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Sample records for demonstrates stable expression

  1. Orbital Express fluid transfer demonstration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberger, Scott; SooHoo, David; Abraham, Gabriel

    2008-04-01

    Propellant resupply of orbiting spacecraft is no longer in the realm of high risk development. The recently concluded Orbital Express (OE) mission included a fluid transfer demonstration that operated the hardware and control logic in space, bringing the Technology Readiness Level to a solid TRL 7 (demonstration of a system prototype in an operational environment). Orbital Express (funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA) was launched aboard an Atlas-V rocket on March 9th, 2007. The mission had the objective of demonstrating technologies needed for routine servicing of spacecraft, namely autonomous rendezvous and docking, propellant resupply, and orbital replacement unit transfer. The demonstration system used two spacecraft. A servicing vehicle (ASTRO) performed multiple dockings with the client (NextSat) spacecraft, and performed a variety of propellant transfers in addition to exchanges of a battery and computer. The fluid transfer and propulsion system onboard ASTRO, in addition to providing the six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) thruster system for rendezvous and docking, demonstrated autonomous transfer of monopropellant hydrazine to or from the NextSat spacecraft 15 times while on orbit. The fluid transfer system aboard the NextSat vehicle was designed to simulate a variety of client systems, including both blowdown pressurization and pressure regulated propulsion systems. The fluid transfer demonstrations started with a low level of autonomy, where ground controllers were allowed to review the status of the demonstration at numerous points before authorizing the next steps to be performed. The final transfers were performed at a full autonomy level where the ground authorized the start of a transfer sequence and then monitored data as the transfer proceeded. The major steps of a fluid transfer included the following: mate of the coupling, leak check of the coupling, venting of the coupling, priming of the coupling, fluid transfer, gauging

  2. Southwest Direct Express Bus Demonstration in Orlando, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    In August 1983, the Orange-Seminole-Osceola Transit Authority (OSOTA) initiated six express bus routes in the southwest corridor of Orlando (known collectively as the Southwest Direct) as an UMTA-funded demonstration project. While one objective of t...

  3. Heterologous stable expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes using the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Søren Spanner; King, Brian Christopher; Zhan, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Heterologous and stable expression of genes encoding terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes in planta is an important tool for functional characterization and is an attractive alternative to expression in microbial hosts for biotechnological production. Despite improvements to the procedure, such as stre...

  4. Highly Efficient Stable Expression of Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase Gene in Primary Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezakhanlou Alireza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO is a potent immunomodulatory enzyme that has recently attracted significant attention for its potential application as an inducer of immunotolerance in transplantation. We have previously demonstrated that a collagen matrix populated with IDO-expressing fibroblasts can be applied successfully in suppressing islet allogeneic immune response. Meanwhile, a critical aspect of such immunological intervention relies largely on effective long-term expression of the IDO gene. Moreover, gene manipulation of primary cells is known to be challenging due to unsatisfactory expression of the exogenous gene. In this study, a lentiviral gene delivery system has been employed to transduce primary fibroblasts. We used polybrene to efficiently deliver the IDO gene into primary fibroblasts and showed a significant increase (about tenfold in the rate of gene transfection. In addition, by the use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting, a 95% pure population of IDO-expressing fibroblasts was successfully obtained. The efficiency of the IDO expression and the activity of the enzyme have been confirmed by Western blotting, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and Kynurenine assay, respectively. The findings of this study revealed simple and effective strategies through which an efficient and stable expression of IDO can be achieved for primary cells which, in turn, significantly improves its potential as a tool for achieving immunotolerance in different types of transplantation.

  5. Demonstration of de novo synthesis of enzymes by density labelling with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.; Hirschberg, K.

    1977-01-01

    The technique of in vivo density labelling of proteins with H 2 18 O and 2 H 2 O has been used to investigate hormonal regulation and developmental expression of enzymes in plant cells. Buoyant density data obtained from isopycnic equilibrium centrifugation demonstrated that the cytokinine-induced nitrate reductase activity and the gibberellic acid-induced phosphatase activity in isolated embryos of Agrostemma githago are activities of enzymes synthesized de novo. The increase in alanine-specific aminopeptidase in germinating A. githago seeds is not due to de novo synthesis but to the release of preformed enzyme. On the basis of this result it is possible to apply the enzyme aminopeptidase as an internal density standard in equilibrium centrifugation. Density labelling experiments on proteins in pea cotyledons have been used to study the change in the activity of acid phosphatase, alanine-specific aminopeptidase, and peroxidase during germination. The activities of these enzymes increase in cotyledons of Pisum sativum. Density labelling by 18 O and 2 H demonstrates de novo synthesis of these three enzymes. The differential time course of enzyme induction shows the advantage of using H 2 18 O as labelling substance in cases when the enzyme was synthesized immediately at the beginning of germination. At this stage of development the amino-acid pool available for synthesis is formed principally by means of hydrolysis of storage proteins. The incorporation of 2 H into the new proteins takes place in a measurable amount at a stage of growth in which the amino acids are also synthesized de novo. The enzyme acid phosphatase of pea cotyledons was chosen to demonstrate the possibility of using the density labelling technique to detect protein turnover. (author)

  6. Enhancement of plasmid-mediated stable gene expression by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... production and faithful translation and processing of proteins (Baldi et al., ..... deeper understanding of the interaction of cellular factors and regulatory DNA .... mediated transgene expression in the rat brain. Gene Ther., 7: ...

  7. Lentivirus display: stable expression of human antibodies on the surface of human cells and virus particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Taube

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isolation of human antibodies using current display technologies can be limited by constraints on protein expression, folding and post-translational modifications. Here we describe a discovery platform that utilizes self-inactivating (SIN lentiviral vectors for the surface display of high-affinity single-chain variable region (scFv antibody fragments on human cells and lentivirus particles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bivalent scFvFc human antibodies were fused in frame with different transmembrane (TM anchoring moieties to allow efficient high-level expression on human cells and the optimal TM was identified. The addition of an eight amino acid HIV-1 gp41 envelope incorporation motif further increased scFvFc expression on human cells and incorporation into lentiviral particles. Both antibody-displaying human cells and virus particles bound antigen specifically. Sulfation of CDR tyrosine residues, a property recently shown to broaden antibody binding affinity and antigen recognition was also demonstrated. High level scFvFc expression and stable integration was achieved in human cells following transduction with IRES containing bicistronic SIN lentivectors encoding ZsGreen when scFvFc fusion proteins were expressed from the first cassette. Up to 10(6-fold enrichment of antibody expressing cells was achieved with one round of antigen coupled magnetic bead pre-selection followed by FACS sorting. Finally, the scFvFc displaying human cells could be used directly in functional biological screens with remarkable sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This antibody display platform will complement existing technologies by virtue of providing properties unique to lentiviruses and antibody expression in human cells, which, in turn, may aid the discovery of novel therapeutic human mAbs.

  8. Stable isotope labeling of glycoprotein expressed in silkworms using immunoglobulin G as a test molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Hirokazu [Nagoya City University, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan); Nakamura, Masatoshi [National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Genetic Resources Conservation Research Unit, Genetic Resources Center (Japan); Yokoyama, Jun [Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation, Tsukuba Laboratories (Japan); Zhang, Ying; Yamaguchi, Takumi [National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Institute for Molecular Science and Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience (Japan); Kondo, Sachiko [Nagoya City University, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan); Kobayashi, Jun [Yamaguchi University, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture (Japan); Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y. [Shizuoka University, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Research Institute of Green Science and Technology (Japan); Nakazawa, Shiori [Nagoya University, Sugashima Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Hashii, Noritaka; Kawasaki, Nana [National Institute of Health Sciences, Division of Biological Chemistry and Biologicals (Japan); Kato, Koichi, E-mail: kkato@phar.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Nagoya City University, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Silkworms serve as promising bioreactors for the production of recombinant proteins, including glycoproteins and membrane proteins, for structural and functional protein analyses. However, lack of methodology for stable isotope labeling has been a major deterrent to using this expression system for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural biology. Here we developed a metabolic isotope labeling technique using commercially available silkworm larvae. The fifth instar larvae were infected with baculoviruses for co-expression of recombinant human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a test molecule, with calnexin as a chaperone. They were subsequently reared on an artificial diet containing {sup 15}N-labeled yeast crude protein extract. We harvested 0.1 mg of IgG from larva with a {sup 15}N-enrichment ratio of approximately 80 %. This allowed us to compare NMR spectral data of the Fc fragment cleaved from the silkworm-produced IgG with those of an authentic Fc glycoprotein derived from mammalian cells. Therefore, we successfully demonstrated that our method enables production of isotopically labeled glycoproteins for NMR studies.

  9. Isotopic Analysis of Fingernails as a USGS Open House Demonstration of the Use of Stable Isotopes in Foodweb Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Choy, D.

    2011-12-01

    The USGS Isotope Tracers Project uses stable isotopes and tritium to add a unique dimension of chemical information to a wide range of environmental investigations. The use and application of isotopes is usually an unfamiliar and even esoteric topic to the general public. Therefore during three USGS open house events, as a public outreach effort, we demonstrated the use of stable isotopes by analyzing nitrogen and carbon isotopes from very small fragments of fingernail from willing participants. We titled the exhibit "You Are What You Eat". The results from all participants were plotted on a graph indicating the general influence of different food groups on the composition of body tissues as represented by fingernails. All participants were assigned a number and no personal-identification information was collected. A subset of participants provided us with an estimate of the number of days a week various foods were eaten and if they were vegetarians, vegans or non-vegetarians. Volunteers from our research group were on hand to explain and discuss fundamental concepts such as how foods attain their isotopic composition, the difference between C3 and C4 plants, the effects of assimilation, trophic enrichment, and the various uses of stable isotopes in environmental studies. The results of the fingernail analyses showed the variation of the range of isotopic compositions among about 400 people at each event, the distinct influence of C4 plants (mainly corn and cane sugar) on our carbon isotopic composition, and the isotopic differences between vegetarians and non vegetarians among other details (http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/isoig/projects/fingernails/). A poll of visitors attending the open house event in 2006 indicated that "You Are What You Eat" was among the most popular exhibits. Following the first two open house events we were contacted by a group of researchers from Brazil who had completed a very similar study. Our collaboration resulted in a publication in

  10. DNA copy-number alterations underlie gene expression differences between microsatellite stable and unstable colorectal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorissen, Robert N; Lipton, Lara; Gibbs, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: About 15% of colorectal cancers harbor microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI-associated gene expression changes have been identified in colorectal cancers, but little overlap exists between signatures hindering an assessment of overall consistency. Little is known about the causes...... and downstream effects of differential gene expression. Experimental Design: DNA microarray data on 89 MSI and 140 microsatellite-stable (MSS) colorectal cancers from this study and 58 MSI and 77 MSS cases from three published reports were randomly divided into test and training sets. MSI-associated gene......-number data. Results: MSI-associated gene expression changes in colorectal cancers were found to be highly consistent across multiple studies of primary tumors and cancer cell lines from patients of different ethnicities (P

  11. Stable suppression of myostatin gene expression in goat fetal fibroblast cells by lentiviral vector-mediated RNAi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Utsav A; Patel, Amrutlal K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted growth factor that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass, and therefore, strategies to block myostatin-signaling pathway have been extensively pursued to increase the muscle mass in livestock. Here, we report a lentiviral vector-based delivery of shRNA to disrupt myostatin expression into goat fetal fibroblasts (GFFs) that were commonly used as karyoplast donors in somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) studies. Sh-RNA positive cells were screened by puromycin selection. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we demonstrated efficient knockdown of endogenous myostatin mRNA with 64% down-regulation in sh2 shRNA-treated GFF cells compared to GFF cells treated by control lentivirus without shRNA. Moreover, we have also demonstrated both the induction of interferon response and the expression of genes regulating myogenesis in GFF cells. The results indicate that myostatin-targeting siRNA produced endogenously could efficiently down-regulate myostatin expression. Therefore, targeted knockdown of the MSTN gene using lentivirus-mediated shRNA transgenics would facilitate customized cell engineering, allowing potential use in the establishment of stable cell lines to produce genetically engineered animals. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Construction of a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering the endogenous toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Kang, Zhen; Cao, Wenlong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-02-10

    Bacillus subtilis as an important workhorse that has been widely used to produce enzymes and metabolites. To broaden its applications, especially in the food and feed industry, we constructed a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering its type II toxin-antitoxin system. The expression of the toxin EndoA, encoded by the chromosomal ydcE gene, was regulated by an endogenous, xylose-inducible promoter, while the ydcD gene, which encodes the unstable antitoxin EndoB, was inserted into a food-grade vector backbone, where its expression was driven by the native, constitutive promoter PylxM. By maintaining the xylose concentration above 2.0 g L(-1), this auto-regulated expression system was absolutely stable after 100 generations. Compared with traditional antibiotic-dependent expression systems, this novel expression system resulted in greater biomass and higher titers of desired products (enzymes or metabolites). Our results demonstrate that this stable, food-grade expression system is suitable for enzyme production and pathway engineering, especially for the production of food-grade enzymes and metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gene expression demonstrates an immunological capacity of the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to explore, demonstrate, and describe the expression of genes related to the innate immune system in the human endolymphatic sac. It is hypothesized that the endolymphatic sac has a significant immunological function in the human inner ear...... was obtained. Multiple key elements of both the cellular and humoral innate immune system were expressed, including Toll-like receptors 4 and 7, as well as beta-defensin and lactoferrin. CONCLUSIONS: The present data provides the first direct evidence of an immunological capacity of the human endolymphatic sac...... immunological entity of the inner ear. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A....

  14. The Synthesis of the Stable IVDU Derivative for Imaging HSV-1 TK Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Jung; Choi, Tae Hyun; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Kim, Byoung Soo; Park, Hyun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; An, Gwang Il; Rhee, Hak June

    2009-01-01

    5-iododeoxyuridine analogues have been exclusively developed for the potential antiviral and antitumor therapeutic agents. In this study, we synthesized carbocyclic radioiododeoxyuridineanalogue (ddIVDU) and carbocyclic intermediate as efficient carbocyclic radiopharmaceuticals. The synthesis is LAH reduction, hetero Diels-Alder reaction as key reactions including Pd(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction together with organotin. MCA-RH7777 (MCA) and MCA-tk (HSV1-tk positive) cells were treated with various concentration of carbocyclic ddIVDU, and GCV. Cytotoxicity was measured by the MTS methods. For in vitro uptake study, MCA and MCA-tk cells were incubated with 1uCi of [ 125 I]carbocyclic ddIVDU. Accumulated radioactivity was measured after various incubation times. The synthesis of ddIVDU and precursor for radioiodination were achieved from cyclopentadiene in good overall yield, respectively. The radioiododemetallation for radiolabeling gave more than 80% yield with > 95% radiochemical purity. GCV was more toxic than carbocyclic ddIVDU in MCA-tk cells. Accumulation of [ 125 I]carbocyclic ddIVDU was higher in MCA-tk cells than MCA cells. Biological data reveal that ddIVDU is stable in vitro, less toxic than ganciclovir (GCV), and selective in HSV1-tk expressed cells. Thus, this new carbocyclic nucleoside, referred to in this paper as carbocyclic 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxy-5- iodovinyluridine (carbocyclic ddIVDU), is a potential imaging probe for HSV1-tk

  15. Stable lentiviral transformation of CHO cells for the expression of the hemagglutinin H5 of avian influenza virus in suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaín González Pose

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus H5N1 has caused extensive damage worldwide among poultry and humans. Effective expression systems are needed for the production of viral proteins required for monitoring this devastating disease. The present study deals with the establishment of a stable expression system for the hemagglutinin H5 (HAH5 of avian influenza virus using CHO cells in suspension culture transduced with a recombinant lentiviral vector. The synthetic gene coding the HAH5 protein was inserted in a lentiviral vector with the aim of performing a stable transduction of CHO cells. After the selection of recombinant clones, the one with the highest expression level was adapted to suspension culture and the HAH5 protein was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography from the culture supernatant. There were no significant differences when this protein, purified or direct from the culture supernatant of CHO or SiHa cells, was utilized in an immunologic assay using positive and negative sera as reference. It was also demonstrated that the HAH5 protein in its purified form is able to bind anti-HAH5 antibodies generated with proper and non-proper folded proteins. The results demonstrate that the CHO cell line stably transduced with a lentiviral vector coding the sequence of the HAH5 protein and cultured in suspension can be a suitable expression system to obtain this protein for diagnostic purpose in a consistent and reliable manner.

  16. Complementing approaches to demonstrate chlorinated solvent biodegradation in a complex pollution plume: mass balance, PCR and compound-specific stable isotope analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Courbet Christelle; Rivière Agnès; Jeannottat Simon; Rinaldi Sandro; Hunkeler Daniel; Bendjoudi Hocine; De Marsily Ghislain

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the use of different complementing methods (mass balance polymerase chain reaction assays and compound specific stable isotope analysis) to demonstrate the existence and effectiveness of biodegradation of chlorinated solvents in an alluvial aquifer. The solvent contaminated site is an old chemical factory located in an alluvial plain in France. As most of the chlorinated contaminants currently found in the groundwater at this site were produced by local industries at vario...

  17. Establishment and Identification of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Lines with Stable Expression of Soluble CD40 Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Hua-wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines with stable expression of soluble CD40 ligands (sCD40L. Methods: Recombinant plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-sCD40L, enzyme digestion and sequencing identification were obtained by cloning sCD40L coding sequences into eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-EGFP from carrier pDC316-sCD40 containing sCD40L. CHO cells were transfected by electroporation, followed by screening of resistant clones with G418, after which monoclones were obtained by limited dilution assay and multiply cultured. Flow cytometer and reverted fluorescence microscope were applied to observe the expression of green fluorescent protein, while sCD40L expression was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from aspects of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA and protein, respectively. CHO-sCD40L was cultured together with MDA-MB-231 cells to compare the expression changes of surface molecule fatty acid synthase (Fas by flow cytometer and observe the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells after Fas activated antibodies (CH-11 were added 24 h later. Results: Plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-sCD40L was successfully established, and cell lines with stable expression of sCD40L were obtained with cloned culture after CHO cell transfection, which was named as B11. Flow cytometer and reverted fluorescence microscope showed >90% expression of green fluorescent protein, while PCR, RT-PCR and ELISA suggested integration of sCD40L genes into cell genome DNA, transcription of sCD40L mRNA and sCD40L protein expression being (4.5±2.1 ng/mL in the supernatant of cell culture, respectively. After co-culture of B11 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the surface Fas expression of MDA-MB-231 cells was increased from (3±1.02 % to (34.8±8.75%, while the apoptosis rate 24 h after addition of CH11 from (5.4±1.32% to (20.7±5.24%, and the differences

  18. Post-Spaceflight (STS-135 Mouse Splenocytes Demonstrate Altered Activation Properties and Surface Molecule Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-An Hwang

    Full Text Available Alterations in immune function have been documented during or post-spaceflight and in ground based models of microgravity. Identification of immune parameters that are dysregulated during spaceflight is an important step in mitigating crew health risks during deep space missions. The in vitro analysis of leukocyte activity post-spaceflight in both human and animal species is primarily focused on lymphocytic function. This report completes a broader spectrum analysis of mouse lymphocyte and monocyte changes post 13 days orbital flight (mission STS-135. Analysis includes an examination in surface markers for cell activation, and antigen presentation and co-stimulatory molecules. Cytokine production was measured after stimulation with T-cell mitogen or TLR-2, TLR-4, or TLR-5 agonists. Splenocyte surface marker analysis immediate post-spaceflight and after in vitro culture demonstrated unique changes in phenotypic populations between the flight mice and matched treatment ground controls. Post-spaceflight splenocytes (flight splenocytes had lower expression intensity of CD4+CD25+ and CD8+CD25+ cells, lower percentage of CD11c+MHC II+ cells, and higher percentage of CD11c+MHC I+ populations compared to ground controls. The flight splenocytes demonstrated an increase in phagocytic activity. Stimulation with ConA led to decrease in CD4+ population but increased CD4+CD25+ cells compared to ground controls. Culturing with TLR agonists led to a decrease in CD11c+ population in splenocytes isolated from flight mice compared to ground controls. Consequently, flight splenocytes with or without TLR-agonist stimulation showed a decrease in CD11c+MHC I+, CD11c+MHC II+, and CD11c+CD86+ cells compared to ground controls. Production of IFN-γ was decreased and IL-2 was increased from ConA stimulated flight splenocytes. This study demonstrated that expression of surface molecules can be affected by conditions of spaceflight and impaired responsiveness persists under

  19. Gene expression analysis of precision-cut human liver slices indicates stable expression of ADME-Tox related genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, M. G. L.; Olinga, P.; van Leeuwen, E. M.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Polman, J.; Schoonen, W. G.; Heisterkamp, S. H.; Groothuis, G. M. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the process of drug development it is of high importance to test the safety of new drugs with predictive value for human toxicity. A promising approach of toxicity testing is based on shifts in gene expression profiling of the liver. Toxicity screening based on animal liver cells cannot be

  20. Stable Plastid Transformation for High-Level Recombinant Protein Expression: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meili Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are a promising expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. However, low protein productivity remains a major obstacle that limits extensive commercialization of whole plant and plant cell bioproduction platform. Plastid genetic engineering offers several advantages, including high levels of transgenic expression, transgenic containment via maternal inheritance, and multigene expression in a single transformation event. In recent years, the development of optimized expression strategies has given a huge boost to the exploitation of plastids in molecular farming. The driving forces behind the high expression level of plastid bioreactors include codon optimization, promoters and UTRs, genotypic modifications, endogenous enhancer and regulatory elements, posttranslational modification, and proteolysis. Exciting progress of the high expression level has been made with the plastid-based production of two particularly important classes of pharmaceuticals: vaccine antigens, therapeutic proteins, and antibiotics and enzymes. Approaches to overcome and solve the associated challenges of this culture system that include low transformation frequencies, the formation of inclusion bodies, and purification of recombinant proteins will also be discussed.

  1. Differential expression of DHHC9 in microsatellite stable and instable human colorectal cancer subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansilla, Francisco; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Kruhøffer, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    validated these findings, showing a significant two-fold (log 2) upregulation of DHHC9 transcript (PGenes known to interact with DHHC9 as H-Ras or N-Ras did not show expression...... cell lines significantly. In conclusion, DHHC9 is a gastrointestinal-related protein highly expressed in MSS colon tumours. The palmitoyl transferase activity, modifying N-Ras and H-Ras, suggests DHHC9 as a target for anticancer drug design.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 22 May...... differences between MSS and MSI. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 60 colon adenocarcinomas, previously analysed on microarrays, as well as on tissue microarrays with 40 stage I-IV tumours and 46 tumours from different organ sites. DHHC9 protein was strongly expressed in MSS compared to MSI...

  2. Cell-free expression and stable isotope labelling strategies for membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhanifar, Solmaz; Reckel, Sina; Junge, Friederike; Schwarz, Daniel; Kai, Lei; Karbyshev, Mikhail; Loehr, Frank; Bernhard, Frank; Doetsch, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins are highly underrepresented in the structural data-base and remain one of the most challenging targets for functional and structural elucidation. Their roles in transport and cellular communication, furthermore, often make over-expression toxic to their host, and their hydrophobicity and structural complexity make isolation and reconstitution a complicated task, especially in cases where proteins are targeted to inclusion bodies. The development of cell-free expression systems provides a very interesting alternative to cell-based systems, since it circumvents many problems such as toxicity or necessity for the transportation of the synthesized protein to the membrane, and constitutes the only system that allows for direct production of membrane proteins in membrane-mimetic environments which may be suitable for liquid state NMR measurements. The unique advantages of the cell-free expression system, including strong expression yields as well as the direct incorporation of almost any combination of amino acids with very little metabolic scrambling, has allowed for the development of a wide-array of isotope labelling techniques which facilitate structural investigations of proteins whose spectral congestion and broad line-widths may have earlier rendered them beyond the scope of NMR. Here we explore various labelling strategies in conjunction with cell-free developments, with a particular focus on α-helical transmembrane proteins which benefit most from such methods.

  3. Stable and high expression of Galectin-8 tightly controls metastatic progression of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilini, Lucas Daniel; Pérez, Ignacio González; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Chauchereau, Anne; Laderach, Diego Jose; Compagno, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Two decades ago, Galectin-8 was described as a prostate carcinoma biomarker since it is only expressed in the neoplastic prostate, but not in the healthy tissue. To date, no biological function has been attributed to Galectin-8 that could explain this differential expression. In this study we silenced Galectin-8 in two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC3 and IGR-CaP1, and designed a pre-clinical experimental model that allows monitoring the pathology from its early steps to the long-term metastatic stages. We show for the first time that the natural and conserved expression of Gal-8 in tumour cells is responsible for the metastatic evolution of prostate cancer. In fact, Gal-8 controls the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and E-Cadherin expression, with a major impact on anoikis and homotypic aggregation of tumour cells, both being essential processes for the survival of circulating tumour cells during metastasis. While localized prostate cancer can be cured, metastatic and advanced disease remains a significant therapeutic challenge, urging for the identification of prognostic markers of the metastatic process. Collectively, our results highlight Galectin-8 as a potential target for anti-metastatic therapy against prostate cancer. PMID:28591719

  4. Stable expression of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in cultured preadipocytes impairs adipogenesis program independently of endogenous prostanoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Mohammad Salim; Chowdhury, Abu Asad; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Nishimura, Kohji [Department of Molecular and Functional Genomics, Center for Integrated Research in Science, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Jisaka, Mitsuo; Nagaya, Tsutomu [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Shono, Fumiaki [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 180 Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima-shi, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan); Yokota, Kazushige, E-mail: yokotaka@life.shimane-u.ac.jp [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) expressed preferentially in adipocytes is responsible for the synthesis of PGD{sub 2} and its non-enzymatic dehydration products, PGJ{sub 2} series, serving as pro-adipogenic factors. However, the role of L-PGDS in the regulation of adipogenesis is complex because of the occurrence of several derivatives from PGD{sub 2} and their distinct receptor subtypes as well as other functions such as a transporter of lipophilic molecules. To manipulate the expression levels of L-PGDS in cultured adipocytes, cultured preadipogenic 3T3-L1 cells were transfected stably with a mammalian expression vector having cDNA encoding murine L-PGDS oriented in the sense direction. The isolated cloned stable transfectants with L-PGDS expressed higher levels of the transcript and protein levels of L-PGDS, and synthesized PGD{sub 2} from exogenous arachidonic acid at significantly higher levels. By contrast, the synthesis of PGE{sub 2} remained unchanged, indicating no influence on the reactions of cyclooxygenase (COX) and PGE synthase. Furthermore, the ability of those transfectants to synthesize {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2} increased more greatly during the maturation phase. The sustained expression of L-PGDS in cultured stable transfectants hampered the storage of fats during the maturation phase of adipocytes, which was accompanied by the reduced gene expression of adipocyte-specific markers reflecting the down-regulation of the adipogenesis program. The suppressed adipogenesis was not rescued by either exogenous aspirin or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists including troglitazone and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2}. Taken together, the results indicate the negative regulation of the adipogenesis program by the enhanced expression of L-PGDS through a cellular mechanism involving the interference of the PPAR{gamma} signaling pathway without the contribution of endogenous pro-adipogenic prostanoids

  5. Stable expression and phenotypic impact of attacin E transgene in orchard grown apple trees over a 12 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borejsza-Wysocka, Ewa; Norelli, John L; Aldwinckle, Herb S; Malnoy, Mickael

    2010-06-03

    Transgenic trees currently are being produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and biolistics. The future use of transformed trees on a commercial basis depends upon thorough evaluation of the potential environmental and public health risk of the modified plants, transgene stability over a prolonged period of time and the effect of the gene on tree and fruit characteristics. We studied the stability of expression and the effect on resistance to the fire blight disease of the lytic protein gene, attacin E, in the apple cultivar 'Galaxy' grown in the field for 12 years. Using Southern and western blot analysis, we compared transgene copy number and observed stability of expression of this gene in the leaves and fruit in several transformed lines during a 12 year period. No silenced transgenic plant was detected. Also the expression of this gene resulted in an increase in resistance to fire blight throughout 12 years of orchard trial and did not affect fruit shape, size, acidity, firmness, weight or sugar level, tree morphology, leaf shape or flower morphology or color compared to the control. Overall, these results suggest that transgene expression in perennial species, such as fruit trees, remains stable in time and space, over extended periods and in different organs. This report shows that it is possible to improve a desirable trait in apple, such as the resistance to a pathogen, through genetic engineering, without adverse alteration of fruit characteristics and tree shape.

  6. Evaluating Electroporation and Lipofectamine Approaches for Transient and Stable Transgene Expressions in Human Fibroblasts and Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Tabar, Mehdi; Hesaraki, Mahdi; Esfandiari, Fereshteh; Sahraneshin Samani, Fazel; Vakilian, Haghighat; Baharvand, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective Genetic modification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is critical for their extensive use as a fundamental tool for cell therapy and basic research. Despite the fact that various methods such as lipofection and electroporation have been applied to transfer the gene of interest (GOI) into the target cell line, however, there are few re- ports that compare all parameters, which influence transfection efficiency. In this study, we examine all parameters that affect the efficiency of electroporation and lipofection for transient and long-term gene expression in three different cell lines to introduce the best method and determinant factor. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, both electroporation and lipofection approaches were employed for genetic modification. pCAG-EGFP was applied for tran- sient expression of green fluorescent protein in two genetically different hESC lines, Roy- an H5 (XX) and Royan H6 (XY), as well as human foreskin fibroblasts (hFF). For long-term EGFP expression VASA and OLIG2 promoters (germ cell and motoneuron specific genes, respectively), were isolated and subsequently cloned into a pBluMAR5 plasmid backbone to drive EGFP expression. Flow cytometry analysis was performed two days after trans- fection to determine transient expression efficiency. Differentiation of drug resistant hESC colonies toward primordial germ cells (PGCs) was conducted to confirm stable integration of the transgene. Results Transient and stable expression suggested a variable potential for different cell lines against transfection. Analysis of parameters that influenced gene transformation ef- ficiency revealed that the vector concentrations from 20-60 μg and the density of the sub- jected cells (5×105and 1×106cells) were not as effective as the genetic background and voltage rate. The present data indicated that in contrast to the circular form, the linearized vector generated more distinctive drug resistant colonies. Conclusion

  7. Mice with GFAP-targeted loss of neurofibromin demonstrate increased axonal MET expression with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weiping; Xing, Rubing; Guha, Abhijit; Gutmann, David H; Sherman, Larry S

    2007-05-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disease that predisposes patients to peripheral nerve tumors and central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities including low-grade astrocytomas and cognitive disabilities. Using mice with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-targeted Nf1 loss (Nf1(GFAP)CKO mice), we found that Nf1(-/-) astrocytes proliferate faster and are more invasive than wild-type astrocytes. In light of our previous finding that aberrant expression of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase contributes to the invasiveness of human NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, we sought to determine whether MET expression is aberrant in the brains of Nf1 mutant mice. We found that Nf1(-/-) astrocytes express slightly more MET than wild-type cells in vitro, but do not express elevated MET in situ. However, fiber tracts containing myelinated axons in the hippocampus, midbrain, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum express higher than normal levels of MET in older (> or =6 months) Nf1(GFAP)CKO mice. Both Nf1(GFAP)CKO and wild-type astrocytes induced MET expression in neurites of wild-type hippocampal neurons in vitro, suggesting that astrocyte-derived signals may induce MET in Nf1 mutant mice. Because the Nf1 gene product functions as a RAS GTPase, we examined MET expression in the brains of mice with GFAP-targeted constitutively active forms of RAS. MET was elevated in axonal fiber tracts in mice with active K-RAS but not H-RAS. Collectively, these data suggest that loss of Nf1 in either astrocytes or GFAP(+) neural progenitor cells results in increased axonal MET expression, which may contribute to the CNS abnormalities in children and adults with NF1. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Stable expression of mtlD gene imparts multiple stress tolerance in finger millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, Ramanna; Vemanna, Ramu S; Sreeramulu, Shivakumar; Reddy, Chandrasekhara P; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2014-01-01

    Finger millet is susceptible to abiotic stresses, especially drought and salinity stress, in the field during seed germination and early stages of seedling development. Therefore developing stress tolerant finger millet plants combating drought, salinity and associated oxidative stress in these two growth stages is important. Cellular protection through osmotic adjustment and efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Mannitol, an osmolyte, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses and thereby minimize stress damage in several plant species. In this study transgenic finger millet plants expressing the mannitol biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mtlD), were developed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. mtlD gene integration in the putative transgenic plants was confirmed by Southern blot. Further, performance of transgenic finger millet under drought, salinity and oxidative stress was studied at plant level in T1 generation and in T1 and T2 generation seedlings. Results from these experiments showed that transgenic finger millet had better growth under drought and salinity stress compared to wild-type. At plant level, transgenic plants showed better osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll retention under drought stress compared to the wild-type. However, the overall increase in stress tolerance of transgenics for the three stresses, especially for oxidative stress, was only marginal compared to other mtlD gene expressing plant species reported in the literature. Moreover, the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol developed for finger millet in this study can be used to introduce diverse traits of agronomic importance in finger millet.

  9. Stable expression of mtlD gene imparts multiple stress tolerance in finger millet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanna Hema

    Full Text Available Finger millet is susceptible to abiotic stresses, especially drought and salinity stress, in the field during seed germination and early stages of seedling development. Therefore developing stress tolerant finger millet plants combating drought, salinity and associated oxidative stress in these two growth stages is important. Cellular protection through osmotic adjustment and efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Mannitol, an osmolyte, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses and thereby minimize stress damage in several plant species. In this study transgenic finger millet plants expressing the mannitol biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mtlD, were developed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. mtlD gene integration in the putative transgenic plants was confirmed by Southern blot. Further, performance of transgenic finger millet under drought, salinity and oxidative stress was studied at plant level in T1 generation and in T1 and T2 generation seedlings. Results from these experiments showed that transgenic finger millet had better growth under drought and salinity stress compared to wild-type. At plant level, transgenic plants showed better osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll retention under drought stress compared to the wild-type. However, the overall increase in stress tolerance of transgenics for the three stresses, especially for oxidative stress, was only marginal compared to other mtlD gene expressing plant species reported in the literature. Moreover, the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol developed for finger millet in this study can be used to introduce diverse traits of agronomic importance in finger millet.

  10. YUCCA6 over-expression demonstrates auxin function in delaying leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jeong Im

    2011-04-21

    The Arabidopsis thaliana YUCCA family of flavin monooxygenase proteins catalyses a rate-limiting step in de novo auxin biosynthesis. A YUCCA6 activation mutant, yuc6-1D, has been shown to contain an elevated free IAA level and to display typical high-auxin phenotypes. It is reported here that Arabidopsis plants over-expressing YUCCA6, such as the yuc6-1D activation mutant and 35S:YUC6 transgenic plants, displayed dramatic longevity. In addition, plants over-expressing YUCCA6 exhibited classical, delayed dark-induced and hormone-induced senescence in assays using detached rosette leaves. However, plants over-expressing an allele of YUCCA6, that carries mutations in the NADPH cofactor binding site, exhibited neither delayed leaf senescence phenotypes nor phenotypes typical of auxin overproduction. When the level of free IAA was reduced in yuc6-1D by conjugation to lysine, yuc6-1D leaves senesced at a rate similar to the wild-type leaves. Dark-induced senescence in detached leaves was accompanied by a decrease in their free IAA content, by the reduced expression of auxin biosynthesis enzymes such as YUCCA1 and YUCCA6 that increase cellular free IAA levels, and by the increased expression of auxin-conjugating enzymes encoded by the GH3 genes that reduce the cellular free auxin levels. Reduced transcript abundances of SAG12, NAC1, and NAC6 during senescence in yuc6-1D compared with the wild type suggested that auxin delays senescence by directly or indirectly regulating the expression of senescence-associated genes. 2011 The Author(s).

  11. Expression of a Recombinant Anti-HIV and Anti-Tumor Protein, MAP30, in Nicotiana tobacum Hairy Roots: A pH-Stable and Thermophilic Antimicrobial Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghadam

    Full Text Available In contrast to conventional antibiotics, which microorganisms can readily evade, it is nearly impossible for a microbial strain that is sensitive to antimicrobial proteins to convert to a resistant strain. Therefore, antimicrobial proteins and peptides that are promising alternative candidates for the control of bacterial infections are under investigation. The MAP30 protein of Momordica charantia is a valuable type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP with anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities. Whereas the antimicrobial activity of some type I RIPs has been confirmed, less attention has been paid to the antimicrobial activity of MAP30 produced in a stable, easily handled, and extremely cost-effective protein-expression system. rMAP30-KDEL was expressed in Nicotiana tobacum hairy roots, and its effect on different microorganisms was investigated. Analysis of the extracted total proteins of transgenic hairy roots showed that rMAP30-KDEL was expressed effectively and that this protein exhibited significant antibacterial activity in a dose-dependent manner. rMAP30-KDEL also possessed thermal and pH stability. Bioinformatic analysis of MAP30 and other RIPs regarding their conserved motifs, amino-acid contents, charge, aliphatic index, GRAVY value, and secondary structures demonstrated that these factors accounted for their thermophilicity. Therefore, RIPs such as MAP30 and its derived peptides might have promising applications as food preservatives, and their analysis might provide useful insights into designing clinically applicable antibiotic agents.

  12. Global gene expression profiling of individual human oocytes and embryos demonstrates heterogeneity in early development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Shaw

    Full Text Available Early development in humans is characterised by low and variable embryonic viability, reflected in low fecundity and high rates of miscarriage, relative to other mammals. Data from assisted reproduction programmes provides additional evidence that this is largely mediated at the level of embryonic competence and is highly heterogeneous among embryos. Understanding the basis of this heterogeneity has important implications in a number of areas including: the regulation of early human development, disorders of pregnancy, assisted reproduction programmes, the long term health of children which may be programmed in early development, and the molecular basis of pluripotency in human stem cell populations. We have therefore investigated global gene expression profiles using polyAPCR amplification and microarray technology applied to individual human oocytes and 4-cell and blastocyst stage embryos. In order to explore the basis of any variability in detail, each developmental stage is replicated in triplicate. Our data show that although transcript profiles are highly stage-specific, within each stage they are relatively variable. We describe expression of a number of gene families and pathways including apoptosis, cell cycle and amino acid metabolism, which are variably expressed and may be reflective of embryonic developmental competence. Overall, our data suggest that heterogeneity in human embryo developmental competence is reflected in global transcript profiles, and that the vast majority of existing human embryo gene expression data based on pooled oocytes and embryos need to be reinterpreted.

  13. The role of proteolytic processing and the stable signal peptide in expression of the Old World arenavirus envelope glycoprotein ectodomain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burri, Dominique J.; Pasquato, Antonella; Ramos da Palma, Joel; Igonet, Sebastien; Oldstone, Michael B.A.; Kunz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Maturation of the arenavirus GP precursor (GPC) involves proteolytic processing by cellular signal peptidase and the proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P), yielding a tripartite complex comprised of a stable signal peptide (SSP), the receptor-binding GP1, and the fusion-active transmembrane GP2. Here we investigated the roles of SKI-1/S1P processing and SSP in the biosynthesis of the recombinant GP ectodomains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus (LASV). When expressed in mammalian cells, the LCMV and LASV GP ectodomains underwent processing by SKI-1/S1P, followed by dissociation of GP1 from GP2. The GP2 ectodomain spontaneously formed trimers as revealed by chemical cross-linking. The endogenous SSP, known to be crucial for maturation and transport of full-length arenavirus GPC was dispensable for processing and secretion of the soluble GP ectodomain, suggesting a specific role of SSP in the stable prefusion conformation and transport of full-length GPC.

  14. The role of proteolytic processing and the stable signal peptide in expression of the Old World arenavirus envelope glycoprotein ectodomain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burri, Dominique J.; Pasquato, Antonella; Ramos da Palma, Joel [Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1011 (Switzerland); Igonet, Sebastien; Oldstone, Michael B.A. [Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Kunz, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Kunz@chuv.ch [Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1011 (Switzerland)

    2013-02-05

    Maturation of the arenavirus GP precursor (GPC) involves proteolytic processing by cellular signal peptidase and the proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P), yielding a tripartite complex comprised of a stable signal peptide (SSP), the receptor-binding GP1, and the fusion-active transmembrane GP2. Here we investigated the roles of SKI-1/S1P processing and SSP in the biosynthesis of the recombinant GP ectodomains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus (LASV). When expressed in mammalian cells, the LCMV and LASV GP ectodomains underwent processing by SKI-1/S1P, followed by dissociation of GP1 from GP2. The GP2 ectodomain spontaneously formed trimers as revealed by chemical cross-linking. The endogenous SSP, known to be crucial for maturation and transport of full-length arenavirus GPC was dispensable for processing and secretion of the soluble GP ectodomain, suggesting a specific role of SSP in the stable prefusion conformation and transport of full-length GPC.

  15. 78 FR 60887 - Expressions of Interest (EOI) for Chemical Defense Demonstration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... CDP. DATES: Submit the completed and signed DHS Form 10088 (9/12), either electronically or in hard... demonstration project will result in, among other things: (a) A review of current community preparedness...

  16. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Van Le

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10 is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and Chemokine (C–C Motif Ligand 20 (CCL20 expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10.

  17. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hai Van; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 20 (CCL20) expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10.

  18. High responders to resistance exercise training demonstrate differential regulation of skeletal muscle microRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Peter K; Gallagher, Iain J; Hartman, Joseph W

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA), small noncoding RNA molecules, may regulate protein synthesis, while resistance exercise training (RT) is an efficient strategy for stimulating muscle protein synthesis in vivo. However, RT increases muscle mass, with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. We therefore...... determined the expression level of 21 abundant miRNAs to determine whether variation in these miRNAs was able to explain the variation in RT-induced gains in muscle mass. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from the top and bottom ~20% of responders from 56 young men who undertook a 5 day/wk RT program...... for 12 wk. Training-induced muscle mass gain was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fiber size was evaluated by histochemistry. The expression level of each miRNA was quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative PCR, with the analysis carried out in a blinded manner. Gene ontology...

  19. The Sporothrix schenckii Gene Encoding for the Ribosomal Protein L6 Has Constitutive and Stable Expression and Works as an Endogenous Control in Gene Expression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Trujillo-Esquivel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sporothrix schenckii is one of the causative agents of sporotrichosis, a worldwide-distributed mycosis that affects humans and other mammals. The interest in basic and clinical features of this organism has significantly increased in the last years, yet little progress in molecular aspects has been reported. Gene expression analysis is a set of powerful tools that helps to assess the cell response to changes in the extracellular environment, the genetic networks controlling metabolic pathways, and the adaptation to different growth conditions. Most of the quantitative methodologies used nowadays require data normalization, and this is achieved measuring the expression of endogenous control genes. Reference genes, whose expression is assumed to suffer minimal changes regardless the cell morphology, the stage of the cell cycle or the presence of harsh extracellular conditions are commonly used as controls in Northern blotting assays, microarrays, and semi-quantitative or quantitative RT-PCR. Since the biology of the organisms is usually species specific, it is difficult to find a reliable group of universal genes that can be used as controls for data normalization in experiments addressing the gene expression, regardless the taxonomic classification of the organism under study. Here, we compared the transcriptional stability of the genes encoding for elongation factor 1A, Tfc1, a protein involved in transcription initiation on Pol III promoters, ribosomal protein L6, histone H2A, β-actin, β-tubulin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, UAF30, the upstream activating factor 30, and the transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 10, during the fungal growth in different culture media and cell morphologies. Our results indicated that only the gene encoding for the ribosomal protein L6 showed a stable and constant expression. Furthermore, it displayed not transcriptional changes when S. schenckii infected larvae of Galleria mellonella or

  20. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  1. Development of stable Vibrio cholerae O1 Hikojima type vaccine strains co-expressing the Inaba and Ogawa lipopolysaccharide antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan L Karlsson

    Full Text Available We describe here the development of stable classical and El Tor V. cholerae O1 strains of the Hikojima serotype that co-express the Inaba and Ogawa antigens of O1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mutation of the wbeT gene reduced LPS perosamine methylation and thereby gave only partial transformation into Ogawa LPS on the cell surface. The strains express approximately equal amounts of Inaba- and Ogawa-LPS antigens which are preserved after formalin-inactivation of the bacteria. Oral immunizations of both inbred and outbred mice with formalin-inactivated whole-cell vaccine preparations of these strains elicited strong intestinal IgA anti-LPS as well as serum vibriocidal antibody responses against both Inaba and Ogawa that were fully comparable to the responses induced by the licensed Dukoral vaccine. Passive protection studies in infant mice showed that immune sera raised against either of the novel Hikojima vaccine strains protected baby mice against infection with virulent strains of both serotypes. This study illustrates the power of using genetic manipulation to improve the properties of bacteria strains for use in killed whole-cell vaccines.

  2. Gene expression profiling demonstrates WNT/β-catenin pathway genes alteration in Mexican patients with colorectal cancer and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivonne Wence-Chavez, Laura; Palomares-Chacon, Ulises; Pablo Flores-Gutierrez, Juan; Felipe Jave-Suarez, Luis; Del Carmen Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Barros-Nunez, Patricio; Esperanza Flores-Martinez, Silvia; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Alejandra Rosales-Reynoso, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown a strong association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The fundamental mechanisms that support this association are not entirely understood; however, it is believed that hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia may be involved. Some proposed mechanisms include upregulation of mitogenic signaling pathways like MAPK, PI3K, mTOR, and WNT, which are involved in cell proliferation, growth, and cancer cell survival. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression profile and identify differently expressed genes involved in mitogenic pathways in CRC patients with and without DM. In this study, microarray analysis of gene expression followed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed in cancer tissue from CRC patients with and without DM to identify the gene expression profiles and validate the differently expressed genes. Among the study groups, some differently expressed genes were identified. However, when bioinformatics clustering tools were used, a significant modulation of genes involved in the WNT pathway was evident. Therefore, we focused on genes participating in this pathway, such as WNT3A, LRP6, TCF7L2, and FRA-1. Validation of the expression levels of those genes by qPCR showed that CRC patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) expressed significantly more WNT3Ay LRP6, but less TCF7L2 and FRA-1 compared to controls, while in CRC patients with DM the expression levels of WNT3A, LRP6, TCF7L2, and FRA-1 were significantly higher compared to controls. Our results suggest that WNT/β-catenin pathway is upregulated in patients with CRC and DM, demonstrating its importance and involvement in both pathologies.

  3. Complementing approaches to demonstrate chlorinated solvent biodegradation in a complex pollution plume: Mass balance, PCR and compound-specific stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Christelle; Rivière, Agnès; Jeannottat, Simon; Rinaldi, Sandro; Hunkeler, Daniel; Bendjoudi, Hocine; de Marsily, Ghislain

    2011-11-01

    This work describes the use of different complementing methods (mass balance, polymerase chain reaction assays and compound-specific stable isotope analysis) to demonstrate the existence and effectiveness of biodegradation of chlorinated solvents in an alluvial aquifer. The solvent-contaminated site is an old chemical factory located in an alluvial plain in France. As most of the chlorinated contaminants currently found in the groundwater at this site were produced by local industries at various times in the past, it is not enough to analyze chlorinated solvent concentrations along a flow path to convincingly demonstrate biodegradation. Moreover, only a few data were initially available to characterize the geochemical conditions at this site, which were apparently complex at the source zone due to (i) the presence of a steady oxygen supply to the groundwater by irrigation canal losses and river infiltration and (ii) an alkaline pH higher than 10 due to former underground lime disposal. A demonstration of the existence of biodegradation processes was however required by the regulatory authority within a timeframe that did not allow a full geochemical characterization of such a complex site. Thus a combination of different fast methods was used to obtain a proof of the biodegradation occurrence. First, a mass balance analysis was performed which revealed the existence of a strong natural attenuation process (biodegradation, volatilization or dilution), despite the huge uncertainty on these calculations. Second, a good agreement was found between carbon isotopic measurements and PCR assays (based on 16S RNA gene sequences and functional genes), which clearly indicated reductive dechlorination of different hydrocarbons (Tetrachloroethene—PCE-, Trichloroethene—TCE-, 1,2- cisDichloroethene— cis-1,2-DCE-, 1,2- transDichloroethene— trans-1,2-DCE-, 1,1-Dichloroethene—1,1-DCE-, and Vinyl Chloride—VC) to ethene. According to these carbon isotope measurements

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR in colorectal carcinoma correlates with high but not low level gene amplification, as demonstrated by CISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Chris; Broomfield, Amy; Bean, Elaine; Whitehead, Martin; Yip, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    To assess and compare immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with gene amplification as demonstrated by chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH), in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Sections from 100 consecutive colorectal cancer resection specimens were stained for EGFR using immunohistochemistry and CISH. Immunohistochemical assessment was independently performed at two laboratories, using the same antibody and protocols. With immunohistochemistry, strong circumferential membrane staining (3+ staining) was demonstrated in only 5% of cases, and this was only focal in three of five cases. At one laboratory, weak or incomplete staining (1+ or 2+) was observed in five further cases (5%), which had been negative at the other laboratory. CISH demonstrated high level gene amplification (>10 copies/nucleus) in the same five cases which had demonstrated 3+ staining with immunohistochemistry, and in those cases where the staining was focal, the amplification was demonstrated in the same foci of the tumour. Five further cases (5%) had low level amplification (5-10 copies per nucleus); these cases did not exhibit significant positive staining with immunohistochemistry. All the cases which demonstrated gene amplification (high or low level) arose in the distal colon. There was no correlation between gene amplification status and a variety of other variables, including stage at diagnosis, mucinous differentiation, neuroendocrine differentiation, or loss of expression of mismatch repair proteins. Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR is variable between laboratories, even using standardised protocols. 3+ staining is predictive of high level gene amplification, but correlates very poorly with low level amplification, which may still be clinically significant. In some cases gene amplification was only focal, offering a potential explanation for poor response to targeted therapy in patients with EGFR positive tumours.

  5. Extensive characterization of a lentiviral-derived stable cell line expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus VPg protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Miao, Qiuhong; Tan, Yonggui; Guo, Huimin; Li, Chuanfeng; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-11-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is an important member of the caliciviridae family. Currently, no suitable tissue culture system is available for proliferating RHDV, which limits the study of its pathogenesis. To bypass this obstacle, we established a cell line, RK13-VPg, stably expressing the VPg gene with a lentivirus packaging system in this study. In addition, the recently constructed RHDV replicon in our laboratory provided an appropriate model for studying the pathogenesis of RHDV without in vitro RHDV propagation and culture. Using this RHDV replicon and RK13-VPg cell line, we further demonstrated that the presence of VPg protein is essential for efficient translation of an RHDV replicon. Therefore, the RK13-VPg cell line is a powerful tool for studying the replication and translation mechanisms of RHDV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, SILAC, as a simple and accurate approach to expression proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ong, S.E.; Blagoev, B.; Kratchmarova, I.

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics has traditionally been performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, but recently, mass spectrometric methods based on stable isotope quantitation have shown great promise for the simultaneous and automated identification and quantitation of complex protein mixtures. H...

  7. Demonstration of Li-based alloy coatings as low-voltage stable electron-emission surfaces for field-emission devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Shah, P.; Corrigan, T.; Kordesch, M.E.; Chang, R.P.; Barr, T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Alkali metals have extremely low work functions and are, therefore, expected to result in significant enhancement of the electron emission if they are used as coatings on Mo or Si microtip field-emission arrays (FEAs). However, the alkali metals are physically and chemically unstable in layers exceeding a few Angstrom in thickness. Maximum enhancement of electron emission occurs for alkali - metal layers 0.5 - 1 ML thick, but it is extremely difficult to fabricate and maintain such a thin alkali - metal coating. We present here an alternative means of producing chemically and thermally stable, self-replenishing lithium coatings approximately 1 ML thick, which results in a 13-fold reduction in the threshold voltage for electron emission compared with uncoated Si FEAs. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  8. High levels of stable p53 protein and the expression of c-myc in cultured human epithelial tissue after cobalt-60 irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.B.; Harney, J.; Hennessy, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    When explants of human uroepithelium or esophageal epithelium are exposed to acute doses of radiation (cobalt-60), the cells which grow out to form the primary cultures show a number of abnormal features. These include the development of characteristic nonsenescent foci. These foci have previously been shown to be c-myc positive and to have an abnormal, tumor-like ultrastructure. Expression of c-myc and the level of stable p53 proteins have now been examined in these cultures 2 weeks after irradiation. Both proteins occurred in dividing cells at the growing edge of the explant and in the foci. The expression of c-myc appeared to be correlated with growth. As expected, variation between individual cultures of normal human cells was noted in the expression of stable p53 protein. Most control uroepithelial cell cultures were negative, but a small cohort showed a wide range of values. The control cultures from the esophageal tissues had high expression of p53, and this decreased marginally after irradiation. Cells positive for p53 were always in cycle and were usually positive for c-myc as well. It would appear from these results that the expression of c-myc and the stable form of the p53 protein occur in irradiated primary cultures of normal human cells both in foci which also express a number of abnormalities and in open-quotes edgeclose quotes cells which are dividing. Cultures of unirradiated cells from esophagus and a small number of uroepithelial samples had high levels of p53. Possible reasons for this are discussed. 33 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Stable oxygen isotope and flux partitioning demonstrates understory of an oak savanna contributes up to half of ecosystem carbon and water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren eDubbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Semi-arid ecosystems contribute about 40% to global net primary production (GPP even though water is a major factor limiting carbon uptake. Evapotranspiration (ET accounts for up to 95% of the water loss and in addition, vegetation can also mitigate drought effects by altering soil water distribution. Hence, partitioning of carbon and water fluxes between the soil and vegetation components is crucial to gain mechanistic understanding of vegetation effects on carbon and water cycling. However, the possible impact of herbaceous vegetation in savanna type ecosystems is often overlooked. Therefore, we aimed at quantifying understory vegetation effects on the water balance and productivity of a Mediterranean oak savanna. ET and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE were partitioned based on flux and stable oxygen isotope measurements and also rain infiltration was estimated.The understory vegetation contributed importantly to total ecosystem ET and GPP with a maximum of 43% and 51%, respectively. It reached water-use efficiencies (WUE; ratio of carbon gain by water loss similar to cork-oak trees. The understory vegetation inhibited soil evaporation (E and, although E was large during wet periods, it did not diminish WUE during water-limited times. The understory strongly increased soil water infiltration, specifically following major rain events. At the same time, the understory itself was vulnerable to drought, which led to an earlier senescence of the understory growing under trees as compared to open areas, due to competition for water. Thus, beneficial understory effects are dominant and contribute to the resilience of this ecosystem. At the same time the vulnerability of the understory to drought suggests that future climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean basin threaten understory development. This in turn will very likely diminish beneficial understory effects like infiltration and ground water recharge and therefore ecosystem resilience to

  10. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of exercise training on peripheral blood gene expression in patients with stable angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crossman David C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise training has been shown to reduce angina and promote collateral vessel development in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the mechanism whereby exercise exerts these beneficial effects is unclear. There has been increasing interest in the use of whole genome peripheral blood gene expression in a wide range of conditions to attempt to identify both novel mechanisms of disease and transcriptional biomarkers. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effect of a structured exercise programme on peripheral blood gene expression in patients with stable angina, and correlate this with changes in angina level, anxiety, depression, and exercise capacity. Methods/Design Sixty patients with stable angina will be recruited and randomised 1:1 to exercise training or conventional care. Patients randomised to exercise training will attend an exercise physiology laboratory up to three times weekly for supervised aerobic interval training sessions of one hour in total duration. Patients will undergo assessments of angina, anxiety, depression, and peripheral blood gene expression at baseline, after six and twelve weeks of training, and twelve weeks after formal exercise training ceases. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effect of exercise training on peripheral blood gene expression in patients with angina. By correlating this with improvement in angina status we will identify candidate peripheral blood transcriptional markers predictive of improvements in angina level in response to exercise training. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01147952

  11. Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease Demonstrate Distinctive Pulmonary Gene Expressions for Vascular Response Genes: Impact of Ozone Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative gene expression profiling of multiple tissues from rat strains with genetic predisposition to diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVD) can help decode the transcriptional program that governs organ-specific functions. We examined expressions of CVD genes in the lungs of ...

  12. IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg subsets with stable and unstable Foxp3 expression in kidney transplant recipients with good long-term graft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Karina; Unterrainer, Christian; Aly, Mostafa; Zhu, Li; Weimer, Rolf; Bulut, Nuray; Morath, Christian; Opelz, Gerhard; Daniel, Volker

    2016-10-29

    Treg are a heterogenous cell population. In the present study we attempted to identify Treg subsets that might contribute to stable and good long-term graft function. Lymphocyte and Treg subsets were studied in 136 kidney transplant recipients with good long-term graft function and in 52 healthy control individuals using eight-color-fluorescence flow cytometry. Foxp3 TSDR methylation status was investigated in enriched IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg preparations using high resolution melt analysis. Compared with healthy controls, patients showed strong associations of IFNy secreting Helios+ and Helios- Treg with Treg that co-expressed perforin and/or CTLA4 (CD152; pterm graft function possess IFNy+ and IFNy- Treg with stable and unstable Foxp3 expression in the blood. They co-express CD28, HLADR, CTLA4, CXCR3, Lselectin, TGFβ, perforin and FasL and might contribute to the establishment and maintenance of good long-term graft function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Thymidylate synthase protein expression levels remain stable during paclitaxel and carboplatin treatment in non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a potential predictive marker for efficacy of treatment with pemetrexed. The current study aimed at investigating whether TS expression changes during non-pemetrexed chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), thus making rebiopsy necessary for dec...

  14. Stable alterations of CD44 isoform expression in prostate cancer cells decrease invasion and growth and alter ligand binding and chemosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kui; Tang, Yaqiong; Habermehl, Gabriel K; Iczkowski, Kenneth A

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulated CD44 expression characterizes most human cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). PCa loses expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) that is present in benign epithelium, and overexpresses the novel splice variant isoform, CD44v7-10. Using retroviral gene delivery to PC-3M PCa cells, we expressed luciferase-only, enforced CD44s re-expression as a fusion protein with luciferase at its C-terminus or as a protein separate from luciferase, or knocked down CD44v7-10 by RNAi. Invasion, migration, proliferation, soft agar colony formation, adhesion, Docetaxel sensitivity, and xenograft growth assays were carried out. Expression responses of merlin, a CD44 binding partner, and growth-permissive phospho-merlin, were assessed by western blot. Compared to luciferase-only PC-3M cells, all three treatments reduced invasion and migration. Growth and soft agar colony formation were reduced only by re-expression of CD44s as a separate or fusion protein but not CD44v7-10 RNAi. Hyaluronan and osteopontin binding were greatly strengthened by CD44s expression as a separate protein, but not a fusion protein. CD44v7-10 RNAi in PC-3M cells caused marked sensitization to Docetaxel; the two CD44s re-expression approaches caused minimal sensitization. In limited numbers of mouse subcutaneous xenografts, all three alterations produced only nonsignificant trends toward slower growth compared with luciferase-only controls. The expression of CD44s as a separate protein, but not a fusion protein, caused emergence of a strongly-expressed, hypophosphorylated species of phospho-merlin. Stable re-expression of CD44s reduces PCa growth and invasion in vitro, and possibly in vivo, suggesting CD44 alterations have potential as gene therapy. When the C-terminus of CD44s is fused to another protein, most phenotypic effects are lessened, particularly hyaluronan adhesion. Finally, CD44v7-10, although it was not functionally significant for growth, may be a target for chemosensitization

  15. Multicistronic lentiviral vectors containing the FMDV 2A cleavage factor demonstrate robust expression of encoded genes at limiting MOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margison Geoffrey P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of gene therapy applications would benefit from vectors capable of expressing multiple genes. In this study we explored the feasibility and efficiency of expressing two or three transgenes in HIV-1 based lentiviral vector. Bicistronic and tricistronic self-inactivating lentiviral vectors were constructed employing the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES sequence of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV and/or foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV cleavage factor 2A. We employed enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP, O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT, and homeobox transcription factor HOXB4 as model genes and their expression was detected by appropriate methods including fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, biochemical assay, and western blotting. Results All the multigene vectors produced high titer virus and were able to simultaneously express two or three transgenes in transduced cells. However, the level of expression of individual transgenes varied depending on: the transgene itself; its position within the construct; the total number of transgenes expressed; the strategy used for multigene expression and the average copy number of pro-viral insertions. Notably, at limiting MOI, the expression of eGFP in a bicistronic vector based on 2A was ~4 times greater than that of an IRES based vector. Conclusion The small and efficient 2A sequence can be used alone or in combination with an IRES for the construction of multicistronic lentiviral vectors which can express encoded transgenes at functionally relevant levels in cells containing an average of one pro-viral insert.

  16. Unbiased proteomics analysis demonstrates significant variability in mucosal immune factor expression depending on the site and method of collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzie M Birse

    Full Text Available Female genital tract secretions are commonly sampled by lavage of the ectocervix and vaginal vault or via a sponge inserted into the endocervix for evaluating inflammation status and immune factors critical for HIV microbicide and vaccine studies. This study uses a proteomics approach to comprehensively compare the efficacy of these methods, which sample from different compartments of the female genital tract, for the collection of immune factors. Matching sponge and lavage samples were collected from 10 healthy women and were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Data was analyzed by a combination of differential protein expression analysis, hierarchical clustering and pathway analysis. Of the 385 proteins identified, endocervical sponge samples collected nearly twice as many unique proteins as cervicovaginal lavage (111 vs. 61 with 55% of proteins common to both (213. Each method/site identified 73 unique proteins that have roles in host immunity according to their gene ontology. Sponge samples enriched for specific inflammation pathways including acute phase response proteins (p = 3.37×10(-24 and LXR/RXR immune activation pathways (p = 8.82×10(-22 while the role IL-17A in psoriasis pathway (p = 5.98×10(-4 and the complement system pathway (p = 3.91×10(-3 were enriched in lavage samples. Many host defense factors were differentially enriched (p<0.05 between sites including known/potential antimicrobial factors (n = 21, S100 proteins (n = 9, and immune regulatory factors such as serpins (n = 7. Immunoglobulins (n = 6 were collected at comparable levels in abundance in each site although 25% of those identified were unique to sponge samples. This study demonstrates significant differences in types and quantities of immune factors and inflammation pathways collected by each sampling technique. Therefore, clinical studies that measure mucosal immune activation or factors assessing HIV transmission should utilize

  17. Inhibition of muscle-specific gene expression by Id3: requirement of the C-terminal region of the protein for stable expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Han, B H; Sun, X H; Lim, R W

    1997-01-15

    We have examined the role of an Id-like protein, Id3 (also known as HLH462), in the regulation of muscle-specific gene expression. Id proteins are believed to block expression of muscle-specific genes by preventing the dimerization between ubiquitous bHLH proteins (E proteins) and myogenic bHLH proteins such as MyoD. Consistent with its putative role as an inhibitor of differentiation, Id3 mRNA was detected in proliferating skeletal muscle cells, was further induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and was down-regulated in differentiated muscle cultures. Overexpression of Id3 efficiently inhibited the MyoD-mediated activation of the muscle-specific creatine kinase (MCK) reporter gene. Deletion analysis indicated that the C-terminal 15 amino acids of Id3 are critical for the full inhibitory activity while deleting up to 42 residues from the C-terminus of the related protein, Id2, did not affect its ability to inhibit the MCK reporter gene. Chimeric protein containing the N-terminal region of Id3 and the C-terminus of Id2 was also non-functional in transfected cells. In contrast, wild-type Id3, the C-terminal mutants, and the Id3/Id2 chimera could all interact with the E-protein E47in vitro. Additional studies indicated that truncation of the Id3 C-terminus might have adversely affected the expression level of the mutant proteins but the Id3/Id2 chimera was stably expressed. Taken together, our results revealed a more complex requirement for the expression and proper function of the Id family proteins than was hitherto expected.

  18. Susceptibility to viral infection is enhanced by stable expression of 3A or 3AB proteins from foot-and-mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas, Maria F.; Vieira, Yuri A.; Postigo, Raul; Martin-Acebes, Miguel A.; Armas-Portela, Rosario; Martinez-Salas, Encarnacion; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 3A protein is involved in virulence and host range. A distinguishing feature of FMDV 3B among picornaviruses is that three non-identical copies are encoded in the viral RNA and required for optimal replication in cell culture. Here, we have studied the involvement of the 3AB region on viral infection using constitutive and transient expression systems. BHK-21 stably transformed clones expressed low levels of FMDV 3A or 3A(B) proteins in the cell cytoplasm. Transformed cells stably expressing these proteins did not exhibit inner cellular rearrangements detectable by electron microscope analysis. Upon FMDV infection, clones expressing either 3A alone or 3A(B) proteins showed a significant increase in the percentage of infected cells, the number of plaque forming units and the virus yield. The 3A-enhancing effect was specific for FMDV as no increase in viral multiplication was observed in transformed clones infected with another picornavirus, encephalomyocarditis virus, or the negative-strand RNA virus vesicular stomatitis virus. A potential role of 3A protein in viral RNA translation was discarded by the lack of effect on FMDV IRES-dependent translation. Increased viral susceptibility was not caused by a released factor; neither the supernatant of transformed clones nor the addition of purified 3A protein to the infection medium was responsible for this effect. Unlike stable expression, high levels of 3A or 3A(B) protein transient expression led to unspecific inhibition of viral infection. Therefore, the effect observed on viral yield, which inversely correlated with the intracellular levels of 3A protein, suggests a transacting role operating on the FMDV multiplication cycle

  19. High-Level Expression of a Thermally Stable Alginate Lyase Using Pichia pastoris, Characterization and Application in Producing Brown Alginate Oligosaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An alginate lyase encoding gene sagl from Flavobacterium sp. H63 was codon optimized and recombinantly expressed at high level in P.pastoris through high cell-density fermentation. The highest yield of recombinant enzyme of sagl (rSAGL in yeast culture supernatant reached 226.4 μg/mL (915.5 U/mL. This was the highest yield record of recombinant expression of alginate lyase so far. The rSAGL was confirmed as a partially glycosylated protein through EndoH digestion. The optimal reaction temperature and pH of this enzyme were 45 °C and 7.5; 80 mM K+ ions could improve the catalytic activity of the enzyme by 244% at most. rSAGL was a thermal stable enzyme with T5015 of 57–58 °C and T5030 of 53–54 °C. Its thermal stability was better than any known alginate lyase. In 100 mM phosphate buffer of pH 6.0, rSAGL could retain 98.8% of the initial activity after incubation at 50 °C for 2 h. Furthermore, it could retain 61.6% of the initial activity after 48 h. The specific activity of the purified rSAGL produced by P. pastoris attained 4044 U/mg protein, which was the second highest record of alginate lyase so far. When the crude enzyme of the rSAGL was directly used in transformation of sodium alginate with 40 g/L, 97.2% of the substrate was transformed to di, tri, tetra brown alginate oligosaccharide after 32 h of incubation at 50 °C, and the final concentration of reducing sugar in mixture reached 9.51 g/L. This is the first report of high-level expression of thermally stable alginate lyase using P. pastoris system.

  20. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candy M Taylor

    Full Text Available Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC, Helicase (HEL, and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other

  1. Germline MLH1 Mutations Are Frequently Identified in Lynch Syndrome Patients With Colorectal and Endometrial Carcinoma Demonstrating Isolated Loss of PMS2 Immunohistochemical Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Beth; Brand, Randall E; Thull, Darcy; Bahary, Nathan; Nikiforova, Marina N; Pai, Reetesh K

    2015-08-01

    Current guidelines on germline mutation testing for patients suspected of having Lynch syndrome are not entirely clear in patients with tumors demonstrating isolated loss of PMS2 immunohistochemical expression. We analyzed the clinical and pathologic features of patients with tumors demonstrating isolated loss of PMS2 expression in an attempt to (1) determine the frequency of germline MLH1 and PMS2 mutations and (2) correlate mismatch-repair protein immunohistochemistry and tumor histology with germline mutation results. A total of 3213 consecutive colorectal carcinomas and 215 consecutive endometrial carcinomas were prospectively analyzed for DNA mismatch-repair protein expression by immunohistochemistry. In total, 32 tumors from 31 patients demonstrated isolated loss of PMS2 immunohistochemical expression, including 16 colorectal carcinomas and 16 endometrial carcinomas. Microsatellite instability (MSI) polymerase chain reaction was performed in 29 tumors from 28 patients with the following results: 28 tumors demonstrated high-level MSI, and 1 tumor demonstrated low-level MSI. Twenty of 31 (65%) patients in the study group had tumors demonstrating histopathology associated with high-level MSI. Seventeen patients underwent germline mutation analysis with the following results: 24% with MLH1 mutations, 35% with PMS2 mutations, 12% with PMS2 variants of undetermined significance, and 29% with no mutations in either MLH1 or PMS2. Three of the 4 patients with MLH1 germline mutations had a mutation that results in decreased stability and quantity of the MLH1 protein that compromises the MLH1-PMS2 protein complex, helping to explain the presence of immunogenic but functionally inactive MLH1 protein within the tumor. The high frequency of MLH1 germline mutations identified in our study has important implications for testing strategies in patients suspected of having Lynch syndrome and indicates that patients with tumors demonstrating isolated loss of PMS2 expression

  2. Integrated analyses of microRNAs demonstrate their widespread influence on gene expression in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Chad J; Hernandez-Herrera, Anadulce; Jacobsen, Anders; Levine, Douglas A; Mankoo, Parminder; Schultz, Nikolaus; Du, Ying; Zhang, Yiqun; Larsson, Erik; Sheridan, Robert; Xiao, Weimin; Spellman, Paul T; Getz, Gad; Wheeler, David A; Perou, Charles M; Gibbs, Richard A; Sander, Chris; Hayes, D Neil; Gunaratne, Preethi H

    2012-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network recently comprehensively catalogued the molecular aberrations in 487 high-grade serous ovarian cancers, with much remaining to be elucidated regarding the microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, using TCGA ovarian data, we surveyed the miRNAs, in the context of their predicted gene targets. Integration of miRNA and gene patterns yielded evidence that proximal pairs of miRNAs are processed from polycistronic primary transcripts, and that intronic miRNAs and their host gene mRNAs derive from common transcripts. Patterns of miRNA expression revealed multiple tumor subtypes and a set of 34 miRNAs predictive of overall patient survival. In a global analysis, miRNA:mRNA pairs anti-correlated in expression across tumors showed a higher frequency of in silico predicted target sites in the mRNA 3'-untranslated region (with less frequency observed for coding sequence and 5'-untranslated regions). The miR-29 family and predicted target genes were among the most strongly anti-correlated miRNA:mRNA pairs; over-expression of miR-29a in vitro repressed several anti-correlated genes (including DNMT3A and DNMT3B) and substantially decreased ovarian cancer cell viability. This study establishes miRNAs as having a widespread impact on gene expression programs in ovarian cancer, further strengthening our understanding of miRNA biology as it applies to human cancer. As with gene transcripts, miRNAs exhibit high diversity reflecting the genomic heterogeneity within a clinically homogeneous disease population. Putative miRNA:mRNA interactions, as identified using integrative analysis, can be validated. TCGA data are a valuable resource for the identification of novel tumor suppressive miRNAs in ovarian as well as other cancers.

  3. Beyond "Lots of Hugs and Kisses": Expressions of Parental Love From Parents and Their Young Children in Two-Parent, Financially Stable Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabey, Allen K; Rauer, Amy J; Haselschwerdt, Megan L; Volling, Brenda

    2017-10-22

    Given that parental love is essential for children's optimal development, the current study gathered examples of how parental love was demonstrated within parent-child relationships. Fifty-eight two-parent, financially stable families consisting of a mother, father, and young child (3-7 years old) from the Midwest were interviewed regarding how they demonstrated or perceived parental love. Results from an inductive thematic analysis revealed considerable variability in how parental love was demonstrated, with five themes emerging that overlapped between parents and their children: playing or doing activities together, demonstrating affection, creating structure, helping or supporting, and giving gifts or treats. Some gendered patterns among these themes were found with mothers emphasizing physical and verbal affection and fathers highlighting their more prominent role as playmates. The lay examples provided by parents and children in this exploratory study extend previous conceptualizations of parental love and underscore the importance of parents being attuned and responsive to the specific needs of their children. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  4. Immunohistochemical Analysis Using Antipodocalyxin Monoclonal Antibody PcMab-47 Demonstrates Podocalyxin Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-10-01

    Podocalyxin is a CD34-related type I transmembrane protein that is highly glycosylated with N-glycan, O-glycan, and keratan sulfate. Podocalyxin was originally found in the podocytes of rat kidney and is reportedly expressed in many types of tumors, including brain tumors, colorectal cancers, and breast cancers. Overexpression of podocalyxin is an independent predictor of progression, metastasis, and poor outcome. We recently immunized mice with recombinant human podocalyxin, which was produced using LN229 glioblastoma cells, and produced a novel antipodocalyxin monoclonal antibody (mAb), PcMab-47, which reacts with endogenous podocalyxin-expressing cancer cell lines and normal cell lines independent of glycosylation in Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical analyses. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analysis against oral cancers using PcMab-47. PcMab-47-stained oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in a cytoplasmic pattern and detected 26/38 (68.4%) of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells on tissue microarrays. These results indicate that PcMab-47 is useful in detecting podocalyxin of oral cancers for immunohistochemical analysis.

  5. Allyl isothiocyanate that induces GST and UGT expression confers oxidative stress resistance on C. elegans, as demonstrated by nematode biosensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Hasegawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electrophilic xenobiotics and endogenous products from oxidative stresses induce the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, which form a large family within the phase II enzymes over both animal and plant kingdoms. The GSTs thus induced in turn detoxify these external as well as internal stresses. Because these stresses are often linked to ageing and damage to health, the induction of phase II enzymes without causing adverse effects would be beneficial in slowing down ageing and keeping healthy conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have tested this hypothesis by choosing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, a functional ingredient in wasabi, as a candidate food ingredient that induces GSTs without causing adverse effects on animals' lives. To monitor the GST induction, we constructed a gst::gfp fusion gene and used it to transform Caenorhabditis elegans for use as a nematode biosensor. With the nematode biosensor, we found that AITC induced GST expression and conferred tolerance on the nematode against various oxidative stresses. We also present evidence that the transcription factor SKN-1 is involved in regulating the GST expression induced by AITC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show the applicability of the nematode biosensor for discovering and evaluating functional food substances and chemicals that would provide anti-ageing or healthful benefits.

  6. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  7. T cell receptor zeta allows stable expression of receptors containing the CD3gamma leucine-based receptor-sorting motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Geisler, C

    1998-01-01

    The leucine-based motif in the T cell receptor (TCR) subunit CD3gamma constitutes a strong internalization signal. In fully assembled TCR this motif is inactive unless phosphorylated. In contrast, the motif is constitutively active in CD4/CD3gamma and Tac/CD3gamma chimeras independently of phosph......The leucine-based motif in the T cell receptor (TCR) subunit CD3gamma constitutes a strong internalization signal. In fully assembled TCR this motif is inactive unless phosphorylated. In contrast, the motif is constitutively active in CD4/CD3gamma and Tac/CD3gamma chimeras independently...... of phosphorylation and leads to rapid internalization and sorting of these chimeras to lysosomal degradation. Because the TCRzeta chain rescues incomplete TCR complexes from lysosomal degradation and allows stable surface expression of fully assembled TCR, we addressed the question whether TCRzeta has the potential...... to mask the CD3gamma leucine-based motif. By studying CD4/CD3gamma and CD16/CD3gamma chimeras, we found that CD16/CD3gamma chimeras associated with TCRzeta. The CD16/CD3gamma-TCRzeta complexes were stably expressed at the cell surface and had a low spontaneous internalization rate, indicating...

  8. Leptospiral outer membrane protein LipL41 is not essential for acute leptospirosis but requires a small chaperone protein, lep, for stable expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Amy M; Bartpho, Thanatchaporn; Sermswan, Rasana W; Bulach, Dieter M; Eshghi, Azad; Picardeau, Mathieu; Adler, Ben; Murray, Gerald L

    2013-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp., but knowledge of leptospiral pathogenesis remains limited. However, the development of mutagenesis systems has allowed the investigation of putative virulence factors and their involvement in leptospirosis. LipL41 is the third most abundant lipoprotein found in the outer membranes of pathogenic leptospires and has been considered a putative virulence factor. LipL41 is encoded on the large chromosome 28 bp upstream of a small open reading frame encoding a hypothetical protein of unknown function. This gene was named lep, for LipL41 expression partner. In this study, lipL41 was found to be cotranscribed with lep. Two transposon mutants were characterized: a lipL41 mutant and a lep mutant. In the lep mutant, LipL41 protein levels were reduced by approximately 90%. Lep was shown through cross-linking and coexpression experiments to bind to LipL41. Lep is proposed to be a molecular chaperone essential for the stable expression of LipL41. The roles of LipL41 and Lep in the pathogenesis of Leptospira interrogans were investigated; surprisingly, neither of these two unique proteins was essential for acute leptospirosis.

  9. Expression of a natural antisense transcript of Cg-Foxl2 during the gonadic differentiation of the oyster Crassostrea gigas: first demonstration in the gonads of a lophotrochozoa species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santerre, C; Sourdaine, P; Martinez, A-S

    2012-01-01

    In the oyster Crassostrea gigas, a successive hermaphrodite, Cg-Foxl2, an ortholog of Foxl2, is suspected to be involved in vitellogenesis or female sex determination. The existence of a natural antisense transcript (NAT) of this factor has been suspected in gonads but needs to be confirmed to better understand the early events of the gonadic differentiation. The occurrence of this NAT was studied by orientation-specific RT-PCR. The NAT and its mRNA expressions were investigated during the development and in adults by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. The presence of stable in vivo RNA-RNA duplexes was also explored by RNase protection-based approach. This work is the first evidence of characterization of a NAT in the gonads of mollusks and Lophotrochozoa. This NAT named Cg-Foxl2os is supposed to be polyadenylated and forms RNA-RNA duplexes with its mRNA. Cg-Foxl2os is significantly more expressed than Cg-Foxl2 in 2-month-old spats and in mature males. It is co-localized with the mRNA in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and spermatocytes. The results of this study demonstrate the existence of a NAT of Cg-Foxl2 in the gonads of C. gigas. It may regulate its mRNA expression through formation of cytoplasmic RNA-RNA duplexes during the oyster gonadic differentiation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Menstrual endometrial cells from women with endometriosis demonstrate increased adherence to peritoneal cells and increased expression of CD44 splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jason S; Liu, Ya-Guang; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Binkley, Peter A; Holden, Alan E C; Schenken, Robert S

    2010-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that adherence of endometrial epithelial (EECs) and stromal cells (ESCs) to peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) is partly regulated by ESC/EEC CD44 interactions with PMC associated hyaluronan. CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein and major ligand for hyaluronan, has numerous splice variants which may impact hyaluronan binding. Here, we assessed whether ESCs and EECs from women with endometriosis demonstrate increased adherence to PMCs and examined CD44 splice variants' potential role in this process. In vitro study. Academic medical center. Fertility patients with and without endometriosis. Menstrual endometrium was collected from women with and without endometriosis confirmed surgically. The adherence of ESC/EECs to PMCs was measured. The ESC/EEC CD44 splice variants were assessed using dot-blot analysis. The ESCs and EECs from women with endometriosis demonstrated increased adherence to PMCs. The predominant CD44 splice variants expressed by ESCs and EECs from women with and without endometriosis were v3, v6, v7, v8, v9, and v10. The ESCs and EECs from women with endometriosis were more likely to express v6, v7, v8, and v9. Increased eutopic endometrial-PMC adherence and CD44 splice variant expression may contribute to the histogenesis of endometriotic lesions. Elucidation of factors controlling this expression may lead to novel endometriosis therapies. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fractionated irradiation of H69 small-cell lung cancer cells causes stable radiation and drug resistance with increased MRP1, MRP2, and topoisomerase IIα expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henness, Sheridan; Davey, Mary W.; Harvie, Rozelle M.; Davey, Ross A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: After standard treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) often develops resistance to both treatments. Our aims were to establish if fractionated radiation treatment alone would induce radiation and drug resistance in the H69 SCLC cell line, and to determine the mechanisms of resistance. Methods and Materials: H69 SCLC cells were treated with fractionated X-rays to an accumulated dose of 37.5 Gy over 8 months to produce the H69/R38 subline. Drug and radiation resistance was determined using the MTT (3,-4,5 dimethylthiazol-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cell viability assay. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot. Results: The H69/R38 subline was resistant to radiation (2.0 ± 0.2-fold, p<0.0001), cisplatin (14 ± 7-fold, p < 0.001), daunorubicin (6 ± 3-fold, p<0.05), and navelbine (1.7 ± 0.15-fold, p<0.02). This was associated with increased expression of the multidrug resistance-associated proteins, MRP1 and MRP2, and topoisomerase IIα and decreased expression of glutathione-S-transferase π (GSTπ) and bcl-2 and decreased cisplatin accumulation. Treatment with 4 Gy of X-rays produced a 66% decrease in MRP2 in the H69 cells with no change in the H69/R38 cells. This treatment also caused a 5-fold increase in topoisomerase IIα in the H69/R38 cells compared with a 1.5-fold increase in the H69 cells. Conclusions: Fractionated radiation alone can lead to the development of stable radiation and drug resistance and an altered response to radiation in SCLC cells

  12. Seed-Specific Stable Expression of the α-AI1 Inhibitor in Coffee Grains and the In Vivo Implications for the Development of the Coffee Berry Borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Érika V S; Bezerra, Caroline A; Romero, Juan V; Valencia, Jorge W A; Valencia-Jiménez, Arnubio; Pimenta, Lucas M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Silva, Maria C M; Meneguim, Ana M; Sá, Maria Eugênia L; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F

    Genetic transformation of coffee ( Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the α-amylase inhibitor-1 ( α-AI1 ) gene. The α-AI1 inhibitor shows considerable activity toward digestive enzymes of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei . This insect pest expends its life cycle almost entirely in coffee berries. Transgene containment in the fruit is important to meeting food and environmental safety requirements for releasing genetically modified (GM) crops. PCR analysis of T2 coffee plants showed a Mendelian single-copy segregation pattern. Ectopic transgene expression was only detected in coffee grains, as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR analysis of different plant tissues. An intense immunocytochemical signal associated with α-AI1 protein expression was localized to endospermic cells. In addition, a delay in the larval development of CBB was observed after challenging transgenic coffee seeds with the insect. These results indicate that the PHA-L promoter might be a useful tool in coffee for the seed-specific expression of genes related to coffee bean productivity, quality and pest protection. The biotechnological applicability of the α-AI1 gene for controlling CBB is also discussed. This work is the first report showing a seed-specific transgene expression in coffee plants.

  13. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Lol p 5C, a novel allergen isoform of rye grass pollen demonstrating high IgE reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Mawdsley, D; Schäppi, G; Gruehn, S; de Leon, M; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    1999-12-03

    A novel isoform of a major rye grass pollen allergen Lol p 5 was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The new isoform, Lol p 5C, shares 95% amino acid sequence identity with Lol p 5A. Both isoforms demonstrated shared antigenic activity but different allergenic activities. Recombinant Lol p 5C demonstrated 100% IgE reactivity in 22 rye grass pollen sensitive patients. In comparison, recombinant Lol p 5A showed IgE reactivity in less than 64% of the patients. Therefore, Lol p 5C represents a novel and highly IgE-reactive isoform allergen of rye grass pollen.

  14. Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of eCGP123, an extremely stable monomeric green fluorescent protein with reversible photoswitching properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don Paul, Craig; Traore, Daouda A. K.; Byres, Emma; Rossjohn, Jamie; Devenish, Rodney J.; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew; Wilce, Matthew C. J.; Prescott, Mark

    2011-01-01

    eCGP123, an extremely stable GFP with photoswitching properties, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. A diffraction data set has been collected at 2.10 Å resolution. Enhanced consensus green protein variant 123 (eCGP123) is an extremely thermostable green fluorescent protein (GFP) that exhibits useful negative reversible photoswitching properties. eCGP123 was derived by the application of both a consensus engineering approach and a recursive evolutionary process. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant eCGP123 were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The eCGP123 crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.10 Å resolution. The data were indexed in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.63, b = 75.38, c = 84.51 Å, α = 90.96, β = 89.92, γ = 104.03°. The Matthews coefficient (V M = 2.26 Å 3 Da −1 ) and a solvent content of 46% indicated that the asymmetric unit contained eight eCGP123 molecules

  16. A Combined In Vivo HSC Transduction/Selection Approach Results in Efficient and Stable Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Cells in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported on an in vivo hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy approach. It involves the subcutaneous injections of G-CSF/AMD3100 to mobilize HSCs from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood stream and the intravenous injection of an integrating helper-dependent adenovirus vector system. HSCs transduced in the periphery homed back to the bone marrow, where they persisted long-term. However, high transgene marking rates found in primitive bone marrow HSCs were not reflected in peripheral blood cells. Here, we tested small-molecule drugs to achieve selective mobilization and transduction of HSCs. We found more efficient GFP marking in bone marrow HSCs but no increased marking in the peripheral blood cells. We then used an in vivo HSC chemo-selection based on a mutant of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (mgmtP140K gene that confers resistance to O6-BG/BCNU and should give stably transduced HSCs a proliferation stimulus and allow for the selective survival and expansion of progeny cells. Short-term exposure of G-CSF/AMD3100-mobilized, in vivo-transduced mice to relatively low selection drug doses resulted in stable GFP expression in up to 80% of peripheral blood cells. Overall, the further improvement of our in vivo HSC transduction approach creates the basis for a simpler HSC gene therapy.

  17. Development of a novel ozone- and photo-stable HyPer5 red fluorescent dye for array CGH and microarray gene expression analysis with consistent performance irrespective of environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kille Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH and gene expression profiling have become vital techniques for identifying molecular defects underlying genetic diseases. Regardless of the microarray platform, cyanine dyes (Cy3 and Cy5 are one of the most widely used fluorescent dye pairs for microarray analysis owing to their brightness and ease of incorporation, enabling high level of assay sensitivity. However, combining both dyes on arrays can become problematic during summer months when ozone levels rise to near 25 parts per billion (ppb. Under such conditions, Cy5 is known to rapidly degrade leading to loss of signal from either "homebrew" or commercial arrays. Cy5 can also suffer disproportionately from dye photobleaching resulting in distortion of (Cy5/Cy3 ratios used in copy number analysis. Our laboratory has been active in fluorescent dye research to find a suitable alternative to Cy5 that is stable to ozone and resistant to photo-bleaching. Here, we report on the development of such a dye, called HyPer5, and describe its' exceptional ozone and photostable properties on microarrays. Results Our results show HyPer5 signal to be stable to high ozone levels. Repeated exposure of mouse arrays hybridized with HyPer5-labeled cDNA to 300 ppb ozone at 5, 10 and 15 minute intervals resulted in no signal loss from the dye. In comparison, Cy5 arrays showed a dramatic 80% decrease in total signal during the same interval. Photobleaching experiments show HyPer5 to be resistant to light induced damage with 3- fold improvement in dye stability over Cy5. In high resolution array CGH experiments, HyPer5 is demonstrated to detect chromosomal aberrations at loci 2p21-16.3 and 15q26.3-26.2 from three patient sample using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC arrays. The photostability of HyPer5 is further documented by repeat array scanning without loss of detection. Additionally, HyPer5 arrays are shown to preserve sensitivity and

  18. Anthocyanins from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) demonstrate antimetastatic properties by reducing MMPs and NF-κB expressions in human oral cancer CAL 27 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Jen; Wang, I-Chen; Hsiao, Yung-Ting; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tang, Nou-Ying; Hung, Tzu-Chieh; Quan, Christine; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Aside from the commonly known white rice lines, colored varieties also exist. These varieties have historically been used in Chinese medicine. Anthocyanins, a large group of natural polyphenols existing in a variety of daily fruits and vegetables, have been widely recognized as cancer chemopreventive agents. The primary objective of cancer treatment strategies has traditionally focused on preventing the occurrence of metastasis. In this research the antimetastatic mechanism of anthocyanins on the invasion/migration of human oral CAL 27 cells was performed using a transwell to quantify the migratory potential of CAL 27 cells and the results show that anthocyanins can inhibit the in vitro migration and invasion of CAL 27 cancer cells. In addition, the gelatin zymography assay indicated that anthocyanins inhibited the activity of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Western blotting assay also demonstrated that anthocyanins inhibited the associated protein expression of migration/invasion of CAL 27 cell. Immunofluorescence staining proved that anthocyanins inhibited nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) expressions. These results demonstrated that anthocyanins from a species of black rice (selected purple glutinous indica rice cultivated at Asia University) could suppress CAL 27 cell metastasis by reduction of MMP-2, MMP-9, and NF-κB p65 expression through the suppression of PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibition of NF-κB levels.

  19. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  20. Stable expression and replication of hepatitis B virus genome in an integrated state in a human hepatoma cell line transfected with the cloned viral DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurimoto, T.; Fujiyama, A.; Matsubara, K.

    1987-01-01

    A human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh6-c15) was transfected with a recombinant DNA molecule that consists of tandemly arranged hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome and a neomycin-resistant gene. One clone resistant to G-418 produces and releases surface antigen and e antigen into medium at a high level and accumulates core particles intracellularly. This clone has a chromosomally integrated set of the original recombinant DNA and produces a 3.5-kilobase transcript corresponding to the pregenome RNA as well as HBV DNAs in an extrachromosomal form. Most of these DNAs were in single-stranded or partially double-stranded form and were packaged in the intracellular core particles. In the medium, particles were detected that contained HBV DNA and were morphologically indistinguishable from Dane particles. These results demonstrate that the HBV genome in an integrated state acted as a template for viral gene expression and replication. The cells were maintained for more than 6 months without losing the ability to produce the extrachromosomal HBV DNA and Dane-like particles. Thus, the cells can be used as a model system for analyses of gene expression and DNA replication of HBV in human hepatocytes

  1. Stable integration and expression of a cry1Ia gene conferring resistance to fall armyworm and boll weevil in cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carliane Rc; Monnerat, Rose; Lima, Liziane M; Martins, Érica S; Melo Filho, Péricles A; Pinheiro, Morganna Pn; Santos, Roseane C

    2016-08-01

    Boll weevil is a serious pest of cotton crop. Effective control involves applications of chemical insecticides, increasing the cost of production and environmental pollution. The current genetically modified Bt crops have allowed great benefits to farmers but show activity limited to lepidopteran pests. This work reports on procedures adopted for integration and expression of a cry transgene conferring resistance to boll weevil and fall armyworm by using molecular tools. Four Brazilian cotton cultivars were microinjected with a minimal linear cassette generating 1248 putative lines. Complete gene integration was found in only one line (T0-34) containing one copy of cry1Ia detected by Southern blot. Protein was expressed in high concentration at 45 days after emergence (dae), decreasing by approximately 50% at 90 dae. Toxicity of the cry protein was demonstrated in feeding bioassays revealing 56.7% mortality to boll weevil fed buds and 88.1% mortality to fall armyworm fed leaves. A binding of cry1Ia antibody was found in the midgut of boll weevils fed on T0-34 buds in an immunodetection assay. The gene introduced into plants confers resistance to boll weevil and fall armyworm. Transmission of the transgene occurred normally to T1 progeny. All plants showed phenotypically normal growth, with fertile flowers and abundant seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A stable explant culture of HER2/neu invasive carcinoma supported by alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin expressing stromal cells to evaluate therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piechocki Marie P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain a better understanding of the effects of therapeutic agents on the tumor microenvironment in invasive cancers, we developed a co-culture model from an invasive lobular carcinoma. Tumor cells expressing HER2/neu organize in nests surrounded by alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA expressing tumor stroma to resemble the morphology of an invading tumor. This co-culture, Mammary Adenocarcinoma Model (MAM-1 maintains a 1:1 ratio of HER2/neu positive tumor cells to α-SMA-reactive stromal cells and renews this configuration for over 20 passages in vitro. Methods We characterized the cellular elements of the MAM-1 model by microarray analysis, and immunocytochemistry. We developed flow cytometric assays to evaluate the relative responses of the tumor and stroma to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Iressa. Results The MAM-1 gene expression profile contains clusters that represent the ErbB-2 breast cancer signature and stroma-specific clusters associated with invasive breast cancers. The stability of this model and the ability to antigenically label the tumor and stromal fractions allowed us to determine the specificity of Iressa, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, for targeting the tumor cell population. Treatment resulted in a selective dose-dependent reduction in phospho-pMEK1/2 and pp44/42MAPK in tumor cells. Within 24 h the tumor cell fraction was reduced 1.9-fold while the stromal cell fraction increased >3-fold, consistent with specific reductions in phospho-pp44/42 MAPK, MEK1/2 and PCNA in tumor cells and reciprocal increases in the stromal cells. Erosion of the tumor cell nests and augmented growth of the stromal cells resembled a fibrotic response. Conclusion This model demonstrates the specificity of Iressa for HER2/neu expressing tumor cells versus the tumor associated myofibroblasts and is appropriate for delineating effects of therapy on signal transduction in the breast tumor microenvironment and improving

  3. A stable explant culture of HER2/neu invasive carcinoma supported by alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin expressing stromal cells to evaluate therapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechocki, Marie P

    2008-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the effects of therapeutic agents on the tumor microenvironment in invasive cancers, we developed a co-culture model from an invasive lobular carcinoma. Tumor cells expressing HER2/neu organize in nests surrounded by alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) expressing tumor stroma to resemble the morphology of an invading tumor. This co-culture, Mammary Adenocarcinoma Model (MAM-1) maintains a 1:1 ratio of HER2/neu positive tumor cells to α-SMA-reactive stromal cells and renews this configuration for over 20 passages in vitro. We characterized the cellular elements of the MAM-1 model by microarray analysis, and immunocytochemistry. We developed flow cytometric assays to evaluate the relative responses of the tumor and stroma to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Iressa. The MAM-1 gene expression profile contains clusters that represent the ErbB-2 breast cancer signature and stroma-specific clusters associated with invasive breast cancers. The stability of this model and the ability to antigenically label the tumor and stromal fractions allowed us to determine the specificity of Iressa, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, for targeting the tumor cell population. Treatment resulted in a selective dose-dependent reduction in phospho-pMEK1/2 and pp44/42MAPK in tumor cells. Within 24 h the tumor cell fraction was reduced 1.9-fold while the stromal cell fraction increased >3-fold, consistent with specific reductions in phospho-pp44/42 MAPK, MEK1/2 and PCNA in tumor cells and reciprocal increases in the stromal cells. Erosion of the tumor cell nests and augmented growth of the stromal cells resembled a fibrotic response. This model demonstrates the specificity of Iressa for HER2/neu expressing tumor cells versus the tumor associated myofibroblasts and is appropriate for delineating effects of therapy on signal transduction in the breast tumor microenvironment and improving strategies that can dually or differentially target the tumor and stromal

  4. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  5. Preparation of Proper Immunogen by Cloning and Stable Expression of cDNA coding for Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Marker CD34 in NIH-3T3 Mouse Fibroblast Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Abbasi-Kenarsari, Hajar; Majidi, Jafar; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Kazemi, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Transmembrane CD34 glycoprotein is the most important marker for identification, isolation and enumeration of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We aimed in this study to clone the cDNA coding for human CD34 from KG1a cell line and stably express in mouse fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3. Such artificial cell line could be useful as proper immunogen for production of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Methods: CD34 cDNA was cloned from KG1a cell line after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase-amplified specific band was ligated to pGEMT-easy TA-cloning vector and sub-cloned in pCMV6-Neo expression vector. After transfection of NIH-3T3 cells using 3 μg of recombinant construct and 6 μl of JetPEI transfection reagent, stable expression was obtained by selection of cells by G418 antibiotic and confirmed by surface flow cytometry. Results: 1158 bp specific band was aligned completely to reference sequence in NCBI database corresponding to long isoform of human CD34. Transient and stable expression of human CD34 on transfected NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was achieved (25% and 95%, respectively) as shown by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Cloning and stable expression of human CD34 cDNA was successfully performed and validated by standard flow cytometric analysis. Due to murine origin of NIH-3T3 cell line, CD34-expressing NIH-3T3 cells could be useful as immunogen in production of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against human CD34. This approach could bypass the need for purification of recombinant proteins produced in eukaryotic expression systems. PMID:25789221

  6. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  7. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  8. Eradication of damaged keratinocytes in cutaneous lichen planus forms demonstrated by evaluation of epidermal and follicular expression of CK15, indices of apoptosis and regulatory protein S100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upeniece, Ilze; Groma, Valerie; Skuja, Sandra; Cauce, Vinita

    The study of cytoskeleton arrangement and its contribution to survival of cell-to-cell contacts appears to be essential for understanding of numerous cellular and tissue processes. Applying CK15, S100 labeling and TUNEL reaction to cutaneous lichen planus subtypes, we found CK15 expression in the outer and inner root sheath of hair follicles, the basal epidermal layer, and eccrine glands. Its follicular expression was decreased in nearby inflammatory infiltrates. The CK15 immunopositivity was mostly described as weak (92.3%) for lichen planus but equally subdivided into weak, moderate and strong in lichen planopilaris (2 = 32.514; df = 4; p lichen planopilaris involving the scalp: 81.2 ±10.7; 87.8 ±10.7 and 88.0 ±10.5 for the basal, spinous and upper epidermal layers, respectively. S100 positive epidermal and follicular cells did not differ in the lesions demonstrated in the study groups; still immunoreactivity was more pronounced in the scalp region of lichen planopilaris. Damage of cell-to-cell contacts was confirmed by electron microscopy. Apart from immunocyte-mediated keratinocyte death, cytoskeleton-based injury and loss of cell-to-cell and matrix contacts may be of great importance, leading to eradication of degrading cells and thus contributing to the pathogenesis of lichen planus.

  9. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  10. Stable GPR101 over-Expressing Cell Lines As an Invaluable Tool for Functional Studies, Ligand Screening, and the Identification of Deregulated Genes/Pathways in Patients with X-Linked Acrogigantism

    OpenAIRE

    Trivellin, Giampaolo; Janjic, Maria; Larco, Darwin; Tomic, Melanija; Daly, Adrian; Palmeira, Leonor; Faucz; BECKERS, Albert; Wu, T John; Calebiro, Davide; Stojilkovic, Stanko; Stratakis, Constantine

    2017-01-01

    Background: GPR101 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is duplicated in patients with X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) and over-expressed in their GH- and PRL-secreting tumors. GPR101 is a constitutively active GPCR that strongly activates the cAMP pathway. To elucidate the mechanisms through which GPR101 causes GH over-secretion we generated HEK293 and GH/PRL-secreting (GH3) cells with stable GPR101 expression. Methods: Both cell lines were created via direct integration of ...

  11. Stable3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... S, T, U, V, W, X, Y. 1, Supplementary table 3. All 2,853 putative orthorlogous gene pairs between rice and Arabidopsis and their responses towards N starvation stress. These genes showed differential expression in at least one treatment and one spieces. Cell colored in magenta represents up-regulated in corresponding ...

  12. One-dimensional stable distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotarev, V M

    1986-01-01

    This is the first book specifically devoted to a systematic exposition of the essential facts known about the properties of stable distributions. In addition to its main focus on the analytic properties of stable laws, the book also includes examples of the occurrence of stable distributions in applied problems and a chapter on the problem of statistical estimation of the parameters determining stable laws. A valuable feature of the book is the author's use of several formally different ways of expressing characteristic functions corresponding to these laws.

  13. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  14. Transient and stable expression of marker genes in cotransformed Petunia protoplasts in relation to X-ray and UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benediktsson, I.; Köhler, F.; Schieder, O.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of protoplasts with X-rays or ultraviolet light does not seem to influence the level of transient expression of foreign DNA in Petunia protoplasts, whereas the number of stably transformed colonies is significantly raised. This may indicate that irradiation influences integration and/or the expression of marker genes and does not result in enhanced uptake rates of plasmids into protoplasts and cell nuclei. Co-transformation with plasmids carrying a gene for kanamycin resistance (neomycin phosphotransferase II) and a gene for hygromycin resistance (hygromycin phosphotransferase) revealed that the cotransformation rates were not stimulated by irradiation when measuring expression

  15. Seed-specific stable expression of the alpha-AI1 inhibitor in coffee grains and the in vivo implications for the development of the coffee berry borer

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, E. V. S.; Bezerra, C. A.; Romero, J. V.; Valencia, J. W. A.; Valencia-Jimenez, A.; Pimenta, L. M.; Barbosa, Aead; Silva, M. C. M.; Meneguim, A. M.; Sa, M. E. L.; Engler, G.; de Almeida-Engler, J.; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-Sa, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of coffee (Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alpha-AI1) gene. The alpha-AI1 inhi...

  16. Seed-Specific Stable Expression of the ?-AI1 Inhibitor in Coffee Grains and the In Vivo Implications for the Development of the Coffee Berry Borer

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, ?rika V. S.; Bezerra, Caroline A.; Romero, Juan V.; Valencia, Jorge W. A.; Valencia-Jim?nez, Arnubio; Pimenta, Lucas M.; Barbosa, Aulus E. A. D.; Silva, Maria C. M.; Meneguim, Ana M.; S?, Maria Eug?nia L.; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-S?, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of coffee (Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the ?-amylase inhibitor-1 (?-AI1) gene. The ?-AI1 inhibitor shows ...

  17. Newly constructed stable reporter cell lines for mechanistic studies on electrophile-responsive element-mediated gene expression reveal a role for flavonoid planarity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerboom, A.M.A.; Vermeulen, M.; Woude, H. van der; Bremer, B.I.; Lee-Hilz, Y.Y.; Kampman, E.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Aarts, J.

    2006-01-01

    The electrophile-responsive element (EpRE) is a transcriptional enhancer involved in cancer-chemoprotective gene expression modulation by certain food components. Two stably transfected luciferase reporter cell lines were developed, EpRE(hNQO1)-LUX and EpRE(mGST-Ya)-LUX, based on EpRE sequences from

  18. Newly constructed stable reporter cell lines for mechanistic studies on electrophile-responsive element-mediated gene expression reveal a role for flavonoid planarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerboom, A.M.J.F.; Vermeulen, M.; Woude, H. van der; Bremer, B.I.; Lee-Hilz, Y.Y.; Kampman, E.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    The electrophile-responsive element (EpRE) is a transcriptional enhancer involved in cancer-chemoprotective gene expression modulation by certain food components. Two stably transfected luciferase reporter cell lines were developed, EpRE(hNQO1)-LUX and EpRE(mGST-Ya)-LUX, based on EpRE sequences from

  19. Efficient delivery and stable gene expression in a hematopoietic cell line using a chimeric serotype 35 fiber pseudotyped helper-dependent adenoviral vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balamotis, Michael Andrew; Huang, Katie; Mitani, Kohnosuke

    2004-01-01

    Certain human cell populations have remained difficult to infect with human adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 because of their lack of coxsackievirus B-adenovirus receptor (CAR). Native adenovirus fiber compositions, although diverse, cannot infect all tissue types. Recently, a chimeric Ad5/35 fiber was created, which displays an altered tropism from Ad5. We incorporated this chimeric fiber into a helper-dependent (HD) adenovirus vector system and compared HD to E1-deleted (E1Δ) vectors by transgene expression, cell transduction efficiency, and cytotoxicity. K562 cells were infected ∼50 times more efficiently with the chimeric Ad5/35 fiber compared with the Ad5 fiber. Short-term transgene expression was sustained longer from HD Ad5/35 than E1Δ Ad5/35 vector after in vitro infection of actively dividing K562 cells. Rapid loss of transgene expression from E1Δ Ad5/35 infection was not due to the loss of vector genomes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), or cytotoxicity, but rather through a putative silencing mechanism

  20. Structures of Rotavirus Reassortants Demonstrate Correlation of Altered Conformation of the VP4 Spike and Expression of Unexpected VP4-Associated Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Joseph B.; Billingsley, Angela M.; Roberts, Ed J.; Ramig, Robert F.; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram

    2003-01-01

    Numerous prior studies have indicated that viable rotavirus reassortants containing structural proteins of heterologous parental origin may express unexpected phenotypes, such as changes in infectivity and immunogenicity. To provide a structural basis for alterations in phenotypic expression, a three-dimensional structural analysis of these reassortants was conducted. The structures of the reassortants show that while VP4 generally maintains the parental structure when moved to a heterologous protein background, in certain reassortants, there are subtle alterations in the conformation of VP4. The alterations in VP4 conformation correlated with expression of unexpected VP4-associated phenotypes. Interactions between heterologous VP4 and VP7 in reassortants expressing unexpected phenotypes appeared to induce the conformational alterations seen in VP4. PMID:12584352

  1. Doxycycline-regulated 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line with inducible, stable expression of adenoviral E4orf1 gene: a cell model to study insulin-independent glucose disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnapuram, Rashmi; Dhurandhar, Emily J; Dubuisson, Olga; Hegde, Vijay; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V

    2013-01-01

    Impaired glycemic control and excessive adiposity are major risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. In rodent models, Ad36, a human adenovirus, improves glycemic control, independent of dietary fat intake or adiposity. It is impractical to use Ad36 for therapeutic action. Instead, we identified that E4orf1 protein of Ad36, mediates its anti-hyperglycemic action independent of insulin signaling. To further evaluate the therapeutic potential of E4orf1 to improve glycemic control, we established a stable 3T3-L1 cell system in which E4orf1 expression can be regulated. The development and characterization of this cell line is described here. Full-length adenoviral-36 E4orf1 cDNA obtained by PCR was cloned into a tetracycline responsive element containing vector (pTRE-Tight-E4orf1). Upon screening dozens of pTRE-Tight-E4orf1 clones, we identified the one with the highest expression of E4orf1 in response to doxycycline treatment. Furthermore, using this inducible system we characterized the ability of E4orf1 to improve glucose disposal in a time dependent manner. This stable cell line offers a valuable resource to carefully study the novel signaling pathways E4orf1 uses to enhance cellular glucose disposal independent of insulin.

  2. Doxycycline-regulated 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line with inducible, stable expression of adenoviral E4orf1 gene: a cell model to study insulin-independent glucose disposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Krishnapuram

    Full Text Available Impaired glycemic control and excessive adiposity are major risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. In rodent models, Ad36, a human adenovirus, improves glycemic control, independent of dietary fat intake or adiposity. It is impractical to use Ad36 for therapeutic action. Instead, we identified that E4orf1 protein of Ad36, mediates its anti-hyperglycemic action independent of insulin signaling. To further evaluate the therapeutic potential of E4orf1 to improve glycemic control, we established a stable 3T3-L1 cell system in which E4orf1 expression can be regulated. The development and characterization of this cell line is described here. Full-length adenoviral-36 E4orf1 cDNA obtained by PCR was cloned into a tetracycline responsive element containing vector (pTRE-Tight-E4orf1. Upon screening dozens of pTRE-Tight-E4orf1 clones, we identified the one with the highest expression of E4orf1 in response to doxycycline treatment. Furthermore, using this inducible system we characterized the ability of E4orf1 to improve glucose disposal in a time dependent manner. This stable cell line offers a valuable resource to carefully study the novel signaling pathways E4orf1 uses to enhance cellular glucose disposal independent of insulin.

  3. Comparison of [{sup 18}F]FHBG and [{sup 14}C]FIAU for imaging of HSV1-tk reporter gene expression: adenoviral infection vs stable transfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung-Jun; Iyer, Meera [The Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA School of Medicine, B3-399A BRI 700 Westwood Plaza, CA 90095-1770, Los Angeles (United States); Gambhir, Sanjiv S. [The Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA School of Medicine, B3-399A BRI 700 Westwood Plaza, CA 90095-1770, Los Angeles (United States); Department of Radiology, Bio-X Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Earlier studies involving comparison of different reporter probes have shown conflicting results between pyrimidine nucleosides [e.g., 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-{beta}-d-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil (FIAU)] and acycloguanosine derivatives [e.g., penciclovir (PCV), 9-(4-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine (FHBG)]. We hypothesized that this reported discrepancy may be related to how the reporter gene is delivered to the cells - stably transfected vs adenoviral infection. We directly compared the uptake characteristics of [{sup 18}F]FHBG, [{sup 3}H]PCV, and [{sup 14}C]FIAU in cell culture and in vivo using an adenoviral mediated gene transfer model and stably transfected cells. We further compared the uptake of three reporter probes using both HSV1-tk and a mutant HSV1-sr39tk expressing cells to assess the optimal reporter probe/reporter gene combination. [{sup 14}C]FIAU accumulation was greater than that of [{sup 3}H]PCV and [{sup 18}F]FHBG in control cells and in HSV1-tk stably transfected cells (P<0.001). After infection of C6 cells with AdCMV-HSV1-tk (1.5 x 10{sup 8} pfu), [{sup 18}F]FHBG and [{sup 3}H]PCV accumulation was significantly greater than that of [{sup 14}C]FIAU (P<0.01). [{sup 18}F]FHBG and [{sup 3}H]PCV accumulated to a significantly greater extent than [{sup 14}C]FIAU in C6-stb-sr39tk+ and AdCMV-HSV1-sr39tk infected C6 cells (P<0.001). Results from the nude mice supported the results in cell culture. [{sup 14}C]FIAU led to significantly higher %ID/g in C6-stb-tk+ xenografts than [{sup 18}F]FHBG (P<0.05); however, compared with [{sup 14}C]FIAU, [{sup 18}F]FHBG led to as high %ID/g in HSV1-tk expressing hepatocytes and to significantly greater %ID/g in C6-stb-sr39tk+ xenografts and HSV1-sr39tk expressing hepatocytes. Dynamic sequential images showed that [{sup 18}F]FHBG was well retained in HSV1-sr39tk expressing cells (C6-stb-sr39tk+) for at least 4 h after injection, while it was rapidly cleared from HSV1-tk expressing cells (MH3924A

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  6. Gene expression of fibroblast growth factors in human gliomas and meningiomas: Demonstration of cellular source of basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA and peptide in tumor tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, J.A.; Mori, Hirotaka; Fukumoto, Manabu; Oda, Yoshifumi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Hatanaka, Masakazu; Igarashi, Koichi; Jaye, M.

    1990-01-01

    The growth autonomy of human tumor cells is considered due to the endogenous production of growth factors. Transcriptional expression of candidates for autocrine stimulatory factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), acidic FGF, and transforming growth factor type β were determined in human brain tumors. Basic FGF was expressed abundantly in 17 of 18 gliomas, 20 of 22 meningiomas, and 0 of 5 metastatic brain tumors. The level of mRNA expression of acidic FGF in gliomas was significant. In contrast, transforming growth factor type β1 was expressed in all the samples investigated. The mRNA for basic FGF and its peptide were localized in tumor cells in vivo by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, showing that basic FGF is actually produced in tumor cells. The results suggest that tumor-derived basic FGF is involved in the progression of gliomas and meningiomas in vivo, whereas acidic FGF is expressed in a tumor origin-specific manner, suggesting that acidic FGF works in tandem with basic FGF in glioma tumorigenesis

  7. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  8. On the likelihood function of Gaussian max-stable processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, M. G.; Ma, Y.; Sang, H.

    2011-01-01

    We derive a closed form expression for the likelihood function of a Gaussian max-stable process indexed by ℝd at p≤d+1 sites, d≥1. We demonstrate the gain in efficiency in the maximum composite likelihood estimators of the covariance matrix from p=2 to p=3 sites in ℝ2 by means of a Monte Carlo simulation study. © 2011 Biometrika Trust.

  9. On the likelihood function of Gaussian max-stable processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, M. G.

    2011-05-24

    We derive a closed form expression for the likelihood function of a Gaussian max-stable process indexed by ℝd at p≤d+1 sites, d≥1. We demonstrate the gain in efficiency in the maximum composite likelihood estimators of the covariance matrix from p=2 to p=3 sites in ℝ2 by means of a Monte Carlo simulation study. © 2011 Biometrika Trust.

  10. Demonstration of the dynamic mass redistribution label-free technology as a useful cell-based pharmacological assay for endogenously expressed GABAA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders Bue; Nittegaard-Nielsen, Mia; Christensen, Julie T.

    2015-01-01

    the immortalized IMR-32 neuroblastoma cell line, which expresses relatively high levels of several endogenous GABAA receptor subunits, we show that GABA produces concentration-dependent cellular responses that can be measured and quantified in real-time. With the aid of the GABAA receptor-specific agonist muscimol...

  11. Demonstration of diet-induced decoupling of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by combining gene expression array and 2H2O quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristian K; Previs, Stephen F; Zhu, Lei; Herath, Kithsiri; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Bhat, Gowri; Hu, Guanghui; Miller, Paul L; McLaren, David G; Shin, Myung K; Vogt, Thomas F; Wang, Liangsu; Wong, Kenny K; Roddy, Thomas P; Johns, Douglas G; Hubbard, Brian K

    2012-01-15

    The liver is a crossroad for metabolism of lipid and carbohydrates, with acetyl-CoA serving as an important metabolic intermediate and a precursor for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways. A better understanding of the regulation of these pathways requires an experimental approach that provides both quantitative metabolic flux measurements and mechanistic insight. Under conditions of high carbohydrate availability, excess carbon is converted into free fatty acids and triglyceride for storage, but it is not clear how excessive carbohydrate availability affects cholesterol biosynthesis. To address this, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet or a high-fat, carbohydrate-free diet. At the end of the dietary intervention, the two groups received (2)H(2)O to trace de novo fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, and livers were collected for gene expression analysis. Expression of lipid and glucose metabolism genes was determined using a custom-designed pathway focused PCR-based gene expression array. The expression analysis showed downregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes and upregulation of fatty acid synthesis genes in mice receiving the high-carbohydrate diet compared with the carbohydrate-free diet. In support of these findings, (2)H(2)O tracer data showed that fatty acid synthesis was increased 10-fold and cholesterol synthesis was reduced by 1.6-fold in mice fed the respective diets. In conclusion, by applying gene expression analysis and tracer methodology, we show that fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis are differentially regulated when the carbohydrate intake in mice is altered.

  12. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  13. Stable, Nonviral Expression of Mutated Tumor Neoantigen-specific T-cell Receptors Using the Sleeping Beauty Transposon/Transposase System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniger, Drew C; Pasetto, Anna; Tran, Eric; Parkhurst, Maria R; Cohen, Cyrille J; Robbins, Paul F; Cooper, Laurence JN; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Neoantigens unique to each patient's tumor can be recognized by autologous T cells through their T-cell receptor (TCR) but the low frequency and/or terminal differentiation of mutation-specific T cells in tumors can limit their utility as adoptive T-cell therapies. Transfer of TCR genes into younger T cells from peripheral blood with a high proliferative potential could obviate this problem. We generated a rapid, cost-effective strategy to genetically engineer cancer patient T cells with TCRs using the clinical Sleeping Beauty transposon/transposase system. Patient-specific TCRs reactive against HLA-A*0201-restriced neoantigens AHNAKS2580F or ERBB2H473Y or the HLA-DQB*0601-restricted neoantigen ERBB2IPE805G were assembled with murine constant chains and cloned into Sleeping Beauty transposons. Patient peripheral blood lymphocytes were coelectroporated with SB11 transposase and Sleeping Beauty transposon, and transposed T cells were enriched by sorting on murine TCRβ (mTCRβ) expression. Rapid expansion of mTCRβ+ T cells with irradiated allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes feeders, OKT3, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-15, and IL-21 resulted in a preponderance of effector (CD27−CD45RA−) and less-differentiated (CD27+CD45RA+) T cells. Transposed T cells specifically mounted a polyfunctional response against cognate mutated neoantigens and tumor cell lines. Thus, Sleeping Beauty transposition of mutation-specific TCRs can facilitate the use of personalized T-cell therapy targeting unique neoantigens. PMID:26945006

  14. A Summary of the Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, Docking, and Undocking (RPODU) Lessons Learned from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) Demonstration System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Carpenter, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) sponsored Dr. J. Russell Carpenter, a Navigation and Rendezvous Subject Matter Expert (SME) from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), to provide support to the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) rendezvous and docking flight test that was conducted in 2007. When that DARPA OE mission was completed, Mr. Neil Dennehy, NASA Technical Fellow for GN&C, requested Dr. Carpenter document his findings (lessons learned) and recommendations for future rendezvous missions resulting from his OE support experience. This report captures lessons specifically from anomalies that occurred during one of OE's unmated operations.

  15. Analysis of the diversity of murine antibodies to dextran B1355. II. Demonstration of multiple idiotypes with variable expression in several strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansburg, D.; Briles, D.E.; Davie, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    We have developed radioimmunoassays that detect idiotypic (variable region) differences among the α(1 → 3) dextran-binding myeloma proteins U102, J558, and M104 as well as an assay that detects variable region determinants common to all three proteins. Using these assays, we have examined 7S and 19S anti-α(1 → 3) dextran antibodies induced in five murine strains of the a 1 I/sub g/C/sub H/ linkage group and the recombinant strain BAB/14. All idiotypes were expressed in both 19S and 7S antibodies from all strains, but with considerable strain-specific variability in penetrance. In two strains, one additional type of antibody, which lacked all four idiotypic determinants, generally constituted the bulk of total anti-α(1 → 3) dextran antibodies

  16. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  17. Late rise in hemolymph osmolality in Macrobrachium acanthurus (diadromous freshwater shrimp) exposed to brackish water: Early reduction in branchial Na+/K+ pump activity but stable muscle HSP70 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Carolina A; Maraschi, Anieli C; Lara, Alessandra F; Amado, Enelise M; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2018-02-01

    Some Macrobrachium shrimps (Caridea, Palaemonidae) are diadromous; freshwater adults are truly euryhaline, while larvae need saline water for development. Branchial Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in NaCl absorption in freshwater. This study aimed at verifying the time course of the osmoregulatory response of adult Macrobrachium acanthurus to high salinity brackish water (20‰), from the first 30min to 5days. The goal was to detect possible transition from hyper- to hyporegulation, the putative involvement of branchial NKA and CA, or the induction of muscular HSP70 expression. Hemolymph osmotic and ionic concentrations remained relatively stable and close to control levels until ~9h of exposure, but later increased consistently (~50%). A fast reduction in NKA activity (3-6h) was observed; these shrimps seem to shut off salt absorption already in the first hours. Later on, especially after 24h, hemolymph concentrations rise but HSP70 expression is not induced, possibly because constitutive levels are already sufficient to prevent protein damage. Time-dependent response mechanisms effective in high salinity brackish water, resulting in salt loading avoidance and suggestive of hyporegulation should be further investigated in decapods that evolutionary invaded freshwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Control of Gene Expression in Leptospira spp. by Transcription Activator-Like Effectors Demonstrates a Potential Role for LigA and LigB in Leptospira interrogans Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christopher J; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that affects ∼1 million people annually, with a mortality rate of >10%. Currently, there is an absence of effective genetic manipulation tools for targeted mutagenesis in pathogenic leptospires. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a recently described group of repressors that modify transcriptional activity in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells by directly binding to a targeted sequence within the host genome. To determine the applicability of TALEs within Leptospira spp., two TALE constructs were designed. First, a constitutively expressed TALE gene specific for the lacO-like region upstream of bgaL was trans inserted in the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa (the TALEβgal strain). Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) analysis and enzymatic assays demonstrated that BgaL was not expressed in the TALEβgal strain. Second, to study the role of LigA and LigB in pathogenesis, a constitutively expressed TALE gene with specificity for the homologous promoter regions of ligA and ligB was cis inserted into the pathogen Leptospira interrogans (TALElig). LigA and LigB expression was studied by using three independent clones: TALElig1, TALElig2, and TALElig3. Immunoblot analysis of osmotically induced TALElig clones demonstrated 2- to 9-fold reductions in the expression levels of LigA and LigB, with the highest reductions being noted for TALElig1 and TALElig2, which were avirulent in vivo and nonrecoverable from animal tissues. This study reconfirms galactosidase activity in the saprophyte and suggests a role for LigA and LigB in pathogenesis. Collectively, this study demonstrates that TALEs are effective at reducing the expression of targeted genes within saprophytic and pathogenic strains of Leptospira spp., providing an additional genetic manipulation tool for this genus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Tissue and serum samples of patients with papillary thyroid cancer with and without benign background demonstrate different altered expression of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiaty Iryani Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is mainly diagnosed using fine-needle aspiration biopsy. This most common form of well-differentiated thyroid cancer occurs with or without a background of benign thyroid goiter (BTG. Methods In the present study, a gel-based proteomics analysis was performed to analyse the expression of proteins in tissue and serum samples of PTC patients with (PTCb; n = 6 and without a history of BTG (PTCa; n = 8 relative to patients with BTG (n = 20. This was followed by confirmation of the levels of proteins which showed significant altered abundances of more than two-fold difference (p < 0.01 in the tissue and serum samples of the same subjects using ELISA. Results The data of our study showed that PTCa and PTCb distinguish themselves from BTG in the types of tissue and serum proteins of altered abundance. While higher levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT and heat shock 70 kDa protein were associated with PTCa, lower levels of A1AT, protein disulfide isomerase and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N seemed apparent in the PTCb. In case of the serum proteins, higher abundances of A1AT and alpha 1-beta glycoprotein were detected in PTCa, while PTCb was associated with enhanced apolipoprotein A-IV and alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG. The different altered expression of tissue and serum A1AT as well as serum AHSG between PTCa and PTCb patients were also validated by ELISA. Discussion The distinctive altered abundances of the tissue and serum proteins form preliminary indications that PTCa and PTCb are two distinct cancers of the thyroid that are etiologically and mechanistically different although it is currently not possible to rule out that they may also be due other reasons such as the different stages of the malignant disease. These proteins stand to have a potential use as tissue or serum biomarkers to discriminate the three different thyroid neoplasms although this requires further validation in clinically

  20. Ex vivo gene editing of the dystrophin gene in muscle stem cells mediated by peptide nucleic acid single stranded oligodeoxynucleotides induces stable expression of dystrophin in a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik-Ahd, Farnoosh; Bertoni, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which result in the complete absence of dystrophin protein throughout the body. Gene correction strategies hold promise to treating DMD. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the ability of peptide nucleic acid single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (PNA-ssODNs) to permanently correct single-point mutations at the genomic level. In this study, we show that PNA-ssODNs can target and correct muscle satellite cells (SCs), a population of stem cells capable of self-renewing and differentiating into muscle fibers. When transplanted into skeletal muscles, SCs transfected with correcting PNA-ssODNs were able to engraft and to restore dystrophin expression. The number of dystrophin-positive fibers was shown to significantly increase over time. Expression was confirmed to be the result of the activation of a subpopulation of SCs that had undergone repair as demonstrated by immunofluorescence analyses of engrafted muscles using antibodies specific to full-length dystrophin transcripts and by genomic DNA analysis of dystrophin-positive fibers. Furthermore, the increase in dystrophin expression detected over time resulted in a significant improvement in muscle morphology. The ability of transplanted cells to return into quiescence and to activate upon demand was confirmed in all engrafted muscles following injury. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using gene editing strategies to target and correct SCs and further establish the therapeutic potential of this approach to permanently restore dystrophin expression into muscle of DMD patients. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  1. Polydextrose enrichment of infant formula demonstrates prebiotic characteristics by altering intestinal microbiota, organic acid concentrations, and cytokine expression in suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Fellner, Vivek; Walker, D Carey; Jouni, Zeina E; Odle, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Oligosaccharides, the 3rd-most abundant component in human milk, are virtually absent from infant formulas and from the cow milk on which most are based. In breast-fed infants, human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) act as both receptor analogs, interfering with pathogen adhesion, and as prebiotics, stimulating the growth of certain commensal bacteria (e.g. bifidobacteria) and supporting the innate immunity. To further align the functional properties of infant formula with those of human milk, polydextrose (PDX) is proposed as a substitute for HMO. To determine the prebiotic functionality of PDX, 1-d-old pigs were fed a cow milk-based formula supplemented with increasing concentrations of PDX (0, 1.7, 4.3, 8.5, or 17 g/L) for 18 d (n = 13). Additional reference groups included pigs sampled at d 0 and sow-reared pigs sampled at d 18 (n = 12). Ileal Lactobacilli CFU, but not Bifidobacteria, increased linearly with increasing PDX (P = 0.02). The propionic acid concentration in digesta linearly increased with the PDX level (P = 0.045) and lactic acid increased linearly by 5-fold with increasing PDX (P = 0.001). Accordingly, digesta pH decreased linearly (P negative quadratic pattern in response to PDX supplementation, declining at intermediate concentrations and rebounding at higher concentrations of PDX. In summary, PDX enrichment of infant formula resulted in a prebiotic effect by increasing ileal lactobacilli and propionic and lactic acid concentrations and decreasing pH with associated alterations in ileal cytokine expression.

  2. Expression of the mevalonate pathway enzymes in the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sex pheromone gland demonstrated by an integrated proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Caballero, Natalia; Rodríguez-Vega, Andrés; Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Valente, Richard H; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Cuervo, Patricia

    2014-01-16

    In Latin America, Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, which is the causal agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. This insect uses male-produced pheromones for mate recognition. Elucidation of pheromone biogenesis or its regulation may enable molecular strategies for mating disruption and, consequently, the vector's population management. Motivated by our recent results of the transcriptomic characterization of the L. longipalpis pheromone gland, we performed a proteomic analysis of this tissue combining SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry followed by an integrative data analysis. Considering that annotated genome sequences of this sand fly are not available, we designed an alternative workflow searching MS/MS data against two customized databases using three search engines: Mascot, OMSSA and ProLuCID. A total of 542 proteins were confidently characterized, 445 of them using a Uniref100-insect protein database, and 97 using a transcript translated database. In addition, use of PEAKS for de novo peptide sequencing of MS/MS data confirmed ~90% identifications made with the combination of the three search engines. Our results include the identification of six of the seven enzymes of the mevalonate-pathway, plus the enzymes involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, all of which are proposed to be involved in pheromone production in L. longipalpis. L. longipalpis is the main vector of the protozoan parasite L. infantum, which is the causal agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. One of the control measures of such disease is focused on vector population control. As this insect uses male-produced pheromones for mate recognition, the elucidation of pheromone biogenesis or its regulating process may enable molecular strategies for mating disruption and, consequently, this vector's population management. On this regard, in this manuscript we report expression evidence, at the protein level, of several molecules potentially

  3. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  4. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  5. Process for assembly and transformation into Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a synthetic yeast artificial chromosome containing a multigene cassette to express enzymes that enhance xylose utilization designed for an automated pla

    Science.gov (United States)

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a multigene cassette for expression of enzymes that enhance xylose utilization (xylose isomerase [XI] and xylulokinase [XKS]) was constructed and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate feasibility as a stable protein expression system ...

  6. Meiotically stable natural epialleles of Sadhu, a novel Arabidopsis retroposon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjida H Rangwala

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic variation is a potential source of genomic and phenotypic variation among different individuals in a population, and among different varieties within a species. We used a two-tiered approach to identify naturally occurring epigenetic alleles in the flowering plant Arabidopsis: a primary screen for transcript level polymorphisms among three strains (Col, Cvi, Ler, followed by a secondary screen for epigenetic alleles. Here, we describe the identification of stable, meiotically transmissible epigenetic alleles that correspond to one member of a previously uncharacterized non-LTR retroposon family, which we have designated Sadhu. The pericentromeric At2g10410 element is highly expressed in strain Col, but silenced in Ler and 18 other strains surveyed. Transcription of this locus is inversely correlated with cytosine methylation and both the expression and DNA methylation states map in a Mendelian manner to stable cis-acting variation. The silent Ler allele can be converted by the epigenetic modifier mutation ddm1 to a meiotically stable expressing allele with an identical primary nucleotide sequence, demonstrating that the variation responsible for transcript level polymorphism among Arabidopsis strains is epigenetic. We extended our characterization of the Sadhu family members and show that different elements are subject to both genetic and epigenetic variation in natural populations. These findings support the view that an important component of natural variation in retroelements is epigenetic.

  7. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  8. Molecular characterization of long direct repeat (LDR) sequences expressing a stable mRNA encoding for a 35-amino-acid cell-killing peptide and a cis-encoded small antisense RNA in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Mitsuoki; Oshima, Taku; Kasai, Hiroaki; Mori, Hirotada

    2002-07-01

    Genome sequence analyses of Escherichia coli K-12 revealed four copies of long repetitive elements. These sequences are designated as long direct repeat (LDR) sequences. Three of the repeats (LDR-A, -B, -C), each approximately 500 bp in length, are located as tandem repeats at 27.4 min on the genetic map. Another copy (LDR-D), 450 bp in length and nearly identical to LDR-A, -B and -C, is located at 79.7 min, a position that is directly opposite the position of LDR-A, -B and -C. In this study, we demonstrate that LDR-D encodes a 35-amino-acid peptide, LdrD, the overexpression of which causes rapid cell killing and nucleoid condensation of the host cell. Northern blot and primer extension analysis showed constitutive transcription of a stable mRNA (approximately 370 nucleotides) encoding LdrD and an unstable cis-encoded antisense RNA (approximately 60 nucleotides), which functions as a trans-acting regulator of ldrD translation. We propose that LDR encodes a toxin-antitoxin module. LDR-homologous sequences are not pre-sent on any known plasmids but are conserved in Salmonella and other enterobacterial species.

  9. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  10. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  11. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  12. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  13. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  14. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  15. Mechanisms of stable lipid loss in a social insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Seth A.; Chan, Queenie W.; Wheeler, Marsha M.; Nixon, Scott E.; Johnson, S. Peir; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Foster, Leonard J.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Worker honey bees undergo a socially regulated, highly stable lipid loss as part of their behavioral maturation. We used large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic experiments, physiological experiments and RNA interference to explore the mechanistic basis for this lipid loss. Lipid loss was associated with thousands of gene expression changes in abdominal fat bodies. Many of these genes were also regulated in young bees by nutrition during an initial period of lipid gain. Surprisingly, in older bees, which is when maximum lipid loss occurs, diet played less of a role in regulating fat body gene expression for components of evolutionarily conserved nutrition-related endocrine systems involving insulin and juvenile hormone signaling. By contrast, fat body gene expression in older bees was regulated more strongly by evolutionarily novel regulatory factors, queen mandibular pheromone (a honey bee-specific social signal) and vitellogenin (a conserved yolk protein that has evolved novel, maturation-related functions in the bee), independent of nutrition. These results demonstrate that conserved molecular pathways can be manipulated to achieve stable lipid loss through evolutionarily novel regulatory processes. PMID:22031746

  16. Mechanisms of stable lipid loss in a social insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Seth A; Chan, Queenie W; Wheeler, Marsha M; Nixon, Scott E; Johnson, S Peir; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Foster, Leonard J; Robinson, Gene E

    2011-11-15

    Worker honey bees undergo a socially regulated, highly stable lipid loss as part of their behavioral maturation. We used large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic experiments, physiological experiments and RNA interference to explore the mechanistic basis for this lipid loss. Lipid loss was associated with thousands of gene expression changes in abdominal fat bodies. Many of these genes were also regulated in young bees by nutrition during an initial period of lipid gain. Surprisingly, in older bees, which is when maximum lipid loss occurs, diet played less of a role in regulating fat body gene expression for components of evolutionarily conserved nutrition-related endocrine systems involving insulin and juvenile hormone signaling. By contrast, fat body gene expression in older bees was regulated more strongly by evolutionarily novel regulatory factors, queen mandibular pheromone (a honey bee-specific social signal) and vitellogenin (a conserved yolk protein that has evolved novel, maturation-related functions in the bee), independent of nutrition. These results demonstrate that conserved molecular pathways can be manipulated to achieve stable lipid loss through evolutionarily novel regulatory processes.

  17. Stable nuclear transformation of Eudorina elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerche Kai

    2013-02-01

    inducible expression of the co-bombarded gluc gene was demonstrated by transcription analysis and bioluminescence assays. Conclusions Heterologous flanking sequences, including promoters, work in E. elegans and permit both constitutive and inducible expression of heterologous genes. Stable nuclear transformation of E. elegans is now routine. Thus, we show that genetic engineering of a species is possible even without the resources of endogenous genes and promoters.

  18. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  19. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  20. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  1. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  2. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  3. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  4. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  5. Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)

  6. Changing predictions, stable recognition: Children's representations of downward incline motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Michael; Howe, Christine

    2017-11-01

    Various studies to-date have demonstrated children hold ill-conceived expressed beliefs about the physical world such as that one ball will fall faster than another because it is heavier. At the same time, they also demonstrate accurate recognition of dynamic events. How these representations relate is still unresolved. This study examined 5- to 11-year-olds' (N = 130) predictions and recognition of motion down inclines. Predictions were typically in error, matching previous work, but children largely recognized correct events as correct and rejected incorrect ones. The results also demonstrate while predictions change with increasing age, recognition shows signs of stability. The findings provide further support for a hybrid model of object representations and argue in favour of stable core cognition existing alongside developmental changes. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children's predictions of physical events show limitations in accuracy Their recognition of such events suggests children may use different knowledge sources in their reasoning What the present study adds? Predictions fluctuate more strongly than recognition, suggesting stable core cognition But recognition also shows some fluctuation, arguing for a hybrid model of knowledge representation. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  8. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  9. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  10. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  11. Stable SET knockdown in breast cell carcinoma inhibits cell migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [Department of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Yang, Xi-fei [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Ren, Xiao-hu [Department of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Meng, Xiao-jing [Department of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Hai-yan [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Zhao, Qiong-hui [Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Shenzhen (China); Yuan, Jian-hui; Hong, Wen-xu; Xia, Bo; Huang, Xin-feng; Zhou, Li [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Liu, Jian-jun, E-mail: bio-research@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Zou, Fei, E-mail: zoufei616@163.com [Department of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • We employed RNA interference to knockdown SET expression in breast cancer cells. • Knockdown of SET expression inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion. • Knockdown of SET expression increases the activity and expression of PP2A. • Knockdown of SET expression decreases the expression of MMP-9. - Abstract: Breast cancer is the most malignant tumor for women, however, the mechanisms underlying this devastating disease remain unclear. SET is an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and involved in many physiological and pathological processes. SET could promote the occurrence of tumor through inhibiting PP2A. In this study, we explore the role of SET in the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and ZR-75-30. The stable suppression of SET expression through lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was shown to inhibit the growth, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Knockdown of SET increases the activity and expression of PP2Ac and decrease the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). These data demonstrate that SET may be involved in the pathogenic processes of breast cancer, indicating that SET can serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  12. Stable SET knockdown in breast cell carcinoma inhibits cell migration and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jie; Yang, Xi-fei; Ren, Xiao-hu; Meng, Xiao-jing; Huang, Hai-yan; Zhao, Qiong-hui; Yuan, Jian-hui; Hong, Wen-xu; Xia, Bo; Huang, Xin-feng; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jian-jun; Zou, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We employed RNA interference to knockdown SET expression in breast cancer cells. • Knockdown of SET expression inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion. • Knockdown of SET expression increases the activity and expression of PP2A. • Knockdown of SET expression decreases the expression of MMP-9. - Abstract: Breast cancer is the most malignant tumor for women, however, the mechanisms underlying this devastating disease remain unclear. SET is an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and involved in many physiological and pathological processes. SET could promote the occurrence of tumor through inhibiting PP2A. In this study, we explore the role of SET in the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and ZR-75-30. The stable suppression of SET expression through lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was shown to inhibit the growth, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Knockdown of SET increases the activity and expression of PP2Ac and decrease the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). These data demonstrate that SET may be involved in the pathogenic processes of breast cancer, indicating that SET can serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer

  13. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  14. Bi-stable optical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  15. p63 expression confers significantly better survival outcomes in high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates p53-like and p53-independent tumor suppressor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Zhang, Shanxiang; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    with a pan-p63-monoclonal antibody and correlated it with other clinicopathologic factors and clinical outcomes. p63 expression was observed in 42.5% of DLBCL, did not correlate with p53 levels, but correlated with p21, MDM2, p16INK4A, Ki-67, Bcl-6, IRF4/MUM-1 and CD30 expression, REL gains, and BCL6...... was likely due to the association of p63 expression with high-risk IPI, and potential presence of ∆Np63 isoform in TP63 rearranged patients (a mere speculation). Gene expression profiling suggested that p63 has both overlapping and distinct functions compared with p53, and that p63 and mutated p53 antagonize...

  16. On some topological properties of stable measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Krabbe

    1996-01-01

    Summary The paper shows that the set of stable probability measures and the set of Rational Beliefs relative to a given stationary measure are closed in the strong topology, but not closed in the topology of weak convergence. However, subsets of the set of stable probability measures which...... are characterized by uniformity of convergence of the empirical distribution are closed in the topology of weak convergence. It is demonstrated that such subsets exist. In particular, there is an increasing sequence of sets of SIDS measures who's union is the set of all SIDS measures generated by a particular...... system and such that each subset consists of stable measures. The uniformity requirement has a natural interpretation in terms of plausibility of Rational Beliefs...

  17. Tukey max-stable processes for spatial extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ganggang

    2016-09-21

    We propose a new type of max-stable process that we call the Tukey max-stable process for spatial extremes. It brings additional flexibility to modeling dependence structures among spatial extremes. The statistical properties of the Tukey max-stable process are demonstrated theoretically and numerically. Simulation studies and an application to Swiss rainfall data indicate the effectiveness of the proposed process. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  19. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  20. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a comparative study of demonstrative forms in three K wa languages, ... relative distance from the deictic centre, such as English this and that, here and there. ... Mostly, the referents of demonstratives are 'activated' or at least.

  1. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  2. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  3. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  4. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  5. Exogenous Expressions of FTO Wild-Type and R316Q Mutant Proteins Caused an Increase in HNRPK Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells as Demonstrated by DIGE Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Guzel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fat mass and obesity-associated protein is an enzyme that oxidatively demethylates DNA. Although there are numerous studies regarding the catalytic function of FTO, the overall existence or absence of FTO on cellular proteome has not been investigated. This study investigated the changes in the soluble proteome of 3T3-L1 cells upon expression of the WT and the mutant (R316Q FTO proteins. Protein extracts prepared from 3T3-L1 cells expressing either the WT or the mutant FTO proteins were used in DIGE experiments. Analysis of the data revealed the number of spots matched to every member and there were 350 ± 20 spots with 30.5% overall mean coefficient of variation. Eleven regulated protein spots were excised from the gels and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. One of the identified proteins was heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, which displayed more than 2.6- and 3.7-fold increases in its abundance in the WT and the mutant FTO expressing cells, respectively. Western blot analysis validated these observations. This is the first study revealing the presence of a parallel increase in expressions of FTO and HNRNPK proteins. This increase may codictate the metabolic changes occurring in the cell and may attribute a significance to HNRNPK in FTO-associated transformations.

  6. Postnatal changes of gene expression for tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 and cystatins S and C, in rat submandibular gland demonstrated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, T; Abe, K

    1999-01-01

    The rat submandibular gland is not fully developed at birth and definitive differentiation takes place postnatally. The steady-state mRNA expression for the four proteinase inhibitor molecules, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2, and cystatins S and C, and for a housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), in rat submandibular glands was measured by quantitative competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at different stages of postnatal development. The gene-expression patterns of TIMP-1 and -2 relative to G3PDH were similar to each other. The TIMP-2 and cystatin C genes were more highly expressed than those of TIMP-1 and cystatin S at all stages. Moreover, the gene expressions of TIMP-1 and -2, and of cystatins S and C, were predominant between 1 and 7, and 7 and 12 weeks of age, respectively, and coincided developmentally with the regression of terminal tubule cells and the differentiation of granular convoluted tubule cells, respectively. Quantitative competitive RT-PCR allowed accurate measurement of small changes in the steady-state concentrations of these proteinase-inhibitor mRNA molecules.

  7. MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression contributes to the inferior survival of activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates high-risk gene expression signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Tzankov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and unfavorable activated B-cell (ABC)-like subtypes based on gene expression signatures. In this study, we analyzed 893 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclo...

  8. A phase 1 study of a group B meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a strain with deleted lpxL2 and synX and stable expression of opcA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Paul B; Gibbs, Barnett T; Coster, Trinka S; Moran, E Ellen; Stoddard, Mark B; Labrie, Joseph E; Schmiel, Deborah H; Pinto, Valerian; Chen, Ping; Zollinger, Wendell D

    2010-10-08

    This phase 1 clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from a lpxL2(-) synX(-) mutant of strain 44/76 with opcA expression stabilized. Thirty-four volunteers were assigned to one of the three dose groups (25 mcg, 25 mcg with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, and 50 mcg) to receive three intramuscular injections at 0, 6 and 24 weeks. Specific local and systemic adverse events (AEs) were solicited by diary and at visits on days 1, 2, 7 and 14 after each vaccination and at the end of the study at 30 weeks. Blood chemistries, complete blood count, and coagulation studies were measured on each vaccination day and again two days later. Blood for antibody measurements and bactericidal assays were drawn 0, 14, and 42 days after each vaccination. The proportion of volunteers who developed a fourfold or greater increase in serum bactericidal activity (SBA) to the wild-type parent of the vaccine strain with high opcA expression at 6 weeks after the third dose was 12/26 (0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.65). Antibody levels to OpcA were significantly higher in vaccine responders than in non-responders (p=0.008), and there was a trend for higher antibody levels to the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) (p=0.059). Bactericidal depletion assays on sera from volunteers with high-titer responses also indicate a major contribution of anti-OpcA and anti-LOS antibodies to the bactericidal response.These results suggest that genetically modified NOMV vaccines can induce protection against group B meningococcus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exact simulation of max-stable processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombry, Clément; Engelke, Sebastian; Oesting, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Max-stable processes play an important role as models for spatial extreme events. Their complex structure as the pointwise maximum over an infinite number of random functions makes their simulation difficult. Algorithms based on finite approximations are often inexact and computationally inefficient. We present a new algorithm for exact simulation of a max-stable process at a finite number of locations. It relies on the idea of simulating only the extremal functions, that is, those functions in the construction of a max-stable process that effectively contribute to the pointwise maximum. We further generalize the algorithm by Dieker & Mikosch (2015) for Brown-Resnick processes and use it for exact simulation via the spectral measure. We study the complexity of both algorithms, prove that our new approach via extremal functions is always more efficient, and provide closed-form expressions for their implementation that cover most popular models for max-stable processes and multivariate extreme value distributions. For simulation on dense grids, an adaptive design of the extremal function algorithm is proposed.

  10. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  11. Tracing metal–silicate segregation and late veneer in the Earth and the ureilite parent body with palladium stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creech, J. B.; Moynier, F.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotope studies of highly siderophile elements (HSE) have the potential to yield valuable insights into a range of geological processes. In particular, the strong partitioning of these elements into metal over silicates may lead to stable isotope fractionation during metal......–silicate segregation, making them sensitive tracers of planetary differentiation processes. We present the first techniques for the precise determination of palladium stable isotopes by MC-ICPMS using a 106Pd–110Pd double-spike to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. Results are expressed as the per mil...... (‰) difference in the 106Pd/105Pd ratio (δ106Pd) relative to an in-house solution standard (Pd_IPGP) in the absence of a certified Pd isotopic standard. Repeated analyses of the Pd isotopic composition of the chondrite Allende demonstrate the external reproducibility of the technique of ±0.032‰ on δ106Pd. Using...

  12. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing

  13. Structure of stable degeneration of K3 surfaces into pairs of rational elliptic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    F-theory/heterotic duality is formulated in the stable degeneration limit of a K3 fibration on the F-theory side. In this note, we analyze the structure of the stable degeneration limit. We discuss whether stable degeneration exists for pairs of rational elliptic surfaces. We demonstrate that, when two rational elliptic surfaces have an identical complex structure, stable degeneration always exists. We provide an equation that systematically describes the stable degeneration of a K3 surface i...

  14. Innovative technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-04-01

    The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr +6 ; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB

  15. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  16. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  17. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  18. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  19. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  20. Species A rotavirus NSP3 acquires its translation inhibitory function prior to stable dimer formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo I Contreras-Treviño

    Full Text Available Species A rotavirus non-structural protein 3 (NSP3 is a translational regulator that inhibits or, under some conditions, enhances host cell translation. NSP3 binds to the translation initiation factor eIF4G1 and evicts poly-(A binding protein (PABP from eIF4G1, thus inhibiting translation of polyadenylated mRNAs, presumably by disrupting the effect of PABP bound to their 3'-ends. NSP3 has a long coiled-coil region involved in dimerization that includes a chaperone Hsp90-binding domain (HS90BD. We aimed to study the role in NSP3 dimerization of a segment of the coiled-coil region adjoining the HS90BD. We used a vaccinia virus system to express NSP3 with point mutations in conserved amino acids in the coiled-coil region and determined the effects of these mutations on translation by metabolic labeling of proteins as well as on accumulation of stable NSP3 dimers by non-dissociating Western blot, a method that separates stable NSP3 dimers from the monomer/dimerization intermediate forms of the protein. Four of five mutations reduced the total yield of NSP3 and the formation of stable dimers (W170A, K171E, R173E and R187E:K191E, whereas one mutation had the opposite effects (Y192A. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 revealed that stable NSP3 dimers and monomers/dimerization intermediates are susceptible to proteasome degradation. Surprisingly, mutants severely impaired in the formation of stable dimers were still able to inhibit host cell translation, suggesting that NSP3 dimerization intermediates are functional. Our results demonstrate that rotavirus NSP3 acquires its function prior to stable dimer formation and remain as a proteasome target throughout dimerization.

  1. Characterisation and expression of a PP1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PfPP1 from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum: demonstration of its essential role using RNA interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musiyenko Alla

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reversible protein phosphorylation is relatively unexplored in the intracellular protozoa of the Apicomplexa family that includes the genus Plasmodium, to which belong the causative agents of malaria. Members of the PP1 family represent the most highly conserved protein phosphatase sequences in phylogeny and play essential regulatory roles in various cellular pathways. Previous evidence suggested a PP1-like activity in Plasmodium falciparum, not yet identified at the molecular level. Results We have identified a PP1 catalytic subunit from P. falciparum and named it PfPP1. The predicted primary structure of the 304-amino acid long protein was highly similar to PP1 sequences of other species, and showed conservation of all the signature motifs. The purified recombinant protein exhibited potent phosphatase activity in vitro. Its sensitivity to specific phosphatase inhibitors was characteristic of the PP1 class. The authenticity of the PfPP1 cDNA was further confirmed by mutational analysis of strategic amino acid residues important in catalysis. The protein was expressed in all erythrocytic stages of the parasite. Abrogation of PP1 expression by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA led to inhibition of parasite DNA synthesis. Conclusions The high sequence similarity of PfPP1 with other PP1 members suggests conservation of function. Phenotypic gene knockdown studies using siRNA confirmed its essential role in the parasite. Detailed studies of PfPP1 and its regulation may unravel the role of reversible protein phosphorylation in the signalling pathways of the parasite, including glucose metabolism and parasitic cell division. The use of siRNA could be an important tool in the functional analysis of Apicomplexan genes.

  2. Stable configurations in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronski, Jared C.; DeVille, Lee; Ferguson, Timothy; Livesay, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present and analyze a model of opinion formation on an arbitrary network whose dynamics comes from a global energy function. We study the global and local minimizers of this energy, which we call stable opinion configurations, and describe the global minimizers under certain assumptions on the friendship graph. We show a surprising result that the number of stable configurations is not necessarily monotone in the strength of connection in the social network, i.e. the model sometimes supports more stable configurations when the interpersonal connections are made stronger.

  3. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  4. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings....... This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses......, and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...

  5. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  6. Biodenitrification demonstration test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benear, A.K.; Murray, S.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Leslie, J.W.; Patton, J.B.; Menako, C.R.

    1987-08-01

    A two-column biodenitrification (BDN) facility was constructed at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in 1985 and 1986 to test the feasibility of biological treatment for industrial nitrate-bearing waste water generated at FMPC. This demonstration facility comprises one-half of the proposed four-column production facility. A demonstration test was conducted over a four month period in 1987. The results indicate the proposed BDN production facility can process FMPC industrial wastewater in a continuous manner while maintaining an effluent that will consistently meet the proposed NPDES limits for combined nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N). The proposed NPDES limits are 62 kg/day average and 124 kg/day maximum. These limits were proportioned to determine that the two-column demonstration facility should meet the limits of 31 kg/day average and 62 kg/day maximum

  7. Distributed picture compilation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard; Anderson, John; Leal, Jeff; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Watson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    A physical demonstration of distributed surveillance and tracking is described. The demonstration environment is an outdoor car park overlooked by a system of four rooftop cameras. The cameras extract moving objects from the scene, and these objects are tracked in a decentralized way, over a real communication network, using the information form of the standard Kalman filter. Each node therefore has timely access to the complete global picture and because there is no single point of failure in the system, it is robust. The demonstration system and its main components are described here, with an emphasis on some of the lessons we have learned as a result of applying a corpus of distributed data fusion theory and algorithms in practice. Initial results are presented and future plans to scale up the network are also outlined.

  8. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J; Kaut, W [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the fourth PV-Contractors' Meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, held at Brussels on 21 and 22 November 1989, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the Energy Demonstration Program since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986, describing progress with their projects. Summaries of the discussions held at the meeting, which included contractors whose projects were submitted in 1987, are also presented. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping, and warning systems. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  10. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  11. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1992-04-01

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  12. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  13. Photovoltaic demonstration projects 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow (William) and Partners, Swindon (UK); Kaut, W [eds.

    1989-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the third Photovoltaic Contractors' Meeting organised by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported by the Energy Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984 and 1985, describing progress with their projects. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of houses, villages, recreation centres, water desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping and warning systems. (author).

  14. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  15. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are

  16. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  17. Astronomy LITE Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2006-12-01

    Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments) is a materials, software, and curriculum development project. It focuses on light, optics, color and visual perception. According to two recent surveys of college astronomy faculty members, these are among the topics most often included in the large introductory astronomy courses. The project has aimed largely at the design and implementation of hands-on experiences for students. However, it has also included the development of lecture demonstrations that employ novel light sources and materials. In this presentation, we will show some of our new lecture demonstrations concerning geometrical and physical optics, fluorescence, phosphorescence and polarization. We have developed over 200 Flash and Java applets that can be used either by teachers in lecture settings or by students at home. They are all posted on the web at http://lite.bu.edu. For either purpose they can be downloaded directly to the user's computer or run off line. In lecture demonstrations, some of these applets can be used to control the light emitted by video projectors to produce physical effects in materials (e.g. fluorescence). Other applets can be used, for example, to demonstrate that the human percept of color does not have a simple relationship with the physical frequency of the stimulating source of light. Project LITE is supported by Grant #DUE-0125992 from the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education.

  18. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  19. A model for a stable coronal loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoven, G.V.; Chiuderi, C.; Giachetti, R.

    1977-01-01

    We present here a new plasma-physics model of a stable active-region arch which corresponds to the structure observed in the EUV. Pressure gradients are seen, so that the equilibrium magnetic field must depart from the force-free form valid in the surrounding corona. We take advantage of the data and of the approximate cylindrical symmetry to develop a modified form of the commonly assumed sheared-spiral structure. The dynamic MHD behavior of this new pressure/field model is then evaluated by the Newcomb criterion, taken from controlled-fusion physics, and the results show short-wavelength stability in a specific parameter range. Thus we demonstrate the possibility, for pressure profiles with widths of the order of the magnetic-field scale, that such arches can persist for reasonable periods. Finally, the spatial proportions and magnetic fields of a characteristic stable coronal loop are described

  20. Stable plastid transformation in Scoparia dulcis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishna, Narra; Srinivas, Kota; Kumar, Kalva Bharath; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2016-10-01

    In the present investigation we report stable plastid transformation in Scoparia dulcis L., a versatile medicinal herb via particle gun method. The vector KNTc, harbouring aadA as a selectable marker and egfp as a reporter gene which were under the control of synthetic promoter pNG1014a, targets inverted repeats, trnR / t rnN of the plastid genome. By use of this heterologous vector, recovery of transplastomic lines with suitable selection protocol have been successfully established with overall efficiency of two transgenic lines for 25 bombarded leaf explants. PCR and Southern blot analysis demonstrated stable integration of foreign gene into the target sequences. The results represent a significant advancement of the plastid transformation technology in medicinal plants, which relevantly implements a change over in enhancing and regulating of certain metabolic pathways.

  1. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  2. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  3. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  4. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  5. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  6. Remote monitoring demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  7. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  8. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaut, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow Gilbert Associates Ltd., Swindon (GB)

    1992-12-31

    This publication, comprising the proceedings of the fifth contractor`s meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the energy demonstration programme since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1987 and 1988, describing progress within their projects. Projects accepted from earlier calls for proposals and not yet completed were reviewed by a rapporteur and are discussed in the summary section. The results of the performance monitoring of all projects and the lessons drawn from the practical experience of the projects are also presented in the summaries and conclusions. Contractors whose projects were submitted in 1989 were also present at the meeting and contributed to the reported discussions. This proceeding is divided into four sessions (General, Housing, technical presentations, other applications) and 24 papers are offered.

  9. AVNG system demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  10. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  11. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  12. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R G [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  13. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  14. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  15. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  16. RON kinase isoforms demonstrate variable cell motility in normal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Alissa; Rajput, Ashwani; Wan, Guanghua

    2016-09-01

    Aberrant RON (Recepteur d'Origine Nantais) tyrosine kinase activation causes the epithelial cell to evade normal growth pathways, resulting in unregulated cell proliferation, increased cell motility and decreased apoptosis. Wildtype (wt) RON has been shown to play a role in metastasis of epithelial malignancies. It presents an important potential therapeutic target for colorectal, breast, gastric and pancreatic cancer. Little is known about functional differences amongst RON isoforms RON155, RON160 and RON165. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various RON kinase isoforms on cell motility. Cell lines with stable expression of wtRON were generated by inserting the coding region of RON in pTagRFP (tagged red fluorescence protein plasmid). The expression constructs of RON variants (RON155, RON160 and RON165) were generated by creating a mutagenesis-based wtRON-pTag RFP plasmid and stably transfected into HEK 293 cells. The wound closure scratch assay was used to investigate the effect on cell migratory capacity of wild type RON and its variants. RON transfected cells demonstrated increased cell motility compared to HEK293 control cells. RON165 cell motility was significantly increased compared to RON160 (mean percentage of wound covered 37.37% vs. 32.40%; p = 0.03). RON tyrosine kinase isoforms have variable cell motility. This may reflect a difference in the behavior of malignant epithelial cells and their capacity for metastasis.

  17. Demonstration of HITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.D.; Woodall, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A model reactor for HITEX successfully demonstrated the concept of high-temperature isotopic exchange in a closed loop simulating the conditions for fusion fuel cleanup. The catalyst of platinum on alumina pellets provided a surface area large enough to operate the reactor at 400 degrees celsius with flow rates up to 2 L/min. A 15-L tank containing a mixture of 4% CD 4 in H 2 was depleted in deuterium within 75 minutes down to 100 ppm HD above the natural concentration of HD in the make-up hydrogen stream. The application to tritium removal from tritiated impurities in a hydrogen stream will work as well or better

  18. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  19. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  20. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  1. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System

  2. Possible THz gain in superlattices at a stable operation point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Allen, S. J.; Scott, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate that semiconductor superlattices may provide gain at THz frequencies at an operation point which is stable against fluctuations at lower frequency. While an explicit experimental demonstration for the sample considered could not be achieved, the underlying principle of quantum resp...... response is quite general and may prove successful for differently designed superlattices....

  3. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  4. Combined anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy and DMARD therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients reduces inflammatory gene expression in whole blood compared to DMARD therapy alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl K Edwards

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodic assessment of gene expression for diagnosis and monitoring in rheumatoid arthritis (RA may provide a readily available and useful method to detect subclinical disease progression and follow responses to therapy with disease modifying anti-rheumatic agents (DMARDs or anti-TNF-α therapy. We used quantitative real-time PCR to compare peripheral blood gene expression profiles in active ("unstable" RA patients on DMARDs, stable RA patients on DMARDs, and stable RA patients treated with a combination of a DMARD and an anti-TNF-α agent (infliximab or etanercept to healthy human controls. The expression of 48 inflammatory genes were compared between healthy controls (N=122, unstable DMARD patients (N=18, stable DMARD patients (N=26, and stable patients on combination therapy (N=20. Expression of 13 genes was very low or undetectable in all study groups. Compared to healthy controls, patients with unstable RA on DMARDs exhibited increased expression of 25 genes, stable DMARD patients exhibited increased expression of 14 genes and decreased expression of five genes, and combined therapy patients exhibited increased expression of six genes and decreased expression of 10 genes. These findings demonstrate that active RA is associated with increased expression of circulating inflammatory markers whereas increases in inflammatory gene expression are diminished in patients with stable disease on either DMARD or anti-TNF-α therapy. Furthermore, combination DMARD and anti-TNF-α therapy is associated with greater reductions in circulating inflammatory gene expression compared to DMARD therapy alone. These results suggest that assessment of peripheral blood gene expression may prove useful to monitor disease progression and response to therapy.

  5. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  6. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  7. High-Order Entropy Stable Formulations for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented for developing entropy stable (SS) formulations of any order for the Navier-Stokes equations. These SS formulations discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows provided sufficient dissipation is added at shocks and discontinuities. Entropy stable formulations exist for all diagonal norm, summation-by-parts (SBP) operators, including all centered finite-difference operators, Legendre collocation finite-element operators, and certain finite-volume operators. Examples are presented using various entropy stable formulations that demonstrate the current state-of-the-art of these schemes.

  8. Fusion-power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  9. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  10. Industrial demonstration trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelee, M.; Fabre, C.; Villepoix, R. de; Fra, J.; Le Foulgoc, L.; Morel, Y.; Querite, P.; Roques, R.

    1975-01-01

    Prototypes of the plant components, meeting the specifications set by the process and built by industrial firms in collaboration with the supervisor and the C.E.A., are subjected to trial runs on the UF 6 test bench of the Pierrelatte testing zone. These items of equipment (diffuser, compressor, exchanger) are placed in an industrial operation context very similar to that of an enrichment plant. Their performance is measured within a broad region around the working point and their reliability observed over periods up to several tens of thousands of hours. Between 1969 and 1973 six industrial demonstration test benches have been built, marking the stages in the technical preparation of the 1973 file on the basis of which the decision of building was taken by Eurodif [fr

  11. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  12. TPA device for demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The TPA (torus plasma for amature) is a small race-trac type device made by the technical service division to demonstrate basic properties of plasma such as electron temperature, conductivity, effect of helical field for toroidal drift, and shape of plasma in mirror and cusp magnetic field in linear section. The plasmas are produced by RF discharge (-500W) and/or DC discharge (-30 mA) within glass discharge tube. Where major radius is 50 cm, length of linear section is 50 cm, toroidal magnetic field is 200 gauss. The device has been designed to be compact with only 100 V power source (-3.2 KW for the case without helical field) and to be full automatic sequence of operation. (author)

  13. Fusion power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  14. Dynamic wall demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsui, L.; Mayhew, W.

    1990-12-01

    The dynamic wall concept is a ventilation strategy that can be applied to a single family dwelling. With suitable construction, outside air can be admitted through the exterior walls of the house to the interior space to function as ventilation air. The construction and performance monitoring of a demonstration house built to test the dynamic wall concept in Sherwood Park, Alberta, is described. The project had the objectives of demonstrating and assessing the construction methods; determining the cost-effectiveness of the concept in Alberta; analyzing the operation of the dynamic wall system; and determining how other components and systems in the house interact with the dynamic wall. The exterior wall construction consisted of vinyl siding, spun-bonded polyolefin-backed (SBPO) rigid fiberglass sheathing, 38 mm by 89 mm framing, fiberglass batt insulation and 12.7 mm drywall. The mechanical system was designed to operate in the dynamic (negative pressure) mode, however flexibility was provided to allow operation in the static (balanced pressure) mode to permit monitoring of the walls as if they were in a conventional house. The house was monitored by an extensive computerized monitoring system. Dynamic wall operation was dependent on pressure and temperature differentials between indoor and outdoor as well as wind speed and direction. The degree of heat gain was found to be ca 74% of the indoor-outdoor temperature differential. Temperature of incoming dynamic air was significantly affected by solar radiation and measurement of indoor air pollutants found no significant levels. 4 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Realistic Fasting Does Not Affect Stable Isotope Levels of a Metabolically Efficient Salamander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes are commonly used to examine various aspects of animal ecology. The use of stable isotopes generally proceeds under the implicit assumption that resource use is the only factor driving variation in stable isotope levels; however, a wealth of studies demonstrate a...

  16. [Current Treatment of Stable Angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Peiman; Cuculi, Florim

    2015-06-17

    Current therapy for stable angina includes surgical and percutaneous revascularization, which has been improved tremendously over the last decades. Smoking cessation and regular exercise are the cornerstone for prevention of further cerebrovascular events. Medical treatment includes treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and antithrombotic management, which can be a challenge in some patients. Owing to the fact the coronary revascularization is readily accessible these days in many industrialized countries, the importance of antianginal therapy has decreased over the past years. This article presents a contemporary overview of the management of patients with stable angina in the year 2015.

  17. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Ouzzani, Mourad; Aboulnaga, Ashraf; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  18. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  19. Demonstration exercise 'Cavtat 09'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trut, D.

    2009-01-01

    The demonstration exercise is to show a terrorist attack in urban area resulting in a certain number of injured people. On 7th April 2009 a terrorist group HAL 9000 is in Cavtat and set up an explosive devices with chemical reagents in several spots with intention to activate them and cause great number of victims. On the same day, in area of the Cavtat Croatia Hotel, which is hosting the world CBMTS Congress, Cavtat Police Station notice several masked persons, in escapement. Hotel personnel alerted the County 112 Center about noticed devices placed by chlorine dioxide tanks, for water conditioning. Intervention police came to block entrance to this area and evacuate hotel's guests and congress members. An explosion and fire occurs from where the position of water-conditioning plant and chlorine dioxide tank. The 112 Center alarms fire-fighters for fight fire and decontamination action and HAZMAT Civil Support Team from Georgia (participated the congress). In the meantime, guests have been instructed not to leave their rooms and to hermetically close doors and windows with available material to keep away potential toxic fume. Decision makers form the County Protection and Rescue Headquarters monitors the situation till the end of alert for the population in the area of Cavtat.(author)

  20. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  1. Possibility of stable quark stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.

    1976-08-01

    A recent zero temperature equation of state which contains quark-partons separated from conventional baryons by a phase transition is used to investigate the stability of quark stars. The sensitivity to the input physics is also considered. The conclusions, which are found to be relatively model independent, indicate that a separately identifiable class of stable objects called quark stars does not exist

  2. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  3. Coal ash artificial reef demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Brendel, G.F.; Bruzek, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This experimental project evaluated the use of coal ash to construct artificial reefs. An artificial reef consisting of approximately 33 tons of cement-stabilized coal ash blocks was constructed in approximately 20 feet of water in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 9.3 miles west of Cedar Key, Florida. The project objectives were: (1) demonstrate that a durable coal ash/cement block can be manufactured by commercial block-making machines for use in artificial reefs, and (2) evaluate the possibility that a physically stable and environmentally acceptable coal ash/cement block reef can be constructed as a means of expanding recreational and commercial fisheries. The reef was constructed in February 1988 and biological surveys were made at monthly intervals from May 1988 to April 1989. The project provided information regarding: Development of an optimum design mix, block production and reef construction, chemical composition of block leachate, biological colonization of the reef, potential concentration of metals in the food web associated with the reef, acute bioassays (96-hour LC 50 ). The Cedar Key reef was found to be a habitat that was associated with a relatively rich assemblage of plants and animals. The reef did not appear to be a major source of heavy metals to species at various levels of biological organization. GAI Consultants, Inc (GAI) of Monroeville, Pennsylvania was the prime consultant for the project. The biological monitoring surveys and evaluations were performed by Environmental Planning and Analysis, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida. The chemical analyses of biological organisms and bioassay elutriates were performed by Savannah Laboratories of Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg, Florida sponsored the project and supplied ash from their Crystal River Energy Complex

  4. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  5. Stable Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sascha

    The application of stable Oxygen-18 (18O) and Deuterium (2H) isotopes, as a tracer for fluxes between different compartments of the water cycle was subject of the present PhD-thesis. During a three year period, temporal data from a wide range of water cycle constituents was collected from...... the Skjern River catchment, Denmark. The presented applications focused on studying the isotopic 'input signal' to the hydrosphere in the form of precipitation, the isotopic 'output signal' with its related dynamic processes at a coastal saltwater-freshwater interface (groundwater isotopes) and the temporal...... development within a given lowland headwater catchment (stream water isotopes). Based on our investigations on the precipitation isotopic composition a local meteoric water line (LMWL) was constructed and expressed as: δ2H=7.4 δ18O + 5.36‰. Moreover, we showed that under maritime temperature climate influence...

  6. Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Brian; Conti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The "Search for Life" via imaging of exoplanets is a mission that requires extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. The High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) envisioned for this mission would have an aperture >10 m, which is a larger payload than what can be delivered to space using a single launch vehicle. Building and assembling the mirror segments enabling large telescopes will likely require multiple launches and assembly in space. Space-based telescopes with large apertures will require major changes to system architectures.The Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) for HDST is a primary mission cost driver. Enabling and affordable solutions for this next generation of large aperture space-based telescope are needed.This paper reports on the concept for the Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST), which demonstrates on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of a precision optical telescope in space. It will also facilitate demonstration of active correction of phase and mirror shape. MODEST is proposed to be delivered to the ISS using standard Express Logistics Carriers (ELCs) and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets. Post-assembly value includes space, ground, and environmental studies, and a testbed for new instruments. This demonstration program for next generation mirror technology provides significant risk reduction and demonstrates the technology in a six-mirror phased telescope. Other key features of the demonstration include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control that allows on-orbit optimization and demonstration of precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high modulus, high thermal

  7. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  8. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high-abundance, naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56. All requests for the loan of samples should be submitted with a summary of the purpose of the loan to: Iotope Distribution Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Requests from non-DOE contractors and from foreign institutions require DOE approval

  9. Stable isotopes and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krouse, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas traditionally, stable isotope research has been directed towards resource exploration and development, it is finding more frequent applications in helping to assess the impacts of resource utilization upon ecosystems. Among the many pursuits, two themes are evident: tracing the transport and conversions of pollutants in the environment and better understanding of the interplay among environmental receptors, e.g. food web studies. Stable isotope data are used primarily to identify the presence of pollutants in the environment and with a few exceptions, the consequence of their presence must be assessed by other techniques. Increasing attention has been given to the isotopic composition of humans with many potential applications in areas such as paleodiets, medicine, and criminology. In this brief overview examples are used from the Pacific Rim to illustrate the above concepts. 26 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  10. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  11. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen DUMITRASCU; Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we ...

  12. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  13. Tuning calcite morphology and growth acceleration by a rational design of highly stable protein-mimetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Long; Qi, Jiahui; Tao, Jinhui; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; DeYoreo, James J.

    2014-01-01

    In nature, proteins play a significant role in biomineral formation. One of the ultimate goals of bioinspired materials science is to develop highly stable synthetic molecules that mimic the function of these natural proteins by controlling crystal formation. Here, we demonstrate that both the morphology and the degree of acceleration or inhibition observed during growth of calcite in the presence of peptoids can be rationally tuned by balancing the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, with hydrophobic interactions playing the dominant role. While either strong electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions inhibit growth and reduces expression of the {104} faces, correlations between peptoid-crystal binding energies and observed changes in calcite growth indicate moderate electrostatic interactions allow peptoids to weakly adsorb while moderate hydrophobic interactions cause disruption of surface-adsorbed water layers, leading to growth acceleration with retained expression of the {104} faces. This study provides fundamental principles for designing peptoids as crystallization promoters, and offers a straightforward screening method based on macroscopic crystal morphology. Because peptoids are sequence-specific, highly stable, and easily synthesized, peptoid-enhanced crystallization offers a broad range of potential applications. PMID:25189418

  14. Stable isotope dimethyl labelling for quantitative proteomics and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jue-Liang; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Stable-isotope reductive dimethylation, a cost-effective, simple, robust, reliable and easy-to- multiplex labelling method, is widely applied to quantitative proteomics using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This review focuses on biological applications of stable-isotope dimethyl labelling for a large-scale comparative analysis of protein expression and post-translational modifications based on its unique properties of the labelling chemistry. Some other applications of the labelling method for sample preparation and mass spectrometry-based protein identification and characterization are also summarized. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644970

  15. Methods for stable recording of short-circuit current in a Na+-transporting epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondzik, Veronika; Awayda, Mouhamed S

    2011-07-01

    Epithelial Na(+) transport as measured by a variety of techniques, including the short-circuit current technique, has been described to exhibit a "rundown" phenomenon. This phenomenon manifests as time-dependent decrease of current and resistance and precludes the ability to carry out prolonged experiments aimed at examining the regulation of this transport. We developed methods for prolonged stable recordings of epithelial Na(+) transport using modifications of the short-circuit current technique and commercial Ussing-type chambers. We utilize the polarized MDCK cell line expressing the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) to describe these methods. Briefly, existing commercial chambers were modified to allow continuous flow of Ringer solution and precise control of such flow. Chamber manifolds and associated plumbing were modified to allow precise temperature clamp preventing temperature oscillations. Recording electrodes were modified to eliminate the use of KCl and prevent membrane depolarization from KCl leakage. Solutions utilized standard bicarbonate-based buffers, but all gasses were prehydrated to clamp buffer osmolarity. We demonstrate that these modifications result in measurements of current and resistance that are stable for at least 2 h. We further demonstrate that drifts in osmolarity similar to those obtained before prior to our modifications can lead to a decrease of current and resistance similar to those attributed to rundown.

  16. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  17. Stable isotopes - separation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this review, methods used for the separation of stable isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 34 S) will be described. The synthesis of labelled compounds, techniques for detection and assay, and areas of application will also be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen; to date, sulphur isotopes have only assumed a minor role. The field of deuterium chemistry is too extensive for adequate treatment; it will therefore be essentially excluded. (author)

  18. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  19. Stable orbits for lunar landing assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoleo, Ennio; Cinelli, Marco; Ortore, Emiliano; Circi, Christian

    2017-10-01

    To improve lunar landing performances in terms of mission costs, trajectory determination and visibility the use of a single probe located over an assistance orbit around the Moon has been taken into consideration. To this end, the properties of two quasi-circular orbits characterised by a stable behaviour of semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination have been investigated. The analysis has demonstrated the possibility of using an assistance probe, located over one of these orbits, as a relay satellite between lander and Earth, even in the case of landings on the far side of the Moon. A comparison about the accuracy in retrieving the lander's state with respect to the use of a probe located in the Lagrangian point L2 of the Earth-Moon system has also been carried out.

  20. Horseshoes in a Chaotic System with Only One Stable Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Songmei; Li, Qingdu; Yang, Xiao-Song

    To confirm the numerically demonstrated chaotic behavior in a chaotic system with only one stable equilibrium reported by Wang and Chen, we resort to Poincaré map technique and present a rigorous computer-assisted verification of horseshoe chaos by virtue of topological horseshoes theory.

  1. Superradiantly stable non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jia-Hui [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, Guangzhou (China); Mai, Zhan-Feng [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    The superradiant stability is investigated for non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. We use an algebraic method to demonstrate that all non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes are superradiantly stable against a charged massive scalar perturbation. This improves the results obtained before for non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. (orig.)

  2. Stable Kernel Representations as Nonlinear Left Coprime Factorizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paice, A.D.B.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    1994-01-01

    A representation of nonlinear systems based on the idea of representing the input-output pairs of the system as elements of the kernel of a stable operator has been recently introduced. This has been denoted the kernel representation of the system. In this paper it is demonstrated that the kernel

  3. Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loe, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD) were to investigate, design a software architecture and demonstrate a capability to display intelligence data from multiple disciplines...

  4. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  5. Stable Heavy Hadrons in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mackeprang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Several extensions to the SM feature heavy long-lived particles with masses of O(10^2-10^3 GeV) and mean lifetimes fulfilling $CT \\geq 10m$. Among such theories are supersymmetric scenarios as well as extra-dimensional models in which the heavy new particles are seen as Kaluza-Klein excitations of the well-known SM particles. Such particles will, from the point of view of a collider experiment be seen as stable. This thesis is concerned with the case where the exotic heavy particles emph{can} be considered stable while traversing the detector. Specifically the case is considered where the particles in question carry the charge of the strong nuclear force, commonly referred to as emph{colour charge}. A simulation kit has been developed using GEANT4. This framework is the current standard in experimental particle physics for the simulation of interactions of particles with matter, and it is used extensively for detector simulation. The simulation describes the interactions of these particles with matter which i...

  6. Wideband quin-stable energy harvesting via combined nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a wideband quintuple-well potential piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester using a combined nonlinearity: the magnetic nonlinearity induced by magnetic force and the piecewise-linearity produced by mechanical impact. With extra stable states compared to other multi-stable harvesters, the quin-stable harvester can distribute its potential energy more uniformly, which provides shallower potential wells and results in lower excitation threshold for interwell motion. The mathematical model of this quin-stable harvester is derived and its equivalent piecewise-nonlinear restoring force is measured in the experiment and identified as piecewise polynomials. Numerical simulations and experimental verifications are performed in different levels of sinusoid excitation ranging from 1 to 25 Hz. The results demonstrate that, with lower potential barriers compared with tri-stable counterpart, the quin-stable arrangement can escape potential wells more easily for doing high-energy interwell motion over a wider band of frequencies. Moreover, by utilizing the mechanical stoppers, this harvester can produce significant output voltage under small tip deflections, which results in a high power density and is especially suitable for a compact MEMS approach.

  7. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  8. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  9. Tempered stable laws as random walk limits

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, Arijit; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    Stable laws can be tempered by modifying the L\\'evy measure to cool the probability of large jumps. Tempered stable laws retain their signature power law behavior at infinity, and infinite divisibility. This paper develops random walk models that converge to a tempered stable law under a triangular array scheme. Since tempered stable laws and processes are useful in statistical physics, these random walk models can provide a basic physical model for the underlying physical phenomena.

  10. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics. (paper)

  11. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  12. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  13. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations

  14. Modulating ectopic gene expression levels by using retroviral vectors equipped with synthetic promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joshua P; Peacock, Ryan W S; Lawhorn, Ingrid E B; Wang, Clifford L

    2011-12-01

    The human cytomegalovirus and elongation factor 1α promoters are constitutive promoters commonly employed by mammalian expression vectors. These promoters generally produce high levels of expression in many types of cells and tissues. To generate a library of synthetic promoters capable of generating a range of low, intermediate, and high expression levels, the TATA and CAAT box elements of these promoters were mutated. Other promoter variants were also generated by random mutagenesis. Evaluation using plasmid vectors integrated at a single site in the genome revealed that these various synthetic promoters were capable of expression levels spanning a 40-fold range. Retroviral vectors were equipped with the synthetic promoters and evaluated for their ability to reproduce the graded expression demonstrated by plasmid integration. A vector with a self-inactivating long terminal repeat could neither reproduce the full range of expression levels nor produce stable expression. Using a second vector design, the different synthetic promoters enabled stable expression over a broad range of expression levels in different cell lines. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11693-011-9089-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  15. The Myopic Stable Set for Social Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, Thomas; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Saulle, Riccardo; Seel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new solution concept for models of coalition formation, called the myopic stable set. The myopic stable set is defined for a very general class of social environments and allows for an infinite state space. We show that the myopic stable set exists and is non-empty. Under minor

  16. Effectiveness and risks of stable iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The factors upon which the efficacy of stable iodine prophylaxis depends are reviewed, with particular reference to the dose of stable iodine, the timing of the dose, the influence of dietary iodine and the impact of the other prospective actions. The risks of stable iodine ingestion are estimated, and their application to the principle of Justification in outlined. (Author)

  17. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...

  18. Coexistence of collapse and stable spatiotemporal solitons in multimode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrina, Olga V.; Fedoruk, Mikhail P.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal solitons in multimode optical fibers and demonstrate the existence of stable solitons, in a sharp contrast to earlier predictions of collapse of multidimensional solitons in three-dimensional media. We discuss the coexistence of blow-up solutions and collapse stabilization by a low-dimensional external potential in graded-index media, and also predict the existence of stable higher-order nonlinear waves such as dipole-mode spatiotemporal solitons. To support the main conclusions of our numerical studies we employ a variational approach and derive analytically the stability criterion for input powers for the collapse stabilization.

  19. Immunohistochemical demonstration of glial markers in retinoblastomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1987-01-01

    Twenty retinoblastomas were studied immunohistochemically in order to visualize glial cells. In the retina, the glial cells in the ganglion cell layer and the Müller cells were GFAP positive, while only the glial cells of the ganglion cell layer expressed S-100 reactivity. In the tumours S-100/GFAP...... cells reactive for both S-100 and GFAP were demonstrated. The latter findings may represent differentiation in a glial direction in the more mature parts of retinoblastoma....

  20. Tracing anthropogenic thallium in soil using stable isotope compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Michael; Xiao, Tangfu; Kreissig, Katharina; Brett, Alex; Coles, Barry J; Rehkämper, Mark

    2014-08-19

    Thallium stable isotope data are used in this study, for the first time, to apportion Tl contamination in soils. In the late 1970s, a cement plant near Lengerich, Germany, emitted cement kiln dust (CKD) with high Tl contents, due to cocombustion of Tl-enriched pyrite roasting waste. Locally contaminated soil profiles were obtained down to 1 m depth and the samples are in accord with a binary mixing relationship in a diagram of Tl isotope compositions (expressed as ε(205)Tl, the deviation of the (205)Tl/(203)Tl ratio of a sample from the NIST SRM 997 Tl isotope standard in parts per 10(4)) versus 1/[Tl]. The inferred mixing endmembers are the geogenic background, as defined by isotopically light soils at depth (ε(205)Tl ≈ -4), and the Tl emissions, which produce Tl-enriched topsoils with ε(205)Tl as high as ±0. The latter interpretation is supported by analyses of the CKD, which is also characterized by ε(205)Tl ≈ ± 0, and the same ε(205)Tl value was found for a pyrite from the deposit that produced the cocombusted pyrite roasting waste. Additional measurements for samples from a locality in China, with outcrops of Tl sulfide mineralization and associated high natural Tl backgrounds, reveal significant isotope fractionation between soils (ε(205)Tl ≈ +0.4) and locally grown green cabbage (ε(205)Tl between -2.5 and -5.4). This demonstrates that biological isotope fractionation cannot explain the isotopically heavy Tl in the Lengerich topsoils and the latter are therefore clearly due to anthropogenic Tl emissions from cement processing. Our results thus establish that isotopic data can reinforce receptor modeling for the toxic trace metal Tl.

  1. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  2. Cargo Data Management Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    Delays in receipt and creation of cargo documents are a problem in international trade. The work described demonstrates some of the advantages and capabilities of a computer-based cargo data management system. A demonstration system for data manageme...

  3. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  4. Stable CSR in Storage Rings: A Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  5. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  6. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koersel, A.C. van

    2000-01-01

    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the

  7. Ranking stability and super-stable nodes in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-07-19

    Pagerank, a network-based diffusion algorithm, has emerged as the leading method to rank web content, ecological species and even scientists. Despite its wide use, it remains unknown how the structure of the network on which it operates affects its performance. Here we show that for random networks the ranking provided by pagerank is sensitive to perturbations in the network topology, making it unreliable for incomplete or noisy systems. In contrast, in scale-free networks we predict analytically the emergence of super-stable nodes whose ranking is exceptionally stable to perturbations. We calculate the dependence of the number of super-stable nodes on network characteristics and demonstrate their presence in real networks, in agreement with the analytical predictions. These results not only deepen our understanding of the interplay between network topology and dynamical processes but also have implications in all areas where ranking has a role, from science to marketing.

  8. Dynamical SUSY breaking in meta-stable vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intriligator, Kenneth; Seiberg, Nathan; Shih, David

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical supersymmetry breaking in a long-lived meta-stable vacuum is a phenomenologically viable possibility. This relatively unexplored avenue leads to many new models of dynamical supersymmetry breaking. Here, we present a surprisingly simple class of models with meta-stable dynamical supersymmetry breaking: N = 1 supersymmetric QCD, with massive flavors. Though these theories are strongly coupled, we definitively demonstrate the existence of meta-stable vacua by using the free-magnetic dual. Model building challenges, such as large flavor symmetries and the absence of an R-symmetry, are easily accommodated in these theories. Their simplicity also suggests that broken supersymmetry is generic in supersymmetric field theory and in the landscape of string vacua

  9. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  10. Rare stable isotopes in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) using accelerators has been applied with success to cosmic ray exposure ages and terrestrial residence times of meteorites by measuring cosmogenic nuclides of Be, Cl, and I. It is proposed to complement this work with experiments on rare stable isotopes, in the hope of setting constraints on the processes of solar nebula/meteoritic formation. The relevant species can be classified as: a) daughter products of extinct nuclides (halflife less than or equal to 2 x 10 8 y) -chronology of the early solar system; b) products of high temperature astrophysical processes - different components incorporated into the solar nebula; and c) products of relatively low temperature processes, stellar winds and cosmic ray reactions - early solar system radiation history. The use of micron-scale primary ion beams will allow detailed sampling of phases within meteorites. Strategies of charge-state selection, molecular disintegration and detection should bring a new set of targets within analytical range. The developing accelerator field is compared to existing (keV energy) ion microprobes

  11. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pessoa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

  12. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen DUMITRASCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we define the estimated measure indicators for a level. The influence of the factors of stability and the ways for increasing it are thus identified, and at the same time the costs of development stages, the costs of usage and the costs of maintenance to be keep on between limits that assure the global efficiency of application. It is presented the base aspects for distributed applications: definition, peculiarities and importance. The aspects for the development cycle of distributed application are detailed. In this article, we alongside give the mechanisms for building the defined structures and analyze the complexity of the defined structures for a distributed application of a virtual store.

  13. Multi-stable perception balances stability and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander ePastukhov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report that multi-stable perception operates in a consistent, dynamical regime, balancing the conflicting goals of stability and sensitivity. When a multi-stable visual display is viewed continuously, its phenomenal appearance reverses spontaneously at irregular intervals. We characterized the perceptual dynamics of individual observers in terms of four statistical measures: the distribution of dominance times (mean and variance and the novel, subtle dependence on prior history (correlation and time-constant.The dynamics of multi-stable perception is known to reflect several stabilizing and destabilizing factors. Phenomenologically, its main aspects are captured by a simplistic computational model with competition, adaptation, and noise. We identified small parameter volumes (~3% of the possible volume in which the model reproduced both dominance distribution and history-dependence of each observer. For 21 of 24 data sets, the identified volumes clustered tightly (~15% of the possible volume, revealing a consistent `operating regime' of multi-stable perception. The `operating regime' turned out to be marginally stable or, equivalently, near the brink of an oscillatory instability. The chance probability of the observed clustering was <0.02.To understand the functional significance of this empirical `operating regime', we compared it to the theoretical `sweet spot' of the model. We computed this `sweet spot' as the intersection of the parameter volumes in which the model produced stable perceptual outcomes and in which it was sensitive to input modulations. Remarkably, the empirical `operating regime' proved to be largely coextensive with the theoretical `sweet spot'. This demonstrated that perceptual dynamics was not merely consistent but also functionally optimized (in that it balances stability with sensitivity. Our results imply that multi-stable perception is not a laboratory curiosity, but reflects a functional optimization of perceptual

  14. Tracing metal-silicate segregation and late veneer in the Earth and the ureilite parent body with palladium stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, J. B.; Moynier, F.; Bizzarro, M.

    2017-11-01

    Stable isotope studies of highly siderophile elements (HSE) have the potential to yield valuable insights into a range of geological processes. In particular, the strong partitioning of these elements into metal over silicates may lead to stable isotope fractionation during metal-silicate segregation, making them sensitive tracers of planetary differentiation processes. We present the first techniques for the precise determination of palladium stable isotopes by MC-ICPMS using a 106Pd-110Pd double-spike to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. Results are expressed as the per mil (‰) difference in the 106Pd/105Pd ratio (δ106Pd) relative to an in-house solution standard (Pd_IPGP) in the absence of a certified Pd isotopic standard. Repeated analyses of the Pd isotopic composition of the chondrite Allende demonstrate the external reproducibility of the technique of ±0.032‰ on δ106Pd. Using these techniques, we have analysed Pd stable isotopes from a range of terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples. We find that chondrites define a mean δ106Pdchondrite = -0.19 ± 0.05‰. Ureilites reveal a weak trend towards heavier δ106Pd with decreasing Pd content, similar to recent findings based on Pt stable isotopes (Creech et al., 2017), although fractionation of Pd isotopes is significantly less than for Pt, possibly related to its weaker metal-silicate partitioning behaviour and the limited field shift effect. Terrestrial mantle samples have a mean δ106Pdmantle = -0.182 ± 0.130‰, which is consistent with a late-veneer of chondritic material after core formation.

  15. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  16. Contribution of glucan-binding protein A to firm and stable biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumi, Y; Fujita, K; Takashima, Y; Yanagida, K; Morikawa, Y; Matsumoto-Nakano, M

    2015-06-01

    Glucan-binding proteins (Gbps) of Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, mediate the binding of glucans synthesized from sucrose by the action of glucosyltransferases (GTFs) encoded by gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD. Several stress proteins, including DnaK and GroEL encoded by dnaK and groEL, are related to environmental stress tolerance. The contribution of Gbp expression to biofilm formation was analyzed by focusing on the expression levels of genes encoding GTFs and stress proteins. Biofilm-forming assays were performed using GbpA-, GbpB-, and GbpC-deficient mutant strains and the parental strain MT8148. The expression levels of gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, dnaK, and groEL were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Furthermore, the structure of biofilms formed by these Gbp-deficient mutant strains was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Biofilm-forming assay findings demonstrated that the amount formed by the GbpA-deficient mutant strain (AD1) was nearly the same as that by the parental strain, while the GbpB- and GbpC-deficient mutant strains produced lower amounts than MT8148. Furthermore, RT-qPCR assay results showed that the expressions of gtfB, dnaK, and groEL in AD1 were elevated compared with MT8148. CLSM also revealed that the structure of biofilm formed by AD1 was prominently different compared with that formed by the parental strain. These results suggest that a defect in GbpA influences the expression of genes controlling biofilm formation, indicating its importance as a protein for firm and stable biofilm formation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Fed-batch bioreactor performance and cell line stability evaluation of the artificial chromosome expression technology expressing an IgG1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Rodney G; Yu, Erwin; Roe, Susanna; Piatchek, Michele Bailey; Jones, Heather L; Mott, John; Kennard, Malcolm L; Goosney, Danika L; Monteith, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The artificial chromosome expression (ACE) technology system uses an engineered artificial chromosome containing multiple site-specific recombination acceptor sites for the rapid and efficient construction of stable cell lines. The construction of Chinese hamster ovary(CHO) cell lines expressing an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) using the ACE system has been previously described (Kennard et al., Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;104:540-553). To further demonstrate the manufacturing feasibility of the ACE system, four CHO cell lines expressing the human IgG1 MAb 4A1 were evaluated in batch and fed-batch shake flasks and in a 2-L fed-batch bioreactor. The batch shake flasks achieved titers between 0.7 and 1.1 g/L, whereas the fed-batch shake flask process improved titers to 2.5–3.0 g/L. The lead 4A1 ACE cell line achieved titers of 4.0 g/L with an average specific productivity of 40 pg/(cell day) when cultured in a non optimized 2-L fed-batch bioreactor using a completely chemically defined process. Generational stability characterization of the lead 4A1-expressing cell line demonstrated that the cell line was stable for up to 75 days in culture. Product quality attributes of the 4A1 MAb produced by the ACE system during the stability evaluation period were unchanged and also comparable to existing expression technologies such as the CHO-dhfr system. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that a clonal, stable MAb-expressing CHO cell line can be produced using ACE technology that performs competitively using a chemically defined fed-batch bioreactor process with comparable product quality attributes to cell lines generated by existing technologies.

  18. Identification of miRNA targets with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Jeppe; Hedegaard, Mads Marquardt; Gardner, Paul Phillip

    2006-01-01

    miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. We have used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to investigate the effect of miRNA-1 on the HeLa cell proteome. Expression of 12 out of 504 investigated proteins was repressed by miRNA-1 transfection...

  19. Skeletal muscle morphology, protein synthesis and gene expression in Ehlers Danlos Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Rie H; Jensen, Jacob K; Voermans, Nicol C

    2017-01-01

    skeletal muscle biopsies in patients with classic EDS (cEDS, n=5 (Denmark)+ 8 (The Netherlands)) and vascular EDS (vEDS, n=3) and analyzed muscle fiber morphology and content (Western blotting and muscle fiber type/area distributions) and muscle mRNA expression and protein synthesis rate (RT-PCR and stable...... isotope technique). RESULTS: The cEDS patients did not differ from healthy controls (n = 7-11) with regard to muscle fiber type/area, myosin/α-actin ratio, muscle protein synthesis rate or mRNA expression. In contrast, the vEDS patients demonstrated higher expression of matrix proteins compared to c......EDS patients (fibronectin and MMP-2). DISCUSSION: The cEDS patients had surprisingly normal muscle morphology and protein synthesis, whereas vEDS patients demonstrated higher mRNA expression for extracellular matrix remodeling in skeletal musculature compared to cEDS patients....

  20. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  1. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  2. Stable Isotopes and Oral Tori in Greenlandic Norse and Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, M.; Lynnerup, N.; Scott, G. R.

    2017-01-01

    Palatine (PT) and mandibular torus (MT) have long been of interest to dental researchers and anthropologists, but their aetiology remains unresolved. Some combination of genetic and environmental factors influences their expression, but the relative role of each remains contentious. Previous...... research has shown that the Greenlandic Norse exhibit exceptionally high frequencies and pronounced expressions of PT and MT. In this regard, they are significantly different from genetically related medieval Scandinavian populations, so environmental factors have to be considered. An earlier study...... that estimated stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions for a Greenlandic Norse sample makes it possible to compare directly PT and MT expression with the relative degree of marine protein intake. For comparative purposes, parallel observations were made on a Greenlandic Inuit sample. Some researchers...

  3. Safe and stable noninvasive focal gene delivery to the mammalian brain following focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavarache, Mihaela A; Petersen, Nicholas; Jurgens, Eric M; Milstein, Elizabeth R; Rosenfeld, Zachary B; Ballon, Douglas J; Kaplitt, Michael G

    2018-04-27

    OBJECTIVE Surgical infusion of gene therapy vectors has provided opportunities for biological manipulation of specific brain circuits in both animal models and human patients. Transient focal opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) raises the possibility of noninvasive CNS gene therapy to target precise brain regions. However, variable efficiency and short follow-up of studies to date, along with recent suggestions of the potential for immune reactions following MRgFUS BBB disruption, all raise questions regarding the viability of this approach for clinical translation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficiency, safety, and long-term stability of MRgFUS-mediated noninvasive gene therapy in the mammalian brain. METHODS Focused ultrasound under the control of MRI, in combination with microbubbles consisting of albumin-coated gas microspheres, was applied to rat striatum, followed by intravenous infusion of an adeno-associated virus serotype 1/2 (AAV1/2) vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a marker. Following recovery, animals were followed from several hours up to 15 months. Immunostaining for GFP quantified transduction efficiency and stability of expression. Quantification of neuronal markers was used to determine histological safety over time, while inflammatory markers were examined for evidence of immune responses. RESULTS Transitory disruption of the BBB by MRgFUS resulted in efficient delivery of the AAV1/2 vector to the targeted rodent striatum, with 50%-75% of striatal neurons transduced on average. GFP transgene expression appeared to be stable over extended periods of time, from 2 weeks to 6 months, with evidence of ongoing stable expression as long as 16 months in a smaller cohort of animals. No evidence of substantial toxicity, tissue injury, or neuronal loss was observed. While transient inflammation from BBB disruption alone was noted for the first few days, consistent

  4. Testbed for High-Acuity Imaging and Stable Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, James

    This proposal from MIT Lincoln Laboratory (LL) accompanies the NASA/APRA proposal enti-tled THAI-SPICE: Testbed for High-Acuity Imaging - Stable Photometry and Image-Motion Compensa-tion Experiment (submitted by Eliot Young, Southwest Research Institute). The goal of the THAI-SPICE project is to demonstrate three technologies that will help low-cost balloon-borne telescopes achieve diffraction-limited imaging: stable pointing, passive thermal stabilization and in-flight monitoring of the wave front error. This MIT LL proposal supplies a key element of the pointing stabilization component of THAI-SPICE: an electronic camera based on an orthogonaltransfer charge-coupled device (OTCCD). OTCCD cameras have been demonstrated with charge-transfer efficiencies >0.99999, noise of 90%. In addition to supplying a camera with an OTCCD detector, MIT LL will help with integration and testing of the OTCCD with the THAI-SPICE payload’s guide camera.

  5. High efficiency and stable white OLED using a single emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Mechanical, Aerospace, Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2016-01-18

    The ultimate objective of this project was to demonstrate an efficient and stable white OLED using a single emitter on a planar glass substrate. The focus of the project is on the development of efficient and stable square planar phosphorescent emitters and evaluation of such class of materials in the device settings. Key challenges included improving the emission efficiency of molecular dopants and excimers, controlling emission color of emitters and their excimers, and improving optical and electrical stability of emissive dopants. At the end of this research program, the PI has made enough progress to demonstrate the potential of excimer-based white OLED as a cost-effective solution for WOLED panel in the solid state lighting applications.

  6. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  7. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  8. Are Vicinal Metal Surfaces Stable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenken, J. W. M.; Stoltze, Per

    1999-01-01

    We use effective medium theory to demonstrate that the energies of many metal surfaces are lowered when these surfaces are replaced by facets with lower-index orientations. This implies that the low-temperature equilibrium shapes of many metal crystals should be heavily faceted. The predicted...... instability of vicinal metal surfaces is at variance with the almost generally observed stability of these surfaces. We argue that the unstable orientations undergo a defaceting transition at relatively low temperatures, driven by the high vibrational entropy of steps....

  9. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  10. Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2015-11-15

    Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Identification of reference genes in human myelomonocytic cells for gene expression studies in altered gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Cora S; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Unverdorben, Felix; Buttron, Isabell; Lauber, Beatrice; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes ("housekeeping genes") are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity.

  12. Tunable and stable in time ferroelectric imprint through polarization coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a method to tune a ferroelectric imprint, which is stable in time, based on the coupling between the non-switchable polarization of ZnO and switchable polarization of PbZrxTi(1−x)O3. SrRuO3/PbZrxTi(1−x)O3/ZnO/SrRuO3 heterostructures were grown with different ZnO thicknesses. It

  13. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  14. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.; Gruebel, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner trademark/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist trademark/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals

  15. Expression and Characterization of Coprothermobacter proteolyticus Alkaline Serine Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Majeed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A putative protease gene (aprE from the thermophilic bacterium Coprothermobacter proteolyticus was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme was determined to be a serine protease based on inhibition by PMSF. Biochemical characterization demonstrated that the enzyme had optimal activity under alkaline conditions (pH 8–10. In addition, the enzyme had an elevated optimum temperature (60°C. The protease was also stable in the presence of many surfactants and oxidant. Thus, the C. proteolyticus protease has potential applications in industries such as the detergent market.

  16. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The airspace operations demonstration (AOD) is intended to show that the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be met. The demonstration will occur in two phases. The initial on-range phase will be carried out in restricted airspace to demonstrate the cooperative collision avoidance (CCA) functional requirements and to provide risk-reduction for the AOD by allowing the test team to rehearse some elements of the demonstration mission. The CCA system to be used in these flights is based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) which is a commercially-available system by which airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and altitude to other aircraft and ground resources over a dedicated radio datalink. The final phase will occur in the national airspace (NAS) and will be the formal demonstration of the remainder of the proposed functional requirements. The general objectives of the AOD are as follows: (1) Demonstrate that the UAS can aviate in the NAS (2) Demonstrate that the UAS can navigate in the NAS (3) Demonstrate that the UAS can communicate with the NAS (4) Demonstrate that the UAS can perform selected collision avoidance functions in the NAS (5) Demonstrate that the UAS can evaluate and avoid weather conflicts in the NAS (6) Demonstrate that the UAS can provide adequate command and control in the NAS In addition to the stated objectives, there are a number of goals for the flight demonstration. The demo can be accomplished successfully without achieving these goals, but these goals are to be used as a guideline for preparing for the mission. The goals are: (1) Mission duration of at least 24 hours (2) Loiter over heavy traffic to evaluate the data block issue identified during the Access 5 Airspace Operations Simulations (3) Document the contingency management process and lessons learned (4) Document the coordination process for Ground Control Stations (GCS) handoff (5) Document lessons learned regarding the process of flying in

  17. Demonstration of Cauchy: Understanding Algebraic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study we present some considerations about the End of Course Work undergraduate Full Degree in Mathematics / UFMT, drafted in 2011, and by taking title "A story about Cauchy and Euler's theorem on polyhedra" that gave birth to our research project Master of Education, begun in 2012, on the approaches of Euler's theorem on polyhedra in mathematics textbooks. At work in 2011 presented some considerations about the history of Euler's theorem for polyhedra which focus the demonstration presented by Cauchy (1789-1857, who tries to generalize it, relying on assumptions not observable in Euclidean geometry. Therefore, we seek the accessible literature on the history of mathematics; relate some aspects of the demonstration Cauchy with historical events on the development of mathematics in the nineteenth century, which allowed the acceptance of such a demonstration by mathematicians of his time.Keywords: History of Mathematics. Euler's Theorem on Polyhedra. Demonstration of Cauchy.

  18. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  19. Rapid protein production from stable CHO cell pools using plasmid vector and the cumate gene-switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Adeline; Perret, Sylvie; Malenfant, Félix; Mullick, Alaka; Massie, Bernard; Durocher, Yves

    2017-08-10

    To rapidly produce large amounts of recombinant proteins, the generation of stable Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell pools represents a useful alternative to large-scale transient gene expression (TGE). We have developed a cell line (CHO BRI/rcTA ) allowing the inducible expression of recombinant proteins, based on the cumate gene switch. After the identification of optimal plasmid DNA topology (supercoiled vs linearized plasmid) for PEIpro™ mediated transfection and of optimal conditions for methionine sulfoximine (MSX) selection, we were able to generate CHO BRI/rcTA pools producing high levels of recombinant proteins. Volumetric productivities of up to 900mg/L were reproducibly achieved for a Fc fusion protein and up to 350mg/L for an antibody after 14days post-induction in non-optimized fed-batch cultures. In addition, we show that CHO pool volumetric productivities are not affected by a freeze-thaw cycle or following maintenance in culture for over one month in the presence of MSX. Finally, we demonstrate that volumetric protein production with the CR5 cumate-inducible promoter is three- to four-fold higher than with the human CMV or hybrid EF1α-HTLV constitutive promoters. These results suggest that the cumate-inducible CHO BRI/rcTA stable pool platform is a powerful and robust system for the rapid production of gram amounts of recombinant proteins. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of stable reporter system cloning luxCDABE genes into chromosome of Salmonella enterica serotypes using Tn7 transposon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mark L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis may be a food safety problem when raw food products are mishandled and not fully cooked. In previous work, we developed bioluminescent Salmonella enterica serotypes using a plasmid-based reporting system that can be used for real-time monitoring of the pathogen's growth on food products in short term studies. In this study, we report the use of a Tn7-based transposon system for subcloning of luxCDABE genes into the chromosome of eleven Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from the broiler production continuum. Results We found that the lux operon is constitutively expressed from the chromosome post-transposition and the lux cassette is stable without external pressure, i.e. antibiotic selection, for all Salmonella enterica serotypes used. Bioluminescence expression is based on an active electron transport chain and is directly related with metabolic activity. This relationship was quantified by measuring bioluminescence against a temperature gradient in aqueous solution using a luminometer. In addition, bioluminescent monitoring of two serotypes confirmed that our chicken skin model has the potential to be used to evaluate pathogen mitigation strategies. Conclusions This study demonstrated that our new stable reporting system eliminates bioluminescence variation due to plasmid instability and provides a reliable real-time experimental system to study application of preventive measures for Salmonella on food products in real-time for both short and long term studies.

  1. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the

  2. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  3. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  4. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  5. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  6. Is synaesthesia really stable – or does it gradually consolidate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Synaesthesia is a condition describing a perceptual variation where experience an additional concurrent following an inducer stimulus (Grossenbacher & Lovelace, 2001); some may experience that weekdays or letters have a specific colour, or that a number has a certain size or relate to a particular...... is that the associations are stable over time. However, here we present the case of AR, a colour-grapheme synaesthete who clearly demonstrate synaesthesia, but also a gradual consolidation over time (Sørensen, Nordfang, & Ásgeirsson, accepted). Also, AR does not demonstrate some of the typical modulations of attention...

  7. Stable solid state reference electrodes for high temperature water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Millett, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state electrode capable of providing a stable reference potential under a wide range of temperatures and chemical conditions has been demonstrated. The electrode consists of a zirconia or yttria-stabilized zirconia tube packed with an inorganic polymer electrolyte and a silver/silver chloride sensing element. The sensing element is maintained near room temperature by a passive cooling heat sink. The electrode stability was demonstrated by testing it in high temperature (280 C) aqueous solutions over extended periods of time. This reference electrode is useful in many applications, particularly for monitoring the chemistry in nuclear and fossil power plants

  8. Stable Skin-specific Overexpression of Human CTLA4-Ig in Transgenic Mice through Seven Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong WANG; Yong NI; Hong WEI; Feng-Chao WANG; Liang-Peng GE; Xiang GAO

    2006-01-01

    Skin graft rejection is a typical cellular immune response, mainly mediated by T cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4-immunoglobin (CTLA4-Ig) extends graft survival by blocking the T cell co-stimulation pathway and inhibiting T cell activation. To investigate the efficacy of CTLA4-Ig in prolonging skin graft survival, human CTLA4-Ig (hCTLA4-Ig) was engineered to overexpress in mouse skin by transgenesis using the K14 promoter. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assay indicated that the expression of CTLA4-Ig remained skin-specific and relatively constant compared to the internal control protein, AKT, through seven generations. The presence and concentration of the hCTLA4-Ig protein in transgenic mouse sera was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the results indicated that the serum CTLA4-Ig concentration also remained constant through generations. Survival of transgenic mouse skins grafted onto rat wounds was remarkably prolonged compared to that of wild-type skins from the same mouse strain, and remained comparable among all seven generations. This suggested that the bioactive hCTLA4-Ig protein was stably expressed in transgenical mice through at least seven generations, which was consistent with the stable skin-specific CTLA4-Ig expression.The results demonstrated that the transgenic expression of hCTLA4-Ig in skin driven by the K14 promoter remained constant through generations, and a transgenic line can be established to provide transgenic skin with extended survival reproducibly.

  9. On the symmetric α-stable distribution with application to symbol error rate calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2016-12-24

    The probability density function (PDF) of the symmetric α-stable distribution is investigated using the inverse Fourier transform of its characteristic function. For general values of the stable parameter α, it is shown that the PDF and the cumulative distribution function of the symmetric stable distribution can be expressed in terms of the Fox H function as closed-form. As an application, the probability of error of single input single output communication systems using different modulation schemes with an α-stable perturbation is studied. In more details, a generic formula is derived for generalized fading distribution, such as the extended generalized-k distribution. Later, simpler expressions of these error rates are deduced for some selected special cases and compact approximations are derived using asymptotic expansions.

  10. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  11. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented

  12. Auditory demonstrations simulating Mayan architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2005-09-01

    Fascination with the ancient temples and ball court at Chichen Itza provide rich opportunities for science education. Children of all ages are delighted to learn that the sound of handclaps scattered from long temple staircases are transformed into bird chirps. Their engagement in such seemingly magical phenomena provides magic moments for teaching acoustical principals, including the picket-fence effect (PFE). PFE transforms impulsive sounds scattered from spatially periodic structures into tonal sounds. PFE is demonstrated with a computer possessing a sound card and a simple sound editing program. The inverse relationship between tonal frequency and the time interval between periodic impulses is easily demonstrated. The number of impulses needed to produce an audible tone is easily demonstrated and compared with the number of steps on the staircase. Transformation of audible tones into downward-gliding chirps is simulated by monotonically increasing the time between impulses. The Great Ball Court also provides opportunities for acoustical demonstration. Observers clapping their hands while standing between the long, tall, and parallel walls of the playing field marvel at the profound flutter echo heard for about 1.5 s. The flutter echo sonogram demonstrates the speed of sound and frequency-selective atmospheric attenuation.

  13. Demonstration of reliability centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwan, C.A.; Morgan, T.A.

    1991-04-01

    Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) is an approach to preventive maintenance planning and evaluation that has been used successfully by other industries, most notably the airlines and military. Now EPRI is demonstrating RCM in the commercial nuclear power industry. Just completed are large-scale, two-year demonstrations at Rochester Gas ampersand Electric (Ginna Nuclear Power Station) and Southern California Edison (San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station). Both demonstrations were begun in the spring of 1988. At each plant, RCM was performed on 12 to 21 major systems. Both demonstrations determined that RCM is an appropriate means to optimize a PM program and improve nuclear plant preventive maintenance on a large scale. Such favorable results had been suggested by three earlier EPRI pilot studies at Florida Power ampersand Light, Duke Power, and Southern California Edison. EPRI selected the Ginna and San Onofre sites because, together, they represent a broad range of utility and plant size, plant organization, plant age, and histories of availability and reliability. Significant steps in each demonstration included: selecting and prioritizing plant systems for RCM evaluation; performing the RCM evaluation steps on selected systems; evaluating the RCM recommendations by a multi-disciplinary task force; implementing the RCM recommendations; establishing a system to track and verify the RCM benefits; and establishing procedures to update the RCM bases and recommendations with time (a living program). 7 refs., 1 tab

  14. Stable Blind Deconvolution over the Reals from Additional Autocorrelations

    KAUST Repository

    Walk, Philipp

    2017-10-22

    Recently the one-dimensional time-discrete blind deconvolution problem was shown to be solvable uniquely, up to a global phase, by a semi-definite program for almost any signal, provided its autocorrelation is known. We will show in this work that under a sufficient zero separation of the corresponding signal in the $z-$domain, a stable reconstruction against additive noise is possible. Moreover, the stability constant depends on the signal dimension and on the signals magnitude of the first and last coefficients. We give an analytical expression for this constant by using spectral bounds of Vandermonde matrices.

  15. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  16. Savannah River Plant incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive waste. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. The process has been relocated and upgraded by the Savannah River Plant to accept low-level beta-gamma combustibles. During a two-year demonstration, the facility will incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (< 1 mR/h at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes. This demonstration will begin in early 1984

  17. A stable RNA virus-based vector for citrus trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folimonov, Alexey S.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Dawson, William O.

    2007-01-01

    Virus-based vectors are important tools in plant molecular biology and plant genomics. A number of vectors based on viruses that infect herbaceous plants are in use for expression or silencing of genes in plants as well as screening unknown sequences for function. Yet there is a need for useful virus-based vectors for woody plants, which demand much greater stability because of the longer time required for systemic infection and analysis. We examined several strategies to develop a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-based vector for transient expression of foreign genes in citrus trees using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These strategies included substitution of the p13 open reading frame (ORF) by the ORF of GFP, construction of a self-processing fusion of GFP in-frame with the major coat protein (CP), or expression of the GFP ORF as an extra gene from a subgenomic (sg) mRNA controlled either by a duplicated CTV CP sgRNA controller element (CE) or an introduced heterologous CE of Beet yellows virus. Engineered vector constructs were examined for replication, encapsidation, GFP expression during multiple passages in protoplasts, and for their ability to infect, move, express GFP, and be maintained in citrus plants. The most successful vectors based on the 'add-a-gene' strategy have been unusually stable, continuing to produce GFP fluorescence after more than 4 years in citrus trees

  18. The stability of transgene expression and effect of DNA methylation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... transformation system (Zhan et al., 2003). Stable expression of foreign gene is important for commercial use of genetic transformation in long-lived tree species as well as for ecological risk-assessment studies. However, analysis of the instable/stable transgene expression in tree is more problematic than in ...

  19. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  20. Ballooning stable high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Takashi; Azumi, Masafumi; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-04-01

    The second stable regime of ballooning modes is numerically studied by using the two-dimensional tokamak transport code with the ballooning stability code. Using the simple FCT heating scheme, we find that the plasma can locally enter this second stable regime. And we obtained equilibria with fairly high beta (β -- 23%) stable against ballooning modes in a whole plasma region, by taking into account of finite thermal diffusion due to unstable ballooning modes. These results show that a tokamak fusion reactor can operate in a high beta state, which is economically favourable. (author)

  1. Development of stable isotope manufacturing in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokidychev, A.; Pokidycheva, M.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 25 years, Russia has relied heavily on the electromagnetic separation process for the production of middle and heavy mass stable isotopes. The separation of most light isotopes had been centered in Georgia which, after the collapse of the USSR, left Russia without this capability. In the mid-1970s, development of centrifuge technology for the separation of stable isotopes was begun. Alternative techniques such as laser separation, physical-chemical methods, and ion cyclotron resonance have also been investigated. Economic considerations have played a major role in the development and current status of the stable isotope enrichment capabilities of Russia

  2. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  3. Some Field Demonstrations in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Some Field Demonstrations in India. 2x150kVAR STATCOM at M/s Hindusthan Latex, Trivandrum. 250kVAR, 800V dc, 2-level STATCOM (Installed at Peekey Steels, Calicut). 250kVAR,800V dc, UPQC at CDAC, Trivandrum. REFERENCE: Website www. cdac.gov.in.

  4. Flexible-Rotor Balancing Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes method for balancing high-speed rotors at relatively low speeds and discusses demonstration of method on laboratory test rig. Method ensures rotor brought up to speeds well over 20,000 r/min smoothly, without excessive vibration amplitude at critical speeds or at operating speed.

  5. A Demonstration and a Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Randy

    1978-01-01

    Describes an activity using interchangeable, preset tool holders to provide a demonstration for parents or students attending a school's open house session that produces a small souvenir (an aluminum mini-chalice) for them. A procedure sheet for the school's individual lathe and specification diagrams for making the cup are provided. (TA)

  6. NDT performance demonstration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The experience obtained from the in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) of Spanish nuclear power plants and the participation in several international programs, such as PISC, has shown the need for a performance demonstration, not only for the ultrasonic inspection techniques of RPV, but also for other ISI non-destructive techniques as in the case of eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing. Section XI of the ASME Code, which is applied in Spain for ISI, has incorporated recently the Appendix VIII for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques. As a direct consequence of this, a Spanish project for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques has been launched recently, which includes the manufacturing of full-scale mock-ups of nozzle to vessel welds, reactor vessel welds, wrought austenitic piping welds and ferritic piping welds of PWR and BWR nuclear power plants from different suppliers. This considerable technical effort will let the different Spanish organizations which are part of the project to participate and colaborate with similar international projects and in particular with a European initiative for performance demonstration. (Author)

  7. SunJammer Technology Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sunjammer Project is a NASA funded contract to L?Garde Inc. to fly a solar sail demonstration for a period of approximately one year. L?Garde is also partnered...

  8. The buried waste integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    There are numerous locations throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex where wastes have been buried in the ground or stored for future disposal. Much of this buried waste is contaminated with hazardous and radioactive materials. An extensive research program has been initiated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop and demonstrate advanced remediation techniques for DOE Complex buried waste. The purpose of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), is to develop a scientifically sound and deployable remediation system consisting of advanced technologies which address the buried waste characteristics of the DOE Complex. This comprehensive remediation system win include technologies for the entire remediation cycle (cradle-to-grave). Technologies developed and demonstrated within the BWID will be transferred to the DOE Complex sites with buried waste, to private industry, and to universities. Multidirectional technology transfer is encouraged by the BWID. Identification and evaluation of plausible technological solutions are an ongoing activity of the BWID. A number of technologies are currently under development throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, and universities. Technology integration mechanisms have been established by BWID to facilitate collaborative research and demonstration of applicable remedial technologies for buried waste. Successful completion of the BWID will result in the development of a proven and deployable system at the INEL and other DOE Complex buried waste sites, thereby supporting the DOE Complex's environmental restoration objectives

  9. E/Z MAS demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boor, M.G.; Hurford, J.M.; Landry, R.P.; Martinez, B.J.; Solem, A.M.; Whiteson, R.; Zardecki, A.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed E/Z MAS, a new generation nuclear material accountability application based on the latest technology and designed for facilities required to track nuclear materials with a simple-to-use interface. E/Z MAS is based on years of experience spent developing nuclear material accounting systems. E/Z MAS uses a modern relational database with a web server and enables users on a classified local area network to interact with the database with web browsers. The E/Z MAS Demonstration poster session demonstrates the E/Z MAS functions required by an operational nuclear facility to track material as it enters and leaves a facility and to account for the material as it moves through a process. The generation of internal facility reports and external reports for the Russian Federal system will be demonstrated. Bar-code readers will be used to demonstrate the ability of EZ MAS to automate certain functions, such as physical inventories at facilities

  10. US GCFR demonstration plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, P.S.; Snyder, H.J.

    1980-05-01

    A general description of the US GCFR demonstration plant conceptual design is given to provide a context for more detailed papers to follow. The parameters selected for use in the design are presented and the basis for parameter selection is discussed. Nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) and balance of plant (BOP) component arrangements and systems are briefly discussed

  11. Satellite Demonstration: The Videodisc Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propp, George; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper describes a satellite demonstration of video disc materials. It is explained that a panel of deaf individuals in Washington, D.C. and another in Nebraska came into direct two-way communication for the first time, and video disc materials were broadcast via the satellite.…

  12. Unit of stable isotopic N15 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera de Bisbal, Evelin; Paredes U, Maria

    1997-01-01

    The continuous and growing demand of crops and cattle for the domestic inhabitants, forces the search of technical solutions in agriculture. One of the solutions able to be covered in a near future it is the escalation of agricultural production in lands already being cultivated, either by means of an intensification of cultivation and / or increasing the unitary yields. In the intensive cropping systems, the crops extract substantial quantities of nutriments that is recovered by means of the application of fertilizers. Due to the lack of resources and to the increase of commercial inputs prices, it has been necessary to pay attention to the analysis and improvement of low inputs cropping systems and to the effective use of resources. Everything has made to establish a concept of plant nutrition focused system, which integrate the sources of nutriments for plants and the production factors of crops in a productive cropping system, to improve the fertility of soils, the agricultural productivity and profitability. This system includes the biggest efficiency of chemical fertilizers as the maximum profit of alternative sources of nutriments, such as organic fertilizers, citrate-phosphate rocks and biological nitrogen fixation. By means of field experiments under different environmental conditions (soils and climate) it can be determined the best combination of fertilizers practice (dose, placement, opportunity and source) for selected cropping systems. The experimentation with fertilizer, marked with stable and radioactive isotopes, provides a direct and express method to obtain conclusive answers to the questions: where, when and how should be applied. The fertilizers marked with N 1 5 have been used to understand the application of marked fertilizer to the cultivations, and the determination of the proportion of crops nutritious element derived from fertilizer. The isotopic techniques offer a fast and reliable mean to obtain information about the distribution of

  13. DOE's annealing prototype demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.; Nakos, J.; Rochau, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the challenges U.S. utilities face in addressing technical issues associated with the aging of nuclear power plants is the long-term effect of plant operation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). As a nuclear plant operates, its RPV is exposed to neutrons. For certain plants, this neutron exposure can cause embrittlement of some of the RPV welds which can shorten the useful life of the RPV. This RPV embrittlement issue has the potential to affect the continued operation of a number of operating U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. However, RPV material properties affected by long-term irradiation are recoverable through a thermal annealing treatment of the RPV. Although a dozen Russian-designed RPVs and several U.S. military vessels have been successfully annealed, U.S. utilities have stated that a successful annealing demonstration of a U.S. RPV is a prerequisite for annealing a licensed U.S. nuclear power plant. In May 1995, the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories awarded two cost-shared contracts to evaluate the feasibility of annealing U.S. licensed plants by conducting an anneal of an installed RPV using two different heating technologies. The contracts were awarded to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) and MPR Associates (MPR). The ASME team completed its annealing prototype demonstration in July 1996, using an indirect gas furnace at the uncompleted Public Service of Indiana's Marble Hill nuclear power plant. The MPR team's annealing prototype demonstration was scheduled to be completed in early 1997, using a direct heat electrical furnace at the uncompleted Consumers Power Company's nuclear power plant at Midland, Michigan. This paper describes the Department's annealing prototype demonstration goals and objectives; the tasks, deliverables, and results to date for each annealing prototype demonstration; and the remaining annealing technology challenges

  14. CD146 Expression Influences Periapical Cyst Mesenchymal Stem Cell Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduano, Francesco; Marrelli, Massimo; Palmieri, Francesca; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have identified a new human dental derived progenitor cell population with multi-lineage differentiation potential referred to as human periapical cyst mesenchymal stem cells (hPCy-MSCs). In the present study, we compared two subpopulations of hPCy-MSCs characterised by the low or high expression of CD146 to establish whether this expression can regulate their stem cell properties. Using flow cytometry, we evaluated the stem cell marker profile of hPCy-MSCs during passaging. Furthermore, CD146 Low and CD146 High cells were sorted by magnetic beads and subsequently both cell populations were evaluated for differences in their proliferation, self-renewal, stem cell surface markers, stemness genes expression and osteogenic differentiation potential.We found that hPCy-MSCs possessed a stable expression of several mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, whereas CD146 expression declined during passaging.In addition, sorted CD146 Low cells proliferated significantly faster, displayed higher colony-forming unit-fibroblast capacity and showed higher expression of Klf4 when compared to the CD146 High subset. Significantly, the osteogenic potential of hPCy-MSCs was greater in the CD146 Low than in CD146 High population. These results demonstrate that CD146 is spontaneously downregulated with passaging at both mRNA and protein levels and that the high expression of CD146 reduces the proliferative, self-renewal and osteogenic differentiation potential of hPCy-MSCs. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that changes in the expression of CD146 can influence the stem cell properties of hPCy-MSCs.

  15. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States); Irwin, Mark [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  16. England and Wales: Stable fertility and pronounced social status differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Sigle-Rushton

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available For nearly three decades, the total fertility rate in England and Wales has remained high relative to other European countries, and stable at about 1.7 births per woman. In this chapter, we examine trends in both period and cohort fertility throughout the twentieth century, and demonstrate some important differences across demographic and social groups in the timing and quantum of fertility. Breaking with a market-oriented and laissez-faire approach to work and family issues, the last 10 years have seen the introduction of new social and economic policies aimed at providing greater support to families with children. However, the effect of the changes is likely to be limited to families on the lower end of the income scale. Rather than facilitating work and parenthood, some policies create incentives for a traditional gendered division of labour. Fertility appears to have remained stable despite, rather than because of, government actions.

  17. Chaotic and stable perturbed maps: 2-cycles and spatial models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, E.; Haroutunian, J.

    2010-06-01

    As the growth rate parameter increases in the Ricker, logistic and some other maps, the models exhibit an irreversible period doubling route to chaos. If a constant positive perturbation is introduced, then the Ricker model (but not the classical logistic map) experiences period doubling reversals; the break of chaos finally gives birth to a stable two-cycle. We outline the maps which demonstrate a similar behavior and also study relevant discrete spatial models where the value in each cell at the next step is defined only by the values at the cell and its nearest neighbors. The stable 2-cycle in a scalar map does not necessarily imply 2-cyclic-type behavior in each cell for the spatial generalization of the map.

  18. Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal. (orig.)

  19. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  20. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  1. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  2. Towards effective and stable probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarullina, D R; Damshkaln, L G; Bruslik, N L; Konovalova, O A; Ilinskaya, O N; Lozinsky, V I

    2015-01-01

    months at 4°C. The bacterial viability tests also demonstrated that after 6 h treatment with 2% bile or HCl (pH 2) L. plantarum 8PA3 exhibited increased sensitivity (viability 14% and 0.4%, respectively). However, in similar conditions no significant differences were noticed between bacterial viability obtained for formulated with starch and non-formulated bacteria. Furthermore, we showed that loading into SPS had no effect on bacterial production of nitric oxide (NO) - a pluripotent regulatory molecule in human organism. Overall, the results strongly support that formulation with polymeric matrices on the basis of SPS represent an appealing technology of probiotics production. It provides slow release of bacteria in target environment and does not alter their viability and NO biosynthesis. However, SPS excipient does not preserve the bacteria from harsh conditions of upper GIT. Therefore, we conclude that for oral administration the composition should be loaded in acid-resistant capsules.

  3. Incineration demonstration at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.; Mersman, K.E.; Roberson, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process for Savannah River Plant (SRP) low level beta-gamma combustible waste was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive wastes. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. Presently, the process is being upgraded by SRP to accept radioactive wastes. During a two-year SRP demonstration, the facility will be used to incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (<1 mR/hr at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes

  4. Plasma hearth process demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.M.; Gillins, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is a high temperature thermal treatment process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form, greatly improving the disposability of the waste. This paper describes the PHP system and summarizes test results to date, including volume reduction, destruction and removal efficiencies for organic wastes, and emission characteristics. Tests performed so far demonstrate that the PHP adresses DOE mixed waste final waste form requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure requirements

  5. Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility, Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwaraj, I.

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning of minor actinide from high level waste could have a substantial impact in lowering the radio toxicity associated with high level waste as well as it will reduce the burden on geological repository. In Indian context, the partitioned minor actinide could be routed into the fast breeder reactor systems scheduled for commissioning in the near period. The technological breakthrough in solvent development has catalyzed the partitioning programme in India, leading to the setting up and hot commissioning of the Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility (ASDF) at BARC, Tarapur. The engineering scale Actinide Separation Demonstration Facility (ASDF) has been retrofitted in an available radiological hot cell situated adjacent to the Advanced Vitrification Facility (AVS). This location advantage ensures an uninterrupted supply of high-level waste and facilitates the vitrification of the high-level waste after separation of minor actinides

  6. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinase Stromelysin-1 Triggers a Cascade of Molecular Alterations that leads to stable epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Conversion and a Premalignant Phenotype in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Muschler, J.; Freedman, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-08-11

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) regulate ductal morphogenesis, apoptosis, and neoplastic progression in mammary epithelial cells. To elucidate the direct effects of MMPs on mammary epithelium, we generated functionally normal cells expressing an inducible autoactivating stromelysin-1 (SL-1) transgene. Induction of SL-1 expression resulted in cleavage of E-cadherin, and triggered progressive phenotypic conversion characterized by disappearance of E-cadherin and catenins from cell-cell contacts, downregulation of cytokeratins, upregulation of vimentin, induction of keratinocyte growth factor expression and activation, and upregulation of endogenous MMPs. Cells expressing SL-1 were unable to undergo lactogenic differentiation and became invasive. Once initiated, this phenotypic conversion was essentially stable, and progressed even in the absence of continued SL-1 expression. These observations demonstrate that inappropriate expression of SL-1 initiates a cascade of events that may represent a coordinated program leading to loss of the differentiated epithelial phenotype and gain of some characteristics of tumor cells. Our data provide novel insights into how MMPs function in development and neoplastic conversion.

  8. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  9. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID's success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories' Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque's and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ''dry'' soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater

  10. Salt decontamination demonstration test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, E.B.; Heng, C.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Salt Decontamination Demonstration confirmed that the precipitation process could be used for large-scale decontamination of radioactive waste sale solution. Although a number of refinements are necessary to safely process the long-term requirement of 5 million gallons of waste salt solution per year, there were no observations to suggest that any fundamentals of the process require re-evaluation. Major accomplishments were: (1) 518,000 gallons of decontaminated filtrate were produced from 427,000 gallons of waste salt solution from tank 24H. The demonstration goal was to produce a minimum of 200,000 gallons of decontaminated salt solution; (2) cesium activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 43,000 below the cesium activity in the tank 24 solution. This decontamination factor (DF) exceeded the demonstration goal of a DF greater than 10,000; (3) average strontium-90 activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 26 to less than 10 3 d/m/ml versus a goal of less than 10 4 d/m/ml; and (4) the concentrated precipitate was washed to a final sodium ion concentration of 0.15 M, well below the 0.225 M upper limit for DWPF feed. These accomplishments were achieved on schedule and without incident. Total radiation exposure to personnel was less than 350 mrem and resulted primarily from sampling precipitate slurry inside tank 48. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  11. Once for All: A Novel Robust System for Co-expression of Multiple Chimeric Fluorescent Fusion Proteins in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guitao Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric fluorescent fusion proteins have been employed as a powerful tool to reveal the subcellular localizations and dynamics of proteins in living cells. Co-expression of a fluorescent fusion protein with well-known organelle markers in the same cell is especially useful in revealing its spatial and temporal functions of the protein in question. However, the conventional methods for co-expressing multiple fluorescent tagged proteins in plants have the drawbacks of low expression efficiency, variations in the expression level and time-consuming genetic crossing. Here, we have developed a novel robust system that allows for high-efficient co-expression of multiple chimeric fluorescent fusion proteins in plants in a time-saving fashion. This system takes advantage of employing a single expression vector which consists of multiple semi-independent expressing cassettes for the protein co-expression thereby overcoming the limitations of using multiple independent expressing plasmids. In addition, it is a highly manipulable DNA assembly system, in which modification and recombination of DNA molecules are easily achieved through an optimized one-step assembly reaction. By employing this effective system, we demonstrated that co-expression of two chimeric fluorescent fusion reporter proteins of vacuolar sorting receptor and secretory carrier membrane protein gave rise to their perspective subcellular localizations in plants via both transient expression and stable transformation. Thus, we believed that this technical advance represents a promising approach for multi-color-protein co-expression in plant cells.

  12. Aerospace Communications Security Technologies Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, James H.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2003-01-01

    In light of the events of September 11, 2001, NASA senior management requested an investigation of technologies and concepts to enhance aviation security. The investigation was to focus on near-term technologies that could be demonstrated within 90 days and implemented in less than 2 years. In response to this request, an internal NASA Glenn Research Center Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Aviation Security Tiger Team was assembled. The 2-year plan developed by the team included an investigation of multiple aviation security concepts, multiple aircraft platforms, and extensively leveraged datalink communications technologies. It incorporated industry partners from NASA's Graphical Weather-in-the-Cockpit research, which is within NASA's Aviation Safety Program. Two concepts from the plan were selected for demonstration: remote "black box," and cockpit/cabin surveillance. The remote "black box" concept involves real-time downlinking of aircraft parameters for remote monitoring and archiving of aircraft data, which would assure access to the data following the loss or inaccessibility of an aircraft. The cockpit/cabin surveillance concept involves remote audio and/or visual surveillance of cockpit and cabin activity, which would allow immediate response to any security breach and would serve as a possible deterrent to such breaches. The datalink selected for the demonstrations was VDL Mode 2 (VHF digital link), the first digital datalink for air-ground communications designed for aircraft use. VDL Mode 2 is beginning to be implemented through the deployment of ground stations and aircraft avionics installations, with the goal of being operational in 2 years. The first demonstration was performed December 3, 2001, onboard the LearJet 25 at Glenn. NASA worked with Honeywell, Inc., for the broadcast VDL Mode 2 datalink capability and with actual Boeing 757 aircraft data. This demonstration used a cockpitmounted camera for video surveillance and a coupling to

  13. Demonstration Project. Consumer reactions to peak prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindskoug, Stefan

    2006-06-01

    The purpose and aim of the project is to look at the risk of capacity shortage in the Swedish electricity supply system during excessively cold periods of weather. A risk that has increased in recent years. A growing number of analysts emphasize the importance of high spot prices actually leading to a reduction in demand. Through increased consumer sensitivity as regards pricing, the power system can be run safely with smaller generation reserves. In addition, market price fluctuation is estimated to become more stable and predictable. The purpose of the Demonstration Project is to demonstrate methods or business concepts that lead to the demand for electricity on a national level being reduced at times of high spot prices. The need for the measures to be profitable for the parties involved is an important starting point. A general problem associated with research and development projects is that the participants feel selected and special attention is paid them, hence they will make an extra effort to improve the results. We were aware of this fact when setting up the trials, which is why we introduced the trials as an offer from the electricity supplier to take part in a commercial assessment using a new price list. For this reason we concealed the marked research aim with Elforsk as a backer. Evaluating the results of questionnaires and detailed interviews does not give cause to suppose the results are in any way affected by such conditions. The conclusion of this project is that controlling load at the customer end is an economic alternative to the investment of new production resources

  14. Stable 293 T and CHO cell lines expressing cleaved, stable HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers for structural and vaccine studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, Nancy P. Y.; Matthews, Katie; Kim, Helen J.; Ketas, Thomas J.; Golabek, Michael; de Los Reyes, Kevin; Korzun, Jacob; Yasmeen, Anila; Sanders, Rogier W.; Klasse, Per Johan; Wilson, Ian A.; Ward, Andrew B.; Marozsan, Andre J.; Moore, John P.; Cupo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant soluble, cleaved HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers based on the subtype A BG505 sequence are being studied structurally and tested as immunogens in animals. For these trimers to become a vaccine candidate for human trials, they would need to be made in appropriate

  15. Short-hairpin RNA-mediated stable silencing of Grb2 impairs cell growth and DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Henkels, Karen M.; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2007-01-01

    Grb2 is an SH2-SH3 protein adaptor responsible for linking growth factor receptors with intracellular signaling cascades. To study the role of Grb2 in cell growth, we have generated a new COS7 cell line (COS7 shGrb2 ), based on RNAi technology, as null mutations in mammalian Grb2 genes are lethal in early development. This novel cell line continuously expresses a short hairpin RNA that targets endogenous Grb2. Stable COS7 shGrb2 cells had the shGrb2 integrated into the genomic DNA and carried on SiL construct (made refractory to the shRNA-mediated interference), but not with an SH2-deficient mutant (R86K). Thus, a viable knock-down and rescue protocol has demonstrated that Grb2 is crucial for cell proliferation

  16. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  17. AAEC builds synroc demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hagan, R.

    1986-01-01

    A demonstration plant to test the feasibility of an Australian-developed method of immobilising radioactive waste is being built at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The plant will operate as if radioactive waste was actually being processed, but non-radioactive elements of a similar composition will be used. The process involves the simulated waste being mixed into a slurry with the main SYNROC ingredients and then converted to a powder. The powder is moved about the plant in bellows-type containers by robots

  18. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  19. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  20. Flambeau River Biofuels Demonstration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Robert J. [Flambeau River Biofuels, Inc., Park Falls, WI (United States)

    2012-07-30

    Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. (FRB) proposed to construct a demonstration biomass-to-liquids (BTL) biorefinery in Park Falls, Wisconsin. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, Flambeau River Papers, and when in full operation would both generate renewable energy – making Flambeau River Papers the first pulp and paper mill in North America to be nearly fossil fuel free – and produce liquid fuels from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for BTL production using forest residuals and wood waste, providing a basis for proliferating BTL conversion technologies throughout the United States. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. FRB planned to replicate this facility at other paper mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility.

  1. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  2. Reactor-vessel-sectioning demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    A technical demonstration was successfully completed of simulated reactor vessel sectioning using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in. layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel; air arc gouging was selected to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. Three sectioning operations were demonstrated. For all three, the operating parameters were the same; but the position of the sample was varied. For the first cut, the sample was placed in a horizontal position, and it was successfully severed from the SS side. For the second cut, the sample was turned over and cut from the carbon steel side. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction

  3. Gene expression signatures for colorectal cancer microsatellite status and HNPCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, M; Jensen, J L; Laiho, P

    2005-01-01

    The majority of microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancers are sporadic, but a subset belongs to the syndrome hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Microsatellite instability is caused by dysfunction of the mismatch repair (MMR) system that leads to a mutator phenotype, and MSI...... of 101 stage II and III colorectal cancers (34 MSI, 67 microsatellite stable (MSS)) using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. From these data, we constructed a nine-gene signature capable of separating the mismatch repair proficient and deficient tumours. Subsequently, we demonstrated...... is correlated to prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Gene expression signatures as predictive markers are being developed for many cancers, and the identification of a signature for MMR deficiency would be of interest both clinically and biologically. To address this issue, we profiled the gene expression...

  4. Energy 2007. Research, development, demonstration; Energi 07. Forskning, udvikling, demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byriel, I.P.; Justesen, Helle; Beck, A.; Borup Jensen, J.; Rosenfeldt Jakobsen, Kl; Jacobsen, Steen Hartvig (eds.)

    2007-08-10

    Danish energy research is in an exciting and challenging situation. Rising oil prices, unstable energy supply, climate policy responsibilities and globalization have brought development of new environmentally friendly and more efficient energy technologies into focus. Promising international markets for newly developed energy technologies are emerging, and at the same time well established Danish positions of strength are challenged by new strong actors on the global market. The Danish government has set to work on its vision of an appreciable strengthening of public energy research funding through the recent law on the energy technological development and demonstration programme EUDP and the realization of globalization funds. The interaction between basic and applied research must be kept intact. In this report the various Danish energy research programmes administered by Energinet.dk, Danish Energy Authority, Danish Energy Association, Danish Council for Strategic Research's Programme Commission on Energy and Environment and Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, coordinate their annual reports for the first time. The aim of Energy 2007 is to give the reader an idea of how the energy research programmes collaborate on solving the major energy technology challenges - also in an international context. (BA)

  5. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  6. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 2 discusses the following topics: Fuel Rod Extraction System Test Results and Analysis Reports and Clamping Table Test Results and Analysis Reports

  7. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 1 discusses the following topics: the background of the project; test program description; summary of tests and test results; problem evaluation; functional requirements confirmation; recommendations; and completed test documentation for tests performed in Phase 3

  8. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 1 of Volume IV, discusses: Process overview functional descriptions; Control system descriptions; Support system descriptions; Maintenance system descriptions; and Process equipment descriptions

  9. Demonstration of creep during filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Bugge, Thomas Vistisen; Kirchheiner, Anders Løvenbalk

    The classical filtration theory assumes a unique relationship between the local filter cake porosity and the local effective pressure. For a number of compressible materials, it has however been observed that during the consolidation stage this may not be the case. It has been found...... that the production of filtrate also depends on the characteristic time for the filter cake solids to deform. This is formulated in the Terzaghi-Voigt model in which a secondary consolidation is introduced. The secondary consolidation may be visualized by plots of the relative cake deformation (U) v.s. the square...... root of time. Even more clearly it is demonstrated by plotting the liquid pressure at the cake piston interface v.s. the relative deformation (to be shown). The phenomenon of a secondary consolidation processes is in short called creep. Provided that the secondary consolidation rate is of the same...

  10. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 9 discusses the following topics: Integrated System Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; Integrated System Off-Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; and Integrated System Maintenance Operations Test Results and Analysis Report

  11. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  12. Alderney 5 complex demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. [High Performance Energy Systems, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) is the largest municipality in Atlantic Canada. This presentation described the flagship facility and the energy efficiency retrofit of five HRM-owned buildings called the Alderney 5 complex. The 5 objectives of the demonstration project involved a district-scale cooling project; replacement of chillers with harbour cooling; and replacement of a high exergy system with a low exergy system. Synergies and challenges of the project were also identified. The presentation also referred to borehole thermal energy storage; existing Halifax Harbour cooling; Halifax Harbour temperatures; cold energy geothermal borehole field; and the benefits of advanced concentric boreholes. A project update and progress to date were also provided. The Alderney 5 project represents the first concentric borehole technology for use to store and retrieve cold energy. tabs., figs.

  13. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 8 discusses Control System SOT Tests Results and Analysis Report. This is a continuation of Book 7

  14. Deep Space Habitat Concept Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, Paul S.; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    This project will develop, integrate, test, and evaluate Habitation Systems that will be utilized as technology testbeds and will advance NASA's understanding of alternative deep space mission architectures, requirements, and operations concepts. Rapid prototyping and existing hardware will be utilized to develop full-scale habitat demonstrators. FY 2014 focused on the development of a large volume Space Launch System (SLS) class habitat (Skylab Gen 2) based on the SLS hydrogen tank components. Similar to the original Skylab, a tank section of the SLS rocket can be outfitted with a deep space habitat configuration and launched as a payload on an SLS rocket. This concept can be used to support extended stay at the Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit to support the Asteroid Retrieval Mission and provide a habitat suitable for human missions to Mars.

  15. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  16. Prototypical Rod Construction Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 3 discusses the following topics: Downender Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report; Fuel Assembly Handling Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; and Fuel Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report

  17. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 4 of Volume IV, discusses: Off-normal operating and recovery procedures; Emergency response procedures; Troubleshooting procedures; and Preventive maintenance procedures

  18. Reactor-vessel-sectioning demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    A successful technical demonstration of simulated reactor vessel sectioning was completed using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel: an air arc gouger was chosen to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. After the simulated vessel was successfully cut from the SS side, another cut was made, starting from the carbon steel side. This cut was also successful. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction since the air arc gouging step is eliminated and contamination controlled because the molten metal is blown inward

  19. Expression Analysis of cPLA2 Alpha Interacting TIP60 in Diabetic KKAy and Non-Diabetic C57BL Wild-Type Mice: No Impact of Transient and Stable TIP60 Overexpression on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta-Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Iver Kristiansen; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the expression levels of cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2alpha) interacting histone acetyl transferase proteins TIP60alpha and TIP60beta in non-diabetic C57BL wild-type mice and obese type 2 diabetic KKAy model mice. The aim was to test our hypothesis...

  20. Production of cloned pigs with targeted attenuation of gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilceu Bordignon

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate that RNA interference (RNAi and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT technologies can be used to attenuate the expression of specific genes in tissues of swine, a large animal species. Apolipoprotein E (apoE, a secreted glycoprotein known for its major role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and transport, was selected as the target gene for this study. Three synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNA targeting the porcine apoE mRNA were tested in porcine granulosa cells in primary culture and reduced apoE mRNA abundance ranging from 45-82% compared to control cells. The most effective sequence was selected for cloning into a short hairpin RNA (shRNA expression vector under the control of RNA polymerase III (U6 promoter. Stably transfected fetal porcine fibroblast cells were generated and used to produce embryos with in vitro matured porcine oocytes, which were then transferred into the uterus of surrogate gilts. Seven live and one stillborn piglet were born from three gilts that became pregnant. Integration of the shRNA expression vector into the genome of clone piglets was confirmed by PCR and expression of the GFP transgene linked to the expression vector. Analysis showed that apoE protein levels in the liver and plasma of the clone pigs bearing the shRNA expression vector targeting the apoE mRNA was significantly reduced compared to control pigs cloned from non-transfected fibroblasts of the same cell line. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying RNAi and SCNT technologies for introducing stable genetic modifications in somatic cells for eventual attenuation of gene expression in vivo in large animal species.

  1. Performance Demonstration Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste characterization program, each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). The PDP serves as a quality control check against expected results and provides information about the quality of data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed by an independent organization to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. There are three elements within the PDP: analysis of simulated headspace gases, analysis of solids for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents, and analysis for transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Because the analysis for TRU radionuclides using NDA techniques involves both the counting of drums and standard waste boxes, four PDP plans are required to describe the activities of the three PDP elements. In accordance with these PDP plans, the reviewing and approving authority for PDP results and for the overall program is the CBFO PDP Appointee. The CBFO PDP Appointee is responsible for ensuring the implementation of each of these plans by concurring with the designation of the Program Coordinator and by providing technical oversight and coordination for the program. The Program Coordinator will designate the PDP Manager, who will coordinate the three elements of the PDP. The purpose of this management plan is to identify how the requirements applicable to the PDP are implemented during the management and coordination of PDP activities. The other participants in the program (organizations that perform site implementation and activities under CBFO contracts or interoffice work orders) are not covered under this management plan. Those activities are governed by the organization's quality assurance (QA) program and procedures or as otherwise directed by CBFO.

  2. Tunable Stable Levitation Based on Casimir Interaction between Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglei; Zhang, Zhuomin M.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum levitation enabled by repulsive Casimir force has been desirable due to the potential exciting applications in passive-suspension devices and frictionless bearings. In this paper, dynamically tunable stable levitation is theoretically demonstrated based on the configuration of dissimilar gratings separated by an intervening fluid using exact scattering theory. The levitation position is insensitive to temperature variations and can be actively tuned by adjusting the lateral displacement between the two gratings. This work investigates the possibility of applying quantum Casimir interactions into macroscopic mechanical devices working in a noncontact and low-friction environment for controlling the position or transducing lateral movement into vertical displacement at the nanoscale.

  3. A highly stable microchannel heat sink for convective boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chun Ting; Pan Chin

    2009-01-01

    To develop a highly stable two-phase microchannel heat sink, we experimented with convective boiling in diverging, parallel microchannels with different distributions of laser-etched artificial nucleation sites. Each microchannel had a mean hydraulic diameter of 120 µm. The two-phase flow visualization and the magnitudes of pressure drop and inlet temperature oscillations under boiling conditions demonstrated clearly the merits of using artificial nucleation sites to further stabilize the flow boiling in diverging, parallel microchannels. The stability map showed the plane of subcooling number versus phase change number. It illustrated that diverging, parallel microchannels with artificial nucleation cavities have a much wider stable region than parallel microchannels with uniform cross-sections or diverging, parallel microchannels without artificial nucleation cavities. In addition, the results revealed that the design with cavities distributed uniformly along the downstream half of the channel presented the best stability performance among the three distributions of nucleation sites. This particular design can be regarded as a highly stable microchannel heat sink for convective boiling

  4. Adaptive Sniping for Volatile and Stable Continuous Double Auction Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, I. E.; Bagnall, A. J.

    This paper introduces a new adaptive sniping agent for the Continuous Double Auction. We begin by analysing the performance of the well known Kaplan sniper in two extremes of market conditions. We generate volatile and stable market conditions using the well known Zero Intelligence-Constrained agent and a new zero-intelligence agent Small Increment (SI). ZI-C agents submit random but profitable bids/offers and cause high volatility in prices and individual trader performance. Our new zero-intelligence agent, SI, makes small random adjustments to the outstanding bid/offer and hence is more cautious than ZI-C. We present results for SI in self-play and then analyse Kaplan in volatile and stable markets. We demonstrate that the non-adaptive Kaplan sniper can be configured to suit either market conditions, but no single configuration is performs well across both market types. We believe that in a dynamic auction environment where current or future market conditions cannot be predicted a viable sniping strategy should adapt its behaviour to suit prevailing market conditions. To this end, we propose the Adaptive Sniper (AS) agent for the CDA. AS traders classify sniping opportunities using a statistical model of market activity and adjust their classification thresholds using a Widrow-Hoff adapted search. Our AS agent requires little configuration, and outperforms the original Kaplan sniper in volatile and stable markets, and in a mixed trader type scenario that includes adaptive strategies from the literature.

  5. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the "ideal glass." Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquids are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.

  6. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed

  7. Stable Chimeras and Independently Synchronizable Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Sul; Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-08-01

    Cluster synchronization is a phenomenon in which a network self-organizes into a pattern of synchronized sets. It has been shown that diverse patterns of stable cluster synchronization can be captured by symmetries of the network. Here, we establish a theoretical basis to divide an arbitrary pattern of symmetry clusters into independently synchronizable cluster sets, in which the synchronization stability of the individual clusters in each set is decoupled from that in all the other sets. Using this framework, we suggest a new approach to find permanently stable chimera states by capturing two or more symmetry clusters—at least one stable and one unstable—that compose the entire fully symmetric network.

  8. Levy Stable Processes. From Stationary to Self-Similar Dynamics and Back. An Application to Finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnecki, K.; Weron, A.

    2004-01-01

    We employ an ergodic theory argument to demonstrate the foundations of ubiquity of Levy stable self-similar processes in physics and present a class of models for anomalous and nonextensive diffusion. A relationship between stationary and self-similar models is clarified. The presented stochastic integral description of all Levy stable processes could provide new insights into the mechanism underlying a range of self-similar natural phenomena. Finally, this effect is illustrated by self-similar approach to financial modelling. (author)

  9. Investigation on efficiency of stable iodine distribution around Golfech nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payoux, P.; Simon, J.; Campana Briault, H.; Fenolland, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Background. In order to prevent thyroid cancer radio induced during civil nuclear accident french regulations plan stable iodine distribution for populations living near nuclear power stations. We evaluate availability of stable iodine and understanding of such measure with investigation around Golfech nuclear power station. Methods. In 2001, 1148 families living in a 10 km perimeter around power station were questioned through their schooled child. Our anonymous questionnaire (22 questions, 91 items) was linked with stable iodine availability, organ protection, most exposed persons, dosage and time of stable iodine ingestion. Results. 72,1 % families replied. Among them, 60,8% could easily and quickly find stable iodine in case of emergency, 87,8% know that such measure is to protect thyroid, 80,5% know that children and pregnant women (62,7%) are the most exposed people, 82,3% know that such ingestion is allowed by Prefect order. Conclusion. Answer rate and stable iodine prophylaxis knowledge are satisfactory. On the other hand, in case of necessity about 40% of the concerned families don't have a rapid access to stable iodine, which will forced authorities to distribute as a matter of urgency supplementary stable iodine. Statistical analysis of the answers demonstrate that the most iodine prophylaxis ignorant people are the most refractory to this approach. (author)

  10. Platinum stable isotope ratio measurements by double-spike multiple collector ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creech, John; Baker, Joel; Handler, Monica

    2013-01-01

    We present a new technique for the precise determination of platinum (Pt) stable isotope ratios by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using two different Pt double-spikes ( Pt-Pt and Pt-Pt). Results are expressed relative to the IRMM-010 Pt isotope standard......) can be obtained on Pt stable isotope ratios with either double-spike. Elemental doping tests reveal that double-spike corrected Pt stable isotope ratios are insensitive to the presence of relatively high (up to 10%) levels of matrix elements, although the Pt-Pt double-spike is affected by an isobaric...... = 7.308%) results in a redefined Pt atomic weight of 195.08395 ± 0.00068. Using our technique we have measured small, reproducible and statistically significant offsets in Pt stable isotope ratios between different Pt element standards and the IRMM-010 standard, which potentially indicates...

  11. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  12. Moving stable solitons in Galileon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoumi, Ali; Xiao Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Despite the no-go theorem Endlich et al. (2011) which rules out static stable solitons in Galileon theory, we propose a family of solitons that evade the theorem by traveling at the speed of light. These domain-wall-like solitons are stable under small fluctuations-analysis of perturbation shows neither ghost-like nor tachyon-like instabilities, and perturbative collision of these solitons suggests that they pass through each other asymptotically, which maybe an indication of the integrability of the theory itself.

  13. Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kochman, Stanley O

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter

  14. Unconditionally stable microwave Si-IMPATT amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.M.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation has been the development of an improved understanding of the design and analysis of microwave reflection amplifiers employing the negative resistance property of the IMPATT devices. Unconditionally stable amplifier circuit using a Silicon IMPATT diode is designed. The problems associated with the design procedures and the stability criterion are discussed. A computer program is developed to perform the computations. The stable characteristics of a reflection-type Si-IMPATT amplifier, such as gain, frequency and bandwidth are examined. It was found that at large signal drive levels, 7 dB gain with bandwidth of 800 MHz at 22,5 mA was obtained. (author)

  15. Demonstration of Data Interactive Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, B.; Weber, J.

    2012-04-01

    This is a demonstration version of the talk given in session ESSI2.4 "Full lifecycle of data." For some years now, the authors have developed examples of online documents that allowed the reader to interact directly with datasets, but there were limitations that restricted the interaction to specific desktop analysis and display tools that were not generally available to all readers of the documents. Recent advances in web service technology and related standards are making it possible to develop systems for publishing online documents that enable readers to access, analyze, and display the data discussed in the publication from the perspective and in the manner from which the author wants it to be represented. By clicking on embedded links, the reader accesses not only the usual textual information in a publication, but also data residing on a local or remote web server as well as a set of processing tools for analyzing and displaying the data. With the option of having the analysis and display processing provided on the server (or in the cloud), there are now a broader set of possibilities on the client side where the reader can interact with the data via a thin web client, a rich desktop application, or a mobile platform "app." The presentation will outline the architecture of data interactive publications along with illustrative examples.

  16. Demonstration poloidal coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masahiko; Kawano, Katumi; Tada, Eisuke

    1989-01-01

    A new compact cryogenic cold compressor was developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in collaboration with Isikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI) in order to produce the supercritical helium below 4.2 K for Demonstration Poloidal Coils (DPC) which are forced-flow cooled type superconducting pulse coils. This compressor is one of key components for DPC test facility. The cold compressor reduces pressure in liquid helium bath, which contains liquid helium of around 3,000 l, down to 0.5 atm efficiently. Consequently, supercritical helium down to 3.5 K is produced and supplied to the DPC coils. A centrifugal compressor with dynamic gas bearing is selected as a compressor mechanism to realize high adiabatic efficiency and large flow rate. In this performance tests, the compressor was operated for 220 h at saturated condition from 0.5 to 1.0 atm without any failure. High adiabatic efficiency (more than 60 %) is achieved with wide flow range (25-65 g/s) and the design value is fully satisfied. The compressor can rotate up to 80,000 rpm at maximum then the coil supply temperature of supercritical helium is 3.5 K. (author)

  17. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  18. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 4 discusses the following topics: Rod Compaction/Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Collection System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Container Transfer Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; Staging and Cutting Table Test Results and Analysis Report; and Upper Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report

  19. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  20. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 5 discusses the following topics: Lower Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Robotic Bridge Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report; RM-10A Remotec Manipulator Test Results and Analysis Report; and Manipulator Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report

  1. Ionosphere Waves Service - A demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespon, François

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service was developed by ionosphere experts to answer several questions: How make the old ionosphere missions more valuable? How provide scientific community with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogues that characterize a huge number of Atmospheric Gravity Waves, Travelling Ionosphere Disturbances and Whistlers events. The Ionosphere Waves Service regroups databases of specific events extracted by experts from a ten of ionosphere missions which end users can access by applying specific searches and by using statistical analysis modules for their domain of interest. The scientific applications covered by the IWS are relative to earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations. In this presentation we propose to detail the service design, the hardware and software architecture, and the service functions. The service interface and capabilities will be the focus of a demonstration in order to help potential end-users for their first access to the Ionosphere Waves Service portal. This work is made with the support of FP7 grant # 263240.

  2. Combined strategies for improving production of a thermo-alkali stable laccase in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayi Wang

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: The productivity of the thermo-alkali stable laccase from B. licheniformis expressed in P. pastoris was significantly improved through the combination of site-directed mutagenesis and optimization of the cultivation process. The mutant enzyme retains good stability under high temperature and alkaline conditions, and is a good candidate for industrial application in dye decolorization.

  3. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  4. Path Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Traditionally, synchronization of concurrent processes is coded in line by operations on semaphores or similar objects. Path expressions move the...discussion about a variety of synchronization primitives . An analysis of their relative power is found in [3]. Path expressions do not introduce yet...another synchronization primitive . A path expression relates to such primitives as a for- or while-statement of an ALGOL-like language relates to a JUMP

  5. Caricaturing facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, A J; Rowland, D; Young, A W; Nimmo-Smith, I; Keane, J; Perrett, D I

    2000-08-14

    The physical differences between facial expressions (e.g. fear) and a reference norm (e.g. a neutral expression) were altered to produce photographic-quality caricatures. In Experiment 1, participants rated caricatures of fear, happiness and sadness for their intensity of these three emotions; a second group of participants rated how 'face-like' the caricatures appeared. With increasing levels of exaggeration the caricatures were rated as more emotionally intense, but less 'face-like'. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar relationship between emotional intensity and level of caricature for six different facial expressions. Experiments 3 and 4 compared intensity ratings of facial expression caricatures prepared relative to a selection of reference norms - a neutral expression, an average expression, or a different facial expression (e.g. anger caricatured relative to fear). Each norm produced a linear relationship between caricature and rated intensity of emotion; this finding is inconsistent with two-dimensional models of the perceptual representation of facial expression. An exemplar-based multidimensional model is proposed as an alternative account.

  6. petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Subsurface samples of the predominantly carbonate Ewekoro Formation, obtained from Ibese core hole within the Dahomey basin were used in this study. Investigations entail petrographic, elemental composition as well as stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen) geochemistry in order to deduce the different microfacies and ...

  7. Working conditions remain stable in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.; Hooftman, W.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant changes in the national questionnaires on work and health, the quality of work as well as health complaints in the Netherlands appear to be relatively stable. Pace of work seems to be on the increase again and more people are working in excess of their contractual hours.

  8. Thermally stable sintered porous metal articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombach, A.L.; Thellmann, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A sintered porous metal article is provided which is essentially thermally stable at elevated temperatures. In addition, a method for producing such an article is also provided which method comprises preparing a blend of base metal particles and active dispersoid particles, forming the mixture into an article of the desired shape, and heating the so-formed article at sintering temperatures

  9. TOF for heavy stable particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Searching for heavy stable particle production in a new energy region of hadron-hadron collisions is of fundamental theoretical interest. Observation of such particles produced in high energy collisions would indicate the existence of stable heavy leptons or any massive hadronic system carrying new quantum numbers. Experimentally, evidence of its production has not been found for PP collisions either at FNAL or at the CERN ISR for √S = 23 and 62 GeV respectively. However, many theories beyond the standard model do predict its existence on a mass scale ranging from 50 to a few hundred GeV. If so, it would make a high luminosity TeV collider an extremely ideal hunting ground for searching the production of such a speculated object. To measure the mass of a heavy stable charged particle, one usually uses its time of flight (TOF) and/or dE/dX information. For heavy neutral particle, one hopes it may decay at some later time after its production. Hence a pair of jets or a jet associated with a high P/sub t/ muon originated from some places other than the interacting point (IP) of the colliding beams may be a good signal. In this note, we examine the feasibility of TOF measurement on a heavy stable particle produced in PP collisions at √S = 1 TeV and a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 with a single arm spectrometer pointing to the IP

  10. Axisymmetric MHD stable sloshing ion distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Dominguez, N.; Roslyakov, G.V.

    1986-07-01

    The MHD stability of a sloshing ion distribution is investigated in a symmetric mirror cell. Fokker-Planck calculations show that stable configurations are possible for ion injection energies that are at least 150 times greater than the electron temperture. Special axial magnetic field profiles are suggested to optimize the favorable MHD properties

  11. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, J.G.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    Numerical integration of Maxwell's equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit finite difference

  12. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.A. Botchev

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractNumerical integration of Maxwell''s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction

  13. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.A. Botchev

    2009-01-01

    textabstractNumerical integration of Maxwell’s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit –

  14. Method of producing thermally stable uranium carbonitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, M.; Takahashi, I.

    1975-01-01

    A thermally stable uranium carbonitride can be produced by adding tungsten and/or molybdenum in the amount of 0.2 wt percent or more, preferably 0.5 wt percent or more, to a pure uranium carbonitride. (U.S.)

  15. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  16. 26 S proteasomes function as stable entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Tanaka, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    , shuttles between a free state and the 26-S proteasome, bringing substrate to the complex. However, S5a was not found in the free state in HeLa cells. Besides, all subunits in PA700, including S5a, exchanged at similar low rates. It therefore seems that 26-S proteasomes function as stable entities during...

  17. Formal derivation of a stable marriage algorithm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the well-known Stable Marriage Problem is considered once again. The name of this programming problem comes from the terms in which it was first described [2]: A certain community consists of n men and n women. Each person ranks those of the opposite sex in accordance with his or

  18. The Nature of Stable Insomnia Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Urban, community-based. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). Interventions: None. Measurements and results: At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the “neither criterion” phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. Conclusions: By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With

  19. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  20. Phase Stable RF-over-fiber Transmission using Heterodyne Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.; Byrd, J.M.; Doolittle, L.; Huang, G.; Staples, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    New scientific applications require phase-stabilized RF distribution to multiple remote locations. These include phased-array radio telescopes and short pulse free electron lasers. RF modulated onto a CW optical carrier and transmitted via fiber is capable of low noise, but commercially available systems aren't long term stable enough for these applications. Typical requirements are for less than 50fs long term temporal stability between receivers, which is 0.05 degrees at 3GHz. Good results have been demonstrated for RF distribution schemes based on transmission of short pulses, but these require specialized free-space optics and high stability mechanical infrastructure. We report a method which uses only standard telecom optical and RF components, and achieves less than 20fs RMS error over 300m of standard single-mode fiber. We demonstrate stable transmission of 3GHz over 300m of fiber with less than 0.017 degree (17fs) RMS phase error. An interferometer measures optical phase delay, providing information to a feed-forward correction of RF phase.

  1. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A.; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A.

    2016-01-01

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies. PMID:27672209

  2. An energy-stable time-integrator for phase-field models

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe

    2016-12-27

    We introduce a provably energy-stable time-integration method for general classes of phase-field models with polynomial potentials. We demonstrate how Taylor series expansions of the nonlinear terms present in the partial differential equations of these models can lead to expressions that guarantee energy-stability implicitly, which are second-order accurate in time. The spatial discretization relies on a mixed finite element formulation and isogeometric analysis. We also propose an adaptive time-stepping discretization that relies on a first-order backward approximation to give an error-estimator. This error estimator is accurate, robust, and does not require the computation of extra solutions to estimate the error. This methodology can be applied to any second-order accurate time-integration scheme. We present numerical examples in two and three spatial dimensions, which confirm the stability and robustness of the method. The implementation of the numerical schemes is done in PetIGA, a high-performance isogeometric analysis framework.

  3. Oil Palm Defensin: A Thermal Stable Peptide that Restricts the Mycelial Growth of Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Ang, Cheng-Liang; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Plant defensins are plant defence peptides that have many different biological activities, including antifungal, antimicrobial, and insecticidal activities. A cDNA (EgDFS) encoding defensin was isolated from Elaeis guineensis. The open reading frame of EgDFS contained 231 nucleotides encoding a 71-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight at 8.69 kDa, and a potential signal peptide. The eight highly conserved cysteine sites in plant defensins were also conserved in EgDFS. The EgDFS sequence lacking 30 amino acid residues at its N-terminus (EgDFSm) was cloned into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS and successfully expressed as a soluble recombinant protein. The recombinant EgDFSm was found to be a thermal stable peptide which demonstrated inhibitory activity against the growth of G. boninense possibly by inhibiting starch assimilation. The role of EgDFSm in oil palm defence system against the infection of pathogen G. boninense was discussed.

  4. An energy-stable time-integrator for phase-field models

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe; Collier, N.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Brown, D.L.; Calo, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a provably energy-stable time-integration method for general classes of phase-field models with polynomial potentials. We demonstrate how Taylor series expansions of the nonlinear terms present in the partial differential equations of these models can lead to expressions that guarantee energy-stability implicitly, which are second-order accurate in time. The spatial discretization relies on a mixed finite element formulation and isogeometric analysis. We also propose an adaptive time-stepping discretization that relies on a first-order backward approximation to give an error-estimator. This error estimator is accurate, robust, and does not require the computation of extra solutions to estimate the error. This methodology can be applied to any second-order accurate time-integration scheme. We present numerical examples in two and three spatial dimensions, which confirm the stability and robustness of the method. The implementation of the numerical schemes is done in PetIGA, a high-performance isogeometric analysis framework.

  5. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  6. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of chondrites and silicate planetary reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Ronny; Merdian, Alexandra; Holmden, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.; Haßler, Kathrin; Wille, Martin; Reitter, Elmar

    2016-06-01

    The depletion of chromium in Earth's mantle (∼2700 ppm) in comparison to chondrites (∼4400 ppm) indicates significant incorporation of chromium into the core during our planet's metal-silicate differentiation, assuming that there was no significant escape of the moderately volatile element chromium during the accretionary phase of Earth. Stable Cr isotope compositions - expressed as the ‰-difference in 53Cr/52Cr from the terrestrial reference material SRM979 (δ53/52CrSRM979 values) - of planetary silicate reservoirs might thus yield information about the conditions of planetary metal segregation processes when compared to chondrites. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of 7 carbonaceous chondrites, 11 ordinary chondrites, 5 HED achondrites and 2 martian meteorites determined by a double spike MC-ICP-MS method are within uncertainties indistinguishable from each other and from the previously determined δ53/52CrSRM979 value of -0.124 ± 0.101‰ for the igneous silicate Earth. Extensive quality tests support the accuracy of the stable Cr isotope determinations of various meteorites and terrestrial silicates reported here. The uniformity in stable Cr isotope compositions of samples from planetary silicate mantles and undifferentiated meteorites indicates that metal-silicate differentiation of Earth, Mars and the HED parent body did not cause measurable stable Cr isotope fractionation between these two reservoirs. Our results also imply that the accretionary disc, at least in the inner solar system, was homogeneous in its stable Cr isotopic composition and that potential volatility loss of chromium during accretion of the terrestrial planets was not accompanied by measurable stable isotopic fractionation. Small but reproducible variations in δ53/52CrSRM979 values of terrestrial magmatic rocks point to natural stable Cr isotope variations within Earth's silicate reservoirs. Further and more detailed studies are required to investigate whether silicate

  7. Experimental demonstration of revival of oscillations from death in coupled nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, D. V., E-mail: skumarusnld@gmail.com [School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram 695016 (India); Centre for Nonlinear Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401 (India); Suresh, K. [Department of Physics, Anjalai Ammal-Engineering College, Kovilvenni 614 403, Tamilnadu (India); Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, Bharathidasan University, Trichy 620024, Tamilnadu (India); Chandrasekar, V. K. [Centre for Nonlinear Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401 (India); Zou, Wei [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Dana, Syamal K. [CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata 700032 (India); Kathamuthu, Thamilmaran [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, Bharathidasan University, Trichy 620024, Tamilnadu (India); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam D-14415 (Germany); Institute of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin D-12489 (Germany); Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3FX (United Kingdom); Department of Control Theory, Nizhny Novgorod State University, Gagarin Avenue 23, 606950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    We experimentally demonstrate that a processing delay, a finite response time, in the coupling can revoke the stability of the stable steady states, thereby facilitating the revival of oscillations in the same parameter space where the coupled oscillators suffered the quenching of oscillation. This phenomenon of reviving of oscillations is demonstrated using two different prototype electronic circuits. Further, the analytical critical curves corroborate that the spread of the parameter space with stable steady state is diminished continuously by increasing the processing delay. Finally, the death state is completely wiped off above a threshold value by switching the stability of the stable steady state to retrieve sustained oscillations in the same parameter space. The underlying dynamical mechanism responsible for the decrease in the spread of the stable steady states and the eventual reviving of oscillation as a function of the processing delay is explained using analytical results.

  8. A Forceful Demonstration by FORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    .). In addition, detailed computer software was provided to prepare the complex astronomical observations with FORS in advance and to monitor the instrument performance by quality checks of the scientific data accumulated. In return for building FORS for the community of European astrophysicists, the scientists in the three institutions of the FORS Consortium have received a certain amount of Guaranteed Observing Time at the VLT. This time will be used for various research projects concerned, among others, with minor bodies in the outer solar system, stars at late stages of their evolution and the clouds of gas they eject, as well as galaxies and quasars at very large distances, thereby permitting a look-back towards the early epoch of the universe. First tests of FORS1 at the VLT UT1: a great success After careful preparation, the FORS consortium has now started the so-called commissioning of the instrument. This comprises the thorough verification of the specified instrument properties at the telescope, checking the correct functioning under software control from the Paranal control room and, at the end of this process, a demonstration that the instrument fulfills its scientific purpose as planned. While performing these tests, the commissioning team at Paranal were able to obtain images of various astronomical objects, some of which are shown here. Two of these were obtained on the night of "FORS First Light". The photos demonstrate some of the impressive posibilities with this new instrument. They are based on observations with the FORS standard resolution collimator (field size 6.8 x 6.8 armin = 2048 x 2048 pixels; 1 pixel = 0.20 arcsec). Spiral galaxy NGC 1288 ESO PR Photo 37a/98 ESO PR Photo 37a/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 908 pix - 224k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3406 pix - 1.5Mb] A colour image of spiral galaxy NGC 1288, obtained on the night of "FORS First Light". The first photo shows a reproduction of a colour composite image of the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC

  9. Protein Stable Isotope Fingerprinting (P-SIF): Multidimensional Protein Chromatography Coupled to Stable Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A.; Bovee, R. J.; Mohr, W.; Tang, T.

    2012-12-01

    As metagenomics increases our insight into microbial community diversity and metabolic potential, new approaches are required to determine the biogeochemical expression of this potential within ecosystems. Because stable isotopic analysis of the major bioactive elements (C, N) has been used historically to map flows of substrates and energy among macroscopic food webs, similar principles may apply to microbes. To address this challenge, we have developed a new analytical approach called Protein Stable Isotope Fingerprinting (P-SIF). P-SIF generates natural stable isotopic fingerprints of microbial individual or community proteomes. The main advantage of P-SIF is the potential to bridge the gap between diversity and function, thereby providing a window into the "black box" of environmental microbiology and helping to decipher the roles of uncultivated species. Our method implements a three-way, orthogonal scheme to separate mixtures of whole proteins into subfractions dominated by single or closely-related proteins. Protein extracts first are isoelectrically focused in a gel-free technique that yields 12 fractions separated over a gradient of pH 3-10. Each fraction then is separated by size-exclusion chromatography into 20 pools, ranging from >100kD to ~10kD. Finally, each of these pools is subjected to HPLC and collected in 40 time-slices based on protein hydrophobicity. Theoretical calculation reveals that the true chromatographic resolution of the total scheme is 5000, somewhat less than the 9600 resulting fractions. High-yielding fractions are subjected to δ13C analysis by spooling-wire microcombustion irMS (SWiM-irMS) optimized for samples containing 1-5 nmol carbon. Here we will present the method, results for a variety of pure cultures, and preliminary data for a sample of mixed environmental proteins. The data show the promise of this method for unraveling the metabolic complexity hidden within microbial communities.

  10. Comparative biogeochemical behaviors of iron-55 and stable iron in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Langford, J.C.; Jenkins, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of atmospheric aerosols have demonstrated that much of the 55 Fe associated with the aerosol input to the oceans is present as either an amorphous or hydrous iron oxide or as very small particulate species attached to the surfaces of the large aerosol particles. By comparison, nearly all of the stable iron is bound in the mineral phase of aerosol particles. This difference in the chemical and physical forms of the radioactive and stable iron isotopes results in the 55 Fe being more biologically available than is the stable iron. This difference in availability is responsible for the transfer of a much higher specific activity 55 Fe to certain ocean organisms and man relative to the specific activity of the total aerosol or of sea water. This differential biological uptake of the radioactive element and its stable element counterpart points out that natural levels of stable elements in the marine environment may not effectively dilute radioelements or other stable elements of anthropogenic sources. The effectiveness of dilution by natural sources depends on the chemical and physical forms of the materials in both the source terms and the receiving environments. The large difference in specific activities of 55 Fe in aerosols and sea water relative to ocean organisms reflects the independent behaviors of 55 Fe and stable iron

  11. Stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNAs by sleeping beauty transposon system to confer HIV-1 resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkina Ramesh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thus far gene therapy strategies for HIV/AIDS have used either conventional retroviral vectors or lentiviral vectors for gene transfer. Although highly efficient, their use poses a certain degree of risk in terms of viral mediated oncogenesis. Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon system offers a non-viral method of gene transfer to avoid this possible risk. With respect to conferring HIV resistance, stable knock down of HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 by the use of lentiviral vector delivered siRNAs has proved to be a promising strategy to protect cells from HIV-1 infection. In the current studies our aim is to evaluate the utility of SB system for stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNA genes to derive HIV resistant cells as a first step towards using this system for gene therapy. Results Two well characterized siRNAs against the HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 were chosen based on their previous efficacy for the SB transposon gene delivery. The siRNA transgenes were incorporated individually into a modified SB transfer plasmid containing a FACS sortable red fluorescence protein (RFP reporter and a drug selectable neomycin resistance gene. Gene transfer was achieved by co-delivery with a construct expressing a hyperactive transposase (HSB5 into the GHOST-R3/X4/R5 cell line, which expresses the major HIV receptor CD4 and and the co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. SB constructs expressing CCR5 or CXCR4 siRNAs were also transfected into MAGI-CCR5 or MAGI-CXCR4 cell lines, respectively. Near complete downregulation of CCR5 and CXCR4 surface expression was observed in transfected cells. During viral challenge with X4-tropic (NL4.3 or R5-tropic (BaL HIV-1 strains, the respective transposed cells showed marked viral resistance. Conclusion SB transposon system can be used to deliver siRNA genes for stable gene transfer. The siRNA genes against HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are able to downregulate the respective cell surface proteins

  12. Fundamentals of the LISA stable flight formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhurandhar, S V; Nayak, K Rajesh; Koshti, S; Vinet, J-Y

    2005-01-01

    The joint NASA-ESA mission, LISA, relies crucially on the stability of the three-spacecraft constellation. Each of the spacecraft is in heliocentric orbit forming a stable triangle. In this paper we explicitly show with the help of the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations that any configuration of spacecraft lying in the planes making angles of ±60 0 with the ecliptic and given suitable initial velocities within the plane, can be made stable in the sense that the inter-spacecraft distances remain constant to first order in the dimensions of the configuration compared with the distance to the Sun. Such analysis would be useful in order to carry out theoretical studies on the optical links, simulators, etc

  13. Utilization of stable isotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The ten lectures given at this round table are presented together with a discussion. Five lectures, relating to studies in which deuterium oxide was employed as a tracer of body water, dealt with pulmonary water measurements in man and animals, the total water pool in adipose subjects, and liquid compartments in children undergoing hemodyalisis. The heavy water is analysed by infrared spectrometry and a new double spectrodoser is described. Two studies using 13 C as tracer, described the diagnosis of liver troubles and diabetes respectively. A general review of the perspectives of the application of stable isotopes in clinical medicine is followed by a comparison of the use of stable and radioactive isotopes in France [fr

  14. Stable isotope enrichment: Current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities

  15. On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajian Majid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].

  16. Formation of stable radicals during perfluoroalkane radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allayarov, S.R.; Demidov, S.V.; Kiryukhin, D.P.; Mikhajlov, A.I.; Barkalov, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    Accumulation and stabilization kinetics of perfluoroalkyls during α-radiolysis ( 60 Co) of perfluoralkanes (PFA) in a wide temperature range for different PFA fractions differing in the average molecular weight, is investigated. It is noted that low temperature (PFA) radiolysis (77 K) is of a linear nature of accumulation of stabilized radicals up to doses of approximately 700 KGy. In the case of PFA radiolysis at 300 K radiation yields of stable radicals are somewhat lower than at 47 K and at doses of 200-300 KGy, their accumulation ceases. It is shown that kinetics of formation and accumulation of stable radicals does not depend on molecular mass and PFA fraction viscosity. Perfluoroalkyl stability is explained by intra molecular conformation spheric insulation of the free valency. Perfluoroalkyl stability in different PFA fractions in a wide time range in different media is investigated

  17. Stable isotope enrichment - current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL. This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities. (orig.)

  18. Monitoring biodegradation of hydrocarbons by stable isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorer, Conrad; Fischer, Anko; Herrmann, Steffi; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Vogt, Carsten

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade, several studies have demonstrated that stable isotope tools are highly applicable for monitoring anaerobic biodegradation processes. An important methodological approach is to characterize distinct degradation pathways with respect to the specific mechanism of C-H-bond cleavage and to quantify the extent of biodegradation by compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA). Here, enrichment factors (ɛbulk) needed for a CSIA field site approach must be determined in laboratory reference experiments. Recent research results from different laboratories have shown that single ɛbulk values for similar degradation pathways can be highly variable; thus, the use of two-dimensional compound specific isotope analysis (2D-CSIA) has been encouraged for characterizing biodegradation pathways more precisely. 2D-CSIA for hydrocarbons can be expressed by the slope of the linear regression for hydrogen versus carbon discrimination known as lambda ≈ ɛHbulk/ɛCbulk. We determined the carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation for the biodegradation of benzene, toluene and xylenes by various reference cultures. Specific enzymatic reactions initiating different biodegradation pathways could be distinguished by 2D-CSIA. For the aerobic di- and monohydroxylation of the benzene ring, lambda values always lower than 9 were observed. Enrichment cultures degrading benzene anaerobically produced significant different values: lambda values between 8-19 were oberved for nitrate-reducing consortia, whereas sulfate-reducing and methanogenic consortia showed always lambda values greater than 20 [1,2]. The observed variations suggest that (i) aerobic benzene biodegradation can be distinguished from anaerobic biodegradation, and (ii) that more than a single mechanism seems to exist for the activation of benzene under anoxic conditions. lambda values for anaerobic toluene degradation initiated by the enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS) ranged from 4 to 41, tested with strains using

  19. Optimization of Parameters of Asymptotically Stable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Guerman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with numerical methods of parameter optimization for asymptotically stable systems. We formulate a special mathematical programming problem that allows us to determine optimal parameters of a stabilizer. This problem involves solutions to a differential equation. We show how to chose the mesh in order to obtain discrete problem guaranteeing the necessary accuracy. The developed methodology is illustrated by an example concerning optimization of parameters for a satellite stabilization system.

  20. Multi-Stable Morphing Cellular Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    stiffness on critical buckling load and arch stres - ses. It should be noted that although the arches in these studies snapped-through, they did not...switch roles in moving the VMT back from the second to the first stable equilibrium state. A prototype is designed and fabricated and the transition...pulling forward on the insert on the right blade and assisting its deployment. During this process the cable 3-4-1 goes slack and plays no role , but if

  1. The nature of stable insomnia phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Longitudinal. Urban, community-based. Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). None. At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the 'neither criterion' phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With the exception of daytime sleepiness, few clinical differences are apparent across stable phenotypes.

  2. Strongly stable real infinitesimally symplectic mappings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cushman, R.; Kelley, A.

    We prove that a mapA εsp(σ,R), the set of infinitesimally symplectic maps, is strongly stable if and only if its centralizerC(A) insp(σ,R) contains only semisimple elements. Using the theorem that everyB insp(σ,R) close toA is conjugate by a real symplectic map to an element ofC(A), we give a new

  3. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...

  4. DNA alkylating agents alleviate silencing of class II transactivator gene expression in L1210 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shawn P; Holtz, Renae; Lewandowski, Nicole; Tomasi, Thomas B; Fuji, Hiroshi

    2002-09-15

    MHC class II (Ia) Ag expression is inversely correlated with tumorigenicity and directly correlated with immunogenicity in clones of the mouse L1210 lymphoma (1 ). Understanding the mechanisms by which class II Ag expression is regulated in L1210 lymphoma may facilitate the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of some types of lymphoma and leukemia. This study demonstrates that the variation in MHC class II Ag expression among clones of L1210 lymphoma is due to differences in the expression of the class II transactivator (CIITA). Analysis of stable hybrids suggests that CIITA expression is repressed by a dominant mechanism in class II-negative L1210 clones. DNA-alkylating agents such as ethyl methanesulfonate and the chemotherapeutic drug melphalan activate CIITA and class II expression in class II negative L1210 cells, and this effect appears to be restricted to transformed cell lines derived from the early stages of B cell ontogeny. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that the CIITA type III promoter is active in class II(-) L1210 cells, despite the fact that the endogenous gene is not expressed, which suggests that these cells have all of the transacting factors necessary for CIITA transcription. An inverse correlation between methylation of the CIITA transcriptional regulatory region and CIITA expression was observed among L1210 clones. Furthermore, 5-azacytidine treatment activated CIITA expression in class II-negative L1210 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that 1) CIITA gene expression is repressed in class II(-) L1210 cells by methylation of the CIITA upstream regulatory region, and 2) treatment with DNA-alkylating agents overcomes methylation-based silencing of the CIITA gene in L1210 cells.

  5. Development of expression vectors for Escherichia coli based on the pCR2 replicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb J K

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments in metabolic engineering and the need for expanded compatibility required for co-expression studies, underscore the importance of developing new plasmid vectors with properties such as stability and compatibility. Results We utilized the pCR2 replicon of Corynebacterium renale, which harbours multiple plasmids, for constructing a range of expression vectors. Different antibiotic-resistance markers were introduced and the vectors were found to be 100% stable over a large number of generations in the absence of selection pressure. Compatibility of this plasmid was studied with different Escherichia coli plasmid replicons viz. pMB1 and p15A. It was observed that pCR2 was able to coexist with these E.coli plasmids for 60 generations in the absence of selection pressure. Soluble intracellular production was checked by expressing GFP under the lac promoter in an expression plasmid pCR2GFP. Also high level production of human IFNγ was obtained by cloning the h-IFNγ under a T7 promoter in the expression plasmid pCR2-IFNγ and using a dual plasmid heat shock system for expression. Repeated sub-culturing in the absence of selection pressure for six days did not lead to any fall in the production levels post induction, for both GFP and h-IFNγ, demonstrating that pCR2 is a useful plasmid in terms of stability and compatibility. Conclusion We have constructed a series of expression vectors based on the pCR2 replicon and demonstrated its high stability and sustained expression capacity, in the absence of selection pressure which will make it an efficient tool for metabolic engineering and co-expression studies, as well as for scale up of expression.

  6. Quantitative analysis of lentiviral transgene expression in mice over seven generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Song, Yong-tao; Liu, Qin; Liu, Cang'e; Wang, Lu-lu; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Xiao-yang; Wu, Jun; Wei, Hong

    2010-10-01

    Lentiviral transgenesis is now recognized as an extremely efficient and cost-effective method to produce transgenic animals. Transgenes delivered by lentiviral vectors exhibited inheritable expression in many species including those which are refractory to genetic modification such as non-human primates. However, epigenetic modification was frequently observed in lentiviral integrants, and transgene expression found to be inversely correlated with methylation density. Recent data showed that about one-third lentiviral integrants exhibited hypermethylation and low expression, but did not demonstrate whether those integrants with high expression could remain constant expression and hypomethylated during long term germline transmission. In this study, using lentiviral eGFP transgenic mice as the experimental animals, lentiviral eGFP expression levels and its integrant numbers in genome were quantitatively analyzed by fluorescent quantitative polymerase-chain reaction (FQ-PCR), using the house-keeping gene ribosomal protein S18 (Rps18) and the single copy gene fatty acid binding protein of the intestine (Fabpi) as the internal controls respectively. The methylation densities of the integrants were quantitatively analyzed by bisulfite sequencing. We found that the lentiviral integrants with high expression exhibited a relative constant expression level per integrant over at least seven generations. Besides, the individuals containing these integrants exhibited eGFP expression levels which were positively and almost linearly correlated with the integrant numbers in their genomes, suggesting that no remarkable position effect on transgene expression of the integrants analyzed was observed. In addition, over seven generations the methylation density of these integrants did not increase, but rather decreased remarkably, indicating that these high expressing integrants were not subjected to de novo methylation during at least seven generations of germline transmission. Taken

  7. Mechanical Properties of Stable Glasses Using Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sarah; Liu, Tianyi; Jiang, Yijie; Ablajan, Keyume; Zhang, Yue; Walsh, Patrick; Turner, Kevin; Fakhraai, Zahra

    Glasses with enhanced stability over ordinary, liquid quenched glasses have been formed via the process of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) by using a sufficiently slow deposition rate and a substrate temperature slightly below the glass transition temperature. These stable glasses have been shown to exhibit higher density, lower enthalpy, and better kinetic stability over ordinary glass, and are typically optically birefringent, due to packing and orientational anisotropy. Given these exceptional properties, it is of interest to further investigate how the properties of stable glasses compare to those of ordinary glass. In particular, the mechanical properties of stable glasses remain relatively under-investigated. While the speed of sound and elastic moduli have been shown to increase with increased stability, little is known about their hardness and fracture toughness compared to ordinary glasses. In this study, glasses of 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene were deposited at varying temperatures relative to their glass transition temperature, and their mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation. Hardness and elastic modulus of the glasses were compared across substrate temperatures. After indentation, the topography of these films were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to further compare the relationship between thermodynamic and kinetic stability and mechanical failure. Z.F. and P.W. acknowledge funding from NSF(DMREF-1628407).

  8. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

  9. Demonstration on Wednesday 22 June: well done!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    You were more than 700 Wednesday morning to have answered the call of the Staff Council by participating in a demonstration to say “NO to the Diktat of the Member states” and “Yes to real concertation”. Those present also signed a Resolution adopted by the Staff Council. In parallel, the whole morning some sixty members of the Staff Council and members of GAC-EPA, former Staff delegates, blocked the entry to the Council Chamber, thus obliging the meeting of Finance Committee to be held elsewhere. This Thursday morning, the president and vice-presidents of the Staff association met with the Presidents of CERN Council, Prof. M. Spiro, and Finance Committee, Dr B. Jacobsen, in the presence of the Director for Administration and General Infrastructure, Mr. S. Lettow, to transmit to them a copy of the resolution accompanied by the 700 signatures. We explained the reasons of our action of Wednesday morning, as well as the position of the Staff Council as expressed in the Res...

  10. Clinically stable angina pectoris is not necessarily associated with histologically stable atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, A. C.; Becker, A. E.; Koch, K. T.; Piek, J. J.; Teeling, P.; van der Loos, C. M.; David, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent of plaque inflammation in culprit lesions of patients with chronic stable angina. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Amsterdam reference centre. SUBJECTS: 89 consecutive patients who underwent directional coronary atherectomy, 58 of whom met the following

  11. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  12. [Influence of low doses of ionizing radiation on tenascin expression in hybridoma cell systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunga, I N

    2003-01-01

    One of the achievements of the modern radiation ecology is the preparation and application of stable eukariotic cell lines to solve various problems occurring under exposure to ionizing radiation, especially to low doses. The detection of onco-fetal protein--tenascin in different embryonic and tumor cells of humans and animals supposes the probability of appropriate gene expression in lymphoid cells, including hybridomal cells. Using the immunochemical method, the study of tenascin expression in two mouse hybridomal lines was carried out. Tenascin was revealed in hybridomal lines MLC-1 and K-48. Further hybridomal cell lines were exposed to X-ray radiation (120 KV) with doses 2.10,15 cGy. The obtained results demonstrated the sensitivity of tenascin expression to low doses of ionizing radiation, that may be used as a convenient model of studying of genotoxic effects of various damaging ionizing agents on a cell level.

  13. YKL-40 a new biomarker in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y.Z.; Ripa, R.S.; Johansen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. YKL-40 is involved in remodelling and angiogenesis in non-cardiac inflammatory diseases. Aim was to quantitate plasma YKL-40 in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or stable chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), and YKL-40 gene activation in human myocardium....... Methods and results. We included 73 patients: I) 20 patients with STEMI; II) 28 patients with stable CAD; III) 15 CAD patients referred for coronary by-pass surgery. YKL-40 mRNA expression was measured in myocardium subtended by stenotic or occluded arteries and areas with no apparent disease; and IV) 10...

  14. Danish stable schools for experiential common learning in groups of organic dairy farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waarst, M.; Nissen, T.B; Østergaard, I.

    2007-01-01

    in phasing out antibiotics from their herds through promotion of animal health. One way of reaching this goal was to form participatory focused farmer groups in an FFS approach, which was adapted to Danish conditions and named "stable schools." Four stable schools were established and went through a 1-yr......The farmer field school (FFS) is a concept for farmers' learning, knowledge exchange, and empowerment that has been developed and used in developing countries. In Denmark, a research project focusing on explicit non-antibiotic strategies involves farmers who have actively expressed an interest...

  15. A crawling robot driven by multi-stable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Alexander; Yan, Tongxi; Chien, Brian; Wissa, A.; Tawfick, S.

    2017-09-01

    Using origami folding to construct and actuate mechanisms and machines offers attractive opportunities from small, scalable, and cheap robots to deployable adaptive structures. This paper presents the design of a bio-inspired origami crawling robot constructed by folding sheets of paper. The origami building block structure is based on the Kresling crease pattern (CP), a chiral tower with a polygonal base, which expands and contracts through coupled longitudinal and rotational motion similar to a screw. We design the origami to have multi-stable structural equilibria which can be tuned by changing the folding CP. Kinematic analysis of these structures based on rigid-plates and hinges at fold lines precludes the shape transformation associated with the bistability of the physical models. To capture the kinematics of the bi-stable origami, the panels’ deformation behavior is modeled utilizing principles of virtual folds. Virtual folds approximate material bending by hinged, rigid panels, which facilitates the development of a kinematic solution via rigid-plate rotation analysis. As such, the kinetics and stability of folded structures are investigated by assigning suitable torsional spring constants to the fold lines. The results presented demonstrate the effect of fold-pattern geometries on the snapping behavior of the bi-stable origami structure based on the Kresling pattern. The crawling robot is presented as a case study for the use of this origami structure to mimic crawling locomotion. The robot is comprised of two origami towers nested inside a paper bellow, and connected by 3D printed end plates. DC motors are used to actuate the expansion and contraction of the internal origami structures to achieve forward locomotion and steering. Beyond locomotion, this simple design can find applications in manipulators, booms, and active structures.

  16. Construction of a hybrid β-hexosaminidase subunit capable of forming stable homodimers that hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Tropak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff disease result from mutations in either the evolutionarily related HEXA or HEXB genes encoding respectively, the α- or β-subunits of β-hexosaminidase A (HexA. Of the three Hex isozymes, only HexA can interact with its cofactor, the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP, and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. A major impediment to establishing gene or enzyme replacement therapy based on HexA is the need to synthesize both subunits. Thus, we combined the critical features of both α- and β-subunits into a single hybrid µ-subunit that contains the α-subunit active site, the stable β-subunit interface and unique areas in each subunit needed to interact with GM2AP. To facilitate intracellular analysis and the purification of the µ-homodimer (HexM, CRISPR-based genome editing was used to disrupt the HEXA and HEXB genes in a Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell line stably expressing the µ-subunit. In association with GM2AP, HexM was shown to hydrolyze a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative both in cellulo and in vitro. Gene transfer studies in both Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff mouse models demonstrated that HexM expression reduced brain GM2 ganglioside levels.

  17. Construction of a hybrid β-hexosaminidase subunit capable of forming stable homodimers that hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropak, Michael B; Yonekawa, Sayuri; Karumuthil-Melethil, Subha; Thompson, Patrick; Wakarchuk, Warren; Gray, Steven J; Walia, Jagdeep S; Mark, Brian L; Mahuran, Don

    2016-01-01

    Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff disease result from mutations in either the evolutionarily related HEXA or HEXB genes encoding respectively, the α- or β-subunits of β-hexosaminidase A (HexA). Of the three Hex isozymes, only HexA can interact with its cofactor, the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP), and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. A major impediment to establishing gene or enzyme replacement therapy based on HexA is the need to synthesize both subunits. Thus, we combined the critical features of both α- and β-subunits into a single hybrid µ-subunit that contains the α-subunit active site, the stable β-subunit interface and unique areas in each subunit needed to interact with GM2AP. To facilitate intracellular analysis and the purification of the µ-homodimer (HexM), CRISPR-based genome editing was used to disrupt the HEXA and HEXB genes in a Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell line stably expressing the µ-subunit. In association with GM2AP, HexM was shown to hydrolyze a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative both in cellulo and in vitro. Gene transfer studies in both Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff mouse models demonstrated that HexM expression reduced brain GM2 ganglioside levels. PMID:26966698

  18. Didactic demonstrations of superfluidity and superconductivity phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniola-Jedrzejak, L.; Lewicki, A.; Pilipowicz, A.; Tarnawski, Z.; Bialek, H.

    1980-01-01

    In order to demonstrate to students phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity a special helium cryostat has been constructed. The demonstrated effects, construction of the cryostat and the method of demonstration are described. (author)

  19. Diets of introduced predators using stable isotopes and stomach contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckstroth, A.M.; Miles, A.K.; Chandra, S.

    2007-01-01

    In a study of predation on ground-nesting birds at South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, USA, we analyzed stomach contents and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to identify commonly consumed prey. We obtained the stomach contents from 206 nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes regalis) collected in the South Bay area and Monterey County during 1995-2001 and from 68 feral cats (Felis silvestris) from the South Bay area during 2001-2002. We determined prey identity, biomass, and frequency, described seasonal diet trends, and derived an Index of Relative Importance. Avian species were the most frequent prey we found in the stomachs of red foxes from South Bay (61%), whereas small rodents were most frequent for red foxes from Monterey County (62%). Small rodents were the most frequent prey we found in feral cats (63%). Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for foxes supported stomach content findings. However, isotope results indicated that cats received a majority of their energy from a source other than rodents and outside the natural system, which differed from the stomach content analysis. We demonstrated the utility of both stable isotope and stomach content analyses to establish a more complete understanding of predators' diets. This information aids natural resource managers in planning and evaluating future predator-removal programs and increases our understanding of the impacts of nonnative foxes and cats on native species.

  20. Designing a stable feedback control system for blind image deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shichao; Liu, Risheng; Fan, Xin; Luo, Zhongxuan

    2018-05-01

    Blind image deconvolution is one of the main low-level vision problems with wide applications. Many previous works manually design regularization to simultaneously estimate the latent sharp image and the blur kernel under maximum a posterior framework. However, it has been demonstrated that such joint estimation strategies may lead to the undesired trivial solution. In this paper, we present a novel perspective, using a stable feedback control system, to simulate the latent sharp image propagation. The controller of our system consists of regularization and guidance, which decide the sparsity and sharp features of latent image, respectively. Furthermore, the formational model of blind image is introduced into the feedback process to avoid the image restoration deviating from the stable point. The stability analysis of the system indicates the latent image propagation in blind deconvolution task can be efficiently estimated and controlled by cues and priors. Thus the kernel estimation used for image restoration becomes more precision. Experimental results show that our system is effective on image propagation, and can perform favorably against the state-of-the-art blind image deconvolution methods on different benchmark image sets and special blurred images. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is a predominantly stable DNA modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Martin; Uribe-Lewis, Santiago; Yang, Xiaoping; Williams, Michael; Murrell, Adele; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2014-12-01

    5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) is an oxidation product of 5-methylcytosine which is present in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of most mammalian cells. Reduction of hmC levels in DNA is a hallmark of cancers. Elucidating the dynamics of this oxidation reaction and the lifetime of hmC in DNA is fundamental to understanding hmC function. Using stable isotope labelling of cytosine derivatives in the DNA of mammalian cells and ultrasensitive tandem liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry, we show that the majority of hmC is a stable modification, as opposed to a transient intermediate. In contrast with DNA methylation, which occurs immediately during replication, hmC forms slowly during the first 30 hours following DNA synthesis. Isotopic labelling of DNA in mouse tissues confirmed the stability of hmC in vivo and demonstrated a relationship between global levels of hmC and cell proliferation. These insights have important implications for understanding the states of chemically modified DNA bases in health and disease.

  2. Low-cost electrodes for stable perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João P.; Manghooli, Sara; Jaysankar, Manoj; Tait, Jeffrey G.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; De Volder, Michael; Uytterhoeven, Griet; Poortmans, Jef; Paetzold, Ulrich W.

    2017-06-01

    Cost-effective production of perovskite solar cells on an industrial scale requires the utilization of exclusively inexpensive materials. However, to date, highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells rely on expensive gold electrodes since other metal electrodes are known to cause degradation of the devices. Finding a low-cost electrode that can replace gold and ensure both efficiency and long-term stability is essential for the success of the perovskite-based solar cell technology. In this work, we systematically compare three types of electrode materials: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), alternative metals (silver, aluminum, and copper), and transparent oxides [indium tin oxide (ITO)] in terms of efficiency, stability, and cost. We show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes are the only electrode that is both more cost-effective and stable than gold. Devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes present remarkable shelf-life stability, with no decrease in the efficiency even after 180 h of storage in 77% relative humidity (RH). Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes to achieve high efficiencies. These developments are an important step forward to mass produce perovskite photovoltaics in a commercially viable way.

  3. A novel bidirectional expression system for simultaneous expression of both the protein-coding genes and short hairpin RNAs in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, C.-F.; Cheng, T.-L.; Wu, R.-H.; Teng, C.-F.; Chang, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an extremely powerful and widely used gene silencing approach for reverse functional genomics and molecular therapeutics. In mammals, the conserved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 2 (PARP-2)/RNase P bidirectional control promoter simultaneously expresses both the PARP-2 protein and RNase P RNA by RNA polymerase II- and III-dependent mechanisms, respectively. To explore this unique bidirectional control system in RNAi-mediated gene silencing strategy, we have constructed two novel bidirectional expression vectors, pbiHsH1 and pbiMmH1, which contained the PARP-2/RNase P bidirectional control promoters from human and mouse, for simultaneous expression of both the protein-coding genes and short hairpin RNAs. Analyses of the dual transcriptional activities indicated that these two bidirectional expression vectors could not only express enhanced green fluorescent protein as a functional reporter but also simultaneously transcribe shLuc for inhibiting the firefly luciferase expression. In addition, to extend its utility for the establishment of inherited stable clones, we have also reconstructed this bidirectional expression system with the blasticidin S deaminase gene, an effective dominant drug resistance selectable marker, and examined both the selection and inhibition efficiencies in drug resistance and gene expression. Moreover, we have further demonstrated that this bidirectional expression system could efficiently co-regulate the functionally important genes, such as overexpression of tumor suppressor protein p53 and inhibition of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 at the same time. In summary, the bidirectional expression vectors, pbiHsH1 and pbiMmH1, should provide a simple, convenient, and efficient novel tool for manipulating the gene function in mammalian cells

  4. Differential protein expression in maize (Zea mays) in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... Accepted 25 May, 2011. Maize (Zea mays) is a major food stable in sub-Saharan Africa. .... has investigated differential expression at the proteome level, comparing this ..... GK, Jwa NS (2001). Characterization of rice (Oryza.

  5. Design of chimeric expression elements that confer high-level gene activity in chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroca, Rodrigo; Howell, Katharine A; Hasse, Claudia; Ruf, Stephanie; Bock, Ralph

    2013-02-01

    Non-green plastids, such as chromoplasts, generally have much lower activity of gene expression than chloroplasts in photosynthetically active tissues. Suppression of plastid genes in non-green tissues occurs through a complex interplay of transcriptional and translational control, with the contribution of regulation of transcript abundance versus translational activity being highly variable between genes. Here, we have investigated whether the low expression of the plastid genome in chromoplasts results from inherent limitations in gene expression capacity, or can be overcome by designing appropriate combinations of promoters and translation initiation signals in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR). We constructed chimeric expression elements that combine promoters and 5'-UTRs from plastid genes, which are suppressed during chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit ripening, either just at the translational level or just at the level of mRNA accumulation. These chimeric expression elements were introduced into the tomato plastid genome by stable chloroplast transformation. We report the identification of promoter-UTR combinations that confer high-level gene expression in chromoplasts of ripe tomato fruits, resulting in the accumulation of reporter protein GFP to up to 1% of total cellular protein. Our work demonstrates that non-green plastids are capable of expressing genes to high levels. Moreover, the chimeric cis-elements for chromoplasts developed here are widely applicable in basic and applied research using transplastomic methods. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Regulation and expression of Lcr plasmid-mediated peptides in pesticinogenic Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown in this thesis that cells of Lcr + , Pst - Y. pestis KIM are able to express Yops at levels comparable to that of Lcr + Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Pulse-chase radiolabeling with 35 S-methionine was used to demonstrate that Lcr + , Pst + Y. pestis synthesized at least 11 distinct peptides during the low calcium response and that seven of the labeled peptides were rapidly degraded. These seven peptides were stably expressed in Lcr + , Pst - Y. pestis and were of identical molecular weights as the Yops expressed by that strain. Radiolabeled fragments of low molecular weight accumulated in the extracellular medium of Pst + cultures and were assumed to be stable degradation fragments derived from Yops. It was also shown that the set of stable peptides, including V antigen, were made during restriction by both Pst + and Pst - Y. pestis KIM and were located primarily within the cytoplasm. Those radiolabeled peptides which underwent proteolytic degradation in Pst + Y. pestis were localized to the outer membrane and extracellular medium in the Pst - strain. It is concluded that the failure of Lcr + , Pst + Y. pestis to express Yops is the result of post-translational degradation and is not a block in the synthesis of Yops

  7. Intact Rapid Facial Mimicry as well as Generally Reduced Mimic Responses in Stable Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechko, Natalya; Pagel, Alena; Otte, Ellen; Koch, Iring; Habel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous emotional expressions (rapid facial mimicry) perform both emotional and social functions. In the current study, we sought to test whether there were deficits in automatic mimic responses to emotional facial expressions in patients (15 of them) with stable schizophrenia compared to 15 controls. In a perception-action interference paradigm (the Simon task; first experiment), and in the context of a dual-task paradigm (second experiment), the task-relevant stimulus feature was the gender of a face, which, however, displayed a smiling or frowning expression (task-irrelevant stimulus feature). We measured the electromyographical activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions in response to either compatible or incompatible stimuli (i.e., when the required response did or did not correspond to the depicted facial expression). The compatibility effect based on interactions between the implicit processing of a task-irrelevant emotional facial expression and the conscious production of an emotional facial expression did not differ between the groups. In stable patients (in spite of a reduced mimic reaction), we observed an intact capacity to respond spontaneously to facial emotional stimuli. PMID:27303335

  8. Stable isogeometric analysis of trimmed geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marussig, Benjamin; Zechner, Jürgen; Beer, Gernot; Fries, Thomas-Peter

    2017-04-01

    We explore extended B-splines as a stable basis for isogeometric analysis with trimmed parameter spaces. The stabilization is accomplished by an appropriate substitution of B-splines that may lead to ill-conditioned system matrices. The construction for non-uniform knot vectors is presented. The properties of extended B-splines are examined in the context of interpolation, potential, and linear elasticity problems and excellent results are attained. The analysis is performed by an isogeometric boundary element formulation using collocation. It is argued that extended B-splines provide a flexible and simple stabilization scheme which ideally suits the isogeometric paradigm.

  9. The observation of a stable dibaryon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhbazyan, B.A.; Sashin, V.A.; Kecheryan, A.O.; Martynov, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    V 0 -particle which is unambiguously interpreted as a weak decay of the stable dibaryon value of cross section H→p+Σ - ,Σ→n+π - is observed. Its mass is M H =(2218+-12) MeV c 2 with a standard deviation S=12 MeV/c 2 and the error of the mean σ=2.8 MeV/c 2 . The investigation has been performed at the Laboratory of High energies, JINR. 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  10. Protein labelling with stable isotopes: strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirsac, P.N.; Gilles, N.; Jamin, N.; Toma, F.; Gabrielsen, O.; Boulain, J.C.; Menez, A.

    1994-01-01

    A protein labelling technique with stable isotopes has been developed at the CEA: a labelled complete medium has been developed, performing as well as the Luria medium, but differing from it because it contains not only free aminated acids and peptides, but also sugars (96% of D-glucopyrannose) and labelled nucleosides. These precursors are produced from a labelled photosynthetic micro-organisms biomass, obtained with micro-algae having incorporated carbon 13, nitrogen 15 and deuterium during their culture. Labelling costs are reduced. 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs

  11. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.; Walters, R.A.; Enger, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn 2+ or Cd 2+ . We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  12. Stable isotopes for improving human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uauy, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    recent FAO review of nutrition programs in 19 Latin American countries found that over 20 percent of the population - approximately 83 million people out of an estimated 414 million in the study countries - receives some level of benefits in nutrition-related programs. The allocation of limited national and international assistance resources for these activities in the region is on the order of several billion dollars annually. Undoubtedly these programs are influencing child growth. Significant reductions in underweight and wasting have occurred; but stunting has been more resistant to change. In this setting providing food supplements may be beneficial for some while it may be detrimental for others. The definition of who should benefit from the programs and what is the right combination of nutrients/foods, education, and lifestyle interventions that is required to optimise nutrition and health at each stage of the life cycle is a truly complex problem. This demands the use of the best scientific tools to define who should benefit, what should done and measured as an outcome, how programs should be evaluated, when programs should be expanded, and when they should be stopped. Isotopic and nuclear techniques are tools, not solutions. This presentation will serve to demonstrate how isotopes can contribute to refining nutrition interventions and their impact on public health. Isotopic methods can shorten the time needed to evaluate impact, because they provide sensitive measurements of biological effects. They are faster than traditional methods such as anthropometry for detecting changes in growth and body composition. Micronutrient malnutrition, and especially the bioavailability of vitamins and minerals from traditional foods, are not well evaluated using routine biochemical methods. Radioisotopes have been used successfully in the past. But recent developments in stable isotope techniques offer unique advantages for the design and evaluation of programmes that address

  13. A Fault Sample Simulation Approach for Virtual Testability Demonstration Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; QIU Jing; LIU Guanjun; YANG Peng

    2012-01-01

    Virtual testability demonstration test has many advantages,such as low cost,high efficiency,low risk and few restrictions.It brings new requirements to the fault sample generation.A fault sample simulation approach for virtual testability demonstration test based on stochastic process theory is proposed.First,the similarities and differences of fault sample generation between physical testability demonstration test and virtual testability demonstration test are discussed.Second,it is pointed out that the fault occurrence process subject to perfect repair is renewal process.Third,the interarrival time distribution function of the next fault event is given.Steps and flowcharts of fault sample generation are introduced.The number of faults and their occurrence time are obtained by statistical simulation.Finally,experiments are carried out on a stable tracking platform.Because a variety of types of life distributions and maintenance modes are considered and some assumptions are removed,the sample size and structure of fault sample simulation results are more similar to the actual results and more reasonable.The proposed method can effectively guide the fault injection in virtual testability demonstration test.

  14. Matching faces with emotional expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng eChen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence that faces with a happy expression are recognized better than faces with other expressions. However, little is known about whether this happy face advantage also applies to perceptual face matching, and whether similar differences exist among other expressions. Using a sequential matching paradigm, we systematically compared the effects of seven basic facial expressions on identity recognition. Identity matching was quickest when a pair of faces had an identical happy/sad/neutral expression, poorer when they had a fearful/surprise/angry expression, and poorest when they had a disgust expression. Faces with a happy/sad/fear/surprise expression were matched faster than those with an anger/disgust expression when the second face in a pair had a neutral expression. These results demonstrate that effects of facial expression on identity recognition are not limited to happy faces when a learned face is immediately tested. The results suggest different influences of expression in perceptual matching and long-term recognition memory.

  15. Remarks on stable and quasi-stable k-strings at large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armoni, A.; Shifman, M.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss k-strings in the large-N Yang-Mills theory and its supersymmetric extension. Whereas the tension of the bona fide (stable) QCD string is expected to depend only on the N-ality of the representation, tensions that depend on specific representation R are often reported in the lattice literature. In particular, adjoint strings are discussed and found in certain simulations. We clarify this issue by systematically exploiting the notion of the quasi-stable strings which becomes well-defined at large N. The quasi-stable strings with representation-dependent tensions decay, but the decay rate (per unit length per unit time) is suppressed as Λ 2 F(N) where F(N) falls off as a function of N. It can be determined on the case-by-case basis. The quasi-stable strings eventually decay into stable strings whose tension indeed depends only on the N-ality. We also briefly review large-N arguments showing why the Casimir formula for the string tension cannot be correct, and present additional arguments in favor of the sine formula. Finally, we comment on the relevance of our estimates to Euclidean lattice measurements

  16. Highly air stable passivation of graphene based field effect devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagade, Abhay A; Neumaier, Daniel; Schall, Daniel; Otto, Martin; Pesquera, Amaia; Centeno, Alba; Elorza, Amaia Zurutuza; Kurz, Heinrich

    2015-02-28

    The sensitivity of graphene based devices to surface adsorbates and charge traps at the graphene/dielectric interface requires proper device passivation in order to operate them reproducibly under ambient conditions. Here we report on the use of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide as passivation layer on graphene field effect devices (GFETs). We show that successful passivation produce hysteresis free DC characteristics, low doping level GFETs stable over weeks though operated and stored in ambient atmosphere. This is achieved by selecting proper seed layer prior to deposition of encapsulation layer. The passivated devices are also demonstrated to be robust towards the exposure to chemicals and heat treatments, typically used during device fabrication. Additionally, the passivation of high stability and reproducible characteristics is also shown for functional devices like integrated graphene based inverters.

  17. Evidence of a stable binary CdCa quasicrystalline phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Jensen, C.H.; Rasmussen, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Quasicrystals with a primitive icosahedral structure and a quasilattice constant of 5.1215 Angstrom have been synthesized in a binary Cd-Ca system. The thermal stability of the quasicrystal has been investigated by in situ high-temperature x-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. It ....... It is demonstrated that the binary CdCa quasicrystal is thermodynamic stable up to its melting temperature. The linear thermal expansion coefficient of the quasicrystal is 2.765x10(-5) K-1. (C) 2001 American Institute of Physics.......Quasicrystals with a primitive icosahedral structure and a quasilattice constant of 5.1215 Angstrom have been synthesized in a binary Cd-Ca system. The thermal stability of the quasicrystal has been investigated by in situ high-temperature x-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation...

  18. Intrinsically stable phase-modulated polarization encoding system for quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaobao [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liao Changjun [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)], E-mail: chliao@scnu.edu.cn; Mi Jinglong; Wang Jindong; Liu Songhao [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2008-12-22

    We demonstrate experimentally an intrinsically stable polarization coding and decoding system composed of optical-fiber Sagnac interferometers with integrated phase modulators for quantum key distribution. An interference visibility of 98.35% can be kept longtime during the experiment without any efforts of active compensation for coding all four desired polarization states.

  19. Biomimetic triblock copolymer membrane arrays: a stable template for functional membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Perez, A.; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Vissing, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that biomimetic stable triblock copolymer membrane arrays can be prepared using a scaffold containing 64 apertures of 300 μm diameter each. The membranes were made from a stock solution of block copolymers with decane as a solvent using a new deposition method. By using decane...

  20. Successive substitution one-leg hybrid P-stable LMM for initial value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper derives P-stable successive substitution one-leg hybrid linear multistep methods for the numerical solution of second order initial value problems in ordinary differential equations without explicit first order derivative. The methods are demonstrated by a numerical example also considered by Fatunla, et al (1997) ...