WorldWideScience

Sample records for demonstration activities carried

  1. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse;

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  2. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  3. c-Myc-Induced Extrachromosomal Elements Carry Active Chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Smith

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Murine Pre-13 lymphocytes with experimentally activated MycER show both chromosomal and extrachromosomal gene amplification. In this report, we have elucidated the size, structure, functional components of c-Myc-induced extrachromosomal elements (EEs. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that EEs isolated from MycER-activated Pre-B+ cells are an average of 10 times larger than EEs isolated from non-MycER-activated control Pre-B- cells. We demonstrate that these large c-Myc-induced EEs are associated with histone proteins, whereas EEs of non-MycER-activated Pre B- cells are not. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses using pan -histone-specific, histone H3 phosphorylation-specific, histone H4 acetylation-specific antibodies indicate that a significant proportion of EEs analyzed from MycER-activated cells harbors transcriptionally competent and/or active chromatin. Moreover, these large, c-Myc-induced EEs carry genes. Whereas the total genetic make-up of these c-Myc-induced EEs is unknown, we found that 30.2% of them contain the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR gene, whereas cyclin C (CCNC was absent. In addition, 50% of these c-Myc-activated Pre-B+ EEs incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, identifying them as genetic structures that self-propagate. In contrast, EEs isolated from non-Myc-activated cells neither carry the DHFR gene nor incorporate BrdU, suggesting that c-Myc deregulation generates a new class of EEs.

  4. Overview of the activities carried out at the FEBEX site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missana, T.; Buil, B.; Garralon, A.; Gomez, P. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Medioambien te, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R. [Inst. Jaume Almera, CSIC (Spain); Suso, J.; Carretero, G.; Bueno, J.; Martinez, L. [AITEMIN (Spain) ; Hernan, P. [ENRESA (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    One of the main aim of WP 4.1 and 4.2 is to study solute migration mechanisms in crystalline host-rock in realistic conditions. Many organisations are participating in a joint study that is being performed in the FEBEX gallery (NAGRA's Grimsel Test Site, GTS, Switzerland). The FEBEX experiment reproduces at a real scale a high-level waste repository in granite and was installed more than 9 years ago. At moment, it represents the most realistic environment where the processes affecting radionuclide migration from the bentonite to granite can be studied. This paper summarises the main activities carried out at the FEBEX site during the second year of the project.

  5. Making Waves: Seismic Waves Activities and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, S. J.; Braile, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    The nature and propagation of seismic waves are fundamental concepts necessary for understanding the exploration of Earth's interior structure and properties, plate tectonics, earthquakes, and seismic hazards. Investigating seismic waves is also an engaging approach to learning basic principles of the physics of waves and wave propagation. Several effective educational activities and demonstrations are available for teaching about seismic waves, including the stretching of a spring to demonstrate elasticity; slinky wave propagation activities for compressional, shear, Rayleigh and Love waves; the human wave activity to demonstrate P- and S- waves in solids and liquids; waves in water in a simple wave tank; seismic wave computer animations; simple shake table demonstrations of model building responses to seismic waves to illustrate earthquake damage to structures; processing and analysis of seismograms using free and easy to use software; and seismic wave simulation software for viewing wave propagation in a spherical Earth. The use of multiple methods for teaching about seismic waves is useful because it provides reinforcement of the fundamental concepts, is adaptable to variable classroom situations and diverse learning styles, and allows one or more methods to be used for authentic assessment. The methods described here have been used effectively with a broad range of audiences, including K-12 students and teachers, undergraduate students in introductory geosciences courses, and geosciences majors.

  6. Guidance manual for conducting technology demonstration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, Robert L.; Morris, Michael I.; Singh, Suman P.N.

    1991-12-01

    This demonstration guidance manual has been prepared to assist Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), staff in conducting demonstrations. It is prepared in checklist style to facilitate its use and assumes that Energy Systems personnel have project management responsibility. In addition to a detailed step-by-step listing of procedural considerations, a general checklist, logic flow diagram, and several examples of necessary plans are included to assist the user in developing an understanding of the many complex activities required to manage technology demonstrations. Demonstrations are pilot-scale applications of often innovative technologies to determine the commercial viability of the technologies to perform their designed function. Demonstrations are generally conducted on well-defined problems for which existing technologies or processes are less than satisfactory in terms of effectiveness, cost, and/or regulatory compliance. Critically important issues in demonstration management include, but are not limited to, such factors as communications with line and matrix management and with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems staff responsible for management oversight, budgetary and schedule requirements, regulatory compliance, and safety.

  7. Demonstration of obstruction-free data-carrying N-fold Bessel modes multicasting from a single Gaussian mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Long; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    By designing and optimizing complex phase pattern combining with axicon phase distribution, we report data multicasting from a single Gaussian mode to multiple Bessel modes using a single phase-only spatial light modulator. Under the obstructed path conditions, obstruction-free data-carrying N-fold Bessel modes multicasting is demonstrated in the experiment. We also experimentally study N-fold multicasting of a 20 Gbit/s quadrature phase-shift keying signal from a single Gaussian mode to multiple Bessel modes and measure the link performance. All the multicasted Bessel modes show relatively low crosstalk from their neighboring modes and achieve a bit-error rate of less than 1e-3.

  8. An Undergraduate Laboratory Activity Demonstrating Bacteriophage Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Allen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage are among the most diverse and numerous microbes inhabiting our planet. Yet many laboratory activities fail to engage students in meaningful exploration of their diversity, unique characteristics, and abundance. In this curriculum activity students use a standard plaque assay to enumerate bacteriophage particles from a natural sample and use the scientific method to address questions about host specificity and diversity. A raw primary sewage sample is enriched for bacteriophage using hosts in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Students hypothesize about host specificity and use quantitative data (serial dilution and plaque assay to test their hypotheses. Combined class data also help them answer questions about phage diversity. The exercise was field tested with a class of 47 students using pre- and posttests. For all learning outcomes posttest scores were higher than pretest scores at or below p = 0.01. Average individualized learning gain (G was also calculated for each learning outcome. Students’ use of scientific language in reference to bacteriophage and host interaction significantly improved (p = 0.002; G = 0.50. Improved means of expression helped students construct better hypotheses on phage host specificity (G = 0.31, p = 0.01 and to explain the plaque assay method (G = 0.33, p = 0.002. At the end of the exercise students also demonstrated improved knowledge and understanding of phage specificity as related to phage therapy in humans (p < 0.001; G = 51.

  9. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  10. Toddlers actively reorganize their whole body coordination to maintain walking stability while carrying an object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Hao; Miranda, Daniel L; Chistolini, Trevor L; Goldfield, Eugene C

    2016-10-01

    Balanced walking involves freely swinging the limbs like pendula. However, children immediately begin to carry objects as soon as they can walk. One possibility for this early skill development is that whole body coordination during walking may be re-organized into loosely coupled collections of body parts, allowing children to use their arms to perform one function, while the legs perform another. Therefore, this study examines: 1) how carrying an object affects the coordination of the arms and legs during walking, and 2) if carrying an object influences stride length and width. Ten healthy toddlers with 3-12 months of walking experience were recruited to walk barefoot while carrying or not carrying a small toy. Stride length, width, speed, and continuous relative phase (CRP) of the hips and of the shoulders were compared between carrying conditions. While both arms and legs demonstrated destabilization and stabilization throughout the gait cycle, the arms showed a reduction in intra-subject coordination variability in response to carrying an object. Carrying an object may modify the function of the arms from swinging for balance to maintaining hold of an object. The observed period-dependent changes of the inter-limb coordination of the hips and of the shoulders also support this interpretation. Overall, these findings support the view that whole-body coordination patterns may become partitioned in particular ways as a function of task requirements.

  11. THE ENTERPRISE - THE LEGAL FORM FOR CARRYING ON AN ACTIVITY HAVING A PROFESSIONAL NATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciu D. C RPENARU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Romanian Civil Code has institutionalised a new conception regarding the regulating system for civil and commercial legal relations. Thus, new concepts emerge to fit the new conception, concepts regarding to the persons, the professionals, and the carrying on of an organised and systematised activity that qualifies such activity as having a professional nature. As one can find the new civil code has changed the conception regarding the enterprise, as it resulted from the actual commercial code. The operation of an enterprise will represent the legal form of carrying on an activity having a professional nature.

  12. Demonstration of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes emission from a silicon photonic integrated device for 20 Gbit/s QPSK carrying data transmission in few-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Shimao; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode emission from a high emission efficiency OAM emitter for 20 Gbit/s QPSK carrying data transmission in few-mode fiber (FMF). Two modes propagate through a 3.6km three-mode FMF with measured OSNR penalties less than 4 dB at a BER of 2e...

  13. 34 CFR 413.3 - What kinds of activities are carried out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION General § 413.3 What kinds of activities are carried out? The Secretary provides a grant or... pursuant to section 404(d) of the Act, such other topics as the Secretary may designate. (2) The National... of minorities and women for leadership roles in vocational education. (b) Dissemination and training...

  14. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Curriculum Coordination Centers? 412.30 Section 412.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION What Conditions Must Be Met After An Award? § 412.30 What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination...

  15. Experimental active control results from the SPICES smart structure demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, David S.; Toth, G. K.; Chou, Kenneth C.; Heck, Larry P.; Nowlin, William C.; Titterton, Paul J., Sr.

    1996-05-01

    The final demonstrations of the ARPA SPICES (Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures) program test the control of two active vibration mounts manufactured from composites with embedded actuators and sensors. Both mount demonstrations address wide band control problems for real disturbances, one at low frequency and the other at high frequency. The control systems for both are two-level hierarchies, with an inner active damping augmentation loop and an outer vibration control loop. We first review the control design requirements for the demonstration and summarize our control design approach. Then we focus on presenting the experimental results of the final demonstrations. For the low frequency demonstration, two alternative control approaches were demonstrated, one involving finite impulse response modeling and the other state space modeling. For the high frequency demonstration only the finite impulse response modeling approach was used because of computational limitations due to the complex system dynamics.

  16. Placental Vesicles Carry Active Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Their Activity is Reduced in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mejia, Carolina; Kandzija, Neva; Zhang, Wei; Mhlomi, Vuyane; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Burdujan, Alexandra; Tannetta, Dionne; Dragovic, Rebecca; Sargent, Ian L; Redman, Christopher W; Kishore, Uday; Vatish, Manu

    2017-08-01

    Preeclampsia, a multisystem hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is associated with increased systemic vascular resistance. Placentae from patients with preeclampsia have reduced levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and, thus, less nitric oxide (NO). Syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV), comprising microvesicles (STBMV) and exosomes, carry signals from the syncytiotrophoblast to the mother. We hypothesized that STBEV-bound eNOS (STBEV-eNOS), capable of producing NO, are released into the maternal circulation. Dual-lobe ex vivo placental perfusion and differential centrifugation was used to isolate STBEV from preeclampsia (n=8) and normal pregnancies (NP; n=11). Plasma samples of gestational age-matched preeclampsia and NP (n=6) were used to isolate circulating STBMV. STBEV expressed placental alkaline phosphatase, confirming placental origin. STBEV coexpressed eNOS, but not inducible nitric oxide synthase, confirmed using Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunodepletion. STBEV-eNOS produced NO, which was significantly inhibited by N  (G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (eNOS inhibitor; Ppreeclampsia-perfused placentae had lower levels of STBEV-eNOS (STBMV; Ppreeclampsia women had lower STBEV-eNOS expression compared with that from NP women (Ppreeclampsia placentae, as well as in plasma. The lower STBEV-eNOS NO production seen in preeclampsia may contribute to the decreased NO bioavailability in this disease. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Soil Enzyme Activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) Plantations in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn) following harvesting at two depths in the mineral soil (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm). Invertase and urease increased significantly with time sin...

  18. Soil Enzyme Activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére Plantations in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn following harvesting at two depths in the mineral soil (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm. Invertase and urease increased significantly with time since thinning. Catalase activity was highest in the 24-year-old stand and there were no statistically significant differences between the 32- and 40-year-old stands. In addition, maximum invertase, urease, catalase, and phenol oxidase activities occurred during the summer; minimum activities occurred in autumn. Invertase and urease were positively correlated with each other, as were catalase and phenol oxidase. Most soil enzyme activity was higher in the 0–10 cm layer than at the 10–20 cm depth. As time from thinning increased, differences among soil depth became less significant. These results suggest that seasonal changes of these enzymes have different roles, as the time since thinning and thinning treatments may have both short- and long-term impacts on soil microbial activity.

  19. Human embryonic stem cells carrying an unbalanced translocation demonstrate impaired differentiation into trophoblasts: an in vitro model of human implantation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpiz, A; Kalma, Y; Frumkin, T; Telias, M; Carmon, A; Amit, A; Ben-Yosef, D

    2015-03-01

    Carriers of the balanced translocation t(11;22), the most common reciprocal translocation in humans, are at high risk of creating gametes with unbalanced translocation, leading to repeated miscarriages. Current research models for studying translocated embryos and the biological basis for their implantation failure are limited. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) carrying the unbalanced chromosomal translocation t(11;22) can provide an explanation for repeated miscarriages of unbalanced translocated embryos. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and karyotype analysis were performed to analyze the t(11;22) in embryos during PGD and in the derived hESC line. The hESC line was characterized by RT-PCR and FACS analysis for pluripotent markers. Directed differentiation to trophoblasts was carried out by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). Trophoblast development was analyzed by measuring β-hCG secretion, by β-hCG immunostaining and by gene expression of trophoblastic markers. We derived the first hESC line carrying unbalanced t(11;22), which showed the typical morphological and molecular characteristics of a hESC line. Control hESCs differentiated into trophoblasts secreted increasing levels of β-hCG and concomitantly expressed the trophoblast genes, CDX2, TP63, KRT7, ERVW1, CGA, GCM1, KLF4 and PPARG. In contrast, differentiated translocated hESCs displayed reduced and delayed secretion of β-hCG concomitant with impaired expression of the trophoblastic genes. The reduced activation of trophoblastic genes may be responsible for the impaired trophoblastic differentiation in t(11;22)-hESCs, associated with implantation failure in unbalanced t(11;22) embryos. Our t(11;22) hESCs are presented as a valuable human model for studying the mechanisms underlying implantation failure.

  20. Sertraline demonstrates fungicidal activity in vitro for Coccidioides immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Paul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial morbidity in endemic areas. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is an AIDS defining condition and treatment often requires lifelong antifungal therapy. Sertraline, a widely used serotonin-reuptake inhibitor anti-depressant, has demonstrated activity against Candida and Cryptococcus sp. both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate if sertraline has activity against Coccidioides, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of sertraline for four clinical isolates of C. immitis were determined. Sertraline was observed to have an MIC range of 4–8 µg/ml and MFC also of 4–8 µg/ml for Coccidioides. These MIC and MFC results for C. immitis are similar to those reported for Cryptococcus sp. suggesting sertraline may potentially have utility for the treatment of coccidioidomycosis.

  1. Four experimental demonstrations of active vibration control for flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Doug; Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory experiments designed to test prototype active-vibration-control systems under development for future flexible space structures are described, summarizing previously reported results. The control-synthesis technique employed for all four experiments was the maximum-entropy optimal-projection (MEOP) method (Bernstein and Hyland, 1988). Consideration is given to: (1) a pendulum experiment on large-amplitude LF dynamics; (2) a plate experiment on broadband vibration suppression in a two-dimensional structure; (3) a multiple-hexagon experiment combining the factors studied in (1) and (2) to simulate the complexity of a large space structure; and (4) the NASA Marshall ACES experiment on a lightweight deployable 45-foot beam. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are included. The results are shown to validate the MEOP design approach, demonstrating that good performance is achievable using relatively simple low-order decentralized controllers.

  2. Experimental demonstration of active vibration control for flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Douglas J.; Hyland, David C.; Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Active vibration control of flexible structures for future space missions is addressed. Three experiments that successfully demonstrate control of flexible structures are described. The first is the pendulum experiment. The structure is a 5-m compound pendulum and was designed as an end-to-end test bed for a linear proof mass actuator and its supporting electronics. Experimental results are shown for a maximum-entropy/optimal-projection controller designed to achieve 5 percent damping in the first two pendulum modes. The second experiment was based upon the Harris Multi-Hex prototype experiment (MHPE) apparatus. This is a large optical reflector structure comprising a seven-panel array and supporting truss which typifies a number of generic characteristics of large space systems. The third experiment involved control design and implementation for the ACES structure at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The authors conclude with some remarks on the lessons learned from conducting these experiments.

  3. Student Responses to a Hands-On Kinesthetic Lecture Activity for Learning about the Oxygen Carrying Capacity of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckler, Jennifer; Yu, Justin R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a new hands-on, or "kinesthetic," activity for use in a physiology lecture hall to help students comprehend an important concept in cardiopulmonary physiology known as oxygen carrying capacity. One impetus for designing this activity was to address the needs of students who have a preference for kinesthetic…

  4. Applying Modern Techniques and Carrying Out English .Extracurricular—— On the Model United Nations Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuXiaoyu; WangJian

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an introduction of the extracurricular activity of the Model United Nations in Northwestern Polyteehnical University (NPU) and it focuses on the application of the modem techniques in the activity and the pedagogical theories applied in it. An interview and questionnaire research will reveal the influence of the Model United Nations.

  5. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... standard or governmental political objective exists. In most cases it was possible to select a set of indicators, including thresholds that are workable in a carrying capacity planning at the local administrative levels. Not all relevant sectors at the decentralized level were included. Indicators of SCC...

  6. Fracture mechanics of pseudoelastic NiTi alloys: review of the research activities carried out at University of Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sgambitterra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a brief review of the research activities on fracture mechanics of nickel-titanium based shape memory alloys carried out at University of Calabria. In fact, this class of metallic alloys show a unusual fracture response due to the reversible stress-induced and thermally phase transition mechanisms occurring in the crack tip region as a consequence of the highly localized stresses. The paper illustrates the main results concerning numerical, analytical and experimental research activities carried out by using commercial NiTi based pseudoelastic alloys. Furthermore, the effect of several thermo-mechanical loading conditions on the fracture properties of NiTi alloys are illustrated.

  7. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... and ACC may increase the political focus on resources and environmental issues and may help to move local authorities towards a more holistic spatial planning approach. A carrying capacity approach could be an inspiration for local spatial planning in developing countries. A spatial planning act...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  8. Demonstration of Tunable Steering and Multiplexing of Two 28 GHz Data Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum Beams Using Antenna Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guodong; Zhao, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Li, Long; Ren, Yongxiong; Ahmed, Nisar; Cao, Yinwen; Willner, Asher J.; Bao, Changjing; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Cong; Ziyadi, Morteza; Talwar, Shilpa; Sajuyigbe, Soji; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F.; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-11-01

    In line-of-sight communication systems, accurate alignment between the transmitter and receiver is important to guarantee sufficient signal power at the receiver. Such alignment is even more important for orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing systems since misalignment between the transmitter and receiver may cause crosstalk among channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the simultaneous generation and tunable steering of two OAM beams utilising a custom-designed circular antenna array at 28 GHz. We achieve a steering angle of up to 35 degrees from the antenna array normal. We find that (i) the steering angle of the generated OAM beams is limited by the emitting angle of the antenna elements, and (ii) a larger steering angle may degrade the mode purity of the generated OAM beams as well as induce inter-symbol-interference to each of the individual channels. Moreover, we demonstrate the transmission of two 1-Gbaud quadratic phase shift keying (QPSK) signal over the two steerable OAM beams with both multiplexed channels achieved bit error rates (BERs) of <3.8 × 10-3.

  9. Demonstration of Tunable Steering and Multiplexing of Two 28 GHz Data Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum Beams Using Antenna Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guodong; Zhao, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Li, Long; Ren, Yongxiong; Ahmed, Nisar; Cao, Yinwen; Willner, Asher J; Bao, Changjing; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Cong; Ziyadi, Morteza; Talwar, Shilpa; Sajuyigbe, Soji; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F; Willner, Alan E

    2016-11-11

    In line-of-sight communication systems, accurate alignment between the transmitter and receiver is important to guarantee sufficient signal power at the receiver. Such alignment is even more important for orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing systems since misalignment between the transmitter and receiver may cause crosstalk among channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the simultaneous generation and tunable steering of two OAM beams utilising a custom-designed circular antenna array at 28 GHz. We achieve a steering angle of up to 35 degrees from the antenna array normal. We find that (i) the steering angle of the generated OAM beams is limited by the emitting angle of the antenna elements, and (ii) a larger steering angle may degrade the mode purity of the generated OAM beams as well as induce inter-symbol-interference to each of the individual channels. Moreover, we demonstrate the transmission of two 1-Gbaud quadratic phase shift keying (QPSK) signal over the two steerable OAM beams with both multiplexed channels achieved bit error rates (BERs) of <3.8 × 10(-3).

  10. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Benzamidine Derivatives Carrying 1,2,3-Triazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen novel benzamidine derivatives containing 1,2,3-triazole moieties were synthesized. The in vitro and in vivo fungicidal acitivities of the title compounds and the arylamidine intermediates against Colletotrichum lagenarium and Botrytis cinerea were tested. The synthesized benzamidines exhibited weak antifungal activities in vitro against the tested fungi, but some of the compounds showed excellent activities in vivo to the same strains. Among the compounds tested, 9b showed 79% efficacy in vivo against C. lagenarium at a concentration of 200 μg/mL, and the efficacy of compound 16d (90% toward the same strain was even superior than that of the commercial fungicide carbendazim (85%.

  11. Terpenes from Copaifera demonstrated in vitro antiparasitic and synergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Erika; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Veiga, Valdir F; Pinto, Angelo C; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2012-04-12

    To discover new possible therapies for Chagas' disease, we evaluated against all Trypanosoma cruzi life stages the in vitro trypanocidal and synergistic activity of terpenes isolated from Copaifera oleoresins collected in the Amazon and investigated their possible mechanism of action. Seven acid diterpenes and one sesquiterpene were tested. Terpenes promoted changes in oxidative metabolism followed by autophagic processes in the parasite cell leading to selective death. Furthermore, they were more effective against replicative forms, in particular amastigotes. A synergistic effect occurred. Cytotoxicity to erythrocytes and nucleated cells was moderate. This is the first study showing synergic activity between two terpenes against T. cruzi. Combinations of natural compounds can show high activity and may lead to new alternative treatments in the future.

  12. Social responsibility of public accountant in carrying out his work in mining activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rocío Acevedo-Pérez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accounting professional in recent times, as a major player, has been questioned in the performance of his work and even frequently involved with corporate financial scandals, putting into question the social responsibility of his profession. However, here, the analysis of the accounting profession is directed specifically to watch the behavior of the accountant in a particular sector such as mining, mainly in relation to the advise in the exploitation of coal. This paper presents the results of the investigation on public accountants who provide advisory services to entrepreneurs in the mining sector. It inquires also on issues related to the level and quality of the advice that they provide in different topics such as economic, administrative , tax, labor , social and environmental issues in relation to the development of the activity.  Similarly the accountant has an ethical commitment to both organizations and the different groups that are linked directly or indirectly to maintain balance in organizations through the provision of information to related parties on their rights that correspond to them in the development of the activity, and as an administrator and manager of information in decision-making contributes to the generation of the common welfare.  Finally, the social responsibility of the public accountant goes beyond the commitment to the State and the organizations in which they work, because there is a commitment to other stakeholders including the environment and society.

  13. An Experiential Learning Activity Demonstrating Normal and Phobic Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Will H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for an undergraduate abnormal psychology course that used student-generated data to illustrate normal versus clinically significant anxiety responses related to specific phobias. Students (N = 37) viewed 14 images of low- or high-anxiety valence and rated their subjective response to each. Discussion in a…

  14. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) - ISS Inflatable Module Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Munday, Steve; Valle, Gerard D.

    2014-01-01

    INNOVATION: BEAM is a pathway project demonstrating the design, fabrication, test, certification, integration, operation, on-orbit performance, and disposal of the first ever man-rated space inflatable structure. The groundwork laid through the BEAM project will support developing and launching a larger inflatable space structure with even greater mass per volume (M/V) advantages need for longer space missions. OVERVIEW: Inflatable structures have been shown to have much lower mass per volume ratios (M/V) when compared with conventional space structures. BEAM is an expandable structure, launched in a packed state, and then expanded once on orbit. It is a temporary experimental module to be used for gathering structural, thermal, and radiation data while on orbit. BEAM will be launched on Space X-8, be extracted from the dragon trunk, and will attach to ISS at Node 3- Aft. BEAM performance will be monitored over a two-year period and then BEAM will be jettison using the SSRMS.

  15. The effect of science demonstrations as a community service activity on pre-service science teachers' teaching practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel, Derya Kaltakci

    2016-03-01

    In the scope of this study, pre-service science teachers (PSST) developed and carried out science demonstrations with everyday materials for elementary school students as a community service activity. 17 PSST enrolled in the community services practices course at Kocaeli University comprised the sample of the present study. Community service practices aim to develop consciousness of social responsibility and professional skills, as well as to gain awareness of social and community problems and find solutions for pre-service teachers. With this aim, each PSST developed five science demonstration activities and their brochures during a semester. At the end of the semester, a total of 85 demonstrations were carried out at public elementary schools, which are especially located in socioeconomically poor districts of Kocaeli, Turkey. In the present case study, the effect of developing and carrying out science demonstrations for elementary school students on six of the PSST' teaching practices on density and buoyancy concept was investigated. 30-minute interviews conducted with each PSST, videos recorded during their demonstration performances, brochures they prepared for their demonstration activities, and reflection papers were used as data collection tools of the study. The results showed that community service practices with science demonstrations had positive effects on PSST' science content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge.

  16. A stapled peptide antagonist of MDM2 carried by polymeric micelles sensitizes glioblastoma to temozolomide treatment through p53 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xishan; Tai, Lingyu; Gao, Jie; Qian, Jianchang; Zhang, Mingfei; Li, Beibei; Xie, Cao; Lu, Linwei; Lu, Wuyuan; Lu, Weiyue

    2015-11-28

    Antagonizing MDM2 and MDMX to activate the tumor suppressor protein p53 is an attractive therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, challenges remain with respect to the poor ability of p53 activators to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier and/or blood-brain tumor barrier and to specifically target tumor cells. To circumvent these problems, we developed a cyclic RGD peptide-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(lactic acid) polymeric micelle (RGD-M) that carried a stapled peptide antagonist of both MDM2 and MDMX (sPMI). The peptide-carrying micelle RGD-M/sPMI was prepared via film-hydration method with high encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity as well as ideal size distribution. Micelle encapsulation dramatically increased the solubility of sPMI, thus alleviating its serum sequestration. In vitro studies showed that RGD-M/sPMI efficiently inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells in the presence of serum by activating the p53 signaling pathway. Further, RGD-M/sPMI exerted potent tumor growth inhibitory activity against human glioblastoma in nude mouse xenograft models. Importantly, the combination of RGD-M/sPMI and temozolomide--a standard chemotherapy drug for GBM increased antitumor efficacy against glioblastoma in experimental animals. Our results validate a combination therapy using p53 activators with temozolomide as a more effective treatment for GBM.

  17. Features of muscular activity at carrying out body drop by female judo-wrestlers of highly qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elipkhanov S.B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluating muscles activity at carrying out body drop, lengths of muscles and velocity of changing their lengths. Was used 2D and 3D video analysis. Three participant of Russia female national judo team (age before 23 years took part in experiment. Has been established at carrying out reception to the right side greatest changes of length are observed at left and right muscle rectus abdominis and right muscle obliquus externus abdominis, middle and lower parts of left muscle gluteus maximus, back parts of left and right muscle deltoideus. The highest velocity of contraction are noticed at muscle obliquus externus abdominis (especially at the right, middle and lower parts of left muscle gluteus maximus and middle part of left muscle deltoideus.

  18. Inhibiting notch activity in breast cancer stem cells by glucose functionalized nanoparticles carrying γ-secretase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a challenge in cancer treatment due to their therapy resistance. We demonstrated that enhanced Notch signaling in breast cancer promotes self-renewal of CSCs that display high glycolytic activity and aggressive hormone-independent tumor growth in vivo. We took advantage of the glycolytic phenotype and the dependence on Notch activity of the CSCs and designed nanoparticles to target the CSCs. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles were functionalized with glucose moieties...

  19. Analysis of the Activity of Fiscal Control Carried out by the General Directorate of Public Financem Maramures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Cucosel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Presently, Fiscal control activities are carried out by the bodies of fiscal control within the Ministry of Public Finance and its territorial units called fiscal control bodies, and by the specialized services of the local administrative authorities in order to handle local duties and taxes. The fiscal control includes a set of activities whose purpose is to verify the authenticity, legitimacy and sincerity of the tax statements, to verify that the taxpayers comply with their budget obligations and activities of investigation and finding tax evasion. The taxpayers – physical persons or legal entities, foreign and domestic, and associations with no legal entity status are subject to fiscal control if they have budget obligations.

  20. An investigation of the influence of reconceptualization of demonstrative experimental activities of optics in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Lúcio Prados Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analyze the influence that the use of demonstrative experiments can bring to the learning of optics. It is assumed that the development of experimental activities, when reconceptualized according to Hodson proposal, tends to contribute to the generation of cognitive conflicts when compared to traditional didactic experience. Justifications are given for an analysis of changes under a Piagetian bias, reconciled with Hodson proposal. The methodology used to structure the topics presentations was quasi-experimental, contrasting an experimental group with a control group. The measuring of the effectiveness of the suggested working method was made from a quantitative analysis, which identified some of the topics discussed had better results in learning, being more tied to the experiments carried out.

  1. Neutron activation analysis for the demonstration of amphibolite rock-weathering activity of a yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rades-Rohkohl, E; Hirsch, P; Fränzle, O

    1979-12-01

    Neutron activation analysis was employed in a survey of weathering abilities of rock surface microorganisms. A yeast isolated from an amphibolite of a megalithic grave was found actively to concentrate, in media and in or on cells, iron and other elements when grown in the presence of ground rock. This was demonstrated by comparing a spectrum of neutron-activated amphibolite powder (particle size, 50 to 100 mum) with the spectra of neutron-activated, lyophilized yeast cells which had grown with or without amphibolite powder added to different media. The most active yeast (IFAM 1171) did not only solubilize Fe from the rock powder, but significant amounts of Co, Eu, Yb, Ca, Ba, Sc, Lu, Cr, Th, and U were also mobilized. The latter two elements occurred as natural radioactive isotopes in this amphibolite. When the yeast cells were grown with neutron-activated amphibolite, the cells contained the same elements. Furthermore, the growth medium contained Fe, Co, and Eu which had been solubilized from the amphibolite. This indicates the presence, in this yeast strain, of active rockweathering abilities as well as of uptake mechanisms for solubilized rock components.

  2. Kettlebell swing, snatch, and bottoms-up carry: back and hip muscle activation, motion, and low back loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Marshall, Leigh W

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to quantify spine loading during different kettlebell swings and carries. No previously published studies of tissue loads during kettlebell exercises could be found. Given the popularity of kettlebells, this study was designed to provide an insight into the resulting joint loads. Seven male subjects participated in this investigation. In addition, a single case study of the kettlebell swing was performed on an accomplished kettlebell master. Electromyography, ground reaction forces (GRFs), and 3D kinematic data were recorded during exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell. These variables were input into an anatomically detailed biomechanical model that used normalized muscle activation; GRF; and spine, hip, and knee motion to calculate spine compression and shear loads. It was found that kettlebell swings create a hip-hinge squat pattern characterized by rapid muscle activation-relaxation cycles of substantial magnitudes (∼50% of a maximal voluntary contraction [MVC] for the low back extensors and 80% MVC for the gluteal muscles with a 16-kg kettlebell) resulting in about 3,200 N of low back compression. Abdominal muscular pulses together with the muscle bracing associated with carries create kettlebell-specific training opportunities. Some unique loading patterns discovered during the kettlebell swing included the posterior shear of the L4 vertebra on L5, which is opposite in polarity to a traditional lift. Thus, quantitative analysis provides an insight into why many individuals credit kettlebell swings with restoring and enhancing back health and function, although a few find that they irritate tissues.

  3. Carry-over of self-regulation for physical activity to self-regulating eating in women with morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Porter, Kandice J; Johnson, Ping H

    2015-01-01

    Poor outcomes from behavioral treatments of severe obesity have led to a dependence on invasive medical interventions, including surgery for morbidly obese individuals. Improved methods to self-regulate eating will be required to reduce obesity. The use of self-regulation methods for completing physical activity may carry over to increased self-regulation for eating through improved feelings of competence (self-efficacy) and mood. The study recruited women (Meanage = 43 years) with morbid obesity (MeanBMI = 44 kg/m(2)) to participate in 26 weeks of cognitive-behavioral support of physical activity paired with either nutrition education (n = 51) or cognitive-behavioral nutrition (n = 51) methods. Data collected were from 2011 and 2012. Significant improvements in self-regulation for physical activity, self-regulation for eating, overall mood, and self-efficacy for eating, with greater improvement in self-regulation for eating, were observed in the cognitive-behavioral nutrition group. Changes in mood and self-efficacy for eating significantly mediated the relationship between changes in self-regulation for physical activity and self-regulation for eating. When subscales of overall mood and self-efficacy were entered into separate regression equations as mediators, the only significant mediators were vigor, and controlling eating when socially pressured and when increased cues to overeat were present.

  4. Rosmarinic Acid from Eelgrass Shows Nematicidal and Antibacterial Activities against Pine Wood Nematode and Its Carrying Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunqun Guo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD, a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA. RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC50 (50% lethal concentration to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L9 (34 orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v. The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight. The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL and RosA (1 mg/mL also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina.

  5. Inhibiting Notch Activity in Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Glucose Functionalized Nanoparticles Carrying γ-secretase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaeva, Veronika; Niemi, Rasmus; Beck, Michaela; Özliseli, Ezgi; Desai, Diti; Landor, Sebastian; Gronroos, Tove; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Pettersen, Ina K N; McCormack, Emmet; Rosenholm, Jessica M; Linden, Mika; Sahlgren, Cecilia

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a challenge in cancer treatment due to their therapy resistance. We demonstrated that enhanced Notch signaling in breast cancer promotes self-renewal of CSCs that display high glycolytic activity and aggressive hormone-independent tumor growth in vivo. We took advantage of the glycolytic phenotype and the dependence on Notch activity of the CSCs and designed nanoparticles to target the CSCs. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles were functionalized with glucose moieties and loaded with a γ-secretase inhibitor, a potent interceptor of Notch signaling. Cancer cells and CSCs in vitro and in vivo efficiently internalized these particles, and particle uptake correlated with the glycolytic profile of the cells. Nanoparticle treatment of breast cancer transplants on chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes efficiently reduced the cancer stem cell population of the tumor. Our data reveal that specific CSC characteristics can be utilized in nanoparticle design to improve CSC-targeted drug delivery and therapy.

  6. Stormwater run-off and pollutant transport related to the activities carried out in a modern waste management park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M; Hogland, W

    2001-02-01

    Stormwater run-off from twelve different areas and roads has been characterized in a modern waste disposal site, where several waste management activities are carried out. Using nonparametric statistics, medians and confidence intervals of the medians, 22 stormwater quality parameters were calculated. Suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, as well as run-off from several areas, showed measured values above standard limits for discharge into recipient waters--even higher than those of leachate from covered landfill cells. Of the heavy metals analyzed, copper, zinc and nickel were the most prevalent, being detected in every sample. Higher concentrations of metals such as zinc, nickel, cobalt, iron and cadmium were found in run-off from composting areas, compared to areas containing stored and exposed scrap metal. This suggests that factors other than the total amount of exposed material affect the concentration of metals in run-off, such as binding to organic compounds and hydrological transport efficiency. The pollutants transported by stormwater represent a significant environmental threat, comparable to leachate. Careful design, monitoring and maintenance of stormwater run-off drainage systems and infiltration elements are needed if infiltration is to be used as an on-site treatment strategy.

  7. Exosomes secreted by human placenta carry functional Fas ligand and TRAIL molecules and convey apoptosis in activated immune cells, suggesting exosome-mediated immune privilege of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenqvist, Ann-Christin; Nagaeva, Olga; Baranov, Vladimir; Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    Apoptosis is crucially important in mediating immune privilege of the fetus during pregnancy. We investigated the expression and in vitro apoptotic activity of two physiologically relevant death messengers, the TNF family members Fas ligand (FasL) and TRAIL in human early and term placentas. Both molecules were intracellularly expressed, confined to the late endosomal compartment of the syncytiotrophoblast, and tightly associated to the generation and secretion of placental exosomes. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we show that FasL and TRAIL are expressed on the limiting membrane of multivesicular bodies where, by membrane invagination, intraluminal microvesicles carrying membranal bioactive FasL and TRAIL are formed and released in the extracellular space as exosomes. Analyzing exosomes secreted from placental explant cultures, to our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that FasL and TRAIL are clustered on the exosomal membrane as oligomerized aggregates ready to form death-inducing signaling complex. Consistently, placental FasL- and TRAIL-carrying exosomes triggered apoptosis in Jurkat T cells and activated PBMC in a dose-dependent manner. Limiting the expression of functional FasL and TRAIL to exosomes comprise a dual benefit: 1) storage of exosomal FasL and TRAIL in multivesicular bodies is protected from proteolytic cleavage and 2) upon secretion, delivery of preformed membranal death molecules by exosomes rapidly triggers apoptosis. Our results suggest that bioactive FasL- and TRAIL-carrying exosomes, able to convey apoptosis, are secreted by the placenta and tie up the immunomodulatory and protective role of human placenta to its exosome-secreting ability.

  8. Synthesis of composites SBA-15 mesoporous particles carrying oxytocin and evaluation of their properties, functions, and in vitro biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ming; Liu, Min; Duan, Mengna; Wu, Zhe; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Using the organic template method, we have synthesized mesoporous SBA-15 particles and characterized them by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The bone metabolism regulating hormone oxytocin (OT) was selected as a model for preparation of drug/SBA-15 complexes. The process of drug loading was studied using X-ray diffraction and nitrogen absorption methods. Optimal drug loading parameters were experimentally investigated. The kinetics of drug release from the carrier was evaluated. Finally, the extractions of SBA-15 particles were tested for cytotoxicity, in vitro hemolysis, and the direct attachment toxicity. Our findings suggest that SBA-15 materials have good biocompatibility. Moreover, we demonstrated that OT/SBA-15 complex can stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblast cells. The study provides fundamental information for further in vivo drug-carrier testing.

  9. Gene-carried hepatoma targeting complex induced high gene transfection efficiency with low toxicity and significant antitumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao QQ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Qing-Qing Zhao,1,2 Yu-Lan Hu,1 Yang Zhou,3 Ni Li,1 Min Han,1 Gu-Ping Tang,4 Feng Qiu,2 Yasuhiko Tabata,5 Jian-Qing Gao,11Institute of Pharmaceutics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; 2Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China; 3Institute of Biochemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; 4Institute of Chemical Biology and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; 5Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, JapanBackground: The success of gene transfection is largely dependent on the development of a vehicle or vector that can efficiently deliver a gene to cells with minimal toxicity.Methods: A liver cancer-targeted specific peptide (FQHPSF sequence was successfully synthesized and linked with chitosan-linked polyethylenimine (CP to form a new targeted gene delivery vector called CPT (CP/peptide. The structure of CPT was confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The particle size of CPT/DNA complexes was measured using laser diffraction spectrometry and the cytotoxicity of the copolymer was evaluated by methylthiazol tetrazolium method. The transfection efficiency evaluation of the CP copolymer was performed using luciferase activity assay. Cellular internalization of the CP/DNA complex was observed under confocal laser scanning microscopy. The targeting specificity of the polymer coupled to peptide was measured by competitive inhibition transfection study. The liver targeting specificity of the CPT copolymer in vivo was demonstrated by combining the copolymer with a therapeutic gene, interleukin-12, and assessed by its abilities in suppressing the growth of ascites tumor in mouse model.Results: The results showed that the liver cancer-targeted specific peptide was successfully synthesized and linked with CP to form a new targeted gene delivery vector called CPT. The composition of CPT

  10. Teaching with Movement: Using the Health Privilege Activity to Physically Demonstrate Disparities in Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby-Shasanmi, Amy; Oberlin, Kathleen C.; Saunders, Tiffani N.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates an activity designed to demonstrate how biological factors (e.g., genetics), individual-level behaviors (e.g., smoking), and social factors (e.g., socioeconomic status) shape health status and access to health care. Active learning techniques were utilized to introduce the sociological imagination as it…

  11. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassays carried out on solid and liquid substrates: assessing the factor "indicator microorganism"

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosiadis Ioannis; Dasiou Despina; Filioussis George; Avramidis Nicholaos; Papagianni Maria

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Successful application of growth inhibition techniques for quantitative determination of bacteriocins relies on the sensitivity of the applied indicator microorganism to the bacteriocin to which is exposed. However, information on indicator microorganisms' performance and comparisons in bacteriocin determination with bioassays is almost non-existing in the literature. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the parameter "indicator microorganism" in bioassays carried o...

  12. Authentic Active Learning Activities Demonstrating the Use of Serial Dilutions and Plate Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordon K. March

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Serial dilution and plate counting is often taught in courses for both microbiology and allied health students. Lecture examples and examination questions addressing how the method is used can sometimes be contrived: artificial data sets may have little or no meaning other than to have students perform a calculation. Here we provide a set of activities employing data sets acquired from the primary literature. Our objective was to have the students think critically about a real scenario in which serial dilution and plate count was used. Each activity requires students to read a paragraph describing the study, predict the results, perform the appropriate calculations, and then evaluate the results in light of their predictions. To test the efficacy of these activities, a pretest quiz was given to approximately 100 students in an allied health/general microbiology course. After a lecture on how microbes are enumerated, students were given a different quiz. The class was then divided randomly into groups of three or four students and assigned one of the activities. A postactivity quiz was also administered. Approximately two weeks later, a serial dilution/plate count question was used on an examination and served as a final posttest. Standardized learning gains were calculated for the quiz administered after each learning activity. Even though learning gains were significantly higher after the lecture, there was also a significant improvement between the lecture and the activity. Using an exercise based on an authentic set of data significantly improved student learning gains, and is a useful practice for teaching microbiology.

  13. RemoveDebris – Mission Analysis for a Low Cost Active Debris Removal Demonstration in 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Joffre, E; Forshaw, J.; Secretin, T; Reynaud, S.; Salmon, T; Aurelien, P; Aglietti, G.

    2015-01-01

    Contracted by the European Commission in the frame of the EU’s Seventh Framework Programme for Research (FP7), a wide European consortium has been working since 2013 towards the design of a low cost in-orbit demonstration called RemoveDEBRIS. With a targeted launch date in the second quarter of 2016, the RemoveDEBRIS mission aims at demonstrating key Active Debris Removal (ADR) technologies, including capture means (net and harpoon firing on a distant target), relative navigation techniques (...

  14. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Recommendations for communication activities and public participation in the Early Site Permit Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-27

    On October 24, 1992, President Bush signed into law the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The bill is a sweeping, comprehensive overhaul of the Nation`s energy laws, the first in more than a decade. Among other provisions, the National Energy Policy Act reforms the licensing process for new nuclear power plants by adopting a new approach developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989, and upheld in court in 1992. The NRC 10 CFR Part 52 rule is a three-step process that guarantees public participation at each step. The steps are: early site permit approval; standard design certifications; and, combined construction/operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. Licensing reform increases an organization`s ability to respond to future baseload electricity generation needs with less financial risk for ratepayers and the organization. Costly delays can be avoided because design, safety and siting issues will be resolved before a company starts to build a plant. Specifically, early site permit approval allows for site suitability and acceptability issues to be addressed prior to an organization`s commitment to build a plant. Responsibility for site-specific activities, including communications and public participation, rests with those organizations selected to try out early site approval. This plan has been prepared to assist those companies (referred to as sponsoring organizations) in planning their communications and public involvement programs. It provides research findings, information and recommendations to be used by organizations as a resource and starting point in developing their own plans.

  15. Selective IRAK4 Inhibition Attenuates Disease in Murine Lupus Models and Demonstrates Steroid Sparing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhgaonkar, Shailesh; Ranade, Sourabh; Nagar, Jignesh; Subramani, Siva; Prasad, Durga Shiv; Karunanithi, Preethi; Srivastava, Ratika; Venkatesh, Kamala; Selvam, Sabariya; Krishnamurthy, Prasad; Mariappan, T Thanga; Saxena, Ajay; Fan, Li; Stetsko, Dawn K; Holloway, Deborah A; Li, Xin; Zhu, Jun; Yang, Wen-Pin; Ruepp, Stefan; Nair, Satheesh; Santella, Joseph; Duncia, John; Hynes, John; McIntyre, Kim W; Carman, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    The serine/threonine kinase IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)4 is a critical regulator of innate immunity. We have identified BMS-986126, a potent, highly selective inhibitor of IRAK4 kinase activity that demonstrates equipotent activity against multiple MyD88-dependent responses both in vitro and in vivo. BMS-986126 failed to inhibit assays downstream of MyD88-independent receptors, including the TNF receptor and TLR3. Very little activity was seen downstream of TLR4, which can also activate an MyD88-independent pathway. In mice, the compound inhibited cytokine production induced by injection of several different TLR agonists, including those for TLR2, TLR7, and TLR9. The compound also significantly suppressed skin inflammation induced by topical administration of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod. BMS-986126 demonstrated robust activity in the MRL/lpr and NZB/NZW models of lupus, inhibiting multiple pathogenic responses. In the MRL/lpr model, robust activity was observed with the combination of suboptimal doses of BMS-986126 and prednisolone, suggesting the potential for steroid sparing activity. BMS-986126 also demonstrated synergy with prednisolone in assays of TLR7- and TLR9-induced IFN target gene expression using human PBMCs. Lastly, BMS-986126 inhibited TLR7- and TLR9-dependent responses using cells derived from lupus patients, suggesting that inhibition of IRAK4 has the potential for therapeutic benefit in treating lupus. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Demonstration of active vibration control on a stirling-cycle cryocooler testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Gaffney, Monique S.; Johnson, Dean L.; Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation has demonstrated excellent vibration reduction performance using active control on the JPL Stirling-cycle cryocooler testbed. The authors address the use of classical narrowband feedback control to meet the cryocooler vibration specifications using one cryocooler in a self-cancellation configuration. Similar vibration reduction performance was obtained using a cryocooler back-to-back configuration by actively controlling a reaction mass actuator that was used to mimic the second cooler.

  17. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim M. Salman; Divya Sarma Kandukuri; Joanne Lesley Harrison; Cara Margaret Hildreth; Jacqueline Kathleen Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male...

  18. An Anesthetic Drug Demonstration and an Introductory Antioxidant Activity Experiment with "Eugene, the Sleepy Fish"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena, Homar; Chen, Peishan

    2016-01-01

    Students are introduced to spectrophotometry in comparing the antioxidant activity of pure eugenol and oil of cloves from a commercial source using a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extraction of the essential oil from dried cloves is demonstrated to facilitate discussions on green chemistry. The anesthetic properties…

  19. A Classroom Activity to Demonstrate Self-Other Agreement in Personality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Seth A.; Stachowski, Alicia A.; Bradley-Geist, Jill C.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a classroom activity to demonstrate (dis)agreement in personality judgments, using an exercise derived from Watson's research on the accuracy of rating strangers' personalities. On the first day of class, undergraduate students in psychology courses rated their own personality and the personality of a classmate, using items…

  20. Self-Reported Learning Effects of a Tagging Activity Carried out in a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) by Secondary-School Pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique; Glahn, Christian; Chatti, Amine; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Verpoorten, D., Glahn, C., Chatti, A., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2011). Self-Reported Learning Effects of a Tagging Activity Carried out in a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) by Secondary-School Pupils. International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education, 2(1), 276-284.

  1. Self-Reported Learning Effects of a Tagging Activity Carried out in a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) by Secondary-School Pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique; Glahn, Christian; Chatti, Amine; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Verpoorten, D., Glahn, C., Chatti, A., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2011). Self-Reported Learning Effects of a Tagging Activity Carried out in a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) by Secondary-School Pupils. International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education, 2(1), 276-284.

  2. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassays carried out on solid and liquid substrates: assessing the factor "indicator microorganism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosiadis Ioannis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful application of growth inhibition techniques for quantitative determination of bacteriocins relies on the sensitivity of the applied indicator microorganism to the bacteriocin to which is exposed. However, information on indicator microorganisms' performance and comparisons in bacteriocin determination with bioassays is almost non-existing in the literature. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the parameter "indicator microorganism" in bioassays carried out on solid -agar diffusion assay- and liquid -turbidometric assay- substrates, applied in the quantification of the most studied bacteriocin nisin. Results The performance of characterized microorganisms of known sources, belonging to the genera of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Micrococcus and Leuconostoc, has been assessed in this work in the assays of plate agar diffusion and turbidometry. Dose responses and sensitivities were examined and compared over a range of assay variables in standard bacteriocin solutions, fermentation broth filtrates and processed food samples. Measurements on inhibition zones produced on agar plates were made by means of digital image analysis. The data produced were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA technique and pairwise comparisons tests. Sensitivity limits and linearity of responses to bacteriocin varied significantly among different test-microorganisms in both applied methods, the lower sensitivity limits depending on both the test-microorganism and the applied method. In both methods, however, only two of the nine tested microorganisms (Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 51436 and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 25740 were sensitive to very low concentrations of the bacteriocin and produced a linear-type of response in all kinds of samples used in this work. In all cases, very low bacteriocin concentrations, e.g. 1 IU/ml nisin, were more accurately determined in the turbidometric assay. Conclusion The present work shows that in

  3. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the Cedrus atlantica (Endl. Manettiex Carrière seeds essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Rhafouri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Atlas cedar is an endemic species of the African North Mountains. The goal for which this work was conducted is to determine the chemical composition and to study the antibacterial and the antifungal activity of the hydrodistilized essential oil from both the winged and wingless seeds of the High Atlas Cedrus atlantica (Morocco. The essential oil is analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The essential oil yields of winged as well as wingless seeds were respectively 2.6% and 3.6%.The main constituents of the cedar wingless seeds are the α-pinene, the manool, and the bornyl acetate; whereas, the major constituents of the cedar winged seeds are the manool and the α-pinene. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils were tested on four bacteria, three molds and four fungi of wood rot. The fungal strains tested were revealed more sensitive to the essential oil studied than the bacterial strains.

  4. In Vitro and in Vivo Demonstration of Photodynamic Activity and Cytoplasm Imaging through TPE Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Dhanya T; Ramos-Romero, Sara; Shankar, Balaraman H; Garrido, Cristina; Rubio, Nuria; Sanchez-Cid, Lourdes; Gómez, Salvador Borros; Blanco, Jeronimo; Ramaiah, Danaboyina

    2016-01-15

    We synthesized novel tetraphenylethene (TPE) conjugates, which undergo unique self-assembly to form spherical nanoparticles that exhibited aggregation induced emission (AIE) in the near-infrared region. These nanoparticles showed significant singlet oxygen generation efficiency, negligible dark toxicity, rapid cellular uptake, efficient localization in cytoplasm, and high in vitro photocytotoxicity as well as in vivo photodynamic activity against a human prostate tumor animal model. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the power of the self-assembled AIE active tetraphenylethene conjugates in aqueous media as a nanoplatform for future therapeutic applications.

  5. Comparative metagenomics demonstrating different degradative capacity of activated biomass treating hydrocarbon contaminated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Trilok Chandra; Pal, Rajesh Ramavadh; Shastri, Sunita; Jadeja, Niti B; Kapley, Atya

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the diverse degradative capacity of activated biomass, when exposed to different levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) using a comparative metagenomics approach. The biomass was collected at two time points to examine seasonal variations. Four metagenomes were sequenced on Illumina Miseq platform and analysed using MG-RAST. STAMP tool was used to analyse statistically significant differences amongst different attributes of metagenomes. Metabolic pathways related to degradation of aromatics via the central and peripheral pathways were found to be dominant in low TDS metagenome, while pathways corresponding to central carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen, organic acids were predominant in high TDS sample. Seasonal variation was seen to affect catabolic gene abundance as well as diversity of the microbial community. Degradation of model compounds using activated sludge demonstrated efficient utilisation of single aromatic ring compounds in both samples but cyclic compounds were not efficiently utilised by biomass exposed to high TDS.

  6. Expression of feline recombinant interferon-gamma in baculovirus and demonstration of biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyle, D J; Harris, M; Lawrence, C; McBride, K; Barron, R; McGillivray, C; Onions, D E

    1998-07-08

    We have previously reported the cloning of the coding sequence for feline-specific interferon-gamma. Here, we describe the expression of this sequence in a baculovirus system and demonstrate the biological activity of the recombinant protein. The coding sequence for feline interferon was directionally cloned into the baculovirus transfer vector pAcCL29-1. Transfer vector and linearized wild-type AcMNPV (BacPAK6) were used to co-transfect Sf9 cells by calcium phosphate coprecipitation. Subsequently, wild-type and recombinant viruses were separated by plaque assay. Recombinant plaques were expanded and a master stock of virus is produced. Production of biologically active interferon-gamma from infected Sf9 cells was demonstrated using a standard cytopathic effect reduction assay, utilising vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and an MHC class II induction assay.

  7. Semiautomatic exchanger of samples for carry out neutron activation analysis; Intercambiador semiautomatico de muestras para realizar analisis por activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F.; Quintana C, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Torres R, C. E.; Mejia J, J. O., E-mail: fortunato.aguilar@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper the design methodology and implementation of a semiautomatic exchanger of samples for the Analysis Laboratory by Neutron Activation of the Reactor department is presented. Taking into account the antecedents, the necessities of improvement are described, as well as the equipment that previously contained the Laboratory. The project of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples was developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, with its own technology to increase independence from commercial equipment. Each element of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples is described both in the design phase as construction. The achieved results are positive and encouraging for the fulfillment of the proposed objective that is to increase the capacity of the Laboratory. (Author)

  8. Demonstration of Motor Imagery- and Phantom-Movement Related Neuronal Activity in Human Thalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, William S.; Weiss, Nirit; Lawson, Herman Christopher; Ohara, Shinji; Rowland, Lance; Lenz, Frederick A.

    2011-01-01

    Functional imaging studies demonstrate that motor imagery activates multiple structures in the human forebrain. We now show that phantom movements in an amputee and imagined movements in intact subjects elicit responses from neurons in several human thalamic nuclei. These include the somatic sensory nucleus receiving input from the periphery (ventral caudal – Vc), and the motor nuclei receiving input from the cerebellum (ventral intermediate -Vim) and the basal ganglia (ventral oral posterior...

  9. Active vibration control testing of the SPICES program: final demonstration article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, James P.; Jacobs, Jack H.

    1996-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) Program is a partnership program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The mission of the program is to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products employing active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. The two year program came to fruition in 1995 through the fabrication of the final smart components and testing of an active plate combined with two trapezoidal rails, forming an active mount. Testing of the SPICES combined active mount took place at McDonnell Douglas facilities in St. Louis, MO, in October-December 1995. Approximately 15 dB reduction in overall response of a motor mounted on the active structure was achieved. Further details and results of the SPICES combined active mount demonstration testing are outlined. Results of numerous damping and control strategies that were developed and employed in the testing are presented, as well as aspects of the design and fabrication of the SPICES active mount components.

  10. The Second-Generation Exportin-1 Inhibitor KPT-8602 Demonstrates Potent Activity against Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Thomas; De Bie, Jolien; Neggers, Jasper E; Jacquemyn, Maarten; Vanstreels, Els; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L; Hornung, Veit; Baloglu, Erkan; Landesman, Yosef; Senapedis, William; Shacham, Sharon; Dagklis, Antonis; Cools, Jan; Daelemans, Dirk

    2016-10-25

    Purpose: Human exportin-1 (XPO1) is the key nuclear-cytoplasmic transport protein that exports different cargo proteins out of the nucleus. Inducing nuclear accumulation of these proteins by inhibiting XPO1 causes cancer cell death. First clinical validation of pharmacological inhibition of XPO1 was obtained with the Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound selinexor (KPT-330) demonstrating activity in phase-II/IIb clinical trials when dosed 1 to 3 times weekly. The second-generation SINE compound KPT-8602 shows improved tolerability and can be dosed daily. Here, we investigate and validate the drug-target interaction of KPT-8602 and explore its activity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).Experimental Design: We examined the effect of KPT-8602 on XPO1 function and XPO1-cargo as well as on a panel of leukemia cell lines. Mutant XPO1 leukemia cells were designed to validate KPT-8602's drug-target interaction. In vivo, anti-ALL activity was measured in a mouse ALL model and patient-derived ALL xenograft models.Results: KPT-8602 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in a panel of leukemic cell lines in vitro Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we demonstrated the specificity of KPT-8602 for cysteine 528 in the cargo-binding groove of XPO1 and validated the drug target interaction. In vivo, KPT-8602 showed potent anti-leukemia activity in a mouse ALL model as well as in patient-derived T- and B-ALL xenograft models without affecting normal hematopoiesis.Conclusions: KPT-8602 is highly specific for XPO1 inhibition and demonstrates potent anti-leukemic activity supporting clinical application of the second-generation SINE compound for the treatment of ALL. Clin Cancer Res; 1-14. ©2016 AACR.

  11. Laboratory demonstration of a primary active mirror for space with the LATT: large aperture telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Vettore, Christian; d'Amato, Francesco; Xompero, Marco; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Patauner, Christian; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; Duò, Fabrizio; Pucci, Mauro; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Maresi, Luca

    2016-07-01

    The LATT project is an ESA contract under TRP programme to demonstrate the scalability of the technology from ground-based adaptive mirrors to space active primary mirrors. A prototype spherical mirror based on a 40 cm diameter 1 mm thin glass shell with 19 contactless, voice-coil actuators and co-located position sensors have been manufactured and integrated into a final unit with an areal density lower than 20 kg/m2. Laboratory tests demonstrated the controllability with very low power budget and the survival of the fragile glass shell exposed to launch accelerations, thanks to an electrostatic locking mechanism; such achievements pushes the technology readiness level toward 5. With this prototype, the LATT project explored the feasibility of using an active and lightweight primary for space telescopes. The concept is attractive for large segmented telescopes, with surface active control to shape and co-phase them once in flight. In this paper we will describe the findings of the technological advances and the results of the environmental and optical tests.

  12. Expanded Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Reselected for High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Demonstrate Islet Regenerative Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Ayesh K; Bell, Gillian I; Sherman, Stephen E; Cooper, Tyler T; Putman, David M; Hess, David A

    2016-04-01

    Human umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) purified for high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(hi) ) stimulate islet regeneration after transplantation into mice with streptozotocin-induced β cell deletion. However, ALDH(hi) cells represent a rare progenitor subset and widespread use of UCB ALDH(hi) cells to stimulate islet regeneration will require progenitor cell expansion without loss of islet regenerative functions. Here we demonstrate that prospectively purified UCB ALDH(hi) cells expand efficiently under serum-free, xeno-free conditions with minimal growth factor supplementation. Consistent with the concept that ALDH-activity is decreased as progenitor cells differentiate, kinetic analyses over 9 days revealed the frequency of ALDH(hi) cells diminished as culture time progressed such that total ALDH(hi) cell number was maximal (increased 3-fold) at day 6. Subsequently, day 6 expanded cells (bulk cells) were sorted after culture to reselect differentiated progeny with low ALDH-activity (ALDH(lo) subset) from less differentiated progeny with high ALDH-activity (ALDH(hi) subset). The ALDH(hi) subset retained primitive cell surface marker coexpression (32.0% ± 7.0% CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells, 37.0% ± 6.9% CD34(+) /CD133(+) cells), and demonstrated increased hematopoietic colony forming cell function compared with the ALDH(lo) subset. Notably, bulk cells or ALDH(lo) cells did not possess the functional capacity to lower hyperglycemia after transplantation into streptozotocin-treated NOD/SCID mice. However, transplantation of the repurified ALDH(hi) subset significantly reduced hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance, and increased islet-associated cell proliferation and capillary formation. Thus, expansion and delivery of reselected UCB cells that retain high ALDH-activity after short-term culture represents an improved strategy for the development of cellular therapies to enhance islet regeneration in situ.

  13. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

    2012-10-22

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

  14. RemoveDEBRIS: An in-orbit active debris removal demonstration mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Jason L.; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Navarathinam, Nimal; Kadhem, Haval; Salmon, Thierry; Pisseloup, Aurélien; Joffre, Eric; Chabot, Thomas; Retat, Ingo; Axthelm, Robert; Barraclough, Simon; Ratcliffe, Andrew; Bernal, Cesar; Chaumette, François; Pollini, Alexandre; Steyn, Willem H.

    2016-10-01

    Since the beginning of the space era, a significant amount of debris has progressively been generated. Most of the objects launched into space are still orbiting the Earth and today these objects represent a threat as the presence of space debris incurs risk of collision and damage to operational satellites. A credible solution has emerged over the recent years: actively removing debris objects by capturing them and disposing of them. This paper provides an update to the mission baseline and concept of operations of the EC FP7 RemoveDEBRIS mission drawing on the expertise of some of Europe's most prominent space institutions in order to demonstrate key active debris remove (ADR) technologies in a low-cost ambitious manner. The mission will consist of a microsatellite platform (chaser) that ejects 2 CubeSats (targets). These targets will assist with a range of strategically important ADR technology demonstrations including net capture, harpoon capture and vision-based navigation using a standard camera and LiDAR. The chaser will also host a drag sail for orbital lifetime reduction. The mission baseline has been revised to take into account feedback from international and national space policy providers in terms of risk and compliance and a suitable launch option is selected. A launch in 2017 is targeted. The RemoveDEBRIS mission aims to be one of the world's first in-orbit demonstrations of key technologies for active debris removal and is a vital prerequisite to achieving the ultimate goal of a cleaner Earth orbital environment.

  15. Demonstration of a 4-Sensor Folded Sangac Sensor Array with Active Phase Biasing Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Qi Song; Ming-Ye Yang; Xue-Liang Zhang; Yong-Ming Hu

    2008-01-01

    A 4-sensor folded Sagnae sensor array with an active phase biasing scheme is presented. The overlapping of the signal and noise pulse is avoided through a time division multiplexing scheme and the noise pulses is eliminated almost completely. The scheme can address 16 sensors when the repeat frequency of input pulse is at 68.3 kHz. The alternative phase bias technique is demonstrated, which can provide sensors with stable phase bias. The future benefit of this technique is that the 1/f noise in the circuit can be suppressed.

  16. Thinking on Carrying out"Lesson Study"Activities%对开展“课例研究”活动的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘付菊

    2016-01-01

    文章结合实际,对“课例研究”活动进行了思考。作者认为,课例研究活动需要自主探究、合作交流、充分表达,最终才能达到“全面收获”。%This article combines with the practice, the application of the"lesson study"activities carried out. The author thinks, lesson research activities require independent inquiry, exchanges and cooperation, the full expression, and ultimately to reach"full harvest".

  17. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ibrahim M; Sarma Kandukuri, Divya; Harrison, Joanne L; Hildreth, Cara M; Phillips, Jacqueline K

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n = 16) were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12-13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2) and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2) activation and acute stress (open-field exposure), were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro) and creatinine (UCr) levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2 ± 0.1 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 μV, p dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  18. The impact of initiation: Early onset marijuana smokers demonstrate altered Stroop performance and brain activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sagar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (MJ use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n = 24 and late onset (age 16 or later; n = 26, and 34 healthy control participants (HCs. All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth.

  19. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Salman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  20. A chitosan based, laser activated thin film surgical adhesive, 'SurgiLux': preparation and demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, L John R; Karsten, Elizabeth

    2012-10-23

    Sutures are a 4,000 year old technology that remain the 'gold-standard' for wound closure by virtue of their repair strength (~100 KPa). However, sutures can act as a nidus for infection and in many procedures are unable to effect wound repair or interfere with functional tissue regeneration.(1) Surgical glues and adhesives, such as those based on fibrin and cyanoacrylates, have been developed as alternatives to sutures for the repair of such wounds. However, current commercial adhesives also have significant disadvantages, ranging from viral and prion transfer and a lack of repair strength as with the fibrin glues, to tissue toxicity and a lack of biocompatibility for the cyanoacrylate based adhesives. Furthermore, currently available surgical adhesives tend to be gel-based and can have extended curing times which limit their application.(2) Similarly, the use of UV lasers to facilitate cross-linking mechanisms in protein-based or albumin 'solders' can lead to DNA damage while laser tissue welding (LTW) predisposes thermal damage to tissues.(3) Despite their disadvantages, adhesives and LTW have captured approximately 30% of the wound closure market reported to be in excess of US $5 billion per annum, a significant testament to the need for sutureless technology.(4) In the pursuit of sutureless technology we have utilized chitosan as a biomaterial for the development of a flexible, thin film, laser-activated surgical adhesive termed 'SurgiLux'. This novel bioadhesive uses a unique combination of biomaterials and photonics that are FDA approved and successfully used in a variety of biomedical applications and products. SurgiLux overcomes all the disadvantages associated with sutures and current surgical adhesives (see Table 1). In this presentation we report the relatively simple protocol for the fabrication of SurgiLux and demonstrate its laser activation and tissue weld strength. SurgiLux films adhere to collagenous tissue without chemical modification such as

  1. Rectification of SEMG as a tool to demonstrate synchronous motor unit activity during vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebik, Oguz; Karacan, Ilhan; Cidem, Muharrem; Türker, Kemal S

    2013-04-01

    The use of surface electromyography (SEMG) in vibration studies is problematic since motion artifacts occupy the same frequency band with the SEMG signal containing information on synchronous motor unit activity. We hypothesize that using a harsher, 80-500 Hz band-pass filter and using rectification can help eliminate motion artifacts and provide a way to observe synchronous motor unit activity that is phase locked to vibration using SEMG recordings only. Multi Motor Unit (MMU) action potentials using intramuscular electrodes along with SEMG were recorded from the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) of six healthy male volunteers. Data were collected during whole body vibration, using vibration frequencies of 30 Hz, 35 Hz, 40 Hz or 50 Hz. A computer simulation was used to investigate the efficacy of filtering under different scenarios: with or without artifacts and/or motor unit synchronization. Our findings indicate that motor unit synchronization took place during WBV as verified by MMU recordings. A harsh filtering regimen along with rectification proved successful in demonstrating motor unit synchronization in SEMG recordings. Our findings were further supported by the results from the computer simulation, which indicated that filtering and rectification was efficient in discriminating motion artifacts from motor unit synchronization. We suggest that the proposed signal processing technique may provide a new methodology to evaluate the effects of vibration treatments using only SEMG. This is a major advantage, as this non-intrusive method is able to overcome movement artifacts and also indicate the synchronization of underlying motor units.

  2. Long terminal repeat sequences from virulent and attenuated equine infectious anemia virus demonstrate distinct promoter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Yuan, Xiu-Fang; Hou, Shao-Hua; Tu, Ya-Bin; Peng, Jin-Mei; Wen, Jian-Xin; Qiu, Hua-Ji; Wu, Dong-Lai; Chen, Huan-Chun; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2007-09-01

    In the early 1970s, the Chinese Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) vaccine, EIAV(DLA), was developed through successive passages of a wild-type virulent virus (EIAV(L)) in donkeys in vivo and then in donkey macrophages in vitro. EIAV attenuation and cell tropism adaptation are associated with changes in both envelope and long terminal repeat (LTR). However, specific LTR changes during Chinese EIAV attenuation have not been demonstrated. In this study, we compared LTR sequences from both virulent and attenuated EIAV strains and documented the diversities of LTR sequence from in vivo and in vitro infections. We found that EIAV LTRs of virulent strains were homologous, while EIAV vaccine have variable LTRs. Interestingly, experimental inoculation of EIAV(DLA) into a horse resulted in a restriction of the LTR variation. Furthermore, LTRs from EIAV(DLA) showed higher Tat transactivated activity than LTRs from virulent strains. By using chimeric clones of wild-type LTR and vaccine LTR, the main difference of activity was mapped to the changes of R region, rather than U3 region.

  3. The hetero-transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells carried by hydrogel unexpectedly demonstrates a significant role in the functional recovery in the injured spinal cord of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynald; Li, Yanbin; Yu, Hao; Huang, Hua; Guo, Muyao; Hua, Rongrong; Jiang, Fenjun; Zhang, Kaihua; Li, Hailong; Wang, Fei; Li, Lusheng; Cui, FuZhai; An, Yihua

    2016-03-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes a disturbance in the microenvironment in the lesion site resulting in sudden loss of sensory and motor function. Transplantation of stem cells provides a promising strategy in the treatment of SCI. But limited growth and immunological incompatibility of the stem cells with the host limits the application of this strategy. In order to get better survival and integration with the host, we employed a hyaluronic acid (HA) based scaffold covalently modified by poly-l-Lysine (PLL) as a vehicle to deliver the human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to the injured spinal cord of rats. The BMSCs were chosen as an ideal candidate for its advantage of low expression of major histocompatibility complex II. The data unexpectedly showed that the hetero-transplanted cells survived well in the lesion site even at 8 weeks post injury. Both the immunofluorescent and the electrophysiological assay indicated better survival of the transplanted cells and improved axonal growth in SCI rats transplanted with BMSCs in HA-PLL in contrast to the groups without either BMSCs or the HA scaffold transplantation. These promotions may account for the functional recovery assessed by Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale in the HA-PLL seeded with BMSCs group. These data suggests that hetero-transplantation of human BMSCs delivered by HA scaffold demonstrates a significant role in the functional recovery in the injured spinal cord of rats.

  4. U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper

  5. Demonstration of sulfur solubility determinations in high waste loading, low-activity waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-25

    A method recommended by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for sulfate solubility determinations in simulated low-activity waste glasses was demonstrated using three compositions from a recent Hanford high waste loading glass study. Sodium and sulfate concentrations in the glasses increased after each re-melting step. Visual observations of the glasses during the re-melting process reflected the changes in composition. The measured compositions showed that the glasses met the targeted values. The amount of SO3 retained in the glasses after washing was relatively high, ranging from 1.6 to 2.6 weight percent (wt %). Measured SnO2 concentrations were notably low in all of the study glasses. The composition of the wash solutions should be measured in future work to determine whether SnO2 is present with the excess sulfate washed from the glass. Increases in batch size and the amount of sodium sulfate added did not have a measureable impact on the amount of sulfate retained in the glass, although this was tested for only a single glass composition. A batch size of 250 g and a sodium sulfate addition targeting 7 wt %, as recommended by PNNL, will be used in future experiments.

  6. Dapson in heterocyclic chemistry, part VIII: synthesis, molecular docking and anticancer activity of some novel sulfonylbiscompounds carrying biologically active 1,3-dihydropyridine, chromene and chromenopyridine moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Said Mansour S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several new sulfonebiscompounds having a biologically active 1,2-dihydropyridine-2-one 3–19, acrylamide 20, chromene 21, 22 and chromenopyridine 23, 24 moieties were synthesized and evaluated as potential anticancer agents. The structures of the products were confirmed via elemental analyses and spectral data. The screening tests showed that many of the biscompounds obtained exhibited good anticancer activity against human breast cell line (MCF7 comparable to doxorubicin which was used as reference drug. Compounds 11, 17 and 24 showed IC50 values 35.40 μM, 29.86 μM and 30.99 μM, respectively. In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of the synthesized compounds as anticancer agents, docking on the active site of farnesyltransferase and arginine methyltransferase was also performed and good results were obtained.

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4-like carrying an MEY motif instead of a TXY motif is involved in ozone tolerance and regulation of stomatal closure in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Yuki; Yoda, Hiroshi; Osaki, Kohei; Amano, Yuta; Aono, Mitsuko; Seo, Shigemi; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs/MPKs) are important factors in the regulation of signal transduction in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Previously, we characterized a MAPK from tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum MPK4 (NtMPK4). Here, we found a highly homologous gene, NtMPK4-like (NtMPK4L), in tobacco as well as other species in Solanaceae and Gramineae. Deduced amino acid sequences of their translation products carried MEY motifs instead of conserved TXY motifs of the MAPK family. We isolated the full length NtMPK4L gene and examined the physiological functions of NtMPK4L. We revealed that NtMPK4L was activated by wounding, like NtMPK4. However, a constitutively active salicylic acid-induced protein kinase kinase (SIPKKEE), which phosphorylates NtMPK4, did not phosphorylate NtMPK4L. Moreover, a tyrosine residue in the MEY motif was not involved in NtMPK4L activation. We also found that NtMPK4L-silenced plants showed rapid transpiration caused by remarkably open stomata. In addition, NtMPK4L-silenced plants completely lost the ability to close stomata upon ozone treatment and were highly sensitive to ozone, suggesting that this atypical MAPK plays a role in ozone tolerance through stomatal regulation. PMID:27126796

  8. Outdoor recreation: the reasons and carried benefits for attending outdoor sports of the participants of cycling and/or trekking activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ardahan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available v\\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML;} o\\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML;} w\\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML;} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML;} Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal Tablo"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The purpose of the present study was to determine the reasons and carried benefits for attending outdoor sports of the participants of cycling and/or trekking activities. Sampling group is formed by stratified sampling and is 140 participants of cycling activities (age= 41.21±12.44 from the 200 participants who attendance to Bike Festival in Gökova/Muğla and Kapadokya/Nevşehir in 2010 and 201 participants of (age= 43,82±14.01 trekking activities who were totally 600 participants attendance to trekking activities in Antalya in June and July. Research purpose is due diligence and a questionnaire form which have 34 questions are used to collect necessary data. To find out the demographics information, the reasons and the benefits for attending outdoor activities, there were three groups of question in questionnaire form. Descriptive statistic methods are used for evaluations and representation of data.   As a result of this study we found that majority of the participant of the cycling and trekking activities are retired, usually prefer to joint the activities with

  9. "Christian carrying goomies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Dr. Passingan Usurup tells critics of his pragmatic approach on condom promotion that he is a Christian carrying condoms for Christ. He is head of the University of Papua New Guinea Medical Center and is credited with developing an AIDS/HIV policy for the Papua New Guinea Defence Force. The condoms were named Goomy and promoted at launching in 1992 in a blue packet under the slogan "The bond that guards." Goomy was chosen as the name because it is pidgin for rubber, chewing gum, and anything associated with rubber. Blue packets were chosen over the calls of most soldiers for a camouflage design because of its universal appeal as the color of the sea and sky and because it was the preference of women in the airlines. Once firmly ensconced in his role at the University, Usurup plans to develop a policy for students and staff and help to conduct AIDS prevention and education activities on campus. He will encourage students to test for HIV rather than highlighting the gloom and doom of infection and disease.

  10. Association of leisure time physical activity and sports competition activities with high blood pressure levels: study carried out in a sample of Portuguese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, A R; Silva, P; Martins, C; Gaya, A; Ribeiro, J C; Mota, J

    2011-05-01

    A better understanding of the different domains and characteristics of children's and adolescent's physical activity (PA) could be a strategy to clarify the association of this behaviour with the early development of cardiovascular risk factors. To examine the relationship between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and sports competition activities (SCA) with high blood pressure (HBP) levels in a sample of children and adolescents from Porto, Portugal. This is a cross-sectional study, which comprised 503 boys and 572 girls, aged 8-17 years old. LTPA and SCA were assed by self-reported. Students were assigned as active and non-active in SCA or LTPA according to their self-reported participation. Participants were classified as HBP when they are above of the last quartile for systolic and/or diastolic BP adjusted for gender and age. Do not be engaged in LTPA (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12; 1.93) and SCA (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02; 1.81) was significantly associated with the likelihood of being HBP. However, when cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.91; 1.67) and body mass index (BMI) (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 0.98; 1.75) were included on SCA model, the association between SCA with HBP did not showed significant results. Children and adolescents who are not engaged in SCA or LTPA are more likely to be classified as having HBP; however, the relationship between SCA and HBP was dependent of CRF and BMI. Further, PA strategies should take these differences on the relationship between HBP, SCA and LTPA. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Deactivation of the inferior colliculus by cooling demonstrates intercollicular modulation of neuronal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llwyd David Orton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The auditory pathways coursing through the brainstem are organised bilaterally in mirror image about the midline and at several levels the two sides are interconnected. One of the most prominent points of interconnection is the commissure of the inferior colliculus (CoIC. Anatomical studies have revealed that these fibres make reciprocal connections which follow the tonotopic organisation of the inferior colliculus (IC, and that the commissure contains both excitatory and, albeit fewer, inhibitory fibres. The role of these connections in sound processing is largely unknown. Here we describe a method to address this question in the anaesthetised guinea pig. We used a cryoloop placed on one IC to produce reversible deactivation while recording electrophysiological responses to sounds in both ICs. We recorded single units, multi-unit clusters and local field potentials (LFPs before, during and after cooling. The degree and spread of cooling was measured with a thermocouple placed in the IC and other auditory structures. Cooling sufficient to eliminate firing was restricted to the IC contacted by the cryoloop. The temperature of other auditory brainstem structures, including the contralateral IC and the cochlea were minimally affected. Cooling below 20 °C reduced or eliminated the firing of action potentials in frequency laminae at depths corresponding to characteristic frequencies up to ~8 kHz. Modulation of neural activity also occurred in the un-cooled IC with changes in single unit firing and LFPs. Components of LFPs signalling lemniscal afferent input to the IC showed little change in amplitude or latency with cooling, whereas the later components, which likely reflect inter- and intra-collicular processing, showed marked changes in form and amplitude. We conclude that the cryoloop is an effective method of selectively deactivating one IC in guinea pig, and demonstrate that auditory processing in the IC is strongly influenced by the other.

  12. Analysis of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑珍

    2004-01-01

    Chapter Ⅰ Introduction  Sitting in the rocking chair,Carrie dreams her future.This is the deep impression the novel"Sister Carrie"gives us,which is written by Theodore Dreiser(1871-1945),the great American realism writer.  ……

  13. 开展教研活动提升教师教学技能%Carrying out the teaching-research activities and promoting Teaching skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光志; 田维毅; 王平; 梁建东; 王文佳; 韩洁

    2014-01-01

    The teaching-research activities should be combined with the current situation of the subject, constantly perfected system for teaching-research activities, provided content-rich professional development. It be encouraged and supported for reflection in teaching practice problems, increased the depth of the teaching-research content based on the subject of the modern technology-oriented, improved teachers' knowledge structure, teachers' attitudes and teaching ability of course construction, developed the curriculum resources consciousness and enhanced the teaching level. It be carried out effectively teaching-research activities and improved the teaching skills in the teaching and research office.%教研活动应结合本学科实际情况,不断完善教研活动制度,丰富教研内容;鼓励与支持老师对教学实践中存在的问题进行反思;借助本学科当代领先科学技术,提高教研深度;改善教师的知识结构、教学情感和课程建设能力;开发课程资源内涵提升教研层次。教研室切实有效开展教研活动,提高教师教学技能。

  14. Carrying Capacity:An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shaofeng

    2004-01-01

    The concept of carrying capacity is derived from ecology, with widespread contentions of its theoretical connotations and applications in the international academic community, especially the impact of human activities on the environment.Disputes on carrying capacity have been occurring not only among biologists and ecologists, but also among mainstream economists. Based on their efforts,the author makes an attempt to describe its origin,connotations, problems, measurement, and at the same time note the latest international progress in this field.

  15. In Situ Sediment Treatment Using Activated Carbon: A Demonstrated Sediment Cleanup Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patmont, Clayton R; Ghosh, Upal; LaRosa, Paul; Menzie, Charles A; Luthy, Richard G; Greenberg, Marc S; Cornelissen, Gerard; Eek, Espen; Collins, John; Hull, John; Hjartland, Tore; Glaza, Edward; Bleiler, John; Quadrini, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews general approaches for applying activated carbon (AC) amendments as an in situ sediment treatment remedy. In situ sediment treatment involves targeted placement of amendments using installation options that fall into two general approaches: 1) directly applying a thin layer of amendments (which potentially incorporates weighting or binding materials) to surface sediment, with or without initial mixing; and 2) incorporating amendments into a premixed, blended cover material of clean sand or sediment, which is also applied to the sediment surface. Over the past decade, pilot- or full-scale field sediment treatment projects using AC—globally recognized as one of the most effective sorbents for organic contaminants—were completed or were underway at more than 25 field sites in the United States, Norway, and the Netherlands. Collectively, these field projects (along with numerous laboratory experiments) have demonstrated the efficacy of AC for in situ treatment in a range of contaminated sediment conditions. Results from experimental studies and field applications indicate that in situ sequestration and immobilization treatment of hydrophobic organic compounds using either installation approach can reduce porewater concentrations and biouptake significantly, often becoming more effective over time due to progressive mass transfer. Certain conditions, such as use in unstable sediment environments, should be taken into account to maximize AC effectiveness over long time periods. In situ treatment is generally less disruptive and less expensive than traditional sediment cleanup technologies such as dredging or isolation capping. Proper site-specific balancing of the potential benefits, risks, ecological effects, and costs of in situ treatment technologies (in this case, AC) relative to other sediment cleanup technologies is important to successful full-scale field application. Extensive experimental studies and field trials have shown that when

  16. Feasibility of Actively Cooled Silicon Nitride Airfoil for Turbine Applications Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2001-01-01

    Nickel-base superalloys currently limit gas turbine engine performance. Active cooling has extended the temperature range of service of nickel-base superalloys in current gas turbine engines, but the margin for further improvement appears modest. Therefore, significant advancements in materials technology are needed to raise turbine inlet temperatures above 2400 F to increase engine specific thrust and operating efficiency. Because of their low density and high-temperature strength and thermal conductivity, in situ toughened silicon nitride ceramics have received a great deal of attention for cooled structures. However, the high processing costs and low impact resistance of silicon nitride ceramics have proven to be major obstacles for widespread applications. Advanced rapid prototyping technology in combination with conventional gel casting and sintering can reduce high processing costs and may offer an affordable manufacturing approach. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center, in cooperation with a local university and an aerospace company, are developing actively cooled and functionally graded ceramic structures. The objective of this program is to develop cost-effective manufacturing technology and experimental and analytical capabilities for environmentally stable, aerodynamically efficient, foreign-object-damage-resistant, in situ toughened silicon nitride turbine nozzle vanes, and to test these vanes under simulated engine conditions. Starting with computer aided design (CAD) files of an airfoil and a flat plate with internal cooling passages, the permanent and removable mold components for gel casting ceramic slips were made by stereolithography and Sanders machines, respectively. The gel-cast part was dried and sintered to final shape. Several in situ toughened silicon nitride generic airfoils with internal cooling passages have been fabricated. The uncoated and thermal barrier coated airfoils and flat plates were burner rig tested for 30 min without

  17. Carrying-over effects of GVBD blocking on post-blocking meiotic progression of oocytes: species difference and the signaling pathway leading to MPF activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Zhong Jiao

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve the quality of in vitro matured oocytes by blocking germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD and allowing more time for ooplasmic maturation have achieved little due to a lack of knowledge on the molecular events during GVBD blocking. Such knowledge is also important for studies aimed at regulating gene expression in maturing oocytes prior to GVBD. We studied species difference and signaling pathways leading to the carrying-over effect of GVBD blocking on post-blocking meiotic progression (PBMP. Overall, GVBD-blocking with roscovitine decelerated PBMP of mouse oocytes but accelerated that of pig oocytes. During blocking culture, whereas cyclin B of pig oocytes increased continuously, that of mouse oocytes declined first and then increased slowly. In both species, (a whereas active CDC2A showed a dynamics similar to cyclin B, inactive CDC2A decreased continuously; (b when oocytes were blocked in blocking medium containing cycloheximide, PBMP was decelerated significantly while cyclin B and active CDC2A decreasing to the lowest level; (c whereas sodium vanadate in blocking medium reduced PBMP, epidermal growth factor (EGF in blocking medium accelerated PBMP significantly with no effect on cyclin B levels. In conclusion, the EGF signaling cascade accelerated PBMP by promoting the pre-MPF (M-phase-promoting factor to MPF conversion during GVBD blocking with roscovitine. The significant difference in PBMP observed between mouse and pig oocytes was caused by species difference in cyclin B dynamics during blocking culture as no species difference was observed in either pre-MPF to MPF conversion or the EGF signaling activity.

  18. Carrying-Over Effects of GVBD Blocking on Post-Blocking Meiotic Progression of Oocytes: Species Difference and the Signaling Pathway Leading to MPF Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Lian, Hua-Yu; Gao, Yan; Sun, Ming-Ju; Gong, Shuai; Zheng, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Chuan-Xin; Tan, Jing-He

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to improve the quality of in vitro matured oocytes by blocking germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and allowing more time for ooplasmic maturation have achieved little due to a lack of knowledge on the molecular events during GVBD blocking. Such knowledge is also important for studies aimed at regulating gene expression in maturing oocytes prior to GVBD. We studied species difference and signaling pathways leading to the carrying-over effect of GVBD blocking on post-blocking meiotic progression (PBMP). Overall, GVBD-blocking with roscovitine decelerated PBMP of mouse oocytes but accelerated that of pig oocytes. During blocking culture, whereas cyclin B of pig oocytes increased continuously, that of mouse oocytes declined first and then increased slowly. In both species, (a) whereas active CDC2A showed a dynamics similar to cyclin B, inactive CDC2A decreased continuously; (b) when oocytes were blocked in blocking medium containing cycloheximide, PBMP was decelerated significantly while cyclin B and active CDC2A decreasing to the lowest level; (c) whereas sodium vanadate in blocking medium reduced PBMP, epidermal growth factor (EGF) in blocking medium accelerated PBMP significantly with no effect on cyclin B levels. In conclusion, the EGF signaling cascade accelerated PBMP by promoting the pre-MPF (M-phase-promoting factor) to MPF conversion during GVBD blocking with roscovitine. The significant difference in PBMP observed between mouse and pig oocytes was caused by species difference in cyclin B dynamics during blocking culture as no species difference was observed in either pre-MPF to MPF conversion or the EGF signaling activity. PMID:25078078

  19. An Interactive Classroom Activity Demonstrating Reaction Mechanisms and Rate-Determining Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Laura D.; Keller, Steven W.

    2005-01-01

    An interactive classroom activity that includes two-step reaction of unwrapping and eating chocolate candies is described which brings not only the reaction intermediate, but also the reactants and products into macroscopic view. The qualitative activation barriers of both steps can be adjusted independently.

  20. Demonstration of bacteriocin activity in bovine and bison strains of Pasteurella multocida. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chengappa, M.M.; Carter, G.R.

    1977-08-01

    Of 33 strains of Pasteurella multocida examined, 14 showed bacteriocin activity and 17 were susceptible to bacteriocin. The activity was increased by about twofold if the cultures were induced with ultraviolet radiation; however, no increase in bacteriocin activity was observed if the potential producer strains were induced with mitomycin C. The bacteriocin activity of potential producer strains was increased if CaCl/sub 2/ was incorporated in the medium. The patterns of bacteriocin susceptibility indicate that these substances may ultimately contribute to a typing scheme for the species. An extra-chromosomal genetic element was not detected when a potential producer strain was not detected when a potential producer strain was tested by the dye-buoyant density gradient method. This fact suggests that the genetic material responsible for bacteriocin activity in P multocida is located on the host chromosome proper.

  1. Demonstration of alternative and classical complement pathway activity in colostrum from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheswaran, K; Dhinakar Raj, G; Nachimuthu, K

    2003-09-01

    Buffalo colostrum caused lysis of unsensitized red blood cells (RBC) from sheep, goats, rabbits and chickens. RBC from cattle and buffalo were resistant to lysis. That lysis was due to the presence of natural antibodies to these RBC was ruled out since there was no reduction in haemolytic titres even after adsorption with the respective RBC. The addition of EGTA to the diluent had no effect on the haemolytic activity. These findings indicate the presence of alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity in buffalo colostrum. The haemolytic activity of buffalo complement for unsensitized rabbit RBC was reduced to very low levels by heating at 50 degrees C for 45 min. Treatment with zymosan also inhibited the haemolytic activity, while inulin had no effect. The maximum activity of ACP occurred in the presence of 4 mmol/L Mg(2+) in the diluent. The range of ACP activities in colostrum from buffaloes varied from 4.06 to 8.48 CH50 units/ml. Using a standard system for titrating the classical complement pathway and rabbit red blood cells sensitized with goat haemolysin, the range of complement activity in buffalo colostrum was 4.81-6.77 CH50/ml.

  2. Demonstrations of LSS active vibration control technology on representative ground-based testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, David C.; Phillips, Douglas J.; Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes two experiments which successfully demonstrate control of flexible structures. The first experiment involved control design and implementation for the ACES structure at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, while the second experiment was conducted using the Multi-Hex Prototype structure. The paper concludes with some remarks on the lessons learned from conducting these experiments.

  3. Studies on the oxidizing system in Holt's medium for histochemical demonstration of esterase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Blecher, S R

    1978-01-01

    cells contain an esterase activity which is not inhibited by conventional SH blocking agents, nor by high concentrations of FFC. From these results it appears that the mode of action of FFC in Holt's medium is as follows. At low concentrations FFC appears to act primarily as a catalytic agent......Esterase activity in guinea-pig thyroid and mouse epididymis epithelial cells has been studied using 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as substrate. The pattern of esterase activity in the thyroid of the guinea-pig is constant, irrespective of whether ferri-ferrocyanide (FFC) or certain copper compounds...... are used as oxidizing agents in the incubation medium. The intensity of the coloured reaction product is increased when cobalt or manganese are added to the incubation medium. Activity is depressed by high concentrations of FFC when resent in incubation medium or preincubational buffer only. Epididymis...

  4. Sister Carrie in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷希

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie has received many Chinese scholar's attention, and it has quantity relevance researches. Therefore, it is valuable to study why it is popular in China and it's education meaning for Chinese people. In addition, to analysis the domestic re-searches and find it's exist problems can help us make a new breakthrough from the study.

  5. The Lytic SA Phage Demonstrate Bactericidal Activity against Mastitis Causing Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Ameer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the major causative agent of mastitis among dairy animals as it causes intramammary gland infection. Due to antibiotic resistance and contamination of antibiotics in the milk of diseased animals; alternative therapeutic agents are required to cure mastitis. Lytic bacteriophages and their gene products can be potential therapeutic agents against bacteria as they are host specific and less harmful than antibiotics. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from milk samples of the infected animals and identified biochemically. SA phage was isolated from sewage water showing lytic activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The highest lytic activity of bacteriophages was observed at 37°C and pH 7, and the most suitable storage condition was at 4°C. SA phage efficiently reduced bacterial growth in the bacterial reduction assay. The characterization and bacterial growth reduction activity of the bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus signifies their underlying potential of phage therapy against mastitis.

  6. Histochemical demonstration of activity of acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase in bovine incisor tooth germs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Salling, E; Moe, D

    1983-01-01

    Activity of acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase was shown in bovine preodontoblasts and preameloblasts prior to the onset of secretion. In the preameloblasts the rather weak reaction consisted of small discrete granules dispersed in the cytoplasm apical, lateral, and proximal to the nucleus....... After initiation of enamel formation, a change in localization and intensity of the colored reaction product was observed in the ameloblasts. The activity appeared stronger and was restricted to a narrow zone just apical to the nucleus. It is proposed that the acid hydrolases in the tooth forming cells...... are located to the Golgi complex. The differences in activity of acid hydrolases between bone and tooth forming cells are expounded....

  7. Salvia leriifolia Benth (Lamiaceae) extract demonstrates in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Conforti, Filomena; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Nadjafi, Farsad; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Salvia leriifolia Benth extracts and fractions. The functional role of herbs and spices and their constituents is a hot topic in food-related plant research. Salvia species have been used since ancient times in folk medicine for cognitive brain function and have been subjected to extensive research. Thus, we hypothesize that S leriifolia, because of its functional properties, would be a good candidate to use as a nutraceutical product for improving memory in the elderly or patients affected by Alzheimer disease (ad). To test this hypothesis, we examined the cholinesterase inhibitory activity using the modified colorimetric Ellman's method against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The n-hexane exhibited the highest activity, with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 0.59 and 0.21 mg/mL, for AChE and BChE, respectively. This extract was fractionated, and 9 of these fractions (A-I) were obtained and tested. Fraction G, characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes as major components, was the most active against AChE (IC(50) = 0.05 mg/mL). Because oxidative stress is a critical event in the pathogenesis of AD, we decided to screen the antioxidant activity (AA) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl test, β-carotene bleaching test, and bovine brain peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid) assay. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity, with IC(50) values of 2 and 33 μg/mL on β-carotene bleaching test and thiobarbituric acid test, respectively. These results suggest potential health benefits of S leriifolia extracts. However, this finding requires additional investigation in vivo.

  8. Of Heart & Kidneys: Hands-On Activities for Demonstrating Organ Function & Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in teaching organ development and disease is deconstructing a complex choreography of molecular and cellular changes over time into a linear stepwise process for students. As an entry toward learning developmental concepts, I propose two inexpensive hands-on activities to help facilitate learning of (1) how to identify defects in…

  9. Of Heart & Kidneys: Hands-On Activities for Demonstrating Organ Function & Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in teaching organ development and disease is deconstructing a complex choreography of molecular and cellular changes over time into a linear stepwise process for students. As an entry toward learning developmental concepts, I propose two inexpensive hands-on activities to help facilitate learning of (1) how to identify defects in…

  10. Demonstration in human plasma of a lectin activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Thiel, S; Isager, H

    1987-01-01

    Evidence of the existence in human plasma of an activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin is presented. The human plasma component was characterized antigenically and functionally. Human plasma was shown to agglutinate complement-coated erythrocytes in the presence of Ca2+, and this conglu...

  11. An Activity To Demonstrate the Concept of Sampling Error for the Introductory Biology Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    This activity makes students a part of an investigation that determines the frequency of a particular plant variety in a simulated population. Provides an opportunity for students to observe the inherent variability of estimates, observe the relationship between sample size and sampling error, and consider aspects of research design. (Author/SAH)

  12. Studies on the oxidizing system in Holt's medium for histochemical demonstration of esterase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Blecher, S R

    1978-01-01

    are used as oxidizing agents in the incubation medium. The intensity of the coloured reaction product is increased when cobalt or manganese are added to the incubation medium. Activity is depressed by high concentrations of FFC when resent in incubation medium or preincubational buffer only. Epididymis...

  13. Abnormal activation of the motor cortical network in idiopathic scoliosis demonstrated by functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Julio; García-Martí, G; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Barrios, C; Tormos, J M; Pascual-Leone, A

    2011-07-01

    The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) remains unknown, but there is growing support for the possibility of an underlying neurological disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can characterize the abnormal activation of the sensorimotor brain network in movement disorders and could provide further insights into the neuropathogenesis of IS. Twenty subjects were included in the study; 10 adolescents with IS (mean age of 15.2, 8 girls and 2 boys) and 10 age-matched healthy controls. The average Cobb angle of the primary curve in the IS patients was 35° (range 27°-55°). All participants underwent a block-design fMRI experiment in a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner to explore cortical activation following a simple motor task. Rest periods alternated with activation periods during which participants were required to open and close their hand at an internally paced rate of approximately 1 Hz. Data were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5) including age, sex and laterality as nuisance variables to minimise the presence of bias in the results. Compared to controls, IS patients showed significant increases in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activity in contralateral supplementary motor area when performing the motor task with either hand. No significant differences were observed when testing between groups in the functional activation in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex and somatosensory cortex. Additionally, the IS group showed a greater interhemispheric asymmetry index than the control group (0.30 vs. 0.13, p motor areas during movement execution in patients with IS. These findings support the hypothesis that a sensorimotor integration disorder underlies the pathogenesis of IS.

  14. Antipollution skin protection – a new paradigm and its demonstration on two active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portugal-Cohen M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Meital Portugal-Cohen,1,2 Miriam Oron,1,2 Dror Cohen,1–3 Zeevi Ma’or1,2 1AHAVA Dead Sea Laboratories, Lod, Israel; 2The Dead Sea Laboratory for Skin Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Dead Sea and Arava Science Center, Masada, Israel; 3The Institute for Drug Research, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel Background: Urban pollution is a major source of concern for human health and is a complex of many environmental factors. The topical exposure to pollution activates cutaneous stress.Objective: In this study, we tested the antipollution protection of two active components: Dead Sea minerals (Dead Sea mineral-rich water [DSW] and anionic polysaccharide (PolluStop® [PS].Materials and methods: Two representative pollution models were studied using reconstructed epidermis: 1 mixture of pollutants (MOP containing heavy metals and atmospheric particulate matter and 2 ozone exposure. DSW and PS were topically applied alone or in combination, and their protection against pollution was assessed by testing the levels of the inflammation markers interleukin 1α (IL-1α and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2.Results: MOP exposure induced IL-1α release, which was attenuated following pre-application with DSW and PS alone or in combination. Ozone exposure induced IL-1α and PGE2 release. Pre-application with DSW or PS alone did not inhibit IL-1α and PGE2 overproduction. Only when DSW and PS were mixed together, inhibition of these inflammatory markers was observed.Conclusion: The observations reveal the potential use of active agents in combination for a selective mode of protection from urban pollution. This is because many active materials cannot solely provide a broad protection against different types of pollutants. This strategy might be beneficial for future antipollution regimen formulated in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Keywords: urban pollution, dermal exposure, inflammation, oxidation, alternative skin models, antipollution

  15. Demonstration of intuitive thinking in conditions of competitive activity depending on athletes' psychophysiological state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One investigated application of intuitive thinking, depending on the physiological status of skilled fighters in their competitive activity. In research members of the team of Ukraine in Greco-Roman wrestling participated. 29 effective throws were analysed reverse a capture from position orchestra. One analyzed the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in athletes of different weight categories and the distribution coefficients of correlation of psychophysiological functions of athletes directly in competition during championships of Ukraine, World and Europe. One found that expression of intuitive thinking is associated with weight category of skilled fighters. It is shown that the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in terms of competitive activity is related to physiological state, and, above all qualified wrestlers' neurodynamic functions.

  16. Cold pressor test demonstrates residual sympathetic cardiovascular activation in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilz, M J; Axelrod, F B; Braeske, K; Stemper, B

    2002-04-15

    In familial dysautonomia (FD), i.e. Riley-Day-syndrome, sympathetic cardiovascular function, as well as afferent temperature and pain mediating neurons, are significantly reduced. Thus, it was questioned if cold pressor test (CPT), which normally enhances sympathetic outflow and induces peripheral vasoconstriction by the activation of thermo- and nociceptive system activation, could be used to assess sympathetic function in FD. To evaluate whether CPT can be used to assess sympathetic activation in FD, we performed CPT in 15 FD patients and 18 controls. After a 35-min resting period, participants immersed their right hand and arm up to the elbow into 0-1 degrees C cold water while we monitored heart rate (HR), respiration, beat-to-beat radial artery blood pressure (BP), and laser Doppler skin blood flow (SBF) at the right index finger pulp. From these measurements, heart rate variability parameters were calculated: root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), coefficient of variation (CV), low and high frequency (LF, HF) power spectra of the electrocardiogram (ECG). All participants perceived cold stimulation and indicated discomfort. In controls, SBF decreased and HR and BP increased rapidly upon CPT. After 60 s, SBF indicated secondary vasodilatation in six controls, BP rise attenuated and HR returned to baseline in all controls. In the patients, SBF remained unchanged, HR and BP increased significantly, but after 50-60 s of CPT and changes were lower than in controls (p<0.05). RMSSD and CV decreased and LF increased significantly only in the controls. We conclude that CPT activates sympathetic HR and BP modulation despite impaired pain and temperature perception in FD patients. BP increase in the presence of almost unchanged SBF might be due to HR increase and to nociceptive arousal and emotionally induced catecholamine release as seen in emotional crises of FD patients. CPT assesses sympathetic cardiovascular responses independently from baroreflex

  17. Toxoplasma gondii: demonstration of intrinsic peroxidase activity during lacto-peroxidase mediated radioiodination of tachyzoites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallois, Y.; Tricaud, A.; Foussard, F.; Hodbert, J.; Girault, A.; Mauras, G.; Dubremetz, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii have been radioiodinated under various conditions with or without lactoperoxidase, with glucose oxidase being used to generate hydrogen peroxide. Erythrocytes were iodinated simultaneously as a control. In our conditions, tachyzoites were more intensely labelled in the absence of lactoperoxidase. This result can be explained by the existence of an intrinsic peroxidase activity which interfere with the exogenously added enzyme during surface radioiodination.

  18. Microparticles from apoptotic RAW 264.7 macrophage cells carry tumour necrosis factor-α functionally active on cardiomyocytes from adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Milbank

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After ischaemic injury and in patients with atherosclerosis, the pool of inflammatory macrophages is enlarged in the heart and in atherosclerotic plaques. Monocyte/macrophage-derived microparticles (MPs are part of the pathological process of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. The present study focused on effects of MPs, produced by apoptotic murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line, in adult murine cardiomyocytes. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that these MPs contained the soluble form of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Cardiomyocyte sarcomere shortening amplitudes and kinetics were reduced within 5 min of exposure to these MPs. Conversely, Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics were not modified. The contractile effects of MPs were completely prevented after pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase, guanylate cyclase or TNF-α inhibitors as well as blocking TNF-α receptor 1 with neutralizing antibody. Microscopy showed that, after 1 h, MPs were clearly surrounding rod-shaped cardiomyocytes, and after 2 h they were internalized into cardiomyocytes undergoing apoptosis. After 4 h of treatment with MPs, cardiomyocytes expressed increased caspase-3, caspase-8, Bax and cytochrome C. Thus, MPs from apoptotic macrophages induced a negative inotropic effect and slowing of both contraction and relaxation, similar to that observed in the presence of TNF-α. The use of specific inhibitors strongly suggests that TNF-α receptors and the guanylate cyclase/cGMP/PKG pathway were involved in the functional responses to these MPs and that the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway was implicated in their proapoptotic effects. These data suggest that MPs issued from activated macrophages carrying TNF-α could contribute to propagation of inflammatory signals leading to myocardial infarction.

  19. Innovative Adaptive Control Method Demonstrated for Active Suppression of Instabilities in Engine Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    2005-01-01

    This year, an improved adaptive-feedback control method was demonstrated that suppresses thermoacoustic instabilities in a liquid-fueled combustor of a type used in aircraft engines. Extensive research has been done to develop lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce emissions throughout the mission cycle to reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems. However, these lean-burning combustors are susceptible to thermoacoustic instabilities (high-frequency pressure waves), which can fatigue combustor components and even downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the safe operating life of the combustor and turbine. Thus, suppressing the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for meeting the low-emission goals of the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project.

  20. Active vibration-based SHM system: demonstration on an operating Vestas V27 wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    2016-01-01

    with the system and a 3.5 month monitoring campaign was conducted while the turbine was operating normally. During the campaign, a defect – a trailing edge opening – was artificially introduced into the blade and its size was gradually increased from the original 15 cm to 45 cm. Using an unsupervised learning......This study presents a system that is able to detect defects like cracks, leading/trailing edge opening or delamination of at least 15 cm size, remotely, without stopping the wind turbine. The system is vibration-based: mechanical energy is artificially introduced by means of an electromechanical......-to-noise ratio. At the same time, the corresponding wavelength is short enough to deliver required damage detection resolution and long enough to be able to propagate the entire blade length. The paper demonstrates the system on a 225 kW Vesta s V27 wind turbine. One blade of the wind turbine was equipped...

  1. Cover Your Cough! A Short and Simple Activity to Demonstrate the Antimicrobial Effect of Desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cook Easterwood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many undergraduate microbiology laboratory manuals include exercises demonstrating the antimicrobial effects of physical agents, such as UV light and heat, and chemical agents, such as disinfectants and antibiotics (3, 4. There is, however, a lack of exercises examining the effects of desiccation on bacterial growth and survival. This particular form of antimicrobial control is especially relevant today with an increased emphasis on coughing and sneezing into one’s sleeve or a tissue, where microbes will not contaminate hands and will eventually desiccate and die (2. Desiccation can have bacteriostatic or bactericidal effects depending on the species, the material on which the organism has desiccated, and the length of time. The absence of water can damage many cellular components, including enzymes, nucleic acids, and cell membranes (1. However, many prokaryotes have some degree of resistance to desiccation, with Escherichia coli surviving around 24 hours and Bacillus species surviving upwards of 300 years, though these numbers can vary due to a number of confounding factors (5. Some of these factors include the method by which desiccation occurred, whether desiccation occurred in a natural or laboratory situation, and the species itself (5. To address the effects of desiccation on bacterial growth and survival, a short, simple exercise was developed. By inoculating various materials with bacterial cultures and allowing them to air-dry for 24 hours, students can visualize the effects of desiccation by analyzing the growth, or lack thereof, when organisms are transferred to nutrient agar plates. This exercise has been used in a health professions microbiology course as well as a microbiology course for biology and biochemistry majors. It is short enough to be conducted during a standard lecture period or during a longer laboratory period in conjunction with other experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of physical agents on microbial

  2. First demonstration that brain CYP2D-mediated opiate metabolic activation alters analgesia in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaidi; Khokhar, Jibran Y.; Zhao, Bin; Tyndale, Rachel F.

    2013-01-01

    The response to centrally-acting drugs is highly variable between individuals and does not always correlate with plasma drug levels. Drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes in the brain may contribute to this variability by affecting local drug and metabolite concentrations. CYP2D metabolizes codeine to the active morphine metabolite. We investigate the effect of inhibiting brain, and not liver, CYP2D activity on codeine-induced analgesia. Rats received intracerebroventricular injections of CYP2D inhibitors (20 μg propranolol or 40 μg propafenone) or vehicle controls. Compared to vehicle-pretreated rats, inhibitor-pretreated rats had: a) lower analgesia in the tail-flick test (p0.6 and p>0.7, respectively), tested at 30 min after 30 mg/kg subcutaneous codeine, and c) lower morphine formation from codeine ex vivo by brain membranes (p0.9). Analgesia trended toward a correlation with brain morphine concentrations (p=0.07) and correlated with brain morphine to codeine ratios (p0.8) or plasma morphine to codeine ratios (p>0.8). Our findings suggest that brain CYP2D affects brain morphine levels after peripheral codeine administration, and may thereby alter codeine's therapeutic efficacy, side-effect profile and abuse liability. Brain CYPs are highly variable due to genetics, environmental factors and age, and may therefore contribute to interindividual variation in the response to centrally-acting drugs. PMID:23623752

  3. Antiproliferative activity of Eremanthus crotonoides extracts and centratherin demonstrated in brain tumor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas F. R. Lobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eremanthus is recognized by the predominance of sesquiterpene lactones from the furanoheliangolide type, a class of substances extensively tested against cancer cell lines. Thus, the species E. crotonoides (DC. Sch. Bip., Asteraceae, obtained on "restinga" vegetation was evaluated against U251 and U87-MG glioma cell lines using the MTT colorimetric assay. Dichloromethane fraction was cytotoxic to both glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. We then conducted UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the dichloromethane fraction, which allowed the identification of the sesquiterpene lactones centratherin and goyazensolide. The isolation of centratherin was performed using chromatographic techniques and the identification of this substance was confirmed according to NMR data. Cytotoxic activity of centratherin alone was also evaluated against both U251 and U87-MG cells, which showed IC50 values comparable with those obtained for the commercial anticancer drug doxorubicin. All the tested samples showed cytotoxic activity against glioblastoma multiforme cells which suggests that E. crotonoides extracts may be important sources of antiproliferative substances and that the centratherin may serve as prototype for developing new antiglioblastoma drugs.

  4. Transcriptome sequencing demonstrates that human papillomavirus is not active in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arron, Sarah T; Ruby, J Graham; Dybbro, Eric; Ganem, Don; Derisi, Joseph L

    2011-08-01

    β-Human papillomavirus (β-HPV) DNA is present in some cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cuSCCs), but no mechanism of carcinogenesis has been determined. We used ultra-high-throughput sequencing of the cancer transcriptome to assess whether papillomavirus transcripts are present in these cancers. In all, 67 cuSCC samples were assayed for β-HPV DNA by PCR, and viral loads were measured with type-specific quantitative PCR. A total of 31 SCCs were selected for whole transcriptome sequencing. Transcriptome libraries were prepared in parallel from the HPV18-positive HeLa cervical cancer cell line and HPV16-positive primary cervical and periungual SCCs. Of the tumors, 30% (20/67) were positive for β-HPV DNA, but there was no difference in β-HPV viral load between tumor and normal tissue (P=0.310). Immunosuppression and age were significantly associated with higher viral load (P=0.016 for immunosuppression; P=0.0004 for age). Transcriptome sequencing failed to identify papillomavirus expression in any of the skin tumors. In contrast, HPV16 and HPV18 mRNA transcripts were readily identified in primary cervical and periungual cancers and HeLa cells. These data demonstrate that papillomavirus mRNA expression is not a factor in the maintenance of cuSCCs.

  5. Using Wavelet Entropy to Demonstrate how Mindfulness Practice Increases Coordination between Irregular Cerebral and Cardiac Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sik, Hin Hung; Gao, Junling; Fan, Jicong; Wu, Bonnie Wai Yan; Leung, Hang Kin; Hung, Yeung Sam

    2017-05-10

    In both the East and West, traditional teachings say that the mind and heart are somehow closely correlated, especially during spiritual practice. One difficulty in proving this objectively is that the natures of brain and heart activities are quite different. In this paper, we propose a methodology that uses wavelet entropy to measure the chaotic levels of both electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) data and show how this may be used to explore the potential coordination between the mind and heart under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) was used to identify the brain regions in which the EEG wavelet entropy was the most affected by the experimental conditions. As an illustration, the EEG and ECG were recorded under two different conditions (normal rest and mindful breathing) at the beginning of an 8-week standard Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training course (pretest) and after the course (posttest). Using the proposed method, the results consistently showed that the wavelet entropy of the brain EEG decreased during the MBSR mindful breathing state as compared to that during the closed-eye resting state. Similarly, a lower wavelet entropy of heartrate was found during MBSR mindful breathing. However, no difference in wavelet entropy during MBSR mindful breathing was found between the pretest and posttest. No correlation was observed between the entropy of brain waves and the entropy of heartrate during normal rest in all participants, whereas a significant correlation was observed during MBSR mindful breathing. Additionally, the most well-correlated brain regions were located in the central areas of the brain. This study provides a methodology for the establishment of evidence that mindfulness practice (i.e., mindful breathing) may increase the coordination between mind and heart activities.

  6. Implementation of the k{sub 0}-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k{sub 0}-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Manh Dung [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2006-03-15

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k{sub o}-NAA procedure.The k{sub o}-standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k{sub o}-NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k{sub o}-IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used.

  7. Direct evidence of swimming demonstrates active dispersal in the sea turtle "lost years".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Mansfield, Katherine L

    2015-05-04

    Although oceanic dispersal in larval and juvenile marine animals is widely studied, the relative contributions of swimming behavior and ocean currents to movements and distribution are poorly understood [1-4]. The sea turtle "lost years" [5] (often referred to as the surface-pelagic [6] or oceanic [7] stage) are a classic example. Upon hatching, young turtles migrate offshore and are rarely observed until they return to coastal waters as larger juveniles [5]. Sightings of small turtles downcurrent of nesting beaches and in association with drifting organisms (e.g., Sargassum algae) led to this stage being described as a "passive migration" during which turtles' movements are dictated by ocean currents [5-10]. However, laboratory and modeling studies suggest that dispersal trajectories might also be shaped by oriented swimming [11-15]. Here, we use an experimental approach designed to directly test the passive-migration hypothesis by deploying pairs of surface drifters alongside small green (Chelonia mydas) and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) wild-caught turtles, tracking their movements via satellite telemetry. We conclusively demonstrate that these turtles do not behave as passive drifters. In nearly all cases, drifter trajectories were uncharacteristic of turtle trajectories. Species-specific and location-dependent oriented swimming behavior, inferred by subtracting track velocity from modeled ocean velocity, contributed substantially to individual movement and distribution. These findings highlight the importance of in situ observations for depicting the dispersal of weakly swimming animals. Such observations, paired with information on the mechanisms of orientation, will likely allow for more accurate predictions of the ecological and evolutionary processes shaped by animal movement.

  8. Method of demonstrating calcium in human foot by neutron activation of (. cap alpha. , N)-sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaychik, V.E.; Kondrashov, A.E.; Morukov, B.V.

    Bone demineralization during long-term exposure to weightlessness and hypokinesia is presently a universally recognized fact. A method is described which employs neutron activation analysis for a direct quantitative in vivo assay of calcium in the human foot. When the foot is exposed to neutrons, the stable nuclide Ca/sup 46/ is converted into the radionuclide Ca/sup 49/. The gamma radiation emitted by Ca/sup 49/ is then measured spectrometrically. A special device, developed for the delivery of neutrons to the foot, consists of a stainless steel tank filled with water, surrounded on the side by lithium-containing screens. A cassette with neutron sources is at the bottom of the tank and can be delivered to the desired position in channel-driver carriers. A special footrest provides support during irradiation. The spectrometry unit, consisting of 4 scintillation counters, also is equipped with a specially designed footrest. The maximum relative error of a single measurement did not exceed 4.82%. The mean equivalent dose in the foot was about 1 rem, a dose low enough to permit examinations three times a year, if necessary.

  9. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J. Krager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3 and γ-tocotrienol (GT3 have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR. However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source.

  10. An Active Learning Mammalian Skeletal Muscle Lab Demonstrating Contractile and Kinetic Properties of Fast- and Slow-Twitch Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, S. I.; Arber, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The fact that humans possess fast and slow-twitch muscle in the ratio of approximately 50% has profound implications for designing exercise training strategies for power and endurance activities. With the growth of exercise and sport science courses, we have seen the need to develop an undergraduate student laboratory that demonstrates the basic…

  11. An Active Learning Mammalian Skeletal Muscle Lab Demonstrating Contractile and Kinetic Properties of Fast- and Slow-Twitch Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, S. I.; Arber, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The fact that humans possess fast and slow-twitch muscle in the ratio of approximately 50% has profound implications for designing exercise training strategies for power and endurance activities. With the growth of exercise and sport science courses, we have seen the need to develop an undergraduate student laboratory that demonstrates the basic…

  12. Chitosan-propolis nanoparticle formulation demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Teik Hwa; Chitra, Ebenezer; Ramamurthy, Srinivasan; Siddalingam, Rajinikanth Paruvathanahalli; Yuen, Kah Hay; Ambu, Stephen Periathamby; Davamani, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Propolis obtained from bee hives is a natural substance with antimicrobial properties. It is limited by its insolubility in aqueous solutions; hence ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Malaysian propolis were prepared. Both the extracts displayed antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against Enterococcus faecalis, a common bacterium associated with hospital-acquired infections. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of propolis revealed the presence of flavonoids like kaempferol and pinocembrin. This study investigated the role of propolis developed into nanoparticles with chitosan for its antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against E. faecalis. Bacteria that grow in a slimy layer of biofilm are resistant to penetration by antibacterial agents. The use of nanoparticles in medicine has received attention recently due to better bioavailability, enhanced penetrative capacity and improved efficacy. A chitosan-propolis nanoformulation was chosen based on ideal physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency and the rate of release of the active ingredients. This formulation inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation and reduced the number of bacteria in the biofilm by ~90% at 200 μg/ml concentration. When tested on pre-formed biofilms, the formulation reduced bacterial number in the biofilm by ~40% and ~75% at 200 and 300 μg/ml, respectively. The formulation not only reduced bacterial numbers, but also physically disrupted the biofilm structure as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Treatment of biofilms with chitosan-propolis nanoparticles altered the expression of biofilm-associated genes in E. faecalis. The results of this study revealed that chitosan-propolis nanoformulation can be deemed as a potential anti-biofilm agent in resisting infections involving biofilm formation like chronic wounds and surgical site infections.

  13. Chitosan-propolis nanoparticle formulation demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Teik Hwa; Chitra, Ebenezer; Ramamurthy, Srinivasan; Siddalingam, Rajinikanth Paruvathanahalli; Yuen, Kah Hay; Ambu, Stephen Periathamby

    2017-01-01

    Propolis obtained from bee hives is a natural substance with antimicrobial properties. It is limited by its insolubility in aqueous solutions; hence ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Malaysian propolis were prepared. Both the extracts displayed antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against Enterococcus faecalis, a common bacterium associated with hospital-acquired infections. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of propolis revealed the presence of flavonoids like kaempferol and pinocembrin. This study investigated the role of propolis developed into nanoparticles with chitosan for its antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against E. faecalis. Bacteria that grow in a slimy layer of biofilm are resistant to penetration by antibacterial agents. The use of nanoparticles in medicine has received attention recently due to better bioavailability, enhanced penetrative capacity and improved efficacy. A chitosan-propolis nanoformulation was chosen based on ideal physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency and the rate of release of the active ingredients. This formulation inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation and reduced the number of bacteria in the biofilm by ~90% at 200 μg/ml concentration. When tested on pre-formed biofilms, the formulation reduced bacterial number in the biofilm by ~40% and ~75% at 200 and 300 μg/ml, respectively. The formulation not only reduced bacterial numbers, but also physically disrupted the biofilm structure as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Treatment of biofilms with chitosan-propolis nanoparticles altered the expression of biofilm-associated genes in E. faecalis. The results of this study revealed that chitosan-propolis nanoformulation can be deemed as a potential anti-biofilm agent in resisting infections involving biofilm formation like chronic wounds and surgical site infections. PMID:28362873

  14. Microbiological analysis of common preservatives used in food items and demonstration of their in vitro anti-bacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohora Sultana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the microorganisms contaminating the common preservatives used in food as well as to detect their in vitro anti-bacterial traits. Methods: A total of 9 preservatives were subjected to conventional cultural and biochemical methods for microbial enumeration. Anti-bacterial activities were demonstrated through the agar well diffusion method. Results: All samples were found to be contaminated with bacteria up to 105 CFU/g and with the fungal flora within a range of 1 01-1 02 CFU/g. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were demonstrated in most of the samples. Sodium sulfite and citric acid possessed the strongest anti-bacterial trait against all of the test bacteria. Acetic acid exhibited activity against 6 out of 8 test bacteria while vinegar exhibited the activity against 4 bacteria. Activity of salt was demonstrated only against Listeria spp. and Bacillus spp., while activity of sugar and honey was found only against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively. Conclusions: According to the current investigation, sodium sulfite and citric acid samples were found to be satisfactory preservatives both in terms of microbiological criteria and their antibacterial traits.

  15. Novel bacterial metabolite merochlorin A demonstrates in vitro activity against multi-drug resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Sakoulas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated the in vitro activity of a merochlorin A, a novel compound with a unique carbon skeleton, against a spectrum of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens and against previously characterized clinical and laboratory Staphylococcus aureus isolates with resistance to numerous antibiotics. METHODS: Merochlorin A was isolated and purified from a marine-derived actinomycete strain CNH189. Susceptibility testing for merochlorin A was performed against previously characterized human pathogens using broth microdilution and agar dilution methods. Cytotoxicity was assayed in tissue culture assays at 24 and 72 hours against human HeLa and mouse sarcoma L929 cell lines. RESULTS: The structure of as new antibiotic, merochlorin A, was assigned by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. Merochlorin A demonstrated in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Clostridium dificile, but not against Gram negative bacteria. In S. aureus, susceptibility was not affected by ribosomal mutations conferring linezolid resistance, mutations in dlt or mprF conferring resistance to daptomycin, accessory gene regulator knockout mutations, or the development of the vancomycin-intermediate resistant phenotype. Merochlorin A demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity against MRSA. Activity was lost in the presence of 20% serum. CONCLUSIONS: The unique meroterpenoid, merochlorin A demonstrated excellent in vitro activity against S. aureus and C. dificile and did not show cross-resistance to contemporary antibiotics against Gram positive organisms. The activity was, however, markedly reduced in 20% human serum. Future directions for this compound may include evaluation for topical use, coating biomedical devices, or the pursuit of chemically modified derivatives of this compound that retain activity in the presence of serum.

  16. Ampicillin in Combination with Ceftaroline, Cefepime, or Ceftriaxone Demonstrates Equivalent Activities in a High-Inoculum Enterococcus faecalis Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Megan K; Rice, Louis B; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2016-05-01

    Ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination therapy has become a predominant treatment for serious Enterococcus faecalis infections, such as endocarditis. Unfortunately, ceftriaxone use is associated with future vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization. We evaluated E. faecalis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model against simulated human concentration-time profiles of ampicillin plus ceftaroline, cefepime, ceftriaxone, or gentamicin. Ampicillin-cefepime and ampicillin-ceftaroline demonstrated activities similar to those of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against E. faecalis.

  17. Methods for demonstration of enzyme activity in muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interface in demineralized tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Vilmann, H

    1981-01-01

    A method for demonstration of activity for ATPase and various oxidative enzymes (succinic dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic dehydrogenase) in muscle/bone sections of fixed and demineralized tissue has been developed. It was found that it is possible to preserve...... with the aid of a mapping of presence of phosphomonoesterases on bone surfaces, the method may be used to study possible biochemical interactions between bone and muscle tissue at the muscle/bone interface....

  18. KTN0158, a Humanized Anti-KIT Monoclonal Antibody, Demonstrates Biologic Activity against both Normal and Malignant Canine Mast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Cheryl A; Gardner, Heather L; Rippy, Sarah; Post, Gerald; La Perle, Krista; Crew, Linda; Lopresti-Morrow, Lori; Garton, Andrew J; McMahon, Gerald; LaVallee, Theresa M; Gedrich, Richard

    2016-11-04

    Purpose: KTN0158 is a novel anti-KIT antibody that potently inhibits wild-type and mutant KIT. This study evaluated the safety, biologic activity, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics profile of KTN0158 in dogs with spontaneous mast cell tumors (MCT) as a prelude to human clinical applications.Experimental Design: Cell proliferation, KIT phosphorylation, and mast cell degranulation were evaluated in vitro KTN0158 was administered to 4 research dogs to assess clinical effects and cutaneous mast cell numbers. Thirteen dogs with spontaneous MCT were enrolled into a prospective phase I dose-escalating open-label clinical study of KTN0158 evaluating 3 dose levels and 2 schedules and with weekly assessments for response and clinical toxicities.Results: KTN0158 was a potent inhibitor of human and dog KIT activation and blocked mast cell degranulation in vitro In dogs, KTN0158 was well tolerated and reduced cutaneous mast cell numbers in a dose-dependent manner. Clinical benefit of KTN0158 administration in dogs with MCT (n = 5 partial response; n = 7 stable disease) was observed regardless of KIT mutation status, and decreased KIT phosphorylation was demonstrated in tumor samples. Histopathology after study completion demonstrated an absence of neoplastic cells in the primary tumors and/or metastatic lymph nodes from 4 dogs. Reversible hematologic and biochemical adverse events were observed at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg. The MTD was established as 10 mg/kg.Conclusions: KTN0158 inhibits KIT phosphorylation, demonstrates an acceptable safety profile in dogs, and provides objective responses in canine MCT patients with and without activating KIT mutations, supporting future clinical evaluation of KTN0158 in people. Clin Cancer Res; 1-10. ©2016 AACR.

  19. Methods for demonstration of enzyme activity in muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interface in demineralized tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Vilmann, H

    1981-01-01

    A method for demonstration of activity for ATPase and various oxidative enzymes (succinic dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic dehydrogenase) in muscle/bone sections of fixed and demineralized tissue has been developed. It was found that it is possible to preserve...... considerable amounts of the above mentioned enzymes in the muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interfaces. The best results were obtained after 20 min fixation, and 2-3 weeks of storage in MgNa2EDTA containing media. As the same technique previously has been used to describe patterns of resorption and deposition...

  20. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chalencon

    Full Text Available Competitive swimming as a physical activity results in changes to the activity level of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. However, the precise relationship between ANS activity, fatigue and sports performance remains contentious. To address this problem and build a model to support a consistent relationship, data were gathered from national and regional swimmers during two 30 consecutive-week training periods. Nocturnal ANS activity was measured weekly and quantified through wavelet transform analysis of the recorded heart rate variability. Performance was then measured through a subsequent morning 400 meters freestyle time-trial. A model was proposed where indices of fatigue were computed using Banister's two antagonistic component model of fatigue and adaptation applied to both the ANS activity and the performance. This demonstrated that a logarithmic relationship existed between performance and ANS activity for each subject. There was a high degree of model fit between the measured and calculated performance (R(2=0.84±0.14,p<0.01 and the measured and calculated High Frequency (HF power of the ANS activity (R(2=0.79±0.07, p<0.01. During the taper periods, improvements in measured performance and measured HF were strongly related. In the model, variations in performance were related to significant reductions in the level of 'Negative Influences' rather than increases in 'Positive Influences'. Furthermore, the delay needed to return to the initial performance level was highly correlated to the delay required to return to the initial HF power level (p<0.01. The delay required to reach peak performance was highly correlated to the delay required to reach the maximal level of HF power (p=0.02. Building the ANS/performance identity of a subject, including the time to peak HF, may help predict the maximal performance that could be obtained at a given time.

  1. Demonstration of elevated levels of active cathepsin S in dextran sulfate sodium colitis using a new activatable probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, N; Nasser, Y; Zhao, P; Sharma, N; Guerrero-Alba, R; Edgington-Mitchell, L E; Lieu, T; Veldhuis, N A; Poole, D P; Conner, J W; Lindström, E; Craig, A W; Graham, B; Vanner, S J; Bunnett, N W

    2015-11-01

    Proteases play a major role in inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Activatable probes are a major technological advance, enabling sensitive detection of active proteases in tissue samples. Our aim was to synthesize an activatable probe for cathepsin S and validate its use in a mouse model of colitis. We designed and synthesized a new fluorescent activatable probe, NB200, for the detection of active cathepsin S. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by the administration of 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Homogenized mouse colons, with or without the addition of the specific cathepsin S inhibitor MV026031, were incubated with NB200 in a fluorescent plate reader. NB200 selectively detected purified cathepsin S and not other common inflammatory proteases. Homogenates of colon from mice with DSS colitis induced a significant fluorescent increase when compared to control animals (control vs DSS: p < 0.05 at 200 min and p < 0.01 at 220-240 min), indicating cathepsin S activation. The cathepsin S inhibitor abolished this increase in fluorescence (DSS vs DSS + MV026031: p < 0.05 at 140 min, p < 0.01 at 180 min, p < 0.001 at 200-240 min), which confirms cathepsin S activation. Cathepsin S activity correlated with the disease activity index (Spearman r = 0.77, p = 0.017). Our investigation has demonstrated the utility of activatable probes for detecting protease activity in intestinal inflammation. Panels of such probes may allow 'signature' protease profiles to be established for a range of inflammatory diseases and disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Novel method demonstrates differential ligand activation and phosphatase-mediated deactivation of insulin receptor tyrosine-specific phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieniewicz, Anne M; Cooper, Philip R; McGehee, Jennifer; Lingham, Russell B; Kihm, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Insulin receptor signaling is a complex cascade leading to a multitude of intracellular functional responses. Three natural ligands, insulin, IGF1 and IGF2, are each capable of binding with different affinities to the insulin receptor, and result in variable biological responses. However, it is likely these affinity differences alone cannot completely explain the myriad of diverse cellular outcomes. Ligand binding initiates activation of a signaling cascade resulting in phosphorylation of the IR itself and other intracellular proteins. The direct catalytic activity along with the temporally coordinated assembly of signaling proteins is critical for insulin receptor signaling. We hypothesized that determining differential phosphorylation among individual tyrosine sites activated by ligand binding or dephosphorylation by phosphatases could provide valuable insight into insulin receptor signaling. Here, we present a sensitive, novel immunoassay adapted from Meso Scale Discovery technology to quantitatively measure changes in site-specific phosphorylation levels on endogenous insulin receptors from HuH7 cells. We identified insulin receptor phosphorylation patterns generated upon differential ligand activation and phosphatase-mediated deactivation. The data demonstrate that insulin, IGF1 and IGF2 elicit different insulin receptor phosphorylation kinetics and potencies that translate to downstream signaling. Furthermore, we show that insulin receptor deactivation, regulated by tyrosine phosphatases, occurs distinctively across specific tyrosine residues. In summary, we present a novel, quantitative and high-throughput assay that has uncovered differential ligand activation and site-specific deactivation of the insulin receptor. These results may help elucidate some of the insulin signaling mechanisms, discriminate ligand activity and contribute to a better understanding of insulin receptor signaling. We propose this methodology as a powerful approach to characterize

  3. Periowave demonstrates bactericidal activity against periopathogens and leads to improved clinical outcomes in the treatment of adult periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Cale N.; Andersen, Roger; Loebel, Nicolas G.

    2009-02-01

    Periodontitis affects half of the U.S. population over 50, and is the leading cause of tooth loss after 35. It is believed to be caused by growth of complex bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface below the gumline. Photodynamic therapy, a technology used commonly in antitumor applications, has more recently been shown to exhibit antimicrobial efficacy. We have demonstrated eradication of the periopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in vitro using PeriowaveTM; a commercial photodisinfection system. In addition, several clinical studies have now demonstrated the efficacy of this treatment. A pilot study in the U.S. showed that 68% of patients treated with PeriowaveTM adjunctively to scaling and root planing (SRP) showed clinical attachment level increase of >1 mm, as opposed to 30% with SRP alone. In a subsequent larger study, a second PeriowaveTM treatment 6 weeks after initial treatment led to pocket depth improvements of >1.5 mm in 89% of patients. Finally, in the most recent multicenter, randomized, examiner-blinded study conducted on 121 subjects in Canada, PeriowaveTM treatment produced highly significant gains in attachment level (0.88 mm vs. 0.57 mm; p=0.003) and pocket depth (0.87 mm vs. 0.63 mm; p=0.01) as compared to SRP alone. In summary, PeriowaveTM demonstrated strong bactericidal activity against known periopathogens, and treatment of periodontitis using this system produced significantly better clinical outcomes than SRP alone. This, along with the absence of any adverse events in patients treated to date demonstrates that PDT is a safe and effective treatment for adult chronic periodontitis.

  4. Leptospira interrogans activation of peripheral blood monocyte glycolipoprotein demonstrated in whole blood by the release of IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dorigatti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipoprotein (GLP from pathogenic serovars of Leptospira has been implicated in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis by its presence in tissues of experimental animals with leptospirosis, the inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase pump activity, and induced production of cytokines. The aims of the present study were to investigate the induction of IL-6 by GLP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and to demonstrate monocyte stimulation at the cellular level in whole blood from healthy volunteers. PBMC were stimulated with increasing concentrations (5 to 2500 ng/ml of GLP extracted from the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, lipopolysaccharide (positive control or medium (negative control, and supernatants were collected after 6, 20/24, and 48 h, and kept at -80ºC until use. Whole blood was diluted 1:1 in RPMI medium and cultivated for 6 h, with medium, GLP and lipopolysaccharide as described above. Monensin was added after the first hour of culture. Supernatant cytokine levels from PBMC were measured by ELISA and intracellular IL-6 was detected in monocytes in whole blood cultures by flow-cytometry. Monocytes were identified in whole blood on the basis of forward versus side scatter parameters and positive reactions with CD45 and CD14 antibodies. GLP ( > or = 50 ng/ml-induced IL-6 levels in supernatants were detected after 6-h incubation, reaching a peak after 20/24 h. The percentage of monocytes staining for IL-6 increased with increasing GLP concentration. Thus, our findings show a GLP-induced cellular activation by demonstrating the ability of GLP to induce IL-6 and the occurrence of monocyte activation in whole blood at the cellular level.

  5. Metagenomic insights into the carbohydrate-active enzymes carried by the microorganisms adhering to solid digesta in the rumen of cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    Full Text Available The ruminal microbial community is a unique source of enzymes that underpin the conversion of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the microbial consortia adherent on solid digesta in the rumen of Jersey cattle were subjected to an activity-based metagenomic study to explore the genetic diversity of carbohydrolytic enzymes in Jersey cows, with a particular focus on cellulases and xylanases. Pyrosequencing and bioinformatic analyses of 120 carbohydrate-active fosmids identified genes encoding 575 putative Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes and proteins putatively related to transcriptional regulation, transporters, and signal transduction coupled with polysaccharide degradation and metabolism. Most of these genes shared little similarity to sequences archived in databases. Genes that were predicted to encode glycoside hydrolases (GH involved in xylan and cellulose hydrolysis (e.g., GH3, 5, 9, 10, 39 and 43 were well represented. A new subfamily (S-8 of GH5 was identified from contigs assigned to Firmicutes. These subfamilies of GH5 proteins also showed significant phylum-dependent distribution. A number of polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs were found, and two of them contained genes encoding Sus-like proteins and cellulases that have not been reported in previous metagenomic studies of samples from the rumens of cows or other herbivores. Comparison with the large metagenomic datasets previously reported of other ruminant species (or cattle breeds and wallabies showed that the rumen microbiome of Jersey cows might contain differing CAZymes. Future studies are needed to further explore how host genetics and diets affect the diversity and distribution of CAZymes and utilization of plant cell wall materials.

  6. Bovine CCL28 Mediates Chemotaxis via CCR10 and Demonstrates Direct Antimicrobial Activity against Mastitis Causing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, Kyler B; Mason, Sara; Nygaard, Tyler K; Liu, Bin; Griffith, Shannon; Jones, Jennifer; Linderman, Susanne; Hughes, Melissa; Erickson, David; Voyich, Jovanka M; Davis, Mary F; Wilson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the well characterized function of chemokines in mediating the homing and accumulation of leukocytes to tissues, some chemokines also exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. Little is known of the potential role of chemokines in bovine mammary gland health and disease. The chemokine CCL28 has previously been shown to play a key role in the homing and accumulation of IgA antibody secreting cells to the lactating murine mammary gland. CCL28 has also been shown to act as an antimicrobial peptide with activity demonstrated against a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and protozoans. Here we describe the cloning and function of bovine CCL28 and document the concentration of this chemokine in bovine milk. Bovine CCL28 was shown to mediate cellular chemotaxis via the CCR10 chemokine receptor and exhibited antimicrobial activity against a variety of bovine mastitis causing organisms. The concentration of bovine CCL28 in milk was found to be highly correlated with the lactation cycle. Highest concentrations of CCL28 were observed soon after parturition, with levels decreasing over time. These results suggest a potential role for CCL28 in the prevention/resolution of bovine mastitis.

  7. Bovine CCL28 Mediates Chemotaxis via CCR10 and Demonstrates Direct Antimicrobial Activity against Mastitis Causing Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyler B Pallister

    Full Text Available In addition to the well characterized function of chemokines in mediating the homing and accumulation of leukocytes to tissues, some chemokines also exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. Little is known of the potential role of chemokines in bovine mammary gland health and disease. The chemokine CCL28 has previously been shown to play a key role in the homing and accumulation of IgA antibody secreting cells to the lactating murine mammary gland. CCL28 has also been shown to act as an antimicrobial peptide with activity demonstrated against a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and protozoans. Here we describe the cloning and function of bovine CCL28 and document the concentration of this chemokine in bovine milk. Bovine CCL28 was shown to mediate cellular chemotaxis via the CCR10 chemokine receptor and exhibited antimicrobial activity against a variety of bovine mastitis causing organisms. The concentration of bovine CCL28 in milk was found to be highly correlated with the lactation cycle. Highest concentrations of CCL28 were observed soon after parturition, with levels decreasing over time. These results suggest a potential role for CCL28 in the prevention/resolution of bovine mastitis.

  8. Carrie Chapman Catt and Woman Suffrage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the material for this issue of the "Goldfinch," which explores the life of Carrie Chapman Catt, came from the archives of the State Historical Society of Iowa. Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) was an Iowan who advocated woman suffrage and spent 26 years actively working for that cause. The issue contains a biography of Catt, and…

  9. 关于少儿图书馆开展志愿者活动的思考%Considerations about How the Children's Library to Carry out the Volunteer Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清

    2015-01-01

    阐述了少儿图书馆志愿者的定义,分析了少儿图书馆志愿者活动有效开展的前提与基本保障以及开展志愿者活动的意义,探讨了少儿图书馆志愿者队伍的构建与管理方式,列举了少儿图书馆志愿者活动的主要内容.%This paper expounds the definition of the volunteer in children's library, analyzes the preconditions and basic guarantee of effectively carrying out the volunteer activities in children's library and the significance of carrying out the volunteer activities, proves into the construction and management style of volunteer team in children's library, and lists the main contents of volunteer activities of children's library.

  10. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015, testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.

  11. On fast carry select adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanna, M.; Whitaker, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for a high-speed carry select adder with very long bit lengths utilizing a conflict-free bypass scheme. The proposed scheme has almost half the number of transistors and is faster than a conventional carry select adder. A comparative study is also made between the proposed adder and a Manchester carry chain adder which shows that the proposed scheme has the same transistor count, without suffering any performance degradation, compared to the Manchester carry chain adder.

  12. On fast carry select adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanna, M.; Whitaker, S.

    This paper presents an architecture for a high-speed carry select adder with very long bit lengths utilizing a conflict-free bypass scheme. The proposed scheme has almost half the number of transistors and is faster than a conventional carry select adder. A comparative study is also made between the proposed adder and a Manchester carry chain adder which shows that the proposed scheme has the same transistor count, without suffering any performance degradation, compared to the Manchester carry chain adder.

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  14. Ultrasound-targeted transfection of tissue-type plasminogen activator gene carried by albumin nanoparticles to dog myocardium to prevent thrombosis after heart mechanical valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ji Jun, Ji Shang-Yi, Yang Jian-An, He Xia, Yang Xiao-Han, Ling Wen-Ping, Chen Xiao-LingDepartment of Pathology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shenzhen Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: There are more than 300,000 prosthetic heart valve replacements each year worldwide. These patients are faced with a higher risk of thromboembolic events after heart valve surgery and long-term or even life-long anticoagulative and antiplatelet therapies are necessary. Some severe complications such as hemorrhaging or rebound thrombosis can occur when the therapy ceases. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA is a thrombolytic agent. One of the best strategies is gene therapy, which offers a local high expression of t-PA over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhaging and local rebound thrombosis. There are some issues with t-PA that need to be addressed: currently, there is no up-to-date report on how the t-PA gene targets the heart in vivo and the gene vector for t-PA needs to be determined.Aims: To fabricate an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent and investigate its targeting effect on prevention of thrombosis after heart mechanic valve replacement under therapeutic ultrasound.Methods: A dog model of mechanical tricuspid valve replacement was constructed. A highly expressive t-PA gene plasmid was constructed and packaged by nanoparticles prepared with bovine serum albumin. This nanopackaged t-PA gene plasmid was further cross-linked to ultrasonic microbubbles prepared with sucrose and bovine serum albumin to form the ultrasonic-targeted agent for t-PA gene transfection. The agent was given intravenously followed by a therapeutic ultrasound treatment (1 MHz, 1.5 w/cm2, 10 minutes of the heart soon after valve replacement had been performed. The expression of t-PA in myocardium was detected with multiclonal antibodies to t-PA by the indirect immunohistochemical method

  15. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  16. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-05-11

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  17. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high. The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  18. Use of Metallopeptide Based Mimics Demonstrates That the Metalloprotein Nitrile Hydratase Requires Two Oxidized Cysteinates for Catalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, J.; Callan, P; Amie, J

    2010-01-01

    Nitrile hydratases (NHases) are non-heme Fe{sup III} or non-corrin Co{sup III} containing metalloenzymes that possess an N{sub 2}S{sub 3} ligand environment with nitrogen donors derived from amidates and sulfur donors derived from cysteinates. A closely related enzyme is thiocyanate hydrolase (SCNase), which possesses a nearly identical active-site coordination environment as CoNHase. These enzymes are redox inactive and perform hydrolytic reactions; SCNase hydrolyzes thiocyanate anions while NHase converts nitriles into amides. Herein an active CoNHase metallopeptide mimic, [Co{sup III}NHase-m1] (NHase-m1 = AcNH-CCDLP-CGVYD-PA-COOH), that contains Co{sup III} in a similar N{sub 2}S{sub 3} coordination environment as CoNHase is reported. [Co{sup III}NHase-m1] was characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), Co K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Co-S: 2.21 {angstrom}; Co-N: 1.93 {angstrom}), vibrational, and optical spectroscopies. We find that [Co{sup III}NHase-m1] will perform the catalytic conversion of acrylonitrile into acrylamide with up to 58 turnovers observed after 18 h at 25 C (pH 8.0). FTIR data used in concert with calculated vibrational data (mPWPW91/aug-cc-TZVPP) demonstrates that the active form of [Co{sup III}NHase-m1] has a ligated SO{sub 2} (? = 1091 cm{sup -1}) moiety and a ligated protonated SO(H) (? = 928 cm{sup -1}) moiety; when only one oxygenated cysteinate ligand (i.e., a mono-SO{sub 2} coordination motif) or the bis-SO{sub 2} coordination motif are found within [Co{sup III}NHase-m1] no catalytic activity is observed. Calculations of the thermodynamics of ligand exchange (B3LYP/aug-cc-TZVPP) suggest that the reason for this is that the SO{sub 2}/SO(H) equatorial ligand motif promotes both water dissociation from the Co{sup III}-center and nitrile coordination to the Co{sup III}-center. In contrast, the under- or overoxidized motifs will either strongly favor a five coordinate Co

  19. Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Gérard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulié, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires the development of larger aperture telescopes. The optical properties of a three-mirror modified-Rumsey design provide significant advantages when compared to other telescope designs: (i) at any wavelength, the design has a flat field and is anastigmatic; (ii) the system is extremely compact, i.e., it is almost four times shorter than a Schmidt. Compared to the equally compact flat-field Ritchey-Chrétien with a doublet-lens corrector, as developed for the Sloan digital sky survey - and which requires the polishing of six optical surfaces - the proposed modified-Rumsey design requires only a two-surface polishing and provides a better imaging quality. All the mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. Starting from the classical Rumsey design, it is shown that the use of all eight available free parameters allows the simultaneous aspherization of the primary and tertiary mirrors by active optics methods from a single deformable substrate. The continuity conditions between the primary and the tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by an intermediate narrow ring of constant thickness that is not optically used. After the polishing of a double vase form in a spherical shape, the primary-tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by in situ stressing. The tulip-form secondary is hyperbolized by stress polishing. Other active optics alternatives are possible for a space telescope. The modified-Rumsey design is of interest for developing large space- and ground-based survey telescopes in UV, visible, or IR ranges, such as currently demonstrated with the construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° field of view. Double-pass optical tests show diffraction-limited images.

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  2. Complete Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  5. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol inhibits MRCKα kinase and demonstrates promising anti prostate cancer activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowe Henry I C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high occurrence of prostate cancer worldwide and one of the major sources of the discovery of new lead molecules being medicinal plants, this research undertook to investigate the possible anti-cancer activity of two natural cycloartanes; cycloartane-3,24,25-diol (extracted in our lab from Tillandsia recurvata and cycloartane-3,24,25-triol (purchased. The inhibition of MRCKα kinase has emerged as a potential solution to restoring the tight regulation of normal cellular growth, the loss of which leads to cancer cell formation. Methods Kinase inhibition was investigated using competition binding (to the ATP sites assays which have been previously established and authenticated and cell proliferation was measured using the WST-1 assay. Results Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol demonstrated strong selectivity towards the MRCKα kinase with a Kd50 of 0.26 μM from a total of 451 kinases investigated. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol reduced the viability of PC-3 and DU145 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.226 ± 0.28 μM and 1.67 ± 0.18 μM respectively. Conclusions These results will prove useful in drug discovery as Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol has shown potential for development as an anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer.

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  9. An Analysis of English Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑珍

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chapter Ⅰ Introduction Sitting in the rocking chair,Carrie dreams her future.This is the deep impression the novel"Sister Carrie"gives us,which is written by Theodore Dreiser(1871-1945),the great American realism writer.

  10. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  11. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  12. Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O`Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994.

  13. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

    2012-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  15. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning r...

  16. 如何在初中数学课堂开展多样化教学活动%How to Carry out Diversified Teaching Activities in Junior Middle School Mathematics Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张尚辉

    2014-01-01

    开展多样化的教学活动不仅能够调动学生的学习积极性,向学生提供充分从事数学活动的机会,还有助于打破传统数学课堂的沉闷,活跃课堂气氛,从而为高效数学课堂的实现打下坚实的基础。%To carry out a variety of teaching activities can not only mobilize the enthusiasm of the students,to provide adequate opportunities to engage in mathematics activities,but also can help to break the traditional mathematics classroom boring,active classroom atmosphere,thus, lay a solid foundation for the realization of effective mathematics classroom.

  17. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2004-03-15

    This report summarizes the investigation of two active desiccant module (ADM) pilot site installations initiated in 2001. Both pilot installations were retrofits at existing facilities served by conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that had encountered frequent humidity control, indoor air quality (IAQ), and other operational problems. Each installation involved combining a SEMCO, Inc., ADM (as described in Fischer and Sand 2002) with a standard packaged rooftop unit built by the Trane Company. A direct digital control (DDC) system integral to the ADM performed the dual function of controlling the ADM/rooftop combination and facilitating data collection, trending, and remote performance monitoring. The first installation involved providing preconditioned outdoor air to replace air exhausted from the large kitchen hood and bathrooms of a Hooters restaurant located in Rome, Georgia. This facility had previously added an additional rooftop unit in an attempt to achieve occupant comfort without success. The second involved conditioning the outdoor air delivered to each room of a wing of the Mountain Creek Inn at the Callaway Gardens resort. This hotel, designed in the ''motor lodge'' format with each room opening to the outdoors, is located in southwest Georgia. Controlling the space humidity always presented a serious challenge. Uncomfortable conditions and musty odors had caused many guests to request to move to other areas within the resort. This is the first field demonstration performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory where significant energy savings, operating cost savings, and dramatically improved indoor environmental conditions can all be claimed as the results of a retrofit desiccant equipment field installation. The ADM/rooftop combination installed at the restaurant resulted in a reduction of about 34% in the electricity used by the building's air-conditioning system. This represents a reduction of

  18. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  19. Methods and Effect of Carrying Out Hing-quality Care Demonstration Project Activities%开展优质护理服务示范工程活动的方法与效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红军

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨"优质护理服务示范工程活动"的实施方法与成效.方法:以卫生部关于开展优质护理服务示范工程活动的文件为指导,结合医院实际选择具有代表性的科室开展优质护理活动,制定活动方案并落实措施,比较活动前后临床护理质量考评结果和住院病人对护理服务的满意程度.结果:实施"优质护理示范工程活动"后临床护理服务质量和患者满意度均有显著提高,与实施前比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:开展"优质护理示范工程活动"能有效规范护理人员的护理行为,提高护理质量,提高病人的满意度.

  20. A Study on Science Popularization Activities Carried out by Universities and Research Institutions%我国大学和科研机构开展科普活动现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶; 王楠

    2015-01-01

    大学和科研机构已经成为我国的重要科普力量,它们通过开展各项科普活动发挥了重要的社会作用。本文选取哈尔滨工程大学、中科院上海昆虫博物馆、华中农业大学等国内优秀大学和科研机构作为调研和访谈对象,从日常科普工作管理、常见科普途径、科普活动组织形式以及科普人才建设等方面分析了当前我国大学和科研机构的科普活动情况。调研发现了一些问题,如许多单位对科普重要性认识不足;科普活动缺乏品牌和特色;科普资源创新不足;科普专业人才缺乏。针对以上问题,建议建立激励科普的工作机制,构建合理的科普人才结构,创建品牌和特色科普活动,尝试与社会各界联办科普等。%Universities and research institutes have become important forces in science popularization work of our country. They play an important social role by carrying out various science popularization activities. Harbin Engineering University, Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai Insect Museum, Huazhong Agricultural University and other top universities and research institutes are selected as research subjects. Analyze the current science popularization activities carried out by universities and research institutions from the respects of daily management of science popularization work,common ways of science popularization, science popularization activities, and science popularization personnel. Some problems are found,such as the philosophy and understanding of science popularization of many institutes should be improved;science popularization activities lack of brand and characteristics;the innovations of science resources are insufficient and backward on the quality of science popularization personnel. To solve the above problems, it recommends that it should establish incentive science popularization working mechanism, construct a reasonable science popularization personnel

  1. Survey of the nursing ethics cognition status after carrying out the "High quality nursing service demonstration project" in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西壮族自治区开展“优质护理服务示范工程”后护理人员伦理认知状况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔妙玲; 蒋云; 应燕萍; 杨丽; 韦琴; 刘小英

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解广西壮族自治区开展“优质护理服务示范工程”后护理人员伦理认知现状及影响因素.方法 2014年5~6月选取广西壮族自治区59所不同等级医院的379名临床护士为调查对象,采用自行设计的伦理认知问卷进行调查.结果 开展优质护理服务后护士伦理认知的总得分为(51.29±3.46)分,高于开展优质护理服务前2010年护士的伦理认知水平;进一步比较发现,两者在医疗保密认知方面差异无统计学意义,在医疗优化、患者知情同意权、生命价值方面的认知差异有统计学意义t值分别为11.389,7.448和2.126,P< 0.05.多重线性回归分析显示,护龄、医院等级对伦理认知总分有显著影响;学历、职称、护龄对医疗优化认知有显著影响;职称对患者知情同意认知有显著影响;护龄、所在科室、医院等级对医疗保密认知有显著影响;学历对生命价值认知有显著影响.结论 优质护理服务有助于提高护士的伦理认知水平,今后应进一步完善护士的伦理继续教育系统,以提高护士伦理认知的全面性.%Objective We aimed to investigate the nurses' ethics cognition status and its influencing factors after carrying out the "High quality nursing service demonstration project" in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.Methods From May to June 2014,379 clinical nurses from 59 hospitals of different grades in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were investigated with the self-designed questionnaire.Results After carrying out the "High quality nursing service demonstration project",the total score of the nurses' ethics cognition were (51.29±3.46),which was higher than those in 2010.There was no statistical difference in cognition of medical confidentiality between 2014 and 2010,but it showed significant statistical differences in dimensions of medical optimization,informed consent,the value of life,t value was 11.389,7.448 and 2.126,P <0.05.The multiple linear

  2. Value, Principles and Methods of Kindergarten Carrying out Paper-cut Art Activities%幼儿园开展剪纸艺术活动的价值、原则与方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵雯倩

    2014-01-01

    剪纸艺术历史久远、形象丰富、色彩多样,在幼儿园区域活动中进行剪纸艺术寓意丰富、符合幼儿发展的需要。在幼儿教育和安全问题日益受到关注的今天,开展剪纸教育教学活动的安全性受到质疑,但是剪纸艺术在传承中华文化、促进幼儿手部动作协调、发展幼儿审美能力方面的价值不应被忽视。因此,需要从开展剪纸艺术活动的原则与方式入手,使剪纸艺术活动要更适合幼儿的发展,消除家长与老师心中的安全顾虑。%Paper-cut art has a long history, rich image, color variety, the art of moral conduct rich region in kindergarten activities, meet the needs of early childhood development. Security issues in early childhood education and a growing concern today, carry out educational activities paperwork safety has been questioned, but the art of the heritage of Chinese culture, promoting the value of early childhood coordinated hand movements, aesthetic capacity development of young children should not be overlooked. Therefore, the principles and methods from the art of the activities carried out so as to render the art of activity to be more suitable for the development of young children, to eliminate parents and teachers' safety concerns in mind.

  3. Naturalistic Elements in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳晖

    2007-01-01

    @@ Theodore Dreiser is considered to be a controversial writer.His first novel.Sister Carrie makes a new way of presenting re-ality.This paper discusses the naturalistic elements from the de-tailed description of the environment in that society.

  4. Demonstration of interleukin 1 activity in apparently homogeneous specimens of the pI 5 form of rabbit endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D F; Murphy, P A

    1984-08-01

    Rabbit mononuclear cells from oil-induced peritoneal exudates were purified by centrifugation on Percoll gradients, suspended in tissue culture medium, and stimulated with opsonized Staphylococcus epidermidis. The supernatants from these macrophages caused fever when injected intravenously into rabbits (endogenous pyrogen [EP] activity). The EP activity was contained in two protein fractions, with pIs of 7.3 and ca. 5.0. The same fractions caused mouse thymocytes to incorporate tritiated thymidine when incubated in vitro with small quantities of phytohemagglutinin (interleukin 1 [IL-1] activity). The pI 5.0 form of EP was purified to apparent homogeneity by sequential use of ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography, and high-resolution isoelectric focusing. EP and IL-1 activities were not separable by any of these procedures. Active fractions from isoelectric focusing were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Only one band was visible as judged by a silver staining method, and IL-1 activity could be recovered by renaturing eluates from the same region of sodium dodecyl sulfate gels run in parallel. An estimate of specific activity was made by comparing the intensity of stained bands of EP with the intensity of bands containing known quantities of lysozyme or RNase. By this criterion, the specific activity of purified pI 5 EP was between 17,000 and 58,000 degrees C U/mg of protein, and the specific activity in terms of IL-1 was between 59 million and 360 million U per mg of protein. These observations suggest that both EP and IL-1 activities can be expressed by a single molecular species. The implications of this coincidence are discussed. It was also shown that highly purified pI 5 EP obtained from macrophages stimulated in the presence of 14C-labeled amino acids contained significant 14C radioactivity. This suggests that the pI 5.0 EP, like the pI 7

  5. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  6. Sleep- and wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and reactivity demonstrated in fly neurons using in vivo calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushey, Daniel; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2015-04-14

    Sleep in Drosophila shares many features with mammalian sleep, but it remains unknown whether spontaneous and evoked activity of individual neurons change with the sleep/wake cycle in flies as they do in mammals. Here we used calcium imaging to assess how the Kenyon cells in the fly mushroom bodies change their activity and reactivity to stimuli during sleep, wake, and after short or long sleep deprivation. As before, sleep was defined as a period of immobility of >5 min associated with a reduced behavioral response to a stimulus. We found that calcium levels in Kenyon cells decline when flies fall asleep and increase when they wake up. Moreover, calcium transients in response to two different stimuli are larger in awake flies than in sleeping flies. The activity of Kenyon cells is also affected by sleep/wake history: in awake flies, more cells are spontaneously active and responding to stimuli if the last several hours (5-8 h) before imaging were spent awake rather than asleep. By contrast, long wake (≥29 h) reduces both baseline and evoked neural activity and decreases the ability of neurons to respond consistently to the same repeated stimulus. The latter finding may underlie some of the negative effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and is consistent with the occurrence of local sleep during wake as described in behaving rats. Thus, calcium imaging uncovers new similarities between fly and mammalian sleep: fly neurons are more active and reactive in wake than in sleep, and their activity tracks sleep/wake history.

  7. Observing Exoplanets with High-dispersion Coronagraphy. II. Demonstration of an Active Single-mode Fiber Injection Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawet, D.; Ruane, G.; Xuan, W.; Echeverri, D.; Klimovich, N.; Randolph, M.; Fucik, J.; Wallace, J. K.; Wang, J.; Vasisht, G.; Dekany, R.; Mennesson, B.; Choquet, E.; Delorme, J.-R.; Serabyn, E.

    2017-04-01

    High-dispersion coronagraphy (HDC) optimally combines high-contrast imaging techniques such as adaptive optics/wavefront control plus coronagraphy to high spectral resolution spectroscopy. HDC is a critical pathway toward fully characterizing exoplanet atmospheres across a broad range of masses from giant gaseous planets down to Earth-like planets. In addition to determining the molecular composition of exoplanet atmospheres, HDC also enables Doppler mapping of atmosphere inhomogeneities (temperature, clouds, wind), as well as precise measurements of exoplanet rotational velocities. Here, we demonstrate an innovative concept for injecting the directly imaged planet light into a single-mode fiber, linking a high-contrast adaptively corrected coronagraph to a high-resolution spectrograph (diffraction-limited or not). Our laboratory demonstration includes three key milestones: close-to-theoretical injection efficiency, accurate pointing and tracking, and on-fiber coherent modulation and speckle nulling of spurious starlight signal coupling into the fiber. Using the extreme modal selectivity of single-mode fibers, we also demonstrated speckle suppression gains that outperform conventional image-based speckle nulling by at least two orders of magnitude.

  8. Combined approach to demonstrate acetylcholinesterase activity changes in the rat brain following tabun intoxication and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgar, Jiri; Hajek, Petr; Kassa, Jiri; Slizova, Dasa; Krs, Otakar; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Fusek, Josef; Capek, Lukas; Voicu, Victor A

    2012-01-01

    Reactivation effects of K203 and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine on acetylcholinesterase activities in the brain parts of rats poisoned with tabun were studied. The activity was determined by quantitative histochemical and biochemical methods correlating between them very well. The tabun-induced changes in acetylcholinsterase activity as well as in reactivation potency of reactivators used were different in various parts of the brain. Pontomedullar area seems to be important for observed changes following tabun intoxication and its treatment. From the oximes studied, the reactivation effect of K203 was comparable with obidoxime; HI-6 was ineffective. Combination of bio- and histochemical methods allow fine differentiation among the action of different oximes following tabun poisoning.

  9. Niclosamide, an old antihelminthic agent, demonstrates antitumor activity by blocking multiple signaling pathways of cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Xuan Pan; Ke Ding; Cheng-Yan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Niclosamide,an oral antihelminthic drug,has been used to treat tapeworm infection for about 50 years.Niclosamide is also used as a molluscicide for water treatment in schistosomiasis control programs.Recently,several groups have independently discovered that niclosamide is also active against cancer cells,but its precise mechanism of antitumor action is not fully understood.Evidence supports that niclosamide targets multiple signaling pathways (NF-κB,Wnt/β-catenin,Notch,ROS,mTORC1,and Stat3),most of which are closely involved with cancer stem cells.The exciting advances in elucidating the antitumor activity and the molecular targets of this drug will be discussed.A method for synthesizing a phosphate pro-drug of niclosamide is provided.Given its potential antitumor activity,clinical trials for niclosamide and its derivatives are warranted for cancer treatment.

  10. Objective measurements of activity patterns in people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes demonstrate a sedentary lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, S L; Fleischer, J; Hoeyem, P; Laugesen, E; Poulsen, P L; Christiansen, J S; Ejskjær, N; Hansen, T K

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate physical activity in people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes using objective measures. We analysed data from a study aimed at assessing carotid femoral pulse wave velocity in which a piezoelectric accelerometer was worn by 100 people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes and by 100 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Differences in physical activity patterns were investigated. Compared with the control group, the people with Type 2 diabetes spent significantly more time engaged in sedentary or lower level activities during the day, with a mean (sd) time of 926 (44) vs 898 (70) min, P sedentary lifestyle compared with well-matched controls. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  11. Properties of Carry Value Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakanta Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carry Value Transformation (CVT is a model of discrete deterministic dynamical system. In the present study, it has been proved that (1 the sum of any two nonnegative integers is the same as the sum of their CVT and XOR values. (2 the number of iterations leading to either CVT=0 or XOR=0 does not exceed the maximum of the lengths of the two addenda expressed as binary strings. A similar process of addition of modified Carry Value Transformation (MCVT and XOR requires a maximum of two iterations for MCVT to be zero. (3 an equivalence relation is shown to exist on Z×Z which divides the CV table into disjoint equivalence classes.

  12. In vitro reactivity to implant metals demonstrates a person-dependent association with both T-cell and B-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallab, Nadim James; Caicedo, Marco; Epstein, Rachel; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2010-02-01

    Hypersensitivity to metallic implants remains relatively unpredictable and poorly understood. We initially hypothesized that metal-induced lymphocyte proliferation responses to soluble metal challenge (ions) are mediated exclusively by early T-cell activation (not B-cells), typical of a delayed-type-hypersensitivity response. We tested this by comparing proliferation (6 days) of primary lymphocytes with early T-cell and B-cell activation (48 h) in three groups of subjects likely to demonstrate elevated metal reactivity: group 1 (n = 12) history of metal sensitivity with no implant; group 2a (n = 6) well performing metal-on-metal THRs, and group 2b (n = 20) subjects with poorly performing metal-on-polymer total joint arthroplasties (TJA). Group 1 showed 100% (12/12) metal reactivity (stimulation index > 2) to Ni. Groups 2a and 2b were 83% (5/6) and 75% (15/22) metal reactive (to Co, Cr, or Ni), respectively. Of the n = 32 metal-reactive subjects to Co, Cr, or Ni (SI > 2), n = 22/32 demonstrated >2-fold elevations in % of T-cell or B-cell activation (CD25+, CD69+) to metal challenge when compared with untreated control. 18/22 metal-activated subjects demonstrated an exclusively T-cell or B-cell activation response to metal challenge, where 6/18 demonstrated exclusively B-cell activation and 12/18 demonstrated a T-cell only response, as measured by surface activation markers CD25+ and CD69+. However, there was no direct correlation (R(2) metal reactivity than did subject-dependent results of flow-cytometry analysis of T-cell or B-cell activation. The high incidence of lymphocyte reactivity and activation indicate that more complex than initially hypothesized immune responses may contribute to the etiology of debris-induced osteolysis in metal-sensitive individuals.

  13. 34 CFR 380.4 - What activities may the Secretary fund under Statewide supported employment demonstration projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITH THE MOST SEVERE DISABILITIES AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROJECTS General § 380.4 What activities may... organizations and employers. (2) Staff training. (3) Program evaluation. (4) Reorganization, expansion, or, if... the job; (ii) Ongoing supervision of individuals with the most severe disabilities on the job; (iii...

  14. 天然可食/可降解抑菌膜研究进展%Recent advances of edible/degradable films f rom natural biopolymers carrying antimicrobial active

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文喜; 胡长鹰; 王志伟

    2015-01-01

    可食/可降解抑菌包装膜作为近年来包装材料的研究热点,逐步受到人们的关注。可食/可降解抑菌膜内抑菌剂通过膜基底向包装食品表面缓慢释放,以保护食品免受腐败菌污染,有效保证食品安全,延长货架寿命。从包装材料的来源、可食/可降解膜中抑菌剂的添加种类及抑菌剂释放释放动力学3方面阐述了可食/可降解抑菌膜的研究近况及发展前景。%Edible/degradable films carrying antimicrobial agents are attracting increasing attention from scien‐tists .It can provide active protection to package products by continually releasing antimicrobial agents onto food surface to prevent the product deterioration ,extend the shelf life and maintain the safety and sensory quality of several food products .This paper illustrated the application and development prospects of edible/degradable films carrying antimicrobial through three aspects :material source ,types of antimicrobial agents and the re‐lease kinetics of antimicrobial agents .

  15. Posttraumatic tibia valga: a case demonstrating asymmetric activity at the proximal growth plate on technetium bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zionts, L.E.; Harcke, H.T.; Brooks, K.M.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Posttraumatic tibia valga is a well-recognized complication following fracture of the upper tibial metaphysis in young children. We present a case of a child who developed a valgus deformity following fracture of the proximal tibia and fibula in which quantitative bone scintigraphy at 5 months after injury demonstrated increased uptake at the proximal tibial growth plate with proportionally greater uptake on the medial side. This finding suggests that the valgus deformity in this patient was due to a relative increase in vascularity and consequent overgrowth of the medial portion of the proximal tibial physis.

  16. On the Procedures for the Demonstration of the RF Safety of Active and Passive Implants in MRI Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eugenia CABOT; Maria CABANES-SEMPERE; Niels KUSTER

    2016-01-01

    As a diagnostic method, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not allowed to be used in patients with medical implants, including both active implants (such as cardiac deifbrillators or deep brain stimulators) and passive implants (such as orthopedics implants and support). MRI imaging scanning can produce magnetic ifelds, which will produce concentrated electromagnetic induction on metal edges of the implants, such as electrodes. The magnetic ifeld can also signiifcantly increase the temperature of surrounding tissues. Besides, the currents and voltage produced by active implants when exposed to MRI scanning can lead to damage and malfunction of pulse generators. Therefore, patients with medical implants cannot receive MRI as a diagnostic method. This safety protocol prevents a large group of patients from receiving MRI diagnosis. This leads to the conclusion that the safety evaluation of implants under MRI environment requires the combination of accurate data analysis and experimental techniques so as to establish the standard testing program.

  17. A Simple Assay Demonstrating the Effect of Rehydration on the Orsellinate Depside Hydrolase Activity of Evernia prunastri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A; Vicente, C; Estrella Legaz, M

    1984-09-01

    A new, simple assay of orsellinate depside hydrolase (EC. 3.1.1.40) by high performance liquid chromatography is described. Enzymatic hydrolysis of evernic acid produces equimolar amounts of both orsellinic and everninic acids. Evernia prunastri thallus has a pre-existent, partially inactive hydrolase, which is activated after rehydration of the thallus. Copyright © 1984 Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  18. Ellagic acid, phenolic acids, and flavonoids in Malaysian honey extracts demonstrate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Mustafa; Achoui, Mouna; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Mohd, Mustafa Ali; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd

    2010-09-01

    Natural honey has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world. This study looked into the extraction of Malaysian honey and the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts. It was hypothesized that honey extracts contain varying amounts of phenolic compounds and that they possess different in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. Honey extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and compare phenolic compounds, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography was used for their quantification. Subsequently, honey methanol extract (HME) and honey ethyl acetate extract (HEAE) were tested in vitro for their effect on nitric oxide production in stimulated macrophages. The extracts were also tested for their effects on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) cytotoxicity in L929 cells. The major phenolics in the extracts were ellagic, gallic, and ferulic acids; myricetin; chlorogenic acid; and caffeic acid. Other compounds found in lower concentrations were hesperetin, p-coumaric acid, chrysin, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol. Ellagic acid was the most abundant of the phenolic compounds recorded, with mean concentrations of 3295.83 and 626.74 μg/100 g of honey in HME and HEAE, respectively. The median maximal effective concentrations for in vitro nitric oxide inhibition by HEAE and HME were calculated to be 37.5 and 271.7 μg/mL, respectively. The median maximal effective concentrations for protection from TNF cytotoxicity by HEAE and HME were 168.1 and 235.4 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, HEAE exhibited greater activity in vitro, whereas HME contained a higher concentration of phenolic compounds per 100 g of honey. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The statin class of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors demonstrate differential activation of the nuclear receptors PXR, CAR and FXR, as well as their downstream target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Katharine; Sanat, Faizah; Thumser, Alfred E; Coleman, Tanya; Plant, Nick

    2011-07-01

    The therapeutic class of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, the statins are central agents in the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia and the associated conditions of cardiovascular disease, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Although statin therapy is generally considered safe, a number of known adverse effects do occur, most commonly treatment-associated muscular pain. In vitro evidence also supports the potential for drug-drug interactions involving this class of agents, and to examine this a ligand-binding assay was used to determine the ability of six clinically used statins for their ability to directly activate the nuclear receptors pregnane X-receptor (PXR), farnesoid X-receptor (FXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), demonstrating a relative activation of PXR>FXR>CAR. Using reporter gene constructs, we demonstrated that this order of activation is mirrored at the transcriptional activation level, with PXR-mediated gene activation being pre-eminent. Finally, we described a novel regulatory loop, whereby activation of FXR by statins increases PXR reporter gene expression, potentially enhancing PXR-mediated responses. Delineating the molecular interactions of statins with nuclear receptors is an important step in understanding the full biological consequences of statin exposure. This demonstration of their ability to directly activate nuclear receptors, leading to nuclear receptor cross-talk, has important potential implications for their use within a polypharmacy paradigm.

  20. Highly Stable Tetra-Phenolato Titanium(IV Agent Formulated into Nanoparticles Demonstrates Anti-Tumoral Activity and Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigalit Meker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Titanium(IV complexes exhibit high potential as anti-tumor agents, particularly due to their low intrinsic toxicity and cytotoxicity toward cisplatin resistant cells. Nevertheless, Ti(IV complexes generally undergo rapid hydrolysis that previously hampered their utilization as anticancer drugs. We recently overcame this difficulty by developing a highly stable Ti(IV complex that is based on tetra-phenolato, hexadentate ligand, formulated into organic nanoparticles. Herein we investigated the activity of this complex in vitro and in vivo. Although inactive when tested directly due to poor solubility, when formulated, this complex displayed (a high cytotoxicity toward cisplatin resistant human ovarian cells, A2780-cp, with resistance factor of 1.1; (b additive behavior in combination with cisplatin toward ovarian and colon cancer cells; (c selectivity toward cancer cells as implied by its mild activity toward non-cancerous, fibroblast lung cells, MRC-5; (d high stability and durability as manifested by the ability to maintain cytotoxicity, even following one week of incubation in 100% aquatic medium solution; and (e in vivo efficacy toward solid tumors of human colon cancer cells, HT-29, in nude mice without any clinical signs of toxicity. These features support the formulated phenolato Ti(IV complex being an effective and selective anti-tumoral agent.

  1. Individuals with chronic low back pain demonstrate delayed onset of the back muscle activity during prone hip extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Tadanobu; Mizutani, Masatoshi; Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Osaka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Susumu

    2015-08-01

    Prone hip extension (PHE) is commonly used in the evaluation of the stability of the lumbopelvic region. There is little evidence of difference in muscle activity onset timing between healthy individuals and individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) during PHE. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with and without CLBP differ in the onset time of the trunk and hip extensor muscles activity during PHE. The participants were 20 patients with CLBP and 20 healthy individuals. Electromyography data of the erector spinae, multifidus, gluteus maximus, and semitendinosus were collected during PHE using a surface electromyograph. Relative differences in the onset times between each muscle and the prime mover (i.e., the semitendinosus) were calculated. The onsets of the bilateral multifidus and contralateral erector spinae were significantly delayed in the CLBP group compared with the healthy group (pleg movement not being significantly different between the groups. The onset times of the gluteus maximus and ipsilateral erector spinae showed no significant differences between the groups. These results suggest that individuals with CLBP use an altered, and possibly inadequate, trunk muscle recruitment pattern.

  2. Asbestos-induced endothelial cell activation and injury. Demonstration of fiber phagocytosis and oxidant-dependent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J G; Gray, L D; Dodson, R F; Callahan, K S

    1988-10-01

    Vascular endothelial cell injury is important in the development of a variety of chronic interstitial lung disorders. However, the involvement of such injury in the inflammatory response associated with the inhalation of asbestos fibers is unclear and the mechanism of asbestos fiber cytotoxicity remains unknown. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were challenged with amosite asbestos and several parameters of cellular function were examined. Electron microscopic examination revealed that endothelial cell exposure to asbestos resulted in active phagocytosis of these particulates. Biochemical evidence of dose-dependent asbestos-mediated endothelial cell activation was indicated by increased metabolism of arachidonic acid. For example, amosite asbestos (500 micrograms/ml) produced a ninefold increase in prostacyclin (PGI2) levels over those levels in non-exposed cells. Incubation of human endothelial cells with asbestos fibers induced specific 51Cr release in both a dose- and time-dependent fashion indicative of cellular injury. Injury induced by amosite asbestos was not significantly attenuated by treatment of the endothelial cell monolayer with either the iron chelator deferoxamine, which prevents hydroxyl radical (.OH) formation, or by the superoxide anion (O2-) scavenger, superoxide dismutase. However, significant dose-dependent protection was observed with the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase. Chelation of elemental iron present within amosite asbestos fibers by deferoxamine produced a 33% reduction in asbestos cytotoxicity, suggesting a potential role for hydroxyl radical-mediated injury via the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Debris-carrying camouflage among diverse lineages of Cretaceous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Engel, Michael S.; Perrichot, Vincent; Shi, Gongle; Zhang, Haichun; Chen, Jun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes

    2016-01-01

    Insects have evolved diverse methods of camouflage that have played an important role in their evolutionary success. Debris-carrying, a behavior of actively harvesting and carrying exogenous materials, is among the most fascinating and complex behaviors because it requires not only an ability to recognize, collect, and carry materials but also evolutionary adaptations in related morphological characteristics. However, the fossil record of such behavior is extremely scarce, and only a single Mesozoic example from Spanish amber has been recorded; therefore, little is known about the early evolution of this complicated behavior and its underlying anatomy. We report a diverse insect assemblage of exceptionally preserved debris carriers from Cretaceous Burmese, French, and Lebanese ambers, including the earliest known chrysopoid larvae (green lacewings), myrmeleontoid larvae (split-footed lacewings and owlflies), and reduviids (assassin bugs). These ancient insects used a variety of debris material, including insect exoskeletons, sand grains, soil dust, leaf trichomes of gleicheniacean ferns, wood fibers, and other vegetal debris. They convergently evolved their debris-carrying behavior through multiple pathways, which expressed a high degree of evolutionary plasticity. We demonstrate that the behavioral repertoire, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, was already widespread among insects by at least the Mid-Cretaceous. Together with the previously known Spanish specimen, these fossils are the oldest direct evidence of camouflaging behavior in the fossil record. Our findings provide a novel insight into early evolution of camouflage in insects and ancient ecological associations among plants and insects. PMID:27386568

  4. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  5. Intrinsic unfoldase/foldase activity of the chaperonin GroEL directly demonstrated using multinuclear relaxation-based NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libich, David S.; Tugarinov, Vitali; Clore, G. Marius

    2015-01-01

    The prototypical chaperonin GroEL assists protein folding through an ATP-dependent encapsulation mechanism. The details of how GroEL folds proteins remain elusive, particularly because encapsulation is not an absolute requirement for successful re/folding. Here we make use of a metastable model protein substrate, comprising a triple mutant of Fyn SH3, to directly demonstrate, by simultaneous analysis of three complementary NMR-based relaxation experiments (lifetime line broadening, dark state exchange saturation transfer, and Carr–Purcell–Meinboom–Gill relaxation dispersion), that apo GroEL accelerates the overall interconversion rate between the native state and a well-defined folding intermediate by about 20-fold, under conditions where the “invisible” GroEL-bound states have occupancies below 1%. This is largely achieved through a 500-fold acceleration in the folded-to-intermediate transition of the protein substrate. Catalysis is modulated by a kinetic deuterium isotope effect that reduces the overall interconversion rate between the GroEL-bound species by about 3-fold, indicative of a significant hydrophobic contribution. The location of the GroEL binding site on the folding intermediate, mapped from 15N, 1HN, and 13Cmethyl relaxation dispersion experiments, is composed of a prominent, surface-exposed hydrophobic patch. PMID:26124125

  6. Neural basis of moral elevation demonstrated through inter-subject synchronization of cortical activity during free-viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë A Englander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the neural basis of social emotions has examined emotions that give rise to negative evaluations of others (e.g. anger, disgust. Emotions triggered by the virtues and excellences of others have been largely ignored. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of two "other-praising" emotions--Moral Elevation (a response to witnessing acts of moral beauty, and Admiration (which we restricted to admiration for physical skill. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten participants viewed the same nine video clips. Three clips elicited moral elevation, three elicited admiration, and three were emotionally neutral. We then performed pair-wise voxel-by-voxel correlations of the BOLD signal between individuals for each video clip and a separate resting-state run. We observed a high degree of inter-subject synchronization, regardless of stimulus type, across several brain regions during free-viewing of videos. Videos in the elevation condition evoked significant inter-subject synchronization in brain regions previously implicated in self-referential and interoceptive processes, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and insula. The degree of synchronization was highly variable over the course of the videos, with the strongest synchrony occurring during portions of the videos that were independently rated as most emotionally arousing. Synchrony in these same brain regions was not consistently observed during the admiration videos, and was absent for the neutral videos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that the neural systems supporting moral elevation are remarkably consistent across subjects viewing the same emotional content. We demonstrate that model-free techniques such as inter-subject synchronization may be a useful tool for studying complex, context dependent emotions such as self-transcendent emotion.

  7. Neural Basis of Moral Elevation Demonstrated through Inter-Subject Synchronization of Cortical Activity during Free-Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Zoë A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Morris, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most research investigating the neural basis of social emotions has examined emotions that give rise to negative evaluations of others (e.g. anger, disgust). Emotions triggered by the virtues and excellences of others have been largely ignored. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of two “other-praising" emotions – Moral Elevation (a response to witnessing acts of moral beauty), and Admiration (which we restricted to admiration for physical skill). Methodology/Principal Findings Ten participants viewed the same nine video clips. Three clips elicited moral elevation, three elicited admiration, and three were emotionally neutral. We then performed pair-wise voxel-by-voxel correlations of the BOLD signal between individuals for each video clip and a separate resting-state run. We observed a high degree of inter-subject synchronization, regardless of stimulus type, across several brain regions during free-viewing of videos. Videos in the elevation condition evoked significant inter-subject synchronization in brain regions previously implicated in self-referential and interoceptive processes, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and insula. The degree of synchronization was highly variable over the course of the videos, with the strongest synchrony occurring during portions of the videos that were independently rated as most emotionally arousing. Synchrony in these same brain regions was not consistently observed during the admiration videos, and was absent for the neutral videos. Conclusions/Significance Results suggest that the neural systems supporting moral elevation are remarkably consistent across subjects viewing the same emotional content. We demonstrate that model-free techniques such as inter-subject synchronization may be a useful tool for studying complex, context dependent emotions such as self-transcendent emotion. PMID:22745745

  8. Preclinical demonstration of synergistic Active Nutrients/Drug (AND combination as a potential treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Volta

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a poor prognosis disease lacking adequate therapy. We have previously shown that ascorbic acid administration is toxic to MPM cells. Here we evaluated a new combined therapy consisting of ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine mixture (called AND, for Active Nutrients/Drug. In vitro effects of AND therapy on various MPM cell lines revealed a synergistic cytotoxic mechanism. In vivo experiments on a xenograft mouse model for MPM, obtained by REN cells injection in immunocompromised mice, showed that AND strongly reduced the size of primary tumor as well as the number and size of metastases, and prevented abdominal hemorrhage. Kaplan Meier curves and the log-rank test indicated a marked increase in the survival of AND-treated animals. Histochemical analysis of dissected tumors showed that AND induced a shift from cell proliferation to apoptosis in cancer cells. Lysates of tumors from AND-treated mice, analyzed with an antibody array, revealed decreased TIMP-1 and -2 expressions and no effects on angiogenesis regulating factors. Multiplex analysis for signaling protein phosphorylation exhibited inactivation of cell proliferation pathways. The complex of data showed that the AND treatment is synergistic in vitro on MPM cells, and blocks in vivo tumor progression and metastasization in REN-based xenografts. Hence, the AND combination is proposed as a new treatment for MPM.

  9. Muscle glycogenolysis is not activated by changes in cytosolic P-metabolites: a 31P and 1H MRS demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alex C; Dawson, M Joan

    2003-04-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction and glycogenolysis are closely coupled. The standard explanation for this coupling, as taught in modern biochemistry textbooks, is that the metabolic products of contraction (ADP, AMP, P(i)) feed back to activate glycogenolytic enzymes, thus providing for resynthesis of ATP. However, both in vivo (31)P MRS analyses and chemical analyses of muscle extracts have provided results that are contrary to this theory, at least in its simplest form. The MRS studies suffer from ambiguous assumptions. More importantly, in (31)P MRS studies the dependent and independent variables are often confounded because the glycogenolytic rate is calculated from the same data which are used to calculate the other metabolic variables. The analysis of biopsies has been necessarily quite limited, and suffers from a different set of experimental artifacts. Thus, the problem of contraction-glycogenolysis-coupling was reassessed using a quantitatively accurate (1)H MRS method. It is confirmed that glycogenolysis and contractions are closely coupled during repetitive exercise, while glycogenolysis and P-metabolite concentrations are not. A simple metabolic feedback system cannot explain contraction-glycogenolysis-coupling.

  10. Grouping annotations on the subcellular layered interactome demonstrates enhanced autophagy activity in a recurrent experimental autoimmune uveitis T cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Jia

    Full Text Available Human uveitis is a type of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that often shows relapse-remitting courses affecting multiple biological processes. As a cytoplasmic process, autophagy has been seen as an adaptive response to cell death and survival, yet the link between autophagy and T cell-mediated autoimmunity is not certain. In this study, based on the differentially expressed genes (GSE19652 between the recurrent versus monophasic T cell lines, whose adoptive transfer to susceptible animals may result in respective recurrent or monophasic uveitis, we proposed grouping annotations on a subcellular layered interactome framework to analyze the specific bioprocesses that are linked to the recurrence of T cell autoimmunity. That is, the subcellular layered interactome was established by the Cytoscape and Cerebral plugin based on differential expression, global interactome, and subcellular localization information. Then, the layered interactomes were grouping annotated by the ClueGO plugin based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. The analysis showed that significant bioprocesses with autophagy were orchestrated in the cytoplasmic layered interactome and that mTOR may have a regulatory role in it. Furthermore, by setting up recurrent and monophasic uveitis in Lewis rats, we confirmed by transmission electron microscopy that, in comparison to the monophasic disease, recurrent uveitis in vivo showed significantly increased autophagy activity and extended lymphocyte infiltration to the affected retina. In summary, our framework methodology is a useful tool to disclose specific bioprocesses and molecular targets that can be attributed to a certain disease. Our results indicated that targeted inhibition of autophagy pathways may perturb the recurrence of uveitis.

  11. PARP Inhibitor Activity Correlates with SLFN11 Expression and Demonstrates Synergy with Temozolomide in Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Benjamin H; Gardner, Eric E; Schneeberger, Valentina E; Ni, Andy; Desmeules, Patrice; Rekhtman, Natasha; de Stanchina, Elisa; Teicher, Beverly A; Riaz, Nadeem; Powell, Simon N; Poirier, John T; Rudin, Charles M

    2017-01-15

    PARP inhibitors (PARPi) are a novel class of small molecule therapeutics for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Identification of predictors of response would advance our understanding, and guide clinical application, of this therapeutic strategy. Efficacy of PARP inhibitors olaparib, rucaparib, and veliparib, as well as etoposide and cisplatin in SCLC cell lines, and gene expression correlates, was analyzed using public datasets. HRD genomic scar scores were calculated from Affymetrix SNP 6.0 arrays. In vitro talazoparib efficacy was measured by cell viability assays. For functional studies, CRISPR/Cas9 and shRNA were used for genomic editing and transcript knockdown, respectively. Protein levels were assessed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Quantitative synergy of talazoparib and temozolomide was determined in vitro In vivo efficacy of talazoparib, temozolomide, and the combination was assessed in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. We identified SLFN11, but not HRD genomic scars, as a consistent correlate of response to all three PARPi assessed, with loss of SLFN11 conferring resistance to PARPi. We confirmed these findings in vivo across multiple PDX and defined IHC staining for SLFN11 as a predictor of talazoparib response. As temozolomide has activity in SCLC, we investigated combination therapy with talazoparib and found marked synergy in vitro and efficacy in vivo, which did not solely depend on SLFN11 or MGMT status. SLFN11 is a relevant predictive biomarker of sensitivity to PARP inhibitor monotherapy in SCLC and we identify combinatorial therapy with TMZ as a particularly promising therapeutic strategy that warrants further clinical investigation. Clin Cancer Res; 23(2); 523-35. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Effector-Enhanced EphA2 Agonist Monoclonal Antibody Demonstrates Potent Activity against Human Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Bruckheimer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of human tumor types. Previous studies demonstrated that agonist monoclonal antibodies targeting EphA2 induced the internalization and degradation of the receptor, thereby abolishing its oncogenic effects. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC activity of EphA2 effector-enhanced agonist monoclonal antibodies was evaluated. With tumor cell lines and healthy human peripheral blood monocytes, the EphA2 antibodies demonstrated ∼80% tumor cell killing. In a dose-dependent manner, natural killer (NK cells were required for the in vitro ADCC activity and became activated as demonstrated by the induction of cell surface expression of CD107a. To assess the role of NK cells on antitumor efficacy in vivo, the EphA2 antibodies were evaluated in xenograft models in severe compromised immunodeficient (SCID mice (which have functional NK cells and monocytes and SCID nonobese diabetic (NOD mice (which largely lack functional NK cells and monocytes. Dosing of EphA2 antibody in the SCID murine tumor model resulted in a 6.2-fold reduction in tumor volume, whereas the SCID/nonobese diabetic model showed a 1.6-fold reduction over the isotype controls. Together, these results demonstrate that the anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibodies may function through at least two mechanisms of action: EphA2 receptor activation and ADCC-mediated activity. These novel EphA2 monoclonal antibodies provide additional means by which host effector mechanisms can be activated for selective destruction of EphA2-expressing tumor cells.

  13. 高铜载金炭过硫酸盐法脱铜试验研究%Decoppering From High-copper Activated Carbon Carrying Gold by Persulfate Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑萍

    2015-01-01

    采用过硫酸盐脱铜工艺处理高铜载金炭,可选择性地脱除载金炭中的铜,铜脱除率达89%,金损失率很低;脱铜溶液循环后采用萃取—电积工艺回收铜。该工艺流程短,药剂用量少,处理时间短,环境友好,铜脱除率高,成本低,具有较好的应用前景。%The decoppering from high copper activated carbon carrying gold by a persulfate solution were described .By this method ,removal rate of copper in gold‐bearing carbon can reach 90% while gold loss rate is very low .Recovery of copper from copper solution by solvent extraction process .This process has the advantages of short process ,low regent dosage ,short treatment time ,high environmental friendliness ,low cost ,and so on .It has good application prospect .

  14. 中学数学教学中开展说题活动的实践与认识%Practice and Knowledge of Carrying out Problem-Explanation Teaching Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成克利

    2001-01-01

    Combining problems with teaching practice, this paper proposed a teaching method of problem-explanation activities and mapped out the experimental plan for carrying out in middle-school math's teaching, hoping to train the students' math's thought, improving the students' abilities of solving Problems, creation and math's practice, and promoting the enforcement of creation education in middle-school math's teaching.%问题解决教学模式应成为中学数学实施创新教育的突破口.训练数学思维的最优方法是说题,说题活动教学强调学生自主构建知识,思、说、做合一.在中学数学教学中开展说题活动,能有效地训练学生的数学思维,提高学生的问题解决能力、创新能力和数学实践能力,推动中学数学创新教育的实施.

  15. Subjective experiences of a yogo teacher with reference to health support activities carried out in the first year after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A case study based on a narrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Chiharu; Kanaizumi, Shiomi; Shikama, Kumiko; Sakou, Keiko

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To offer an empirical lens-based on the account of a yogo teacher employed at a temporary school in the community where she was relocated after experiencing the Great East Japan Earthquake alongside her students-into the subjective experience of health support activities carried out during the year immediately following the disaster.Method An interview was conducted with one yogo teacher who experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake, employed at a public junior high school in the region to where she was evacuated. Analysis involved a narrative approach whereby the yogo teacher's story was rewritten as a story in chronological order.Results The immediate course of events following the disaster was divided into three periods and examined. Period 1: The yogo teacher first experienced the earthquake and was forced to evacuate alongside her students, during which time she felt strong [sense of loss] and [sense of despair]. Period 2: At the reopening of the school in temporary classrooms, she believed her top priority was doing what she could as a yogo teacher and contributing to reopening the school, while working with other teaching staff to make the most of their surroundings. The school's reopening brought a significant sense of security and joy to students. This led her to [finding hope], and she recovered her positive attitude. Subsequently, problems manifested such as bullying and violence. She believed that [being there for the children] was the most important thing she could do as a yogo teacher and continued to provide [emotional care]. Period 3: At the time of completion of a temporary school building, she was [confused and explored] the delay of the children's recovery from emotional problems. She coordinated with a university professor of psychology to conduct classes to alleviate students' tension and stress using strategies such as relaxation techniques. She realized the importance of initiatives that involve [a keen sense of connection

  16. Where did I put that? Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrate widespread reductions in activity during the encoding of ecologically relevant object-location associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampstead, Benjamin M.; Stringer, Anthony Y.; Stilla, Randall F.; Amaraneni, Akshay; Sathian, K.

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the location of objects in the environment is both important in everyday life and difficult for patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a clinical precursor to Alzheimer’s disease. To test the hypothesis that memory impairment for object location in aMCI reflects hippocampal dysfunction, we used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to compare patients with aMCI and healthy elderly controls (HEC) as they encoded 90 ecologically-relevant object-location associations (OLAs). Two additional OLAs, repeated a total of 45 times, served as control stimuli. Memory for these OLAs was assessed following a 1-hour delay. The groups were well matched on demographics and brain volumetrics. Behaviorally, HEC remembered significantly more OLAs than did aMCI patients. Activity differences were assessed by contrasting activation for successfully encoded novel stimuli vs. repeated stimuli. The HEC demonstrated activity within object-related (ventral visual stream), spatial location-related (dorsal visual stream), and feature binding-related cortical regions (hippocampus and other memory-related regions) as well as in frontal cortex and associated subcortical structures. Activity in most of these regions correlated with memory test performance. Although the aMCI patients demonstrated a similar activation pattern, the HEC showed significantly greater activity within each of these regions. Memory test performance in aMCI patients, in contrast to the HEC, was correlated with activity in regions involved in sensorimotor processing. We conclude that aMCI patients demonstrate widespread cerebral dysfunction, not limited to the hippocampus, and rely on encoding-related mechanisms that differ substantially from healthy individuals. PMID:21530556

  17. Actively Carry out"Six Ones"Activities to Make Retired Life More Meaningful%积极开展“六个一”活动让离退晚年生活更有意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡高林

    2014-01-01

    广州石化有退休职工3466人,其中有离退休党员1152人,他们退休前是企业的骨干,工作的先锋,职工的榜样,如何让他们退休后继续发挥余热,让晚年生活过得更有意义、更加精彩呢?广州石化离退养工作部党委从实际出发,提出了“六个一”活动,让离退晚年生活更有意义。%Guangzhou Petrochemical retired workers 3466 people, including 1152 retired members who retire before they are the backbone of the enterprise, a pioneer work, workers example, how to get them to continue to play after retirement heat, so that in later life more meaningful, more exciting? Guangzhou Petrochemical Work Department of Party committees from early retirement from reality, proposed the"six ones"activities for retired later life more meaningful.

  18. [Biochemical demonstration of HCO3--und Cl--dependent ATPase activities in the rectum of larval dragonflies and inhibition of rectal chloride uptake by thiocyanate (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnick, H; Schmitz, M; Hinssen, H

    1980-02-01

    Hydrogencarbonate and chloride activated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activities are demonstrated in the salt-absorbing rectum of larval dragonflies. Maximal activation is achieved at approx. 30 mM HCO3- and 20 mM Cl-, respectively. The stimulation of each anion obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics Km values are 4.65 mM for HCO3-- and 10.25 mM for Cl--activation. The activating anion of one type of ATPase simultaneously exerts an inhibitory effect on the other. Cl--activation is also reduced by Mg.ATP in concentrations above 0.5 mM and by Tris-Hepes buffer exceeding 2.5 mM. Both anion-dependent ATPase activities are found enriched in subcellular membraneous fractions of the rectum. Thiocyanate inhibits both activities and causes a significant decrease in rectal uptake of radioactive chloride from hypo-osmotic external solution. In the case of HCO3- dependent ATPase a competitive inhibition as SCN- was found with an inhibitor constant of Ki=0.5 mM.

  19. Augmented oxygen-mediated transcriptional activation of cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression and increased susceptibilities to hyperoxic lung injury in transgenic mice carrying the human CYP1A1 or mouse 1A2 promoter in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiwu; Couroucli, Xanthi I; Wang, Lihua; Barrios, Roberto; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2011-04-01

    Supplemental oxygen administration is frequently administered to pre-term and term infants having pulmonary insufficiency. However, hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)A enzymes have been implicated in hyperoxic lung injury. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hyperoxia induces CYP1A1 and 1A2 enzymes by transcriptional activation of the corresponding promoters in vivo, and transgenic mice expressing the human CYP1A1 or the mouse 1A2 promoter would be more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than wild type (WT) mice. Adult WT (CD-1) (12week-old) mice, transgenic mice carrying a 10kb human CYP1A1 promoter and the luciferase (luc) reporter gene (CYP1A1-luc), or mice expressing the mouse CYP1A2 promoter (CYP1A2-luc) were maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia for 24-72h. Hyperoxia exposure of CYP1A1-luc mice for 24 and 48h resulted in 2.5- and 1.25-fold increases, respectively, in signal intensities, compared to room air controls. By 72h, the induction had declined to control levels. CYP1A2-luc mice also showed enhanced luc expression after 24-48h, albeit to a lesser extent than those expressing the CYP1A1 promoter. Also, these mice showed decreased levels of endogenous CYP1A1 and 1A2 expression after prolonged hyperoxia, and were also more susceptible to lung injury than similarly exposed WT mice, with CYP1A2-luc mice showing the greatest injury. Our results support the hypothesis that hyperoxia induces CYP1A enzymes by transcriptional activation of its corresponding promoters, and that decreased endogenous expression of these enzymes contribute to the increased susceptibilities to hyperoxic lung injury in the transgenic animals. In summary, this is the first report providing direct evidence of hyperoxia-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression in vivo by mechanisms entailing transcriptional activation of the corresponding promoters, a phenomenon that has

  20. Demonstration of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) activity in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis using a novel assay for citrullination of fibrinogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Senolt, Ladislav; Nielsen, Michael Friberg

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Members of the peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) family catalyse the posttranslational conversion of peptidylarginine to peptidylcitrulline. Citrullination of proteins is well described in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and hypercitrullination of proteins may be related to inflammation...... in general. PAD activity has been demonstrated in various cell lysates, but so far not in synovial fluid. We aimed to develop an assay for detection of PAD activity, if any, in synovial fluid from RA patients. METHODS: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using human fibrinogen as the immobilized substrate...... for citrullination and anti-citrullinated fibrinogen antibody as the detecting agent were used for measurement of PAD activity in synovial fluid samples from five RA patients. The concentrations of PAD2 and calcium were also determined. RESULTS: Approximately 150 times lower levels of recombinant human PAD2 (rhPAD2...

  1. Infections That Pets Carry (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Infections That Pets Carry KidsHealth > For Parents > Infections That Pets Carry ... how to protect your family from infections. How Pets Spread Infections Like people, all animals carry germs . ...

  2. Simultaneous production of l-lactic acid with high optical activity and a soil amendment with food waste that demonstrates plant growth promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitpreechavanich, Vichien; Hayami, Arisa; Talek, Anfal; Chin, Clament Fui Seung; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    A unique method to produce highly optically-active l-lactic acid and soil amendments that promote plant growth from food waste was proposed. Three Bacillus strains Bacillus subtilis KBKU21, B. subtilis N3-9 and Bacillus coagulans T27, were used. Strain KBKU21 accumulated 36.9 g/L l-lactic acid with 95.7% optical activity and 98.2% l-lactic acid selectivity when fermented at 43°C for 84 h in a model kitchen refuse (MKR) medium. Residual precipitate fraction (anaerobically-fermented MKR (AFM) compost) analysis revealed 4.60%, 0.70% and 0.75% of nitrogen (as N), phosphorous (as P2O5), and potassium (as K2O), respectively. Additionally, the carbon to nitrogen ratio decreased from 13.3 to 10.6. AFM compost with KBKU21 promoted plant growth parameters, including leaf length, plant height and fresh weight of Brassica rapa (Komatsuna), than that by chemical fertilizers or commercial compost. The concept provides an incentive for the complete recycling of food waste, contributing towards a sustainable production system.

  3. Active Flow Control (AFC) and Insect Accretion and Mitigation (IAM) System Design and Integration on the Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael G.; Harris, F. Keith; Spoor, Marc A.; Boyland, Susannah R.; Farrell, Thomas E.; Raines, David M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a systems overview of how the Boeing and NASA team designed, analyzed, fabricated, and integrated the Active Flow Control (AFC) technology and Insect Accretion Mitigation (IAM) systems on the Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project partnered with Boeing to demonstrate these two technology systems on a specially outfitted Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator during the spring of 2015. The AFC system demonstrated attenuation of flow separation on a highly deflected rudder and increased the side force generated. This AFC system may enable a smaller vertical tail to provide the control authority needed in the event of an engine failure during takeoff while still operating in a conventional manner over the rest of the flight envelope. The AFC system consisted of ducting to obtain air from the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a control valve to modulate the system mass flow, a heat exchanger to lower the APU air temperature, and additional ducting to deliver the air to the AFC actuators located on the vertical tail. The IAM system demonstrated how to mitigate insect residue adhesion on a wing's leading edge. Something as small as insect residue on a leading edge can cause turbulent wedges that interrupt laminar flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel use. The IAM system consisted of NASA developed Engineered Surfaces (ES) which were thin aluminum sheet substrate panels with coatings applied to the exterior. These ES were installed on slats 8 and 9 on the right wing of the 757 ecoDemonstrator. They were designed to support panel removal and installation in one crew shift. Each slat accommodated 4 panels. Both the AFC and IAM flight test were the culmination of several years of development and produced valuable data for the advancement of modern aircraft designs.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of the HIV screening program carried out in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region infectious disease special demonstration project areas%广西壮族自治区专项示范区HIV筛查项目成本效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆华湘; 陈欢欢; 罗柳红; 陈礼; 张世真; 梁英芳; 李丽; 陈珍强; 霍小兴

    2015-01-01

    目的 对2013年广西壮族自治区3个国家科技重大专项示范县开展的HIV筛查项目进行成本效果分析.方法 计算广西HIV筛查项目实施期间执行的经费,统计项目检出的HIV/AIDS和抗病毒治疗数据,建立马尔科夫(Markov)5树模型,评估该项目获得的质量调整生命年(QALY),分析该项目的成本效果.结果 2013年度广西3个示范县区共投入经费1 920.5万元用于HIV筛查项目,检出HIV/AIDS阳性1 218例,3个示范县HIV/AIDS阳性检出的平均成本为1.456万元/例、1.842万元/例和1.404万元/例,通过检出HIV/AIDS获得的QALY平均数分别为12.736、8.523和8.321个,挽回的QALY总数分别为5 973.184个、3 613.752个和2 704.325个;项目整体成本效果为0.156万元/QALY,各示范县分别为0.114万元/QALY、0.216万元/QALY和0.169万元/QALY,A县成本效果指标优于B、C县.结论 广西示范县HIV筛查项目成本效益较好,但HIV/AIDS阳性检出的平均成本较高,加强HIV/AIDS的抗病毒治疗工作有利于提高该项目的成本效益.%Objective To analyze the cost effectiveness of HIV screening project in three Guangxi infectious disease special demonstration project countries in 2013.Methods To calculate the funds used for the HIV screening project and to study the data on HIV/AIDS and HAART.A five-tree markov model was used to evaluate the quality adjusted life year (QALY) of this HIV screening project and to analyze the related cost effectiveness of the project.Results The cost of HIV screening in Guangxi infectious disease special demonstration project areas was 19.205 million Yuan and having identified 1 218 HIV/AIDS patients.The average costs for HIV/AIDS positive detection in three project countries were 14.562,18.424 and 14.042 thousand Yuan per case.The QALYs gained from finding a HIV/AIDS case were 12.736,8.523 and 8.321 on average,with the total number of QALYs gained from the project as 5 973.184、3 613.752 and 2 704.325.The overall cost

  5. APORTES A LA INTERPRETACIÓN DE LAS ACTIVIDADES LLEVADAS A CABO EN SITIOS SUPERFICIALES A PARTIR DEL ANÁLISIS FUNCIONAL / Contributions to the interpretation of the activities carried out in surface sites through functional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida Pal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false El objetivo del presente trabajo es interpretar las actividades realizadas por grupos cazadores-recolectores durante el Holoceno tardío en contextos arqueológicos superficiales localizados en la cuenca superior del Arroyo Tapalqué (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Dado que la evidencia material se encuentra constituida casi exclusivamente por materiales líticos, se efectuó el análisis funcional de base microscópica sobre los instrumentos y las lascas con filos naturales. La metodología propuesta posibilita discutir aspectos vinculados con la integridad de los conjuntos superficiales y con el contexto de uso de los materiales líticos. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron identificar diferentes grados y tipos de alteración en los contextos superficiales, los cuales fueron relacionados con el ambiente de depositación, el tiempo de exposición a las condiciones atmosféricas y la materia prima utilizada. A su vez, se destaca la identificación de micropulidos en materiales superficiales los cuales están vinculados con el procesamiento de diferentes recursos (cuero, madera, vegetal, etc.. En síntesis, el presente estudio permitió ampliar el conocimiento de las actividades productivas desarrolladas en este tipo de contextos y posibilitó corroborar que Laguna La Barrancosa 2 constituía un locus de actividades múltiples, funcionalidad inferida a partir de otras líneas de evidencia.   Palabras claves: Análisis funcional, Contexto de uso, Sitios superficiales, Recursos explotados, Holoceno tardío.   Abstract The aim of this paper is to interpret the activities carried out by hunter-gatherer groups during the Late Holocene in surface contexts located in the upper basin of Tapalqué creek (province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Since the material evidence consists almost exclusively of lithic materials, use-wear analysis was performed on tools and flakes with natural edges. The proposed methodology

  6. The C-terminal region of the non-structural protein 2B from Hepatitis A Virus demonstrates lipid-specific viroporin-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ashutosh; Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Kamalika; Nain, Anshu; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-10-01

    Viroporins are virally encoded, membrane-active proteins, which enhance viral replication and assist in egress of viruses from host cells. The 2B proteins in the picornaviridae family are known to have viroporin-like properties, and play critical roles during virus replication. The 2B protein of Hepatitis A Virus (2B), an unusual picornavirus, is somewhat dissimilar from its analogues in several respects. HAV 2B is approximately 2.5 times the length of other 2B proteins, and does not disrupt calcium homeostasis or glycoprotein trafficking. Additionally, its membrane penetrating properties are not yet clearly established. Here we show that the membrane interacting activity of HAV 2B is localized in its C-terminal region, which contains an alpha-helical hairpin motif. We show that this region is capable of forming small pores in membranes and demonstrates lipid specific activity, which partially rationalizes the intracellular localization of full-length 2B. Using a combination of biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we also show that HAV 2B demonstrates a marked propensity to dimerize in a crowded environment, and probably interacts with membranes in a multimeric form, a hallmark of other picornavirus viroporins. In sum, our study clearly establishes HAV 2B as a bona fide viroporin in the picornaviridae family.

  7. Huntingtons Disease Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii Demonstrate Early Kynurenine Pathway Activation, Altered CD8+ T-Cell Responses, and Premature Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, David W.; Olson, Andrew R.; Raisbeck, Merl F.; Fox, Jonathan H.; Gigley, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine-repeat expansion in the huntingtin protein. Activation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation is implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the oxidation of tryptophan to kynurenine, the first step in this pathway. The prevalent, neuroinvasive protozoal pathogen Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) results in clinically silent life-long infection in immune-competent individuals. T. gondii infection results in activation of IDO which provides some protection against the parasite by depleting tryptophan which the parasite cannot synthesize. The kynurenine pathway may therefore represent a point of synergism between HD and T. gondii infection. We show here that IDO activity is elevated at least four-fold in frontal cortex and striata of non-infected N171-82Q HD mice at 14-weeks corresponding to early–advanced HD. T. gondii infection at 5 weeks resulted in elevation of cortical IDO activity in HD mice. HD-infected mice died significantly earlier than wild-type infected and HD control mice. Prior to death, infected HD mice demonstrated decreased CD8+ T-lymphocyte proliferation in brain and spleen compared to wild-type infected mice. We demonstrate for the first time that HD mice have an altered response to an infectious agent that is characterized by premature mortality, altered immune responses and early activation of IDO. Findings are relevant to understanding how T. gondii infection may interact with pathways mediating neurodegeneration in HD. PMID:27611938

  8. Análise das atividades de educação ambiental realizadas no Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Analysis of environmental education activities carried out in the Cantareira State Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli HERCULIANI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Estadual da Cantareira – PEC é uma Unidade de Conservação da Natureza de Proteção Integral, com 7.900 ha, localizado na zona norte da cidade de São Paulo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar e sistematizar as informações sobre as atividades de Educação Ambiental do PEC, avaliar e delinear estratégias para o parque e áreas de entorno, visando ao planejamento, à estruturação, ao monitoramento e à avaliação das ações educativas que possam auxiliar o manejo e conservação dessa Unidade deConservação. Foi realizada uma análise do perfil do visitante, número de monitores ambientais e sua formação e treinamento, material de divulgação,cursos oferecidos, trabalhos realizados com escolares e comunidades do entorno e parcerias estabelecidas. São fornecidas propostas para a melhoria do programa de Educação Ambiental. Concluiu-se que o programa desse parque não apresenta uma política definida ou uma diretriz estabelecida.The Cantareira State Park PEC is an Integral Protection Conservation Unit, with 7,900 hectares, located in the northern city of São Paulo. The objectives of this study were to identify and systematize information on environmental education of PEC, evaluate them and devise strategies for the park and surrounding areas, aiming the planning, structuring, monitoring and evaluation of educational activities that can help the management of this conservation area. It is a diagnosis of the visitor’s profile, number of environmental monitors, promotional material, courses offered, works carried out with students and the surrounding communities and partnerships established. Proposals are provided to improve the environmental education program. It was concluded that the environmental education program of that park does not have a defined policy or guideline established.

  9. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  10. A Brief Analysis of Sister Carrie's Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hanying

    2010-01-01

    Carrie is always dreaming while the rocking chair is rocking again and again, this is the deep impression on us after we read "Sister Carrie" which is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser. In this novel the protagonist Sister Carrie is a controversial person. This paper tries to analyze the character of Sister Carrie in order to find out…

  11. High molecular weight FGF2 isoforms demonstrate canonical receptor-mediated activity and support human embryonic stem cell self-renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006, and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011. A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18 kDa low molecular weight (LMW isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW isoforms (Arese et al., 1999; Arnaud et al., 1999. As they are not generally secreted, high molecular weight (HMW FGF2 isoforms have predominantly been investigated intracellularly; only a very limited number of studies have investigated their activity as extracellular factors. Here we report over-expression, isolation, and biological activity of all recombinant human FGF2 isoforms. We show that HMW FGF2 isoforms can support self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs in vitro. Exogenous supplementation with HMW FGF2 isoforms also activates the canonical FGFR/MAPK pathway and induces mitogenic activity in a manner similar to that of the 18 kDa FGF2 isoform. Though all HMW isoforms, when supplemented exogenously, are able to recapitulate LMW FGF2 activity to some degree, it appears that certain isoforms tend to do so more poorly, demonstrating a lesser functional response by several measures. A better understanding of isoform-specific FGF2 effects will lead to a better understanding of developmental and pathological FGF2 signaling.

  12. Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibitors in Combination with Erlotinib Demonstrate Enhanced Anti-Tumor Activity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A Howe

    Full Text Available Blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activity has been a primary therapeutic target for non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC. As patients with wild-type EGFR have demonstrated only modest benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, there is a need for additional therapeutic approaches in patients with wild-type EGFR. As a key component of downstream integrin signalling and known receptor cross-talk with EGFR, we hypothesized that targeting focal adhesion kinase (FAK activity, which has also been shown to correlate with aggressive stage in NSCLC, would lead to enhanced activity of EGFR TKIs. As such, EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cells (A549, H1299, H1975 were treated with the EGFR TKI erlotinib and FAK inhibitors (PF-573,228 or PF-562,271 both as single agents and in combination. We determined cell viability, apoptosis and 3-dimensional growth in vitro and assessed tumor growth in vivo. Treatment of EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cells with FAK inhibitor alone effectively inhibited cell viability in all cell lines tested; however, its use in combination with the EGFR TKI erlotinib was more effective at reducing cell viability than either treatment alone when tested in both 2- and 3-dimensional assays in vitro, with enhanced benefit seen in A549 cells. This increased efficacy may be due in part to the observed inhibition of Akt phosphorylation when the drugs were used in combination, where again A549 cells demonstrated the most inhibition following treatment with the drug combination. Combining erlotinib with FAK inhibitor was also potent in vivo as evidenced by reduced tumor growth in the A549 mouse xenograft model. We further ascertained that the enhanced sensitivity was irrespective of the LKB1 mutational status. In summary, we demonstrate the effectiveness of combining erlotinib and FAK inhibitors for use in known EGFR wild-type, EGFR TKI resistant cells, with the potential that a subset of cell types, which includes A549, could be

  13. 25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrying capacities. 167.6 Section 167.6 Indians BUREAU... Carrying capacities. (a) The Commissioner of Indian Affairs on June 26, 1943, promulgated the authorized carrying capacity for each land management district of the Navajo Reservation. (b) Recommended...

  14. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrying capacity. 1437.402 Section 1437.402... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering...

  15. A FEMINIST READING OF SISTER CARRIE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高陈科

    2011-01-01

    In the history of American literature, Sister Carrie has always been a controversial character. The critics regard Carrie either as a "fallen woman" or as a "new women". This thesis aims to offer a feminist reading of the image of Sister Carrie in the con

  16. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  17. Demonstration of cost effective low-energy buildings. Final report of the project 'Danish activities in the EU-CONCERTO project CLASS 1 in Stenloese'; Demonstration af omkostningseffektive lavenergibygninger. Afslutningsrapport fra EFP 2007 projektet 'Dansk indsats i EU-CONCERTO projektet CLASS 1 i Stenloese Syd'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K.; Rose, J. (SBi, Aalborg (Denmark)); Dates Joergensen, M. (Egedal Kommune, Stenloese (Denmark))

    2011-01-15

    The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to strengthen the energy requirements for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings was to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the new Danish low-energy standard referred to as 'low-energy class 1' in a new settlement called Stenloese Syd. 65 dwellings were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m{sup 2}. Furthermore the Concerto community includes a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. After 3 years the kindergarten, the centre for elderly people, 65 dense lowrise housing units and 30 single family houses have been constructed. In parallel 15 deliverables/reports have been produced covering a number of different aspects: User preferences, proactive planning processes, product development, design guidelines, ecolabelling and training activities. A comparison was made of the calculated and measured energy consumption in a single-family house and in the KAB social housing project (65 dwellings). In the coming months the next demonstration buildings are to be completed, the extended district heating network (Plan B) including a woodchip furnace and a large array of solar collectors is to be implemented and the monitoring continued. The users will be followed and assisted and the lessons learned will be documented. It is expected that the experiences, lessons learned and R and D carried out as part of the Class 1 project will pave the way for the development, design and construction of sustainable, low or zero CO2-emission communities in the future. Further information about the Class1 project is to be found on the project website: www.class1.dk. (Author)

  18. Demonstration of cost effective low-energy buildings. Final report of the project 'Danish activities in the EU-CONCERTO project CLASS 1 in Stenloese'; Demonstration af omkostningseffektive lavenergibygninger. Afslutningsrapport fra EFP 2007 projektet 'Dansk indsats i EU-CONCERTO projektet CLASS 1 i Stenloese Syd'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K.; Rose, J. (SBi, Aalborg (Denmark)); Dates Joergensen, M. (Egedal Kommune, Stenloese (Denmark))

    2011-01-15

    The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to strengthen the energy requirements for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings was to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the new Danish low-energy standard referred to as 'low-energy class 1' in a new settlement called Stenloese Syd. 65 dwellings were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m{sup 2}. Furthermore the Concerto community includes a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. After 3 years the kindergarten, the centre for elderly people, 65 dense lowrise housing units and 30 single family houses have been constructed. In parallel 15 deliverables/reports have been produced covering a number of different aspects: User preferences, proactive planning processes, product development, design guidelines, ecolabelling and training activities. A comparison was made of the calculated and measured energy consumption in a single-family house and in the KAB social housing project (65 dwellings). In the coming months the next demonstration buildings are to be completed, the extended district heating network (Plan B) including a woodchip furnace and a large array of solar collectors is to be implemented and the monitoring continued. The users will be followed and assisted and the lessons learned will be documented. It is expected that the experiences, lessons learned and R and D carried out as part of the Class 1 project will pave the way for the development, design and construction of sustainable, low or zero CO2-emission communities in the future. Further information about the Class1 project is to be found on the project website: www.class1.dk. (Author)

  19. Citrate-Linked Keto- and Aldo-Hexose Monosaccharide Cellulose Conjugates Demonstrate Selective Human Neutrophil Elastase-Lowering Activity in Cotton Dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Caston-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sequestration of harmful proteases as human neutrophil elastase (HNE from the chronic wound environment is an important goal of wound dressing design and function. Monosaccharides attached to cellulose conjugates as ester-appended aldohexoses and ketohexoses were prepared on cotton gauze as monosccharide-citrate-cellulose-esters for HNE sequestration. The monosaccharide-cellulose analogs demonstrated selective binding when the derivatized cotton dressings were measured for sequestration of HNE. Each monosaccharide-cellulose conjugate was prepared as a cellulose citrate-linked monosaccharide ester on the cotton wound dressing, and assayed under wound exudate-mimicked conditions for elastase sequestration activity. A series of three aldohexose and four ketohexose ester cellulose conjugates were prepared on cotton gauze through citric acid-cellulose cross linking esterification. The monosaccharide portion of the conjugate was characterized by hydrolysis of the citrate-monosaccharide ester bond, and subsequent analysis of the free monosaccharide with high performance anion exchange chromatography. The ketohexose and aldohexose conjugate levels on cotton were quantified on cotton using chromatography and found to be present in milligram/gram amounts. The citrate-cellulose ester bonds were characterized with FTIR. Ketohexose-citrate-cellulose conjugates sequestered more elastase activity than aldohexose-citrate-cellulose conjugates. The monosaccharide cellulose conjugate families each gave distinctive profiles in elastase-lowering effects. Possible mechanisms of elastase binding to the monosaccharide-cellulose conjugates are discussed.

  20. Sister Carrie:A Material Pursuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春花

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie dramatized by Dreiser is totally a material pursuer. She is selfish and accumulates money in a crazy way. What she does inevitably centers on materials. Living with Drouet and later Hurstwood, Carrie gets what she wants and enjoys the luxurious life in an easy way. However, with the satisfaction of some of her desires, Carrie ’s desires grow and expand. With enough food and clothes, she needs luxury. Hurstwood’s failure in business leads Carrie to the stage and finally she makes a suc⁃cess and becomes a famous actress in Broadway. She gets more money, but her desires grow even higher. Nothing can satisfy her. In this essay, the author tries to analyze Carrie according to Freud’s and Guo Weilu’s theories and prove that Carrie is totally a material pursuer.

  1. Measuring Social Carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL CARRYING CAPACITY BASED ON SPATIAL PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Luthfi Muta'ali

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this research were to examine environmental carrying capacity analyzed based on aspects of spatial planning and eco-region. The result showed that Kulonprogo Regency has low value of environmental carrying capacity and can only support as much as 79.81% of its total population. Analysis of variance showed significant difference of environmental carrying capacity of protected and cultivated area. The main factor among 12 variables determining the degree of environmen...

  3. Retinal oscillations carry visual information to cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Koepsell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs and thalamic outputs (spikes and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz, is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40-80 Hz and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.

  4. Robust ferromagnetism carried by antiferromagnetic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hishiro T.; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Hiroi, Zenji

    2017-02-01

    Ferroic materials, such as ferromagnetic or ferroelectric materials, have been utilized as recording media for memory devices. A recent trend for downsizing, however, requires an alternative, because ferroic orders tend to become unstable for miniaturization. The domain wall nanoelectronics is a new developing direction for next-generation devices, in which atomic domain walls, rather than conventional, large domains themselves, are the active elements. Here we show that atomically thin magnetic domain walls generated in the antiferromagnetic insulator Cd2Os2O7 carry unusual ferromagnetic moments perpendicular to the wall as well as electron conductivity: the ferromagnetic moments are easily polarized even by a tiny field of 1 mT at high temperature, while, once cooled down, they are surprisingly robust even in an inverse magnetic field of 7 T. Thus, the magnetic domain walls could serve as a new-type of microscopic, switchable and electrically readable magnetic medium which is potentially important for future applications in the domain wall nanoelectronics.

  5. Comparative proteomic analyses demonstrate enhanced Interferon and STAT-1 activation in reovirus T3D-infected HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman eEzzati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses are exclusively and intimately dependent upon their host cells for replication. During replication viruses induce profound changes within cells, including: induction of signaling pathways, morphological changes, and cell death. Many such cellular perturbations have been analyzed at the transcriptomic level by gene arrays and recent efforts have begun to analyze cellular proteomic responses. We recently described comparative stable isotopic (SILAC analyses of reovirus, strain type 3 Dearing (T3D-infected HeLa cells. For the present study we employed the complementary labeling strategy of iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation to examine HeLa cell changes induced by T3D, another reovirus strain, type 1 Lang, and UV-inactivated T3D (UV-T3D. Triplicate replicates of cytosolic and nuclear fractions identified a total of 2375 proteins, of which 50, 57, and 46 were significantly up-regulated, and 37, 26 and 44 were significantly down-regulated by T1L, T3D and UV-T3D, respectively. Several pathways, most notably the Interferon signaling pathway and the EIF2 and ILK signaling pathways, were induced by virus infection. Western blots confirmed that cells were more strongly activated by live T3D as demonstrated by elevated levels of key proteins like STAT-1, ISG-15, IFIT-1, IFIT-3 and Mx1. This study expands our understanding of reovirus-induced host responses.

  6. Bivalve carrying capacity in coastal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dame, R.F.; Prins, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    carrying capacity of suspension feeding bivalves in 11 coastal and estuarine ecosystems is examined. Bivalve carrying capacity is defined in terms of water mass residence time, primary production time and bivalve clearance time. Turnover times for the 11 ecosystems are compared both two and three di

  7. Comments on the image of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2016-01-01

    Thedore Oreiser was one of America's greatest writers and one of his famous masterpieces is Sister Carrie. the heroin of the novel was a country girl who struggled for success and finally became a movie star. Analysis on the image of Carrie is of practical significance to the country girls swarming into the city nowdays in our country.

  8. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  9. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme...... wherein $m$ parallel $k$-bit reversible ripple-carry adders are combined to form a reversible $mk$-bit \\emph{ripple-block carry adder} with logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(m+k)$ for a \\emph{minimal} logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{mk})$, thus improving on the $mk$-bit ripple-carry adder logic depth $\\mathcal......{O}(m\\cdot k)$. The underlying mechanisms of the parallelization scheme are formally proven correct. We also show designs for garbage-less reversible comparison circuits. We compare the circuit costs of the resulting ripple-block carry adder with known optimized reversible ripple-carry adders in measures...

  10. The Concept of Carrying Capacity in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zelenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity is often pragmatically, theoretically as well as purely intuitively considered as a concept in the context of tourism sustainability. The carrying capacity application has the greatest potential in protected areas, in frequently visited cultural and natural attractions, and in relation to sustaining of the lifestyle of the local community and tourism destination potential in general. Despite its importance, partial applications, determination of basic theoretical principles, and specifying connection to the other theoretical concepts in tourism (particularly destination life cycle, LAC concept, visitors management, there still is a rightful opinion of some authors suggesting that there is no consistent theory of tourism carrying capacity. This theory would be the base for sophisticated practical carrying capacity applications. This paper is therefore focused on introduction of the theoretical concept of carrying capacity, which can be discussed and possibly further elaborated.

  11. Sister Carrie, an Adherent of Desires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴水妹

    2007-01-01

    Sister Carrie is one of the most controversial characters in American literature.Thought as a "fallen woman" firstly,she was defined as a "new woman" by some critics later. However, by digging into the motivaton behind the whole process of Carrie's "success", the relationship between Carrie and her creator (the author), the social conditions of then American, it can be found that Carrie has never been free-standing on her thought and she has never found her real-sdf even after becoming a famous actress. In a society dominated by mass consumerism Carrie is only an adherent of her own desires. She also is a representative of all those country girls flooded into cities, a symbol and a sacrifice of the urbanization of America in a time countryside was overcome by cities.

  12. The impact of intermittent versus continuous exposure to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor on selection of EGFR T790M-mutant drug-resistant clones in a lung cancer cell line carrying activating EGFR mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Choi, Yu-Ra; Kim, Kyoung-Yeon; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2016-07-12

    Drug-resistant cell lines are essential tools for investigating the mechanisms of resistance to molecular-targeted anti-cancer drugs. However, little is known about how to establish clinically relevant drug-resistant cell lines. Our study examined the impact of a drug-free period on the establishment of a cell line with clinically relevant resistance to molecular-targeted drugs. We used PC9 cells, a lung cancer cell line carrying EGFR mutation, because this is a validated target for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). PC9 cells were intermittently or continuously exposed to increasing concentrations of gefitinib (0.01 μM to 1.0 μM) and the emergence of the most common acquired resistance mutation in EGFR, T790M, was determined. T790M was detected at a 25-fold lower drug concentration in cells continuously exposed to gefitinib (PC9/GRc) than in cells intermittently exposed to gefitinib (PC9/GRi) (0.04 μM vs 1.0 μM, respectively). The mutation frequencies at those drug concentrations were 19.8% and 8.0% in PC9/GRc and PC9/GRi cells, respectively. After drug-free culture for 8 weeks, resistance to gefitinib decreased in the PC9/GRi cells but not in the PC9/GRc cells. In the PC9/GRc cells, the frequency of the T790M mutation was consistently about 20% from 0.04 μM to 1.0 μM of gefitinib. In the PC9/GRc cells, the T790M mutation was detected in all single-cell clones, at frequencies ranging from 7.0% to 37.0%, with a median of 19.5% (95% confidence interval, 17.3%-20.9%). In conclusion, compared with intermittent drug exposure, continuous exposure might select better minor drug-resistant clones when creating cell lines resistant to molecular-targeted drugs.

  13. Studying the effectiveness of activated carbon R95 respirators in reducing the inhalation of combustion by-products in Hanoi, Vietnam: a demonstration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wertheim Heiman FL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban air pollution is an increasing health problem, particularly in Asia, where the combustion of fossil fuels has increased rapidly as a result of industrialization and socio-economic development. The adverse health impacts of urban air pollution are well established, but less is known about effective intervention strategies. In this demonstration study we set out to establish methods to assess whether wearing an R95 activated carbon respirator could reduce intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in street workers in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods In this demonstration study we performed a cross-over study in which non-smoking participants that worked at least 4 hours per day on the street in Hanoi were randomly allocated to specific respirator wearing sequences for a duration of 2 weeks. Urines were collected after each period, i.e. twice per week, at the end of the working day to measure hydroxy PAHs (OH-PAH using gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. The primary endpoint was the urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP. Results Forty-four participants (54.5% male, median age 40 years were enrolled with the majority being motorbike taxi drivers (38.6% or street vendors (34.1%. The baseline creatinine corrected urinary level for 1-OHP was much higher than other international comparisons: 1020 ng/g creatinine (IQR: 604–1551. Wearing a R95 mask had no significant effect on 1-OHP levels: estimated multiplicative effect 1.0 (95% CI: 0.92-1.09 or other OH-PAHs, except 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OHN: 0.86 (95% CI: 0.11-0.96. Conclusions High levels of urine OH-PAHs were found in Hanoi street workers. No effect was seen on urine OH-PAH levels by wearing R95 particulate respirators in an area of high urban air pollution, except for 1-OHN. A lack of effect may be de to gaseous phase PAHs that were not filtered efficiently by the respirator. The high levels of urinary OH-PAHs found, urges for effective

  14. Demonstration of natriuretic activity in urine of neurosurgical patients with renal salt wasting [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1ax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Youmans

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have utilized the persistent elevation of fractional excretion (FE of urate, > 10%, to differentiate cerebral/renal salt wasting (RSW from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH, in which a normalization of FEurate occurs after correction of hyponatremia.  Previous studies suggest as well  that an elevated FEurate with normonatremia, without pre-existing hyponatremia, is also consistent with RSW, including studies demonstrating induction of RSW in rats infused with plasma from normonatremic neurosurgical and Alzheimer’s disease patients.  The present studies were designed to test whether precipitates from the urine of normonatremic neurosurgical patients, with either normal or elevated FEurate, and patients with SIADH, display natriuretic activity.   Methods: Ammonium sulfate precipitates from the urine of 6 RSW and 5 non-RSW Control patients were dialyzed (10 kDa cutoff to remove the ammonium sulfate, lyophilized, and the reconstituted precipitate was tested for its effect on transcellular transport of 22Na across LLC-PK1 cells grown to confluency in transwells. Results: Precipitates from 5 of the 6 patients with elevated FEurate and normonatremia significantly inhibited the in vitro transcellular transport of 22Na above a concentration of 3 μg protein/ml, by 10-25%, versus to vehicle alone, and by 15-40% at concentrations of 5-20 μg/ml as compared to precipitates from 4 of the 5 non-RSW patients with either normal FEurate and normonatremia (2 patients or with SIADH (2 patients. Conclusion: These studies provide further evidence that an elevated FEurate with normonatremia is highly consistent with RSW.  Evidence in the urine of natriuretic activity suggests significant renal excretion of the natriuretic factor. The potentially large source of the natriuretic factor that this could afford, coupled with small analytical sample sizes required by the in-vitro bioassay used here, should facilitate future

  15. Demonstration of natriuretic activity in urine of neurosurgical patients with renal salt wasting [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/nu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Youmans

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We have utilized the persistent elevation of fractional excretion (FE of urate, > 10%, to differentiate cerebral/renal salt wasting (RSW from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH, in which a normalization of FEurate occurs after correction of hyponatremia.  Previous studies suggest as well  that an elevated FEurate with normonatremia, without pre-existing hyponatremia, is also consistent with RSW, including studies demonstrating induction of RSW in rats infused with plasma from normonatremic neurosurgical and Alzheimer’s disease patients.  The present studies were designed to test whether precipitates from the urine of normonatremic neurosurgical patients, with either normal or elevated FEurate, and patients with SIADH, display natriuretic activity.   Methods: Ammonium sulfate precipitates from the urine of 6 RSW and 5 non-RSW Control patients were dialyzed (10 kDa cutoff to remove the ammonium sulfate, lyophilized, and the reconstituted precipitate was tested for its effect on transcellular transport of 22Na across LLC-PK1 cells grown to confluency in transwells. Results: Precipitates from 5 of the 6 patients with elevated FEurate and normonatremia significantly inhibited the in vitro transcellular transport of 22Na above a concentration of 3 μg protein/ml, by 10-25%, versus to vehicle alone, and by 15-40% at concentrations of 5-20 μg/ml as compared to precipitates from 4 of the 5 non-RSW patients with either normal FEurate and normonatremia (2 patients or with SIADH (2 patients. Conclusion: These studies provide further evidence that an elevated FEurate with normonatremia is highly consistent with RSW.  Evidence in the urine of natriuretic activity suggests significant renal excretion of the natriuretic factor. The potentially large source of the natriuretic factor that this could afford, coupled with small analytical sample sizes required by the in-vitro bioassay used here, should facilitate future

  16. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  17. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  18. Carry Select Adder Circuit with A Successively Incremented Carry Number Block

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak; Bal Krishan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a conditional carry select (CCS) adder circuit with a successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB) structure for low-voltage VLSI implementation. Owing to the successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB) structure, the new 16-bit SICNB CCS adder provides a 37% faster speed as compared to the conventional conditional Carry select adder based on the SPICE results

  19. Multi-omics Analysis of Serum Samples Demonstrates Reprogramming of Organ Functions Via Systemic Calcium Mobilization and Platelet Activation in Metastatic Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqaku, Besnik; Eisinger, Martin; Meier, Samuel M; Tahir, Ammar; Pukrop, Tobias; Haferkamp, Sebastian; Slany, Astrid; Reichle, Albrecht; Gerner, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiologies of cancer-associated syndromes such as cachexia are poorly understood and no routine biomarkers have been established, yet. Using shotgun proteomics, known marker molecules including PMEL, CRP, SAA, and CSPG4 were found deregulated in patients with metastatic melanoma. Targeted analysis of 58 selected proteins with multiple reaction monitoring was applied for independent data verification. In three patients, two of which suffered from cachexia, a tissue damage signature was determined, consisting of nine proteins, PLTP, CD14, TIMP1, S10A8, S10A9, GP1BA, PTPRJ, CD44, and C4A, as well as increased levels of glycine and asparagine, and decreased levels of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine concentrations, as determined by targeted metabolomics. Remarkably, these molecules are known to be involved in key processes of cancer cachexia. Based on these results, we propose a model how metastatic melanoma may lead to reprogramming of organ functions via formation of platelet activating factors from long-chain polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines under oxidative conditions and via systemic induction of intracellular calcium mobilization. Calcium mobilization in platelets was demonstrated to alter levels of several of these marker molecules. Additionally, platelets from melanoma patients proved to be in a rather exhausted state, and platelet-derived eicosanoids implicated in tumor growth were found massively increased in blood from three melanoma patients. Platelets were thus identified as important source of serum protein and lipid alterations in late stage melanoma patients. As a result, the proposed model describes the crosstalk between lipolysis of fat tissue and muscle wasting mediated by oxidative stress, resulting in the metabolic deregulations characteristic for cachexia.

  20. Effects of carrying methods and box handles on two-person team carrying capacity for females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Swei-Pi; Chang, Shu-Yu

    2010-07-01

    This study used a psychophysical approach to examine the effects of carrying methods and the presence or absence of box handles on the maximum acceptable weight carried and resulting responses (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) in a two-person carrying task. After training, 16 female subjects performed a two-person carrying task at knuckle height for an 8-h work period. Each subject performed 4 different carrying combinations two times. The independent variables were carrying methods (parallel and tandem walking) and box handles (with and without handles). For comparison with two-person carrying, the subjects also performed one-person carrying. The results showed that the maximum acceptable weight carried (MAWC), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were significantly affected by the presence of box handles. However, the subjects' MAWC, HR, and RPE values were not significantly influenced by the carrying methods. The test-retest reliability of the psychophysical approach was 0.945. The carrying efficiency of two-person carrying was 96.2% of the one-person carrying method. In general, the use of box with handles allows the subjects to carry a higher MAWC (with lower HR and RPE) compared to carrying boxes without handles.

  1. Investigation to the Status Quo of the Extracurricular Football Activity Carrying out in Shangqiu Normal University%商丘师范学院课外足球运动开展状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱万文

    2016-01-01

    This paper using methods of literature materials, investigation, mathematical statistics and logi⁃cal reasoning, conducts a research on the existing problems the current extracurricular football activity in Shangqiu normal university, points out that more attention should be paid to the development of extracurric⁃ular football, the teacher's level should be improved, the construction of the stadium facility should be in⁃creased, a football association should be formed to organize football games actively, to make more students participate in football, futsal competition should be popularized, the utilization rate of field should be im⁃proved, students’enthusiasm for football should be promoted and their skills and tactics should be im⁃proved.%运用文献资料法、调查法、数理统计法等研究方法,以商丘师范学院课外足球活动的开展为研究对象,对课外足球活动开展现状以及存在问题进行研究。提出商丘师范学院学应重视课外足球的发展,提高教师水平并加大场地设施的建设,成立足球协会积极组织足球比赛,使更多的学生参与到足球运动中来,推广五人制足球,提高场地利用率,促进学生对足球运动的热情和自身技战术的提高。

  2. Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    2015-01-01

    Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  3. POPULATION DENSITIES AND THE RANGE-CARRYING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAPACITY FOR LARGE MAMMALS IN QUEEN ELIZABETH ... The highest known densities oflarge terrestrial mammals occur on the grasslands in ...... It is estimated that the proper average biomass carrying capacity for the several herbivore.

  4. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To screen positive lines for gene function, leaf lobes from two transgenic lines with a line carrying an empty vector and the wild type were subjected to somatic embryogenesis (SE), a known oxidative ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  5. A Naturalistic Reading of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈月

    2016-01-01

    Sister Carrie is well known as the works in which naturalism attained maturity in America. Up until now, the relevant research on Dreiser and his Sister Carrie abroad and at home is primarily concerned with the frustration of American dream, the naturalistic thoughts and pessimism. The paper attempts to study it from naturalistic point of view and explain how environmental, hereditary factors and the idea of“survival of the fittest”influence Carrie’s fate.

  6. Análise das atividades de educação ambiental realizadas no Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren. Analysis of environmental education activities carried out in the Alberto Löfgren State Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli HERCULIANI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren -PEAL é uma Unidade de Conservação de ProteçãoIntegral, com 174 ha, localizado na zona norte dacidade de São Paulo, que recebe uma enormequantidade de público visitante. Os objetivos destetrabalho foram identificar e sistematizar asinformações sobre educação ambiental do PEAL,avaliar e delinear estratégias para o parque eáreas de entorno, visando ao planejamento,à estruturação, ao monitoramento e à avaliação dasações educativas que possam auxiliar o manejodessa Unidade de Conservação. Foi realizadoum levantamento das trilhas e atrativos utilizadosnas atividades de Educação Ambiental, perfil dovisitante, número de monitores ambientais,material de divulgação, cursos oferecidos eparceiras. São fornecidas propostas para a melhoriado programa de Educação Ambiental, construídasa partir do diagnóstico, de revisão bibliográfica,dos resultados das discussões das Oficinas para aelaboração do Plano de Manejo desse parque e deentrevista realizada com o gestor dessa Unidade deConservação. Concluiu-se que o programa deEducação Ambiental desse parque não apresentauma política definida ou uma diretriz estabelecida.The Albert Löfgren State Park is aConservation Unit of Integral Protection, with 174hectares, located in the northern city of Sao Paulo,which receives an enormous amount of visitors.The objectives of this study were to identifyand systematize information on environmentaleducation of PEAL, evaluate them and devisestrategies for the park and surrounding areas,aiming the planning, structuring, monitoring andevaluation of educational activities that can helpthe management of this Conservation Unit. It is adiagnosis of the tracks and attractions used inenvironmental education activities, visitor's profile,number of environmental monitors, promotionalmaterial, courses offered and partnerships.Proposals are provided to improve the environmentaleducation program, they were built

  7. The Bottom Class Children Happy Morning Sports Activities Carried out Effectively%小班幼儿快乐晨间体育活动的有效开展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国琴

    2014-01-01

    “Kindergarten education guidelines”put forward the infant health perspectives of “paying equal attention to body and mind”, and put the children on the first of five fields. Morning effective to organize the implementation of outdoor sports,which is an effective way to promote children’s physical and mental development, one hour in the morning is worth two in the evening, every reasonable scientific effectively organized outdoor morning sports activities can make children have a strong and healthy physique, more sunshine, cheerful, lively personality.%《幼儿园教育指导纲要》提出“身心并重”的幼儿健康观,并将幼儿健康放在了五大领域的首位。晨间户外体育活动的有效组织实施,是促进幼儿身心发展的有效途径,一日之计在于晨,每天合理科学有效地组织晨间户外体育活动,可以使幼儿拥有健康强壮的体质,更阳光、开朗、活泼的个性。

  8. 如何有效地开展核电外部质保监查活动%How to Effectively Carry out External Quality Assurance Monitoring Activity of Nuclear Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永文

    2012-01-01

    核电外部质保监查是核电厂质量保证总大纲监查体系链的重要组成部分,但如何使外部监查活动更有实效,仍需要进一步探讨.本文从外部监查的现状入手,以提高核电外部质量保证监查活动的有效性为目的,针对性地提出了若干办法,对外部质保监查活动的开展具有借鉴作用.%External quality assurance monitoring of nuclear power is an important part of the total outline monitoring systems of quality assurance in nuclear power plants. But how to make external monitoring activities more effective still needs to be further explored. This article started with present situation of external monitoring with the purpose of increasing the effectiveness of external quality assurance monitoring of nuclear, specifically proposed a number of approaches with reference.

  9. Effects of box handle position and carrying range on bi-manual carrying capacity for females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Swei-Pi; Loiu, Yi; Chien, Te Hong

    2015-01-01

    This study utilizes a psychophysical approach to examine the effects on carrying capacity for bi-manual carrying tasks involving different handle positions and carrying ranges. A total of 16 female subjects participated in the experiment in groups of two people, and each group of subjects performed the tasks in a random order with 12 different combinations of carrying task. The independent variables are handle position (upper, middle, lower) and carrying range (F-F: floor height carried to floor height, F-W: floor height carried to waist height, W-W: waist height carried to waist height, W-F: waist height carried to floor height), the dependent variable is the maximum acceptable carried weight (MAWC), heart rate (HR), and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The results show that the handle position has a significant effect on MAWC and overall RPE but no significant effect on HR. Carrying range has a significant effect on the MAWC and HR, but no significant effect on overall HR. The handle position and carrying range have a significant interaction on the MAWC and HR. The RPE for different body parts shows significant differences, and the hands feel the most tired. Overall, this study confirms that the lower handle position with the W-W carrying range is the best combination for a two-person carrying task.

  10. Evaluation of carrying capacity and territorial environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ruggiero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land use has a great impact on environmental quality, use of resources, state of ecosystems and socio-economic development. Land use can be considered sustainable if the environmental pressures of human activities do not exceed the ecological carrying capacity. A scientific knowledge of the capability of ecosystems to provide resources and absorb waste is a useful and innovative means of supporting territorial planning. This study examines the area of the Province of Bari to estimate the ecosystems’ carrying capacity, and compare it with the current environmental pressures exerted by human activities. The adapted methodology identified the environmentally sustainable level for one province.

  11. 榆林市校园足球活动开展现状的调查分析%The Analysis of Yulin City Campus Football Activities Carried out Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常保荣; 张焱龙

    2015-01-01

    该文采用文献资料法、问卷调查法及数理统计等方法,对国培计划-校园足球榆林学员发放问卷,从校园足球的课程设置、竞赛训练、师资队伍、场地器材设施、经费投入与组织管理、制度建设、保障措施和人才培养方面,对榆林市中小学校园足球开展状况进行调查研究,了解榆林市校园足球的现状,解决榆林市校园足球存在的问题,在学训矛盾、经费管理使用、保障体系、制度建设等诸多方面,为加强校园足球活动的科学合理化建议,使榆林市校园足球活动良好发展提供理论依据。%this paper uses literature,questionnaire and statistics,mainly from the curricula,training of school football competitions, physical education teachers,facilities,funding sources and management measures and personnel training.To investigate and study the situation of primary and high school football in Yulin city,and understand the status of school football County,Yulin city,Yulin city, solve problems and shortcomings,and in school football development strategy, strengthening the scientific rationalization of school football,provides school football County,Yulin city healthy and orderly development of the theory.On the background of modern sports, football on campus briefly analyzed the necessity of this activity,and to put forward their views and suggestions,intended to promote youth football events,lead society to establish correct ideas of young football talents,strengthen campus awareness and promotion of football, football popularization of campus.

  12. 'It's like a personal motivator that you carried around wi' you': utilising self-determination theory to understand men's experiences of using pedometers to increase physical activity in a weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnachie, Craig; Wyke, Sally; Mutrie, Nanette; Hunt, Kate

    2017-05-05

    Self-monitoring using pedometers is an effective behaviour change technique to support increased physical activity (PA). However, the ways in which pedometers operate as motivational tools in adoption and maintenance of PA is not well understood. This paper investigates men's experiences of pedometers as motivational tools both during and after their participation in a 12-week group-based, weight management programme for overweight/obese men, Football Fans in Training (FFIT). Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 28 men, purposively sampled to include men who did and did not achieve 5% weight loss during the programme. Data were analysed thematically utilising the framework approach, using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) - namely concepts of behavioural regulation and the basic needs of relatedness, competence and autonomy - as an analytical lens. During the programme, FFIT's context and fellow participants supported relatedness and encouraged use of the pedometer. The pedometer was seen to provide tangible proof of progress, thus increasing competence for change, whilst the ability to monitor one's own progress and take remedial action supported autonomy; these men portrayed the pedometer as an 'ally'. However, a minority found the pedometer 'dispiriting' or controlling when it evidenced their inability to meet their PA targets. After the programme, some men no longer used the device as they had fully internalised their motivations for increased PA. In contrast, others continued to use pedometers or progressed to other self-monitoring technologies because it was enjoyable and facilitated maintenance of their increased PA. However, the minority of men who experienced the pedometer as controlling no longer used it. They were less successful in achieving 5% weight loss and appeared reliant on external factors, including support from coach and group members, to maintain motivation. These findings show how self-monitoring using pedometers and

  13. Estimating the recreational carrying capacity of a lowland river section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Stefan; Pusch, Martin T

    2012-01-01

    Recreational boating represents a major human use of inland waters in many regions. However, boating tourism may affect the ecological integrity of surface waters in multiple ways. In particular, surface waves produced by boating may disturb freshwater invertebrates, such as interrupting the filtration activity of benthic mussels. As mussels may significantly contribute to self-purification, disturbance may have crucial impacts on water quality, and thus on water tourism. In this paper we calculate the carrying capacity of a river section for sustainable boating tourism based on the preservation of water quality. This approach is complemented by spatial and social approaches for carrying capacity estimates. The ecological carrying capacity significantly decreases with lower water levels during summer. Hence, the analysis of variables that influence the river's carrying capacity allows the formation of recommendations for management measures that integrate social, touristic and ecological aspects.

  14. Inseparable phone books demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation and experiment steps are presented on how to turn a simple discrepant event into an instructional activity. Results showed the relationships between number of pages and force, as well as between amounts of interleave and force. In addition to these, the mathematical equation for the total force between all interleaved pages is derived. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that not only can phone books be used, but also ordinary books, to investigate this discrepant event. This experiment can be conducted as an example to show the agreement between theoretical and experimental results along with the confounding variables. This discrepant event can be used to create a cognitive conflict in students’ minds about the concepts of ‘force and motion’ and ‘friction force’.

  15. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  16. Optimal growth trajectories with finite carrying capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravelli, F; Sindoni, L; Caccioli, F; Ududec, C

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of finding optimal strategies that maximize the average growth rate of multiplicative stochastic processes. For a geometric Brownian motion, the problem is solved through the so-called Kelly criterion, according to which the optimal growth rate is achieved by investing a constant given fraction of resources at any step of the dynamics. We generalize these finding to the case of dynamical equations with finite carrying capacity, which can find applications in biology, mathematical ecology, and finance. We formulate the problem in terms of a stochastic process with multiplicative noise and a nonlinear drift term that is determined by the specific functional form of carrying capacity. We solve the stochastic equation for two classes of carrying capacity functions (power laws and logarithmic), and in both cases we compute the optimal trajectories of the control parameter. We further test the validity of our analytical results using numerical simulations.

  17. Optimal growth trajectories with finite carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravelli, F.; Sindoni, L.; Caccioli, F.; Ududec, C.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of finding optimal strategies that maximize the average growth rate of multiplicative stochastic processes. For a geometric Brownian motion, the problem is solved through the so-called Kelly criterion, according to which the optimal growth rate is achieved by investing a constant given fraction of resources at any step of the dynamics. We generalize these finding to the case of dynamical equations with finite carrying capacity, which can find applications in biology, mathematical ecology, and finance. We formulate the problem in terms of a stochastic process with multiplicative noise and a nonlinear drift term that is determined by the specific functional form of carrying capacity. We solve the stochastic equation for two classes of carrying capacity functions (power laws and logarithmic), and in both cases we compute the optimal trajectories of the control parameter. We further test the validity of our analytical results using numerical simulations.

  18. Carry Select Adder Circuit with A Successively Incremented Carry Number Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a conditional carry select (CCS adder circuit with a successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB structure for low-voltage VLSI implementation. Owing to the successively-incremented-carry-number block (SICNB structure, the new 16-bit SICNB CCS adder provides a 37% faster speed as compared to the conventional conditional Carry select adder based on the SPICE results

  19. An Optical Carry Chain Fast Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Al-Dabass

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant problem in Arithmetic Unit design and particularly for systolic arrays remains the speed attainable in achieving high speed addition. The root of the problem is carry propagation and a method is presented which is relatively independent of word length. The problem is addressed by the description of a suggested radical design involving a hybrid optical and electronic approach. The method of carry chain addition through pass gates is explained and a suggested implementation utilising Fabry-Perott resonators, optical waveguides and voltage controlled couplers is described. The design is suitable for n-stage modular expansion.

  20. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  1. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  2. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates

  3. Error propagation in energetic carrying capacity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation objectives derived from carrying capacity models have been used to inform management of landscapes for wildlife populations. Energetic carrying capacity models are particularly useful in conservation planning for wildlife; these models use estimates of food abundance and energetic requirements of wildlife to target conservation actions. We provide a general method for incorporating a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which foraging becomes unprofitable) when estimating food availability with energetic carrying capacity models. We use a hypothetical example to describe how past methods for adjustment of foraging thresholds biased results of energetic carrying capacity models in certain instances. Adjusting foraging thresholds at the patch level of the species of interest provides results consistent with ecological foraging theory. Presentation of two case studies suggest variation in bias which, in certain instances, created large errors in conservation objectives and may have led to inefficient allocation of limited resources. Our results also illustrate how small errors or biases in application of input parameters, when extrapolated to large spatial extents, propagate errors in conservation planning and can have negative implications for target populations.

  4. Increased carrying capacity with perennial forage kochia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrying capacity can be increased on grass-dominated rangeland pastures by including perennial forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) as one of the plant components. The objectives of the study reported here were to compare the differences of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochi...

  5. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hall, H. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is

  6. Integrated Coastal Zone Planning Based on Environment Carrying Capacity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Arsallia, S.

    2017-07-01

    Coastal zone is a crucial area in terms of planning development. It holds high economic value, which affect to increasing number of inhabitants living in the area. As a result, this condition influences environmental degradation. Thus, in every attempt towards coastal zone development, it is crucial to always refer to environment carrying capacity. Carrying capacity is the limit of a certain coastal zone capability to support all human created activities, in which all ecological performances are maintained at sustainable level. The failure to establish strong and clear method and regulation on carrying capacity analysis will lead to a very risky coastal zone development, which in turn would threat the area’s sustainability. This paper discusses method for analysing carrying capacity of coastal zone as important input for the area development plan. Two key parameters, i.e. land and clean water carrying capacities are discussed to form carrying capacity analytical method. Furthermore, an empirical data of Ambon Bay, Moluccas Province, is used to illustrate the operationalization of the method.

  7. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hall, H. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is

  8. Proof-Carrying Code with Correct Compilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s, proof-carrying code was able to produce machine-checkable safety proofs for machine-language programs even though (1) it was impractical to prove correctness properties of source programs and (2) it was impractical to prove correctness of compilers. But now it is practical to prove some correctness properties of source programs, and it is practical to prove correctness of optimizing compilers. We can produce more expressive proof-carrying code, that can guarantee correctness properties for machine code and not just safety. We will construct program logics for source languages, prove them sound w.r.t. the operational semantics of the input language for a proved-correct compiler, and then use these logics as a basis for proving the soundness of static analyses.

  9. Computer Simulation Instruction: Carrying out Chemical Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtesam Al-Mashaqbeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of computer simulation Instruction (CSI on students' achievements: Carrying out chemical experiments to acquire chemical concepts for eleventh grade students. The subject of the study consisted two sections of a one girl's high school in Jordan. One section was randomly assigned to experimental group in which computer simulation Instruction (CSI was used, and the other section was randomly assigned to control group in which students were instructed by using the traditional teaching instruction. The findings indicated that there is progress on the part of the experimental group which used the computer simulation Instruction (CSI and this was reflected positively in the students’ achievement in carrying out chemical experiments to acquire chemical concepts.

  10. A decimal carry-free adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmehr, Hooman; Phillips, Braden; Lim, Cheng-Chew

    2005-02-01

    Recently, decimal arithmetic has become attractive in the financial and commercial world including banking, tax calculation, currency conversion, insurance and accounting. Although computers are still carrying out decimal calculation using software libraries and binary floating-point numbers, it is likely that in the near future, all processors will be equipped with units performing decimal operations directly on decimal operands. One critical building block for some complex decimal operations is the decimal carry-free adder. This paper discusses the mathematical framework of the addition, introduces a new signed-digit format for representing decimal numbers and presents an efficient architectural implementation. Delay estimation analysis shows that the adder offers improved performance over earlier designs.

  11. Like an eagle carries its young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Wünch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The picture of an eagle carrying its young on its wings (Dt 32:11 is a powerful and encouraging image of trust and security in God. It is particularly relevant for Western culture, where the eagle is a prominent symbol of power and strength. In recent years, though, the translation of the Hebrew term רֶשֶׁנ as ‘eagle’ has come into question and modern exegetes claim that it is more accurately translated as ‘vulture’. But can this really be a symbol of comfort? Furthermore, do eagles (or vultures even carry their young on their wings? This article intends to shed some light on these questions.Keywords: Old Testament; Deuteronomy; Eagle; Vulture

  12. A Feminist Reading of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Jiatong

    2015-01-01

    In the history of American literature,Sister Carrie is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser,it impresses people deeply.Carrie,a poor country girl,becomes a famous star in a big city.She has totally changed from her hard experiences,and she becomes financially independent as a new woman when she goes through hesitation.In he whole novel,the author has planted some strong points of Carrie’s character.At the end of this paper,it analyzes woman’s status in modern time from two aspects of the improvement of female’s social status and the comparison between men and women.

  13. Inhibition of Plasmepsin V activity demonstrates its essential role in protein export, PfEMP1 display, and survival of malaria parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleebs, Brad E; Lopaticki, Sash; Marapana, Danushka S;

    2014-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exports several hundred proteins into the infected erythrocyte that are involved in cellular remodeling and severe virulence. The export mechanism involves the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL), which is a cleavage site for the parasite protease......, Plasmepsin V (PMV). The PMV gene is refractory to deletion, suggesting it is essential, but definitive proof is lacking. Here, we generated a PEXEL-mimetic inhibitor that potently blocks the activity of PMV isolated from P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Assessment of PMV activity in P. falciparum revealed...... surface, and cytoadherence. The inhibitor killed parasites at the trophozoite stage and knockdown of PMV enhanced sensitivity to the inhibitor, while overexpression of PMV increased resistance. This provides the first direct evidence that PMV activity is essential for protein export in Plasmodium spp...

  14. The POSEIDON Demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P.J.L.J. van de

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the Poseidon demonstrator: a demonstrator that integrates the individual research results of all partners of the Poseidon project. After describing how the Poseidon demonstrator was built, deployed, and operated, we will not only show many results obtained from the demons

  15. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  16. ISSUES AND FEASIBILITY DEMONSTRATION OF CLIC SUPPORTING SYSTEM CHAIN ACTIVE PRE-ALIGNMENT USING A MULTI-MODULE TEST SETUP (MOCK-UP)

    CERN Document Server

    Sosin, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    The implementation study of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) is under way at CERN with a focus on the challenging issues. The pre-alignment precision and accuracy requirements are part of these technical challenges: the permissible transverse position errors of the linac components are typically 14 micrometers over sliding windows of 200m. To validate the proposed methods and strategies, the Large Scale Metrology section at CERN has performed campaigns of measurements on the CLIC Two Beam Test Modules, focusing inter alia on the alignment performance of the CLIC “snake”- girders configuration and the Main Beam Quadrupoles supporting structures. This paper describes the activities and results of tests which were performed on the test mock-up for the qualification of the CLIC supporting system chain for active pre-alignment. The lessons learnt (“know how”), the issues encountered in the girder position determination as well as the behaviour of the mechanical components are presented.

  17. Dahl SS rats demonstrate enhanced aortic perivascular adipose tissue-mediated buffering of vasoconstriction through activation of NOS in the endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Frank T; Ho, Dao H; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) mediates buffering of vasoconstriction through activation of endothelium-derived factors. We hypothesized that the PVAT of Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl SS) rats has reduced ability to buffer vasoconstriction. Vascular reactivity experiments were performed on aortic rings with PVAT intact (+PVAT) or removed (-PVAT), and endothelium intact (+ENDO) or removed (-ENDO) from Dahl SS rats and control SS.13(BN) rats (Dahl SS rats that have had chromosome 13 completely replaced with that of the Brown Norway rat, rendering this strain insensitive to high-salt or high-fat diet-induced hypertension). Endothelial dysfunction, assessed by ACh-mediated vasorelaxation, was confirmed in aortic rings of Dahl SS rats. The +PVAT+ENDO aortic rings had indistinguishable phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction between genotypes. In both strains, removal of PVAT significantly enhanced vasoconstriction. Dahl SS rat -PVAT+ENDO aortic rings displayed exaggerated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine vs. SS.13(BN) rats, indicating that PVAT-mediated buffering of vasoconstriction was greater in Dahl SS rats. Removal of both the ENDO and PVAT restored vasoconstriction in both strains. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), produced a similar effect as that seen with -ENDO. These data indicate that the function of the PVAT to activate endothelium-derived NOS is enhanced in Dahl SS compared with SS.13(BN) rats and, most likely, occurs through a pathway that is distinct from ACh-mediated activation of NOS. PVAT weight and total PVAT leptin levels were greater in Dahl SS rats. Leptin induced a significantly decreased vasoconstriction in -PVAT+ENDO aortic rings from Dahl SS rats, but not SS.13(BN) rats. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, PVAT in Dahl SS rats buffers vasoconstriction by activating endothelial NOS via mechanisms that may include the involvement of leptin. Thus, the PVAT serves a vasoprotective role in

  18. Information carrying capacity of a cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simidzija, Petar; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the exchange of information in different cosmological backgrounds when sender and receiver are timelike separated and communicate through massless fields (without the exchange of light signals). Remarkably, we show that the dominance of a cosmological constant makes the amount of recoverable information imprinted in the field by the sender extremely resilient: it does not decay in time or with the spatial separation of the sender and receiver, and it actually increases with the rate of expansion of the Universe. This is in stark contrast with the information carried by conventional light signals and with previous results on timelike communication through massless fields in matter-dominated cosmologies.

  19. Phenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells during acute dengue illness demonstrates infection and increased activation of monocytes in severe cases compared to classic dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna P; Vargas, Maria José; Wanionek, Kimberli; Hammond, Samantha N; Gordon, Aubree; Rocha, Crisanta; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2008-07-05

    In vitro studies have attempted to identify dengue virus (DEN) target cells in peripheral blood; however, extensive phenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dengue patients has not been reported. PBMCs collected from hospitalized children suspected of acute dengue were analyzed for DEN prM, CD32, CD86, CD14, CD11c, CD16, CD209, CCR7, CD4, and CD8 by flow cytometry to detect DEN antigen in PBMCs and to phenotype DEN-positive cells. DEN prM was detected primarily in activated monocytes (CD14(+), CD32(+), CD86(+), CD11c(+)). A subset of samples analyzed for DEN nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) confirmed that approximately half of DEN antigen-positive cells contained replicating virus. A higher percentage of PBMCs from DHF patients expressed prM, CD86, CD32, and CD11c than did those from DF patients. Increased activation of monocytes and greater numbers of DEN-infected cells were associated with more severe dengue, implicating a role for monocyte activation in dengue immunopathogenesis.

  20. Gluteus medius and thigh muscles electromyography during load carrying walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šťastný

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the electromyographic (EMG peak amplitude changes of gluteus medius (Gmed, vastus medialis (VMO, vastus lateralis (VL and biceps femoris (BF during load carrying walking due to the increased load. The percentage of maximum isometric voluntary contractions (%MVIC of both limbs and 3D kinematic of lower limbs were detected on eighteen resistance-trained men (mean age ± SD, 31 ± 3.4 years while carrying loads of 25, 50 and 75% of their body mass (BM. The repeated measurement ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences in muscles %MVIC and 3D kinematics at all load conditions. Significant differences were found for Gmed %MVIC (F3,99 = 19.8, p < 0.001. Gmed activity was significantly different between load carrying walking with 25% of BM (mean ± SD, 20 ± 12%MVIC, 50% of BM (32 ± 17%MVIC and 75% of BM (45 ± 26%MVIC condition. Differences were found in hip flexion at Gmed EMG peak (F3,96 = 14, p < 0.001, between 25% of BM (18 ± 11° and 50% of BM (29 ± 7°. No significant differences were found for thigh muscles, when thigh muscle activity did not exceed 30%MVIC even at 75% of BM condition. Load carrying walking is an exercise which activates Gmed more than thigh muscles. This exercise increases the Gmed activity along with increased loads and it should be regarded as a complex Gmed strengthening exercise. This exercise is recommended for strengthening the Gmed with low activation of VL and VMO.

  1. The first reported generation of several induced pluripotent stem cell lines from homozygous and heterozygous Huntington's disease patients demonstrates mutation related enhanced lysosomal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camnasio, Stefano; Delli Carri, Alessia; Lombardo, Angelo; Grad, Iwona; Mariotti, Caterina; Castucci, Alessia; Rozell, Björn; Lo Riso, Pietro; Castiglioni, Valentina; Zuccato, Chiara; Rochon, Christelle; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Biunno, Ida; Gellera, Cinzia; Jaconi, Marisa; Smith, Austin; Hovatta, Outi; Naldini, Luigi; Di Donato, Stefano; Feki, Anis; Cattaneo, Elena

    2012-04-01

    Neuronal disorders, like Huntington's disease (HD), are difficult to study, due to limited cell accessibility, late onset manifestations, and low availability of material. The establishment of an in vitro model that recapitulates features of the disease may help understanding the cellular and molecular events that trigger disease manifestations. Here, we describe the generation and characterization of a series of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from patients with HD, including two rare homozygous genotypes and one heterozygous genotype. We used lentiviral technology to transfer key genes for inducing reprogramming. To confirm pluripotency and differentiation of iPS cells, we used PCR amplification and immunocytochemistry to measure the expression of marker genes in embryoid bodies and neurons. We also analyzed teratomas that formed in iPS cell-injected mice. We found that the length of the pathological CAG repeat did not increase during reprogramming, after long term growth in vitro, and after differentiation into neurons. In addition, we observed no differences between normal and mutant genotypes in reprogramming, growth rate, caspase activation or neuronal differentiation. However, we observed a significant increase in lysosomal activity in HD-iPS cells compared to control iPS cells, both during self-renewal and in iPS-derived neurons. In conclusion, we have established stable HD-iPS cell lines that can be used for investigating disease mechanisms that underlie HD. The CAG stability and lysosomal activity represent novel observations in HD-iPS cells. In the future, these cells may provide the basis for a powerful platform for drug screening and target identification in HD.

  2. Demonstrating the use of high-volume electronic medical claims data to monitor local and regional influenza activity in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Viboud

    Full Text Available Fine-grained influenza surveillance data are lacking in the US, hampering our ability to monitor disease spread at a local scale. Here we evaluate the performances of high-volume electronic medical claims data to assess local and regional influenza activity.We used electronic medical claims data compiled by IMS Health in 480 US locations to create weekly regional influenza-like-illness (ILI time series during 2003-2010. IMS Health captured 62% of US outpatient visits in 2009. We studied the performances of IMS-ILI indicators against reference influenza surveillance datasets, including CDC-ILI outpatient and laboratory-confirmed influenza data. We estimated correlation in weekly incidences, peak timing and seasonal intensity across datasets, stratified by 10 regions and four age groups (<5, 5-29, 30-59, and 60+ years. To test IMS-Health performances at the city level, we compared IMS-ILI indicators to syndromic surveillance data for New York City. We also used control data on laboratory-confirmed Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV activity to test the specificity of IMS-ILI for influenza surveillance.Regional IMS-ILI indicators were highly synchronous with CDC's reference influenza surveillance data (Pearson correlation coefficients rho≥0.89; range across regions, 0.80-0.97, P<0.001. Seasonal intensity estimates were weakly correlated across datasets in all age data (rho≤0.52, moderately correlated among adults (rho≥0.64 and uncorrelated among school-age children. IMS-ILI indicators were more correlated with reference influenza data than control RSV indicators (rho = 0.93 with influenza v. rho = 0.33 with RSV, P<0.05. City-level IMS-ILI indicators were highly consistent with reference syndromic data (rho≥0.86.Medical claims-based ILI indicators accurately capture weekly fluctuations in influenza activity in all US regions during inter-pandemic and pandemic seasons, and can be broken down by age groups and fine geographical areas

  3. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  4. Identification of novel α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists based on an isoxazole ether scaffold that demonstrate antidepressant-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Fang; Tückmantel, Werner; Eaton, J Brek; Caldarone, Barbara; Fedolak, Allison; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Lukas, Ronald J; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2012-01-26

    There is considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that the blockade of nAChR is responsible for the antidepressant action of nicotinic ligands. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, mecamylamine, has been shown to be an effective add-on in patients that do not respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. This suggests that nAChR ligands may address an unmet clinical need by providing relief from depressive symptoms in refractory patients. In this study, a new series of nAChR ligands based on an isoxazole-ether scaffold have been designed and synthesized for binding and functional assays. Preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) efforts identified a lead compound 43, which possesses potent antidepressant-like activity (1 mg/kg, IP; 5 mg/kg, PO) in the classical mouse forced swim test. Early stage absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME-Tox) studies also suggested favorable drug-like properties, and broad screening toward other common neurotransmitter receptors indicated that compound 43 is highly selective for nAChRs over the other 45 neurotransmitter receptors and transporters tested.

  5. Apparatus and method for time-integrated, active sampling of contaminants in fluids demonstrated by monitoring of hexavalent chromium in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Isaac B; Driver, Erin M; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-06-15

    Annual U.S. expenditures of $2B for site characterization invite the development of new technologies to improve data quality while reducing costs and minimizing uncertainty in groundwater monitoring. This work presents a new instrument for time-integrated sampling of environmental fluids using in situ solid-phase extraction (SPE). The In Situ Sampler (IS2) is an automated submersible device capable of extracting dissolved contaminants from water (100s-1000smL) over extended periods (hours to weeks), retaining the analytes, and rejecting the processed fluid. A field demonstration of the IS2 revealed 28-day average concentration of hexavalent chromium in a shallow aquifer affected by tidal stresses via sampling of groundwater as both liquid and sorbed composite samples, each obtained in triplicate. In situ SPE exhibited 75±6% recovery and an 8-fold improvement in reporting limit. Relative to use of conventional methods (100%), beneficial characteristics of the device and method included minimal hazardous material generation (2%), transportation cost (10%), and associated carbon footprint (2%). The IS2 is compatible with commercial SPE resins and standard extraction methods, and has been certified for more general use (i.e., inorganics and organics) by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) of the U.S. Department of Defense.

  6. Toy Demonstrator's "VISIT" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The role of the toy demonstrator in a home-based, mother-involved intervention effort (Verbal Interaction Project) is presented in this handbook for staff members. It is believed that the prerequisites for functioning in the toy demonstrator's role are a sense of responsibility, patience with the children and their mothers, and willingness to be…

  7. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  8. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  9. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  10. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  11. Main activities carried out for the conversion of the reactor core TRIGA, from HEU 8.5/70 / LEU 8.5/20 to LEU 30/20; Principales actividades llevadas a cabo para la conversion del nucleo del reactor TRIGA, de HEU 8.5/70 / LEU 8.5/20 a LEU 30/20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores C, J., E-mail: jorge.floresc@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    In agreement with the policies of the global initiative of threats reduction (GTRI), Mexico committed that inside the reduction program of the fuel enrichment in research and test reactors (RERTR), the conversion of the core reactor TRIGA (in the nuclear centre) would be made, to use solely fuel with low enrichment ({<=} 20% U{sup 235}). To support to the execution of this commitment, a series of accords and agreements were established. The Project Agreement and Supply among the IAEA, the United States of America and Mexico was the more relevant. In this work the main activities carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) with this purpose are presented. (Author)

  12. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

    2012-04-30

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRI’s coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERC’s TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200–500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRI’s patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERC’s TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

  13. Field tests demonstrating reduced activity of ivermectin and moxidectin against small strongyles in horses on 14 farms in Central Kentucky in 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Eugene T; Tolliver, Sharon C; Collins, Sandra S; Ionita, Mariana; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Rossano, Mary

    2011-02-01

    Efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) against small strongyles was evaluated in horses (n=363) in field tests on 14 farms in Central Kentucky between 2007 and 2009. Most of the horses were yearlings but a few were weanlings and mares. The number of horses treated with IVM was 255 and those treated with MOX was 108. Horses on six farms were allotted into two groups. One group was treated with each of the two drugs, whereas horses on the other eight farms were treated with only one of the two drugs--IVM on six farms and MOX on two farms. Strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPGs) compared to initial use of IVM and MOX returned almost twice as quickly after treatment of horses on all of the farms. IVM has been used much more extensively in this geographical area than MOX. Reduced activity of MOX was evident even on farms with rare or no apparent previous use of MOX but with probable extensive use of IVM.

  14. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105 And AN-103) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol; Herman, Connie; Crawford, Charles; Bannochie, Christopher; Burket, Paul; Daniel, Gene; Cozzi, Alex; Nash, Charles; Miller, Donald; Missimer, David

    2014-01-10

    One of the immobilization technologies under consideration as a Supplemental Treatment for Hanford’s Low Activity Waste (LAW) is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The FBSR technology forms a mineral waste form at moderate processing temperatures thus retaining and atomically bonding the halides, sulfates, and technetium in the mineral phases (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite). Additions of kaolin clay are used instead of glass formers and the minerals formed by the FBSR technology offers (1) atomic bonding of the radionuclides and constituents of concern (COC) comparable to glass, (2) short and long term durability comparable to glass, (3) disposal volumes comparable to glass, and (4) higher Na2O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings than glass. The higher FBSR Na{sub 2}O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings contribute to the low disposal volumes but also provide for more rapid processing of the LAW. Recent FBSR processing and testing of Hanford radioactive LAW (Tank SX-105 and AN-103) waste is reported and compared to previous radioactive and non-radioactive LAW processing and testing.

  15. Demonstrating usefulness of real-time monitoring at streambank wells coupled with active streamgages - Pilot studies in Wyoming, Montana, and Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Constantz, Jim; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Caldwell, Rodney R.; Barlow, Jeannie R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater and surface water in many cases are considered separate resources, but there is growing recognition of a need to treat them as a single resource. For example, groundwater inflow during low streamflow is vitally important to the health of a stream for many reasons, including buffering temperature, providing good quality water to the stream, and maintaining flow for aquatic organisms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has measured stream stage and flow at thousands of locations since 1889 and has the ability to distribute the information to the public within hours of collection, but collecting shallow groundwater data at co-located measuring sites is a new concept. Recently developed techniques using heat as a tracer to quantify groundwater and surface-water exchanges have shown the value of coupling these resources to increase the understanding of the water resources of an area. In 2009, the USGS Office of Groundwater began a pilot study to examine the feasibility and utility of widespread use of real-time groundwater monitoring at streambank wells coupled with real-time surface-water monitoring at active streamgages to assist in understanding the exchange of groundwater and surface water in a cost effective manner.

  16. Two new proanthocyanidin trimers isolated from Cistus incanus L. demonstrate potent anti-inflammatory activity and selectivity to cyclooxygenase isoenzymes inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, K A; Matalka, K Z; Qa'dan, F S; Awad, R; Schmidt, M

    2016-09-01

    Two new proanthocyanidin trimers have been isolated from Cistus incanus herb; gallocatechin-(4α→6)-gallocatechin-(4α→8)-gallocatechin (compound 1) and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate-(4ß→8)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate-(4ß→8)-gallocatechin (compound 2). The structures were determined on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR (HSQC, HMBC) of their peracetylated derivatives, MALDI-TOF-MS and by acid-catalysed degradation with phloroglucinol. A more abundant proanthocyanidin oligomer was also isolated, purified and its chemical constitution studied by (13)C-NMR and phloroglucinol degradation. The mean molecular weight of the polymer was estimated to be about 7 to 8 flavan-3-ol-units with a ratio of procyanidin : prodelphinidin units at 1:5, some of which are derivatised by gallic acid. Water extract and higher oligomeric proanthocyanidin fractions of C. incanus significantly inhibited TPA-induced oedema when applied topically at doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/ear in mice. Furthermore, the extracts and the pure compounds inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 activities. In addition, compound 2 exhibited an IC50 of 4.5 μM against COX-2 indicating its high selectivity towards COX-2.

  17. DESIGN OF OPTIMAL CARRY SKIP ADDER AND CARRY SKIP BCD ADDER USING REVERSIBLE LOGIC GATES

    OpenAIRE

    Praveena Murugesan; Thanushkodi Keppanagounder

    2014-01-01

    Reversible logic circuits have the ability to produce zero power dissipation which has found its importance in quantum computing, optical computing and low power digital circuits. The study presents improved and efficient reversible logic circuits for carry skip adder and carry skip BCD adder. The performance of the proposed architecture is better than the existing works in terms of gate count, garbage outputs and constant inputs. This design forms the basis for different quantum ALU and embe...

  18. IMPROVED LIGHT MICROSCOPIC DEMONSTRATION OF D-AMINO-ACID OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CRYOTOME SECTIONS USING CERIUM IONS AS CAPTURING AND AMPLIFYING AGENT - THE CE/CE-H2O2-DAB PROCEDURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALBHUBER, KJ; FEUERSTEIN, H; ZIMMERMANN, N; KLINGER, M; KALICHARAN, D; HUPFER, U

    1991-01-01

    The light microscopical demonstration of D-amino acid oxidase (AAOX) activity with cerium (Ce III) as the capturing agent was improved. The incubation medium was stabilized by the employment of triethanolamine and detrane complexed cerium. A considerable increase in intensity of the reaction was

  19. LIGHT AND ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC DEMONSTRATION OF THE OUABAIN-SENSITIVE, POTASSIUM-DEPENDENT P-NITROPHENYLPHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY (K-NPPASE) USING A CE-MG-DOUBLE CAPTURE TECHNIQUE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GLIESING, M; KALICHARAN, D; HALBHUBER, KJ

    The cerium-based method of Kobayashi et al. for the histochemical demonstration of K-NPPase activity was improved. Besides Ce3+ additionally Mg2+ ions as orthophosphate capture were employed (double capture technique). For light microscopical purposes the Mg-phosphate was converted into Ce-phosphate

  20. Non-clinical and Pre-clinical Testing to Demonstrate Safety of the Barostim Neo Electrode for Activation of Carotid Baroreceptors in Chronic Human Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth J. Wilks

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Barostim neo™ electrode was developed by CVRx, Inc.to deliver baroreflex activation therapy (BAT™ to treat hypertension and heart failure. The neo electrode concept was designed to deliver electrical stimulation to the baroreceptors within the carotid sinus bulb, while minimizing invasiveness of the implant procedure. This device is currently CE marked in Europe, and in a Pivotal (akin to Phase III Trial in the United States. Here we present the in vitro and in vivo safety testing that was completed in order to obtain necessary regulatory approval prior to conducting human studies in Europe, as well as an FDA Investigational Device Exemption (IDE to conduct a Pivotal Trial in the United States. Stimulated electrodes (10 mA, 500 μs, 100 Hz were compared to unstimulated electrodes using optical microscopy and several electrochemical techniques over the course of 27 weeks. Electrode dissolution was evaluated by analyzing trace metal content of solutions in which electrodes were stimulated. Lastly, safety testing under Good Laboratory Practice guidelines was conducted in an ovine animal model over a 12 and 24 week time period, with results processed and evaluated by an independent histopathologist. Long-term stimulation testing indicated that the neo electrode with a sputtered iridium oxide coating can be stimulated at maximal levels for the lifetime of the implant without clinically significant dissolution of platinum or iridium, and without increasing the potential at the electrode interface to cause hydrolysis or significant tissue damage. Histological examination of tissue that was adjacent to the neo electrodes indicated no clinically significant signs of increased inflammation and no arterial stenosis as a result of 6 months of continuous stimulation. The work presented here involved rigorous characterization and evaluation testing of the neo electrode, which was used to support its safety for chronic implantation. The testing

  1. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  2. TENCompetence tool demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2009). TENCompetence tool demonstration. Presented at Zorgacademie Parkstad (Health Academy Parkstad), Limburg Leisure Academy, Life Long Learning Limburg and a number of regional educational institutions. May, 18, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, T

  3. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  4. Pancreaticopleural fistula : CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung [Chuncheon Medical Center, ChunChon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the pancreaticopleural fistula is known to cause recurrent exudative or hemorrhagic pleural effusions. These are often large in volume and require treatment, unlike the effusions in acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis can be made either by the finding of elevated pleural fluid amylase level or, using imaging studies, by the direct demonstration of the fistulous tract. We report two cases of pancreaticopleural fistula demonstrated by computed tomography.

  5. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  6. Testability Synthesis for Jumping Carry Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-In Henry Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis for testability ensures that the synthesized circuit is testable by exploring the fundamental relationship between don't care and redundancy. With the exploration of the relationship, redundancy removal can be applied to improve the testability, reduce the area and improve the speed of a synthesized circuit. The test generation problems have been adequately solved, therefore an innovative testability synthesis strategy is necessary for achieving the maximum fault coverage and area reduction for maximum speed. This paper presents a testability synthesis methodology applicable to a top–down design method based on the identification and removal of redundant faults. Emphasis has been placed on the testability synthesis of a high-speed binary jumping carry adder. A synthesized 32-bit testable adder implemented by a 1.2 μm CMOS technology performs addition in 4.09 ns. Comparing with the original synthesized circuit, redundancy removal yields a 100% testable design with a 15% improvement in speed and a 25% reduction in area.

  7. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  8. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  9. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner {trademark}/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist{trademark}/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals.

  10. Development of Oxygen-Carrying Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-10-16

    pistol and filling tho m.gnetio tube with activo sample; the oxygon was pumped off at 100° usinc nn aspirator. On removing the tube after measure...middle one was brown, resembling the activo form not previously observed, Activo sample (b) was activated in tho magnetic tube by heating at 170...and pumping by a ITolson pump. The data scorns to indicate that the activo 3omplo picks UD water rapidly and becomes inactive (see Report JUULVIIX

  11. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  12. Efficient carry skip Adder design using full adder and carry skip block based on reversible Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Pratap Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Reversible Logic is becoming more and more prominent technology having its applications in Quantum Computing, Nanotechnology, and Optical Computing. Reversibility plays an important role when energy efficient computations are considered. In this paper, binary full Adder with Design I and Design II are proposed. The performance analysis is verified using number of reversible gates, Garbage input/outputs, delay, number of logical calculations and Quantum Cost. According to the suitability of full adder design I and design II carry skip adder block is also constructed with some improvement in terms of delay in block carry generation. It is observed that Reversible carry skip Binary Adder with Design II is efficient compared to Design I

  13. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  14. Demonstrating Supernova Remnant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Denis A.; Williams, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    We have created a software tool to calculate at display supernova remnant evolution which includes all stages from early ejecta dominated phase to late-time merging with the interstellar medium. The software was created using Python, and can be distributed as Python code, or as an executable file. The purpose of the software is to demonstrate the different phases and transitions that a supernova remnant undergoes, and will be used in upper level undergraduate astrophysics courses as a teaching tool. The usage of the software and its graphical user interface will be demonstrated.

  15. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  16. Targeted drug-carrying bacteriophages as antibacterial nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoby, Iftach; Bar, Hagit; Benhar, Itai

    2007-06-01

    While the resistance of bacteria to traditional antibiotics is a major public health concern, the use of extremely potent antibacterial agents is limited by their lack of selectivity. As in cancer therapy, antibacterial targeted therapy could provide an opportunity to reintroduce toxic substances to the antibacterial arsenal. A desirable targeted antibacterial agent should combine binding specificity, a large drug payload per binding event, and a programmed drug release mechanism. Recently, we presented a novel application of filamentous bacteriophages as targeted drug carriers that could partially inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This partial success was due to limitations of drug-loading capacity that resulted from the hydrophobicity of the drug. Here we present a novel drug conjugation chemistry which is based on connecting hydrophobic drugs to the phage via aminoglycoside antibiotics that serve as solubility-enhancing branched linkers. This new formulation allowed a significantly larger drug-carrying capacity of the phages, resulting in a drastic improvement in their performance as targeted drug-carrying nanoparticles. As an example for a potential systemic use for potent agents that are limited for topical use, we present antibody-targeted phage nanoparticles that carry a large payload of the hemolytic antibiotic chloramphenicol connected through the aminoglycoside neomycin. We demonstrate complete growth inhibition toward the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli with an improvement in potency by a factor of approximately 20,000 compared to the free drug.

  17. Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

  18. Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L.; Fowler, Veronica L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analys

  19. Arctic Craft Demonstration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    it received a lot of attention from the local population. Demonstration personnel, both Coast Guard and contractors, were asked to be receptive to...www.uscg.mil/top/missions/ . Counter-Drug Interdiction and Alien Migrant Interdiction operations are currently not included. In the non-Polar regions

  20. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  1. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  2. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  3. Passive damping technology demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert E.; Spencer, Susan M.; Austin, Eric M.; Johnson, Conor D.

    1995-05-01

    A Hughes Space Company study was undertaken to (1) acquire the analytical capability to design effective passive damping treatments and to predict the damped dynamic performance with reasonable accuracy; (2) demonstrate reasonable test and analysis agreement for both baseline and damped baseline hardware; and (3) achieve a 75% reduction in peak transmissibility and 50% reduction in rms random vibration response. Hughes Space Company teamed with CSA Engineering to learn how to apply passive damping technology to their products successfully in a cost-effective manner. Existing hardware was selected for the demonstration because (1) previous designs were lightly damped and had difficulty in vibration test; (2) multiple damping concepts could be investigated; (3) the finite element model, hardware, and test fixture would be available; and (4) damping devices could be easily implemented. Bracket, strut, and sandwich panel damping treatments that met the performance goals were developed by analysis. The baseline, baseline with damped bracket, and baseline with damped strut designs were built and tested. The test results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions and demonstrated that the desired reduction in dynamic response could be achieved. Having successfully demonstrated this approach, it can now be used with confidence for future designs as a means for reducing weight and enhancing reliability.

  4. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are no

  5. Distance Learning Environment Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Distance Learning Environment Demonstration (DLED) was a comparative study of distributed multimedia computer-based training using low cost high...measurement. The DLED project provides baseline research in the effective use of distance learning and multimedia communications over a wide area ATM/SONET

  6. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  7. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  8. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eEsposito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favour their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g. mothers’ automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries, and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother-infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g. in humans, big cats and rodents. These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/ her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/ she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother-infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants’ physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g. Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Perinatal Brain Disorders.

  9. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Setoh, Peipei; Yoshida, Sachine; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favor their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g., mothers' automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries), and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother-infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g., in humans, big cats, and rodents). These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother-infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants' physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorders and perinatal brain disorders).

  10. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  11. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  12. The Majorana Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Aguayo, E; Hoppe, E W; Keillor, M E; Kephart, J D; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Merriman, J; Orrell, J L; Overman, N R; Avignone, F T; Back, H O; Combs, D C; Leviner, L E; Young, A R; Barabash, A S; Konovalov, S I; Vanyushin, I; Yumatov, V; Bergevin, M; Chan, Y-D; Detwiler, J A; Loach, J C; Martin, R D; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Vetter, K; Bertrand, F E; Cooper, R J; Radford, D C; Varner, R L; Yu, C -H; Boswell, M; Elliott, S R; Gehman, V M; Hime, A; Kidd, M F; LaRoque, B H; Rielage, K; Ronquest, M C; Steele, D; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Gusey, K; Kochetov, O; Shirchenko, M; Timkin, V; Yakushev, E; Busch, M; Esterline, J; Tornow, W; Christofferson, C D; Horton, M; Howard, S; Sobolev, V; Collar, J I; Fields, N; Creswick, R J; Doe, P J; Johnson, R A; Knecht, A; Leon, J; Marino, M G; Miller, M L; Robertson, R G H; Schubert, A G; Wolfe, B A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Hazama, R; Nomachi, M; Shima, T; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Henning, R; Howe, M A; MacMullin, S; Phillips, D G; Snavely, K J; Strain, J; Vorren, K; Guiseppe, V E; Keller, C; Mei, D -M; Perumpilly, G; Thomas, K; Zhang, C; Hallin, A L; Keeter, K J; Mizouni, L; Wilkerson, J F

    2011-01-01

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program including background reduction techniques is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% in 76Ge is given.

  13. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  14. 情感管理在优质护理服务示范工程活动中的应用效果评价%Application evaluation of emotion management in quality care demonstration project activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯鹤媛; 何剑; 崔映娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨情感管理在优质护理服务示范工程活动中的作用.方法 制订优质护理服务示范工程活动实施方案和考核标准,实施情感管理,通过护理工作质量考核、患者满意度测评进行效果评价.结果 实施前后的护理工作质量、患者满意度均显著提高,差异均有高度统计学意义(均P < 0.01).结论 优质护理服务示范工程活动中实施情感管理可以有效提高护理工作质量和患者满意度,促进优质护理示范工程活动的深入开展.%Objective To explore the role of emotional management in quality care demonstration project activities. Methods Quality care demonstration project activities implementation plan and evaluation standards were developed. The implementation of emotional management, through the quality of care assessment, patient satisfaction measurement for effect e-valuation. Results The quality of care, patient satisfaction before and after implementation were significantly improved, there were significant different (all P < 0.01). Conclusion In the quality care demonstration project activities in the implementation of the emotional management can improve the quality of care, improve patient satisfaction, so as to promote quality care demonstration project activities in depth.

  15. Natural Hazard Demonstrations for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents several demonstrations that have been developed or gathered from other sources in the general area of natural hazards (e.g. landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, wildfires, tsunamis, mass movements, asteroid impacts, etc.). There are many methods of teaching, but as university lecturers, particularly for large class sizes, we find ourselves too often presenting material to students by direct speaking, or some combination of blackboard/whiteboard/slide projector/digital projector. There are certainly a number of techniques to more actively involve students, so that teaching is not just `receiving of information', including breaking up students into small group discussions, encouraging students to actively participate in class through comments and questions, and/or some combination of hands-on activities and demonstrations. It is this latter which is concentrated on here. As a teaching tool, the students themselves became much more excited about what they are learning if use is made of 5--10 minute demonstrations, even if only peripherally related to the subject at hand. The resultant discussion with questions and comments by students keeps both the students and the lecturer (in this case the author) motivated and intrigued about the subjects being discussed. Days, weeks, and months later, the students remember these `demonstrations', but to set these up takes time, effort, and resources of equipment, although not necessarily a large amount of the latter. Several natural hazards demonstrations are presented here, most inexpensive, that have been used in front of large university classes and smaller `break-out groups', and which can also be adapted for secondary-school students.

  16. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, David L.; Mills, Raymond A.; Bowden, Mary L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) was to create a near-term Shuttle flight experiment focusing on the deployment and erection of structural truss elements. The activities of the MIT Space Systems Laboratory consist of three major areas: preparing and conducting neutral buoyancy simulation test series; producing a formal SADE Experiment plan; and studying the structural dynamics issues of the truss structure. Each of these areas is summarized.

  17. Final Demonstrator Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workspace

    2003-01-01

    The WorkSPACE project aims to create an integrated environment for collaborative  work activities that can be distributed over a variety of spaces and that mixes digital  and physical materials. We have termed this ‘spatial computing’ because much of the  functionality is provided through...

  18. Demonstration: Genetic Jewelry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Thomas; Roderick, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    In order for students to understand genetics and evolution, they must first understand the structure of the DNA molecule. The function of DNA proceeds from its unique structure, a structure beautifully adapted for information storage, transcription, translation into amino acid sequences, replication, and time travel. The activity described in this…

  19. Efficient Approaches for Designing Fault Tolerant Reversible Carry Look-Ahead and Carry-Skip Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar

    2010-01-01

    Combinational or Classical logic circuits dissipate heat for every bit of information that is lost. Information is lost when the input vector cannot be recovered from its corresponding output vector. Reversible logic circuit implements only the functions having one-to-one mapping between its input and output vectors and therefore naturally takes care of heating. Reversible logic design becomes one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its application in low power CMOS design, digital signal processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents the efficient approaches for designing fault tolerant reversible fast adders that implement carry look-ahead and carry-skip logic. The proposed high speed reversible adders include MIG gates for the realization of its basic building block. The MIG gate is universal and parity preserving. It allows any fault that affects no more than a single signal readily detectable at the circuit's primary outputs...

  20. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    . This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses...... of control, driven by such challenges as complying with cost goals, the need to choose a German prefab supplier, and local contractors. Energy calculations, indoor climate, issues related to square meter requirements, and the hydrogen element became problematic. The aim to obtain passive house certification...

  1. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    , and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...... encompasses both an evaluation of the design and Construction process as well as a post-occupancy evaluation. Process experiences include the use of a multidisciplinary competence group and performance measurement. The commencement of the project was enthusiastic, but it was forced into more traditional forms...

  2. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  3. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  4. Education Demonstration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A.; Lee, R. L.

    2003-10-01

    The General Atomics fusion education program ``Scientist in the Classroom" (SIC) now in its sixth year, uses scientists and engineers to present plasma as a state of matter to students in the classroom. Using hands-on equipment, students see how magnets, gas pressure changes, and different gases are turned into plasmas. A piston, sealed volume, and vacuum chamber illuminate ideal gas laws. Liquid nitrogen is used to explore thermodynamic temperature effects and changes in states of matter. Light bulbs are excited with a Tesla coil to ionize gases, thus becoming an inexpensive plasma devices and a plasma tube shows magnetic interactions with plasma. The demonstration equipment used in this program is built with simple designs and common commercial equipment keeping in mind a teacher's tight budget. The SIC program ( ˜25 school presentations per year) has become very popular and has acquired an enthusiastic group of regular teacher clientele requesting repeat visits. In addition, three very popular and successful ``Build-It" days, sponsored by the General Atomics Fusion Education Outreach Program, enables teachers to build and keep in their classroom some of this equipment. The demonstration devices will be presented along with their ``build-it" details.

  5. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  6. CERTAINTY EQUIVALENCE FOR DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL FERTILIZER APPLICATION RATES WITH CARRY-OVER

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C. Robert

    1983-01-01

    This note demonstrates that a certain class of stochastic problems for determination of optimal fertilizer application rates in the presence of fertilizer carry-over can be simplified to static, certainly equivalent problems. Conditions required for certainty equivalence to hold are: (1) fertilizer carry-over is agronomically equivalent to applied fertilizer; and (2) some addition of fertilizer is optimal in every decision period.

  7. Carrying capacity in agriculture: environmental significance and some related patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Alexandre M

    2009-06-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important and possibly the oldest economic activity developed by humans. This activity was developed extensively and is becoming more and more dependent on development of technologies. The goal of this manuscript was examining some patents related to technologies developed for improving crop yields. Such patents are mainly related to more efficient formulations of agrochemicals and management techniques of plants, cattle and natural resources. A brief comment is carried out about bioprospection and related problems, relating, for example the case of Cupuaçu. The article is concluded mentioning that the development of policies and management strategies that increase agricultural yield and simultaneously preserve or conserve natural resources should also be prioritized, because certainly this is the only way we have to get the real sustainability and to improve life quality abroad the world.

  8. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  9. Ultraviolet B-exposed major histocompatibility complex class II positive keratinocytes and antigen-presenting cells demonstrate a differential capacity to activate T cells in the presence of staphylococcal superantigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, L.; Baadsgaard, O. [Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Dermatology

    1996-05-01

    In this study we tested the capacity of ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II{sup +} keratinocytes, monocytes and dendritic cells to activate T cells in the presence of Staphylococcus enterotoxin B. We demonstrated that UVB irradiation of MHC class II{sup +} keratinocytes does not change their capacity to activate T cells in the presence of Staphylococcus enterotoxin B. In contrast, UVB irradiation of antigen-presenting cells decreases their capacity to activate T cells. The differential capacity to activate T cells after UVB irradiation was not due to factors released from UVB-irradiated cells. The interferon-{gamma} induced upregulation of HLA-DR and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on keratinocytes does not seem to be the only explanation, since UVB irradiation decreased the accessory cell function of interferon-{gamma} pretreated monocytes. Differential requirements for and UVB regulation of costimulatory molecules may be involved, since blocking of the B7/CD28 pathway affects the capacity of dendritic cells but not keratinocytes to activate T cells in the presence of Staphylococcus enterotoxin B. Thus, MHC class II{sup +} keratinocytes in the presence of superantigens released from staphylococci may activate T cells and maintain inflammation despite UVB treatment. (Author).

  10. A Century-Old Question: Does a Crookes Paddle Wheel Cathode Ray Tube Demonstrate That Electrons Carry Momentum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, T. E.; Calisa, Vaishnavi

    2014-01-01

    In 1879, in the midst of the debate between English and continental scientists about the nature of cathode rays, William Crookes conducted an experiment in which a small mill or "paddle wheel" was pushed along tracks inside a cathode ray tube (CRT) (similar to that shown in Fig. 1) when connected to a high-voltage induction coil. Crookes…

  11. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  12. A Brief Discussion on How to Effectively Carry out Oral English Activities in Public English Audio-Visual-Oral Classroom in Higher Vocational Colleges%浅谈如何有效开展高职公共英语视听说课堂口语活动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑筱筠

    2015-01-01

    高职公共英语视听说课程旨在提高学生的英语交际水平,根据高职学生的特点,在满足高职学生需求的前提下,如何利用有限课堂时间展开一些实用、有效、操作性强的课堂口语活动是视听说教学的研究重点。本文参考建构主义学习理论,探讨了高职公共英语视听说课堂口语活动设计应遵循的原则和相关步骤。%Higher vocational public English audio-visual-oral course is aimed at improving students' English communication a-bility. In accordance with the characteristics of higher vocational students, under the premise of meeting the requirement of higher vocational students, how to use the limited classroom time to car-ry out some practical, effective and operational classroom oral English activities is the research focus of audio-visual-oral teaching. Referring to constructivism learning theory, this paper explores the principles that should be followed and related mea-sures in designing oral English activities in higher vocational public English audio-visual-oral classroom.

  13. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  14. Nuclear power demonstrating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, V. V.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1980-08-12

    Apparatus for demonstrating the operation of a closed loop nuclear steam electric generating plant includes a transparent boiler assembly having immersion heating elements, which may be quartz lamps or stainless steel encased resistive immersion heating units with a quartz iodide lamp providing a source of visible radiation when using the encased immersion heating units. A variable voltage autotransformer is geared to a support rod for simulated reactor control rods for controlling the energy delivered to the heating elements and arranged so that when the voltage is high, the rods are withdrawn from the boiler to produce increased heating and illumination proportional to rod position, thereby simulating nuclear reaction. A relief valve, steam outlet pipe and water inlet pipe are connected to the boiler with a small stainless steel resistive heating element in the steam outlet pipe providing superheat. This heater is connected in series with a rheostat mounted on the front panel to provide superheat adjustments and an interlock switch that prevents the superheater from being energized when the steam valve is off with with no flow through the superheater. A heavy blue plastic radiation shield surrounds the boiler inside a bell jar.

  15. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  16. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  17. Fault tolerant reversible logic synthesis: Carry look-ahead and carry-skip adders

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar; 10.1109/ACTEA.2009.5227871

    2010-01-01

    Irreversible logic circuits dissipate heat for every bit of information that is lost. Information is lost when the input vector cannot be recovered from its corresponding output vector. Reversible logic circuit naturally takes care of heating because it implements only the functions that have one-to-one mapping between its input and output vectors. Therefore reversible logic design becomes one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its application in low power CMOS design, digital signal processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents the efficient approaches for designing reversible fast adders that implement carry look-ahead and carry-skip logic. The proposed 16-bit high speed reversible adder will include IG gates for the realization of its basic building block. The IG gate is universal in the sense that it can be used to synthesize any arbitrary Boolean-functions. The IG gate is parity preserving, that is, the parity of the input...

  18. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR radioassay program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Arnquist, I.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Back, H.O. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Barabash, A.S. [National Research Center, “Kurchatov Institute” Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boswell, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, A.W. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Buuck, M. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Byram, D. [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Caldwell, A.S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, Y.-D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christofferson, C.D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chu, P.-H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); and others

    2016-08-21

    The MAJORANA collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope {sup 76}Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are sufficiently pure is described. The resulting measurements from gamma-ray counting, neutron activation and mass spectroscopy of the radioactive-isotope contamination for the materials studied for use in the detector are reported. We interpret these numbers in the context of the expected background for the experiment.

  19. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR radioassay program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, H. O.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunmore, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Finnerty, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, V. M.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, D.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-08-01

    The MAJORANA collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope 76Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are sufficiently pure is described. The resulting measurements from gamma-ray counting, neutron activation and mass spectroscopy of the radioactive-isotope contamination for the materials studied for use in the detector are reported. We interpret these numbers in the context of the expected background for the experiment.

  20. Demonstration of KVN phase referencing capability

    CERN Document Server

    Tremou, Evangelia; Chung, Aeree; Sohn, Bong Won

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations using the phase reference technique to detect weak Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) cores in the Virgo cluster. Our observations were carried out using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN). We have selected eight representative radio galaxies, seven Virgo cluster members and one galaxy (NGC 4261) that is likely to be in the background. The selected galaxies are located in a range of density regions showing various morphology in 1.4 GHz continuum. Since half of our targets are too weak to be detected at K-band we applied a phase referencing technique to extend the source integration time by calibrating atmospheric phase fluctuations. We discuss the results of the phase referencing method at high frequency observations and we compare them with self-calibration on the relatively bright AGNs, such as M87, M84 and NGC 4261. In this manuscript we present the radio intensity maps at 22 GHz of the Virgo cluster sample while we demonstrate for first ...

  1. Saliva microbiota carry caries-specific functional gene signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    Full Text Available Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis.

  2. Shortened telomere length is demonstrated in T-cell subsets together with a pronounced increased telomerase activity in CD4 positive T cells from blood of patients with mycosis fungoides and parapsoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K D; Hansen, E R

    2001-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that telomerase activity is increased and telomere length shortened in lymphocytes from peripheral blood of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In order to determine which cell type has increased telomerase activity and shortened telomere length, CD4+, CD8+, CLA+ CD3+ and CLA- CD3+ T cells were isolated from peripheral blood of 25 patients, including 15 patients with mycosis fungoides and 10 patients with parapsoriasis. Eleven healthy individuals were used as controls; CD19+ B cells were separated from each individual as an internal control. The results showed that the increased telomerase activity was significantly predominating in the CD4+ T-cell subset. Significantly shortened telomere length was found in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets from the patients compared with the same cell subsets obtained from healthy individuals. However, no difference was observed between the subsets; CD19+ B cells collected from patients and healthy control individuals had similar telomerase activity and telomere length which was significantly different from the values found in T cells. The telomere length was significantly shorter in CLA+ CD3+ subset than in CLA- CD3+ subset. Interestingly, increased telomerase activity and shortened telomere length was also detected in CD4+ T cells from patients with parapsoriasis indicating that alteration of telomerase activity and telomere length in CD4+ T cells is an early event in the pathogenesis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Thus, the results indicate that a significant high level of telomerase activity and shortened telomere length frequently occur in T cells of patients with CTCL and may reflect tumorigenesis.

  3. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0{sub 2} removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0{sub 2} emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  4. Doxorubicin-conjugated bacteriophages carrying anti-MHC class I chain-related A for targeted cancer therapy in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phumyen, Achara; Jantasorn, Siriporn; Jumnainsong, Amonrat; Leelayuwat, Chanvit

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer therapy by systemic administration of anticancer drugs, besides the effectiveness shown on cancer cells, demonstrated the side effects and cytotoxicity on normal cells. The targeted drug-carrying nanoparticles may decrease the required drug concentration at the site and the distribution of drugs to normal tissues. Overexpression of major histocompatibility complex class I chain–related A (MICA) in cancer is useful as a targeted molecule for the delivery of doxorubicin to MICA-expressing cell lines. Methods The application of 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide (EDC) chemistry was employed to conjugate the major coat protein of bacteriophages carrying anti-MICA and doxorubicin in a mildly acid condition. Doxorubicin (Dox) on phages was determined by double fluorescence of phage particles stained by M13-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and drug autofluorescence by flow cytometry. The ability of anti-MICA on phages to bind MICA after doxorubicin conjugation was evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One cervical cancer and four cholangiocarcinoma cell lines expressing MICA were used as models to evaluate targeting activity by cell cytotoxicity test. Results Flow cytometry and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that most of the phages (82%) could be conjugated with doxorubicin, and the Dox-carrying phage-displaying anti-MICA (Dox-phage) remained the binding activity against MICA. Dox-phage was more efficient than free drugs in killing all the cell lines tested. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Dox-phage were lower than those of free drugs at approximately 1.6–6 times depending on MICA expressions and the cell lines tested. Conclusion Evidently, the application of 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide chemistry is effective to conjugate doxorubicin and major coat protein of bacteriophages without destroying binding activity of MICA antibodies. Dox-carrying

  5. Smart Sensor Demonstration Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzel, John; Bracey, Andrew; Rawls, Stephen; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Figueroa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Sensors are a critical element to any monitoring, control, and evaluation processes such as those needed to support ground based testing for rocket engine test. Sensor applications involve tens to thousands of sensors; their reliable performance is critical to achieving overall system goals. Many figures of merit are used to describe and evaluate sensor characteristics; for example, sensitivity and linearity. In addition, sensor selection must satisfy many trade-offs among system engineering (SE) requirements to best integrate sensors into complex systems [1]. These SE trades include the familiar constraints of power, signal conditioning, cabling, reliability, and mass, and now include considerations such as spectrum allocation and interference for wireless sensors. Our group at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) works in the broad area of integrated systems health management (ISHM). Core ISHM technologies include smart and intelligent sensors, anomaly detection, root cause analysis, prognosis, and interfaces to operators and other system elements [2]. Sensor technologies are the base fabric that feed data and health information to higher layers. Cost-effective operation of the complement of test stands benefits from technologies and methodologies that contribute to reductions in labor costs, improvements in efficiency, reductions in turn-around times, improved reliability, and other measures. ISHM is an active area of development at SSC because it offers the potential to achieve many of those operational goals [3-5].

  6. Demonstration projects : learning by experience : the Seabird Island demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-10-15

    This article described the Seabird Island sustainable community housing demonstration project near Agassiz, British Columbia. The project provides a sustainable, affordable place for 7 families and demonstrates a new way to build and design communities using renewable energy technologies to provide residents with better quality, energy efficient housing while reducing costs and minimizing environmental impacts. The design integrates renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and geothermal energy to save on heating and lighting costs. This article noted some of the dubious design features that could have been screened out at the design stage if careful analysis had been carried out. It described features such as the solar orientation; climatic factors that influenced the form and details of the building; the high-efficiency, condensing, natural gas water heater for space heating combined with a forced-air and radiant-floor heating system; solariums that provided solar preheating of domestic hot water; ventilation air preheating; the solar roof; an earth-tube ventilation system; and 3 wind turbines to generate electricity to offset conventional electricity sources. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation has monitored several of the systems in order to evaluate the extent to which these features have influenced the performance of the dwelling units. The energy use in all 7 units was documented along with indoor air quality. An energy performance rating of EnerGuide 80 was achieved, which is comparable to R-2000. The monitoring study revealed that wind energy at this location was not sufficient to justify the installation of the wind turbines. The solar steel roof/solarium energy system did not perform as expected. In addition, the earth-tube ventilation system provided little heat and its overall contribution to ventilation was uncertain. Other deficiencies were also noted, such as leaky ductwork, non-operational dampers and poorly integrated control systems. The

  7. Effectiveness evaluation of demonstration community foundation activity of national healthy lifestyle action in Kaifeng%开封市全民健康生活方式行动"示范社区"创建活动效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建富; 张璐; 吕全军; 徐文丽; 罗奇

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解开封市顺河回族区全民健康生活方式行动"示范社区"创建活动开展效果,为开封市"示范社区"创建工作提供经验.方法 采用整群抽样的方法,抽取普通社区居民148人和"示范社区"居民197人进行问卷调查分析,采用Exce1、SPSS17.0软件进行统计分析.结果 普通社区和"示范社区"居民对健康生活方式认知程度、不健康生活方式与疾病关系的认知程度、平衡膳食与活动认知程度、不健康生活方式行为的改变和生活指导工具的使用效果均有差异(P0.05).结论 全民健康生活方式行动"示范社区"创建活动效果明显,但需要普及和落实长效机制.%Objective To know effectiveness of demonstration community foundation activity of national healthy lifestyle action in Shunhe Muslims district of Kaifeng. Providing activity experience for demonstration unit foundation task. Mehtods To apply questionnaire to 148 people from ordinary community and 197 people from demonstration community with cluster sampling means. Statistical analysis had been done through Excel and SPSS17. 0 software. Results Healthy lifestyle recognition degree, non - healthy lifestyle relating with disease recognition degree, rational diet and activity recognition degree, change of non - healthy lifestyle and utilizing effectiveness of living guidance instrument of residents of two category communities were different (P 0.05). Conclusions The effectiveness of demonstration unit foundation activity of national healthy lifestyle action was significant, but required overall popularization and carryed out prolonged action mechanism.

  8. Integrated Science Center's Own Resources Carry Out the“Going Out”Model of Science Activities%整合科学中心自身资源开展科普“走出去”的活动模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明

    2015-01-01

    As a youth non-formal science education establishments, Science Center's core philosophy of non-formal education is to promote science and culture, the use of resources in science and technology museum of science, the use of inquiry-based learning as a way to publicize scientific knowledge. By integrating the exhibition venue to teach science, experiments, training and activities, educational resources, science centers relying on “Science and Technology Museum into the campus, into the community”activities to self-discovery science as the main form to carry out science activities“going out”Mode.%科学中心作为青少年的非正规科普教育场所,其非正规教育的核心理念是以提升科学文化素养为目标,利用科技场馆的科普资源,运用探究式的学习方法,向公众宣传科普知识。通过整合科学场馆内的展教、实验、培训以及活动等教育资源,科学中心依托“科技馆进校园”、“进社会”活动,以自我探索发现科学为主要形式,开展科普“走出去”的活动模式。

  9. A Demonstration of the Uncertainty in Predicting the Estrogenic Activity of Individual Chemicals and Mixtures From an In Vitro Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activation Assay (T47D-KBluc) to the In Vivo Uterotrophic Assay Using Oral Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Justin M; Hannas, Bethany R; Furr, Johnathan R; Wilson, Vickie S; Gray, L Earl

    2016-10-01

    In vitro estrogen receptor assays are valuable tools for identifying environmental samples and chemicals that display estrogenic activity. However, in vitro potency cannot necessarily be extrapolated to estimates of in vivo potency because in vitro assays are currently unable to fully account for absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. To explore this issue, we calculated relative potency factors (RPF), using 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) as the reference compound, for several chemicals and mixtures in the T47D-KBluc estrogen receptor transactivation assay. In vitro RPFs were used to predict rat oral uterotrophic assay responses for these chemicals and mixtures. EE2, 17β-estradiol (E2), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-AF (BPAF), bisphenol-C (BPC), bisphenol-S (BPS), and methoxychlor (MET) were tested individually, while BPS + MET, BPAF + MET, and BPAF + BPC + BPS + EE2 + MET were tested as equipotent mixtures. In vivo ED50 values for BPA, BPAF, and BPC were accurately predicted using in vitro data; however, E2 was less potent than predicted, BBP was a false positive, and BPS and MET were 76.6 and 368.3-fold more active in vivo than predicted from the in vitro potency, respectively. Further, mixture ED50 values were more accurately predicted by the dose addition model using individual chemical in vivo uterotrophic data (0.7-1.5-fold difference from observed) than in vitro data (1.4-86.8-fold). Overall, these data illustrate the potential for both underestimating and overestimating in vivo potency from predictions made with in vitro data for compounds that undergo substantial disposition following oral administration. Accounting for aspects of toxicokinetics, notably metabolism, in in vitro models will be necessary for accurate in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolations.

  10. Carrying Capacity of Marine Region in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carrying capacity is one of important studies on coordinating development of population, resources, and environment. At present, the researches on it mainly concentrate on the carrying capacity for population and economy,such as the water resources carrying capacity, the land resources carrying capacity, the environment carrying capacity,etc. Based on the related theories and methods, this paper creatively proposed the concept and meaning of carrying capacity of marine region, and formed the appraisal system. According to the developing situation of marine economy of Liaoning Province in recent years, and by employing the method of the state space, this paper also measured the cartying capacity and carrying state of marine region and discussed the sustainable problems of marine economy of Liaoning. The research results show that the carrying state of marine region of Liaoning is in the state of overloading at present, but taking a favorable turn.

  11. Discovery of highly potent and selective α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonists containing an isoxazolylpyridine ether scaffold that demonstrate antidepressant-like activity. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Fang; Eaton, J Brek; Fedolak, Allison; Zhang, Han-Kun; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Lukas, Ronald J; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2012-11-26

    In our continued efforts to develop α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonists as novel antidepressants having a unique mechanism of action, structure-activity relationship (SAR) exploration of certain isoxazolylpyridine ethers is presented. In particular, modifications to both the azetidine ring present in the starting structure 4 and its metabolically liable hydroxyl side chain substituent have been explored to improve compound druggability. The pharmacological characterization of all new compounds has been carried out using [(3)H]epibatidine binding studies together with functional assays based on (86)Rb(+) ion flux measurements. We found that the deletion of the metabolically liable hydroxyl group or its replacement by a fluoromethyl group not only maintained potency and selectivity but also resulted in compounds showing antidepressant-like properties in the mouse forced swim test. These isoxazolylpyridine ethers appear to represent promising lead candidates in the design of innovative chemical tools containing reporter groups for imaging purposes and of possible therapeutics.

  12. Delay Efficient 32-Bit Carry-Skip Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Shen Lin; Damu Radhakrishnan

    2008-01-01

    The design of a 32-bit carry-skip adder to achieve minimum delay is presented in this paper. A fast carry look-ahead logic using group generate and group propagate functions is used to speed up the performance of multiple stages of ripple carry adders. The group generate and group propagate functions are generated in parallel with the carry generation for each block. The optimum block sizes are decided by considering the critical path into account. The new architecture ...

  13. Interpretations of the Image of Caroline in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱绘

    2014-01-01

    In the history of American naturalistic literature, Sister Carrie is a representative work of this literary genre. And the protagonist of this novel Caroline has always been a controversial character. Based on Sister Carrie and the social background of that period in America, this paper discussed the various interpretations of the image of Carrie from different aspects.

  14. 46 CFR 111.105-35 - Vessels carrying coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying coal. 111.105-35 Section 111.105-35...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-35 Vessels carrying coal. (a) The following are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on a vessel that carries coal: (1) The interior of each...

  15. Wildlife carrying capacities in relation to human settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Eltringham

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Human encroachment into wildlife areas, which has increased almost exponentially over the past few decades, has usually resulted in the elimination of the larger species, particularly the large mammals. This is not an inevitable consequence and this paper considers the extent to which man and wildlife can coexist. There is a linear inverse relationship between human and elephant densities and the reasons for this are discussed with particular reference to Uganda. Such a relationship does not necessarily hold for all species and the outcome of increasing human pressure on wildlife habitats varies with a variety of factors including the species concerned, the rainfall, vegetation, soil and, above all, the attitudes of the people towards wildlife. Wild animals are more likely to be tolerated if they do no harm to human activities or if the harm they do is outweighed by the benefits to be obtained from their exploitation. In many parts of Africa utilisation is likely to be the best hope for the conservation of wildlife. Some examples are given of situations in which worthwhile carrying capacities of wildlife can be maintained in the presence of human activities.

  16. Aerospace Communications Security Technologies Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, James H.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2003-01-01

    In light of the events of September 11, 2001, NASA senior management requested an investigation of technologies and concepts to enhance aviation security. The investigation was to focus on near-term technologies that could be demonstrated within 90 days and implemented in less than 2 years. In response to this request, an internal NASA Glenn Research Center Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Aviation Security Tiger Team was assembled. The 2-year plan developed by the team included an investigation of multiple aviation security concepts, multiple aircraft platforms, and extensively leveraged datalink communications technologies. It incorporated industry partners from NASA's Graphical Weather-in-the-Cockpit research, which is within NASA's Aviation Safety Program. Two concepts from the plan were selected for demonstration: remote "black box," and cockpit/cabin surveillance. The remote "black box" concept involves real-time downlinking of aircraft parameters for remote monitoring and archiving of aircraft data, which would assure access to the data following the loss or inaccessibility of an aircraft. The cockpit/cabin surveillance concept involves remote audio and/or visual surveillance of cockpit and cabin activity, which would allow immediate response to any security breach and would serve as a possible deterrent to such breaches. The datalink selected for the demonstrations was VDL Mode 2 (VHF digital link), the first digital datalink for air-ground communications designed for aircraft use. VDL Mode 2 is beginning to be implemented through the deployment of ground stations and aircraft avionics installations, with the goal of being operational in 2 years. The first demonstration was performed December 3, 2001, onboard the LearJet 25 at Glenn. NASA worked with Honeywell, Inc., for the broadcast VDL Mode 2 datalink capability and with actual Boeing 757 aircraft data. This demonstration used a cockpitmounted camera for video surveillance and a coupling to

  17. Delay Efficient 32-Bit Carry-Skip Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shen Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a 32-bit carry-skip adder to achieve minimum delay is presented in this paper. A fast carry look-ahead logic using group generate and group propagate functions is used to speed up the performance of multiple stages of ripple carry adders. The group generate and group propagate functions are generated in parallel with the carry generation for each block. The optimum block sizes are decided by considering the critical path into account. The new architecture delivers the sum and carry outputs in lesser unit delays than existing carry-skip adders. The adder is implemented in 0.25 m CMOS technology at 3.3 V. The critical delay for the proposed adder is 3.4 nanoseconds. The simulation results show that the proposed adder is 18% faster than the current fastest carry-skip adder.

  18. A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study to demonstrate equivalence in efficacy and safety of CT-P13 compared with innovator infliximab when coadministered with methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: the PLANETRA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Hyun; Hrycaj, Pawel; Miranda, Pedro; Ramiterre, Edgar; Piotrowski, Mariusz; Shevchuk, Sergii; Kovalenko, Volodymyr; Prodanovic, Nenad; Abello-Banfi, Mauricio; Gutierrez-Ureña, Sergio; Morales-Olazabal, Luis; Tee, Michael; Jimenez, Renato; Zamani, Omid; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, HoUng; Park, Won; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of innovator infliximab (INX) and CT-P13, an INX biosimilar, in active rheumatoid arthritis patients with inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Methods Phase III randomised, double-blind, multicentre, multinational, parallel-group study. Patients with active disease despite MTX (12.5–25 mg/week) were randomised to receive 3 mg/kg of CT-P13 (n=302) or INX (n=304) with MTX and folic acid. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 30. Therapeutic equivalence of clinical response according to ACR20 criteria was concluded if the 95% CI for the treatment difference was within ±15%. Secondary endpoints included ACR response criteria, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, change in Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Simplified Disease Activity Index, Clinical Disease Activity Index, as well as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters, safety and immunogenicity. Results At week 30, ACR20 responses were 60.9% for CT-P13 and 58.6% for INX (95% CI −6% to 10%) in the intention-to-treat population. The proportions in CT-P13 and INX groups achieving good or moderate EULAR responses (C reactive protein (CRP)) at week 30 were 85.8% and 87.1%, respectively. Low disease activity or remission according to DAS28–CRP, ACR–EULAR remission rates, ACR50/ACR70 responses and all other PK and PD endpoints were highly similar at week 30. Incidence of drug-related adverse events (35.2% vs 35.9%) and detection of antidrug antibodies (48.4% vs 48.2%) were highly similar for CT-P13 and INX, respectively. Conclusions CT-P13 demonstrated equivalent efficacy to INX at week 30, with a comparable PK profile and immunogenicity. CT-P13 was well tolerated, with a safety profile comparable with that of INX. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01217086 PMID:23687260

  19. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  20. Codes & standards research, development & demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for SDOs to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  1. Decreased myo-inositol to chiro-inositol (M/C) ratios and increased M/C epimerase activity in PCOS theca cells demonstrate increased insulin sensitivity compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimark, Douglas; McAllister, Jan; Larner, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from our and other labs have shown that insulin resistance is associated with an inositol imbalance of excess myo-inositol and deficient chiro-inositol together with a deficiency of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol epimerase in vivo and in vitro. In this report, we utilized well characterized theca cells from normal cycling women, with normal insulin sensitivity, and theca cells from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with increased insulin sensitivity to examine the myo-inositol to chiro-inisitol (M/C) ratio and the myo-inositol to chiro-inositol epimerase activity. PCOS theca cells with increased insulin sensitivity were specifically used to investigate whether the inositol imbalance and myo-inositol to chiro-inositol epimerase are regulated in a similar or the opposite direction than that observed in insulin resistant cells. The results of these studies are the first to demonstrate that in insulin sensitive PCOS theca cells the inositol imbalance goes in the opposite direction to that observed in insulin resistant cells, and there is a decreased M/C ratio and an increased myo-inositol to chiro-inositol epimerase activity. Further biochemical and genetic studies will probe the mechanisms involved.

  2. Protective effect of HSV-mediated gene transfer of nerve growth factor in pyridoxine neuropathy demonstrates functional activity of trkA receptors in large sensory neurons of adult animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Munmun; Goss, James; Lacomis, David; Goins, William C; Glorioso, Joseph C; Mata, Marina; Fink, David J

    2003-02-01

    The distinct distribution of trkA receptors on small neurons and trkC receptors on large neurons in the dorsal root ganglion correlates with the dependence of these two classes of neurons on nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3, respectively, for survival during development. In adult animals, the distribution of high affinity neurotrophin (trk) is complex and overlapping; neurotrophins are not required for cell survival, but may influence cell phenotype and the response to injury. In order to test the functional activity of trkA receptors in the sensory ganglia of adult animals in vivo, we examined the ability of a nerve growth factor-expressing recombinant replication-defective herpes simplex virus-based vector to prevent the selective degeneration of large sensory fibres caused by intoxication with pyridoxine. Transduction of dorsal root ganglion neurons in vivo by subcutaneous inoculation of the nerve growth factor-expressing vector prevented the development of pyridoxine-induced neuropathy measured by electrophysiological, morphological and behavioural measures. These results demonstrate a functional activity of trkA receptors expressed on large neurons in the dorsal root ganglion in mature animals; this observation has important implications for the choice of neurotrophic factors for treatment of peripheral nerve disease.

  3. Experimental Demonstrations in Teaching Chemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi

    2001-01-01

    Presents demonstrations of chemical reactions by employing different features of various compounds that can be altered after a chemical change occurs. Experimental activities include para- and dia-magnetism in chemical reactions, aluminum reaction with base, reaction of acid with carbonates, use of electrochemical cells for demonstrating chemical…

  4. Regional carrying capacity: case studies of Bohai Rim area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Carrying capacity research has been carried out for a long time. However, synthesized carrying capacity researches based on systematic views began only in the 1970s. There is even less work done in China. This paper tries to address both synthesized carrying capacity research and its utilization in China. State spaces method from the systematic science was borrowed to construct the conceptual model of regional carrying capacity. Based on the conceptual model and the surveys in the Bohai Rim area, we construct a representative indicators system for quantifying regional carrying capacity in the Bohai Rim. While employing system dynamic models we simulated the evolving trend of both the regional carrying states and regional carrying capacity from 1999 to 2015. The results proved the statement that Bohai Rim is overall over-capacity for a long time and will be over-capacity in the foreseeable future. Among all the restriction factors, water shortage and environmental pollution stand out to be the two primary obstacles for Bohai Rim's sustainable development.Regional differentiation analysis further indicates that coastal areas of the Bohai Rim burden more than its overall level. However, Shandong province shows some good signs in addressing the regional carrying capacity issues. The research is successful in addressing the quantification of regional carrying capacity issues, but nonetheless it needs further refinery and more information.

  5. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase economic carrying capacity and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in economic carrying capacity can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  6. Glove powder's carrying capacity for latex protein: analysis using the ASTM ELISA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, D; Horton, K; Hickey, V; Daddona, J; Kostyal, D

    2003-01-01

    Glove donning powders carry latex proteins and disperse them into the workplace environment. We have used the ASTM D6499 ELISA to quantify the amount of latex antigen bound to and carried by glove powders. We could differentiate between a small amount of protein actually bound to the powders and a larger amount carried by the powder. Enhanced binding of a major allergen, Hev b 5, to the starch powders was demonstrated by Western blot. The D6499 ELISA is able to measure total latex antigen, soluble and powder bound, simultaneously without the need to centrifuge the samples.

  7. High performance pipelined multiplier with fast carry-save adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Angus

    1990-01-01

    A high-performance pipelined multiplier is described. Its high performance results from the fast carry-save adder basic cell which has a simple structure and is suitable for the Gate Forest semi-custom environment. The carry-save adder computes the sum and carry within two gate delay. Results show that the proposed adder can operate at 200 MHz for a 2-micron CMOS process; better performance is expected in a Gate Forest realization.

  8. Trusted Module Acquisition Through Proof-Carrying Hardware Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    hardware intellectual property (PCHIP) framework, which aims to ensure the trustworthiness of third-party hardware IPs utilizing formal methods. We...published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Trusted Module Acquisition Through Proof-Carrying Hardware Intellectual Property Report Title By...borrowing ideas from the proof carrying code (PCC) in software domain, in this project we introduced the proof carrying hardware intellectual property

  9. Optimal design method for fast carry-skip adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Songjun; Swartzlander, Earl E., Jr.

    2001-11-01

    A carry-skip adder is faster than a ripple carry adder and it has a simple structure. To maximize the speed it is necessary to optimize the width of the blocks that comprise the carry skip adder. This paper presents a simple algorithm to select the size of each block. Assuming that each logic gate has a unit delay, the algorithm achieves slightly faster designs for 64 and 128 bit adders than previous methods developed by Guyot, et al. and Kantabutra.

  10. Organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Vodlozerov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim is analyzing of system of organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in Ukraine in accordance with rules of triathlon international federation. Material & Methods: comparative analysis of process of organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in the world and Ukraine was carried out on basis of specialist literature studying, normative base of sports organizations (triathlon federation. Results: inconsistencies were identified in competitions carried out in cold season, particularity of triathlon that intends overcoming the combined distance without time durations between stages. Conclusions: recommendation in eliminate inconsistencies that affect to performance of triathlon competitions in Ukraine was suggested.

  11. Magnetically Guiding Atoms with Current-Carrying Conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南春; 高伟建; 印建平

    2002-01-01

    We propose a novel magnetic guide for cold neutral atoms using some current-carrying conductors. The spatial distributions of the magnetic fields from a V-shaped or U-shaped current-carrying conductor are calculated, and the relationship between the resulting magnetic field and the parameters of the current-carrying conductors is analysed in detail. The result shows that these current-carrying conductors can be used to realize a single or a controllable double magnetic guide of cold atoms in the weak-field-seeking state, and to construct various atom-optical elements, and even to realize a single-mode atomic waveguiding under certain conditions.

  12. Form and Function of Carrying Tools in Traditional and Contemporary Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriana Werdhaningsih

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Javanese Traditional Carrying Tools are categorized into two kinds based used of materials: anyaman made of woven bamboo or rattan and the other was made of cloth. The Traditional Javanese Carrying Tools that were made of bamboo/ rattan is actually a kind of container with different shapes. The types of goods that were brought was related to the shapes of the containers, demonstrate the type of interactions between the carrier and the goods. The Traditional Carrying Tools made of cloth have the flexibility in terms of being the containers of the carried goods. Selendang is used to carry goods, including the bamboo/ rattan containers and to carry babies. It can be used rumpled and straightened depends on the technical needs of carrying tools preferred by the user. In contemporary culture, the form and design of carrying tools more less construct by fashion and trends besides those practical used. Some product are being 'classic', some other are being 'fad'. Both products, traditional and contemporary have their own style, uniqueness, and own context. Analyzing both in design point of view is important as evaluation process, to finding new problems that will be starting point to create new products. Indonesia is well known for its abundant richness in traditions, which include the culture, the art, and the traditional products. Such treasure of traditions can inspire the development and invention of various kinds of artwork and current products.

  13. A Feminist Reading of Sister Carrie: Carrie——the Aspiring Cinderella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷娟

    2008-01-01

    Like Cinderella in the fairy tale Cinderella, Carrie is beautiful, innocent and poor. But unlike the traditional Cinderella who mindlessly waits around for a handsome prince to come to her rescue, Carrie, the aspiring Cinderella, resolvedly leaves the men she ever depended on and eventually becomes a successful actress. Sister Carrie, the most impressive heroine of Theodore Dreiser, is a contradictory character. Some accuse her of realizing her ambition with immoral means. However, some others take sympathy with her courage, determination, and aspiration. By analyzing the most distinguished quality of Sister Carrie - her aspiration, this essay is to illustrate from the perspective of feminism that women are not limited by their sex. Ignoring her own sex as well as the conventional attitude toward women in a male-dominated society, sister Carrie, full of aspiration, takes an active pan in creating and determining her own lives and her own futures..

  14. Training to Increase Safe Tray Carrying among Cocktail Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Megan D.; Wilder, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of training on proper carrying techniques among 3 cocktail servers to increase safe tray carrying on the job and reduce participants' risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. As participants delivered drinks to their tables, their finger, arm, and neck positions were observed and recorded. Each participant received…

  15. 46 CFR 185.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 185.340 Section 185.340... TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must be stowed in such a manner as to permit both passengers and crew to get...

  16. 46 CFR 122.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 122.340 Section 122.340... Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 122.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must... vehicles freely in the event of fire or other disaster. The decks, where necessary, must be...

  17. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor unless...

  18. The Disillusion of American Dream in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晴

    2016-01-01

    Dreiser is a generally acknowledged writer as one of American's literary naturalists. In Sister Carrie, the author skillfully used the naturalistic writing style which incisively and vividly showed the society environment at that time. The paper states the process that how the American dream in Sister Carrie disillusioned gradually.

  19. [Pathological features of hepatocellular carcinoma carrying hepatitis C virus antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Zhu, S; Zhang, X

    1997-10-01

    To analyze the pathological features of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) carrying different hepatitis virus antigens histopathologically and systematically. PAP and ABC kits were used in the immunohistochemical study, and CAS-200 System was applied in the image cytometry. As compared with HCCs carrying HBV marker(s), the HCCs carrying HCV marker showed more cases of clear cell type (7/9 vs 4/33), better differentiation of cancers, less necrosis of hepatocytes, milder lymphocyte infiltration in the hepatic sinuses or periportal areas (P < 0.01), higher incidence of bile ductule damages, and bore a close relation to the formation of lymphoid follicle in the surrounding tissues (P < 0.05). These patients were elder, with lower grade of symptoms and better prognosis after operation. HCCs carrying only HCAg have different pathological features and clinical characteristics from which carrying HBV marker(s). The results of image cytometry are in accordance with the biological behaviour of HCC.

  20. The study of environmental carrying capacity for sustainable tourism in Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park, Dieng Plateu, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melat Aryasa, Alexander; Nur Bambang, Azis; Muhammad, Fuad

    2017-06-01

    The increasing in quantity of the tourists visiting Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park, Dieng Plateau, Central Java, can cause a potential threat toward the conservation sustainability of the tourist attraction and the surrounding area. The utilization of conservation area for tourist attraction has to be carried out based on the principal of Environmental Carrying Capacity so that it will not affect the ecosystem. This study aims to determine the value of Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park environmental carrying capacity as a conservation area used for tourism activities. The environmental carrying capacities calculated in this study were physical carrying capacity, real carrying capacity, and effective carrying capacity. Results of this research show that the physical carrying capacity of The Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park was 31,302 visitors, the real capacity was 869 visitors/day and the effective carrying capacity was 579 visitors/day. Thus, the sustainable tourism development strategy is needed to manage the everlasting natural resources.

  1. A thought-provoking demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, E. Roger; Holton, Brian; Horton, George K.

    1998-01-01

    We present and discuss a physics demonstration, similar to, but distinct from, the ballistic-pendulum demonstration, one that illustrates all three conservation laws of mechanics (for energy, momentum, and angular momentum) simultaneously.

  2. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  3. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka;

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  4. National attitudes concerning gun carrying in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, D; Azrael, D; Miller, M

    2001-12-01

    To determine public attitudes in the United States concerning gun carrying. In the past 15 years, many state legislatures have passed laws making it easier for United States citizens to carry concealed firearms, not only on the street but into various locations, including churches and government buildings. National random digit dial telephone surveys conducted in 1996 and 1999 asked questions concerning the public's feelings of safety as more people in their community carry firearms, and whether, in the language of the question, respondents believe "regular" citizens should be allowed to carry guns into public or government buildings. Americans feel less safe rather than more safe as more people in their community begin to carry guns. By margins of at least nine to one, Americans do not believe that "regular" citizens should be allowed to bring their guns into restaurants, college campuses, sports stadiums, bars, hospitals, or government buildings. The public believes that increased gun carrying by others reduces rather than increases their safety. Overwhelmingly, the public believes that in many venues gun carrying should be prohibited.

  5. Roadmap and performance carried out during Ciemat site decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Javier; Diaz Diaz, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    Ciemat (Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology) located in the heart of the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid, occupies a property of 20 Ha. Since its creation in 1951 as JEN, and in 1986 renowned as Ciemat, it has involved on R and D projects in the field of Energy and Environment, i.e., Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Fusion, Fossils Fuels, Renewable Energy. As a consequence of the R and D projects developed between 1951 - 1986 on Nuclear Fission field (fuel design, fabrication, characterization on irradiated fuels, safety studies, etc) and to the diversification of the goals as well, it is necessary to Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) from nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor, Hot Cells, Irradiation facility), buildings and soils. Preparations for D and D included a staged shutdown of operations, planning documentation and licensing for decommissioning. As a prerequisite to Ciemat application for a decommissioning license and nuclear environmental assessment was carried out according to Spanish Nuclear Council (CSN) and approval of the site decommissioning project was obtained in 2000 and valid until December 31, 2006. Since 2001 - 2003 is underway and focussed on the radiological characterization of the site (divided in pieces of ground), when each piece of ground is characterized a planning for D and D is presented to CSN in order to obtain a license for actuation. Nowadays several pieces of ground are decontaminated and modifications have been done in order to achieve a safe state of storage-with-surveillance. Later phases have planned waste management improvements for selected wastes already on temporally storage, eventually followed by final decommissioning of facilities and buildings and cleaning of contaminants from soils and removal of waste from the site. This paper describes the planning, nuclear and environment assessment and descriptions of decommissioning activities currently underway at Ciemat. (Author)

  6. Research on Psychological Carrying Capacity of Tourism Destination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhiyong; Zhong Sheng

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the carrying capacity system of tourism destination,tourism psychological carrying capacity and its makeup are very important indexes which reflect the harmonious development of tourism destination develops harmoniously,but the academy has not paid enough attention to them.Based on the concept and connotation of psychological carrying capacity,this paper explains the influencing factors which affect the psychological capacity of the tourist and the resident after the acknowledged concept,and then designs a harmonious development model of tourism destination.Finally,it offers some countermeasures against the overloading psychological capacity.

  7. Global change and carrying capacity: Implications for life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Anne H.; Matson, Pamela; Vitousek, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Determining the long-term number of people that the planet can support without irreversibly reducing its ability to support people in the future, i.e., the carrying capacity of the Earth, is an exceedingly complex problem. About all that is known for certain is that, with present and foreseeable technologies, the human population has already exceeded the capacity. The reduction in carrying capacity that can be expected to result from direct human impacts on resources and the environment and from our indirect impacts of the climate system is discussed. Global warming and modeling global change and food security are also discussed with respect to carrying capacity.

  8. Global change and carrying capacity: Implications for life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Anne H.; Matson, Pamela; Vitousek, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Determining the long-term number of people that the planet can support without irreversibly reducing its ability to support people in the future, i.e., the carrying capacity of the Earth, is an exceedingly complex problem. About all that is known for certain is that, with present and foreseeable technologies, the human population has already exceeded the capacity. The reduction in carrying capacity that can be expected to result from direct human impacts on resources and the environment and from our indirect impacts of the climate system is discussed. Global warming and modeling global change and food security are also discussed with respect to carrying capacity.

  9. Carrying Network Accessing Architecture and Strategy Based on Business Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Han

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the abilities of real-time sensing and information sharing, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has been applied in more and more fields. Basing on the emergence of Internet of Things (IoT, the issue about heterogeneous network integration is becoming more important. We first analyze the new businesses that arise recently for cell phone users as well as the potential effect on carrying network. After that we mainly discuss the influence on traditional carrying network for WSN accessing and taking concurrent businesses as the study case, common access architecture from WSN to carrying network is constructed, which makes use of business differentiation. Furthermore, we propose the idea of tortuous access from WSN to the gateway in the carrying network to avoid congested paths with simulation and verification. Finally, we conclude the possible impacts for the integration of these two networks and present possible solutions.

  10. Lane of parallel through carry in ternary optical adder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; HE Huacan; AI Lirong

    2005-01-01

    At the present 50 to 100 microseconds are necessary for a liquid crystal to change its state from opacity to clarity; 1.14× 10-5 microseconds are however proved to be enough for light to pass through a clarity liquid crystal device. Rooted from this great difference in time, an optical adder was constructed with parallel through carry lanes (PTCL) composed of liquid crystals. Because all carries in PTCL process in parallel, the carry delay in the ternary optical computer's adder is avoided. Eliminating the carry delay in adder of ternary optical computer by physical means, the PTCL is also applicable for other types of optical adders. Moreover a light diagram of the adder and one PTCL structure are provided.

  11. Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYunguo; FanTing; LiXin; ZhouMing; WangXianhai

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method called matter element analysis can solve the uncertain and incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination's carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.

  12. Determination of the sediment carrying capacity based on perturbed theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhi-hui; Zeng, Qiang; Li-chun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    According to the previous studies of sediment carrying capacity, a new method of sediment carrying capacity on perturbed theory was proposed. By taking into account the average water depth, average flow velocity, settling velocity, and other influencing factors and introducing the median grain size as one main influencing factor in deriving the new formula, we established a new sediment carrying capacity formula. The coefficients were determined by the principle of dimensional analysis, multiple linear regression method, and the least square method. After that, the new formula was verified through measuring data of natural rivers and flume tests and comparing the verified results calculated by Cao Formula, Zhang Formula, Li Formula, Engelung-Hansen Formula, Ackers-White Formula, and Yang Formula. According to the compared results, it can be seen that the new method is of high accuracy. It could be a useful reference for the determination of sediment carrying capacity.

  13. Measuring the Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreman, W.; Huysentruyt, R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a fast and simple method for measuring the magnetic force acting on a current-carrying conductor using a digital balance. Discusses the influence of current intensity and wire length on the magnetic force on the conductor. (JRH)

  14. The logistic model-generated carrying capacities for wild herbivores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jesse

    Modelled as discrete-time logistic equations with fixed carrying capacities, it captures the wildlife herbivore population dynamics. Time series data, covering a period ..... Building Models for Conservation and. Wildlife Management. (New York ...

  15. Doxorubicin-conjugated bacteriophages carrying anti-MHC class I chain-related A for targeted cancer therapy in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumyen A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Achara Phumyen,1–3 Siriporn Jantasorn,1 Amonrat Jumnainsong,1 Chanvit Leelayuwat1–4 1The Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories (CMDL, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, 2The Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, 3Research Cluster: Specific Health Problem of Grater Maekong Subregion (SHeP-GMS, 4Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Sciences, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Background: Cancer therapy by systemic administration of anticancer drugs, besides the effectiveness shown on cancer cells, demonstrated the side effects and cytotoxicity on normal cells. The targeted drug-carrying nanoparticles may decrease the required drug concentration at the site and the distribution of drugs to normal tissues. Overexpression of major histocompatibility complex class I chain–related A (MICA in cancer is useful as a targeted molecule for the delivery of doxorubicin to MICA-expressing cell lines. Methods: The application of 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide (EDC chemistry was employed to conjugate the major coat protein of bacteriophages carrying anti-MICA and doxorubicin in a mildly acid condition. Doxorubicin (Dox on phages was determined by double fluorescence of phage particles stained by M13-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC and drug autofluorescence by flow cytometry. The ability of anti-MICA on phages to bind MICA after doxorubicin conjugation was evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One cervical cancer and four cholangiocarcinoma cell lines expressing MICA were used as models to evaluate targeting activity by cell cytotoxicity test. Results: Flow cytometry and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that most of the phages (82% could be conjugated with doxorubicin, and the Dox-carrying phage-displaying anti-MICA (Dox-phage remained the binding activity against MICA

  16. Langkawi Island, Social Aspect and the Carrying Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Diana; Jaafar Mastura; Marzuki Azizan

    2014-01-01

    The aptitude to convince a range of preferences has facilitated the island tourism attractions to achieve international recognition and at present KILIM Geopark is enjoyed by a prominent percentage of individuals wide-reaching. Conventional knowledge has that the island attractions are operating on the limited immobile resources, of which, have raised the scholars’ concerns over the carrying capacity issue. When analyzing carrying capacity, scholars have traditionally focused on the environme...

  17. The Construction of Social Darwinism in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晶晶; 秦素华

    2014-01-01

    Social Darwinism is an important theory reflected in Sister Carrie. This thesis is to interpret the characters’fates with Social Darwinism.“Survival of the fittest”is an important theme. Carrie is the winner of life and Hurtwood is the loser. Their adjustability to the environment determines their future. It is hoped to help the readers construct a better understanding on this theory.

  18. Design and Implementation of High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gopinath; N Sangeetha; S.Jenifer nancy; T.Umarani

    2015-01-01

    In electronic adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. Adders can be constructed for many numerical representations such as arithmetic and logical operation. The most adders operates on binary numbers. Among the different types of adders, carry select adder is a one of the fastest adder.The gate level modification is to reduce the power and area of carry select adder by using the concept of Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). In this paper , different techniques such as Binary T...

  19. Estimating landscape carrying capacity through maximum clique analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese M; Warrington, Gregory S; Schwenk, W Scott; Dinitz, Jeffrey H

    2012-12-01

    Habitat suitability (HS) maps are widely used tools in wildlife science and establish a link between wildlife populations and landscape pattern. Although HS maps spatially depict the distribution of optimal resources for a species, they do not reveal the population size a landscape is capable of supporting--information that is often crucial for decision makers and managers. We used a new approach, "maximum clique analysis," to demonstrate how HS maps for territorial species can be used to estimate the carrying capacity, N(k), of a given landscape. We estimated the N(k) of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in an 1153-km2 study area in Vermont, USA. These two species were selected to highlight different approaches in building an HS map as well as computational challenges that can arise in a maximum clique analysis. We derived 30-m2 HS maps for each species via occupancy modeling (Ovenbird) and by resource utilization modeling (bobcats). For each species, we then identified all pixel locations on the map (points) that had sufficient resources in the surrounding area to maintain a home range (termed a "pseudo-home range"). These locations were converted to a mathematical graph, where any two points were linked if two pseudo-home ranges could exist on the landscape without violating territory boundaries. We used the program Cliquer to find the maximum clique of each graph. The resulting estimates of N(k) = 236 Ovenbirds and N(k) = 42 female bobcats were sensitive to different assumptions and model inputs. Estimates of N(k) via alternative, ad hoc methods were 1.4 to > 30 times greater than the maximum clique estimate, suggesting that the alternative results may be upwardly biased. The maximum clique analysis was computationally intensive but could handle problems with < 1500 total pseudo-home ranges (points). Given present computational constraints, it is best suited for species that occur in clustered distributions (where the problem can be

  20. Missile captive carry monitoring using a capacitive MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchell, Brian; Mauss, Fred; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan; Skorpik, Jim; Silvers, Kurt; Marotta, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile's service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  1. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring using a Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve

    2010-04-08

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile’s service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  2. Carrying capacity: the tradition and policy implications of limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Deane Abernethy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Within just the last few centuries, science and technology have enlarged human capabilities and population size until humans now take, for their own use, nearly half of the Earth's net terrestrial primary production. An ethical perspective suggests that potentials to alter, or further increase, humanity's use of global resources should be scrutinized through the lenses of self-interested foresightedness and respect for non-human life. Without overtly invoking ethics, studies of the carrying capacity achieve just this objective. Carrying capacity is an ecological concept that expresses the relationship between a population and the natural environment on which it depends for ongoing sustenance. Carrying capacity assumes limits on the number of individuals that can be supported at a given level of consumption without degrading the environment and, therefore, reducing future carrying capacity. That is, carrying capacity addresses long-term sustainability. Worldviews differ in the importance accorded to the carrying capacity concept. This paper addresses three worldviews - ecological, romantic, and entrepreneurial - and explores the ethics and the policy implications of their contrasting perspectives.

  3. Locomotion while load-carrying in reduced gravities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, L A; Luna, B

    1996-10-01

    Supporting the mass of a protective suit and portable life support system (PLSS) will impose an energy requirement on planetary astronauts. To design extravehicular protective equipment for planetary missions, scientists must learn more about human physical capabilities while load-carrying in reduced gravities. In this study, an underwater treadmill and weighting system were used to simulate reduced-gravity locomotion while load-carrying. The test matrix included 3 gravity levels, 6 subjects, 2 locomotion speeds, and a range of load sizes. Energy expenditure, calculated from measured oxygen consumption, is positively correlated with gravity level, speed, and load size. The data are used to project that individuals in average physical condition will be able to walk for 8 h on the Moon while carrying up to 170% of their body mass without undue fatigue, and on Mars with up to 50% of their body mass. These approximate limits, especially for Martian gravity, may prove quite a challenge for designers of advanced protective systems. Requirements for regenerable and non-venting PLSS components have been driving the total projected masses of advanced PLSSs increasingly higher, perhaps beyond what is reasonable to carry. However, the larger mass can be beneficial in maintaining bone mass. Using Whalen's model (1988), the daily planetary walking times required to maintain bone mass were calculated for a range of carried load sizes. The calculated times were unattainably high, suggesting that some combination of loads carrying and supplemental bone maintenance measures will likely be required to maintain bone mass in reduced gravity environments.

  4. The Broken American Dream Based on Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wenjuan

    2012-01-01

      Sister Carrie is the first work of Theodore Dreiser, It tells us how a country maiden becomes a famous star in Broadway. In the novel, Dreiser describes the living conditions and emotion changes of Carrie very vividly. Sister Carrie takes true realism as its distinctive feature, reflects the tragic fact that people pursue American dream fanatically in the early twentieth century. This paper exposes the theme of instinct, which drives people to enjoy but disillusion finally, and illustrates that it is impossible to possess true happiness in a money-oriented capitalism society%  Sister Carrie is the first work of Theodore Dreiser, Ittells us how a country maiden becomes a famous star in Broadway.In the novel, Dreiser describes the living conditions and emotion changes of Carrie very vividly. Sister Carrie takes true realism as itsdistinctive feature, reflects the tragic fact that people pursue Americandream fanatically in the early twentieth century. This paper exposes the theme of instinct, which drives people to enjoy but disillusion finally, and illustrates that it is impossible to possess true happiness in a money-oriented capitalism society

  5. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration project will advance optical communications technology, expanding industry’s capability to produce competitive,...

  6. Reducing weapon-carrying among urban American Indian young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearinger, Linda H; Pettingell, Sandra L; Resnick, Michael D; Potthoff, Sandra J

    2010-07-01

    To examine the likelihood of weapon-carrying among urban American Indian young people, given the presence of salient risk and protective factors. The study used data from a confidential, self-report Urban Indian Youth Health Survey with 200 forced-choice items examining risk and protective factors and social, contextual, and demographic information. Between 1995 and 1998, 569 American Indian youths, aged 9-15 years, completed surveys administered in public schools and an after-school program. Using logistic regression, probability profiles compared the likelihood of weapon-carrying, given the combinations of salient risk and protective factors. In the final models, weapon-carrying was associated significantly with one risk factor (substance use) and two protective factors (school connectedness, perceiving peers as having prosocial behavior attitudes/norms). With one risk factor and two protective factors, in various combinations in the models, the likelihood of weapon carrying ranged from 4% (with two protective factors and no risk factor in the model) to 80% of youth (with the risk factor and no protective factors in the model). Even in the presence of the risk factor, the two protective factors decreased the likelihood of weapon-carrying to 25%. This analysis highlights the importance of protective factors in comprehensive assessments and interventions for vulnerable youth. In that the risk factor and two protective factors significantly related to weapon-carrying are amenable to intervention at both individual and population-focused levels, study findings offer a guide for prioritizing strategies for decreasing weapon-carrying among urban American Indian young people. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bullying and weapon carrying: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul; Tanilon, Jenny

    2014-08-01

    Studies suggest that adolescents involved in bullying are more likely to carry weapons than their uninvolved peers. To use meta-analyses to determine whether victims, bullies, and bully-victims are more likely to carry weapons than uninvolved peers. PsycINFO, ERIC, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, and Dissertation Abstracts International were searched for relevant publications (1950 through January 2014). The reference list of a review article and reference lists of retrieved articles were checked for further relevant studies. Studies were included if they provided an effect size comparing the weapon carrying of adolescent victims, bullies, or bully-victims with that of uninvolved peers. Studies that included individuals older than 21 years were excluded, as were studies that focused on incarcerated youth or youth diagnosed as having a psychopathologic condition. Studies were coded independently by 2 of us. The agreement rate was 93%. Effect sizes were coded that compared victims, bullies, or bully-victims with uninvolved peers. Meta-analyses were based on 22 studies for victims (n = 257 179), 15 studies for bullies (n = 236 145), and 8 studies for bully-victims (n = 199 563). This study focused on weapon carrying among adolescents. Hypotheses were formulated before the study. Victims (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.62-2.39), bullies (3.25; 2.72-3.89), and bully-victims (4.95; 3.77-6.50) were more likely to carry weapons than uninvolved peers. Analyses provided no indication of publication bias. Studies conducted in the United States found stronger relations between being a bully-victim and weapon carrying (odds ratio, 7.84; 95% CI, 6.02-10.21) than studies from other countries (3.62; 2.30-5.68; Q1 = 8.401; P = .004). Involvement in bullying as a victim, bully, or bully-victim is related to weapon carrying.

  8. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  9. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  10. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  11. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  12. Lessons learned from NMSG-085 CIG Land Operation demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautreau, B.; Remmersmann, T.; Henderson, H.C.; Reus, N.M. de; Khimeche, L.; Pedersen, E.; Lillesoe, J.; Liberg, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the experience gained during demonstrations carried out between Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain under the umbrella of the NMSG-085 / CIG Land Operation group. The demonstration, also presented in this paper, focuses on command post exercise training. It highli

  13. Demonstrative and non-demonstrative reasoning by analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Ippoliti, Emiliano

    2008-01-01

    The paper analizes a set of issues related to analogy and analogical reasoning, namely: 1) The problem of analogy and its duplicity; 2) The role of analogy in demonstrative reasoning; 3) The role of analogy in non-demonstrative reasoning; 4) The limits of analogy; 5) The convergence, particularly in multiple analogical reasoning, of these two apparently distinct aspects and its methodological and philosophical consequences. The paper, using example from number theory, argues for an heuristc c...

  14. Carrying Capacity Model Applied to Coastal Ecotourism of Baluran National Park, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armono, H. D.; Rosyid, D. M.; Nuzula, N. I.

    2017-07-01

    The resources of Baluran National Park have been used for marine and coastal ecotourism. The increasing number of visitors has led to the increasing of tourists and its related activities. This condition will cause the degradation of resources and the welfare of local communities. This research aims to determine the sustainability of coastal ecotourism management by calculating the effective number of tourists who can be accepted. The study uses the concept of tourism carrying capacity, consists the ecological environment, economic, social and physical carrying capacity. The results of the combined carrying capacity analysis in Baluran National Park ecotourism shows that the number of 3.288 people per day (151.248 tourists per year) is the maximum number of accepted tourists. The current number of tourist arrivals is only 241 people per day (87.990 tourists per year) which is far below the carrying capacity.

  15. The importance of carrying a backpack in the rehabilitation of osteoporotic patients (biomechanical analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlova, J

    2011-01-01

    Based on a simple biomechanical analysis available to physicians, the article recommends carrying a backpack regularly as a part of the complex rehabilitation of osteoporotic patients. Carrying a backpack in front or on the back is recommended to patients with uncomplicated osteoporosis, while carrying a backpack on the back only is recommended to patients with osteporotic vertebral fractures. The importance of carrying a backpack is based upon removing the muscular dysbalance of the trunk muscles and upon increasing the bone strength by compressive force acting upon the vertebrae and proximal femur and activating osteoblasts to enhance the process of osteoformation. The backpack load is differentiated--patients with vertebral fractures put a weight up to 1 kg into their backpacks, patients without vertebral fractures increase the load up to 2 kg (Fig. 2, Ref. 12).

  16. Model Modification and Application on Carrying Capacity of Relative Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zehong; Dong Suocheng; Gao Dan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the retrospection of researches on carry-ing capacity, this article reviewed systematically the research progresses on carrying capacity of relative resources (CCRR).Then the viewpoint was put forward that CCRR is not an ap-propriate method of appraising the regional sustainability, but a sound way to obtain cognition for coordinating spatial loca-tion and flow of population and economy.However, as the most popular computing method of CCRR, the Weighting Linear Sum Model is defective in the random of weight choice and the neglect of matching among different resources.Therefore, this article established the Geometric Model on CCRR based on modifying Weighting Linear Sum Model, which can be used to appraise regions where resources are close matching.Em-ploying the Geometric Model, the article empirically analyzed the population and economic CCRR in Hubei Province from 1978 to 2006.The result indicates that the population in Hubei Province is overloading while the economic carrying capacity is abundant compared to the whole country, and the economic insufficiency restricts the population carrying capacity.In the future, Hubei Province will become one of the core developing zones which are characterized by economic conglomeration.

  17. Fault Tolerant Variable Block Carry Skip Logic (VBCSL) using Parity Preserving Reversible Gates

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar

    2010-01-01

    Reversible logic design has become one of the promising research directions in low power dissipating circuit design in the past few years and has found its application in low power CMOS design, digital signal processing and nanotechnology. This paper presents the efficient design approaches of fault tolerant carry skip adders (FTCSAs) and compares those designs with the existing ones. Variable block carry skip logic (VBCSL) using the fault tolerant full adders (FTFAs) has also been developed. The designs are minimized in terms of hardware complexity, gate count, constant inputs and garbage outputs. Besides of it, technology independent evaluation of the proposed designs clearly demonstrates its superiority with the existing counterparts.

  18. Boundary slippage for generating hydrodynamic load-carrying capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-bin

    2008-01-01

    Boundary slippage is used to generate the load-carrying capacity of the hydrodynamic contact between two parallel plane surfaces.In the fluid inlet zone,the fluidcontact interfacial shear strength on a stationary surface is set at low to generate boundary slippage there,while in the fluid outlet zone the fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the stationary surface is set at high enough to prevent the occurrence of boundary slippage.The fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the entire moving surface is set at high enough to prevent boundary slippage on the moving surface.These hydrodynamic contact configurations are analyzed to generate the pronounced load-carrying capacity.The optimum ratio of the outlet zone width to the inlet zone width for the maximum load-carrying capacity of the whole contact is found to be 0.5.

  19. Hierarchical population model with a carrying capacity distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Indekeu, J O

    2002-01-01

    A time- and space-discrete model for the growth of a rapidly saturating local biological population $N(x,t)$ is derived from a hierarchical random deposition process previously studied in statistical physics. Two biologically relevant parameters, the probabilities of birth, $B$, and of death, $D$, determine the carrying capacity $K$. Due to the randomness the population depends strongly on position, $x$, and there is a distribution of carrying capacities, $\\Pi (K)$. This distribution has self-similar character owing to the imposed hierarchy. The most probable carrying capacity and its probability are studied as a function of $B$ and $D$. The effective growth rate decreases with time, roughly as in a Verhulst process. The model is possibly applicable, for example, to bacteria forming a "towering pillar" biofilm. The bacteria divide on randomly distributed nutrient-rich regions and are exposed to random local bactericidal agent (antibiotic spray). A gradual overall temperature change away from optimal growth co...

  20. Crafting a Gauss Gun Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Matthew E.; Blodgett, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    A Gauss Gun launches a ferromagnetic projectile using a pulsed electromagnet. This demonstration provides a nice counterpoint to the popular Thompson's jumping ring demonstration, which launches a nonferromagnetic ring via repulsion of an induced current. The pulsed current must be short enough in duration so that the projectile is not retarded by lingering current in the launch solenoid, but also large enough to provide a suitably impressive velocity. This project involved an iterative design process, as we worked through balancing all the different design criteria. We recommend it as a very nice electronics design project which will produce a very portable and enjoyable demonstration. AAPT sponsor Earl Blodgett.

  1. High voltage testing for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barabash, A.S. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute” Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bradley, A.W. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Buuck, M. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Byram, D. [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Caldwell, A.S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, Y-D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christofferson, C.D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chu, P.-H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cuesta, C., E-mail: ccuesta@uw.edu [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detwiler, J.A.; Doe, P.J. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2016-07-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. This effect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of the high-voltage path, including different improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR was characterized and the micro-discharge effects during the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR commissioning phase were studied. A stable configuration has been achieved, and the cables and connectors can supply HPGe detector operating voltages without exhibiting discharge.

  2. High voltage testing for the MAJORANA Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fu, Z; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Li, A; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Thompson, A; Ton, K T; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V

    2016-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in Ge-76. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of the MAJORANA Demonstrator. This eff?ect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of the high-voltage path, including diff?erent improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the MAJORANA Demonstrator was characterized and the micro-discharge eff?ects during the MAJORANA Demonstrator commissioning phase were studied. A stable c...

  3. High voltage testing for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fu, Z.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Li, A.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, A.; Ton, K. T.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    2016-07-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. This effect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of the high-voltage path, including different improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR was characterized and the micro-discharge effects during the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR commissioning phase were studied. A stable configuration has been achieved, and the cables and connectors can supply HPGe detector operating voltages without exhibiting discharge.

  4. High voltage testing for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A.; Bertrand, F.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, Pamela M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, P. J.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fu, Z.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Li, Alexander D.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarcyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, Alan W.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero Romo, M.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie E.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, Andrew; Ton, K. T.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.

    2016-07-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing theMajorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of theMajorana Demonstrator. This effect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of the high-voltage path, including different improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the Majorana Demonstrator was characterized and the micro-discharge effects during theMajorana Demonstrator commissioning phase were studied. A stable configuration has been achieved, and the cables and connectors can supply HPGe detector operating voltages without exhibiting discharge.

  5. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design.High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devis...

  6. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design. High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devi...

  7. Description of Model Tests Carried Out by Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Schlütter, F.; Andersen, H.

    1996-01-01

    As associated partner, Aalborg University (AU) have participated in different aspects of "the Zeebrugge project". AU has carried out an extensive number of small-scale model tests (1:65) with the Zeebrugge breakwater with the aim of investigating scale-effects.......As associated partner, Aalborg University (AU) have participated in different aspects of "the Zeebrugge project". AU has carried out an extensive number of small-scale model tests (1:65) with the Zeebrugge breakwater with the aim of investigating scale-effects....

  8. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. Status of the MAJORANA Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Greenn, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Schmitt, C; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Timkin, V; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V

    2014-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  10. Demonstration of Cauchy: Understanding Algebraic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study we present some considerations about the End of Course Work undergraduate Full Degree in Mathematics / UFMT, drafted in 2011, and by taking title "A story about Cauchy and Euler's theorem on polyhedra" that gave birth to our research project Master of Education, begun in 2012, on the approaches of Euler's theorem on polyhedra in mathematics textbooks. At work in 2011 presented some considerations about the history of Euler's theorem for polyhedra which focus the demonstration presented by Cauchy (1789-1857, who tries to generalize it, relying on assumptions not observable in Euclidean geometry. Therefore, we seek the accessible literature on the history of mathematics; relate some aspects of the demonstration Cauchy with historical events on the development of mathematics in the nineteenth century, which allowed the acceptance of such a demonstration by mathematicians of his time.Keywords: History of Mathematics. Euler's Theorem on Polyhedra. Demonstration of Cauchy.

  11. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Detwiler, Jason A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Timkin, V.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-09

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  12. Teacher Training: The Demonstration Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan C.

    1977-01-01

    A teacher training technique is discussed involving a demonstration class given by a local teacher and observed by prospective teachers. After the class a discussion is held analyzing lesson content and teaching techniques. (CHK)

  13. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  14. Orcc's Compa-Backend demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Yaset; Casseau, Emmanuel; Martin, Kevin; Bomel, Pierre; Diguet, Jean-Philippe; Yviquel, Hervé; Raulet, Mickael; Raffin, Erwan; Morin, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the implementation of a video decoding application starting from its dataflow and CAL representations. Our objective is to demonstrate the ability of the Open RVC-CAL Compiler (Orcc) to generate code for embedded systems. For the demonstration, the video application will be an MPEG-4 Part2 decoder. The targeted architecture is a multi-core heterogeneous system deployed onto the Zynq platform from Xilinx.

  15. Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease Confirmed in Eastern National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease Confirmed in Eastern National Parks U.S. National Park Service and CDC advise using insect repellents on ... Planning a hiking trip in an eastern U.S. national park? Better pack tick repellent -- a new study found ...

  16. 44 CFR 332.3 - Carrying out voluntary agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advance, each meeting of the participants in the agreement held to discuss problems, determine policies... § 332.5 of this part. A person attending a meeting under this section may present oral or written data... communications among themselves or with any other member of their industry, related to the carrying out of...

  17. El naturalismo americano: Theodore Dreiser y Sister Carrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores G. ALONSO MULAS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Para situar a un escritor, como Theodore Dreiser, y especialmente su novela Sister Carrie dentro de un movimiento literario y de una etapa determinada de la historia americana, es necesario dar un breve repaso al naturalismo, llegado a América a través de Stephen Crane

  18. Carrying Out Collaborative Action Research in a Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Belinda

    2013-01-01

    To help in-service English teachers improve their teaching practices and pupils' learning opportunities through an enquiry-oriented and cooperative approach, the author carried out collaborative action research during a practicum in a teacher education course at a university in Hong Kong. This article describes how the collaborative research…

  19. Arrangement for carrying out and studying chemical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, A.D.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9102029 (A) Described is an arrangement for carrying out TAP experiments. Such an arrangement comprises a reaction chamber in which a very short-lived beam of molecules is directed at a target to produce a short-lived beam of intermediate-product molecules, and a vacuum chamber wher

  20. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  1. Ferromagnetic behavior of formyl-group-carrying stable thioaminyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yozo; Nakamura, Shogo; Teki, Yoshio

    2003-10-17

    Four formyl-group-carrying thioaminyl radicals were generated, and one radical could be isolated as radical crystals. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of the isolated radical showed a ferromagnetic regular linear-chain interaction of 2J/k(B) = 3.2 K, which was explained in terms of the X-ray crystallographic results.

  2. Cultural Carrying Capacity: A Biological Approach to Human Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Garrett

    1992-01-01

    In discussing the human and cultural implications of scientific discoveries and knowledge, the biological concept of carrying capacity is explored. Maintaining that human beings are truly animals answering to principles that govern all animals, the author addresses the need for human populations to work within the context of culture and carrying…

  3. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous communication. Method: Twelve subjects produced…

  4. Wakes in Dilatonic Current-Carrying Cosmic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, A L N

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we present the gravitational field generated by a cosmic string carrying a timelike current in the scalar-tensor gravities. The mechanism of formation and evolution of wakes is fully investigated in this framework. We show that the inclusion of electromagnetic properties for the string induces logarithmic divergences in the accretion problem.

  5. Nanoparticles carry chemotherapy drug deeper into solid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ CAS researchers have developed a new drug delivery method using nano-sized molecules to carry the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin to tumors, improving the effectiveness of the drug in mice and increasing their survival time. Their work has been reported online June 26 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  6. Maze Busters: Carrie Miyoshi Macfarlane & Kathleen Sheehan--Harvard University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Even if one is equipped with an MLS, the 11 libraries that comprise the Harvard College Library can be pretty daunting. That is why Carrie Miyoshi Macfarlane and Kathleen Sheehan created Threading the Maze. The online publication is presented to students in expository writing, the one course all undergraduates must take. "This highly effective…

  7. Connection and Commitment: The Career of Carrie Billy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Carrie Billy, a member of the Navajo Nation and CEO and president of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), attributes one of the country's oldest youth organizations, Girl Scouts, for opening her mind to the possibility of creating change for countless citizens. She is a trained attorney and has made it her life work to advocate…

  8. "The Bell Curve" and Carrie Buck: Eugenics Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 publication of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray is compared to other examples of eugenic principles, including the sterilization of "feebleminded" Carrie Buck, family degeneracy studies focusing on lower class Caucasian families, and other works that view the poorest and least educated members of society…

  9. Pyrosequencing reveals bacteria carried in different wind eroded sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the microbial communities carried in wind-eroded sediments from various soil types and land management systems. A novel technique, pyrosequencing, promises to expand our understanding of the vast microbial diversity of soils and eroded sediments as it can sequence between 10-10...

  10. Efficient Design of Ripple Carry Adder and Carry Skip Adder with Low Quantum Cost and Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The addition of two binary numbers is the important and most frequently used arithmetic process on microprocessors, digital signal processors (DSP, and data-processing application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC. Therefore, binary adders are critical structure blocks in very large-scale integrated (VLSI circuits. Their effective application is not trivial because a costly carry spread operation involving all operand bits has to be achieved. Many different circuit constructions for binary addition have been planned over the last decades, covering a wide range of presentation characteristics. In today era, reversibility has become essential part of digital world to make digital circuits more efficient. In this paper, we have proposed a new method to reduce quantum cost for ripple carry adder and carry skip adder. The results are simulated in Xilinx by using VHDL language.

  11. Report of the Minister of Health on the activity carried out by the `Istituto Superiore di Sanita` (Italian National Institute of Health) in 1995 and 1996, according to art. 25 of the Law 7 August 1973, no. 519; Relazione del Ministro per la Sanita` sull`attivita` svolta dall`Istituto Superiore di Sanita` nel 1995 e 1996, ai sensi dell`art. 25 della Legge 7 agosto 1973, n. 519

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The results of the activities carried out at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita` in the years 1995-1996 are presented. The report contains information on the structure of the Institute, the tasks entrusted to it by law, synthetic data on the researches carried out within the institutional projects and the projects financed by the Italian national health fund and the future perspectives. It also presents the list of scientific publications edited in 1995 and 1996, divided according to the institutional projects of research. [Italiano] Vengono riportati i risultati dell`attivita` svolta dall`Istituto Superiore di Sanita` negli anni 1995-1996. La relazione presenta informazioni sulla struttura dell`Istituto e sui compiti assegnatigli per legge e dati sintetici sull`attivita` di ricercasvoltanell`ambito dei progetti istituzionali e dei progetti finanziati sul Fondo sanitario nazionale e sulle prospettive future. Fornisce, inoltre, l`elenco delle pubblicazioni scientifiche, edite negli anni 1995 1 996, suddivise nell`ambito dei progetti di ricerca istituzionali.

  12. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Buuck, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y.-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); and others

    2015-10-28

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, modular, HPGe detector array with a mass of 44-kg (29 kg {sup 76}Ge and 15 kg {sup nat}Ge) to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double beta decay searches will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is envisioned to demonstrate a path forward to achieve a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value of 2039 keV. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR follows a modular implementation to be easily scalable to the next generation experiment. First, the prototype module was assembled; it has been continuously taking data from July 2014 to June 2015. Second, Module 1 with more than half of the total enriched detectors and some natural detectors has been assembled and it is being commissioned. Finally, the assembly of Module 2, which will complete MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, is already in progress.

  13. Status of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Baldenegro-Barrera, C X; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2015-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, modular, HPGe detector array with a mass of 44-kg (29 kg 76Ge and 15 kg natGe) to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76. The next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double beta decay searches will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is envisioned to demonstrate a path forward to achieve a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value of 2039 keV. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR follows a modular implementation to be easily scalable to the next generation experiment. First, the prototype module was assembled; it has been continuously taking data from July 2014 to June 2015. Second, Module 1 with more than half of the total enriched detectors and some natural detectors has been assembled and it is being commissioned. Finally, the assembly of Module 2, which will complete MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, ...

  14. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  15. SECURES: Austin, Texas demonstration results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Glynn; Shaw, Scott; Scharf, Peter; Stellingworth, Bob

    2003-09-01

    The Law Enforcement technology development community has a growing interest in the technologies associated with gunshot detection and localization. These interests revolve around community-oriented policing. Technologies of interest include those associated with muzzle blast and bullet shockwave detection and the inter-netting of these acoustic sensors with electro-optic sensors. To date, no one sensor technology has proven totally effective for a complete solution. PSI has a muzzle blast detection and localization product which is wireless, highly mobile and reconfigurable, with a user-friendly laptop processor and display unit, which completed a one-year demonstration in Austin, Texas on July 6, 2002. This demonstration was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Institute of Justice and in cooperation with the Austin Police Department. This paper will discuss the details of the demonstrations, provide a summarized evaluation, elucidate the lessons learned, make recommendations for future deployments and discuss the developmental directions indicated for the future.

  16. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  17. Crystal structure of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) papain-like protease bound to ubiquitin facilitates targeted disruption of deubiquitinating activity to demonstrate its role in innate immune suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey-Elkin, Ben A; Knaap, Robert C M; Johnson, Garrett G; Dalebout, Tim J; Ninaber, Dennis K; van Kasteren, Puck B; Bredenbeek, Peter J; Snijder, Eric J; Kikkert, Marjolein; Mark, Brian L

    2014-12-12

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a newly emerging human pathogen that was first isolated in 2012. MERS-CoV replication depends in part on a virus-encoded papain-like protease (PL(pro)) that cleaves the viral replicase polyproteins at three sites releasing non-structural protein 1 (nsp1), nsp2, and nsp3. In addition to this replicative function, MERS-CoV PL(pro) was recently shown to be a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) and to possess deISGylating activity, as previously reported for other coronaviral PL(pro) domains, including that of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. These activities have been suggested to suppress host antiviral responses during infection. To understand the molecular basis for ubiquitin (Ub) recognition and deconjugation by MERS-CoV PL(pro), we determined its crystal structure in complex with Ub. Guided by this structure, mutations were introduced into PL(pro) to specifically disrupt Ub binding without affecting viral polyprotein cleavage, as determined using an in trans nsp3↓4 cleavage assay. Having developed a strategy to selectively disable PL(pro) DUB activity, we were able to specifically examine the effects of this activity on the innate immune response. Whereas the wild-type PL(pro) domain was found to suppress IFN-β promoter activation, PL(pro) variants specifically lacking DUB activity were no longer able to do so. These findings directly implicate the DUB function of PL(pro), and not its proteolytic activity per se, in the inhibition of IFN-β promoter activity. The ability to decouple the DUB activity of PL(pro) from its role in viral polyprotein processing now provides an approach to further dissect the role(s) of PL(pro) as a viral DUB during MERS-CoV infection.

  18. Field demonstration of an active reservoir pressure management through fluid injection and displaced fluid extractions at the Rock Springs Uplift, a priority geologic CO2 storage site for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This report provides the results from the project entitled Field Demonstration of Reservoir Pressure Management through Fluid Injection and Displaced Fluid Extraction at the Rock Springs Uplift, a Priority Geologic CO2 Storage Site for Wyoming (DE-FE0026159 for both original performance period (September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016) and no-cost extension (September 1, 2016 to January 6, 2017)).

  19. Variation in local carrying capacity and the individual fate of bacterial colonizers in the phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Tecon, Robin; Kowalchuk, George A; Leveau, Johan H J

    2012-04-01

    Using a phyllosphere model system, we demonstrated that the term 'carrying capacity', as it is commonly used in microbial ecology, needs to be understood as the sum of many 'local carrying capacities' in order to better explain and predict the course and outcome of bacterial colonization of an environment. Using a green fluorescent protein-based bioreporter system for the quantification of reproductive success (RS) in individual Erwinia herbicola cells, we were able to reconstruct the contribution of individual immigrants to bacterial population sizes on leaves. Our analysis revealed that plant foliage represents to bacteria an environment where individual fate is determined by the local carrying capacity of the site where an immigrant cell lands. With increasing inoculation densities, the RS of most immigrants declined, suggesting that local carrying capacity under the tested conditions was linked to local nutrient availability. Fitting the observed experimental data to an adapted model of phyllosphere colonization indicated that there might exist three types of sites on leaves, which differ in their frequency of occurrence and local carrying capacity. Specifically, our data were consistent with a leaf environment that is characterized by few sites where individual immigrants can produce high numbers of offspring, whereas the remainder of the leaf offered an equal number of sites with low and medium RS. Our findings contribute to a bottom-up understanding of bacterial colonization of leaf surfaces, which includes a quantifiable role of chance in the experience at the individual level and in the outcome at the population level.

  20. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)