology Model (MPI-HM. However, it can be transferred into other models as well.

    For present climate, the model evaluation reveals a good agreement for the spatial distribution of simulated wetlands compared to different observations on the global scale. The best results are achieved for the Northern Hemisphere where not only the wetland distribution pattern but also their extent is simulated reasonably well by the DWES. However, the wetland fraction in the tropical parts of South America and Central Africa is strongly overestimated. The simulated extent dynamics correlate well with monthly inundation variations obtained from satellites for most locations. Also, the simulated river discharge is affected by wetlands resulting in a delay and mitigation of peak flows. Compared to simulations without wetlands, we find locally increased evaporation and decreased river flow into the oceans due to the implemented wetland processes.

    In summary, the evaluation demonstrates the DWES' ability to simulate the distribution of wetlands and their seasonal variations for most regions. Thus, the DWES can provide hydrological boundary conditions for wetland related studies. In future applications, the DWES may be implemented into an Earth

  15. Wetlands in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Wetlands are shallow marine waters and wet areas in cluding rivers, lakes and marshes. According to scientists, even reservoirs and paddy fields fall into the category. Wetlands are classified into over 40 types but accounts for only 6% of the earth's total land area. Human beings inhabit by water and grass because wetlands provide us with water and wet soil.

  16. GlobWetland Africa: Implementing Sustainable Earth Observation Based Wetland Monitoring Capacity in Africa and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tottrup, Christian; Riffler, Michael; Wang, Tiejun

    to as the GW-A Toolbox, will be developed, implemented and validated for a series of geo-information products over a number of representative pilot sites in North, West, Central and East Africa. The GW-A toolbox unifies proven and stable open source software into a single graphical user interface......Lack of data, appropriate information and challenges in human and institutional capacity put a serious constraint on effective monitoring and management of wetlands in Africa. Conventional data are often lacking in time or space, of poor quality or available at locations that are not necessarily...... actors involved in the implementation of the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands in Africa with EO methods and tools to better assess the conditions of wetlands under their areas of jurisdiction/study, and to better monitor their trends over time. To this end, an open source wetland observing system, referred...

  17. Distribution, source identification, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in wetland soils of a river-reservoir system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoliang; Xiong, Ziqian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    The majority of rivers in the world have been dammed, and over 45,000 large reservoirs have been constructed for multiple purposes. Riparian and reservoir shorelines are the two most important wetland types in a dammed river. To date, few studies have concerned the heavy metal pollution in wetland soils of these river-reservoir systems. In this study, we measured the concentrations of ten heavy metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) in surface soils collected from riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in different seasons. Our results found that the Co, Cu, and Ni concentrations in riparian wetlands were significantly lower than those in reservoir shorelines. In riparian wetlands, only soil Sr concentration significantly increased after summer and autumn submergence. Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that Ba and Cd might originate from industrial and mining sources, whereas Sr and Mn predominantly originated from natural rock weathering. The ecological risk assessment analysis indicated that both riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in China exhibited a moderate ecological risk in soil heavy metals. The upper Han River basin is the water resource area of China's Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Therefore, to control the contamination of heavy metals in wetland soils, more efforts should be focused on reducing the discharge of mining and industrial pollutants into the riparian and reservoir shorelines.

  18. Exploring Policy Options to Stop the Loss of Wetlands on Prairie Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serran, J.; Creed, I. F.

    2013-12-01

    Wetlands from the prairie pothole region of North America have been disappearing at rapid rates over the past century. Within Canada, the issue of wetland loss is compounded by the lack of high resolution wetland inventories, the lack of information on rates of wetland loss, and the absence of wetland policies to further protect against loss. In Alberta, the situation is particularly problematic as increasing development pressures continue to place wetlands at risk. The 'no net loss' of wetlands policy established in 1993 has been ineffective, as wetland loss has continued, leaving Albertans searching for alternative policy options. An alternative policy option is to shift focus from wetland area to wetland function. We present a wetland function assessment system founded on ecological and hydrological processes for estimating wetland functions, including biodiversity, flood control, and pollution reduction, for a regional watershed in Alberta. First, we establish wetland loss rates using inventory time series from 1960 to present; wetland loss estimates can be derived from a break in slope in the area-frequency relationship. Second, we create a high-resolution wetland inventory using a novel approach that fuses LiDAR data (probability of wetland) with aerial photographs (to distinguish open water and the surrounding wet meadow zone). Third, using this wetland inventory, we identify indicators of wetland function using GIS and remote sensing data and technologies for application at regional watershed scales. Biodiversity indicators include a wetland's condition, ability to provide habitat, and potential for high ecological diversity. Flood control indicators include a wetland's ability to store water, connect to surface drainage network, and desynchronize flood waves throughout the landscape. Pollution control indicators include a wetland's contributing source area of nutrients, mechanisms that transport nutrients to the wetland, and mechanisms that retain

  19. Occurrence and behavior of emerging contaminants in surface water and a restored wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Arias, Carlos A; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Salvadó, Victòria; Brix, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Pollution mitigation is an important target for restored wetlands, and although there is much information in relation to nutrient removal, little attention has been paid to emerging contaminants. This paper reports on the occurrence and attenuation capacity of 17 emerging contaminants in a restored wetland and two rivers in North-East Denmark. The compounds belong to the groups of pharmaceuticals, fragrances, antiseptics, fire retardants, pesticides, and plasticizers. Concentrations in surface waters ranged from 2 to 1476 ng L(-1). The compounds with the highest concentrations were diclofenac, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), caffeine, and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). The herbicide concentrations increased after a rain-fall event, demonstrating the agricultural run-off origin of these compounds, whereas the concentration of the other emerging contaminants was rather conservative. The mitigation capacity of the restored wetland for the compounds ranged from no attenuation to 84% attenuation (19% on average). Hence, restored wetlands may be considered as a feasible alternative for mitigating emerging contaminants from river waters.

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics of prairie wetland networks: power-law scaling and implications for conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher K

    2010-07-01

    Although habitat networks show promise for conservation planning at regional scales, their spatiotemporal dynamics have not been well studied, especially in climate-sensitive landscapes. Here I use satellite remote sensing to compile wetland habitat networks from the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America. An ensemble of networks assembled across a hydrologic gradient from deluge to drought and a range of representative dispersal distances exhibits power-law scaling of important topological parameters. Prairie wetland networks are "meso-worlds" with mean topological distance increasing faster with network size than small-world networks, but slower than a regular lattice (or "large world"). This scaling implies rapid dispersal through wetland networks without some of the risks associated with "small worlds" (e.g., extremely rapid propagation of disease or disturbance). Retrospective analysis of wetland networks establishes a climatic envelope for landscape connectivity in the PPR, where I show that a changing climate might severely impact metapopulation viability and restrict long-distance dispersal and range shifts. More generally, this study demonstrates an efficient approach to conservation planning at a level of abstraction addressing key drivers of the global biodiversity crisis: habitat fragmentation and climatic change.

  1. A Hybrid Wetland Map for China: A Synergistic Approach Using Census and Spatially Explicit Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kun; You, Liangzhi; Liu, Junguo; Zhang, Mingxiang

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands play important ecological, economic, and cultural roles in societies around the world. However, wetland degradation has become a serious ecological issue, raising the global sustainability concern. An accurate wetland map is essential for wetland management. Here we used a fuzzy method to create a hybrid wetland map for China through the combination of five existing wetlands datasets, including four spatially explicit wetland distribution data and one wetland census. Our results show the total wetland area is 384,864 km2, 4.08% of China’s national surface area. The hybrid wetland map also shows spatial distribution of wetlands with a spatial resolution of 1 km. The reliability of the map is demonstrated by comparing it with spatially explicit datasets on lakes and reservoirs. The hybrid wetland map is by far the first wetland mapping that is consistent with the statistical data at the national and provincial levels in China. It provides a benchmark map for research on wetland protection and management. The method presented here is applicable for not only wetland mapping but also for other thematic mapping in China and beyond. PMID:23110105

  2. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of wetland…

  3. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  4. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  5. THE SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS IN WATERS OF RIVERS IN THE WETLAND AREAS OF NAREW NATIONAL PARK IN NORTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the attempt to identify and to evaluate the interaction intensity, and to classify the sources of river waters nutrients in the catchment of upper river Narew within Narew National Park (north-eastern Poland. The studies were carried out on Narew river within borders of Narew National Park, where 5 measurement-control points were localized as well as one near estuaries of its 5 tributaries (Awissa, Czaplinianka, Horodnianka, Turośnianka and Supraśl. Factor analysis (FA from multi-dimensional group was applied for statistical processing of study results, because it is commonly used to describe and explore a large number of data. concentrations of analyzed chemicals depended on a water sampling point that was under anthropopression and geogenic conditions. Studies and results from analyses (FA and CA allowed for identifying the main sources of river Narew nutrients within Narew National Park. These are: tributaries of river Narew, point and distributed runoffs, as well as shallow ground waters that transport components having anthropogenic and partially geogenic-lithologic origin. River Turośnianka supplies the largest loads of studied parameters to river Narew within Narew National Park boundaries. River Supraśl is the most contaminated tributary of river Narew.

  6. Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mulas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisia with the coordination of the Nucleo Ricerca sulla Desertificazione (NRD, Desertification Research Center of the University of Sassari (Italy and the partnership of Morocco and Tunisia Agriculture Ministries. The areas concerned are located in regions characterised by rural poverty, food dependency and land abandoning where urgent measures are needed to promote optimisation of resource availability and management for a sustainable development. The project involves direct desertification mitigation by vegetation cover restoration, with drought resistant perennial forage species (Opuntia ficus-indica, Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna in highly degraded rangelands in order to mitigate desertification processes while improving rangelands productivity; and adopts measures for local population technical capacities building through training sessions related to all project activities, and making it a concrete demonstration supported by the direct involvement of local communities. Successful actions already carried out in this field by the participants of the project as well as by other Mediterranean countries, has been taken into account, re-elaborated and exploited, thus promoting south/south co-operation and exchange of knowledge. Participation of all actors and especially of local communities is the key point in all phases of the project and is strengthened by means of dissemination and sensitisation campaigns and by training courses. At the end of the

  7. Colorado wetlands initiative : 1997-2000 : Protecting Colorado's wetlands resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Wetlands Initiative is an endeavor to protect wetlands and wetland-dependent wildlife through the use of voluntary, incentive-based mechanisms. It is a...

  8. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework - Map Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework represents the extent, type, and approximate location of wetlands, riparian areas, and deepwater habitats in Montana....

  9. Scoping Agriculture, Wetland Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is identified as the main cause of wetland degradation and loss. Using a drivers, pressures, state changes, impacts and responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze 90 cases drawn from all parts of the world and all wetland types, this report assesses the character of agriculture - wetlands interactions (AWIs) and their impacts in socio-economic and ecosystem services terms. The report is a technical framework that is used to scope out the relevance and nature of AWIs, identify response...

  10. Observation of Wetland Dynamics with Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffada, C.; Shah, R.; Nghiem, S. V.; Cardellach, E.; Chew, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland dynamics is crucial to changes in both atmospheric methane and terrestrial water storage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) highlights the role of wetlands as a key driver of methane (CH4) emission, which is more than one order of magnitude stronger than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the centennial time scale. Among the multitude of methane emission sources (hydrates, livestock, rice cultivation, freshwaters, landfills and waste, fossil fuels, biomass burning, termites, geological sources, and soil oxidation), wetlands constitute the largest contributor with the widest uncertainty range of 177-284 Tg(CH4) yr-1 according to the IPCC estimate. Wetlands are highly susceptible to climate change that might lead to wetland collapse. Such wetland destruction would decrease the terrestrial water storage capacity and thus contribute to sea level rise, consequently exacerbating coastal flooding problems. For both methane change and water storage change, wetland dynamics is a crucial factor with the largest uncertainty. Nevertheless, a complete and consistent map of global wetlands still needs to be obtained as the Ramsar Convention calls for a wetlands inventory and impact assessment. We develop a new method for observations of wetland change using Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflectometry (GNSS-R) signatures for global wetland mapping in synergy with the existing capability, not only as a static inventory but also as a temporal dataset, to advance the capability for monitoring the dynamics of wetland extent relevant to addressing the science issues of CH4 emission change and terrestrial water storage change. We will demonstrate the capability of the new GNSS-R method over a rice field in the Ebro Delta wetland in Spain.

  11. Landscape hydrology. The hydrological legacy of deforestation on global wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C; Shulmeister, J; Larsen, J; Jacobsen, G E; Zawadzki, A

    2014-11-14

    Increased catchment erosion and nutrient loading are commonly recognized impacts of deforestation on global wetlands. In contrast, an increase in water availability in deforested catchments is well known in modern studies but is rarely considered when evaluating past human impacts. We used a Budyko water balance approach, a meta-analysis of global wetland response to deforestation, and paleoecological studies from Australasia to explore this issue. After complete deforestation, we demonstrated that water available to wetlands increases by up to 15% of annual precipitation. This can convert ephemeral swamps to permanent lakes or even create new wetlands. This effect is globally significant, with 9 to 12% of wetlands affected, including 20 to 40% of Ramsar wetlands, but is widely unrecognized because human impact studies rarely test for it. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. A regional classification of the effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrogen transport to surface waters in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; Sekellick, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen from nonpoint sources contributes to eutrophication, hypoxia, and related ecological degradation in Atlantic Coastal Plain streams and adjacent coastal estuaries such as Chesapeake Bay and Pamlico Sound. Although denitrification in depressional (non-riparian) wetlands common to the Coastal Plain can be a significant landscape sink for nitrogen, the effectiveness of individual wetlands at removing nitrogen varies substantially due to varying hydrogeologic, geochemical, and other landscape conditions, which are often poorly or inconsistently mapped over large areas. A geographic model describing the spatial variability in the likely effectiveness of depressional wetlands in watershed uplands at mitigating nitrogen transport from nonpoint sources to surface waters was constructed for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP), from North Carolina through New Jersey. Geographic and statistical techniques were used to develop the model. Available medium-resolution (1:100,000-scale) stream hydrography was used to define 33,799 individual watershed catchments in the study area. Sixteen landscape metrics relevant to the occurrence of depressional wetlands and their effectiveness as nitrogen sinks were defined for each catchment, based primarily on available topographic and soils data. Cluster analysis was used to aggregate the 33,799 catchments into eight wetland landscape regions (WLRs) based on the value of three principal components computed for the 16 original landscape metrics. Significant differences in topography, soil, and land cover among the eight WLRs demonstrate the effectiveness of the clustering technique. Results were used to interpret the relative likelihood of depressional wetlands in each WLR and their likely effectiveness at mitigating nitrogen transport from upland source areas to surface waters. The potential effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrogen transport varies substantially over different parts of the NACP

  13. Abundant carbon substrates drive extremely high sulfate reduction rates and methane fluxes in Prairie Pothole Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcin Martins, Paula; Hoyt, David W; Bansal, Sheel; Mills, Christopher T; Tfaily, Malak; Tangen, Brian A; Finocchiaro, Raymond G; Johnston, Michael D; McAdams, Brandon C; Solensky, Matthew J; Smith, Garrett J; Chin, Yu-Ping; Wilkins, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Inland waters are increasingly recognized as critical sites of methane emissions to the atmosphere, but the biogeochemical reactions driving such fluxes are less well understood. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is one of the largest wetland complexes in the world, containing millions of small, shallow wetlands. The sediment pore waters of PPR wetlands contain some of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and sulfur species ever recorded in terrestrial aquatic environments. Using a suite of geochemical and microbiological analyses, we measured the impact of sedimentary carbon and sulfur transformations in these wetlands on methane fluxes to the atmosphere. This research represents the first study of coupled geochemistry and microbiology within the PPR and demonstrates how the conversion of abundant labile DOC pools into methane results in some of the highest fluxes of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere ever reported. Abundant DOC and sulfate additionally supported some of the highest sulfate reduction rates ever measured in terrestrial aquatic environments, which we infer to account for a large fraction of carbon mineralization in this system. Methane accumulations in zones of active sulfate reduction may be due to either the transport of free methane gas from deeper locations or the co-occurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. If both respiratory processes are concurrent, any competitive inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate-reducing bacteria may be lessened by the presence of large labile DOC pools that yield noncompetitive substrates such as methanol. Our results reveal some of the underlying mechanisms that make PPR wetlands biogeochemical hotspots, which ultimately leads to their critical, but poorly recognized role in regional greenhouse gas emissions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Abundant carbon substrates drive extremely high sulfate reduction rates and methane fluxes in Prairie Pothole Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Paula; Hoyt, David W.; Bansal, Sheel; Mills, Christopher; Tfaily, Malak; Tangen, Brian; Finocchiaro, Raymond; Johnston, Michael D.; McAdams, Brandon C.; Solensky, Matthew J.; Smith, Garrett J.; Chin, Yu-Ping; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Inland waters are increasingly recognized as critical sites of methane emissions to the atmosphere, but the biogeochemical reactions driving such fluxes are less well understood. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is one of the largest wetland complexes in the world, containing millions of small, shallow wetlands. The sediment pore waters of PPR wetlands contain some of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and sulfur species ever recorded in terrestrial aquatic environments. Using a suite of geochemical and microbiological analyses, we measured the impact of sedimentary carbon and sulfur transformations in these wetlands on methane fluxes to the atmosphere. This research represents the first study of coupled geochemistry and microbiology within the PPR and demonstrates how the conversion of abundant labile DOC pools into methane results in some of the highest fluxes of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere ever reported. Abundant DOC and sulfate additionally supported some of the highest sulfate reduction rates ever measured in terrestrial aquatic environments, which we infer to account for a large fraction of carbon mineralization in this system. Methane accumulations in zones of active sulfate reduction may be due to either the transport of free methane gas from deeper locations or the co-occurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. If both respiratory processes are concurrent, any competitive inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate-reducing bacteria may be lessened by the presence of large labile DOC pools that yield noncompetitive substrates such as methanol. Our results reveal some of the underlying mechanisms that make PPR wetlands biogeochemical hotspots, which ultimately leads to their critical, but poorly recognized role in regional greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Vegetation community composition in wetlands created following oil sand mining in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming wetlands following open pit mining for industrial oil sand extraction is challenging due to the physical and chemical conditions of the post-mined landscape. The aim of our study was to examine and compare the influence of oil sands process water (OSPW) and material (fine fluid tails or FFT) on the plant community composition of created wetlands. Compared to created-unamended and natural wetlands, the created wetlands amended with OSPW and/or FFT (created-tailings wetlands) had significantly higher water salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration and lower oxidative-reductive potential. Water chemistry parameters of created-unamended did not differ significantly from those of natural wetlands. The sediment of created wetlands had significantly less moisture, total nitrogen, and organic content than the natural wetlands. The application of OSPW/FFT in created wetlands will likely lead to initial vegetation composition atypical of natural regional wetlands. For the objective of reclaiming vegetation composition to the status of natural regional wetlands, unamended wetlands were the best reclamation option, based on the physical and chemical parameters measured. Despite being the favored reclamation option, created-unamended wetlands' physical and chemical characteristics remain atypical of natural wetlands. Most significantly, the basin morphometry of created wetlands was significantly different from that of naturally-formed wetlands in the region, and this appears to partly explain difference in vegetation composition. We also demonstrate that species richness alone is not a useful measure in wetland monitoring. Instead, plant community composition is a better indicator of wetland conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing Man’s Impact on Wetlands,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Evaluation System is applied in abbreviated case studies to construction in the Yazoo Basin in Mississippi and the Neuse River Estuaries of North... WETLANS Wetland is a collective term encompassing ... areas such as swamps, marshes, and bogs. It shares their hydrologic, vege- tative, and soil...advertisements for new developments along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, the end of construction was not in sight as more and more Americans were seeking second

  17. Interactions Between Wetlands and Tidal Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Madre, TX), (3) fjord-type (e.g., Penobscot Bay , ME), and (4) tectonically created estuaries (e.g., San Francisco Bay , CA) (Pritchard 1967). This CHETN...small marsh island in San Francisco Bay , CA. Wolaver et al. (1988) measured suspended sediment flux of 827 g/m2/year into a marsh in North Inlet, SC...permanent or ephemeral inlets. Conversely, the development or construction of wetlands within an estuary reduces bay area and the tidal prism, which will

  18. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  19. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  20. Butterfly Surveys in North Dakota : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main goal of this study was to conduct inventories of butterflies and skippers on a number of prairie and wetland sites in North Dakota and determine the...

  1. Wetlands: Earth's Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are unique, diverse, and productive habitats that emerge at the fringe of aquatic and upland land systems. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as "areas that are regularly inundated by surface water or groundwater and characterized by a preva...

  2. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities, and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between terrestrial and—aquatic ecosystems, wetlands are buffers for

  3. Good Wetland Agricultural Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Zingstra, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Within the Guiding Agriculture Wetland Interaction (GAWI) project the Driver!Pressure!State! Impact!Response (DPSIR) approach has been adopted to describe and analyse agriculture!wetland interactions. The DPSIR approach provides a consistent framework to analyse the complex causal chain among

  4. Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland extent influence variability of surface water connectivity in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Alexander, Laurie C.; Todd, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Context. Quantifying variability in landscape-scale surface water connectivity can help improve our understanding of the multiple effects of wetlands on downstream waterways. Objectives. We examined how wetland merging and the coalescence of wetlands with streams varied both spatially (among ecoregions) and interannually (from drought to deluge) across parts of the Prairie Pothole Region. Methods. Wetland extent was derived over a time series (1990-2011) using Landsat imagery. Changes in landscape-scale connectivity, generated by the physical coalescence of wetlands with other surface water features, were quantified by fusing static wetland and stream datasets with Landsat-derived wetland extent maps, and related to multiple wetness indices. The usage of Landsat allows for decadal-scale analysis, but limits the types of surface water connections that can be detected. Results. Wetland extent correlated positively with the merging of wetlands and wetlands with streams. Wetness conditions, as defined by drought indices and runoff, were positively correlated with wetland extent, but less consistently correlated with measures of surface water connectivity. The degree of wetland-wetland merging was found to depend less on total wetland area or density, and more on climate conditions, as well as the threshold for how wetland/upland was defined. In contrast, the merging of wetlands with streams was positively correlated with stream density, and inversely related to wetland density. Conclusions. Characterizing the degree of surface water connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region in North America requires consideration of 1) climate-driven variation in wetness conditions and 2) within-region variation in wetland and stream spatial arrangements.

  5. Peat Formation on Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island), subtropical eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Patrick; Tibby, John; Barr, Cameron; Weerensena, Chagi; Gontz, Allen; Petherick, Lynda

    2016-04-01

    Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island) is the second largest sand island in the world and contains extensive peat dominated wetlands, comprising ~20% of the total area of the island. These wetland systems include large areas of estuarine swamps [mainly mangrove forest (~16% of the island's wetland area)], freshwater swamps [both herb (~58% of the island's wetland area) and tree dominated (~20% of the island's wetland area)] and numerous lake systems [both perched and window lakes (~2% of the island's wetland area)]. This presentation will examine peat formation processes at four wetland sites: a late Holocene prograding beach system (Flinders Beach); a 150,000 year lacustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 1), as well as a late Holocene lacustrine/palustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 2); and a late Quaternary lacustrine/palustrine system (Tortoise Lagoon), as well as discussing broader environmental characteristics of Minjerribah's nationally and internationally important wetland systems.

  6. Conversion or conservation? Understanding wetland change in northwest Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Amy E; Cumming, Graeme S

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands are more threatened than any other ecosystem type, with losses exceeding 50% of their original extent worldwide. Despite the small portion of the Earth's surface that they comprise, wetlands contribute significantly to global ecosystem services. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the location and rate of change in wetland amount in the Tempisque Basin of northwest Costa Rica is predictable from landscape setting. Our results demonstrate that a strong potential exists for developing predictive models of wetland conversion based on an understanding of wetland location and surrounding trends of land use. We found that topography was the single most important predictor of wetland conversion in this area, entraining other conversion processes, and that spatial patterns of wetland loss could consistently be predicted from landscape-level variables. Areas with highest probabilities of conversion were found in the most accessible, non-protected regions of the landscape. While Palo Verde National Park made a substantial contribution to wetland conservation, our results highlight the dependence of lower-lying protected areas on upland processes, adding a little-addressed dimension of complexity to the dialogue about protected area management. Conservation strategies aimed at reducing wetland loss in tropical habitats will benefit from careful analysis of the dominant land use system(s) at a relatively broad scale, and the subsequent development of management and policy responses that take into account dynamic opportunities and constraints in the landscape.

  7. Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  8. Re-recognition of the Dajiuhu Wetland in Shennongjia Mountains, Central China%Re-recognition of the Dajiuhu Wetland in Shennongjia Mountains,Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fei; DU Yun; XUE Huaiping; LING Feng; BAN Xuan

    2012-01-01

    The Dajiuhu wetland,a famous sub-alpine wetland located in the the Shennongjia Mountains,north-subtropical region of Central China,has suffered from adverse impacts of unsustainable human practices over the past 60 years.The Dajiuhu wetland reflects the development process that has been accompanied by human activities.Based on field survey data,high resolution remote sensing image and historical records,the present paper provided a review on exploitation and restoration of the wetland.The results showed that the Dajiuhu wetland degraded quickly from 1950 to 2005.During that time,bog shrinkage,lake disappearance,biodiversity decline,sphagnum reduction,and vegetation succession from wetland communities to terrestrial communities in the Dajiuhu wetland,which were the main manifestations of the wetland degradation.Human activities,such as agricultural reclamation and construction of drainage works,have been the main factors resulting in ecological degradation of the wetland since 1986.Poverty and the short-term economic benefits had been the driving forces for wetland drainage and reclamation over the past years.

  9. Estado del conocimiento de humedales del norte patagónico (Argentina: aspectos relevantes e importancia para la conservación de la biodiversidad regional State of the knowledge of north Patagonian wetlands (Argentina: major aspects and importance for regional biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA G PEROTTI

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las áreas de humedal ocupan casi el 5 % del territorio de la Patagonia argentina. En la zona extrandina y el desierto patagónico estos ecosistemas son esenciales para sostener numerosas especies de fauna y flora silvestre. Además, los humedales del norte patagónico permiten el desarrollo de comunidades acuáticas complejas y constituyen el hábitat crítico de grupos de organismos como los peces y los anfibios incluidos en listados de conservación prioritaria. Estos ecosistemas tienen un funcionamiento complejo que depende estrechamente de las fluctuaciones de las variables meteorológicas y son por lo tanto muy sensibles a los efectos del cambio climático. En la actualidad el uso de la tierra, la introducción de especies y la interacción de estos aspectos con el cambio climático constituyen las variables de mayor impacto sobre estos ambientes patagónicos. En este trabajo se presenta información geográfica, geomorfológica y climática de un número de humedales del norte de la Patagonia argentina. Por otra parte, se sintetiza información sobre la flora y la distribución de peces y anfibios con el propósito de enfatizar la importancia de estos ambientes en el mantenimiento de la biodiversidad regional. Por último, se señalan los procesos que actualmente afectan a estos sistemas poniendo en evidencia la necesidad de obtención de conocimientos básicos para el diseño de planes de manejo y conservación de sus comunidades biológicasAlmost 5 % of the lansdscape of Patagonia is occupied by wetlands. In the extra-andean region and the patagonian desert, wetlands are essential for sustaining biodiversity and wildlife. Besides, North patagonian wetlands present complex aquatic communities and provide habitat for threatened species of fishes and amphibians. These ecosystems have complex dynamics mostly driven by climatic fluctuations which make them vulnerable to the effect of climate change. Nowadays, the main impact on patagonian

  10. Tidal wetland conservation and restoration for flood mitigation in estuaries and deltas: examples and global potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Stijn; Smolders, Sven; Stark, Jeroen; meire, patrick

    2014-05-01

    Low-lying and densely populated deltas and estuaries are world widely exposed to flood risks caused by storm surges. On the one hand, global change is increasing these flood risks through accelerating sea level rise and increasing storm intensity, but on the other hand, local-scale human impacts on deltas and estuaries are in many cases even more increasing the vulnerability to floods. Here we address the degradation and reclamation of tidal wetlands (i.e. salt marshes in the temperate zone and mangroves in the tropical zone) as a major source for increasing vulnerability to flooding of estuaries and deltas. Firstly, we present examples of flood mitigation by tidal wetland conservation and restoration, and secondly we explore the potentials and limitations for global application of this approach of ecosystem-based flood defense (see Temmerman et al. 2013). First, we use the Scheldt estuary (SW Netherlands and Belgium) as an example where historic wetland reclamation has importantly contributed to increasing flood risks, and where tidal marsh restoration on the previously reclaimed land is nowadays brought into large-scale practice as an essential part of the flood defense system. Based on data and hydrodynamic modelling, we show that large-scale historic marsh reclamation has largely reduced the water storage capacity of the estuary and has reduced the friction to propagating flood waves, resulting in an important landward increase of tidal and storm surge levels. Hydrodynamic model scenarios demonstrate how tidal and storm surge propagation through the estuary are affected by tidal marsh properties, including the surface area, elevation, vegetation and position of marshes along the estuary. We show that nowadays tidal wetland creation on previously reclaimed land is applied as an essential part of the flood defense system along the Scheldt estuary. Secondly, a global analysis is presented of the potential application of tidal wetlands in flood mitigation in

  11. Amphipod densities and indices of wetland quality across the upper-Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional, behavioral, and diet data for lesser scaup (Aythya affinis [Eyton, 1838]) indicates that there has been a decrease in amphipod (Gammarus lacustris [G. O. Sars, 1863] and Hyalella azteca [Saussure, 1858]) density and wetland quality throughout the upper-Midwest, USA. Accordingly, we estimated densities of Gammarus and Hyalella in six eco-physiographic regions of Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota; 356 randomly selected semipermanent and permanent wetlands were sampled during springs 2004 and 2005. We also examined indices of wetland quality (e.g., turbidity, fish communities, aquatic vegetation) among regions in a random subset of these wetlands (n = 267). Gammarus and Hyalella were present in 19% and 54% of wetlands sampled, respectively. Gammarus and Hyalella densities in North Dakota were higher than those in Iowa and Minnesota. Although historical data are limited, our regional mean (1 to 12 m-3) amphipod densities (Gammarus + Hyalella) were markedly lower than any of the historical density estimates. Fish, important predators of amphipods, occurred in 31%-45% of wetlands in North Dakota, 84% of wetlands in the Red River Valley, and 74%-84% of wetlands in Iowa and Minnesota. Turbidity in wetlands of Minnesota Morainal (4.0 NTU geometric mean) and Red River Valley (6.1 NTU) regions appeared low relative to that of the rest of the upper-Midwest (13.2-17.5 NTU). We conclude that observed estimates of amphipods, fish, and turbidity are consistent with low wetland quality, which has resulted in lower food availability for various wildlife species, especially lesser scaup, which use these wetlands in the upper-Midwest. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  12. Development of a "Hydrologic Equivalent Wetland" Concept for Modeling Cumulative Effects of Wetlands on Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liu, T.; Li, R.; Yang, X.; Duan, L.; Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect, in combination rather than individually, hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), can be a best resort if wetlands can be appropriately represented in the models. However, the exact method that should be used to incorporate wetlands into hydrologic models is the subject of much disagreement in the literature. In addition, there is a serious lack of information about how to model wetland conservation-restoration effects using such kind of integrated modeling approach. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a "hydrologic equivalent wetland" (HEW) concept; and 2) demonstrate how to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba of Canada, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota of the United States. The HEWs were defined in terms of six calibrated parameters: the fraction of the subbasin area that drains into wetlands (WET_FR), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their normal water level (WET_NVOL), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their maximum water level (WET_MXVOL), the longest tributary channel length in the subbasin (CH_L1), Manning's n value for the tributary channels (CH_N1), and Manning's n value for the main channel (CH_N2). The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes

  13. Evaluation of the Impacts of Irrigation Ground-Water Withdrawl on a Prairie Wetland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To assess the effects of ground-water removal for irrigation on a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service easement wetland in Kidder County, North Dakota, researchers...

  14. SPATIAL AND DIEL AVAILABILITY OF FLYING INSECTS AS POTENTIAL DUCKLING FOOD IN PRAIRIE WETLANDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined spatial and diel availibility of flying insects that are a critical food resource to young duckings. Insects were sampled in three native prairie wetlands on the Woodworth Study Area of south-central North Dakota.

  15. Modeling the effects of tile drain placement on the hydrologic function of farmed prairie wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brett; Tracy, John; Johnson, W. Carter; Voldseth, Richard A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Millett, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The early 2000s saw large increases in agricultural tile drainage in the eastern Dakotas of North America. Agricultural practices that drain wetlands directly are sometimes limited by wetland protection programs. Little is known about the impacts of tile drainage beyond the delineated boundaries of wetlands in upland catchments that may be in agricultural production. A series of experiments were conducted using the well-published model WETLANDSCAPE that revealed the potential for wetlands to have significantly shortened surface water inundation periods and lower mean depths when tile is placed in certain locations beyond the wetland boundary. Under the soil conditions found in agricultural areas of South Dakota in North America, wetland hydroperiod was found to be more sensitive to the depth that drain tile is installed relative to the bottom of the wetland basin than to distance-based setbacks. Because tile drainage can change the hydrologic conditions of wetlands, even when deployed in upland catchments, tile drainage plans should be evaluated more closely for the potential impacts they might have on the ecological services that these wetlands currently provide. Future research should investigate further how drainage impacts are affected by climate variability and change.

  16. Wetlands Inventory Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Nevada wetlands inventory is a unit of a nationwide survey undertaken by the Fish and Wildlife Service to locate and tabulate by habitat types the important...

  17. WaterWetlands_NWI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and classification as...

  18. Classics of Artifical Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    By the construcfion of frraced fields over the past cenfuries,the Hani people created wetland in the ailao Mountains,an area where there originally was no such land ,which greatly improved the local ecosystem.

  19. An overview of wetlands of Saudi Arabia: Values, threats, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaid, Sami; Samraoui, Boudjéma; Thomas, Jacob; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Schneider, Wolfgang; O'Connell, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The wetlands of Saudi Arabia are located in a water-stressed region that is highly vulnerable to climate and other global changes. Sebkhas, mudflats, mangroves, and wadis are the dominant wetlands in the arid regions of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. These unique wetlands are recognized as a sanctuary for biodiversity and for their economic services generated from mineral extraction, agriculture, and grazing. Despite their ecological values and societal services, the long-term permanence of Saudi Arabia's wetlands faces strong challenges resulting from human activities associated with sustained population growth, habitat degradation, and coastal development. This paper consolidates a literature review of Saudi Arabia's wetlands from local to global importance, highlights their biodiversity, and identifies threats and evolution of these vulnerable ecosystems in the arid Arabian Peninsula by focusing on the status of key freshwater taxa (Odonata, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and waterbirds) and documenting changes affecting important wetlands.

  20. Mapping hydrologic connectivity of geographically isolated wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Ali; Creed, Irena

    2016-04-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are characterized as depressional landscape features completely surrounded by uplands. These small and typically circular landscape features represent a vast majority of wetlands in various landscapes in North America (98% of all wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region). Geographical isolation, however, does not imply the hydrological isolation. Although geospatial data (e.g., aerial photos) suggested that GIWs lack a persistent surface water connection, the groundwater connection between GIWs and navigable downstream waters can be substantial with large fluxes at the regional scales. The surface/subsurface connections among GIWs and between GIWs and navigable waters are difficult to map and quantify. This is intimately tied to the fact that an efficient incorporation of these small geometric features and characterization of the mechanisms behind these connectivities are challenging within grid-based simulators. We used a physically-based grid-free groundwater-surface water interaction and surface flow routing schemes to map and assess the watershed-scale GIWs connectivity within an extensively studied watershed at the Canadian prairie pothole region with high density of GIWs. The results showed that there is a persistent subsurface connectivity among GIWs and between GIWs and navigable waters. Surface connection was rare and only occurred during extreme events. The results of this paper have significant implications for developing scientifically grounded environmental policy for protection of GIWs within North American Prairie.

  1. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  2. A SIMPLIFIED WATER QUALITY MODEL FOR WETLANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan-Tai KUO; Jihn-Sung LAI; Wu-Seng LUNG; Chou-Ping YANG

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a simplified mathematical model to simulate suspended solids and total phosphorus concentrations in a wetland or detention pond.Field data collected from a wet detention pond during storms were used to demonstrate the application of this model.Favorable agreements between the model results and data were achieved.The ratio of average outlet method and summary of loads method were used to quantify the removal efficiency of pollutants,reflecting the efficiencies are very close.The results of this study can be used for nonpoint source pollution control,wastewater treatment or best management practices (BMPs) through the wetland.

  3. Constructed wetlands as biofuel production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wu, Xu; Chang, Jie; Gu, Baojing; Min, Yong; Ge, Ying; Shi, Yan; Xue, Hui; Peng, Changhui; Wu, Jianguo

    2012-03-01

    Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Progress has been made in reducing greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and nitrogen fertilizer consumption through biofuel production. Here we advocate an alternative approach that efficiently produces cellulosic biofuel and greatly reduces GHG emissions using waste nitrogen through wastewater treatment with constructed wetlands in China. Our combined experimental and literature data demonstrate that the net life-cycle energy output of constructed wetlands is higher than that of corn, soybean, switchgrass, low-input high-diversity grassland and algae systems. Energy output from existing constructed wetlands is ~237% of the input for biofuel production and can be enhanced through optimizing the nitrogen supply, hydrologic flow patterns and plant species selection. Assuming that all waste nitrogen in China could be used by constructed wetlands, biofuel production can account for 6.7% of national gasoline consumption. We also find that constructed wetlands have a greater GHG reduction than the existing biofuel production systems in a full life-cycle analysis. This alternative approach is worth pursuing because of its great potential for straightforward operation, its economic competitiveness and many ecological benefits.

  4. Patterns and drivers for wetland connections in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Christensen, Jay R.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem function in rivers, lakes and coastal waters depends on the functioning of upstream aquatic ecosystems, necessitating an improved understanding of watershed-scale interactions including variable surface-water flows between wetlands and streams. As surface water in the Prairie Pothole Region expands in wet years, surface-water connections occur between many depressional wetlands and streams. Minimal research has explored the spatial patterns and drivers for the abundance of these connections, despite their potential to inform resource management and regulatory programs including the U.S. Clean Water Act. In this study, wetlands were identified that did not intersect the stream network, but were shown with Landsat images (1990–2011) to become merged with the stream network as surface water expanded. Wetlands were found to spill into or consolidate with other wetlands within both small (2–10 wetlands) and large (>100 wetlands) wetland clusters, eventually intersecting a stream channel, most often via a riparian wetland. These surface-water connections occurred over a wide range of wetland distances from streams (averaging 90–1400 m in different ecoregions). Differences in the spatial abundance of wetlands that show a variable surface-water connection to a stream were best explained by smaller wetland-to-wetland distances, greater wetland abundance, and maximum surface-water extent. This analysis demonstrated that wetland arrangement and surface water expansion are important mechanisms for depressional wetlands to connect to streams and provides a first step to understanding the frequency and abundance of these surface-water connections across the Prairie Pothole Region.

  5. Archaeal rhizosphere communities differ between the native and invasive lines of the wetland plant phragmites australis (common reed) in a Chesapeake Bay subestuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phragmites australis, a common wetland plant species worldwide, is best known in North America as persistent invasive species. Only in recent decades was a native line, Phragmites australis subsp. americanus, confirmed in North American wetlands. This study investigated whether the two lines suppo...

  6. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  7. Is consolidation drainage an indirect mechanism for increased abundance of cattail in northern prairie wetlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Anteau, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, disturbances to wetlands that disrupt water-level fluctuations in response to wet–dry climatic conditions have the potential to alter natural vegetative communities in favor of species that proliferate in stable environments, such as cattail (Typha spp.). We evaluated the effect of water-level dynamics during a recent fluctuation in wet–dry conditions on cattail coverage within semipermanently and permanently ponded wetlands situated in watersheds with different land use and amounts of wetland drainage. We found that ponded water depth increase was significantly greater in wetlands where water levels were not near the spill point of the topographic basin, where banks were steeper, and in larger wetlands where past dry conditions had less influence on change in pond area. Proportion of the wetland covered by cattail was negatively correlated with increased water depth, bank slope and pond area. Our observations provide evidence that cattail coverage in prairie wetlands is regulated by water-level fluctuations and that land use surrounding the wetland might have an indirect effect on cattail coverage by altering water-level response to wet–dry climate conditions. For example, drainage of smaller wetlands into larger wetlands that are characterized by more permanent hydroperiods, leads to stabilized water levels near their spill point and is therefore a potential mechanism for increased cattail abundance in the northern prairie region.

  8. Seasonal Change in Wetland Coherence as an Aid to Wetland Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Brisco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Water is an essential natural resource, and information about surface water conditions can support a wide variety of applications, including urban planning, agronomy, hydrology, electrical power generation, disaster relief, ecology and preservation of natural areas. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is recognized as an important source of data for monitoring surface water, especially under inclement weather conditions, and is used operationally for flood mapping applications. The canopy penetration capability of the microwaves also allows for mapping of flooded vegetation as a result of enhanced backscatter from what is generally believed to be a double-bounce scattering mechanism between the water and emergent vegetation. Recent investigations have shown that, under certain conditions, the SAR response signal from flooded vegetation may remain coherent during repeat satellite over-passes, which can be exploited for interferometric SAR (InSAR measurements to estimate changes in water levels and water topography. InSAR results also suggest that coherence change detection (CCD might be applied to wetland monitoring applications. This study examines wetland vegetation characteristics that lead to coherence in RADARSAT-2 InSAR data of an area in eastern Canada with many small wetlands, and determines the annual variation in the coherence of these wetlands using multi-temporal radar data. The results for a three-year period demonstrate that most swamps and marshes maintain coherence throughout the ice-/snow-free time period for the 24-day repeat cycle of RADARSAT-2. However, open water areas without emergent aquatic vegetation generally do not have suitable coherence for CCD or InSAR water level estimation. We have found that wetlands with tree cover exhibit the highest coherence and the least variance; wetlands with herbaceous cover exhibit high coherence, but also high variability of coherence; and wetlands with shrub cover exhibit high coherence, but

  9. Microbial Community Structure and Denitrification in a Wetland Mitigation Bank▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Ariane L.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.; Kent, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Wetland mitigation is implemented to replace ecosystem functions provided by wetlands; however, restoration efforts frequently fail to establish equivalent levels of ecosystem services. Delivery of microbially mediated ecosystem functions, such as denitrification, is influenced by both the structure and activity of the microbial community. The objective of this study was to compare the relationship between soil and vegetation factors and microbial community structure and function in restored and reference wetlands within a mitigation bank. Microbial community composition was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting the 16S rRNA gene (total bacteria) and the nosZ gene (denitrifiers). Comparisons of microbial function were based on potential denitrification rates. Bacterial community structures differed significantly between restored and reference wetlands; denitrifier community assemblages were similar among reference sites but highly variable among restored sites throughout the mitigation bank. Potential denitrification was highest in the reference wetland sites. These data demonstrate that wetland restoration efforts in this mitigation bank have not successfully restored denitrification and that differences in potential denitrification rates may be due to distinct microbial assemblages observed in restored and reference (natural) wetlands. Further, we have identified gradients in soil moisture and soil fertility that were associated with differences in microbial community structure. Microbial function was influenced by bacterial community composition and soil fertility. Identifying soil factors that are primary ecological drivers of soil bacterial communities, especially denitrifying populations, can potentially aid the development of predictive models for restoration of biogeochemical transformations and enhance the success of wetland restoration efforts. PMID:20453124

  10. Wetland assessment, monitoring and management in India using geospatial techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, J K

    2015-01-15

    Satellite remote sensing and GIS have emerged as the most powerful tools for inventorying, monitoring and management of natural resources and environment. In the special context of wetland ecosystems, remotely sensed data from orbital platforms have been extensively used in India for the inventory, monitoring and preparation of action plans for conservation and management. First scientific inventory of wetlands in India was carried out in 1998 by Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad using indigenous IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) data of 1992-93 timeframe, which stimulated extensive use of geospatial techniques for wetland conservation and management. Subsequently, with advances in GIS, studies were carried out for development of Wetland Information System for a state (West Bengal) and for Loktak lake wetland (a Ramsar site) as a prelude to National Wetland Information System. Research has also been carried out for preparation of action plans especially for Ramsar sites in the country. In a novel research, use of the geospatial technology has also been demonstrated for biodiversity conservation using landscape ecological metrics. A country-wide estimate of emission of methane, a Green House Gas, from wetlands has also been made using MODIS data. Present article critically reviews the work carried out in India for wetland conservation and management using geospatial techniques.

  11. Hydraulic analysis of cell-network treatment wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaguo; Jawitz, James W.

    2006-11-01

    SummaryWhen individual cells of a multiple-cell treatment wetland are hydraulically connected, the wetland has a cell-network structure. The hydraulic performance of treatment wetlands is often characterized using tracer residence time distributions (RTDs) measured between the wetland inlet and outlet, such that the wetland is considered as a single hydraulic unit, regardless of the extent of networking between individual internal cells. This work extends the single hydraulic unit approach to enable the specification of moments and RTD parameters for individual cells, or clusters of cells, within the cell-network based on inert tracer tests with injection only at the network inlet. Hydraulic performance is quantified in terms of hydraulic efficiency and travel time dimensionless variance using both the method of moments and RTD modeling. Cell-network analysis was applied to a case study from the Orlando Easterly Wetland (OEW), demonstrating the improvement in hydraulic performance of individual wetland cells following wetland restoration activities. Furthermore, cell-network analysis indicated that the location of water quality sampling station locations within the cell network can significantly affect the accuracy of pollutant removal effectiveness estimation when the individual sample station RTD does not represent the hydraulic unit RTD. At the OEW, it was determined that historical nutrient removal effectiveness estimation may be underestimated for one area and overestimated for another, and recommendations were provided for sample station locations to minimize future performance estimation errors.

  12. Climate-driven increase of natural wetland methane emissions offset by human-induced wetland reduction in China over the past three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Liu, Jinxun; Jiang, Hong; Fang, Xiuqin; Chen, Huai; Niu, Zhenguo; Gong, Peng; Lin, Guanghui; Wang, Meng; Wang, Han; Yang, Yanzheng; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying; Xiang, Wenhua; Deng, Xiangwen; He, Jin-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Both anthropogenic activities and climate change can affect the biogeochemical processes of natural wetland methanogenesis. Quantifying possible impacts of changing climate and wetland area on wetland methane (CH4) emissions in China is important for improving our knowledge on CH4 budgets locally and globally. However, their respective and combined effects are uncertain. We incorporated changes in wetland area derived from remote sensing into a dynamic CH4 model to quantify the human and climate change induced contributions to natural wetland CH4 emissions in China over the past three decades. Here we found that human-induced wetland loss contributed 34.3% to the CH4 emissions reduction (0.92 TgCH4), and climate change contributed 20.4% to the CH4 emissions increase (0.31 TgCH4), suggesting that decreasing CH4 emissions due to human-induced wetland reductions has offset the increasing climate-driven CH4 emissions. With climate change only, temperature was a dominant controlling factor for wetland CH4 emissions in the northeast (high latitude) and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (high altitude) regions, whereas precipitation had a considerable influence in relative arid north China. The inevitable uncertainties caused by the asynchronous for different regions or periods due to inter-annual or seasonal variations among remote sensing images should be considered in the wetland CH4 emissions estimation.

  13. Metro Multnomah Wetlands - Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project characterizes wetlands use by juvenile salmonids and other fishes in the Multnomah Channel Marsh Natural...

  14. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet/index.htm), together with...

  15. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet/index.htm), together with...

  16. Wetland InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.

    2006-12-01

    Wetlands are transition zones where the flow of water, the nutrient cycling, and the sun energy meet to produce a unique and very productive ecosystem. They provide critical habitat for a wide variety of plant and animal species, including the larval stages of many ocean fish. Wetlands also have a valuable economical importance, as they filter nutrients and pollutants from fresh water used by human and provide aquatic habitats for outdoor recreation, tourism, and fishing. Globally, many such regions are under severe environmental stress, mainly from urban development, pollution, and rising sea level. However, there is increasing recognition of the importance of these habitats, and mitigation and restoration activities have begun in a few regions. A key element in wetlands conservation, management, and restoration involves monitoring its hydrologic system, as the entire ecosystem depends on its water supply. Heretofore, hydrologic monitoring of wetlands are conducted by stage (water level) stations, which provide good temporal resolution, but suffer from poor spatial resolution, as stage station are typically distributed several, or even tens of kilometers, from one another. Wetland application of InSAR provides the needed high spatial resolution hydrological observations, complementing the high temporal resolution terrestrial observations. Although conventional wisdom suggests that interferometry does not work in vegetated areas, several studies have shown that both L- and C-band interferograms with short acquisition intervals (1-105 days) can maintain excellent coherence over wetlands. In this study we explore the usage of InSAR for detecting water level changes in various wetland environments around the world, including the Everglades (south Florida), Louisiana Coast (southern US), Chesapeake Bay (eastern US), Pantanal (Brazil), Okavango Delta (Botswana), and Lena Delta (Siberia). Our main study area is the Everglades wetland (south Florida), which is covered by

  17. Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at indo-burma hotspot: a case study from northeast India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh HB; Kanjilal PB; Kotoky R; Roshnibala S; Sundriyal M; Jain A; Sundriyal RC

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The wetlands of the North East India fall among the global hotspots of biodiversity. However, they have received very little attention with relation to their intrinsic values to human kind; therefore their conservation is hardly addressed. These wetlands are critical for the sustenance of the tribal communities. Methods Field research was conducted during 2003 to 2006 in seven major wetlands of four districts of Manipur state, Northeast India (viz. Imphal-East, Imphal-West...

  18. Expansion Ability of Spartina alterniflora Ramets on Coastal Wetland of North Jiangsu.%苏北海滨湿地互花米草无性分株扩张能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟伟; 王国祥; 刘金娥; 陈正勇; 任丽娟

    2011-01-01

    situ for observation of their breeding success rate and hence study on their expansion ability in the coastal wetland of North Jiangsu. Results show that ( 1 ) The survival rate of the seedlings was 7.8% in mudflat, significantly lower than in the others except SS (P < 0. 05 ) and was 88. 9%, 77.8%, 60. 0%, 81.1%, 0 and 66. 6% in SAP, SAFI,SAF03, SAF89, SS and GF, respectively; (2) Number of rhizomes of the plants was significantly higher in mudflat than in the others, but thousand grain weight (TGW) of the plants in mudflat was significant lower than in the other plots (P< 0. 05); On D127 the number of the plants increased by 24. 8 times in mudflat, by 19. 7 times in SAP, by 30. 2 times in SAFI, by 6. 7 times in SAF03, by 5. 8 times in SAF89 and by 3.0 times in GF over the number of the plants that survived at the first phase; (3) SAP, SAFI and SAF89 was significantly higher in total biomass of the plants than the other plots and differed very slightly between them, displaying a trend with SAFI being the summit declining towards the land and the sea; The plants in mudflat and GF were low in spike biomass, but high in rhiome biomass. It was also found that S. alterniflora in the area close to the sea was rather stronger in expansion ability as affccted by tide, soil moisture content, wind and waves, and the plants in mudflat were dwarf. For reproduction and expansion of the population, it is more advisable to choose asexual reproductive strategy in areas close to the sea and to the land, and a mixed strategy of sexual and asexual reproductions at the central belt of the tidal flatland.

  19. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  20. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  1. Wetland plants: biology and ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronk, Julie K; Fennessy, M. Siobhan

    2001-01-01

    Providing a detailed account of the biology and ecology of wetland plants as well as applications of wetland plant science, this book presents a synthesis of studies and reviews from biology, plant...

  2. 1986 Wetland Plant List Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wetland Plant List represents the combined efforts of many biologistsworking over the last 10 years to define the wetland flora of the UnitedStates.

  3. North-South Corridor Demonstration Project: Ethical and Logistical Challenges in the Design of a Demonstration Study of Early Antiretroviral Treatment for Long Distance Truck Drivers along a Transport Corridor through South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Long-distance truck drivers are at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and have suboptimal access to care. New HIV prevention strategies using antiretroviral drugs to reduce transmission risk (early antiretroviral therapy (ART at CD4 count >350 cells/μL have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Demonstration projects are needed to evaluate “real world” programme effectiveness. We present the protocol for a demonstration study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of an early ART intervention for HIV-positive truck drivers along a transport corridor across South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, as part of an enhanced strategy to improve treatment adherence and retention in care. Methods and Analysis. This demonstration study would follow an observational cohort of truck drivers receiving early treatment. Our mixed methods approach includes quantitative, qualitative, and economic analyses. Key ethical and logistical issues are discussed (i.e., choice of drug regimen, recruitment of participants, and monitoring of adherence, behavioural changes, and adverse events. Conclusion. Questions specific to the design of tailored early ART programmes are amenable to operational research approaches but present substantial ethical and logistical challenges. Addressing these in demonstration projects can inform policy decisions regarding strategies to reduce health inequalities in access to HIV prevention and treatment programmes.

  4. Prairie basin wetlands of the Dakotas: a community profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrud, H.A.; Krapu, G.L.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    This description of prairie basin wetlands of the Dakotas is part of a series of community profiles on ecologically important wetlands of national significance. The shallow wetlands of the Dakotas form the bulk of the portion of the Prairie Pothole Region lying within the United States. This region is famous as the producer of at least half of North America's waterfowl and an unknown, but large, proportion of other prairie-dwelling marsh and aquatic birds.The wetlands described here lie in relatively small, shallow basins that vary greatly in their ability to maintain surface water, and in their water chemistry, which varies from fresh to hypersaline. These wetlands occur in a wide variety of hydrological settings, in an area where annual and seasonal precipitation varies greatly in form and amount. Thus the presence of surface water in these wetlands is largely unpredictable. Superimposed on these phenomena are the effects of a variety of land uses, including pasture, cultivation, mechanical forage removal, idle conditions and burning. All those factors greatly affect the plant and animal communities found in these basins.This profile covers lacustrine and palustrine basins with temporarily flooded, seasonally flooded, and semipermanently flooded water regimes. Basins with these water regimes compose about 90% of the basins in the Prairie Pothole Region of the Dakotas. This profile outlines the wetland subsystems, classes and subclasses that occur in these basins, and provides a useful reference to their geologic, climatic, hydrologic, and pedologic setting.Detailed information on the biotic environment of the wetlands dealt with in this profile will be useful to scientists and resource managers. Special recognition is paid to the macrophyte and invertebrate communities, which have dynamic qualities found in few other of the world's wetland ecosystems.The most noteworthy animal inhabitants of these basins are waterfowl, which are a resource of international

  5. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-01-01

    The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified accordi...

  6. Influence of hydrologic loading rate on phosphorus retention and ecosystem productivity in created wetlands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Cronk, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Four 2- to 3-ha constructed freshwater riparian wetlands in Lake County, Illinois, were subjected to two hydrologic regimes of pumped river water to simulate nonpoint source pollution. The experimental wetlands at the Des Plaines River Wetland Demonstration Project were designed to develop and test wetland design principles, construction methods, and management programs needed to create and maintain wetlands for the purposes of water quality management, flood control, and fish and wildlife habitat. High-flow wetlands (HFW) with short retention times received 34 to 38 cm of river water per week, and low-flow wetlands (LFW) with high retention times received 10 to 15 cm per week. This report summarizes research results for phosphorus dynamics and retention, macrophyte development, periphyton productivity, and overall water column metabolism through 1992. All of these functions were hypothesized to be related to hydrologic conditions.

  7. A significant nexus: Geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Kaplan, David A.; Cohen, Matthew J.

    2014-09-01

    Recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings have limited federal protections for geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) except where a "significant nexus" to a navigable water body is demonstrated. Geographic isolation does not imply GIWs are hydrologically disconnected; indeed, wetland-groundwater interactions may yield important controls on regional hydrology. Differences in specific yield (Sy) between uplands and inundated GIWs drive differences in water level responses to precipitation and evapotranspiration, leading to frequent reversals in hydraulic gradients that cause GIWs to act as both groundwater sinks and sources. These reversals are predicted to buffer surficial aquifer dynamics and thus base flow delivery, a process we refer to as landscape hydrologic capacitance. To test this hypothesis, we connected models of soil moisture, upland water table, and wetland stage to simulate hydrology of a low-relief landscape with GIWs, and explored the influences of total wetland area, individual wetland size, climate, and soil texture on water table and base flow variation. Increasing total wetland area and decreasing individual wetland size substantially decreased water table and base flow variation (e.g., reducing base flow standard deviation by as much as 50%). GIWs also decreased the frequency of extremely high and low water tables and base flow deliveries. For the same total wetland area, landscapes with fewer (i.e., larger) wetlands exhibited markedly lower hydrologic capacitance than those with more (i.e., smaller) wetlands, highlighting the importance of small GIWs to regional hydrology. Our results suggest that GIWs buffer dynamics of the surficial aquifer and stream base flow, providing an indirect but significant nexus to the regional hydrologic system.

  8. Conservation of wetlands of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bakobi, B.L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The major wetland systems of Tanzania are described together with specific functions,products and attributes of lakes, rivers, swamps, estuaries, mangroves and coastal areas. Reasons and priorities for the conservation of wetlands are given together with the existingproblems of wetland conservation and their solutions.

  9. 76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... 7 CFR Part 12 RIN 0578-AA58 Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, United States.... Background Existing wetland conservation provisions in 7 CFR part 12 require that NRCS' certification of a... Subjects in 7 CFR Part 12 Administrative practices and procedures, Soil conservation, Wetlands. For...

  10. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...

  11. Source water contributions and hydrologic responses to simulated emerald ash borer infestations in depressional black ash wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Van Grinsven; Joseph P. Shannon; Joshua C. Davis; Nicholas W. Bolton; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Randall K. Kolka; Thomas Grant Pypker

    2017-01-01

    Forested wetlands dominated by black ash (Fraxinus nigra) are currently threatened by the rapid expansion of the exotic emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America, and very little is known about the hydrology and ecology of black ash wetlands. The ecohydrological response of...

  12. Discrimination of wetland vegetation using close-range remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarey, Deborah Marie

    The protection and conservation of sensitive environmental habitats has, in recent years, focused public attention on wetland ecosystems. Traditional methods of wetland assessment have been augmented through the use of remote sensing technologies. Remote sensing offers acquisition of copious amounts of data in short periods of time over land areas that might otherwise be inaccessible. The problem, however, from a remote sensing standpoint is that verification of wetland composition relies on accurate ground truth inventories. The establishment of a library containing unique spectral responses for obligates and facultative wetland plant species would provide baseline reference data for accurate assessment of wetland condition. This research focused on the spectral discrimination of five species of wetland plants that commonly coexist in temperate North American non-tidal wetlands. A specially designed wetland was constructed to closely approximate natural conditions, and was planted with monospecific stands of Typha angustifolia L., Nymphaea tuberosa Paine, Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm., Scirpus acutus Muhl., and Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Spectral data from multiple quadrats were collected through the use of a hyperspectral spectroradiometer operating at close range. The degree of similarity and difference within each monospecific stand was evaluated as was the difference and similarity among the species on each of nine dates throughout a single growing season. If identification of a unique spectral response ("signature") was possible, the degree of variation within the stand must not exceed variation among the stands. A temporal investigation compared plant life cycles and physiology to spectral responses. Patterns of spectral variation clearly reflect seasonal lifecycle changes from juvenility through senescence, but do not exhibit spectral integrity that would consistently permit discrimination. Chlorophyll assays were compared to hyperspectral response to

  13. [Segregation effect of purification for nitrogen and phosphate pollution in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Yuan; Yan, Bai-Xing; Wang, Li-Xia

    2011-03-01

    Three minitype subsurface-horizontal flow constructed wetlands planted with Calamagrostis angustifolia and Phragmites australis and filled with soil and slag were used to investigate the N, P and pH for upper layer and underlayer wetland system by intermission operation. Results demonstrated that TN removal rates in the superstratum of Calamagrostis angustifolia and Phragmites australis wetlands were 0.771 g x (m2 x d)(-1), 1.481 g x(m2 x d)(-1) with 10 days of the hydraulic retention, which were 1.15 and 1.31 times higher than that of underlayer wetland systems, respectively. Simultaneity, TP removal rates in the superstratum of Calamagrostis angustifolia and Phragmites australis wetlands were 1.655 g x (m2 x d)(-1), 6.838 g x (m2 x d)(-1), respectively, which were 1.13 and 1.28 times higher than that of underlayer wetland systems, respectively. The purification ability of upper layer in the wetland system was higher than that of underlayer. A regular trend of pH changes and upstanding buffer ability of wetland system were found. The pH values in the upper layer of soil-slag wetlands were smaller than that of underlayer which was contrary to the soil wetland. The break-point of pH curve indicates the termination of NH4(+) -N reaction in constructed wetland.

  14. Contaminant Removal of Domestic Wastewater by Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Plant Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Yang; Zhang-He Chen; Jian-Gang Zhao; Bin-He Gu

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the efficiency of contaminant removal between five emergent plant species and between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands was conducted in small-scale (2.0 m×1.0 m×0.7 m, length×width×depth) constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment in order to evaluate the decontaminated effects of different wetland plants. There was generally a significant difference in the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), but no significant difference in the removal of organic matter between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands.Wetlands planted with Canna indica Linn., Pennisetum purpureum Schum., and Phragmites communls Trin. had generally higher removal rates for TN and TP than wetlands planted with other species. Plant growth and fine root (root diameter ≤ 3 mm) biomass were related to removal efficiency. Fine root biomass rather than the mass of the entire root system played an important role in wastewater treatment. Removal efficiency varied with season and plant growth. Wetlands vegetated by P. purpureum significantly outperformed wetlands with other plants in May and June, whereas wetlands vegetated by P. communis and C. indica demonstrated higher removal efficiency from August to December. These findings suggest that abundance of fine roots is an important factor to consider in selecting for highly effective wetland plants. It also suggested that a plant community consisting of multiple plant species with different seasonal growth patterns and root characteristics may be able to enhance wetland performance.

  15. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating; hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow; and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal. In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.

  16. Wetland selection by breeding and foraging black terns in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Valerie A.; Powell, Abby N.

    2012-01-01

    We examined wetland selection by the Black Tern (Chlidonias niger), a species that breeds primarily in the prairie pothole region, has experienced population declines, and is difficult to manage because of low site fidelity. To characterize its selection of wetlands in this region, we surveyed 589 wetlands throughout North and South Dakota. We documented breeding at 5% and foraging at 17% of wetlands. We created predictive habitat models with a machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, to explore the relative role of local wetland characteristics and those of the surrounding landscape and to evaluate which characteristics were important to predicting breeding versus foraging. We also examined area-dependent wetland selection while addressing the passive sampling bias by replacing occurrence of terns in the models with an index of density. Local wetland variables were more important than landscape variables in predictions of occurrence of breeding and foraging. Wetland size was more important to prediction of foraging than of breeding locations, while floating matted vegetation was more important to prediction of breeding than of foraging locations. The amount of seasonal wetland in the landscape was the only landscape variable important to prediction of both foraging and breeding. Models based on a density index indicated that wetland selection by foraging terns may be more area dependent than that by breeding terns. Our study provides some of the first evidence for differential breeding and foraging wetland selection by Black Terns and for a more limited role of landscape effects and area sensitivity than has been previously shown.

  17. Characterization of change in the Harike wetland, a Ramsar site in India, using landsat satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabwoga, Samson Okongo; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The increasing population in the developing countries has rendered wetlands vulnerable to land use changes. Remote sensing offers a rapid and efficient means of data acquisition of ecosystems in time and space. The present study was undertaken to identify changes in the Harike wetland, a Ramsar site in the state of Punjab, India; and identify causal factors, as well as vulnerable areas threatened from the land cover changes. Unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data of 16-10-1989, 22-10-2000 and 26-10-2010. Images were classified into five land cover classes (1) Waterbody, (2) Wetland I, (3) Wetland II, (4) Barren land and (5) Agricultural land. Land cover change is characterized mainly by a decrease in the wetland area, as indicated by decrease in wetland vegetation and an increase in non-wetland areas, characterized by increasing agricultural and barren land areas. Overall, the wetland shrunk by 13% from 1989 to 2010, with the north-eastern side experiencing maximum shrinkage. The wetland needs immediate reclamation to check it from further shrinkage so as to save its biodiversity.

  18. The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    The principal goal of protected area networks is biodiversity preservation, but efficacy of such networks is directly linked to animal movement within and outside area boundaries. We examined wetland selection patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during non-breeding periods from 2010 to 2012 to evaluate the utility of protected areas to migratory waterfowl in North America. We tracked 33 adult females using global positioning system (GPS) satellite transmitters and implemented a use-availability resource selection design to examine mallard use of wetlands under varying degrees of protection. Specifically, we examined effects of proximities to National Wildlife Refuges, private land, state wildlife management areas, Wetland Reserve Program easements (WRP), and waterfowl sanctuaries on mallard wetland selection. In addition, we included landscape-level variables that measured areas of sanctuary and WRP within the surrounding landscape of each used and available wetland. We developed 8 wetland selection models according to season (autumn migration, winter, spring migration), hunting season (present, absent), and time period (diurnal, nocturnal). Model averaged parameter estimates indicated wetland selection patterns varied across seasons and time periods, but ducks consistently selected wetlands with greater areas of sanctuary and WRP in the surrounding landscape. Consequently, WRP has the potential to supplement protected area networks in the midcontinent region. Additionally, seasonal variation in wetland selection patterns indicated considering the effects of habitat management and anthropogenic disturbances on migratory waterfowl during the non-breeding period is essential in designing protected area networks.

  19. Biotic wetland connectivity-supporting a new approach for wetland policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amezaga, J.M.; Santamaria, L.; Green, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands are key habitats connected physically and socially with processes occurring over a much wider territory. The biotic connection through dispersal mechanisms among wetlands is of primary importance to wetland management and policies. However, traditional wetland conservation approaches are ba

  20. Biotic wetland connectivity-supporting a new approach for wetland policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amezaga, J.M.; Santamaria, L.; Green, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands are key habitats connected physically and socially with processes occurring over a much wider territory. The biotic connection through dispersal mechanisms among wetlands is of primary importance to wetland management and policies. However, traditional wetland conservation approaches are

  1. Changes of Phytoplankton in a Multi-stage Bypass Constructed Wetland on Nanfei River:A Water Purification Demonstration Project%南淝河旁路人工湿地不同处理单元的浮游植物变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恩生; 王辉; 欧俊海; 汤康成; 杨珊

    2015-01-01

    The Nanfei River accounts for 15.2%of the total water inflow to Chaohu Lake,but contributes the lar-gest amount of pollution:24.9% of the COD,53.8%of the TP and 65.3%of the ammonia nitrogen.So the pol-lutant removal from Nanfei River water inflow is a necessary measure for improving water quality in Chaohu Lake. In 2012,the “water purification demonstration project of a multi-stage bypass constructed wetland of Nanfei River”was built to reduce pollution levels.The system consists of five parts:a grit chamber (about 1 200 m2 );a coagula-tion-precipitation system (about 200 m2 );an oxidation pond system that includes an anaerobic pond,a facultative pond and an aerobic pond (about 2 400 m2 );a constructed subsurface-flow wetland (about 1 750 m2 )and con-structed surface flow wetland (about 187 000 m2).The project began operation in October,2013 and nine monito-ring sites (No.1 -No.9)were selected,located at the inlets and outlets of the five units.The phytoplankton com-munity and physicochemical water parameters were monitored from October 2013 to August 2014 and the investiga-tion focused on changes in the phytoplankton community in the different units of the constructed wetland.1 000 mL samples of mixed water were collected at each site,fixed with 10 mL Lugol′s solution and preserved with formalde-hyde.The water samples were concentrated to 30 mL for subsequent counting and identification after settling 24 h in the laboratory.The results are as follows:(1 )Phytoplankton density displayed obvious decline in different pro-cessing units.In October and December of 2013 and in March and August of 2014,phytoplankton densities for each month decreased from 2 343 978,157 345,3 729 612,359 867 cells/L at the inlet (No.1 )to 34 240, 32 271,187 756,63 950 cells/L at the outlet of the surface flow constructed wetland (No.9).(2)Phytoplankton species composition displayed significant variation at each processing unit.In October and December of 2013,the percentage of

  2. FGD liner experiments with wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Ahn, C.; Wolfe, W.E.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment often requires impermeable liners not only to protect groundwater resources but also to ensure that there is adequate water in the wetland to support appropriate aquatic life, particularly wetland vegetation. Liners or relatively impervious site soils are very important to the success of constructed treatment wetlands in areas where ground water levels are typically close to the ground surface. This study, carried out at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, investigated the use of FGD material from sulfur scrubbers as a possible liner material for constructed wetlands. While several studies have investigated the use of FGD material to line ponds, no studies have investigated the use of this material as a liner for constructed wetlands. They used experimental mesocosms to see the effect of FGD liner materials in constructed wetlands on water quality and on wetland plant growth. This paper presents the results of nutrient analyses and physicochemical investigation of leachate and surface outflow water samples collected from the mesocosms. Plant growth and biomass of wetland vegetation are also included in this paper. First two year results are reported by Ahn et al. (1998, 1999). The overall goal of this study is the identification of advantages and disadvantages of using FGD by-product as an artificial liner in constructed wetlands.

  3. Carbon storage in US wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, A. M.; Fennessy, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites--indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change.

  4. Mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District : 2008-2009 proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for 20082009 mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza HPAI at Kulm Wetland Management District in North Dakota. Surveillance will focus...

  5. Mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District : 2010-2011 proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for 20102011 mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza HPAI at Kulm Wetland Management District in North Dakota. Surveillance will focus...

  6. Mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District : 2008-2009 proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for 2008-2009 mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District in North Dakota. Surveillance will...

  7. Mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District : 2009-2010 proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for 2009-2010 mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District in North Dakota. Surveillance will...

  8. Mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District : 2010-2011 proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for 2010-2011 mortality surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) at Kulm Wetland Management District in North Dakota. Surveillance will...

  9. Carbon content on perturbed wetlands of Yucatan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Ojeda, S. M.; Orellana, R.; Herrera Silveira, J.

    2013-05-01

    The north coast of Yucatan Peninsula is a karstic scenario where the water flows mainly underground through the so called "cenotes"-ring system ("sink holes") toward the coast. This underground water system enhances the connection between watershed condition and coastal ecosystem health. Inland activities such as livestock, agriculture and urban development produce changes in the landscape, hydrological connectivity and in the water quality that can decrease wetland coverage specially mangroves and seagrasses. We conducted studies on the description of structure, biomass and carbon content of the soil, above and below ground of four different types of wetland in a perturbed region. The wetland ecological types were freshwater (Typha domingensis), dwarf mangroves (Avicenia germinans), grassland (Cyperacea) and Seagrasses. Due to the area is mainly covered by mangroves, they represent the most important carbon storage nevertheless the condition of the structure determine the carbon content in soil. Through GIS tools we explore the relationships between land use and costal condition in order to determine priority areas for conservation within the watershed that could be efficient to preserve the carbon storage of this area.

  10. Wetland biogeochemistry and ecological risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Haifeng; Zhang, Guangliang

    2017-02-01

    Wetlands are an important ecotone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and can provide great ecological service functions. Soils/sediments are one of the important components of wetland ecosystems, which support wetland plants and microorganisms and influence wetland productivity. Moreover, wetland soils/sediments serve as sources, sinks and transfers of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and chemical contaminants such as heavy metals. In natural wetland ecosystems, wetland soils/sediments play a great role in improving water quality as these chemical elements can be retained in wetland soils/sediments for a long time. Moreover, the biogeochemical processes of the abovementioned elements in wetland soils/sediments can drive wetland evolution and development, and their changes will considerably affect wetland ecosystem health. Therefore, a better understanding of wetland soil biogeochemistry will contribute to improving wetland ecological service functions.

  11. Application of Systems Model and Remote Sensing Images to Improve Wetland Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alminagorta, O.; Torres-Rua, A. F.

    2013-05-01

    Wetlands are complex ecosystem that involves interaction among hydrological, ecological and spatial-temporal considerations. Also, water shortages and invasive vegetation are common problems in wetlands. The present paper has the purpose to contribute with the solution of these problems: (i) Providing a tool to wetland managers to monitor changes in vegetation cover and wetland hydrology over time; (ii) Finding a relationship between vegetation response and key hydrological attributes in wetlands and (iii) Incorporating these relationship in an optimization model to recommend water allocation and invasive vegetation control to improve wetland management. This research is applied at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge (the Refuge), located on the northeast side of Great Salt Lake, Utah. The Refuge constitutes one of the most important habitats for migratory birds for the Pacific Flyway of North America. Water measures and coverage vegetation collected in-situ at the Refuge has been used to calibrate and evaluate the effects on wetland plant communities to the process of flooding and drought in wetland units during different years. A MATLAB-based algorithm has been developed to process LandSat images to estimate the interaction between flooded areas and invasive vegetation cover. These interactions are embedded in a system optimization model to recommend water allocations and vegetation control actions among diked wetland units that improve wetland habitat for wildlife species. This modeling effort identify the interaction between invasive vegetation and flood wetland areas and embed those interactions in a systems model that wetland managers can use to make informed decisions about allocation of water and manage vegetation cover.

  12. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Watersaturated soil and sediment ecosystems (i.e. wetlands) are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between terrestria

  13. Electricity from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, Koen; Dieleman, Kim; Buisman, Cees; Strik, David

    2017-01-01

    Application of the plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) in wetlands should be invisible without excavation of the soil. The preferred design is a tubular design with the anode directly between the plant roots and an oxygen reducing biocathode inside the tube. Oxygen should be passively supplied to the c

  14. Wetlands Mitigation Banking Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    the financial risk associated with are normally established in advance, mitigation permitted activities. banks eliminate the lag time between loss and...management natural state or to an enhanced condition and techniques. None of the traditional wetlands begin to amass bankable credits has also been management

  15. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Watersaturated soil and sediment ecosystems (i.e. wetlands) are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between

  16. 7 CFR 12.33 - Use of wetland and converted wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of wetland and converted wetland. 12.33 Section 12.33 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.33 Use of wetland and converted wetland. (a) The provisions of § 12.32(b)(2)...

  17. Field Testing New Plot Designs and Methods for Determining Hydrophytic Vegetation during Wetland Delineations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    describe the hue, value, and chroma of each soil layer when appropriate (Gretag/ Macbeth 2000) and to determine if hydric soil indicators as described in...on vegetation determinations made during wetland delineations. Wetlands 31:865–873. Gretag/ Macbeth . 2000. Munsell® color. New Windsor, NY: Gretag... Macbeth . Kartesz, J. T. 2009. Floristic Synthesis of North America, Version 1.0. Biota of North America Program (BONAP). Kent, M., and P. Coker

  18. Countermeasures Research of the north sea mangrove wetland ecological tourism development%北海山口红树林湿地生态旅游发展对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段金华; 梁承龙

    2012-01-01

      Mangrove tourism not only can provide people with good tourist place, but also conducive to the protection of mangrove wetland ecosystem. Through field investigation, questionnaire survey and interview methods put forward Beihai mangrove ecotourism development in the presence of specific problems, tourism infrastructure is not perfect and so on, in view of these problems and promote the mangrove wetland ecological tourism development of specific countermeasures.%  红树林旅游不仅可以为人们提供良好的旅游场所,而且有利于保护红树林湿地生态系统。通过实地调查、问卷调查和访谈等方法,提出北海山口红树林生态旅游发展中存在的具体问题,并针对这些问题提出促进山口红树林湿地生态旅游发展的具体对策。

  19. Using dual classifications in the development of avian wetland indices of biological integrity for wetlands in West Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, Walter; Anderson, James T; Kordek, Walter S

    2010-05-01

    Considerable resources are being used to develop and implement bioassessment methods for wetlands to ensure that "biological integrity" is maintained under the United States Clean Water Act. Previous research has demonstrated that avian composition is susceptible to human impairments at multiple spatial scales. Using a site-specific disturbance gradient, we built avian wetland indices of biological integrity (AW-IBI) specific to two wetland classification schemes, one based on vegetative structure and the other based on the wetland's position in the landscape and sources of water. The resulting class-specific AW-IBI was comprised of one to four metrics that varied in their sensitivity to the disturbance gradient. Some of these metrics were specific to only one of the classification schemes, whereas others could discriminate varying levels of disturbance regardless of classification scheme. Overall, all of the derived biological indices specific to the vegetative structure-based classes of wetlands had a significant relation with the disturbance gradient; however, the biological index derived for floodplain wetlands exhibited a more consistent response to a local disturbance gradient. We suspect that the consistency of this response is due to the inherent nature of the connectivity of available habitat in floodplain wetlands.

  20. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T; Stanley, Emily H; Spawn, Seth A; Finlay, Jacques C; Loken, Luke C; Striegl, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr(-1) ; over 6400 km(2) ) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  1. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Stanley, Emily H.; Spawn, Seth A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr−1; over 6400 km2) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  2. Control of reed canarygrass promotes wetland herb and tree seedling establishment in an upper Mississippi River Floodplain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Meredith; Brownell, Kurt; Groshek, Matthew; Kirsch, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) is recognized as a problematic invader of North American marshes, decreasing biodiversity and persisting in the face of control efforts. Less is known about its ecology or management in forested wetlands, providing an opportunity to apply information about factors critical to an invader's control in one wetland type to another. In a potted plant experiment and in the field, we documented strong competitive effects of reed canarygrass on the establishment and early growth of tree seedlings. In the field, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel restoration strategy, combining site scarification with late fall applications of pre-emergent herbicides. Treatments delayed reed canarygrass emergence the following spring, creating a window of opportunity for the early growth of native plants in the absence of competition from the grass. They also allowed for follow-up herbicide treatments during the growing season. We documented greater establishment of wetland herbs and tree seedlings in treated areas. Data from small exclosures suggest, however, that deer browsing can limit tree seedling height growth in floodplain restorations. Slower tree growth will delay canopy closure, potentially allowing reed canarygrass re-invasion. Thus, it may be necessary to protect tree seedlings from herbivory to assure forest regeneration.

  3. Assessment of Water Availability Impact on Wetland Management using Multi-temporal Landsat Images and Bayesian-based Learning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alminagorta, O.; Torres, A. F.

    2013-12-01

    Water availability has a direct impact on the wetland ecosystems. While wetland managers need better information to allocate scarce water to improve wetland services, most monitoring activities of flood areas and vegetation condition on wetlands relies on manual estimation of water depth and use of airboat with GPS devices. This process is costly and time-consuming. Remote sensing techniques have been previously used to characterize vegetation conditions along with hydrological characteristics of the wetlands with excellent results. Nevertheless, limited analysis has been done to relate the resulting wetland characterization with the historical water availability records. The present paper addresses the lack of adequate feedback on wetland conditions upon the available water for the wetland system by making use of multi-temporal Landsat images. These images are processed at wetland unit and system level to extract information about vegetation, soil and water conditions. This information is then correlated with historical water availability records for the wetland system by means of the Relevance Vector Machine, a Bayesian-based algorithm known for its robustness, efficiency, and sparseness. This research is applied at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge (the Refuge), located on the northeast side of Great Salt Lake, Utah. The Refuge constitutes one of the most important habitats for migratory birds for the Pacific Flyway of North America. Water-discharge records and coverage vegetation collected at the Refuge has been used to calibrate and evaluate the effects on wetland services to the process of flooding and drought in wetland units during different years. The final product of this research is to provide a methodology that wetland managers can use to make informed decisions about water allocation to improve wetland services while avoiding wasting resources, effort, time and money.

  4. Modeling Modern Methane Emissions from Natural Wetlands. 2; Interannual Variations 1982-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bernadette P.; Heimann, Martin; Mattews, Elaine; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A global run of a process-based methane model [Walter et al., this issue] is performed using high-frequency atmospheric forcing fields from ECMWF reanalyses of the period from 1982 to 1993. We calculate global annual methane emissions to be 260 Tg/ yr. 25% of methane emissions originate from wetlands north of 30 deg. N. Only 60% of the produced methane is emitted, while the rest is re-oxidized. A comparison of zonal integrals of simulated global wetland emissions and results obtained by an inverse modeling approach shows good agreement. In a test with data from two wetlands, the seasonality of simulated and observed methane emissions agrees well. The effects of sub-grid scale variations in model parameters and input data are examined. Modeled methane emissions show high regional, seasonal and interannual variability. Seasonal cycles of methane emissions are dominated by temperature in high latitude wetlands, and by changes in the water table in tropical wetlands. Sensitivity tests show that +/- 1 C changes in temperature lead to +/- 20 % changes in methane emissions from wetlands. Uniform changes of +/- 20% in precipitation alter methane emissions by about +/- 18%. Limitations in the model are analyzed. Simulated interannual variations in methane emissions from wetlands are compared to observed atmospheric growth rate anomalies. Our model simulation results suggest that contributions from other sources than wetlands and/or the sinks are more important in the tropics than north-of 30 deg. N. In higher northern latitudes, it seems that a large part, of the observed interannual variations can be explained by variations in wetland emissions. Our results also suggest that reduced wetland emissions played an important role in the observed negative methane growth rate anomaly in 1992.

  5. Using stable isotopes to understand hydrochemical processes in and around a Prairie Pothole wetland in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Stricker, Craig A.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Morrison, Jean M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Thurston, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of internally drained wetland systems in the Prairie Potholes region of the northern Great Plains (USA and Canada) provide indispensable habitat for waterfowl and a host of other ecosystem services. The hydrochemistry of these systems is complex and a crucial control on wetland function, flora and fauna. Wetland waters can have high concentrations of SO2-4 due to the oxidation of large amounts of pyrite in glacial till that is in part derived from the Pierre shale. Water chemistry including δ18OH2O, δ2HH2O, and δ34SSO4 values, was determined for groundwater, soil pore water, and wetland surface water in and around a discharge wetland in North Dakota. The isotopic data for the first time trace the interaction of processes that affect wetland chemistry, including open water evaporation, plant transpiration, and microbial SO4 reduction.

  6. Floodwaters Renew Zambia's Kafue Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Not all floods are unwanted. Heavy rainfall in southern Africa between December 2003 and April 2004 provided central Zambia with floodwaters needed to support the diverse uses of water within the Kafue Flats area. The Kafue Flats are home to about one million people and provide a rich inland fishery, habitat for an array of unique wildlife, and the means for hydroelectricity production. The Flats falls between two dams: Upstream to the west (not visible here) is the Izhi-tezhi, and downstream (middle right of the images) is the Kafue Gorge dam. Since the construction of these dams, the flooded area has been reduced and the timing and intensity of the inundation has changed. During June 2004 an agreement was made with the hydroelectricity company to restore water releases from the dams according to a more natural flooding regime. These images from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate surface changes to the wetlands and other surfaces in central Zambia resulting from an unusually lengthy wet season. The Kafue Flats appear relatively dry on July 19, 2003 (upper images), with the Kafue River visible as a slender dark line that snakes from east to west on its way to join the Zambezi (visible in the lower right-hand corner). On July 21, 2004 (lower images), well into the dry season, much of the 6,500-square kilometer area of the Kafue Flats remains inundated. To the east of the Kafue Flats is Lusaka, the Zambian capital, visible as a pale area in the middle right of the picture, north of the river. In the upper portions of these images is the prominent roundish shape of the Lukanga Swamp, another important wetland. The images along the left are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera, and the images along the right are angular composites in which red band data from MISR's 46o forward, nadir, and 46o backward viewing cameras is displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In order to preserve brightness variations among the various

  7. Alaska LandCarbon Wetland Distribution Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This product provides regional estimates of specific wetland types (bog and fen) in Alaska. Available wetland types mapped by the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI)...

  8. Natural wetland emissions of methylated trace elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, B.; Lenz, M.; Charlet, L.; Berg, M.; Winkel, L.H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Natural wetlands are well known for their significant methane emissions. However, trace element emissions via biomethylation and subsequent volatilization from pristine wetlands are virtually unstudied, even though wetlands constitute large reservoirs for trace elements. Here we show that the averag

  9. The Wetlands Research Program Bulletin. Volume 5, Numbers 3 and 4. October - December 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Ramsar Site ) in north- adults can learn about the beauty and value of South- eastern Arkansas and the secrets it has yielded to scien- ern forested...Federal regulatory sized, on- site mitigation projects often fail. Also, mitiga- and resource agencies released proposed guidance in the tion for the...wetland of wetland sites with estimated tangible and intangi- regulatory program. Phase 1 of the two-phase study fo- ble values termed "credits

  10. Dynamics in phosphorus retention in wetlands upstream of Delavan Lake, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Elder, John F.; Goddard, Gerald L.; James, William F.

    2009-01-01

    A phosphorus budget was constructed for Delavan Lake Inlet, a perennial riverine wetland with submersed and floating aquatic vegetation in southeastern Wisconsin, to better understand the phosphorus dynamics in natural wetlands and the role of wetlands in lake-rehabilitation efforts. During the growing season, the inlet served as a net source of phosphorus, primarily due to the release of phosphorus from the sediments. More phosphorus was released from the sediments of the inlet (600 kg) than was input from the upstream watershed (460 kg). This release was caused by high pH associated with high photosynthetic activity. During the remainder of the year, the inlet served as a net sink for phosphorus, retaining 6% of die phosphorus input from the watershed. Over the entire year, this wetland was a net source of over 500 kg of phosphorus to downstream Delavan Lake. A constructed riverine wetland upstream of Delavan Lake Inlet demonstrated a similar periodic release of phosphorus. However, in this case, the summer release of phosphorus was less than that trapped during the remainder of the year. The constructed wetland served as a net sink for approximately 20% of the input phosphorus on an annual time scale. The role of existing and constructed wetlands as phosphorus traps is complex. Wetlands can act as a source or a sink for phosphorus depending on the ambient conditions in die wetland. Howa wetland fits into a rehabilitation plan depends upon its net retention efficiency and the importance of the periodic releases of phosphorus to downstream waters.

  11. Applying Process-Based Models for Subsurface Flow Treatment Wetlands: Recent Developments and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenter Langergraber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, only few process-based models for subsurface flow treatment wetlands have been developed. For modelling a treatment wetland, these models have to comprise a number of sub-models to describe water flow, pollutant transport, pollutant transformation and degradation, effects of wetland plants, and transport and deposition of suspended particulate matter. The two most advanced models are the HYDRUS Wetland Module and BIO-PORE. These two models are briefly described. This paper shows typical simulation results for vertical flow wetlands and discusses experiences and challenges using process-based wetland models in relation to the sub-models describing the most important wetland processes. It can be demonstrated that existing simulation tools can be applied for simulating processes in treatment wetlands. Most important for achieving a good match between measured and simulated pollutant concentrations is a good calibration of the water flow and transport models. Only after these calibrations have been made and the effect of the influent fractionation on simulation results has been considered, should changing the parameters of the biokinetic models be taken into account. Modelling the effects of wetland plants is possible and has to be considered when important. Up to now, models describing clogging are the least established models among the sub-models required for a complete wetland model and thus further development and research is required.

  12. Landscape characteristics of a stream and wetland mitigation banking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDor, Todd; Sholtes, Joel; Doyle, Martin W

    2009-12-01

    In the United States, stream restoration is an increasing part of environmental and land management programs, particularly under the auspices of compensatory mitigation regulations. Markets and regulations surrounding stream mitigation are beginning to mirror those of the well-established wetland mitigation industry. Recent studies have shown that wetland mitigation programs commonly shift wetlands across space from urban to rural areas, thereby changing the functional characteristics and benefits of wetlands in the landscape. However, it is not yet known if stream mitigation mirrors this behavior, and if so, what effects this may have on landscape-scale ecological and hydrological processes. This project addresses three primary research questions. (1) What are the spatial relationships between stream and wetland impact and compensation sites as a result of regulations requiring stream and wetland mitigation in the State of North Carolina? (2) How do stream impacts come about due to the actions of different types of developers, and how do the characteristics of impacts sites compare with compensation sites? (3) To what extent does stream compensation relocate high-quality streams within the river network, and how does this affect localized (intrawatershed) loss or gain of aquatic resources? Using geospatial data collected from the North Carolina Division of Water Quality and the Army Corps of Engineers' Wilmington District, we analyzed the behavior of the North Carolina Ecosystem Enhancement Program in providing stream and wetland mitigation for the State of North Carolina. Our results suggest that this program provides mitigation (1) in different ways for different types of permittees; (2) at great distances (both Euclidean and within the stream network) from original impacts; (3) in significantly different places than impacts within watersheds; and (4) in many cases, in different watersheds from original impacts. Our analysis also reveals problems with regulator

  13. The conservation status of Moroccan wetlands with particular reference to waterbirds and to changes since 1978

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Morgan made detailed descriptions of 24 major Moroccan wetlands visited in 1978, with a total area of 4529 ha (Morgan, N.C., 1982a. An ecological survey of standing waters in North West Africa: III. Site descriptions for Morocco. Biological Conservation, 24, 161–182.). We revisited these sites, and found that 25% of the wetland area had been destroyed by 1999. This loss was con- centrated in wetland types of low salinity ( < 5 g/l NaCl), with a 98% loss of seasonal mesohaline sites,...

  14. Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: conclusions from a model intercomparison project (WETCHIMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Melton

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Global wetlands are believed to be climate sensitive, and are the largest natural emitters of methane (CH4. Increased wetland CH4 emissions could act as a positive feedback to future warming. The Wetland and Wetland CH4 Inter-comparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP investigated our present ability to simulate large scale wetland characteristics and corresponding CH4 emissions. To ensure inter-comparability, we used a common experimental protocol driving all models with the same climate and carbon dioxide (CO2 forcing datasets. The WETCHIMP experiments were conducted for model equilibrium states as well as transient simulations covering the last century. Sensitivity experiments investigated model response to changes in selected forcing inputs (precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Ten models participated, covering the spectrum from simple to relatively complex, including models tailored either for regional or global simulations. The models also varied in methods to calculate wetland size and location with some models simulating wetland area prognostically, while other models relied on remotely-sensed inundation datasets, or an approach intermediate between the two.

    Four major conclusions emerged from the project. First, the suite of models demonstrate extensive disagreement in their simulations of wetland areal extent and CH4 emissions, in both space and time. Simple metrics of wetland area, such as the latitudinal gradient, show large variability, principally between models that use inundation dataset information and those that independently determine wetland area. Agreement between the models improves for zonally summed CH4 emissions, but large variation between the models remains. For annual global CH4 emissions, the models vary by ±40 % of the all model mean (190 Tg CH4 yr−1. Second, all

  15. Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: conclusions from a model inter-comparison project (WETCHIMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Melton

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Global wetlands are believed to be climate sensitive, and are the largest natural emitters of methane (CH4. Increased wetland CH4 emissions could act as a positive feedback to future warming. The Wetland and Wetland CH4 Inter-comparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP investigated our present ability to simulate large-scale wetland characteristics and corresponding CH4 emissions. To ensure inter-comparability, we used a common experimental protocol driving all models with the same climate and carbon dioxide (CO2 forcing datasets. The WETCHIMP experiments were conducted for model equilibrium states as well as transient simulations covering the last century. Sensitivity experiments investigated model response to changes in selected forcing inputs (precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Ten models participated, covering the spectrum from simple to relatively complex, including models tailored either for regional or global simulations. The models also varied in methods to calculate wetland size and location, with some models simulating wetland area prognostically, while other models relied on remotely sensed inundation datasets, or an approach intermediate between the two.

    Four major conclusions emerged from the project. First, the suite of models demonstrate extensive disagreement in their simulations of wetland areal extent and CH4 emissions, in both space and time. Simple metrics of wetland area, such as the latitudinal gradient, show large variability, principally between models that use inundation dataset information and those that independently determine wetland area. Agreement between the models improves for zonally summed CH4 emissions, but large variation between the models remains. For annual global CH4 emissions, the models vary by ±40% of the all-model mean (190 Tg CH4 yr−1. Second, all

  16. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  17. Propagation of Human Enteropathogens in Constructed Horizontal Wetlands Used for Tertiary Wastewater Treatment ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Lucy, Frances E.; Tamang, Leena; Mashinski, Yessika; Broaders, Michael A.; Connolly, Michelle; Cheng, Hui-Wen A.

    2009-01-01

    Constructed subsurface flow (SSF) and free-surface flow (FSF) wetlands are being increasingly implemented worldwide into wastewater treatments in response to the growing need for microbiologically safe reclaimed waters, which is driven by an exponential increase in the human population and limited water resources. Wastewater samples from four SSF and FSF wetlands in northwestern Ireland were tested qualitatively and quantitatively for Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and human-pathogenic microsporidia, with assessment of their viability. Overall, seven species of human enteropathogens were detected in wetland influents, vegetated areas, and effluents: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. hominis, C. meleagridis, C. muris, G. duodenalis, Encephalitozoon hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. SSF wetland had the highest pathogen removal rate (i.e., Cryptosporidium, 97.4%; G. duodenalis, 95.4%); however, most of these values for FSF were in the negative area (mean, −84.0%), meaning that more pathogens were discharged by FSF wetlands than were delivered to wetlands with incoming wastewater. We demonstrate here that (i) the composition of human enteropathogens in wastewater entering and leaving SSF and FSF wetlands is highly complex and dynamic, (ii) the removal and inactivation of human-pathogenic microorganisms were significantly higher at the SSF wetland, (iii) FSF wetlands may not always provide sufficient remediation for human enteropathogens, (iv) wildlife can contribute a substantial load of human zoonotic pathogens to wetlands, (v) most of the pathogens discharged by wetlands were viable, (vi) large volumes of wetland effluents can contribute to contamination of surface waters used for recreation and drinking water abstraction and therefore represent a serious public health threat, and (vii) even with the best pathogen removal rates achieved by SSF wetland, the reduction of pathogens was not enough for a safety reuse of the reclaimed water. To our knowledge, this

  18. Management of wetlands for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Gray,; Heath M. Hagy,; J. Andrew Nyman,; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems that provide habitat for a diversity of wildlife species and afford various ecosystem services. Managing wetlands effectively requires an understanding of basic ecosystem processes, animal and plant life history strategies, and principles of wildlife management. Management techniques that are used differ depending on target species, coastal versus interior wetlands, and available infrastructure, resources, and management objectives. Ideally, wetlands are managed as a complex, with many successional stages and hydroperiods represented in close proximity. Managing wetland wildlife typically involves manipulating water levels and vegetation in the wetland, and providing an upland buffer. Commonly, levees and water control structures are used to manipulate wetland hydrology in combination with other management techniques (e.g., disking, burning, herbicide application) to create desired plant and wildlife responses. In the United States, several conservation programs are available to assist landowners in developing wetland management infrastructure on their property. Managing wetlands to increase habitat quality for wildlife is critical, considering this ecosystem is one of the most imperiled in the world.

  19. Tampa Bay coastal wetlands: nineteenth to twentieth century tidal marsh-to-mangrove conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Roy, Laura C.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, mangroves dominate the tidal wetlands of Tampa Bay, Florida, but an examination of historic navigation charts revealed dominance of tidal marshes with a mangrove fringe in the 1870s. This study's objective was to conduct a new assessment of wetland change in Tampa Bay by digitizing nineteenth century topographic and public land surveys and comparing these to modern coastal features at four locations. We differentiate between wetland loss, wetland gain through marine transgression, and a wetland conversion from marsh to mangrove. Wetland loss was greatest at study sites to the east and north. Expansion of the intertidal zone through marine transgression, across adjacent low-lying land, was documented primarily near the mouth of the bay. Generally, the bay-wide marsh-to-mangrove ratio reversed from 86:14 to 25:75 in 125 years. Conversion of marsh to mangrove wetlands averaged 72 % at the four sites, ranging from 52 % at Old Tampa Bay to 95 % at Feather Sound. In addition to latitudinal influences, intact wetlands and areas with greater freshwater influence exhibited a lower rate of marsh-to-mangrove conversion. Two sources for nineteenth century coastal landscape were in close agreement, providing an unprecedented view of historic conditions in Tampa Bay.

  20. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study. Volume IV. Delineation of Wetland Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    River FIG. 4 -G. 5 CARNATION [] Scale in Miles 0 5 1 FALL CITY SNOHOMISH ESTUARY WETLANDS STUDY 8AOUAH FIG. 6-/ 44 Isan A EVRT 12 1 land NO4Carnation on the Snoqualmie River (Tolt River confluence). I B. OBJECTIVES 8. The objectives of the overall Snohomish Estuary Wetlands

  1. Land use and conservation reserve program effects on the persistence of playa wetlands in the High Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dale W; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A; Johnson, Lacrecia A; McMurry, Scott T

    2014-04-15

    Watershed cultivation and subsequent soil erosion remains the greatest threat to the service provisioning of playa wetlands in the High Plains. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plants perennial vegetation cover on cultivated lands including playa watersheds, and therefore, the program influences sediment deposition and accumulation in playas. Our objective was to measure the effects of the CRP on sediment deposition by comparing sediment depth and present/historic size characteristics in 258 playas among three High-Plains subregions (northern, central, and southern) and the three dominant watershed types: cropland, CRP, and native grassland. Sediment depth and resultant volume loss for CRP playas were 40% and 57% lower than cropland playas, but 68% and 76% greater than playas in native grassland. Playas in CRP had remaining volumes exceeding those of cropland playas. Grassland playas had nearly three times more original playa volume and 122% greater wetland area than CRP playas. Overall, playas were larger in the south than other subregions. Sediment depth was also three times greater in the south than the north, which resulted in southern playas losing twice as much total volume as northern playas. However, the larger southern playas provide more remaining volume per playa than those in other subregions. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of proper watershed management in preserving playa wetland ecosystem service provisioning in the High Plains. Furthermore, we identify regional differences in playas that may influence management decisions and provide valuable insight to conservation practitioners trying to maximize wetland services with limited resources.

  2. Effect of carbon source on the denitrification in constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Songliu; HU Hongying; SUN Yingxue; YANG Jia

    2009-01-01

    The constructed wetlands with different plants in removal of nitrate were investigated.The factors promoting the rates of denitrification including organic carbon, nitrate load, plants in wetlands, pH and water temperature in field were systematically investigated.The results showed that the additional carbon source (glucose) can remarkably improve the nitrate removal ability of the constructed wetland.It demonstrated that the nitrate removal rate can increase from 20% to more than 50% in the summer and from 10% to 30% in the winter, when the nitrate concentration was 30-40 mg/L, the retention time was 24 h and 25 mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was ploughed into the constructed wetland.However, the nitrite in the constructed wetland accumulated a litter with the supply of the additional carbon source in summer and winter, and it increased from 0.15 to 2 mg/L in the effluent.It was also found that the abilities of plant in adjusting pH and temperature can result in an increase of denitrification in wetlands, and the seasonal change may impact the denitrification.

  3. On the use of photothermal techniques for monitoring constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatts, C. E. N.; Faria, R. T.; Vargas, H.; Lannes, L. S.; Aragon, G. T.; Ovalle, A. R. C.

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands are a valued part of landscapes throughout the world. The steady increase of industrial facilities and disorganized urbanization processes, especially in developing countries, became a serious menace to these systems. The capability of wetlands to serve as a sink for nonpoint pollutants, particularly nutrients, is remarkable, but not limitless. For this reason, efforts to preserve them are considered a strategic issue for several countries. In addition, due to the exploding costs for sewage treatment, constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment (reed-bed systems) have been widely used under a variety of different conditions. Wetlands present unique characteristics related to biogeochemical cycles, the transport and transformation of chemicals due to interrelated physical, and chemical, and biological processes. Particularly, vegetated wetlands can act as a source for greenhouse gases through the emission of sediment-produced methane (CH4) to atmosphere. From studies concerning the behavior of Salvinia auriculata Aublet., we intend to demonstrate the potential use of photothermal techniques for monitoring gaseous emissions in wetlands.

  4. Analysis of airborne LiDAR surveys to quantify the characteristic morphologies of northern forested wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray C. Richardson; Carl P. J. Mitchell; Brian A. Branfireun; Randall K. Kolka

    2010-01-01

    A new technique for quantifying the geomorphic form of northern forested wetlands from airborne LiDAR surveys is introduced, demonstrating the unprecedented ability to characterize the geomorphic form of northern forested wetlands using high-resolution digital topography. Two quantitative indices are presented, including the lagg width index (LWI) which objectively...

  5. Application of Participatory Development Theory in Wetland Ecotourism Initiatives——A Case Study of Baiyangdian in Anxin of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Meng; SONG Jin-Ping; ZHANG Ning

    2008-01-01

    As one of the few ecological wetlands in North China,Baiyangdian bears multiple important ecological functions, including ①adjusting the ecological balance of North China; ②safeguarding the downstream areas, especially Tianjin City, the Beijing - Shanghai Railway and Huabei Oil Field; ③serving as the reservoir for the North - to - South Water Diversion Project and the emergent use of water for Beijing; ④conserving biodiversity. Wetland ecotourism is a scientific and wise use pattern for wetland resources, through which, a source of financing is provided for wetland conservation, economic alternatives are generated for local people to reduce overexploitatian on wetland resources and the public awareness of environmental protection is enhanced. Since wetland ecotourism can benefit the co - existence between human and nature and promote social equity between people, it enjoys broad promise for popularization and implementation. The proactive cooperation and sound interaction between main stakeholders, and the wide participation of the community residents, will guarantee the sustainable development of wetland ecotourism. Based on the analysis of current status of participation and interactive relationships of the main stakeholders in Baiyangdian tourism, this article made an attempt to apply the theory of participatory development to the ecotourism initiatives of Baiyangdian wetland, discussed and brought forward the countermeasures to improve community participation in wetland ecotourism under the guidance of this theory.

  6. The role of critical zone processes in the evolution of the Prairie Pothole Region wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Mills, C.; Stricker, C.A.; Morrison, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region, which occupies 900,000 km2 of the north central USA and south central Canada, is one of the most important ecosystems in North America. It is characterized by millions of small wetlands whose chemistry is highly variable over short distances. The study involved the geochemistry of surface sediments, wetland water, and groundwater in the Cottonwood Lakes area of North Dakota, USA, whose 92 ha includes the dominant wetland hydrologic settings. The data show that oxygenated groundwater interacting with pyrite resident in a component of surficial glacial till derived from the marine Pierre Shale Formation has, over long periods of time, focused SO2-4-bearing fluids from upland areas to topographically low areas. In these low areas, SO2-4-enriched groundwater and wetlands have evolved, as has the CaSO4 mineral gypsum. Sulfur isotope data support the conclusion that isotopically light pyrite from marine shale is the source of SO2-4. Literature data on wetland water composition suggests that this process has taken place over a large area in North Dakota.

  7. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. ...

  8. Ammonium tolerance and toxicity of Actinoscirpus grossus - A candidate species for use in tropical constructed wetland systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piwpuan, Narumol; Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Actinoscirpus grossus, a native species in tropical wetlands of South-East Asia, North Australia and the Pacific islands, has been reported to perform well in experimental scale constructed wetland (CW) systems. However, little is known about how high NH4+ concentrations prevailing in wastewater ...

  9. Framework Guidance Manual for In Situ Wetland Restoration Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    used include coconut shell , coal (lignite, bituminous or anthracite), or wood. Treatment increases the specific surface area greatly (generally in...Ignatowicz, K., (2011). A mass transfer model for the adsorption of pesticide on coconut shell based activated carbon, International Journal of Heat and...solutions by banana stalks activated carbon, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 176(1-3):814-819. Satapanajaru, T., P. Anurakpongsatorn, P

  10. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Ross

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  11. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-03-19

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  12. 40 CFR 230.41 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 230.41 Section 230.41... Aquatic Sites § 230.41 Wetlands. (a)(1) Wetlands consist of areas that are inundated or saturated by...) Where wetlands are adjacent to open water, they generally constitute the transition to upland. The...

  13. Modeling and Understanding BOD Removal Processes in Free-Water Surface Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Free-water surface constructed wetlands have proven to be effective systems for removal of various pollutants in wastewater and agricultural drainage water. Modeling tools are needed for understanding the processes and mechanisms responsible for the removal of pollutants and for the design of new constructed wetlands. This paper presents a new model for mimicking the processes and mechanisms controlling the removal of BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) in free-water surface constructed wetlands. The processes and mechanisms, simulated in the model, include advection, dispersion, diffusion, monod kinetics of bacterial growth, water gains (via precipitation) and losses (evaporation and seepage) and mass exchange between water column and root layers of a wetland. A novel feature of the new model is the incorporation of a dynamic diffusive root-zone. Sensitivity analysis of the model input vaiables indicates that the BOD removal in free water surface constructed wetlands is most sensitive to the biological removal process of BOD in the root zone, controlled by acetic acid and anaerobic bacteria in root zone, and the flow velocity (controlling mean hydraulic residence time) and organic carbon in the water column. The application of the new model is demonstrated through two case studies involving two distinct constructed wetlands with one (Gustine Wetland) for treatment of secondary wastewater located in the USA and another (Lake Manzala Engineered Wetland) for treatment of agricultural drainage water in Egypt. The model is relatively simple yet effective, as evidenced by the high coefficient of determination of 0.73 - 0.99 for the Gustine Wetland and 0.98 for Manzala Wetland. The model is a reliable and efficient tool for designing constructed wetlands and for understanding effects of various processes and mechanisms on the treatment efficiency of wastewater in constructed wetlands.

  14. Mapping wetland functions using Earth observation data and multi-criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapinel, Sébastien; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Clément, Bernard; Maltby, Edward

    2016-11-01

    Wetland functional assessment is commonly conducted based on field observations, and thus, is generally limited to small areas. However, there is often a need for wetland managers to obtain information on wetland functional performance over larger areas. For this purpose, we are proposing a new field-based functional assessment procedure in which wetland functions are evaluated and classified into hydrogeomorphic units according to a multi-criteria analysis approach. Wetland-related geographic information system layers derived from Earth observation data (LiDAR, multispectral and radar data) are used in this study for a large-scale functional evaluation. These include maps of a hydrogeomorphic units, ditches, vegetation, annual flood duration, biomass, meadows management, and wetland boundaries. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, a 132 km(2) international long-term ecological research site located in the west of France was assessed. Four wetland functions were evaluated: flood peak attenuation, low water attenuation, denitrification, and habitat. A spatial distribution map of the individual wetland functions was generated, and the intensity levels of the functions were highlighted. Antagonisms between functions within individual hydrogeomorphic units were also identified. Mapping of hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological wetland functions over large areas can provide an efficient tool for policy makers and other stakeholders including water authorities, nature conservation agencies, and farmers. Specifically, this tool has the potential to provide a mapping of ecosystem services, conservation management priorities, and possible improvements in water resources management.

  15. Effects of climate on numbers of northern prairie wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.

    1995-01-01

    The amount of water held in individual wetland basins depends not only on local climate patterns but also on groundwater flow regime, soil permeability, and basin size. Most wetland basins in the northern prairies hold water in some years and are dry in others. To assess the potential effect of climate change on the number of wetland basins holding water in a given year, one must first determine how much of the variability in number of wet basins is accounted for by climatic variables. I used multiple linear regression to examine the relationship between climate variables and percentage of wet basins throughout the Prairie Pothole Region of Canada and the United States. The region was divided into three areas: parkland, Canadian grassland, and United States grassland (i.e., North Dakota and South Dakota). The models - which included variables for spring and fall temperature, yearly precipitation, the previous year's count of wet basins, and for grassland areas, the previous fall precipitation - accounted for 63 to 65% of the variation in the number of wet basins. I then explored the sensitivities of the models to changes in temperature and precipitation, as might be associated with increased greenhouse gas concentrations. Parkland wetlands are shown to be much more vulnerable to increased temperatures than are wetlands in either Canadian or United States grasslands. Sensitivity to increased precipitation did not vary geographically. These results have implications for waterfowl and other wildlife populations that depend on availability of wetlands in the parklands for breeding or during periods of drought in the southern grasslands.

  16. Local biogeomorphic feedbacks and macroscale drivers shape coastal wetland distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, A. E.; Heffernan, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    Recent models have demonstrated that lateral biogeomorphic processes are important for the persistence of coastal wetlands in the face of sea level rise and other anthropogenic pressures. Yet empirical studies of marsh ecomorphodynamics have largely focused on vertical accretion. Moreover, local vertical and lateral processes of marsh-building depend on external sediment supply and the wave energy environment, and thus are connected to macroscale characteristics such as estuarine morphology and watershed size. These broad scale drivers, combined with local biogeomorphic feedbacks within wetlands, determine wetland extent. Our goal is to understand the scales at which local biogeomorphic feedbacks and macroscale estuarine and watershed characteristics influence the distribution of coastal marshes. To that end, we examined the distribution of wetland extent and its potential watershed and estuarine drivers at multiple scales along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, USA. Using existing GIS resources, we delineated extents of coastal wetlands, and generated proxies of sediment input, estuarine energy, and human alteration. We found that distributions of wetland extent were bi-modal at the finest scale of our analysis (approx. 1-100 km2), a finding that is consistent with theoretical models of local marsh feedbacks. At larger spatial scales, distributions of marsh extent were associated with both estuarine size and drainage ratio. These relationships indicate that sediment supply and erosion ultimately constrain the extent of marsh development and persistence, while local feedbacks operate at smaller scales. Our findings support and extend theory and observation at the scale of marsh platforms and lagoons, but also demonstrate the importance of macroscale watershed and estuarine characteristics for wetland establishment and persistence.

  17. Potential effects of foundation species loss on wetland communities: A case study of black ash wetlands threatened by emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa B. Youngquist; Sue L. Eggert; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak

    2017-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle that causes almost complete mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and Europe. Northern temperate wetlands, where black ash (F. nigra) is a dominant and foundation species, will likely undergo dramatic shifts after EAB...

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  19. Indicators of hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological integrity for estimating potential loss of ecosystem services from wetlands on domesticated landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, I. F.; Aldred, D.; Spargo, A.; Bayley, S.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are being lost at an alarming rate in the prairie pothole landscape of North America. The full consequence of this loss is not fully understood or recognized due to (1) inadequate or incomplete wetland inventories (with mapping emphasizing permanent and not ephemeral wetlands, and only capturing "easy to observe" wetland area defined by open water and not the true dynamic wetland extent defined by saturated soils), and (2) lack of appropriate theoretical frameworks to assess the functions and benefits of these wetlands. We present a theoretical framework that integrates indicators to estimate functions and benefits of wetland integrity in central Alberta. We establish indicators using the principles that are representative of the dominant processes operating on the landscape, are simple and are scalable. While some of these indicators may be widely recognized, their implementation is often not comprehensive or complete. First, we develop an automated method for fine scale mapping of permanent and ephemeral wetlands from a fusion of high-resolution elevation data and aerial photography. Second, we estimate historic wetland loss over the past 50 years during which intensive domestication of the landscape occurred by modeling the distribution of wetlands in an undisturbed landscape using area-frequency power functions and calculating the difference in the actual wetland inventory. Third, we define relative wetland assessment units using cluster analysis of hydrological and ecological variables, including climate, geology, topography, soils and land use/land covers. Fourth, for each assessment unit we define indicators of functions and benefits of aquatic ecosystem services including water storage (surface and subsurface), phosphorus retention, nitrate removal, sediment retention, ecological health/biodiversity and human use, and then use practical strategies rooted in the fusion of digital terrain analysis and remote sensing techniques to measure and monitor

  20. Influence of conservation programs on amphibians using seasonal wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Caleb J.; Euliss, Ned H.; Mushnet, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive modification of upland habitats surrounding wetlands to facilitate agricultural production has negatively impacted amphibian communities in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America. In attempts to mitigate ecosystem damage associated with extensive landscape alteration, vast tracks of upland croplands have been returned to perennial vegetative cover (i.e., conservation grasslands) under a variety of U.S. Department of Agriculture programs. We evaluated the influence of these conservation grasslands on amphibian occupancy of seasonal wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region. Using automated call surveys, aquatic funnel traps, and visual encounter surveys, we detected eight amphibian species using wetlands within three land-use categories (farmed, conservation grasslands, and native prairie grasslands) during the summers of 2005 and 2006. Seasonal wetlands within farmlands were used less frequently by amphibians than those within conservation and native prairie grasslands, and wetlands within conservation grasslands were used less frequently than those within native prairie grasslands by all species and life-stages we successfully modeled. Our results suggest that, while not occupied as frequently as wetlands within native prairie, wetlands within conservation grasslands provide important habitat for maintaining amphibian biodiversity in the Prairie Pothole Region

  1. A smart market for nutrient credit trading to incentivize wetland construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John F.; Prabodanie, R. A. Ranga; Kostel, Jill A.

    2017-03-01

    Nutrient trading and constructed wetlands are widely discussed solutions to reduce nutrient pollution. Nutrient markets usually include agricultural nonpoint sources and municipal and industrial point sources, but these markets rarely include investors who construct wetlands to sell nutrient reduction credits. We propose a new market design for trading nutrient credits, with both point source and non-point source traders, explicitly incorporating the option of landowners to build nutrient removal wetlands. The proposed trading program is designed as a smart market with centralized clearing, done with an optimization. The market design addresses the varying impacts of runoff over space and time, and the lumpiness of wetland investments. We simulated the market for the Big Bureau Creek watershed in north-central Illinois. We found that the proposed smart market would incentivize wetland construction by assuring reasonable payments for the ecosystem services provided. The proposed market mechanism selects wetland locations strategically taking into account both the cost and nutrient removal efficiencies. The centralized market produces locational prices that would incentivize farmers to reduce nutrients, which is voluntary. As we illustrate, wetland builders' participation in nutrient trading would enable the point sources and environmental organizations to buy low cost nutrient credits.

  2. Microtopography enhances nitrogen cycling and removal in created mitigation wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, K.L.; Ahn, C.; Noe, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Natural wetlands often have a heterogeneous soil surface topography, or microtopography (MT), that creates microsites of variable hydrology, vegetation, and soil biogeochemistry. Created mitigation wetlands are designed to mimic natural wetlands in structure and function, and recent mitigation projects have incorporated MT as one way to attain this goal. Microtopography may influence nitrogen (N) cycling in wetlands by providing adjacent areas of aerobic and anaerobic conditions and by increasing carbon storage, which together facilitate N cycling and removal. This study investigated three created wetlands in the Virginia Piedmont that incorporated disking-induced MT during construction. One site had paired disked and undisked plots, allowing an evaluation of the effects of this design feature on N flux rates. Microtopography was measured using conventional survey equipment along a 1-m circular transect and was described using two indices: tortuosity (T), describing soil surface roughness and relief, and limiting elevation difference (LD), describing soil surface relief. Ammonification, nitrification, and net N mineralization were determined with in situ incubation of modified ion-exchange resin cores and denitrification potential was determined using denitrification enzyme assay (DEA). Results demonstrated that disked plots had significantly greater LD than undisked plots one year after construction. Autogenic sources of MT (e.g. tussock-forming vegetation) in concert with variable hydrology and sedimentation maintained and in some cases enhanced MT in study wetlands. Tortuosity and LD values remained the same in one wetland when compared over a two-year period, suggesting a dynamic equilibrium of MT-forming and -eroding processes at play. Microtopography values also increased when comparing the original induced MT of a one-year old wetland with MT of older created wetlands (five and eight years old) with disking-induced MT, indicating that MT can increase by

  3. Examination of oxygen release from plants in constructed wetlands in different stages of wetland plant life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Haiming; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of oxygen release by plants in different stages of wetland plant life cycle was made in this study. Results obtained from 1 year measurement in subsurface wetland microcosms demonstrated that oxygen release from Phragmites australis varied from 108.89 to 404.44 mg O₂/m(2)/d during the different periods from budding to dormancy. Plant species, substrate types, and culture solutions had a significant effect on the capacity of oxygen release of wetland plants. Oxygen supply by wetland plants was estimated to potentially support a removal of 300.37 mg COD/m(2)/d or 55.87 mg NH₄-N/m(2)/d. According to oxygen balance analysis, oxygen release by plants could provide 0.43-1.12% of biochemical oxygen demand in typical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs). This demonstrates that oxygen release of plants may be a potential source for pollutants removal especially in low-loaded CWs. The results make it possible to quantify the role of plants in wastewater purification.

  4. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: WETLANDS (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the coastal wetland habitats for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands classified according to the Environmental...

  5. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2015 Meramec Wetland Complex (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map and rank wetlands for the Meramec River bottomland in Missouri. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information and air...

  6. Impact of wetlands mapping on parameterization of hydrologic simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands and other surface depressions can impact hydrologic response within the landscape in a number of ways, such as intercepting runoff and near-surface flows or changing the potential for evaporation and seepage into the soil. The role of these features is increasingly being integrated into hydrological simulation models, such as the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), and applied to landscapes where wetlands are dominating features. Because the extent of these features varies widely through time, many modeling applications rely on delineations of the maximum possible extent to define total capacity of a model's spatial response unit. This poster presents an evaluation of several wetland map delineations for the Pipestem River basin in the North Dakota Prairie-pothole region. The featured data sets include the US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), surface water bodies extracted from the US Geological Survey National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), and elevation depressions extracted from 1 meter LiDAR data for the area. In addition to characterizing differences in the quality of these datasets, the poster will assess the impact of these differences when parameters are derived from them for the spatial response units of the PRMS model.

  7. The importance of water quality to wetland establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trites, M.; Bayley, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Extracting oil from sands produces huge volumes of saline tailings. This presentation demonstrated that the ability to recreate boreal peatland communities after oil sands mining will be constrained by water quality. Typical boreal wetlands can be described along a bog to poor fen to rich fen gradient that correlates to increasing water pH and calcium concentration. There are major differences in vegetation communities along this gradient. Bogs and poor fens are characterized by slowly decomposing Sphagnum moss, while brown moss and productive herbaceous communities characterize rich fens. Post-mining wetlands generally have sodium concentrations above the tolerance limits of most freshwater peatland species. This study involved a survey of 25 boreal wetlands across a natural salinity gradient to determine a suite of potential native vegetation species to use for oils sand reclamation. Sixteen herbaceous vegetation communities that could be incorporated into oil sands wetlands were identified, but the diversity of communities decreased as salinity increased. Some of these wetlands had thick organic matter accumulations, despite having salinity equal to or higher than oil sands wetlands. Organic matter accumulation rates were also measured. If salinity is moderate and nutrient levels adequate, highly productive species like Carex aquatilis and Typha latifolia can accumulate organic matter quickly. Triglochin maritima can accumulate organic matter over the long term, even if salinity is high and nutrient levels are low. Although there is potential for peat to accumulate in future oil sands wetlands, the rates of peat accumulation will probably be slower than in undisturbed freshwater bogs and fens because of the elevated salinity. tabs., figs.

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  10. Complete Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  13. Integrating geographically isolated wetlands into land management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands across the globe provide extensive ecosystem services. However, many wetlands – especially those surrounded by uplands, often referred to as geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) – remain poorly protected. Protection and restoration of wetlands frequently r...

  14. Wetland Habitats for Wildlife of the Chesapeake Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report reviews wildlife that use these three general wetland habitats; shallow water wetlands, forested wetlands and emergent wetlands. Wildlife discussed are...

  15. Wetland plants: biology and ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronk, Julie K; Fennessy, M. Siobhan

    2001-01-01

    .... You get a thorough discussion of the range of wetland plant adaptations to life in water or saturated soils, high salt or high sulfur, low light and low carbon dioxide levels, as well as a detailed...

  16. Transfer of pesticides and copper in a stormwater wetland receiving contaminated runoff from a vineyard catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, E.; Babcsanyi, I.; Payraudeau, S.; Imfeld, G.

    2012-04-01

    Wetlands can collect contaminated runoff from urban and agricultural catchments, and have intrinsic physical, chemical and biological processes useful for mitigating pesticides. However, knowledge about the ability of wetlands to mitigate pesticide mixtures in runoff is currently very limited. Our results show that stormwater wetlands that primarily serve for flood protection can also be effective tools for reducing concentrations and loads of runoff-related pesticides. Concentrations and loads of 20 pesticides and degradation products, as well as copper were continuously recorded during the period of pesticide application (April to September 2009, 2010 and 2011) at the inlet, the outlet and in sediments of a stormwater wetland that collects runoff from a vineyard catchment. Removal rates of dissolved loads ranged from 39% (simazine) to 100% (cymoxanil, gluphosinate, kresoxim methyl and terbuthylazine). Dimethomorph, diuron, glyphosate and metalaxyl were more efficiently removed in spring than in summer. The calculation of sedimentation rates from discharge measurements and total suspended solids (TSS) values revealed that the wetland retained more than 77% of the input mass of suspended solids, underscoring the capability of the wetland to trap pesticide-laden particles. Only flufenoxuron was frequently detected in the wetland sediments. An inter-annual comparison showed that changes in the removal of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA, a degradation product of glyphosate), isoxaben or simazine can be attributed mainly to the larger vegetation cover in 2010 compared to 2009. More than 80% of the copper load entering the wetland was retained in the sediments and the plants. Our results demonstrate that stormwater wetlands can efficiently remove pesticide mixtures and copper in agricultural runoff during critical periods of pesticide application. Nevertheless, fluctuations in the runoff regime, as well as the vegetation and hydrochemical characteristics affect the

  17. Using Halogens (Cl, Br, F, I) and Stable Isotopes of Water (δ18O, δ2H) to Trace Hydrological and Biogeochemical Processes in Prairie Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Z. F.; Lu, Z.; Mills, C. T.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Mushet, D.; Siegel, D. I.; Fiorentino, A. J., II; Gade, M.; Spradlin, J.

    2014-12-01

    Prairie pothole wetlands are ubiquitous features of the Great Plains of North America, and important habitat for amphibians and migratory birds. The salinity of proximal wetlands varies highly due to groundwater-glacial till interactions, which influence wetland biota and associated ecosystem functions. Here we use halogens and stable isotopes of water to fingerprint hydrological and biogeochemical controls on salt cycling in a prairie wetland complex. We surveyed surface, well, and pore waters from a groundwater recharge wetland (T8) and more saline closed (P1) and open (P8) basin discharge wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake Study Area (ND) in August/October 2013 and May 2014. Halogen concentrations varied over a broad range throughout the study area (Cl = 2.2 to 170 mg/L, Br = 13 to 2000 μg/L, F = biological mechanisms or weathering of shale from glacial till.

  18. Data mining, GIS and remote sensing: Application in wetland hydrological investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    The Prairie Pothole Region in the United States contains millions of seasonal, semipermanent, or permanent lakes and wetlands that typically range in size from 0.1 to 10 hectares. These lakes and wetlands are vulnerable to climate change, especially in our study area of South Dakota, in which a period of deluge following a sharp drought considerably expanded the areal extent of prairie pothole lakes during the last decade of the twentieth century. Preliminary estimates of lake areas, determined using Landsat 5 and 7 images, had appreciable errors especially for the smallest of these lakes. We developed a new sub-pixel approach integrated with a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) model using a Geographical Information System (GIS) to quantify mixed water pixels along lake boundaries to improve the area estimations for pothole lakes. Errors in estimated area were typically 10 percent or less for lakes greater than 1 hectare in size. An analysis of lakes in our study area using GIS and remote sensing technologies demonstrates how total areas and numbers of lakes and wetlands in different sizes changed with the transition from drought to deluge. Small lakes exhibited a distinct seasonal variation in contrast to large lakes that tended to follow longer trends more broadly. The total areas and numbers of small lakes and wetlands are mostly related with the 6-month evaportranspiration (ET) variation, while the variables of large lakes are highly correlated with the mean Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) of a 48-month time period. We also examine the response of a complex lake/wetland system to variations in climate. The focus is on lakes and wetlands within the Prairie Coteau Region, which is part of the larger Prairie Pothole region of the Central Plains of North America. Information on lake size was enumerated from satellite images and aerial photos and yielded power-law relationships for different hydrological conditions. Of particular interest was a recent

  19. Radioiodine concentrated in a wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel I; Zhang, Saijin; Roberts, Kimberly A; Schwehr, Kathy; Xu, Chen; Creeley, Danielle; Ho, Yi-Fang; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Yeager, Chris M; Santschi, Peter H

    2014-05-01

    Most subsurface environmental radioactivity contamination is expected to eventually resurface in riparian zones, or wetlands. There are a number of extremely sharp biogeochemical interfaces in wetlands that could alter radionuclide speciation and promote accumulation. The objective of this study was to determine if a wetland concentrated (129)I emanating from a former waste disposal basin located on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA. Additionally, studies were conducted to evaluate the role of sediment organic matter in immobilizing the radioiodine. Groundwater samples were collected along a 0.7-km transect away from the seepage basin and in the downstream wetlands. The samples were analyzed for (129)I speciation (iodide (I(-)), iodate (IO3(-)), and organo-I). Groundwater (129)I concentrations in many locations in the wetlands (as high as 59.9 Bq L(-1)(129)I) were greatly elevated with respect to the source term (5.9 Bq L(-1)(129)I). (129)I concentration profiles in sediment cores were closely correlated to organic matter concentrations (r(2) = 0.992; n = 5). While the sediment organic matter promoted the uptake of (129)I to the wetland sediment, it also promoted the formation of a soluble organic fraction: 74% of the wetland groundwater (129)I could pass through a 1 kDa (wetlands may be highly effective at immobilizing aqueous (129)I, they may also promote the formation of a low-molecular-weight organic species that does not partition to sediments. This study provides a rare example of radioactivity concentrations increasing rather than decreasing as it migrates from a point source and brings into question assumptions in risk models regarding continuous dilution of released contaminants.

  20. Ecohydraulics and Estuarine Wetland Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saintilan, N.; Spencer, J.

    2004-12-01

    The hydraulics or water flow in wetlands is known to be a key factor influencing ecosystem development in estuarine wetland environments. The relationship is indirect, with the hydraulics of wetlands influencing a host of factors including soil salinity, waterlogging, sediment transport, sediment chemistry, vegetation dispersal and growth and nutrient availability and cycling. The relationship is also not one way, with the hydraulics of wetlands being influenced by plant and animal activity. Understanding these complex interactions is fundamental for the adequate management of estuarine wetlands. Listed as a Wetland of International Importance under the 1971 Ramsar Convention, the Hunter River estuary is regarded as the most significant site for migratory shorebirds in New South Wales, Australia. Over the past 20 years, the number of migratory shorebirds in the estuary has sharply declined from 8,000 to 4,000 approx. Alteration of bird habitat is believed to be one of the reasons for this alarming trend. In 2004 we started a three-year program to investigate the links between hydraulics, sediment, benthic invertebrates, vegetation and migratory shorebird habitat in the estuary. During the first year we have focused on a highly disturbed part of the Hunter estuary wetlands located on Ash Island. The area is one of the major roosting sites in the estuary and is characterized by a complex hydraulic regime due to a restricted tidal interchange with the Hunter River and the presence of infrastructure for the maintenance of power lines (i.e., roads, bridges, culverts). Salt marshes, mudflat and mangroves are the dominant vegetation types. The monitoring program includes measurements of water levels, salinity, discharge, velocity, turbulence, sediment transport and deposition, plant species and density, soil composition and benthic invertebrates coordinated with observations of bird habitat utilization on a number of locations throughout the wetland and for different flow

  1. Ground water dependence of endangered ecosystems: Nebraska's eastern saline wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F; Gosselin, David C

    2007-01-01

    Many endangered or threatened ecosystems depend on ground water for their survival. Nebraska's saline wetlands, home to a number of endangered species, are ecosystems whose development, sustenance, and survival depend on saline ground water discharge at the surface. This study demonstrates that the saline conditions present within the eastern Nebraska saline wetlands result from the upwelling of saline ground water from within the underlying Dakota Aquifer and deeper underlying formations of Pennsylvanian age. Over thousands to tens of thousands of years, saline ground water has migrated over regional scale flowpaths from recharge zones in the west to the present-day discharge zones along the saline streams of Rock, Little Salt, and Salt Creeks in Lancaster and Saunders counties. An endangered endemic species of tiger beetle living within the wetlands has evolved under a unique set of hydrologic conditions, is intolerant to recent anthropogenic changes in hydrology and salinity, and is therefore on the brink of extinction. As a result, the fragility of such systems demands an even greater understanding of the interrelationships among geology, hydrology, water chemistry, and biology than in less imperiled systems where adaptation is more likely. Results further indicate that when dealing with ground water discharge-dependent ecosystems, and particularly those dependent on dissolved constituents as well as the water, wetland management must be expanded outside of the immediate surface location of the visible ecosystem to include areas where recharge and lateral water movement might play a vital role in wetland hydrologic and chemical mixing dynamics.

  2. Mangrove wetland ecosystems in Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafi Noor ISLAM; Albrecht GNAUCK

    2008-01-01

    The Sundarbans is one of the productive man-grove wetland ecosystems in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh. The delta is undergoing rapid eco-logical changes due to human activity. In the present study, surface water salinity data from 13 rivers of the Sundarbans were collected in order to investigate the sal-ine water intrusion in the mangrove wetlands. Results demonstrate that saline water has penetrated the upstream area as river water salinity has increased signifi-cantly in 1976 compared to the year 1968. The soil and river water salinity data also shows that it has crossed the water salinity threshold line in most parts of the Sundarbans wetlands. These observations are due to the construction of Farakka Barrage in 1975, which reduced the water discharge of the Ganges River from 3700 m3/s in 1962 to 364 m3/s in 2006. The shortage of freshwater dis-charge to the deltaic area is trailing active ecosystems function, especially in the dry season in the south western region in Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to understand and analyze the present degraded mangrove wetland ecosystems and their negative impacts. The find-ings of this study would contribute to the formulation of the mangrove wetland ecosystems management plan inthe Ganges delta of Bangladesh.

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  6. Round-year wetland treatment of runoff from peat production areas; Turvetuotannon valumavesien ympaerivuotinen kaesittely pintavalutuskentillae ja muilla kosteikoilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantonen, S.H.

    2011-07-01

    Best available technologies (BAT) in treatment of runoff from peat production areas are treatment wetlands and chemical purification. Warm winters have increased the necessity of efficient round-year treatment and runoff pumping to wetland in wintertime is frequently required in the production permit. There's no compiled knowledge of performance of round-year wetland treatment and there has been some problems with pumping in wintertime. The purpose of this study is to clarify if the round-year wetland treatment is effective and what are the factors which are affecting to the treatment processes. By these results viability of round-year wetland treatment can be assessed and construction of new wetlands can be instructed. These results are important for peat producers and the authorities which control peat production. This study includes 21 round-year treatment wetlands from Northern and Western Finland. The performance of these study areas was evaluated by comparing mean discharge, concentrations in outgoing water, gross specific loads and concentration reductions to reference data. The effect of wetlands' characteristics to water purification results was investigated by statistical methods. Some of the study areas were operating poorly when others worked markedly well. In few cases concentration reductions were better than the average of treatment wetlands also in winter. Instead in some study areas wetland treatment increased concentrations in outgoing water and reductions were negative. In these few cases round-year wetland treatment is rather harmful. The performance of wetlands seemed to be case dependent and there were no design parameters or technical solutions which affected clearly to water purification results. according to statistical analysis concentrations in outgoing water and gross specific loads correlate mostly with site's location on north-south axis. Statistical analysis indicates also that water distribution solution is connected

  7. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat: 17 Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides brief descriptions of 17 wetland treatment systems from across the country that are providing significant water quality benefits while demonstrating additional benefits such as wildlife habitat.

  8. Management practices and controls on methane emissions from sub-tropical wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Nicholas; Casa-Nova Gomez, Nuri; Bernacchi, Carl

    2015-04-01

    that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. Grazing alone, does not appear to alter net ecosystem CH4 emissions from subtropical semi-native and improved wetlands. Pasture type is a stronger indicator of wetland methane potential. Wetlands embedded in improved pastures exhibited periods of increased methane emission that was particularly noticeable during the wet season (July- Nov). These results help quantify GHG emissions from subtropical wetlands under different management practices while demonstrating the differences in these fluxes based on the surrounding ecosystem.

  9. Ecological Processes of Isolated Wetlands: Ecosystem Services and the Significant Nexus (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, C.; Autrey, B.; D'Amico, E.

    2013-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands occur throughout the US and are characterized by a wetland system completely surrounded by uplands. Examples include prairie potholes, woodland seasonal (i.e., vernal) pools, cypress domes, playas, and other such systems. Decisions by the US Supreme Court in 2001 and 2006 have affected the jurisdictional status of geographically isolated wetlands such that those failing to have a demonstrable 'significant nexus' to navigable waters may have no federal protection under the Clean Water Act. These systems are typically small and, as such, may be under-counted in assessments of area and abundance. Areal extent is a portion of the information required to characterize the functions associated with geographically isolated wetlands and understanding both site-specific and larger-scale processes are also required to better quantify those functions. In addition, quantifying anthropogenic effects on system processing informs our understanding of the contributions and the connectivity of geographically isolated wetlands to other waters. This presentation focuses on both efforts to quantify the contribution of geographically isolated wetlands to system-scale processes, focusing on nutrient assimilation and hydrologic storage, as well as concurrent research to identify their locations at multiple scales. Findings from this research may help elucidate the link between geographically isolated wetlands and other systems, and may inform discussions on ecosystem services provided by geographically isolated wetlands.

  10. Generating a Crop Rotation Dataset for the U.S and its Application in Inferring Land Use Change Induced Wetland Losses in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural management practices plays a major role in the global fluxes of greenhouse gases, soil carbon sequestration and production of ecosystem services. A key component of these practices are the crop rotations selected by the farmer. Here, we present an algorithm to create a crop rotation dataset for the U.S and demonstrate the tradeoffs between the number and accuracy of rotations comprising a state. To generate the rotations, we use the USDA Cropland Data Layer (CDL) available for the entire U.S at a resolution of 30 m from 2010 to 2012. Several studies have generated rotations simply by merging several years of CDL data, resulting in thousands of rotations per state. Alternatively, they tend to aggregate the rotations into a few predefined categories. This over simplification can lead to erroneous acreage values impacting both biogeochemical model estimates and land use change studies. Our algorithm uses the edit distance metric to combine similar rotations to obtain a product which retains the accuracy of CDL while minimizing the number of rotations. We find that 180 unique rotations are needed to represent the entire U.S with an accuracy exceeding 80% when compared to the underlying CDL datasets for rotations from 2010 to 2012. For the agriculturally important and diverse Western corn belt, the number of rotations needed to represent each state with an accuracy exceeding 90% when compared to the CDL dataset, ranges from 3 unique rotations for Iowa to more than 50 for North Dakota. As an application of the dataset, we examine the findings of Wright and Wimberly (1), who reported in a recent issue of PNAS that recent grassland conversion to corn and soybean cropping (GRCS) from 2006 to 2011 in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is concentrated in the vicinity of wetlands. Their analysis implicitly assumes that all wetlands affected by GRCS in the PPR existed in or after 2006. However, the areal extent of wetlands was based on National Wetland Inventory maps

  11. Comparison of aerated marsh-pond-marsh and continuous marsh constructed wetlands for treating swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased swine production in North Carolina has resulted in greater waste generation and is demanding some emerging new innovative technologies to effectively treat swine wastewater. One of the cost-effective and passive methods to treat swine wastewater is using constructed wetlands. The objective...

  12. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may...

  13. Practice of Creating National AAA Safe and Civilized Demonstration Site in North Huaqiang Metro Station%华强北地铁创建国家级AAA安全文明示范工地实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新; 吴晓斌

    2015-01-01

    创建国家级AAA安全文明示范工地,提高地铁工程建设的形象,打造精品工程,增强企业的竞争力,提高安全意识和管理水平,交流先进管理经验,抓好工程整体推进及成本投入控制。采取“压噪音、抑扬尘、绝泥水、靓围挡”的文明施工总要求,减少对周边居民和商铺产生的影响,严格落实质量安全文明生产各项规定并形成长效机制,为把华强北建设成国家AAA级安全文明标准化诚信工地奠定了坚实的基础。%This paper tries to create national AAA safe and civilized demonstration site, improve the image of subway construction, create fine works, enhance the competitiveness of enterprises, improve safety awareness and management level, exchange advanced management experience, and grasp the overall progress and cost investment control of project. This paper takes the general requirements of civil construction of "noise reduction, dust suppression, never muddy, good enclosure" to reduce the impact on nearby residents and shops, strictly implements the provisions of safety and civilized production quality and forms long-term mechanism, which has laid a solid foundation for the construction of national AAA safe and civilized demonstration site of north Huaqiang metro station.

  14. Wetland Survey of Selected Areas in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Area of Responsibilty, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel

    1997-01-01

    This document was prepared to summarize wetland surveys performed in the Y- 1 2 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994. Wetland surveys were conducted in three areas within the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994: the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Operable Unit (OU), part of the Bear Creek Valley OU (the upper watershed of Bear Creek from the culvert under Bear Creek Road upstream through the Y-12 West End Environmental Management Area, and the catchment of Bear Creek North Tributary 1), and part of Chestnut Ridge OU 2 (the McCoy Branch area south of Bethel Valley Road). Using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual, 18 wetland areas were identified in the 3 areas surveyed; these areas were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin. Fourteen wetlands and one wetland/pond area that are associated with disturbed or remnant stream channels and seeps were identified in the UEFPC OU. Three wetlands were identified in the Bear Creek Valley OU portion of the survey area. One wetland was identified in the riparian zone of McCoy Branch in the southern portion of Chestnut Ridge OU 2.

  15. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  16. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  18. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning r...

  19. Michigan Wetlands: Yours To Protect. A Citizen's Guide to Local Involvement in Wetland Protection. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikiel, Wilfred

    This guidebook is designed to assist concerned Michigan citizens, local governments, conservation organizations, landowners, and others in their efforts to initiate wetlands protection activities. Chapter 1 focuses on wetland functions, values, losses, and the urgent need to protect wetland resources. Chapter 2 discusses wetland identification and…

  20. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs) Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  1. Designated Wetlands and Setback Distances in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This GIS layer depicts wetlands designated for protection in the state of Iowa. Designated wetland is defined in Iowa Code subsection 459.102(21) as follows: 21....

  2. Wetland Ecology Principles and Conservation, Second Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Smardon

    2014-01-01

    This is a book review of Wetland Ecology Principles and Conservation, second edition, by Paul Keddy. This review focuses on the book’s content as it relates to wetland sustainability for both science and management. Besides overall comments, comparisons are made with the first edition of the book and then very specific chapter-by-chapter relationships to wetland sustainability are made to illustrate specific applications toward wetland sustainability.

  3. A Satellite Based Method for Wetland Inundation Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, C.; Georgakakos, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrologic models of wetlands enable hydrologists and water resources managers to appreciate the environmental and societal roles of wetlands and manage them in ways that preserve their integrity and sustain their valuable services. However, wetland model reliability and accuracy are often unsatisfactory due to the complexity of the underlying processes and the lack of adequate in-situ data. In this research, we demonstrate how MODIS satellite imagery can be used to characterize wetland flooding over time and to support the development of more reliable wetland models. We apply this method to the Sudd, a seasonal wetland in South Sudan that is part of the Nile River Basin. The database consists of 16 years of 8-day composite ground surface reflectance data with a 500 m spatial resolution downloaded from Earth Explorer. After masking poor quality pixels, monthly mean NDWI and NDVI values were extracted. Based on literature and personal accounts describing the Sudd as well as Google Earth imagery, a set of ground truth locations were identified for each land class and monthly distributions of the indices were derived. The indices were then combined in a unique way and statistics of the new distributions were used to classify land types present in the full area of interest. Subsequently, annual statistics were derived from the same indices and used to identify pixels that undergo flooding as well as the timing and duration of flooding for each year (2000-2015). An independent set of ground truth locations were selected for method validation. The combined indices demonstrate high land classification accuracy and outperform the individual indices as well as other existing land classification algorithms. The derived monthly inundation series agrees well with literature and anecdotal observations. This information is currently being used to develop wetland models as part of a comprehensive modeling system for the Nile River Basin. The new method is general and can be used

  4. In situ detection of the Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin gene in wetland sediments with a nested PCR assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J.L.; Rocke, T.E.; Aiken, Judd M.

    1999-01-01

    A nested PCR was developed for detection of the Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin gene in sediments collected from wetlands where avian botulism outbreaks had or had not occurred. The C1 toxin gene was detected in 16 of 18 sites, demonstrating both the ubiquitous distribution of C. botulinum type C in wetland sediments and the sensitivity of the detection assay.

  5. Monitored landscape change of Lake Baiyangdian wetland with dynamic reed area based on remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; He, Lei; Zhang, Shengwei; Lei, Yuping

    2009-09-01

    Lake Baiyangdian, a largest wetland ecosystem in North China Plain, has dried up on seven occasions since the 1960s. In recent years, more than one billion of cubic meters of water from upstream reservoirs and Yellow river have been transported to the lake to rescue the shrinking wetlands. Since the Lake Baiyangdian was actually composed of 143 small lakes and more than 70 villages with large or small area of cropland, dynamic distribution of aquatic plants in wetland such as reed and associated growth condition of these allowed to monitor the changes of wetland landscape and water quality to support the policy applications of water conveyance and wetland environmental treatment and control. Assisted with ground survey analyses and Landsat TM image, the MODIS 250 m time series Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), given its combination of medium spatial and high temporal resolution, were applied to detect the unique rapid growth stage of reed in the spring from adjacent crops such as winter wheat, cotton, and spring maize, of which has a similar phenology in development of leaf area index, and dynamic reed areas were mapped in recent decade. Landscape changes of the wetland were analyzed using maps of reed area and hydrological data.

  6. Sediment accumulation in prairie wetlands under a changing climate: The relative roles of landscape and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan; Burris, Lucy E.; Granfors, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment accumulation threatens the viability and hydrologic functioning of many naturally formed depressional wetlands across the interior regions of North America. These wetlands provide many ecosystem services and vital habitats for diverse plant and animal communities. Climate change may further impact sediment accumulation rates in the context of current land use patterns. We estimated sediment accretion in wetlands within a region renowned for its large populations of breeding waterfowl and migrant shorebirds and examined the relative roles of precipitation and land use context in the sedimentation process. We modeled rates of sediment accumulation from 1971 through 2100 using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with a sediment delivery ratio and the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition model (USPED). These models predicted that by 2100, 21–33 % of wetlands filled completely with sediment and 27–46 % filled by half with sediments; estimates are consistent with measured sediment accumulation rates in the region reported by empirical studies. Sediment accumulation rates were strongly influenced by size of the catchment, greater coverage of tilled landscape within the catchment, and steeper slopes. Conservation efforts that incorporate the relative risk of infilling of wetlands with sediments, thus emphasizing areas of high topographic relief and large watersheds, may benefit wetland-dependent biota.

  7. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 258.12 Section 258.12... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.12 Wetlands. (a) New MSWLF units and lateral expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  8. Wetland birds: habitat resources and conservation implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weller, Milton Webster

    1999-01-01

    ... viewpoints [] Introduction []  . . Classification of wetlands [] Factors influencing wetland formation [] Wetlands: what, where, and why []  . . Major...

  9. Conservation of Louisiana's coastal wetland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim L. Chambers; Richard F. Keim; William H. Conner; John W. Jr. Day; Stephen P. Faulkner; Emile S. Gardiner; Melinda s. Hughes; Sammy L. King; Kenneth W. McLeod; Craig A. Miller; J. Andrew Nyman; Gary P. Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale efforts to protect and restore coastal wetlands and the concurrent renewal of forest harvesting in cypress-tupelo swamps have brought new attention to Louisiana's coastal wetland forests in recent years. Our understanding of these coastal wetland forests has been limited by inadequate data and the lack of a comprehensive review of existing information...

  10. Optimizing Commercial Wetlands in Rural Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaeij, de A.T.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Polman, N.B.P.; Reinhard, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial wetlands can contribute to different policy objectives simultaneously. The aim of this study is to investigate the opinion of the Dutch population with respect to commercial wetlands. The commercial wetland functions valued the most by the Dutch population are water treatment and water st

  11. Description of the Wetlands Research Programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walmsley, RD

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a rationale to the development of a multidisciplinary South African Wetland Research Programme. A definition of what is meant by the term wetland is given along with a general description of what types of wetland occur in South...

  12. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  13. Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Phillips, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

  14. A Review of Wetland Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Li, Jing; Sheng, Chunlei; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Li

    2017-04-05

    Wetlands are some of the most important ecosystems on Earth. They play a key role in alleviating floods and filtering polluted water and also provide habitats for many plants and animals. Wetlands also interact with climate change. Over the past 50 years, wetlands have been polluted and declined dramatically as land cover has changed in some regions. Remote sensing has been the most useful tool to acquire spatial and temporal information about wetlands. In this paper, seven types of sensors were reviewed: aerial photos coarse-resolution, medium-resolution, high-resolution, hyperspectral imagery, radar, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. This study also discusses the advantage of each sensor for wetland research. Wetland research themes reviewed in this paper include wetland classification, habitat or biodiversity, biomass estimation, plant leaf chemistry, water quality, mangrove forest, and sea level rise. This study also gives an overview of the methods used in wetland research such as supervised and unsupervised classification and decision tree and object-based classification. Finally, this paper provides some advice on future wetland remote sensing. To our knowledge, this paper is the most comprehensive and detailed review of wetland remote sensing and it will be a good reference for wetland researchers.

  15. A Review of Wetland Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Li, Jing; Sheng, Chunlei; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands are some of the most important ecosystems on Earth. They play a key role in alleviating floods and filtering polluted water and also provide habitats for many plants and animals. Wetlands also interact with climate change. Over the past 50 years, wetlands have been polluted and declined dramatically as land cover has changed in some regions. Remote sensing has been the most useful tool to acquire spatial and temporal information about wetlands. In this paper, seven types of sensors were reviewed: aerial photos coarse-resolution, medium-resolution, high-resolution, hyperspectral imagery, radar, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. This study also discusses the advantage of each sensor for wetland research. Wetland research themes reviewed in this paper include wetland classification, habitat or biodiversity, biomass estimation, plant leaf chemistry, water quality, mangrove forest, and sea level rise. This study also gives an overview of the methods used in wetland research such as supervised and unsupervised classification and decision tree and object-based classification. Finally, this paper provides some advice on future wetland remote sensing. To our knowledge, this paper is the most comprehensive and detailed review of wetland remote sensing and it will be a good reference for wetland researchers. PMID:28379174

  16. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  17. Realizing ecosystem services: wetland hydrologic function along a gradient of ecosystem condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Daniel L; Cohen, Matthew J

    2013-10-01

    Wetlands provide numerous ecosystem services, from habitat provision to pollutant removal, floodwater storage, and microclimate regulation. Delivery of particular services relies on specific ecological functions, and thus to varying degree on wetland ecological condition, commonly quantified as departure from minimally impacted reference sites. Condition assessments are widely adopted as regulatory indicators of ecosystem function, and for some services (e.g., habitat) links between condition and function are often direct. For others, however, links are more tenuous, and using condition alone to enumerate ecosystem value (e.g., for compensatory mitigation) may underestimate important services. Hydrologic function affects many services cited in support of wetland protection both directly (floodwater retention, microclimate regulation) and indirectly (biogeochemical cycling, pollutant removal). We investigated links between condition and hydrologic function to test the hypothesis, embedded in regulatory assessment of wetland value, that condition predicts function. Condition was assessed using rapid and intensive approaches, including Florida's official wetland assessment tool, in 11 isolated forested wetlands in north Florida (USA) spanning a land use intensity gradient. Hydrologic function was assessed using hydrologic regime (mean, variance, and rates of change of water depth), and measurements of groundwater exchange and evapotranspiration (ET). Despite a wide range in condition, no systematic variation in hydrologic regime was observed; indeed reference sites spanned the full range of variation. In contrast, ET was affected by land use, with higher rates in intensive (agriculture and urban) landscapes in response to higher leaf area. ET determines latent heat exchange, which regulates microclimate, a valuable service in urban heat islands. Higher ET also indicates higher productivity and thus carbon cycling. Groundwater exchange regularly reversed flow direction

  18. Wetlands in The Netherlands and New Zealand: optimising biodiversity and carbon sequestration during urbanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roon, Marjorie R

    2012-06-30

    The halting of biodiversity decline of wetlands necessitates ecosystem protection, restoration and re-creation of all wetland types preferably in all suitable landscapes. As peat wetlands (bogs and fens) are superior as carbon stores, and because of their rarity they have a higher biodiversity value relative to other wetland types, they need to be prioritised for protection and restoration. The hydrological, pH, and nutrient conditions essential to each type of wetland that need to be understood and provided for during development are discussed for The Netherlands' and New Zealand. Case studies describe freshwater wetland management and challenges during urbanisation in the Stad van de Zon and Blauwestad in The Netherlands, and in the Styx valley and Pegasus in Christchurch, New Zealand. A summary of the history of urbanisation and wetland destruction, and of biodiversity management for each country provides a context for the case studies. These case studies demonstrate the degree to which the relative values of bogs, fens and swamps, with respect to biodiversity and carbon sequestration, are understood and managed using diverse protection measures, within the boundaries of new urban developments and in adjacent ecological corridors.

  19. An Integrated Approach to Mitigation Wetland Site Selection: A Case Study in Gwacheon, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated approach to mitigation wetland site selection using functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure. This approach enables landscape designers to evaluate the relative priorities of mitigation wetland areas based on functional landscape connectivity and wildlife mobility, as well as landscape structure, composition, and configuration. The least-cost path method is used to evaluate candidate sites for mitigation wetlands with regard to wildlife movement. A set of assessments for landscape indices using FRAGSTATS was applied to identify suitable mitigation wetland areas on the basis of landscape connectivity, composition, and configuration. The study was conducted in Gwacheon, Korea, where there are plans for regional development that will change the landscape. In the first step, a group of 14 candidate sites is identified via analysis of functional landscape connectivity using the least-cost path method. In the second step, candidate mitigation wetland areas are ranked according to landscape connectivity and composition. The five mitigation wetland areas that were found to be suitable were analyzed based on landscape configuration at the class level. This study demonstrates that functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure are important aspects to consider when identifying suitable sites for mitigation wetland planning and restoration.

  20. Conservation of Mediterranean wetlands: interest of historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud-Bouattour, Amina; Muller, Serge D; Jamaa, Hafawa Ferchichi-Ben; Saad-Limam, Samia Ben; Rhazi, Laïla; Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg; Rouissi, Maya; Touati, Besma; Jilani, Imtinène Ben Haj; Gammar, Amor Mokhtar; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb

    2011-10-01

    The wetlands of North Africa are an endangered and invaluable ecological heritage. Some of these wetlands are now protected by various conservation statutes; which actual impact has not yet been reliably evaluated. This article aims to assess the conservation management (Nature Reserve and Ramsar site) of a protected Tunisian lake, Majen Chitane, by using palaeoecological, historical and modern data, and by comparing it with the unprotected lake Majen Choucha. While located in similar environments, these lakes are today home to very different flora. Baseline conditions reconstructed from literature indicate that both lakes were very similar until the 1950s, and comparable to the current state of Majen Choucha, housing rich oligotrophic plant communities. In the 1960s, at the time that cultivation of the adjacent peatland began, Majen Chitane underwent strong ecological changes as the initial oligotrophic plant, diatom and zooplankton communities were replaced by eutrophication-tolerant ones. Eutrophication led to the local extinction of 40-55% of the hydrophytic and temporary-pool plant species, including those characteristic of the Isoetion. Given the damages and despite the recent conservation status of the site, it's unlikely that Majen Chitane will undergo any natural regeneration. Restoring it would start with completely protecting the complex lake-peatland and re-introducing the locally extinct species from Majen Choucha. This work exemplifies the usefulness of connecting palaeoecological, historical and modern data for the conservation of Mediterranean wetlands.

  1. Bridging the conservation design and delivery gap for wetland bird habitat maintenance and restoration in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Potter, B.; Soulliere, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's adoption of Strategic Habitat Conservation is intended to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of conservation delivery by targeting effort in areas where biological benefits are greatest. Conservation funding has not often been allocated in accordance with explicit biological endpoints, and the gap between conservation design (the identification of conservation priority areas) and delivery needs to be bridged to better meet conservation goals for multiple species and landscapes. We introduce a regional prioritization scheme for North American Wetlands Conservation Act funding which explicitly addresses Midwest regional goals for wetland-dependent birds. We developed decision-support maps to guide conservation of breeding and non-breeding wetland bird habitat. This exercise suggested ~55% of the Midwest consists of potential wetland bird habitat, and areas suited for maintenance (protection) were distinguished from those most suited to restoration. Areas with greater maintenance focus were identified for central Minnesota, southeastern Wisconsin, the Upper Mississippi and Illinois rivers, and the shore of western Lake Erie and Saginaw Bay. The shores of Lakes Michigan and Superior accommodated fewer waterbird species overall, but were also important for wetland bird habitat maintenance. Abundant areas suited for wetland restoration occurred in agricultural regions of central Illinois, western Iowa, and northern Indiana and Ohio. Use of this prioritization scheme can increase effectiveness, efficiency, transparency, and credibility to land and water conservation efforts for wetland birds in the Midwestern United States.

  2. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  3. The National Wetland Condition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted in 2011 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Vegetation, algae, soil, water chemistry,and hydrologic data were collected at each of 1138 sites across the contiguous US. Ecological condition was ass...

  4. Mapping inundation in the heterogeneous floodplain wetlands of the Macquarie Marshes, using Landsat Thematic Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rachael F.; Kingsford, Richard T.; Lu, Yi; Cox, Stephen J.; Sims, Neil C.; Hunter, Simon J.

    2015-05-01

    Flood dependent aquatic ecosystems worldwide are in rapid decline with competing demands for water. In Australia, this is particularly evident in the floodplain wetlands of semi-arid regions (e.g. the Macquarie Marshes), which rely on highly variable flooding from river flows. Environmental flows mitigate the impacts of river regulation, inundating floodplains, thereby rehabilitating degraded habitats. Mapping flooding patterns is critical for environmental flow management but challenging in large heterogeneous floodplains with variable patterns of flooding and complex vegetation mosaics. We mapped inundation in the Macquarie Marshes, using Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ images (1989-2010). We classified three inundation classes: water, mixed pixels (water, vegetation, soil) and vegetation (emergent macrophytes obscuring inundation), merged to map inundated areas from not-inundated areas (dry land). We used the Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWIB2/B5), masked by the sum of bands 4, 5, and 7 (sum457), to detect water and mixed pixels. Vegetation was classified using an unsupervised classification of a composite image comprising two dates representing vegetation senescence and green growth, transformed into two contrasting vegetation indices, NDVI and NDIB7/B4. We assessed accuracy using geo-referenced oblique aerial photography, coincident with Landsat imagery for a small and large flood, producing respective overall accuracies of inundated area of 93% and 95%. Producer's and user's accuracies were also high (94-99%). Confusion among inundation classes existed but classes were spectrally distinct from one another and from dry land. Inundation class areas varied with flood size, demonstrating the variability. Inundation extent was highly variable (683-206,611 ha). Floods up to 50,000 ha were confined to the north and south wetland regions. Connectivity to the east region only occurred when flooding was greater than 51,000 ha. Understanding the spatiotemporal

  5. Hydrochemical variability at the Upper Paraguay Basin and Pantanal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende Filho, A. T.; Furian, S.; Victoria, R. L.; Mascré, C.; Valles, V.; Barbiero, L.

    2012-08-01

    Compartmentalization is a prerequisite to understand large wetlands that receive water from several sources. However, it faces the heterogeneity in space and time, resulting from physical, chemical and biological processes that are specific to wetlands. The Pantanal is a vast seasonally flooded continental wetland located in the centre of South America. The chemical composition of the waters that supply the Pantanal (70 rivers) has been studied in order to establish a compartmentalization of the wetland based on soil-water interactions. A PCA-based EMMA (End-Members Mixing Analysis) procedure shows that the chemistry of the rivers can be viewed as a mixture of 3 end-members, influenced by lithology and land use, and delimiting large regions. Although the chemical composition of the end-members changed between dry and wet seasons, their spatial distribution was maintained. The results were extended to the floodplain by simple tributary mixing calculation according to the hydrographical network and to the areas of influence for each river when in overflow conditions. The resulting map highlights areas of high geochemical contrast on either side of the river Cuiaba in the north, and of the rivers Aquidauana and Abobral in the south. The PCA-based treatment on a sampling conducted in the Nhecolândia, a large sub region of the Pantanal, allowed the identification and ordering of the processes that control the geochemical variability of the surface waters. Despite an enormous variability in electrical conductivity and pH, all data collected were in agreement with an evaporation process of the Taquari River water, which supplies the region. Evaporation and associated saline precipitations (Mg-calcite, Mg-silicates K-silicates) explained more than 77% of the total variability in the chemistry of the regional surface water sampling.

  6. Spatial Organization of "Farmed" Wetlands in Iowa's Prairie Pothole Landscape: Geomorphic and Anthropogenic Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunkel, K. B.; Basu, N. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Des Moines Lobe landform within North Central Iowa is the southernmost portion of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) that extends northwest into Canada. The PPR is a vast landscape dotted with thousands of glacially formed depressional wetlands known as prairie potholes. These potholes provide a wide range of ecological and hydrological services and are notable for their high waterfowl productivity. Within Iowa it is estimated that 95% of the wetlands in the Des Moines Lobe have been drained for agricultural purposes. Wetlands in this region are typically drained by subsurface tile drains in an attempt to lower the water table and increase agricultural productivity. Efforts are also underway in restoring some of these drained wetlands. In order to better understand the hydrological impacts of restoring drained wetlands at the watershed scale, it is important to understand how these depressions are distributed in space throughout the Des Moines Lobe. The overall objective of this study was to (1) understand the size-distribution and spatial organization of depressional features in the Des Moines Lobe as a function of watershed area and landform type; and (2) Explore the role of human impact on the size-distribution and spatial organization by comparing depressions based on 1m LIDAR DEM (surrogate for historic wetlands) with "farmed" wetlands based on National Wetlands Inventory (NWI ) data. It was found that the size-frequency relationship follows a power law regression that varies based on the landform type and the size of the study area. The power law function varies predictably with changes in area, suggesting fractal properties within the watersheds examined. Comparison between the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) database and the LIDAR images was used to evaluate the effect of human disturbance on the landscape. The LIDAR captures the depressional areas that correspond to wetlands before the landscape was extensively tile-drained, while NWI captures the

  7. Improving riparian wetland conditions based on infiltration and drainage behavior during and after controlled flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Tess A.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Roche, James W.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryWe present results of an observational and modeling study of the hydrologic response of a riparian wetland to controlled flooding. The study site is located in Poopenaut Valley, Yosemite National Park (USA), adjacent to the Tuolumne River. This area is flooded periodically by releases from the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, and was monitored during one flood sequence to assess the relative importance of inundation versus groundwater rise in establishing and maintaining riparian wetland conditions, defined on the basis of a minimum depth and duration of soil saturation, and to determine how restoration benefits might be achieved while reducing total flood discharge. Soil moisture data show how shallow soils were wetted by both inundation and a rising water table as the river hydrograph rose repeatedly during the controlled flood. The shallow groundwater aquifer under wetland areas responded quickly to conditions in the adjacent river, demonstrating a good connection between surface and subsurface regimes. The observed soil drainage response helped to calibrate a numerical model that was used to test scenarios for controlled flood releases. Modeling of this groundwater-wetland system suggests that inundation of surface soils is the most effective mechanism for developing wetland conditions, although an elevated water table helps to extend the duration of soil saturation. Achievement of wetland conditions can be achieved with a smaller total flood release, provided that repeated cycling of higher and lower river elevations is timed to benefit from the characteristic drainage behavior of wetland soils. These results are robust to modest variations in the initial water table elevation, as might result from wetter or dryer conditions prior to a flood. However, larger changes to initial water table elevation, as could be associated with long term climate change or drought conditions, would have a significant influence on wetland development. An ongoing controlled flooding

  8. Sulfate-reducing microorganisms in wetlands – fameless actors in carbon cycling and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael ePester

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater wetlands are a major source of the greenhouse gas methane but at the same time can function as carbon sink. Their response to global warming and environmental pollution is one of the largest unknowns in the upcoming decades to centuries. In this review, we highlight the role of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM in the intertwined element cycles of wetlands. Although regarded primarily as methanogenic environments, biogeochemical studies have revealed a previously hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands that can sustain rapid renewal of the small standing pools of sulfate. Thus, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, which frequently occurs at rates comparable to marine surface sediments, can contribute up to 36–50% to anaerobic carbon mineralization in these ecosystems. Since sulfate reduction is thermodynamically favored relative to fermentative processes and methanogenesis, it effectively decreases gross methane production thereby mitigating the flux of methane to the atmosphere. However, very little is known about wetland SRM. Molecular analyses using dsrAB [encoding subunit A and B of the dissimilatory (bisulfite reductase] as marker genes demonstrated that members of novel phylogenetic lineages, which are unrelated to recognized SRM, dominate dsrAB richness and, if tested, are also abundant among the dsrAB-containing wetland microbiota. These discoveries point towards the existence of so far unknown SRM that are an important part of the autochthonous wetland microbiota. In addition to these numerically dominant microorganisms, a recent stable isotope probing study of SRM in a German peatland indicated that rare biosphere members might be highly active in situ and have a considerable stake in wetland sulfate reduction. The hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands and the fact that wetland SRM are not well represented by described SRM species explains their so far neglected role as important actors in carbon cycling and climate change.

  9. A Hydraulic Nexus between Geographically Isolated Wetlands and Downstream Water Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, D. L.; Kaplan, D. A.; Cohen, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Geographic isolation does not imply hydrological isolation; indeed, local groundwater exchange between geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) and surrounding uplands may yield important controls on regional hydrology. Differences in specific yield (Sy) between aquifers and inundated GIWs drive differences in water level responses to atmospheric fluxes, leading to frequent reversals in hydraulic gradients that cause GIWs to act as both groundwater sinks and sources. When distributed across the landscape, these reversals in local groundwater fluxes are predicted to collectively buffer the surficial aquifer and its regulation of baseflow delivery, a process we refer to as landscape hydrologic capacitance. To test this hypothesis, we integrated models of daily soil moisture, upland water table, and wetland stage dynamics to simulate hydrology of a low-relief landscape with GIWs. Simulations explored the influences of cumulative wetland area, individual wetland size, climate, and soil texture on water table and baseflow variation. Increasing cumulative wetland area and decreasing individual wetland size reduced water table variation and the frequency of extremely shallow and deep water tables. This buffering effect extended to baseflow deliveries, decreasing the standard deviation of daily baseflow by as much as 50%. For the same total wetland area, landscapes with fewer (i.e., larger) wetlands exhibited markedly lower hydrologic capacitance than those with more (i.e., smaller) wetlands, highlighting the important role of small GIWs in regulating regional hydrology. Recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings have limited federal protections for GIWs except where a "significant nexus" to a navigable water body is demonstrated. Our results suggest that GIWs regulate downstream baseflow, even where water in GIWs may never physically reach downstream systems, providing a significant "hydraulic" nexus to distant water bodies.

  10. Understanding Methane Cycling Dynamics across Tropical African Wetland and Upland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopple, A.; Bridgham, S. D.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Meyer, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of the world's wetlands (~64%) are located in tropical and subtropical humid regions and it is estimated that 47-89% (median 73%) of global wetland methane (CH4) emissions originate in the tropics. While extensive research has been conducted in northern zones to understand biogeochemical controls on wetland CH4 emissions, little research has been conducted across tropical regions. We investigated anaerobic and aerobic CH4 cycling dynamics across a variety of ecosystem types in Gabon, Africa using a combination of in-situ field measurements and controlled laboratory incubations. We found African landscapes to possess highly variable CH4 flux rates both within and across ecosystems, with sources producing up to 155 mmol CH4/m2/day and sinks consuming as much as 53 mmol CH4/m2/day. Gabonese wetlands have CH4 production rates 1-6 orders of magnitude greater than that of higher latitude wetlands and, additionally, a much larger proportion of anaerobic carbon (C) mineralization is converted to CH4 over CO2. Mineral soil wetlands were dominated by acetoclastic methanogenesis (53-87% of total CH4), while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was determined to be the principal pathway in organic soil wetlands (78-96% of total CH4). Finally, we found rates of CH4 oxidation under high CH4 concentrations to be comparatively higher in wetlands, while CH4 oxidation rates under low CH4 concentrations tended to be higher in upland sites. The observed relationships in CH4 production and consumption are not solely explained by temperature or pH, but are likely a result of differences in the dynamics and composition of the microbial communities responsible for the regulation of these processes. In this study, we have provided biogeochemical data that demonstrate the importance of tropical wetlands to the global CH4 cycle and which are vital in paving the way for research investigating the underlying mechanisms responsible for the high CH4 efficiency of this region.

  11. Implications of hydrologic variability on the succession of plants in Great Lakes wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Primary succession of plant communities directed toward a climax is not a typical occurrence in wetlands because these ecological systems are inherently dependent on hydrology, and temporal hydrologic variability often causes reversals or setbacks in succession. Wetlands of the Great Lakes provide good examples for demonstrating the implications of hydrology in driving successional processes and for illustrating potential misinterpretations of apparent successional sequences. Most Great Lakes coastal wetlands follow cyclic patterns in which emergent communities are reduced in area or eliminated by high lake levels and then regenerated from the seed bank during low lake levels. Thus, succession never proceeds for long. Wetlands also develop in ridge and swale terrains in many large embayments of the Great Lakes. These formations contain sequences of wetlands of similar origin but different age that can be several thousand years old, with older wetlands always further from the lake. Analyses of plant communities across a sequence of wetlands at the south end of Lake Michigan showed an apparent successional pattern from submersed to floating to emergent plants as water depth decreased with wetland age. However, paleoecological analyses showed that the observed vegetation changes were driven largely by disturbances associated with increased human settlement in the area. Climate-induced hydrologic changes were also shown to have greater effects on plant-community change than autogenic processes. Other terms, such as zonation, maturation, fluctuations, continuum concept, functional guilds, centrifugal organization, pulse stability, and hump-back models provide additional means of describing organization and changes in vegetation; some of them overlap with succession in describing vegetation processes in Great Lakes wetlands, but each must be used in the proper context with regard to short- and long-term hydrologic variability.

  12. A bench-scale constructed wetland as a model to characterize benzene biodegradation processes in freshwater wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Remy, Benjamin; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans H

    2011-12-01

    In wetlands, a variety of biotic and abiotic processes can contribute to the removal of organic substances. Here, we used compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), hydrogeochemical parameters and detection of functional genes to characterize in situ biodegradation of benzene in a model constructed wetland over a period of 370 days. Despite low dissolved oxygen concentrations (98% removal), we applied CSIA to study in situ benzene degradation by indigenous microbes. Combining carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures by two-dimensional stable isotope analysis revealed that benzene was degraded aerobically, mainly via the monohydroxylation pathway. This was additionally supported by the detection of the BTEX monooxygenase gene tmoA in sediment and root samples. Calculating the extent of biodegradation from the isotope signatures demonstrated that at least 85% of benzene was degraded by this pathway and thus, only a small fraction was removed abiotically. This study shows that model wetlands can contribute to an understanding of biodegradation processes in floodplains or natural wetland systems.

  13. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope Units of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-09-21

    The Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM) was created by presidential proclamation in 2000. It is located along the Columbia River in south central Washington and consists of five distinct units. The McGee Ranch-Riverlands and the North Slope units are addressed in this report. North Slope refers to two of the HRNM units: the Saddle Mountain Unit and the Wahluke Slope Unit. The Saddle Mountain and Wahluke Slope Units are located north of the Columbia River, while the McGee Ranch-Riverlands Unit is located south of the Columbia River and north and west of Washington State Highway 24. To fulfill internal U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, the DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Authorized limits for residual radioactive contamination were developed based on the DOE annual exposure limit to the public (100 mrem) using future potential land-use scenarios. The DOE Office of Environmental Management approved these authorized limits on March 1, 2004. Historical soil monitoring conducted on and around the HRNM indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the authorized limits (Fritz et al. 2003). However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope units were below the authorized limits. Sixty-seven soil samples were collected from the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope units. A software package (Visual Sample Plan) was used to plan the collection to assure an adequate number of samples were collected. The number of samples necessary to decide with a high level of confidence (99%) that the soil concentrations of radionuclides on the North Slope and McGee Ranch-Riverlands units did not exceed the

  14. USGS research on Florida's isolated freshwater wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Arturo E.; Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.; Metz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has studied wetland hydrology and its effects on wetland health and ecology in Florida since the 1990s. USGS wetland studies in Florida and other parts of the Nation provide resource managers with tools to assess current conditions and regional trends in wetland resources. Wetland hydrologists in the USGS Florida Water Science Center (FLWSC) have completed a number of interdisciplinary studies assessing the hydrology, ecology, and water quality of wetlands. These studies have expanded the understanding of wetland hydrology, ecology, and related processes including: (1) the effects of cyclical changes in rainfall and the influence of evapotranspiration; (2) surface-water flow, infiltration, groundwater movement, and groundwater and surfacewater interactions; (3) the effects of water quality and soil type; (4) the unique biogeochemical components of wetlands required to maintain ecosystem functions; (5) the effects of land use and other human activities; (6) the influences of algae, plants, and invertebrates on environmental processes; and (7) the effects of seasonal variations in animal communities that inhabit or visit Florida wetlands and how wetland function responds to changes in the plant community.

  15. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M. [Jacques Whitford NAWE, White Bear Lake, MN (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000{sup 2} foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m{sup 3} per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m{sup 3} of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig.

  16. Application of Tracer-Injection Techniques to Demonstrate Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions Between an Alpine Stream and the North Star Mine, Upper Animas River Watershed, Southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Winfield G.; Moore, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Tracer-injection studies were done in Belcher Gulch in the upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado, to determine whether the alpine stream infiltrates into underground mine workings of the North Star Mine and other nearby mines in the area. The tracer-injection studies were designed to determine if and where along Belcher Gulch the stream infiltrates into the mine. Four separate tracer-injec-tion tests were done using lithium bromide (LiBr), optical brightener dye, and sodium chloride (NaCl) as tracer solu-tions. Two of the tracers (LiBr and dye) were injected con-tinuously for 24 hours, one of the NaCl tracers was injected continuously for 12 hours, and one of the NaCl tracers was injected over a period of 1 hour. Concentration increases of tracer constituents were detected in water discharging from the North Star Mine, substantiating a surface-water and ground-water connection between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. Different timing and magnitude of tracer breakthroughs indicated multiple flow paths with different residence times from the stream to the mine. The Pittsburgh and Sultan Mines were thought to physically connect to the North Star Mine, but tracer breakthroughs were inconclusive in water from these mines. From the tracer-injection tests and synoptic measure-ments of streamflow discharge, a conceptual model was devel-oped for surface-water and ground-water interactions between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. This information, combined with previous surface geophysical surveys indicat-ing the presence of subsurface voids, may assist with decision-making process for preventing infiltration and for the remedia-tion of mine drainage from these mines.

  17. Distribution of Organic Carbon in the Sediments of Xinxue River and the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qingqing; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Haijie; Ge, Xiuli; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are represented as a significant reservoir of organic carbon and play an important role in mitigating the greenhouse effect. In order to compare the compositions and distribution of organic carbon in constructed and natural river wetlands, sediments from the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland and the Xinxue River, China, were sampled at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-25 cm) in both upstream and downstream locations. Three types of organic carbon were determined: light fraction organic carbon, heavy fraction organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The results show that variations in light fraction organic carbon are significantly larger between upstream and downstream locations than they are between the two wetland types; however, the opposite trend is observed for the dissolved organic carbon. There are no significant differences in the distribution of heavy fraction organic carbon between the discrete variables (e.g., between the two depths, the two locations, or the two wetland types). However, there are significant cross-variable differences; for example, the distribution patterns of heavy fraction organic carbon between wetland types and depths, and between wetland types and locations. Correlation analysis reveals that light fraction organic carbon is positively associated with light fraction nitrogen in both wetlands, while heavy fraction organic carbon is associated with both heavy fraction nitrogen and the moisture content in the constructed wetland. The results of this study demonstrate that the constructed wetland, which has a relatively low background value of heavy fraction organic carbon, is gradually accumulating organic carbon of different types, with the level of accumulation dependent on the balance between carbon accumulation and carbon decomposition. In contrast, the river wetland has relatively stable levels of organic carbon.

  18. Futures Analysis of Urban Land Use and Wetland Change in Saskatoon, Canada: An Application in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scenario-based approach to strategic environmental assessment (SEA for wetland trend analysis and land use and land cover (LUC modeling in an urban environment. The application is focused on the Saskatoon urban environment, a rapidly growing urban municipality in Canada’s prairie pothole region. Alternative future LUC was simulated using remote sensing data and city spatial planning documentation using a Markov Chain technique. Two alternatives were developed and compared for LUC change and threats to urban wetland sustainability: a zero alternative that simulated trends in urban development and wetland conservation under a business as usual scenario, in the absence of prescribed planning and zoning actions; and an alternative focused on implementation of current urban development plans, which simulated future LUC to account for prescribed wetland conservation strategies. Results show no improvement in future wetland conditions under the city’s planned growth and wetland conservation scenario versus the business as usual scenario. Results also indicate that a blanket wetland conservation strategy for the city may not be sufficient to overcome the historic trend of urban wetland loss; and that spatially distributed conservation rates, based on individual wetland water catchment LUC peculiarities, may be more effective in terms of wetland conservation. The paper also demonstrates the challenges to applied SEA in a rapidly changing urban planning context, where data are often sparse and inconsistent across the urban region, and provides potential solutions through LUC classification and prediction tools to help overcome data limitations to support land use planning decisions for wetland conservation.

  19. Distribution of Organic Carbon in the Sediments of Xinxue River and the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Cao

    Full Text Available Wetland ecosystems are represented as a significant reservoir of organic carbon and play an important role in mitigating the greenhouse effect. In order to compare the compositions and distribution of organic carbon in constructed and natural river wetlands, sediments from the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland and the Xinxue River, China, were sampled at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-25 cm in both upstream and downstream locations. Three types of organic carbon were determined: light fraction organic carbon, heavy fraction organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The results show that variations in light fraction organic carbon are significantly larger between upstream and downstream locations than they are between the two wetland types; however, the opposite trend is observed for the dissolved organic carbon. There are no significant differences in the distribution of heavy fraction organic carbon between the discrete variables (e.g., between the two depths, the two locations, or the two wetland types. However, there are significant cross-variable differences; for example, the distribution patterns of heavy fraction organic carbon between wetland types and depths, and between wetland types and locations. Correlation analysis reveals that light fraction organic carbon is positively associated with light fraction nitrogen in both wetlands, while heavy fraction organic carbon is associated with both heavy fraction nitrogen and the moisture content in the constructed wetland. The results of this study demonstrate that the constructed wetland, which has a relatively low background value of heavy fraction organic carbon, is gradually accumulating organic carbon of different types, with the level of accumulation dependent on the balance between carbon accumulation and carbon decomposition. In contrast, the river wetland has relatively stable levels of organic carbon.

  20. Contrasting fluvial styles of the Paraguay River in the northwestern border of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assine, Mario Luis; Silva, Aguinaldo

    2009-12-01

    The Upper Paraguay drainage basin is situated mainly in west-central Brazil, near the Bolivian border. Flowing from north to south, the Paraguay is the trunk river of an alluvial depositional tract characterized by complex geomorphologic zonation that resulted from an intricate geologic evolution since the Late Pleistocene. This paper focuses on the geomorphology of the Paraguay River at the northwestern border of the Pantanal wetland, where two broad geomorphologic zones were distinguished. North from the Pantanal wetland, the Paraguay River flows in an aggradational fluvial plain, 5 km wide and incised into older alluvial deposits. The river exhibits a meandering style over most of its course, but sinuosity drops from 2.2 to 1.1 near the northwest border of the Pantanal wetland where the river has been forming the Paraguay fluvial megafan since the Late Pleistocene. The river deflects 90° eastward at the entrance into the Pantanal, changing its fluvial style because of a progressive loss of confinement downstream of the point where the river reaches lowland plains. The river becomes more sinuous, adopts a distributary pattern within the wetland and brings about the creation of the modern depositional lobe characterized by higher topographic gradient and active sedimentation likely linked to increased accommodation space allowing progradation. Fluvial discharge diminishes in the Pantanal wetland because of channel overbank flow during the rainy season and frequent levee crevassing. Avulsion belts and channel-levee complex are preserved on the floodplain as relict forms. South of the convergence of the two main channels that define the Taiamã Island, a loss of gradient marks the base of the depositional lobe. Further downstream, the Paraguay River returns to a meandering fluvial style, but crossing a large fluvial plain populated by hundreds of small lakes and seasonally flooded that characterizes the Pantanal wetland.

  1. Emission of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane from constructed wetlands in europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, A K; Augustin, J; Heikkinen, K; Huttunen, J T; Necki, J M; Karjalainen, S M; Kløve, B; Liikanen, A; Mander, U; Puustinen, M; Teiter, S; Wachniew, P

    2006-01-01

    The potential atmospheric impact of constructed wetlands (CWs) should be examined as there is a worldwide increase in the development of these systems. Fluxes of N(2)O, CH(4), and CO(2) have been measured from CWs in Estonia, Finland, Norway, and Poland during winter and summer in horizontal and vertical subsurface flow (HSSF and VSSF), free surface water (FSW), and overland and groundwater flow (OGF) wetlands. The fluxes of N(2)O-N, CH(4)-C, and CO(2)-C ranged from -2.1 to 1000, -32 to 38 000, and -840 to 93 000 mg m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Emissions of N(2)O and CH(4) were significantly higher during summer than during winter. The VSSF wetlands had the highest fluxes of N(2)O during both summer and winter. Methane emissions were highest from the FSW wetlands during wintertime. In the HSSF wetlands, the emissions of N(2)O and CH(4) were in general highest in the inlet section. The vegetated ponds in the FSW wetlands released more N(2)O than the nonvegetated ponds. The global warming potential (GWP), summarizing the mean N(2)O and CH(4) emissions, ranged from 5700 to 26000 and 830 to 5100 mg CO(2) equivalents m(-2) d(-1) for the four CW types in summer and winter, respectively. The wintertime GWP was 8.5 to 89.5% of the corresponding summertime GWP, which highlights the importance of the cold season in the annual greenhouse gas release from north temperate and boreal CWs. However, due to their generally small area North European CWs were suggested to represent only a minor source for atmospheric N(2)O and CH(4).

  2. Introduction to the Wetland Book 1: Wetland structure and function, management, and nethods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Nick C.; Middleton, Beth A.; McInnes, Robert J.; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; Van Dam, Anne A.; Finlayson, C. Max; Finlayson, C. Max; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; McInnes, Robert J.; Middleton, Beth A.; Van Dam, Anne A.; Davidson, Nick C.

    2016-01-01

    The Wetland Book 1 is designed as a ‘first port-of-call’ reference work for information on the structure and functions of wetlands, current approaches to wetland management, and methods for researching and understanding wetlands. Contributions by experts summarize key concepts, orient the reader to the major issues, and support further research on such issues by individuals and multidisciplinary teams. The Wetland Book 1 is organized in three parts - Wetland structure and function; Wetland management; and Wetland methods - each of which is divided into a number of thematic Sections. Each Section starts with one or more overview chapters, supported by chapters providing further information and case studies on different aspects of the theme.

  3. Inventory of wetland birds occupying WPAs in the Devils Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary focus of this survey was the non-game bird species found in wetlands; game bird species found to be using the wetlands were also recorded. Both diversity...

  4. Biological Diversity of Created Forested Wetlands in Comparison to Reference Forested Wetlands in the Bay Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals were surveyed at six created forested wetlands in central Maryland and at six adjacent reference forested wetlands during...

  5. High Resolution Mapping of Wetland Ecosystems SPOT-5 Take 5 for Evaluation of Sentinel-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Christiana; Hestir, Erin L.; Khanna, Shruti; Ustin, Susan L.

    2016-08-01

    Around the world wetlands are critical to human societies and ecosystems, providing services such as habitat, water, food and fiber, flood and nutrient control, and cultural, recreational and religious value. However, the dynamic nature of tidal wetlands makes measuring ecosystem responses to climate change, seasonal inundation regimes, and anthropogenic disturbance from current and previous Earth observing sensors challenging due to limited spatial and temporal resolutions. Sentinel- 2 will directly address this challenge by providing high spatial resolution data with frequent revisit time. This pilot study aims to develop methodology for future Sentinel-2 products and highlight the variability of tidal wetland ecosystems, thereby demonstrating the necessity of improved spatial particularly temporal resolution. Here the simulated Sentinel-2 dataset from the SPOT-5 Take 5 experiment reveals the capacity of the new sensor to simultaneously assess tidal wetland ecosystem phenology and water quality in inland waters.

  6. Methane dynamics in Northern Wetlands: Significance of vascular plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joabsson, Anna

    2001-09-01

    The studies presented illustrate several different aspects of the impact of vascular plants on methane emissions from northern natural wetlands. The subject has been approached on different scales, ranging from the study of microbial substrates in the vicinity of a single plant root, to an attempt to extrapolate some of the results to the entire northern hemisphere north of 50 meridian. The main overall conclusions from the papers are that vascular plants affect net methane emissions 1) by offering an efficient route of transport to the atmosphere so that methane oxidation in oxic surface soils is avoided, and 2) by being sources of methanogenic substrate. The degree to which vascular wetland plants affect methane emissions seems to be dependent on species-specific differences in both the capacity to act as gas conduits and the exudation of labile carbon compounds to the soil. An intimate coupling between vascular plant production and methane emission was found in an Arctic tundra wetland, although other environmental variables (water table, temperature) also contributed significantly to the explained variation in methane exchange. Studies of vascular plant extidation of organic acids suggest that the available pool of methanogenic substrates is both qualitatively and quantitatively correlated to vascular plant production (photosynthetic rate). On global scales, vascular plant production as a single factor does not seem to be sufficient to explain the majority of variation in methane flux patterns. Based on comparable experiments at five different sites in the northwestern Eurasian and Greenlandic North, we suggest that mean seasonal soil temperature is the best predictor of methane exchange on broad spatial and temporal scales.

  7. EnviroAtlas - Potential Wetland Areas - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Potential Wetland Areas (PWA) dataset shows potential wetland areas at 30-meter resolution. Beginning two centuries ago, many wetlands were turned...

  8. STUDY ON WETLAND LOSS AND ITS REASONS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems with many functions. But the general public and government lack a comprehensive understanding of the importance of wetland benefits, thus making blindly exploitation, wetland resources decreasing and losing biodiversity. So wetlands in China, as in most countries, have suffered heavily from the pressure of development and have confronted with the threats of loss. The paper takes Sanjiang Plain marshes, lakes in the middle reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River, coastal wetlands and mangroves as cases to study wetland loss in China, and puts forward main existing reasons of wetland loss, such as blindly reclamation and exploitation of wetland resources,over-exploitation of bio-resources in wetland, etc. More recently, there has been a growing recognition of the benefits of wetlands and a wide range of legal and regulatory initiatives have been undertaken which are designed to improve wetland management and conservation. On the basis of the above analysis, the paper brings forward some suggestions on wetland conservation.

  9. Urban - Wetland contrast in turbulent exchange of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Siedlecki, Mariusz; Zieliński, Mariusz

    2016-11-01

    Continuous eddy-covariance measurements of turbulent methane exchange between the ground and the atmosphere were carried out during the period from July 2013 to September 2015. The measurement sites were located in areas characterized by different types of use: the city (Łódź, central Poland) and the wetlands of Biebrza National Park (northeastern Poland). Regardless of the type of surface, such long-term, continuous measurements of the turbulent fluxes of methane are rare. Our aim was to investigate the temporal variability of the turbulent methane exchange in the surface-atmosphere system, while considering the impact of land use. Because cities are a huge source of atmospheric carbon dioxide, we compared the intensity of methane emissions from the city as compared to the wetland, which is considered to be the most intense natural source atmospheric methane. In both cases, the results show a clear prevalence of positive as compared with negative fluxes. This shows that both areas are net sources of methane to the troposphere. The measurements also demonstrated the existence of a clear annual cycle of turbulent methane flux in the centre of the city (average values in winter ranged from ∼40 to 60 nmol m-2·s-1 and were significantly greater than values measured in summer) as well as in the wetlands, where maximum values were observed during the warm part of the year (approximately 80 nmol m-2·s-1 or more). The different times of maximum CH4 flux (FCH4) occurrence resulted from the differentiation of processes that determine methane emissions: in the city these are anthropogenic emissions (strongest in winter); in the wetland, natural processes dominate. The diurnal variability of FCH4 was faintly detectable, except for the cold half of the year in the city and the warm half of the year in the wetland. The studied area of the centre of Łódź, in turn, is also characterized by a weekly cycle of methane exchange: the values measured on working days were

  10. Wetlands Research Program. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 2. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Cockaded Woodpecker Kirtiand’s Warbler REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS : American Alligator FISH: Sockeye Salmon (Alaskan) Coho Salmon: Non-Alaskan U.S. Stock Alaskan...for wetland-dependent furbearers anid * othe: mammals, repti.les, and amphibians (e.g., beaver, crayfish, alligator, e tc. i. Habitat suitability for...Carolina. Chat 43:10-16. Spaans, A. L. 1978. Status of terns along the Surinam coast. Bird Band. 49:66-76. Sparrowe, R. D. and H. M. Wight. 1975

  11. Biotic wetland connectivity—supporting a new approach for wetland policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amezaga, J.M.; Santamaría, Luis; Green, Andy J.

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands are key habitats connected physically and socially with processes occurring over a much wider territory. The biotic connection through dispersal mechanisms among wetlands is of primary importance to wetland management and policies. However, traditional wetland conservation approaches are based on the preservation of isolated sites considered to be of special importance (typically owing to their importance for concentrations of migratory waterbirds). Research linking local species ric...

  12. Distribution and Drivers of a Widespread, Invasive Wetland Grass, Phragmites australis, in Great Salt Lake Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Arin Lexine

    2014-01-01

    Non-native invasive plant species can often have negative effects on native ecosystems, such as altered nutrient cycling, decreased habitat for wildlife, and outcompeting native plants. Around the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, the invasive wetland grass Phragmites australis has become abundant in wetlands around the lake. Phragmites is replacing many native wetland plants provide important waterfowl habitat around the GSL. For successful management of Phragmites in GSL wetlands, it is importan...

  13. Biotic wetland connectivity—supporting a new approach for wetland policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amezaga, J.M.; Santamaría, Luis; Green, Andy J.

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands are key habitats connected physically and socially with processes occurring over a much wider territory. The biotic connection through dispersal mechanisms among wetlands is of primary importance to wetland management and policies. However, traditional wetland conservation approaches are based on the preservation of isolated sites considered to be of special importance (typically owing to their importance for concentrations of migratory waterbirds). Research linking local species ric...

  14. Analysis of environmental constraints on expanding reserves in current and future reservoirs in wetlands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    Louisiana wetlands require careful management to allow exploitation of non-renewable resources without destroying renewable resources. Current regulatory requirements have been moderately successful in meeting this goal by restricting development in wetland habitats. Continuing public emphasis on reducing environmental impacts of resource development is causing regulators to reassess their regulations and operators to rethink their compliance strategies. We examined the regulatory system and found that reducing the number of applications required by going to a single application process and having a coherent map of the steps required for operations in wetland areas would reduce regulatory burdens. Incremental changes can be made to regulations to allow one agency to be the lead for wetland permitting at minimal cost to operators. Operators need cost effective means of access that will reduce environmental impacts, decrease permitting time, and limit future liability. Regulators and industry must partner to develop incentive based regulations that can provide significant environmental impact reduction for minimal economic cost. In addition regulators need forecasts of future E&P trends to estimate the impact of future regulations. To determine future activity we attempted to survey potential operators when this approach was unsuccessful we created two econometric models of north and south Louisiana relating drilling activity, success ratio, and price to predict future wetland activity. Results of the econometric models indicate that environmental regulations have a small but statistically significant effect on drilling operations in wetland areas of Louisiana. We examined current wetland practices and evaluated those practices comparing environmental versus economic costs and created a method for ranking the practices.

  15. Waterbird Population Changes in the Wetlands at Chongming Dongtan in the Yangtze River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Wang, Yong; Gan, Xiaojing; Li, Bo; Cai, Yinting; Chen, Jiakuan

    2009-06-01

    We studied the changes in wetland habitats and waterbird communities between the 1980s and the 2000s at Chongming Dongtan, a Ramsar site in the Yangtze River estuary, an ecologically important region. This region is an important stopover site for shorebirds along the East Asian-Australasian flyway and is extensively used by waterfowl. A net loss of 11% of the wetland area was estimated during study periods at Chongming Dongtan. The change was dependent on wetland types: while the area of artificial habitats such as paddy fields and aquacultural ponds more than doubled, more than 65% of natural habitats including sea bulrush ( Scirpus mariqueter) and common reed ( Phragmites australis) marshes were lost over the two decades. An exotic plant species introduced from North America, smooth cordgrass ( Spartina alterniflora), occupied 30% of the vegetated intertidal zone by the 2000s. Although waterbird species richness did not change between the 1980s (110) and the 2000s (111), 13 species found in 1980s were replaced by 14 newly recorded species. Moreover, there were more species with declining trends (58) than with increasing trends (19). The population trends of species were affected by residential status and habitat types. Transients, wintering migrants, and habitat specialists were more likely to show declining trends compared to those breeding at Dongtan (including year-round and summer residents) and habitat generalists. Furthermore, species associated mainly with natural wetlands were more likely to decline than those associated mainly with artificial wetlands. These patterns suggest that the loss and change of wetland habitats at Chongming Dongtan adversely affected local population dynamics and might have contributed to the global decline of some waterbird species. Because Chongming Dongtan provides stopover and wintering habitats for many migratory waterbirds, protection and restoration of natural wetlands at Chongming Dongtan are urgently needed.

  16. Plant biodiversity changes in Carboniferous tropical wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleal, C. J.; Uhl, D.; Cascales-Miñana, B.; Thomas, B. A.; Bashforth, A. R.; King, S. C.; Zodrow, E. L.

    2012-08-01

    Using a combination of species richness, polycohort and constrained cluster analyses, the plant biodiversity of Pennsylvanian (late Carboniferous) tropical wetlands ("coal swamps") has been investigated in five areas in Western Europe and eastern North America: South Wales, Pennines, Ruhr, Saarland and Sydney coal basins. In all cases, species richness expansion followed an essentially logistic curve typical of that associated with ecologically closed habitats, with niche saturation being achieved in about three million years. The resulting steady-state ("climax") coal swamp vegetation had a local-scale (within an area of c. 0.1 ha) species diversity in South Wales of 16 ± 7 and Simpson Diversity Indices of 4.53 ± 2.55, which are very similar to values obtained from studies on North American coal swamp vegetation. Landscape diversity (within an area 105 km2) varied between 50 and 100 species in the lower to middle Westphalian Stage, falling to about 40-50 species in the upper Westphalian Stage. Regional-scale diversity (within an area > 105 km2) is difficult to estimate but was at least 120 species. Species turn-over was typically very low, at about 4 species per million years, but there were a number of intervals of more rapid species turn-over in the early Langsettian, late Duckmantian, early Bolsovian and middle Asturian times, which are recognised today as biozonal boundaries. The swamps were mostly subject to ecological stasis during early and middle Westphalian times, although they contracted locally in response to drying of substrates. Later in Westphalian times, however, the swamps were subject to regional-scale changes in composition and aerial extent, probably in response to climate change. The coal swamps had a much lower species diversity compared to modern-day tropical rain forests.

  17. Construction and Protection of Qionghai Lake Wetland Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiwei; CHEN

    2013-01-01

    Wetland is closely related to survival, reproduction and development of human beings. Due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization, wetland ecosystems are suffered from huge pressure of human society and the wetland ecological environment becomes extremely vulnerable. On the basis of analyzing current situations of Qionghai Lake wetland in Xichang City of Sichuan Province, this paper discussed the significance of Qionghai wetland construction and protection, and offered countermeasures and recommendations for solving existing problems in Qionghai wetland.

  18. Modelling Holocene carbon accumulation and methane emissions of boreal wetlands – an Earth system model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Schuldt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Last Glacial Maximum, boreal wetlands have accumulated substantial amounts of peat, estimated at 180–621 Pg of carbon. Wetlands have significantly affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas composition in the past and will play a significant role in future changes of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. In order to investigate those changes with an Earth system model, biogeochemical processes in boreal wetlands need to be accounted for. Thus, a model of peat accumulation and decay was developed and included in the land surface model JSBACH of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM. Here we present the evaluation of model results from 6000 yr BP to the pre-industrial period. Over this period of time, 240 Pg of peat carbon accumulated in the model in the areas north of 40° N. Simulated peat accumulation rates agree well with those reported for boreal wetlands. The model simulates CH4 emissions of 49.3 Tg CH4 yr−1 for 6000 yr BP and 51.5 Tg CH4 yr−1 for pre-industrial times. This is within the range of estimates in the literature, which range from 32 to 112 Tg CH4 yr−1 for boreal wetlands. The modelled methane emission for the West Siberian Lowlands and Hudson Bay Lowlands agree well with observations. The rising trend of methane emissions over the last 6000 yr is in agreement with measurements of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores.

  19. 75 FR 68378 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... proposals for recommendation to the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (Commission). This meeting is... matching funds. The Council will consider Mexican and U.S. standard grant proposals at the meeting. The... Director, Migratory Birds. BILLING CODE 4310-55-P...

  20. 78 FR 71637 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... proposals for recommendation to the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (Commission). This meeting is... November 26, 2013. Meeting The Council will consider Mexican standard grant and U.S. standard grant... Director, Migratory Birds. BILLING CODE 4310-55-P...

  1. Effect of the Urbanization of Wetlands on Microclimate: A Case Study of Xixi Wetland, Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization affects the microclimate and forms a unique urban climate environment. To deepen the understanding on the microclimate regulation function of an urban wetland, this study analyzed the influence of a suburb wetland’s urbanization process on the local climate through contrast observations of the protected wetland area and the former wetland area in Xixi wetland. Results show that the urbanization of suburb wetlands has an impact on the local microclimate and decreases human comfort, and that wetlands can effectively regulate the microclimate. The fragmentation of urban wetlands caused by urban sprawl decreases their microclimate regulation function, a decrease that is particularly evident in summer. Additionally, wetlands stabilize the microclimate in all seasons. For every land cover type in wetlands, vegetation has a better stabilizing effect on temperature, whereas a water body has a better stabilizing effect on wind speed and humidity. Meteorological conditions also affect the microclimate regulation function of wetlands. Temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and wind speed influence the cooling function of urban wetlands, while solar radiation modifies the humidifying function of urban wetlands.

  2. Diverse characteristics of wetlands restored under the Wetlands Reserve Program in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2012-01-01

    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) restores converted or degraded wetlands on private working lands; however, the nature and outcomes of such efforts are undocumented in the Southeastern U.S. Identification of wetland types is needed to assess the program's conservation benefits, because ecological functions differ with hydrogeomorphic (HGM) type. We reviewed...

  3. SLOSS or Not? Factoring Wetland Size Into Decisions for Wetland Conservation, Enhancement, Restoration, and Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitigation or replacement of several small impacted wetlands or sites with fewer large wetlands can occur deliberately through the application of functional assessment methods (e.g., Adamus 1997) or coincidentally as the result of market-based mechanisms for wetland mitigation ba...

  4. Nomenclature and the National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The National Wetland Plant List (NWPL) is being revised by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S...Wetland Plant List The National Wetland Plant List (NWPL) is being revised by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service... phylogenies predicated on molecular sequence analyses in combination with morphological char- acteristics and other biological and habitat features. ERDC

  5. Occurence of organic pollutants in constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    TRSKOVÁ, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are wetlands designed to improve the quality of water. In this work, four representatives of typical organic pollutants in Constructed wetlands are studied : DEET, cotinine, coprostanol and galaxolide as the representatives of insecticide, alkaloid,faecal sterol and musk compound respectively. Moreover three different types of extraction techniques : aqueous two phase extraction (ATPE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) - are investiga...

  6. Nomination of the Lahontan Valley Wetlands Nevada, U.S.A. as Wetlands of International Importance under the RAMSAR Convention

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a proposal to list the Lahontan Valley Wetlands as a Wetlands of International Importance. The Lahontan Valley Wetlands are an important habitat for...

  7. Climate Controls on Carbon Sequestration in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, D. M.; Renik, B.; Maenza-Gmeich, T.; Kurdyla, D.; Guilderson, T.

    2002-01-01

    Mid-latitude forest ecosystems have been proposed as a "missing sink" today. The role of soils (including wetlands) in this proposed sink is a very important unknown. In order to make estimates of future climate change effects on carbon storage, we can examine past wetland carbon sequestration. How did past climate change affect net wetland carbon storage? We present long-term data from existing wetland sites used for paleoclimate reconstruction to assess the net carbon storage in wetland over the last 15000 years. During times of colder and wetter climate, many mid-latitude sites show increases in carbon storage, while past warmer, drier climates produced decreases in storage. Comparison among bog, fen, swamp, and tidal marsh are demonstrated for the Hudson Valley region.

  8. Canadian SAR remote sensing for the Terrestrial Wetland Global Change Research Network (TWGCRN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Shannon; Brisco, Brian; Cull, Andrew; Gallant, Alisa L.; Sadinski, Walter J.; Thompson, Dean

    2010-01-01

    The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) has more than 30 years of experience investigating the use of SAR remote sensing for many applications related to terrestrial water resources. Recently, CCRS scientists began contributing to the Terrestrial Wetland Global Change Research Network (TWGCRN), a bi-national research network dedicated to assessing impacts of global change on interconnected wetland-upland landscapes across a vital portion of North America. CCRS scientists are applying SAR remote sensing to characterize wetland components of these landscapes in three ways. First, they are using a comprehensive set of RADARSAT-2 SAR data collected during April to September 2009 to extract multi-temporal surface water information for key TWGCRN study landscapes in North America. Second, they are analyzing polarimetric RADARSAT-2 data to determine areas where double-bounce represents the primary scattering mechanism and is indicative of flooded vegetation in these landscapes. Third, they are testing advanced interferometric SAR techniques to estimate water levels with RADARSAT-2 Fine Quad polarimetric image pairs. The combined information from these three SAR analysis activities will provide TWGCRN scientists with an integrated view and monitoring capability for these dynamic wetland-upland landscapes. These data are being used in conjunction with other remote sensing and field data to study interactions between landscape and animal (birds and amphibians) responses to climate/global change.

  9. Multi-temporal sub-pixel landsat ETM+ classification of isolated wetlands in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project was to determine the utility of subpixel processing of multi-temporal Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data for the detection of isolated wetlands greater than 0.50 acres in Cuyahoga County, located in the Erie Drift Plains ecoregion of northe...

  10. Predicting coastal flooding and wetland loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    The southeastern coastal region encompasses vast areas of wetland habitat important to wildlife and other economically valuable natural resources. Located on the interface between sea and land, these wetland habitats are affected by both sea-level rise and hurricanes, and possibly by hydroperiod associated with regional climatic shifts. Increased sea level is expected to accompany global warming because of higher sea temperatures and ice melt. To help determine the effects of sea-level rise on these wetlands, USGS scientists created computer models of coastal flooding and wetland loss.

  11. Hydrologic considerations in defining isolated wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, T.C.; LaBaugh, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands that are not connected by streams to other surface-water bodies are considered to be isolated. Although the definition is based on surface-water connections to other water bodies, isolated wetlands commonly are integral parts of extensive ground-water flow systems, and isolated wetlands can spill over their surface divides into adjacent surface-water bodies during periods of abundant precipitation and high water levels. Thus, characteristics of ground-water flow and atmospheric-water flow affect the isolation of wetlands. In general, the degree that isolated wetlands are connected through the ground-water system to other surface-water bodies depends to a large extent on the rate that ground water moves and the rate that hydrologic stresses can be transmitted through the ground-water system. Water that seeps from an isolated wetland into a gravel aquifer can travel many kilometers through the ground-water system in one year. In contrast, water that seeps from an isolated wetland into a clayey or silty substrate may travel less than one meter in one year. For wetlands that can spill over their surface watersheds during periods of wet climate conditions, their isolation is related to the height to a spill elevation above normal wetland water level and the recurrence interval of various magnitudes of precipitation. The concepts presented in this paper indicate that the entire hydrologic system needs to be considered in establishing a definition of hydrologic isolation.

  12. Illinois wetlands: their value and management. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, H.E. III

    1981-01-01

    Wetlands are now valued as an important habitat, for their moderation of flooding, and as free polutant filters. This report documents, with the aid of aerial photographs, the impact of drainage activities for development purposes over the past century, and illustrates the environmental significance of wetlands. There are various techniques available for protecting wetlands, including the use of permits, the Endangered Species Act, floodplain zoning, acquisition, management and restoration, and legislation at all levels of government. The preservation of wetlands is shown to contribute to the well-being of all Illinois citizens. 168 references, 17 tables.

  13. Alaska LandCarbon wetland distribution map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Pastick, Neal J.

    2017-01-01

    This product provides regional estimates of specific wetland types (bog and fen) in Alaska. Available wetland types mapped by the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program were re-classed into bog, fen, and other. NWI mapping of wetlands was only done for a portion of the area so a decision tree mapping algorithm was then developed to estimate bog, fen, and other across the state of Alaska using remote sensing and GIS spatial data sets as inputs. This data was used and presented in two chapters on the USGS Alaska LandCarbon Report.

  14. Wise Use of Wetlands: Current State of Protection and Utilization of Chinese Wetlands and Recommendations for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxia; Yao, Yong; Ju, Meiting

    2008-06-01

    Wetland protection and utilization sometimes appear to be in conflict, but promoting the wise use of wetlands can solve this problem. All countries face the challenge of sustainable development of wetlands to a greater or lesser extent, but the problem is especially urgent in developing countries, such as China, that want to accelerate their economic development without excessive environmental cost. Chinese wetlands contribute greatly to economic development, but improper use of these natural resources has endangered their existence. It is thus necessary to provide scientific guidance to managers and users of wetlands. In this paper, we analyze the present status of Chinese wetland protection and utilization, and discuss problems in six categories: a lack of public awareness of the need for wetland protection; insufficient funding for wetland protection and management; an imperfect legal system to protect wetlands; insufficient wetland research; lack of coordination among agencies and unclear responsibilities; and undeveloped technologies related to wetland use and protection. The wise use of Chinese wetlands will require improvements in four main areas: increased wetland utilization research, scientific management of wetland utilization, improved laws and regulations to protect wetlands, and wider dissemination of wetland knowledge. Based on these categories, we propose a framework for the optimization of wetland use by industry to provide guidance for China and other countries that cannot sacrifice economic benefits to protect their wetlands.

  15. THEORY AND METHOD FOR WETLAND BOUNDARY DELINEATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the subjectivity of wetland boundary criteria and their causes at present, this paper suggested that, under the condition that the mechanism of wetland formation process has not been understood,"black box" method of System Theory can be used to delineate wetland boundaries scientifically. After analyzing the difference of system construction among aquatic habitats, wetlands and uplands, the lower limit of rooted plants was chosen as the lower boundary criterion of wetlands. Because soil diagnostic horizon is the result of the long-term interaction among all environments, and it is less responsive than vegetation to short-term change, soil diagnostic horizon was chosen as the indicator to delineate wetland upper boundary, which lies at the thinning-out point of soil diagnostic horizon. Case study indicated that it was feasible using the lower limit of rooted plants and the thinning-out point of soil diagnostic horizon as criteria to delineate the lower and upper boundaries of wetland. In the study area, the thinning-out line of albic horizon was coincident with the 55.74m contour line, the maximum horizonerror was less than lm, and the maximum vertical error less than 0.04m. The problem on wetland definition always arises on the boundaries. Having delineated wetland boundaries, wetlands can be defined as follows: wetlands are the transitional zones between uplands and deepwater habitats, they are a kind of azonal complex that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water, with the lower boundary lying at the lower limit of rooted plants, and the upper boundary at the thinning-out line of upland soil diagnostic horizon.

  16. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  17. Removal of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms by a constructed wetland receiving untreated domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñónez-Díaz, M J; Karpiscak, M M; Ellman, E D; Gerba, C P

    2001-01-01

    Wetlands containing floating, emergent and submergent aquatic plants, and other water-tolerant species have been found to economically provide a mechanism of enhancing the quality of domestic wastewater. The use of constructed wetlands for the removal of indicator bacteria (total and fecal coliforms), coliphages, protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) and enteric viruses was investigated. A pilot scale constructed wetland consisting of two cells, one planted with bulrush and the other unplanted bare sand, were used to compare their efficiency in removing pathogens from raw sewage. Overall more than 90 percent of all microorganisms studied were removed by either of the two systems with a 1 to 2 day retention time. Removal of all mentioned microorganisms was greater from the surface flow in the unplanted cell than in the planted cell, except for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, although the differences were not statistically significant. Enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria were found to penetrate 2 m below the surface, although concentrations were reduced by greater than 99 percent in both cells. Less virus penetration into the sand occurred in the planted wetland versus the unplanted wetland. Water temperature was found to be the most important factor in the removal of enteric bacteria and viruses, while turbidity reduction was related to Giardia removal. These results demonstrate that significant reductions of pathogenic microorganisms can occur in constructed wetlands receiving untreated domestic wastewater with only a 1-2 day retention time.

  18. Impact of flood damage on pollutant removal efficiencies of a subtropical urban constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Tsai-Ming; Chen, Pen-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-Hsiung; Hsieh, Hwey-Lien; Guan, Chung-Yu

    2010-09-15

    Typhoons and hurricanes in subtropical/tropical regions can induce significant environmental changes (e.g., mass flooding and inundations). However, the damage to the pollutant removal efficiencies of constructed wetlands brought about by these natural disturbances has been neglected in major studies conducted in temperate climates. Therefore, this study compares the pollutant removal performance of a constructed wetland in the Danshui River Basin, before and after the system was inundated with flooding from Typhoon Krosa in 2007. The pollutant removal performance of the free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland was investigated monthly from September 2006 to April 2008. Results of the study demonstrated that this FWS wetland effectively removed 64.3% BOD, 98.9% NH(4)-N, and 39.5% Total-P before Typhoon Krosa. However, the extensive flooding caused by Typhoon Krosa swept over most of the aboveground plant community and deposited the sediment onto the bottom of each compartment. Subsequently, reduced pollutant removal efficiencies were observed. Only 37.7% BOD, 35.1% NH(4)-N, and 31.8% Total-P were removed after this event, although the flow regime was immediately restored. Comparing the water quality data for the FWS wetland before and after Typhoon Krosa revealed the immediate, quantitative damage to the pollutant removal performance caused by the typhoon's inundation. Consequently, a high-flow bypass and additional preventive measures would protect any constructed wetland in areas subject to typhoons.

  19. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  20. The value of wetlands in protecting southeast louisiana from hurricane storm surges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B Barbier

    Full Text Available The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 have spurred global interest in the role of coastal wetlands and vegetation in reducing storm surge and flood damages. Evidence that coastal wetlands reduce storm surge and attenuate waves is often cited in support of restoring Gulf Coast wetlands to protect coastal communities and property from hurricane damage. Yet interdisciplinary studies combining hydrodynamic and economic analysis to explore this relationship for temperate marshes in the Gulf are lacking. By combining hydrodynamic analysis of simulated hurricane storm surges and economic valuation of expected property damages, we show that the presence of coastal marshes and their vegetation has a demonstrable effect on reducing storm surge levels, thus generating significant values in terms of protecting property in southeast Louisiana. Simulations for four storms along a sea to land transect show that surge levels decline with wetland continuity and vegetation roughness. Regressions confirm that wetland continuity and vegetation along the transect are effective in reducing storm surge levels. A 0.1 increase in wetland continuity per meter reduces property damages for the average affected area analyzed in southeast Louisiana, which includes New Orleans, by $99-$133, and a 0.001 increase in vegetation roughness decreases damages by $24-$43. These reduced damages are equivalent to saving 3 to 5 and 1 to 2 properties per storm for the average area, respectively.

  1. 'Halophyte filters': the potential of constructed wetlands for application in saline aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, H J; Paulissen, M P C P; Slim, P A

    2013-01-01

    World consumption of seafood continues to rise, but the seas and oceans are already over-exploited. Land-based (saline) aquaculture may offer a sustainable way to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish. A major problem of aquaculture is nutrient waste, as most of the nutrients added through feed are released into the environment in dissolved form. Wetlands are nature's water purifiers. Constructed wetlands are commonly used to treat contaminated freshwater effluent. Experience with saline systems is more limited. This paper explores the potential of constructed saline wetlands for treating the nutrient-rich discharge from land-based saline aquaculture systems. The primary function of constructed wetlands is water purification, but other ancillary benefits can also be incorporated into treatment wetland designs. Marsh vegetation enhances landscape beauty and plant diversity, and wetlands may offer habitat for fauna and recreational areas. Various approaches can be taken in utilizing plants (halophytes, macro-algae, micro-algae) in the treatment of saline aquaculture effluent. Their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed here, and a conceptual framework is presented that takes into account economic and ecological benefits as well as spatial constraints. Use of the framework is demonstrated for assessing various saline aquaculture systems in the southwestern delta region of the Netherlands.

  2. Water management can reinforce plant competition in salt-affected semi-arid wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Janaine Z.; Vogwill, Ryan; Hipsey, Matthew R.

    2017-09-01

    The diversity of vegetation in semi-arid, ephemeral wetlands is determined by niche availability and species competition, both of which are influenced by changes in water availability and salinity. Here, we hypothesise that ignoring physiological differences and competition between species when managing wetland hydrologic regimes can lead to a decrease in vegetation diversity, even when the overall wetland carrying capacity is improved. Using an ecohydrological model capable of resolving water-vegetation-salt feedbacks, we investigate why water surface and groundwater management interventions to combat vegetation decline have been more beneficial to Casuarina obesa than to Melaleuca strobophylla, the co-dominant tree species in Lake Toolibin, a salt-affected wetland in Western Australia. The simulations reveal that in trying to reduce the negative effect of salinity, the management interventions have created an environment favouring C. obesa by intensifying the climate-induced trend that the wetland has been experiencing of lower water availability and higher root-zone salinity. By testing alternative scenarios, we show that interventions that improve M. strobophylla biomass are possible by promoting hydrologic conditions that are less specific to the niche requirements of C. obesa. Modelling uncertainties were explored via a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. Overall, the study demonstrates the importance of including species differentiation and competition in ecohydrological models that form the basis for wetland management.

  3. Changes of Urban Wetland Landscape Pattern and Impacts of Urbanization on Wetland in Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuelei; NING Longmei; YU Jing; XIAO Rui; LI Tao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, remote sensing data of Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in 1996-2001 were selected to ex-tract wetland landscape information. Several landscape indices were used to evaluate the changes of landscape patternwithin the five years, including patch number, patch density, patch fractal dimension, landscape diversity, dominance,evenness, and fragmentation indexes. Then, transformation probabilities of wetland landscapes into non-wetland land-scapes were calculated based on Markov Model, and on these grounds the relationship between changes of wetlandlandscape pattern and urban construction was analyzed. The results showed that fragmentation degree of all wetlandtypes increased, lake area declined, and dominance of natural wetland decreased. The reasons for these results weremainly because of urban construction. According to the features of abundant wetland in Wuhan City, we suggested thatprotection of wetland landscape should cooperate with urban construction, which means wetland should become im-portant part of urban landscape.

  4. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leemhuis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  5. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  6. Fate of Volatile Organic Compounds in Constructed Wastewater Treatment Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, S.H.; Barber, L.B.; Runkel, R.L.; Ryan, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The fate of volatile organic compounds was evaluated in a wastewater-dependent constructed wetland near Phoenix, AZ, using field measurements and solute transport modeling. Numerically based volatilization rates were determined using inverse modeling techniques and hydraulic parameters established by sodium bromide tracer experiments. Theoretical volatilization rates were calculated from the two-film method incorporating physicochemical properties and environmental conditions. Additional analyses were conducted using graphically determined volatilization rates based on field measurements. Transport (with first-order removal) simulations were performed using a range of volatilization rates and were evaluated with respect to field concentrations. The inverse and two-film reactive transport simulations demonstrated excellent agreement with measured concentrations for 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, dichloromethane, and trichloromethane and fair agreement for dibromochloromethane, bromo-dichloromethane, and toluene. Wetland removal efficiencies from inlet to outlet ranged from 63% to 87% for target compounds.

  7. Integrated Constructed Wetlands (ICW) for livestock wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rory; McInnes, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Social, economic and environmental coherence is sought in the management of livestock wastewater. Wetlands facilitate the biogeochemical processes that exploit livestock wastewater and provide opportunities to achieve such coherence and also to deliver on a range of ecosystem services. The Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) concept integrates three inextricably linked objectives: water quantity and quality management, landscape-fit to improve aesthetic site values and enhanced biodiversity. The synergies derived from this explicit integration allow one of the key challenges for livestock management to be addressed. An example utilizing twelve ICW systems from a catchment on the south coast of Ireland demonstrates that over an eight year period mean reduction of total and soluble phosphorus (molybdate reactive phosphorus) exceeded 95% and the mean removal of ammonium-N exceeded 98%. This paper reviews evidence regarding the capacity of ICWs to provide a coherent and sustainable alternative to conventional systems.

  8. Profound and pervasive degradation of Madagascar’s freshwater wetlands and links with biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindrajao, Felix; Young, Richard P.; Hilton, Geoff M.

    2017-01-01

    Reflecting a global trend, freshwater wetlands in Madagascar have received little conservation or research attention. Madagascar is a global conservation priority due to its high level of species endemism but most work has focused on protecting forests. For the first time, we investigated the state of wetlands across the country to determine the effects of human disturbance. We conducted a rapid survey of 37 wetlands, using waterbirds and benthic invertebrates as ecological indicators. We recorded nine variables relating to human disturbance, revealing widespread wetland destruction. Principal Components Analysis reduced the nine variables to a single Principal Component (PC) that explained 50% of the dataset variance, demonstrating that different forms of human disturbance are ubiquitous and inseparable. The disturbance PC provides an index of how pristine a lake is and in Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) was significantly inversely related to the number of waterbird species present and the density of Chironomidae. The disturbance PC was estimated for every wetland in a GIS-derived dataset of wetland locations in Madagascar, giving a country-wide frequency distribution of disturbance. To validate the estimated PC values, we used the GLMs to predict the number of endemic bird species at an independent sample of 22 lakes. The predicted values correlated with the observed number of species, demonstrating that our procedure can identify lakes with high biodiversity value. The disturbance PC provides a convenient method for ranking sites, and a country-wide ranking demonstrates that the only near-pristine lakes in Madagascar are small sites that have been preserved by remoteness from human activity and not conservation management. The strategy of conserving high biodiversity remnants is insufficient because existing remnants suffer some degree of degradation and only support small populations of threatened species. Large-scale restoration of degraded wetlands is

  9. Enhancing the removal of arsenic, boron and heavy metals in subsurface flow constructed wetlands using different supporting media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, K Lizama; Fletcher, T D; Sun, G

    2011-01-01

    The presence of arsenic and heavy metals in drinking water sources poses a serious health risk due to chronic toxicological effects. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove arsenic and heavy metals, but little is known about pollutant removal efficiency and reliability of wetlands for this task. This lab-scale study investigated the use of vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands for removing arsenic, boron, copper, zinc, iron and manganese from synthetic wastewater. Gravel, limestone, zeolite and cocopeat were employed as wetland media. Conventional gravel media only showed limited capability in removing arsenic, iron, copper and zinc; and it showed virtually no capability in removing manganese and boron. In contrast, alternative wetland media: cocopeat, zeolite and limestone, demonstrated significant efficiencies--in terms of percentage removal and mass rate per m3 of wetland volume--for removing arsenic, iron, manganese, copper and zinc; their ability to remove boron, in terms of mass removal rate, was also higher than that of the gravel media. The overall results demonstrated the potential of using vertical flow wetlands to remove arsenic and metals from contaminated water, having cocopeat, zeolite or limestone as supporting media.

  10. Innovative approach for restoring coastal wetlands using treated drill cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Hocking, E. K.

    1999-11-02

    The leading environmental problem facing coastal Louisiana regions is the loss of wetlands. Oil and gas exploration and production activities have contributed to wetland damage through erosion at numerous sites where canals have been cut through the marsh to access drilling sites. An independent oil and gas producer, working with Southeastern Louisiana University and two oil field service companies, developed a process to stabilize drill cuttings so that they could be used as a substrate to grow wetlands vegetation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded a project under which the process would be validated through laboratory studies and field demonstrations. The laboratory studies demonstrated that treated drill cuttings support the growth of wetlands vegetation. However, neither the Army Corps of Engineers (COE) nor the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would grant regulatory approval for afield trial of the process. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to join the project team to try to find alternative mechanisms for gaining regulatory approval. Argonne worked with EPA's Office of Reinvention and learned that EPA's Project XL would be the only regulatory program under which the proposed field trial could be done. One of the main criteria for an acceptable Project XL proposal is to have a formal project sponsor assume the responsibility and liability for the project. Because the proposed project involved access to private land areas, the team felt that an oil and gas company with coastal Louisiana land holdings would need to serve as sponsor. Despite extensive communication with oil and gas companies and industry associations, the project team was unable to find any organization willing to serve as sponsor. In September 1999, the Project XL proposal was withdrawn and the project was canceled.

  11. Advancing the use of minirhizotrons in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Iversen; M. T. Murphy; M. F. Allen; J. Childs; D. M. Eissenstat; E.A. Lilleskov; T. M. Sarjala; V. L. Sloan; P. F. Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Wetlands store a substantial amount of carbon (C) in deep soil organic matter deposits, and play an important role in global fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane. Fine roots (i.e., ephemeral roots that are active in water and nutrient uptake) are recognized as important components of biogeochemical cycles in nutrient-limited wetland ecosystems. However,...

  12. Pesticide mitigation capacities of constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew T. Moore; Charles M. Cooper; Sammie Smith; John H. Rodgers

    2000-01-01

    This research focused on using constructed wetlands along field perimeters to buffer receiving water against potential effects of pesticides associated with storm runoff. The current study incorporated wetland mesocosm sampling following simulated runoff events using chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and metolachlor. Through this data collection and simple model analysis,...

  13. Global warming and prairie wetlands: potential consequences for waterfowl habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Karen A.; Johnson, W. Carter

    1991-01-01

    The accumulation of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is expected to warm the earth's climate at an unprecedented rate (Ramanathan 1988, Schneider 1989). If the climate models are correct, within 100 years the earth will not only be warmer than it has been during the past million years, but the change will have occurred more rapidly than any on record. Many profound changes in the earth's environment are expected, including rising sea level, increasing aridity in continental interiors, and melting permafrost. Ecosystems are expected to respond variously to a rapidly changing climate. Tree ranges in eastern North American are expected to shift northward, and seed dispersal may not be adequate to maintain current diversity (Cohn 1989, Johnson and Webb 1989). In coastal wetlands, rising sea level from melting icecaps and thermal expansion could flood salt-grass marshes and generally reduce the size and productivity of the intertidal zone (Peters and Darling 1985). As yet, little attention has been given to the possible effects of climatic warming on inland prairie wetland ecosystems. These wetlands, located in the glaciated portion of the North American Great Plains (Figure 1), constitute the single most important breeding area for waterfowl on this continent (Hubbard 1988). This region annually produces 50-80% of the continent's total duck production (Batt et al. 1989). These marshes also support a variety of other wildlife, including many species of nongame birds, muskrat, and mink (Kantrud et al. 1989a). Prairie wetlands are relatively shallow, water-holding depressions that vary in size, water permanence, and water chemistry. Permanence types include temporary ponds (typically holding water for a few weeks in the springs), seasonal ponds (holding water from spring until early summer), semipermanent ponds (holding water throughout the growing season during most years), and large permanent lakes (Stewart and Kantrud 1971). Refilling usually occurs in spring from

  14. North American migratory bird management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    As human population and industry have grown in North America, land-use practices have greatly altered the landscape. As a result of this changed landscape, several migratory bird populations have declined in recent years. For waterbirds, there have been several milestones: the 1986 North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) and the 1989 North American Wetlands Conservation Act. As a result, the United States and Canada have established 12 habitat and 2 species joint ventures. The primary emphasis of waterfowl management in Canada-U.S. has been land purchase and lease, wetland restoration, and coordination of harvest rates. Because of its different biological and cultural context, Mexico has established other conservation priorities. Mexico has had a long-standing concern to conserve its biodiversity and, in addition, conservation of Mexican resources goes hand in hand with human community development. Unlike Canada-U.S., wetland conservation projects in'Mexico include information gathering, environmental education, and management planning for its 32 priority wetlands. For migratory landbirds' scientists attribute declines in several migrant populations to forest fragmentation on the breeding grounds, deforestation on the wintering grounds, pesticide poisoning, or the cumulative effects of habitat changes. In 1990, the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, commonly known as Partners in Flight-Aves de las Americas-was initiated. The next step that is being proposed is the formation of a habitat conservation plan for landbirds modeled after the NAWMP. Management of migratory birds requires a strong international approach in order to coordinate actions for the benefit of migratory birds, their habitats, and the uses they provide.

  15. Effects of stereoscopic artificial floating wetlands on nekton abundance and biomass in the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Chao; Gao, Yu; Geng, Zhi; Zhuang, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Habitat degradation is one of the greatest existing threats to nekton biodiversity in estuarine and coastal habitats. Stereoscopic artificial floating wetlands (SAFWs) can provide new nekton habitats and have been widely used as conservation and management tools in freshwater and marine environments. In the current study, we constructed Phragmites australis SAFWs: the P. australis rhizomes were planted on the artificial floating beds, and palm slices were hung under the floating platforms to act as submerged plants. These SAFWs were anchored in the north channel of the Yangtze Estuary. To determine if SAFWs can serve as fish aggregation devices, fishes and crustaceans were sampled monthly using a bottom lift net during high-tide from July to October 2014. Our assessment was based on environmental parameters, nekton density, nekton species composition and the total length of the three most abundant fishes at the experimental and control sites. Nekton abundance was approximately three times greater in the SAFWs than that in the control habitats (108.2 ± 27.56 ind./m(2) vs. 28.37 ± 15.88 ind./m(2), respectively). There were no significant habitat-specific differences in the size distribution of the three most abundant fish species (Acanthogobius ommaturus, Odontamblyopus rubicundus and Eleutheronema tetradactylum) because most of the individuals sampled were juveniles. This study demonstrates that SAFWs can form stable environments for nekton and increase habitat available to juvenile fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ERTS-1 investigation of wetlands ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. R. (Principal Investigator); Carter, V.; Mcginness, J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data from aircraft can be used for large scale mapping where detailed information is necessary, whereas Landsat-1 data are useful for rapid mapping of gross wetland boundaries and vegetative composition and assessment of seasonal change plant community composition such as high and low growth forms of Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemarianus, and Spartina cynosuroides. Spoil disposal and wetland ditching activities may also be defined. Wetland interpretation is affected by tidal stage; drainage patterns are more easily detected at periods of low water. Species discrimination is easier at periods of high water during the growing season; upper wetland boundaries in fresh water tidal marshes are more easily delineated during the winter months when marsh vegetation is largely dead or dormant. Fresh water discharges from coastal streams may be inferred from the species composition of contiguous wetlands.

  17. Progress in Research of Chinese Wetland Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yichuan; LI Dongsheng; WANG Shanshan

    2008-01-01

    There has been a rapid development in the construction of wetland parks in China in recent years. This paper discussed the progress in the research of Chinese wetland parks that covered the aspects of wetland resources, landscape and enviroment. The function of wetland parks, the evaluation of landscape and the exploiting of resources; the landscape concept and landscape planning and design; the plant environment, the water environment and the recreation environment were all reviewed. The research of Chinese wetland parks started later but developed rapidly, having remarkable achievements in practice and functional studies, and there are still some shortcomings in the researches to be improved. At last, the key points which should be researched urgently in the future were discussed.

  18. Reconstruction of Anacostia wetlands: success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, R.S.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the tidal Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. had been an extensive system of freshwater tidal marshes replete with a full array of wetland vegetation dominated by wild rice. The local Nacochtank Indians had found the abundant fish and wildlife sufficient to sustain their daily lives. White man's intrusion upon the landscape gradually brought about deterioration of the natural (and associated cultural) system. Total demise followed mid-20th century dredge and fill channelization, which was conducted from the confluence of the Anacostia with the Potomac near the heart of Washington, D.C. to the terminus of the tidal regime at Bladensburg, Maryland. The National Park Service (NPS) became the manager for much of the land along the Anacostia, particularly the eastern bank. As part of its planning effort, the NPS envisioned returning portions of the Anacostia under its control to a natural system as a vignette. The concept was based on bringing back as comprehensive a collection of vegetation and wildlife as possible through the reestablishment of tidal marshes at Kenilworth and Kingman. The resultant wetlands were to be made accessible to the public both logistically and through a well designed interpretative program. In fact, this vision has been realized due to an impressive cooperative effort among a number of Federal and local agencies and organizations. In 1993, 32 acres of freshwater tidal marsh were reconstructed at Kenilworth. Based upon the 5-year monitoring program that has been in place since reconstruction, several generalizations may be made concerning the degree of success of the marsh reconstruction. Water quality in the marsh system and nearby tidal waters has not been noticeably improved. The poor quality may be clue to the overwhelmingly high loads (e.g., sediment, nutrients, etc.) brought in on the twice daily tidal cycle from the Anacostia and to the relatively small volume of water which actually interacts with the emergent marsh

  19. Experiences with Constructed Wetland Systems in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Youngchul; Hwang Gilson; Lee Jin-Woo; Park Je-Chul; Kim Dong-Sup; Kang Min-Gi; Chang In-Soung

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance.Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands' safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  20. Wetland Microbial Community Response to Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, S.; Hartman, W.; Tringe, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland restoration has been proposed as a potential long-term carbon storage solution, with a goal of engineering geochemical dynamics to accelerate peat accretion and encourage greenhouse gas (GHG) sequestration. However, wetland microbial community composition and metabolic rates are poorly understood and their predicted response to wetland restoration is a veritable unknown. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors that shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities along a salinity gradient ranging from freshwater tidal marshes to hypersaline ponds in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomics, coupled with greenhouse gas measurements, we sampled sixteen sites capturing a range in salinity and restoration status. Seawater delivers sulfate to wetland ecosystems, encouraging sulfate reduction and discouraging methane production. As expected, we observed the highest rates of methane production in the freshwater wetlands. Recently restored wetlands had significantly higher rates of methane production compared to their historic counterparts that could be attributed to variations in trace metal and organic carbon content in younger wetlands. In contrast, our sequencing results revealed an almost immediate return of the indigenous microbial communities following seasonal flooding and full tidal restoration in saline and hypersaline wetlands and managed ponds. Notably, we found elevated methane production rates in hypersaline ponds, the result of methylotrophic methane production confirmed by sequence data and lab incubations. Our study links belowground microbial communities and their aboveground greenhouse gas production and highlights the inherent complexity in predicting wetland microbial response in the face of both natural and unnatural disturbances.

  1. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44...

  2. Farmers' knowledge and perception of agricutural wetland management in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabahungu, N.L.; Visser, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Most of Rwanda's wetlands are being reclaimed under government schemes with the aim of growing rice as the main crop. In the present study, information on farmers' knowledge and perceptions of agricultural wetland management was collected in Cyabayaga and Rugeramigozi wetlands. The two wetlands were

  3. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by CCC...

  4. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1) The...

  5. On leadership and success in professional wetland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Wetland Scientists and the wetland profession are fortunate to have an abundance of leaders. These leaders respond to the needs of the Society for guidance and direction. They also consistently advance wetland science and improve the quality of wetland management...

  6. 7 CFR 12.32 - Converted wetland identification criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Converted wetland identification criteria. 12.32 Section 12.32 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.32 Converted wetland identification criteria. (a) Converted...

  7. On leadership and success in professional wetland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Wetland Scientists and the wetland profession are fortunate to have an abundance of leaders. These leaders respond to the needs of the Society for guidance and direction. They also consistently advance wetland science and improve the quality of wetland management...

  8. Green energy education programs and demonstrations at the Kortright Centre for Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, A. [Kortright Centre for Consevation, Woodbridge, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The Kortright Centre for Conservation is situated on 325 hectares of pristine woodlands a few kilometres north of Toronto, Ontario. It has one of the most progressive and innovative environmental outdoor programs, demonstrations and events in Canada. It is intended to inspire people to think and act more sustainably and to promote green energy solutions. The Centre has designed several successful programs for students and adults that provide both theoretical and hands on learning opportunities. This paper described some of the unique demonstration programs used at the Kortright Centre for Conservation which is owned and operated by the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. The demonstrations include the following: Canada's most energy efficient building; 8 kw of grid connected photovoltaic systems; 500 watts of remote photovoltaic systems; Canada's first roof-mounted grid-connected photovoltaic system; Canada's first solar shingle roof system; 120 watt solar water pumping system; 10 kw grid connected wind turbine; 50 and 400 watt small wind turbines; an energy efficient cottage powered entirely by solar/wind energy; 3 solar hot water heating demonstrations; solar assisted ground source heat pump; hybrid popular plantation; wood energy display; high efficiency wood burning appliances; biological wetland waste water treatment; and composting toilets. These programs engage a variety of groups, including industry, families and students in sustainable practices. 7 figs.

  9. Strategies of Protection and Utilization of Wetland Resources in Jiaxing City%嘉兴市湿了资源保护和利用对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾掌根; 王国峰

    2013-01-01

    嘉兴市位于太湖流域水网平原、长江三角洲南缘、杭州湾和钱塘江北岸,域内具有丰富的湿地资源,但由于不合理的开发利用导致自然湿地数量持续减少、湿地生态功能退化乃至丧失。通过对嘉兴市湿地类型和特点进行分析,将嘉兴市湿地划分为滨海(江)湿地(滩涂)、河流湿地、湖泊湿地和人工湿地4种类型。探讨了目前嘉兴市湿地环境存在的主要问题,并针对主要制约因素对湿地的保护和合理利用提出了对策与建议。%Jiaxing is located in the plain of Taihu Basin, the southern margin of the Yangtze River delta, and the north shore of Hangzhou bay and the Qiantang River. There were rich wetland resources in the region. However, irrational development and utilization had resulted in continual reduction in the number of natural wetlands, degradation of ecological functions and even loss of wetlands. An analysis was conducted to divide the wetlands in Jiaxin City into 4 types, coastal (riverside) wetland (mud flat), river wetland, lake wetland, and constructed wetland. Main problems currently existing in wetland environment in Jiaixng City were identified, and strategies were proposed for wetland protection and rational utilization considering the main constraints.

  10. Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers.

  11. Directory of Wetland Plant Vendors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Pfeiffer, Jr., was the WRP Coordinator at the Directorate of Research and Development, HQUSACE, and Mr. William L. Klesch served as the WRP Technical...150 01 fu to51go5toS151g 0 )0 0 0 0)0 ’ q44l 0 00 0 = a I -q qP ’I-’-" 1 1 Chapter 2 Wetland Plants by Spadies 5 0 0 0 0 VI 0 0 00 P44 IA ON 41 0 11r

  12. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  13. Spatiotemporal analysis of encroachment on wetlands: a case of Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isunju, John Bosco; Kemp, Jaco

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands provide vital ecosystem services such as water purification, flood control, and climate moderation among others, which enhance environmental quality, promote public health, and contribute to risk reduction. The biggest threat to wetlands is posed by human activities which transform wetlands, often for short-term consumptive benefits. This paper aimed to classify and map recent land cover and provide a multi-temporal analysis of changes from 2002 to 2014 in the Nakivubo wetland through which wastewater from Kampala city drains to Lake Victoria in Uganda. The paper contributes through spatially congruent change maps showing site-specific land cover conversions. In addition, it gives insight into what happened to the wetlands, why it happened, how the changes in the wetlands affect the communities living in them, and how the situation could be better managed or regulated in future. The analysis is based on very high resolution (50-62 cm) aerial photos and satellite imagery, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. Overall, the analysis of losses and gains showed a 62 % loss of wetland vegetation between 2002 and 2014, mostly attributable to crop cultivation. Cultivation in the wetland buffering the lake shore makes it unstable to anchor. The 2014 data shows large portions of the wetland calved away by receding lake waves. With barely no wetland vegetation buffer around the lake, the heavily polluted wastewater streams will lower the quality of lake water. Furthermore, with increased human activities in the wetland, exposure to flooding and pollution will be likely to have a greater impact on the health and livelihoods of vulnerable communities. This calls for a multi-faceted approach, coordination of the various stakeholders and engagement of wetland-dependent communities as part of the solution, and might require zoning out the wetland and restricting certain activities to specific zones.

  14. Production and Cycling of Methylmercury in High Arctic Wetland Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnherr, I.; St. Louis, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    Some species of freshwater fish in the Canadian high Arctic contain levels of methylmercury (MeHg) that pose health risks to the northern Inuit peoples that harvest these species as a traditional food source. In temperate regions, wetlands are known natural sites of MeHg production and hence significant MeHg sources to downstream ecosystems. However, the importance of wetlands to Hg methylation in the Arctic is unclear and the sources of MeHg to arctic freshwater ecosystems are still largely unidentified. Our research is demonstrating that some shallow and warm wetland ponds on the Arctic landscape contain high MeHg concentrations compared to nearby deep and cold lakes. We used a mass-balance approach to measure the net in-pond production of MeHg in two warm wetland ponds (Ponds 1 and 2) near Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut (81° N latitude). We quantified external inputs and outputs of MeHg to and from the ponds, as well as the accumulation of MeHg in the water column during the summers of 2005 and 2008. Any changes in water column MeHg concentrations that could not be accounted for by external inputs or sinks were attributed to in-pond production. The principal external input and sink of MeHg was, respectively, wet atmospheric deposition and water-column MeHg photodemethylation. For 2005, we estimate that the net flux of MeHg from sediments into the water column was 0.015 μg m-2 d-1 in Pond 1 and 0.0016 μg m-2 d-1 in Pond 2. Compared to sediment-water MeHg fluxes measured in Alaskan tundra lakes (0.0015-0.0045 μg m-2 d-1), Pond 1 sediments are a greater source of MeHg while Pond 2 is similar to the Alaskan lakes. Furthermore, the accumulation of MeHg in the water column of Pond 1 (0.0061 μg m-2 d-1) was similar to the net yield of MeHg from temperate boreal wetlands (0.0005-0.006 μg m-2 d-1), demonstrating that these Arctic wetlands are important sites of MeHg production. In addition, we used mercury stable-isotope tracers to quantify methylation and

  15. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization in northern wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgham, S.D. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Updegraff, K.; Pastor, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The authors examined rates of C, N, and P mineralization in soils from 16 northern Minnesota wetlands that occur across an ombrotrophic-minerotrophic gradient. Soils were incubated at 30 C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 59 wk, and the results were fit with a two-pool kinetic model. Additionally, 39 different soil quality variables were used in a principal components analysis (PCA) to predict mineralization rates. Mineralization of C, N, and P differed significantly among wetland types, aeration status (aerobic vs. anaerobic), and their interaction term. Despite low total soil N and P, there was a rapid turnover of the nutrient pools in ombrotrophic sites, particularly under aerobic conditions. On a volumetric basis, C and N mineralization increased in a predictable manner across the ombrotrophic-minerotrophic gradient, largely due to increasing soil bulk density. However, P mineralization per cubic centimeter remained relatively high in the bogs. The higher total P content of more minerotrophic soils appears to be offset by greater P immobilization due to geochemical sorption, yielding overall lower availability. Large differences in mineralization rates in northern wetland communities demonstrate that climate change models should not consider these areas as homogeneous entities.

  16. Accumulation of contaminants in fish from wastewater treatment wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.B.; Keefe, S.H.; Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.; Wass, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demands on water resources in arid environments make reclamation and reuse of municipal wastewater an important component of the water budget. Treatment wetlands can be an integral part of the water-reuse cycle providing both water-quality enhancement and habitat functions. When used for habitat, the bioaccumulation potential of contaminants in the wastewater is a critical consideration. Water and fish samples collected from the Tres Rios Demonstration Constructed Wetlands near Phoenix, Arizona, which uses secondary-treated wastewater to maintain an aquatic ecosystem in a desert environment, were analyzed for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) and trace elements. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) were deployed to investigate uptake of HOC. The wetlands effectively removed HOC, and concentrations of herbicides, pesticides, and organic wastewater contaminants decreased 40-99% between inlet and outlet. Analysis of Tilapia mossambica and Gambusia affinis indicated accumulation of HOC, including p,p???-DDE and trans-nonachlor. The SPMD accumulated the HOC detected in the fish tissue as well as additional compounds. Trace-element concentrations in whole-fish tissue were highly variable, but were similar between the two species. Concentrations of HOC and trace elements varied in different fish tissue compartments, and concentrations in Tilapia liver tissue were greater than those in the whole organism or filet tissue. Bioconcentration factors for the trace elements ranged from 5 to 58 000 and for the HOC ranged from 530 to 150 000. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  17. Optimization Analysis on Comprehensive Evaluation Index of Wetland Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanyan ZHANG; Fanlong KONG; Min XI; Yue LI

    2016-01-01

    Wetland park is an important mode of wetland protection, meanwhile, construction of comprehensive index system has become the hotspot and keystone of the researches on Wetland Parks. Basing on different development stages , this paper firstly divided the Wetland Parks into three categories, including the start-up stage, the development stage and the refinement stage. And then screened and identified the direction and keypoints of comprehensive evaluation for wetland parks in different development stages using expert scoring, questionnaire and analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

  18. Wetlands Spatial-Temporal Distribution Multi-Scale Simulation Using Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of wetland landscape spatial-temporal distribution not only can reveal the mechanisms and laws of landscape evolution, but achieve the sustainable land use as well as provide supports for wetland conservation and management. In this report, the inland freshwater wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain of China were selected for wetland landscape changing process simulation studies. Results showed that both visual effects of simulation and prediction were good and the total accuracy co-efficiency of points to points was also significantly high (above 82%, which demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of wetland landscape spatial-temporal distribution simulation using Multi-Agent System (MAS. Scales exerted influence on visual effects, simulation accuracies and statistics of landscape index. Scale effects were obvious during simulation process using MAS. It was demonstrated that 60m was the best scale for simulation. It was shown that contagion index lines were exponential distribution while accuracy lines were lognormal distribution with the scale rising, which provided a reference for scale effect assessment and simulation scale selection.

  19. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  20. Study of Panjin Wetlands Along Bohai Coast (Ⅱ): Ecological Water Requirement of Shuangtaizi Estuarine Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tieliang; ZHOU Linfei; ZHAO Be; YANG Peiqi

    2009-01-01

    Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland along the Bohai Sea coast, the biggest bulrush wetland in the world, has been listed in The Record of Important International Wetland Conservation District'. Taking the year of 2 000 as an example, the minimum, the most suitable and the maximum ecological water requirement of Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland are calculated in this paper based on both ecological theory and Geological Information System technology. In addition, the remote sensing technique is adopted in the data acquisition process. Moreover, the total water requirement and the unit area water requirement for different wetland types are obtained. The result is very important for water resources planning, ecological conservation and regional agriculture structure ad-justment in Shuangtaizi. Meanwhile, this study can serve as a useful example for calculating the ecological water requirement in other similar estuarine wetlands.

  1. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    In wetlands, which are a major feature at the groundwater-surface water interface, plants deliver oxygen to the subsurface to keep root tissue aerobic. Some of this oxygen leaches into the rhizosphere where it will oxidize iron that typically precipitates on or near roots. Furthermore, plans provide carbon via root exudates and turnover, which in the presence of the iron oxides drives the activity of heterotrophic iron reducers in wetland soils. Oxidized iron is an important electron acceptor for many microbially-driven transformations, which can affect the fate and transport of several pollutants. It has been shown that heterotrophic iron reducing organisms, such as Geobacter sp., can reduce water soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). The goal of this study was to determine if and how iron cycling in the wetland rhizosphere affects uranium dynamics. For this purpose, we operated a series of small-scale wetland mesocosms in a greenhouse to simulate the discharge of uranium-contaminated groundwater to surface waters. The mesocosms were operated with two different Fe(II) loading rates, two plant types, and unplanted controls. The mesocosms contained zones of root exclusion to differentiate between the direct presence and absence of roots in the planted mesocosms. The mesocosms were operated for several month to get fully established, after which a U(VI) solution was fed for 80 days. The mesocosms were then sacrificed and analyzed for solid-associated chemical species, microbiological characterization, micro-X-ray florescence (µ-XRF) mapping of Fe and U on the root surface, and U speciation via X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). Results showed that bacterial numbers including Geobacter sp., Fe(III), as well as total uranium, were highest on roots, followed by sediments near roots, and lowest in zones without much root influence. Results from the µ-XRF mapping on root surfaces indicated a strong spatial correlation between Fe and U. This correlation was

  2. Freshwater wetlands: fertile grounds for the invasive Phragmites australis in a climate change context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougas-Tellier, Marie-Andrée; Morin, Jean; Hatin, Daniel; Lavoie, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will likely affect flooding regimes, which have a large influence on the functioning of freshwater riparian wetlands. Low water levels predicted for several fluvial systems make wetlands especially vulnerable to the spread of invaders, such as the common reed (Phragmites australis), one of the most invasive species in North America. We developed a model to map the distribution of potential germination grounds of the common reed in freshwater wetlands of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada) under current climate conditions and used this model to predict their future distribution under two climate change scenarios simulated for 2050. We gathered historical and recent (remote sensing) data on the distribution of common reed stands for model calibration and validation purposes, then determined the parameters controlling the species establishment by seed. A two-dimensional model and the identified parameters were used to simulate the current (2010) and future (2050) distribution of germination grounds. Common reed stands are not widespread along the St. Lawrence River (212 ha), but our model suggests that current climate conditions are already conducive to considerable further expansion (>16,000 ha). Climate change may also exacerbate the expansion, particularly if river water levels drop, which will expose large bare areas propitious to seed germination. This phenomenon may be particularly important in one sector of the river, where existing common reed stands could increase their areas by a factor of 100, potentially creating the most extensive reedbed complex in North America. After colonizing salt and brackishwater marshes, the common reed could considerably expand into the freshwater marshes of North America which cover several million hectares. The effects of common reed expansion on biodiversity are difficult to predict, but likely to be highly deleterious given the competitiveness of the invader and the biological richness of freshwater

  3. Freshwater wetlands: fertile grounds for the invasive Phragmites australis in a climate change context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougas-Tellier, Marie-Andrée; Morin, Jean; Hatin, Daniel; Lavoie, Claude

    2015-08-01

    Climate change will likely affect flooding regimes, which have a large influence on the functioning of freshwater riparian wetlands. Low water levels predicted for several fluvial systems make wetlands especially vulnerable to the spread of invaders, such as the common reed (Phragmites australis), one of the most invasive species in North America. We developed a model to map the distribution of potential germination grounds of the common reed in freshwater wetlands of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada) under current climate conditions and used this model to predict their future distribution under two climate change scenarios simulated for 2050. We gathered historical and recent (remote sensing) data on the distribution of common reed stands for model calibration and validation purposes, then determined the parameters controlling the species establishment by seed. A two-dimensional model and the identified parameters were used to simulate the current (2010) and future (2050) distribution of germination grounds. Common reed stands are not widespread along the St. Lawrence River (212 ha), but our model suggests that current climate conditions are already conducive to considerable further expansion (>16,000 ha). Climate change may also exacerbate the expansion, particularly if river water levels drop, which will expose large bare areas propitious to seed germination. This phenomenon may be particularly important in one sector of the river, where existing common reed stands could increase their areas by a factor of 100, potentially creating the most extensive reedbed complex in North America. After colonizing salt and brackishwater marshes, the common reed could considerably expand into the freshwater marshes of North America which cover several million hectares. The effects of common reed expansion on biodiversity are difficult to predict, but likely to be highly deleterious given the competitiveness of the invader and the biological richness of freshwater

  4. Anaerobic methanotrophy in tidal wetland: Effects of electron acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Hung; Yu, Zih-Huei; Wang, Pei-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands have been considered to represent the largest natural source of methane emission, contributing substantially to intensify greenhouse effect. Despite in situ methanogenesis fueled by organic degradation, methanotrophy also plays a vital role in controlling the exact quantity of methane release across the air-sediment interface. As wetlands constantly experience various disturbances of anthropogenic activities, biological burrowing, tidal inundation, and plant development, rapid elemental turnover would enable various electron acceptors available for anaerobic methanotrophy. The effects of electron acceptors on stimulating anaerobic methanotrophy and the population compositions involved in carbon transformation in wetland sediments are poorly explored. In this study, sediments recovered from tidally influenced, mangrove covered wetland in northern Taiwan were incubated under the static conditions to investigate whether anaerobic methanotrophy could be stimulated by the presence of individual electron acceptors. Our results demonstrated that anaerobic methanotrophy was clearly stimulated in incubations amended with no electron acceptor, sulfate, or Fe-oxyhydroxide. No apparent methane consumption was observed in incubations with nitrate, citrate, fumarate or Mn-oxides. Anaerobic methanotrophy in incubations with no exogenous electron acceptor appears to proceed at the greatest rates, being sequentially followed by incubations with sulfate and Fe-oxyhydroxide. The presence of basal salt solution stimulated methane oxidation by a factor of 2 to 3. In addition to the direct impact of electron acceptor and basal salts, incubations with sediments retrieved from low tide period yielded a lower rate of methane oxidation than from high tide period. Overall, this study demonstrates that anaerobic methanotrophy in wetland sediments could proceed under various treatments of electron acceptors. Low sulfate content is not a critical factor in inhibiting methane

  5. Study of Geochemical System in Constructed Wetland Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, V.

    2015-12-01

    People have recognized that the human activities lead to the degradation of the environment, and constructed wetland is one of the well-known technologies for water treatment. In constructed wetland, complicated processes should be considered such as redox reactions, acid-base reactions, adsorption-desorption between water and sediment and biochemical reactions associated with plant and microorganism. In this study, most of inorganic components were analyzed and principal component analysis (PCA) was followed for depicting the controlling biochemical reaction in the constructed wetland. The results could be a guide to operate the constructed wetland. The constructed wetland in this study is located in Taoyuan County, north Taiwan. It's a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland composed of ten cells. The water in wetland was pumped from Nankan River, which collects wastewater from Hwaya technology park, Linkou, Guishan and Nankan industrial zone. The water of inflow and outflow from each cell were collected for analyzing inorganic components with ICP-MS and IC. In general, the results show that water quality had dramatically changed in the first three cells and became stable in the following seven cells. In this study, PCA extracted two major factors (PCs), which can respectively explain 52.76%(PC1)and 28.32%(PC2)of variance of water quality data. PC1 separates samples of the first three cells from those of the other following cells. It is believed that there was another pollution source involved in the 4th cell because PC1 is characterized by high loadings of most of trace heavy metals. On the other hand, the hydrochemistry of water mainly evolve along PC2 axis. PC2 is composed of Fe, Mn, NH4, dissolved oxygen, pH, etc with high loadings. These chemical components are predominately controlled by redox reactions. Moreover, the deep water from the 4th cell contains high concentrations of many heavy metals, especially Cu and Ga. This confirms the

  6. A Perceptual Study of Wetlands: Implications for Wetland Restoration in the Urban Area in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Maulan, Suhardi

    2006-01-01

    The restoration of natural wetlands is a wonderful, noble and pragmatic idea, but such efforts often meet resistance from certain segments of society. One reason for this is that the public perceives the environment in different ways than do the experts, such as landscape architects and land managers. This dissertation analyzes peopleâ s preferences for wetlands in comparison to those of landscape architects. It specifically studies the conflict about the wetland restoration program in the ...

  7. Comparison of the prevalence index and average wetland values for identification of wetland vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States); Hackney, C.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.

  8. Limnology of Jagatpur wetland, Bhagalpur (Bihar), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajnandan

    2011-10-01

    The water quality in Jagatpur wetland was assessed in terms of physico - chemical characteristics for two years, between August 2003-July 2005. The variations in different physico-chemical parameters have been discussed in this paper in relation to fluctuating climatic condition. The wetland is experiencing racing eutrophication as evidenced by pH was acidic to alkaline, total hardness was considerably high, bicarbonate was in moderate amount, phosphate-phosphorus content was in a range of medium to high and higher values of COD. The present status of the quality of water of Jagatpur wetland is delineated in this paper.

  9. NEW ZEALAND'S WETLANDS: CONSERVATION AND WISE USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Maranhão

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand is unique when it comes to landscapes and biodiversity, being one of the countries which has the highest numbers of endemism. With such vast diversity, wetlands play a key role maintaining many of these species and also providing essential ecosystem services for the local communities. However, New Zealand has been largely degraded on wetland areas in the last two hundred years, remaining only 10% of the original composition which brings a special attention to the country. In this case, this review provides an overview of New Zealand’s wetlands highlighting aspects such as definitions, uses, values, threats and management.

  10. Constructed wetlands as green tools for management of boron mine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Onur Can; Türe, Cengiz; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are of increasing interest worldwide given that they represent an eco-technological solution to many environmental problems such as wastewater treatment. Turkey possesses approximately 70% of the world's total boron (B) reserves, and B contamination occurs in both natural and cultivated sites throughout Turkey, particularly in the north-west of the country. This study analyzes B removal and plant uptake of B in pilot plots of subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands were vegetated with Typha latifolia (referred to as CW1) and Phragmites australis (referred to as CW2) to treat wastewater from a borax reserve in Turkey--the largest of its type in the world and were assessed under field conditions. The B concentrations of water inflows to the systems were determined to be 10.2, 28.2, 84.6, 232.3, 716.4, and 2019.1 mg l(-1). The T. latifolia in the CW1 treatment group absorbed a total of 1300 mg kg(-1) B, whereas P. australis absorbed 839 mg kg(-1). As a result, CW1 had an average removal efficiency of 40.7%, while that of CW2 was 27.2%. Our results suggest that constructed wetlands are an effective, economic and eco-friendly solution to treating B mine wastewater and controlling the adverse environmental effects of B mining.

  11. Sensitivity of a prairie wetland to increased temperature and seasonal precipitation changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poiani, K.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Johnson, W.C. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States); Kittel, T.G.F. [Univ. Corp. for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-04-01

    We assessed the potential effects of increased temperature and changes in amount and seasonal timing of precipitation on the hydrology and vegetation of a semi-permanent prairie wetland in North Dakota using a spatially-defined, rule-based simulation model. Simulations were run with increased temperatures of 2{degree}C combined with a 10 percent increase or decrease in total growing season precipitation. Changes in precipitation were applied either evenly across all months or to individual seasons (spring, summer, or fall). The response of semi-permanent wetland P1 was relatively similar under most of the seasonal scenarios. A 10 percent increase in total growing season precipitation applied to summer months only, to fall months only, and over all months produced lower water levels compared to those resulting from the current climate due to increased evapotranspiration. Wetland hydrology was most affected by changes in spring precipitation and runoff. Vegetation response was relatively consistent across scenarios. Seven of the eight seasonal scenarios produced drier conditions with no open water and greater vegetation cover compared to those resulting from the current climate. Only when spring precipitation increased did the wetland maintain an extensive open water area (49 percent). 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. The contribution of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria to particulate organic nitrogen in a constructed wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; PAN, X.; MA, M.; Li, W.; Cui, L.

    2016-12-01

    N-fixing cyanobacteria can create extra nitrogen for aquatic ecosystems. Previous studies reported inconsistence patterns of the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen pools in aquatic ecosystems. However, there were few studies concerning the effect of fixed nitrogen by cyanobacteria on the nitrogen removal efficiency in constructed wetlands. This study was performed at the Beijing Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centre, where a constructed lake for the habitation of waterfowls and a constructed wetland for purifying sewage from the lake are located. The composition of phytoplankton communities, the concentrations of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) and nitrogen fixation rates (Rn) in the constructed lake and the constructed wetland were compared throughout a growing season. We counted the densities of genus Anabaena and Microcystis cells, and explored their relationships with PON and Rn in water. The proportions of PON from various sources, including the ambient N2, waterfowl faeces, wetland sediments and the nitrates, were calculated by the natural abundance of 15N with the IsoSource software. The result revealed that the constructed lake was alternately dominated by Anabaena and Microcystis throughout the growing season, and the Rn was positively correlated with PON and the cell density of Anabaena (P constructed lake and wetland respectively during the growing season. The proportions of PON from N2 increased to more than 80% when the Rn reached the highest in September. The result demonstrated that the nitrogen fixed by Anabaena might be utilized by non-N-fixing Microcystis which formed water blooms in summer. Therefore, the decline of the removal efficiency of PON in the constructed wetland in summer might indirectly result from the nitrogen fixation, since the proliferated algal were difficult to sediment in surface flow wetlands.

  13. Spatial and temporal modeling of wetland surface temperature using Landsat-8 imageries in Sulduz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Eisavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetland Surface Temperature (WST maps are an increasingly important parameter to understand the extensive range of existing processes in wetlands. The Wetlands placed in neighborhoods of agricultural and industrial lands are exposed to more chemical pollutants and pesticides that can lead to spatial and temporal variations of their surface temperature. Therefore, more studies are required for temperature modeling and the management and conservation of these variations in their ecosystem. Landsat 8 time series data of Sulduz region, Western Azerbaijan province, Iran were used in this study. The WST was derived using a mono-window algorithm after implementation of atmospheric correction. The NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index threshold method was also employed to determine the surface emissivity. Our findings show that the WST experienced extensive spatial and temporal variations. It reached its maximum value in June and also experienced the highest mean in the same month. In this research, August (2013.12.08 had a lowest spatial standard deviation regarding surface temperature and June (2013.06.28 had the highest one. Wetlands' watersides adjacent to industrial zones have a higher surface temperature than the middle lands of these places. The map obtained from the WST variance over time can be exploited to reveal thermal stable and unstable zones. The outcome demonstrates that land use, land cover effectively contribute to wetland ecosystem health. The results are useful in the water management, preventive efforts against drying of wetland and evapotranspiration modeling. The approach employed in this research indicates that remote sensing is a valuable, low-cost and stable tool for thermal monitoring of wetlands health.

  14. Phosphate enhanced abiotic and biotic arsenic mobilization in the wetland rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheyun; Moon, Hee Sun; Myneni, Satish C B; Jaffé, Peter R

    2017-08-21

    Although abiotic process of competitive sorption between phosphate (P) and arsenate (As(V)), especially onto iron oxides, are well understood, P-mediated biotic processes of Fe and As redox transformation contributing to As mobilization and speciation in wetlands remain poorly defined. To gain new insights into the effects of P on As mobility, speciation, and bioavailability in wetlands, well-controlled greenhouse experiments were conducted. As expected, increased P levels contributed to more As desorption, but more interestingly the interactions between P and wetland plants played a synergistic role in the microbially-mediated As mobilization and enhanced As uptake by plants. High levels of P promoted plant growth and the exudation of labile organic carbon from roots, enhancing the growth of heterotrophic bacteria, including As and Fe reducers. This in turn resulted in both, more As desorption into solution due to reductive iron dissolution, and a higher fraction of the dissolved As in the form of As(III) due to the higher number of As(V) reducers. Consistent with the dissolved As results, arsenic-XANES spectra from solid medium samples demonstrated that more As was sequestered in the rhizosphere as As(III) in the presence of high P levels than for low P levels. Hence, increased P loading to wetlands stimulates both abiotic and biotic processes in the wetland rhizosphere, resulting in more As mobilization, more As reduction, as well as more As uptake by plants. These interactions are important to be taken into account in As fate and transport models in wetlands and management of wetlands containing As. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Gonadal abnormalities in frogs (Lithobates spp.) collected from managed wetlands in an agricultural region of Nebraska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M; Schwarz, Matt S; Mena, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (RWB) provides important wetland habitat for North American migratory birds. Concern exists that pesticide and nutrient runoff from surrounding row-crops enters wetlands degrading water quality and adversely affecting birds and wildlife. Frogs may be especially vulnerable. Plains leopard (Lithobates blairi) metamorphs from RWB wetlands with varying concentrations of pesticides were evaluated for a suite of biomarkers of exposure to endocrine active chemicals. Froglets had ovarian dysgenesis, high rates of testicular oocytes, and female-biased sex ratios however, there was no clear statistical association between pesticide concentrations and biomarkers. Data interpretation was hindered because timing and duration of exposures were unknown and due to an incomplete understanding of L. blairi sexual development. Emphasis is on describing the complex developmental biology of closely-related leopard frogs, how this understanding can explain RWB L. blairi anomalies, and the need for sampling at the appropriate life stage.

  16. Gonadal abnormalities in frogs (Lithobates spp.) collected from managed wetlands in an agricultural region of Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Schwarz, Matt S.; Mena, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (RWB) provides important wetland habitat for North American migratory birds. Concern exists that pesticide and nutrient runoff from surrounding row-crops enters wetlands degrading water quality and adversely affecting birds and wildlife. Frogs may be especially vulnerable. Plains leopard (Lithobates blairi) metamorphs from RWB wetlands with varying concentrations of pesticides were evaluated for a suite of biomarkers of exposure to endocrine active chemicals. Froglets had ovarian dysgenesis, high rates of testicular oocytes, and female-biased sex ratios however, there was no clear statistical association between pesticide concentrations and biomarkers. Data interpretation was hindered because timing and duration of exposures were unknown and due to an incomplete understanding of L. blairi sexual development. Emphasis is on describing the complex developmental biology of closely-related leopard frogs, how this understanding can explain RWB L. blairi anomalies, and the need for sampling at the appropriate life stage.

  17. Golf courses and wetland fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colding, Johan; Lundberg, Jakob; Lundberg, Stefan; Andersson, Erik

    2009-09-01

    Golf courses are often considered to be chemical-intensive ecosystems with negative impacts on fauna. Here we provide evidence that golf courses can contribute to the support and conservation of wetland fauna, i.e., amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Comparisons of amphibian occurrence, diversity of macroinvetebrates, and occurrence of species of conservation concern were made between permanent freshwater ponds surveyed on golf courses around Sweden's capital city, Stockholm, and off-course ponds in nature-protected areas and residential parklands. A total of 71 macroinvertebrate species were recorded in the field study, with no significant difference between golf course ponds and off-course ponds at the species, genus, or family levels. A within-group similarities test showed that golf course ponds have a more homogenous species composition than ponds in nature-protected areas and ponds in residential parkland. Within the macroinvertebrate group, a total of 11 species of odonates were identified, with no difference detected between the categories of ponds, nor any spatial autocorrelation. Significant differences were found between pond categories in the occurrence of five species of amphibians, although anuran occurrence did not differ between ponds. The great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) was significantly associated with golf course ponds, but the smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris) was not. We found no evidence of any correlation between pond size and occurrence of amphibians. Among the taxa of conservation concern included in the sample, all amphibians are nationally protected in Sweden, with the internationally threatened T. cristatus more frequently found in golf course ponds. Among macroinveterbrates of conservation status, the large white-faced darter dragonfly (Leucorrhinia pectoralis) was only detected in golf course ponds, and Tricholeiochiton fagesi (Trichoptera) was only found in one off-course pond. GIS results revealed that golf courses provide over

  18. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Jane [Fernald Preserve Site Manager, DOE Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John [Environmental Scientist, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Wulker, Brian [Intern, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  19. Management Plan Montezuma Wetlands Complex 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Montezuma Wetlands Complex Project (MWC) is a land conservation and management project jointly sponsored by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, New York State...

  20. Litchfield Wetland Management District: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Litchfield Wetland Management District for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  1. 76 FR 777 - National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... be consulted to verify whether that species occurs in wetlands in adjacent areas before it is assumed... recommended changes and additions to the NWPL. The process will be supported by an interactive Web site...

  2. Narrative Report Fergus Falls Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Wetlands Complex outlines District accomplishments for FY 1974. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  3. The size of the Lake~ Chilwa wetland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the actual size of the wetland and its component areas (open water, marsh, ... these data have been compared with the information provided in Kalk et al. and other ... 9 Blantyre; produced for the Forestry Department, Malawi Government, by.

  4. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2005 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  5. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2004 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  6. Wetland State-and-Transition Model _Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A geodatabase containing the boundaries of semipermanently flooded wetlands sampled on 8 National Wildlife Refuges in 2014 and 2015. These stations are located in...

  7. Measured and Calculated Volumes of Wetland Depressions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Measured and calculated volumes of wetland depressions This dataset is associated with the following publication: Wu, Q., and C. Lane. Delineation and quantification...

  8. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2007 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  9. Morris Wetland Management District Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Morris Wetland Management District Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at...

  10. Defining Hydrophytes for Wetland Identification and Delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Engineers); Norman Melvin and Michelle Schuman (U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service); Mary Butterwick and Bill...Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual (Environmental Laboratory 1987) “Large plants (macrophytes), such as aquatic mosses , liverworts

  11. Crosby Wetland Management District Narrative report: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crosby Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  12. Great Smoky Mountains National Wetland Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. These data...

  13. VT National Wetlands Inventory Map Data - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and...

  14. VT National Wetlands Inventory Map Data - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and...

  15. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2006 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  16. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2003 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  17. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2002 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  18. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2008 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  19. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2001 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  20. NOAA C-CAP National Wetland Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The probability rating which covers landcover mapping provides a continuum of wetness from dry to water. The layer is not a wetland classification but provides the...

  1. A Constructed Wetland: From Monitoring To Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Dan

    1998-01-01

    Presents a water-quality monitoring project in a Denver school that has evolved into an experiment using a constructed wetland system to treat the acid-mine drainage from an abandoned gold mine. (PVD)

  2. Value of Alaskan wetlands for waterfowl: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Few studies have focused specifically on use of Alaskan wetlands by waterfowl and only two of these have been published. However, substantial information on the...

  3. Protection of the remaining Rainwater Basins Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report begins with a review of the significant waterfowl values of the Basins wetlands, and it points out how those values have been degraded significantly by...

  4. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2000 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  5. Leopold Wetland Management District: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This CCP articulates the management direction for the Leopold Wetland Management District for the next 15 years. Through goals, objectives, and strategies, this CCP...

  6. Wetland features and landscape context predict the risk of wetland habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Kevin J; Flather, Curtis H

    2011-04-01

    Wetlands generally provide significant ecosystem services and function as important harbors of biodiversity. To ensure that these habitats are conserved, an efficient means of identifying wetlands at risk of conversion is needed, especially in the southern United States where the rate of wetland loss has been highest in recent decades. We used multivariate adaptive regression splines to develop a model to predict the risk of wetland habitat loss as a function of wetland features and landscape context. Fates of wetland habitats from 1992 to 1997 were obtained from the National Resources Inventory for the U.S. Forest Service's Southern Region, and land-cover data were obtained from the National Land Cover Data. We randomly selected 70% of our 40 617 observations to build the model (n = 28 432), and randomly divided the remaining 30% of the data into five Test data sets (n = 2437 each). The wetland and landscape variables that were important in the model, and their relative contributions to the model's predictive ability (100 = largest, 0 = smallest), were land-cover/ land-use of the surrounding landscape (100.0), size and proximity of development patches within 570 m (39.5), land ownership (39.1), road density within 570 m (37.5), percent woody and herbaceous wetland cover within 570 m (27.8), size and proximity of development patches within 5130 m (25.7), percent grasslands/herbaceous plants and pasture/hay cover within 5130 m (21.7), wetland type (21.2), and percent woody and herbaceous wetland cover within 1710 m (16.6). For the five Test data sets, Kappa statistics (0.40, 0.50, 0.52, 0.55, 0.56; P < 0.0001), area-under-the-receiver-operating-curve (AUC) statistics (0.78, 0.82, 0.83, 0.83, 0.84; P < 0.0001), and percent correct prediction of wetland habitat loss (69.1, 80.4, 81.7, 82.3, 83.1) indicated the model generally had substantial predictive ability across the South. Policy analysts and land-use planners can use the model and associated maps to prioritize

  7. Acidification of experimental wetlands: Effects on wetland productivity and survival of juvenile black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Chu, D.S.; Bunck, C.M.; Mingo, T.M.; Schaffner, W.W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Six man-made wetlands (0.02 ha each) and pen-reared broods of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were used to assess the effects of reduced pH on the quality of fish- free, palustrine habitat for brood rearing. Acid treatment was assigned randomly among newly constructed wetlands during April through June 1984-85, to simulate depressed pH from snowmelt and spring rain. Sampling of chlorophyll epiphytic growth, zooplankton and macroinvertebrates confirmed reduced productivity of acidified (pH 5.0) versus control (pH 6.8) wetlands. Primary productivity was particularly reduced in acidified wetlands in early spring as indicated by high water transparency and low chlorophyll a concentrations. Chlrophyll a concentrations showed treatment (p = 0.01) and date (p = 0.05) effects, but no interaction, and dry weight of epiphytic growth was lower (p = 0.03) in acidified versus control wetlands. Numbers of zooplankton were similar in experimental wetlands, although controls generally exceeded acidified wetlands in abundance; only a single treatment effect for cladocerans (p = 0.1) was detected. Sweep net samples yielded greater numbers (p = 0.03), taxa (p = 0.01) and biomass (p = 0.07) of macroinvertebrates in control wetlands with gastropods, pelecypods and leeches notably reduced by acidification. Placement of 18 broods (female with four 10-day-old ducklings) for 10-day trials on experimental wetlands revealed limited growth, altered behaviour and marked reduction in survival of ducklings on acidified wetlands. An inadequate number of invertebrates is indicated as the cause for poor duckling productivity on acidified wetlands

  8. Flora characteristics of Chenier Wetland in Bohai Bay and biogeographic relations with adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; Liu, Jingtao; Hu, Shugang

    2017-01-01

    A key step towards the restoration of heavily disturbed fragile coastal wetland ecosystems is determining the composition and characteristics of the plant communities involved. This study determined and characterized the community of higher plants in the Chenier wetland of Bohai Bay using a combination of field surveys, quadrat approaches, and multivariate statistical analyses. This community was then compared to other adjacent wetlands (Tianjin, Qinhuangdao, Laizhouwan, Jiaozhouwan, and Yellow River Delta wetland) located near the Huanghai and Bohai Seas using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Results showed a total of 56 higher plant species belonging to 52 genera from 20 families in Chenier wetland, the majority of which were dicotyledons. Single-species families were predominant, while larger families, including Gramineae, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Chenopodiaceae contained a higher number of species (each⩾6 species). Cosmopolitan species were also dominant with apparent intrazonality. Abundance (number of species) of temperate species was twice that of tropical taxa. Species number of perennial herbs, such as Gramineae and Compositae, was generally higher. Plant diversity in the Chenier wetland, based on the Shannon-Wiener index, was observed to be between the Qinhuangdao and Laizhouwan indices, while no significant difference was found in other wetlands using the Simpson index. Despite these slight differences in diversity, PCoA based on species abundance and composition of the wetland flora suggest that the Bohai Chenier community was highly similar to the coastal wetlands in Tianjin and Laizhouwan, further suggesting that these two wetlands could be important breeding grounds and resources for the restoration of the plant ecosystem in the Chenier wetland.

  9. Biotic wetland connectivity—supporting a new approach for wetland policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezaga, J. M.; Santamaría, L.; Green, A. J.

    2002-06-01

    Wetlands are key habitats connected physically and socially with processes occurring over a much wider territory. The biotic connection through dispersal mechanisms among wetlands is of primary importance to wetland management and policies. However, traditional wetland conservation approaches are based on the preservation of isolated sites considered to be of special importance (typically owing to their importance for concentrations of migratory waterbirds). Research linking local species richness and bird migration suggests that the effect of wetland loss on regional diversity might be much larger than what would be expected from direct habitat loss. Since the biotic connection among wetlands serviced by waterbirds appears to be more efficient within a limited range, the distribution of wetlands in space is a key aspect determining wetland connectedness even in the absence of direct hydrologic links. Protected areas should thus be defined with regard to waterfowl movements and waterbird migration as functional processes contributing to aquatic species migration and local species richness. This calls for a regional approach to wetland management within a continental context. This paper aims at defining an operational view of the dispersion function of wetlands and its implication for conservation policies. For this purpose, we examined the conservation policies of the Ramsar Convention (the international treaty that protects wetlands) and the European Union (as an example of relevant continental level policy-making) from the viewpoint of bird-mediated dispersal of aquatic organisms. We propose nine specific avenues for the inclusion of bird-mediated dispersal in the policy documents examined. Non-governmental organisations and other organisations working in waterbird conservation should also recognise the importance of their policies for aquatic biodiversity at broader levels and avoid compartmentalising their conservation activities.

  10. Implications of climate change for wetland-dependent birds in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Valerie; Skagen, Susan; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2016-01-01

    The habitats and food resources required to support breeding and migrant birds dependent on North American prairie wetlands are threatened by impending climate change. The North American Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) hosts nearly 120 species of wetland-dependent birds representing 21 families. Strategic management requires knowledge of avian habitat requirements and assessment of species most vulnerable to future threats. We applied bioclimatic species distribution models (SDMs) to project range changes of 29 wetland-dependent bird species using ensemble modeling techniques, a large number of General Circulation Models (GCMs), and hydrological climate covariates. For the U.S. PPR, mean projected range change, expressed as a proportion of currently occupied range, was −0.31 (± 0.22 SD; range − 0.75 to 0.16), and all but two species were projected to lose habitat. Species associated with deeper water were expected to experience smaller negative impacts of climate change. The magnitude of climate change impacts was somewhat lower in this study than earlier efforts most likely due to use of different focal species, varying methodologies, different modeling decisions, or alternative GCMs. Quantification of the projected species-specific impacts of climate change using species distribution modeling offers valuable information for vulnerability assessments within the conservation planning process.

  11. Isoprene emission from wetland sedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, A.; Arneth, A.; Hakola, H.; Hayward, S.; Holst, T.

    2009-04-01

    High latitude wetlands play an important role for the surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), but fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) in these ecosystems have to date not been extensively studied. This is despite BVOC representing a measurable proportion of the total gaseous C fluxes at northern locations and in the face of the high temperature sensitivity of these systems that requires a much improved process understanding to interpret and project possible changes in response to climate warming. We measured emission of isoprene and photosynthetic gas exchange over two growing seasons (2005-2006) in a subarctic wetland in northern Sweden with the objective to identify the physiological and environmental controls of these fluxes on the leaf scale. The sedge species Eriophorum angustifolium and Carex rostrata were both emitters of isoprene. Springtime emissions were first detected after an accumulated diurnal mean temperature above 0°C of about 100 degree days. Maximum measured growing season standardized (basal) emission rates (20°C, 1000 μmol m-2 s-1) were 1075 (2005) and 1118 (2006) μg C m-2 (leaf area) h-1 in E. angustifolium, and 489 (2005) and 396 (2006) μg C m-2 h-1 in C. rostrata. Over the growing season, basal isoprene emission varied in response to the temperature history of the last 48 h. Seasonal basal isoprene emission rates decreased with leaf nitrogen (N), which may be explained by the typical growth and resource allocation pattern of clonal sedges as the leaves age. The observations were used to model emissions over the growing season, accounting for effects of temperature history, links to leaf assimilation rate and the light and temperature dependencies of the cold-adapted sedges.

  12. Methane emission from wetland rice fields.

    OpenAIRE

    H.A.C. Denier van der Gon

    1996-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Wetland rice fields are an important source of methane, accounting for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic methane emission. Methane fluxes from wetland rice fields in the Philippines were monitored with a closed chamber technique in close cooperation with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). The field studies were complemented by laboratory and greenhouse ex...

  13. Wetland hydrology of the Elmley marshes

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, H.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the importance of the hydrological regime for the functioning of wetland environments, the understanding of hydrological processes, particularly evaporative dynamics and clay soil moisture fluxes, is limited and the original research outlined in this thesis constitutes a real contribution to further the scientific understanding of wetland systems. Two lines of investigation are followed based upon field experiments and monitoring of groundwater and ditch water levels to...

  14. Ecological-Economic Analysis of Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    R.K. Turner; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Barendregt, A.; Maltby, E.

    1998-01-01

    Wetlands all over the world have been lost or are threatened in spite of various international agreements and national policies. This is caused by: (1) the public nature of many wetlands products and services; (2) user externalities imposed on other stakeholders; and (3) policy intervention failures that are due to a lack of consistency among government policies in different areas (economics, environment, nature protection, physical planning, etc.). All three causes are related to information...

  15. The inhibition of Clostridium botulinum type C by other bacteria in wetland sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Renee J.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    Bacteria with inhibitory activity against Clostridium botulinum type C were isolated from 32% of sediment samples (n = 1600) collected from 10 marshes in a northern California wetland over a 12 mo period. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria with inhibitory activity were isolated from 12% and 23% of the samples, respectively. Bacteria with inhibitory activity were isolated from all 10 study sites and throughout the year. This study demonstrates that bacteria with inhibitory activity against C. botulinum type C occur naturally in wetland sediments.

  16. Impact of photosynthesis and transpiration on nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Weiguo; WANG Shihe; HUANG Juan; YAN Lu; HUANG Jun

    2007-01-01

    To determine the impact of photosynthesis and transpiration on nitrogen removal in wetlands,an artificial wetland planted with reeds was constructed to treat highly concentrated domestic wastewater.Under different meteorological and hydraulic conditions,the daily changes of photosynthesis and transpiration of reeds,as well as nitrogen removal efficiency were measured.It was found that net photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area was maintained on a high Photon Flux Density was high during the day.Meanwhile,TN and NH4+-N removal efficiency rose to 79.6% and 89.6%,respectively-the maximum values observed in the test.Correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated a positive correlation among photon flux density,net photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,and TN and NH4+-N removal efficiency.In contrast,there was a negative correlation between stomatal conductance and TN and NH4+-N removal efficiency.Results suggest that the photosynthesis and transpiration of wetland plants have a great impact on nitrogen removal efficiency of wetlands,which can be enhanced by an increase in the photosynthesis and transpiration rate.In addition,the efficiency of water usage by reeds and nitrogen removal efficiency could be affected by the water level in wetlands;a higher level boosts nitrogen removal efficiency.

  17. Phosphorus storage and mobilization in coastal Phragmites wetlands: Influence of local-scale hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Coastal Phragmites wetlands are at the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and are of paramount importance for nutrient regulation. They can act both as sinks and sources for phosphorus, depending on environmental conditions, sediment properties as well as on antecedent nutrient loading and sorption capacity of the sediments. The Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain is a shallow lagoon system at the German Baltic Sea coast with a long eutrophication history. It is lined almost at its entire length by reed wetlands. In order to elucidate under which conditions these wetlands act as sources or sinks for phosphorus, in-situ data of chemo-physical characteristics of water and sediment samples were combined with hydrodynamic measurements and laboratory experiments. Small-scale basin structures within the wetland serve as sinks for fine-grained particles rich in phosphorus, iron, manganese and organic matter. Without turbulent mixing the bottom water and the sediment surface lack replenishment of oxygen. During stagnant periods with low water level, low turbulence and thus low-oxygen conditions phosphorus from the sediments is released. But the sediments are capable of becoming sinks again once oxygen is resupplied. A thin oxic sediment surface layer rich in iron and manganese adsorbs phosphorus quickly. We demonstrate that sediments in coastal Phragmites wetlands can serve both as sources and sinks of soluble reactive phosphorus on a very short time-scale, depending on local-scale hydrodynamics and the state of the oxic-anoxic sediment interface.

  18. Hydraulic and biochemical gradients limit wetland mercury supply to an Adirondack stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Harvey, Judson; Journey, Celeste A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Murray, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Net fluxes (change between upstream and downstream margins) for water, methylmercury (MeHg), total mercury (THg), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and chloride (Cl) were assessed twice in an Adirondack stream reach (Sixmile Brook, USA), to test the hypothesized importance of wetland-stream hydraulic and chemical gradients as fundamental controls on fluvial mercury (Hg) supply. The 500 m study reach represented less than 4% of total upstream basin area. During a snowmelt high-flow event in May 2009 surface water, DOC, and chloride fluxes increased by 7.1±1.3%, 8.0±1.3%, and 9.0±1.3%, respectively, within the reach, demonstrating that the adjacent wetlands are important sources of water and solutes to the stream. However, shallow groundwater Hg concentrations lower than in the surface water limited groundwater-surface water Hg exchange and no significant changes in Hg (filtered MeHg and THg) fluxes were observed within the reach despite the favorable hydraulic gradient. In August 2009, the lack of significant wetland-stream hydraulic gradient resulted in no net flux of water or solutes (MeHg, THg, DOC, or Cl) within the reach. The results are consistent with the wetland-Hg-source hypothesis and indicate that hydraulic and chemical gradient (direction and magnitude) interactions are fundamental controls on the supply of wetland Hg to the stream.

  19. EFFECT OF SALT WEDGE INTRUSION IN KUSHIRO WETLAND CONSIDERING SEA LEVEL RISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Atsushi; Shintani, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Keisuke; Maruya, Yasuyuki; Ishida, Tetsuya; Houmura, Kenichi

    This paper describes the effect of sea-level rise (SLR) on the salt wedge intrusion in terms of ecological system in Kushiro wetland. Kushiro wetland was registered by Ramsar Treaty and the largest wetland in Japan. A previous study demonstrates that the salt wedge intrusion may not affect ecological system of Kushiro wetland, such as loss of freshwater plants along Kushiro River. However, it is revealed that SLR may occur in the end of the 21st century, which enhances the increase in the distance of the salt wedge intrusion along Kushiro River and the loss of endangered species of Kushiro wetland along Kushiro River. This study thus aims to investigate the influence of the salt wedge intrusion on freshwater plants along Kushiro River, and to clarify the salt wedge intrusion when SLR occurs due to climate change. We attempted to investigate the influence of SLR on endangered species along Kyu-Kushiro River in which sea water is likely to intrude up to about 8 km from the river mouth. As results, it is suggested from field observations that salinity may decrease freshwater plants along Kushiro River, and it clarifies the possibility that the salt wedge intrudes Kushiro River due to SLR by using 3D hydrodynamic model, Fantom3D.

  20. Delineating wetland catchments and modeling hydrologic connectivity using lidar data and aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiusheng; Lane, Charles R.

    2017-07-01

    In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM) to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In reality, however, many depressions in the DEM are actual wetland landscape features with seasonal to permanent inundation patterning characterized by nested hierarchical structures and dynamic filling-spilling-merging surface-water hydrological processes. Differentiating and appropriately processing such ecohydrologically meaningful features remains a major technical terrain-processing challenge, particularly as high-resolution spatial data are increasingly used to support modeling and geographic analysis needs. The objectives of this study were to delineate hierarchical wetland catchments and model their hydrologic connectivity using high-resolution lidar data and aerial imagery. The graph-theory-based contour tree method was used to delineate the hierarchical wetland catchments and characterize their geometric and topological properties. Potential hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and streams were simulated using the least-cost-path algorithm. The resulting flow network delineated potential flow paths connecting wetland depressions to each other or to the river network on scales finer than those available through the National Hydrography Dataset. The results demonstrated that our proposed framework is promising for improving overland flow simulation and hydrologic connectivity analysis.