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Sample records for demonstrated substantial improvements

  1. Substantial Improvements of Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper evaluates the scope for improving the energy and environmental impacts of road transport by means of electrical and hybrid propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy compared to equivalent vehicles mas well as beneficial effects for the energy...

  2. Substantial Improvements of Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper evaluates the scope for improving the energy and environmental impacts of road transport by means of electrical and hybrid propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy compared to equivalent vehicles mas well as beneficial effects for the energy...... and traffic systems. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulation....

  3. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but i...

  4. Demonstration of “substantial research activity” to acquire consultative status under the Antarctic Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Gray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties are entitled to participate in consensus-based governance of the continent through the annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings. To acquire consultative status, an interested Party must demonstratesubstantial research activity,” but no agreed mechanism exists to determine whether a Party has fulfilled this criterion. Parties have generally demonstrated substantial research activity with the construction of a research station, as suggested within the Treaty itself. However, this largely demonstrates logistical capacity, rather than research activity, and often results in major and persistent impacts on Antarctic terrestrial environments. Our study found that national investment in Antarctic infrastructure, estimated by the number of bed spaces at stations, was not a reliable indicator of scientific output. Therefore, we investigated metrics to evaluate research activity directly, and identified both the overall number of Antarctic papers and the proportion of national scientific output these represented as meaningful metrics. Such metrics could (1 demonstrate a nation's level of research activity in Antarctica or (2 help Consultative Parties assess the level of research activity undertaken by a Party seeking to acquire consultative status. Our data showed that, even without land-based Antarctic infrastructure, Canada, Denmark and Switzerland may have reasonable grounds to demonstratesubstantial research activity” on a level comparable with existing Consultative Parties. The use of these metrics may help dispel any perceived requirement for the establishment of a research station to reach consultative status, by putting a greater emphasis on generation of scientific research outputs rather than construction of Antarctic infrastructure.

  5. Faculty development on item writing substantially improves item quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeem, N.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Alfaris, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of items written for in-house examinations in medical schools remains a cause of concern. Several faculty development programs are aimed at improving faculty's item writing skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a faculty development program in item develo

  6. Faculty development on item writing substantially improves item quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Naghma; van der Vleuten, Cees; Alfaris, Eiad Abdelmohsen

    2012-08-01

    The quality of items written for in-house examinations in medical schools remains a cause of concern. Several faculty development programs are aimed at improving faculty's item writing skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a faculty development program in item development. An objective method was developed and used to assess improvement in faculty's competence to develop high quality test items. This was a quasi experimental study with a pretest-midtest-posttest design. A convenience sample of 51 faculty members participated. Structured checklists were used to assess the quality of test items at each phase of the study. Group scores were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The results showed a significant increase in participants' mean scores on Multiple Choice Questions, Short Answer Questions and Objective Structured Clinical Examination checklists from pretest to posttest (p development are generally lacking in quality. It also provides evidence of the value of faculty development in improving the quality of items generated by faculty.

  7. Fundamentals of modern statistical methods substantially improving power and accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2001-01-01

    Conventional statistical methods have a very serious flaw They routinely miss differences among groups or associations among variables that are detected by more modern techniques - even under very small departures from normality Hundreds of journal articles have described the reasons standard techniques can be unsatisfactory, but simple, intuitive explanations are generally unavailable Improved methods have been derived, but they are far from obvious or intuitive based on the training most researchers receive Situations arise where even highly nonsignificant results become significant when analyzed with more modern methods Without assuming any prior training in statistics, Part I of this book describes basic statistical principles from a point of view that makes their shortcomings intuitive and easy to understand The emphasis is on verbal and graphical descriptions of concepts Part II describes modern methods that address the problems covered in Part I Using data from actual studies, many examples are include...

  8. People attending pulmonary rehabilitation demonstrate a substantial engagement with technology and willingness to use telerehabilitation: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah Seidman

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: People attending metropolitan pulmonary rehabilitation, maintenance exercise classes and support groups had substantial technology engagement, with high device access and use, and good self-rated technology competence. The majority of participants were willing to use telerehabilitation, especially if they were regular users of technology devices. [Seidman Z, McNamara R, Wootton S, Leung R, Spencer L, Dale M, Dennis S, McKeough Z (2017 People attending pulmonary rehabilitation demonstrate a substantial engagement with technology and willingness to use telerehabilitation: a survey. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 175–181

  9. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottrell Greg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but it is unknown whether HIT has the capacity to improve insulin action and hence glycemic control. Methods Sixteen young men (age: 21 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.7 ± 3.1 kg·m-2; VO2peak: 48 ± 9 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed 2 weeks of supervised HIT comprising of a total of 15 min of exercise (6 sessions; 4–6 × 30-s cycle sprints per session. Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial, and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT were determined before and after training. Results Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose, insulin and NEFA concentration-time curves were all reduced (12%, 37%, 26% respectively, all P -1, P = 0.058. Insulin sensitivity, as measured by the Cederholm index, was improved by 23% (P Conclusion The efficacy of a high intensity exercise protocol, involving only ~250 kcal of work each week, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise regimes.

  10. Error-corrected AFM: a simple and broadly applicable approach for substantially improving AFM image accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, James L; Huey, Bryan D

    2014-04-18

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become an indispensable tool for imaging the topography and properties of surfaces at the nanoscale. A ubiquitous problem, however, is that optimal accuracy demands smooth surfaces, slow scanning, and expert users, contrary to many AFM applications and practical use patterns. Accordingly, a simple correction to AFM topographic images is implemented, incorporating error signals such as deflection and/or amplitude data that have long been available but quantitatively underexploited. This is demonstrated to substantially improve both height and lateral accuracy for expert users, with a corresponding 3-5 fold decrease in image error. Common image artifacts due to inexperienced AFM use, generally poorly scanned surfaces, or high speed images acquired in as fast as 7 s, are also shown to be effectively rectified, returning results equivalent to standard 'expert-user' images. This concept is proven for contact mode AFM, AC-mode, and high speed imaging, as well as property mapping such as phase contrast, with obvious extensions to many specialized AFM variations as well. Conveniently, as this correction procedure is based on either real time or post-processing, it is easily employed for future as well as legacy AFM systems and data. Such error-corrected AFM therefore offers a simple, broadly applicable approach for more accurate, more efficient, and more user-friendly implementation of AFM for nanoscale topography and property mapping.

  11. The methodical substantiation of measures to improve the use of basic production assets of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol Svetlana Anatolevna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The method of calculating the performance measures to improve the use of basic production assets of the enterprise: production cost, production volume, number of additional workers, depreciation and amortization.

  12. Substantial Progress Yet Significant Opportunity for Improvement in Stroke Care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zixiao; Wang, Chunjuan; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Wang, Chunxue; Li, Hao; Shen, Haipeng; Liang, Li; Bettger, Janet; Yang, Qing; Wang, David; Wang, Anxin; Pan, Yuesong; Jiang, Yong; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Changqing; Fonarow, Gregg C; Schwamm, Lee H; Hu, Bo; Peterson, Eric D; Xian, Ying; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2016-11-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death in China. Yet the adherence to guideline-recommended ischemic stroke performance metrics in the past decade has been previously shown to be suboptimal. Since then, several nationwide stroke quality management initiatives have been conducted in China. We sought to determine whether adherence had improved since then. Data were obtained from the 2 phases of China National Stroke Registries, which included 131 hospitals (12 173 patients with acute ischemic stroke) in China National Stroke Registries phase 1 from 2007 to 2008 versus 219 hospitals (19 604 patients) in China National Stroke Registries phase 2 from 2012 to 2013. Multiple regression models were developed to evaluate the difference in adherence to performance measure between the 2 study periods. The overall quality of care has improved over time, as reflected by the higher composite score of 0.76 in 2012 to 2013 versus 0.63 in 2007 to 2008. Nine of 13 individual performance metrics improved. However, there were no significant improvements in the rates of intravenous thrombolytic therapy and anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. After multivariate analysis, there remained a significant 1.17-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.21) increase in the odds of delivering evidence-based performance metrics in the more recent time periods versus older data. The performance metrics with the most significantly increased odds included stroke education, dysphagia screening, smoking cessation, and antithrombotics at discharge. Adherence to stroke performance metrics has increased over time, but significant opportunities remain for further improvement. Continuous stroke quality improvement program should be developed as a national priority in China. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L.H. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  14. Quantifying tropical dry forest type and succession: substantial improvement with LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Lee A. Vierling; Andrew T. Hudak; Ross F. Nelson; Jeffrey S. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Improved technologies are needed to advance our knowledge of the biophysical and human factors influencing tropical dry forests, one of the world’s most threatened ecosystems. We evaluated the use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data to address two major needs in remote sensing of tropical dry forests, i.e., classification of forest types and delineation of...

  15. Substantially improved pharmacokinetics of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase by fusion to human serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierson Janice

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human butyrylcholinesterase (huBChE has been shown to be an effective antidote against multiple LD50 of organophosphorus compounds. A prerequisite for such use of huBChE is a prolonged circulatory half-life. This study was undertaken to produce recombinant huBChE fused to human serum albumin (hSA and characterize the fusion protein. Results Secretion level of the fusion protein produced in vitro in BHK cells was ~30 mg/liter. Transgenic mice and goats generated with the fusion constructs expressed in their milk a bioactive protein at concentrations of 0.04–1.1 g/liter. BChE activity gel staining and a size exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC revealed that the fusion protein consisted of predominant dimers and some monomers. The protein was confirmed to have expected molecular mass of ~150 kDa by Western blot. The purified fusion protein produced in vitro was injected intravenously into juvenile pigs for pharmacokinetic study. Analysis of a series of blood samples using the Ellman assay revealed a substantial enhancement of the plasma half-life of the fusion protein (~32 h when compared with a transgenically produced huBChE preparation containing >70% tetramer (~3 h. In vitro nerve agent binding and inhibition experiments indicated that the fusion protein in the milk of transgenic mice had similar inhibition characteristics compared to human plasma BChE against the nerve agents tested. Conclusion Both the pharmacokinetic study and the in vitro nerve agent binding and inhibition assay suggested that a fusion protein retaining both properties of huBChE and hSA is produced in vitro and in vivo. The production of the fusion protein in the milk of transgenic goats provided further evidence that sufficient quantities of BChE/hSA can be produced to serve as a cost-effective and reliable source of BChE for prophylaxis and post-exposure treatment.

  16. Management of COPD in general practice in Denmark--participating in an educational program substantially improves adherence to guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Jensen, Michael Skov;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The general practitioner (GP) is the first contact with the health care system for most patients with COPD in Denmark. We studied, if participating in an educational program could improve adherence to guidelines, not least for diagnosis, staging, and treatment of the disease....... DESIGN AND SETTING: Two cross-sectional surveys were performed precisely one year apart before and after an educational program for the participating GPs. A total of 124 GPs completed the study; 1716 and 1342 patients with GP-diagnosed COPD and no concomitant asthma, respectively, were included...... activity, and referral for rehabilitation; use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with mild COPD (FEV(1) > 80%pred) declined from 76% to 45%. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis and management of COPD in general practice in Denmark is not according to guidelines, but substantial improvements can be achieved...

  17. Longer hospital stay, more complications, and increased mortality but substantially improved function after knee replacement in older patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maempel, Julian F; Riddoch, Fraser; Calleja, Neville; Brenkel, Ivan J

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee replacement (TKR) is being increasingly performed in elderly patients, yet there is little information on specific requirements and complication rates encountered by this group. We assessed whether elderly patients undergoing TKR had different length of stay, requirements, complication rates, and functional outcomes compared to younger counterparts. Patients and methods We analyzed prospectively gathered data on 3,144 consecutive primary TKRs (in 2,092 patients aged less than 75 years, 694 patients aged between 75 and 80 years, and 358 patients aged over 80 years at the time of surgery). Results Incidence of blood transfusion, urinary catheterization, postoperative confusion, cardiac arrhythmia, and 1-year mortality increased with age, even after adjusting for confounding factors, whereas the incidences of chest infection and mortality at 1 month were highest in those aged 75–80. Rates of thromboembolism, prosthetic infection, and revision were similar in the 3 age groups. All groups showed similar substantial improvements in American Knee Society (AKS) knee scores, which were maintained at 5 years. Older patients had smaller improvements in AKS function score, which deteriorated between 3 and 5 years postoperatively, in contrast to the younger group. Interpretation Elderly people stand to gain considerably from TKR, particularly in terms of pain relief, and they should not be denied surgery based solely on age. However, they should be warned that they can expect a longer length of stay, a higher requirement for blood transfusion and/or urinary catheterization, and more medical complications postoperatively. Mortality was also higher in the older age groups. The risks have been quantified to assist in perioperative counselling, informed consent, and healthcare planning. PMID:25885004

  18. Improved Bell-in-a-Bell-Jar Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dejun

    2003-05-01

    It is well understood in acoustics that a medium is required to conduct sound. Stated in another way, sound is not transmitted through a vacuum. The earliest person to test this experimentally was the Irish physicist Robert Boyle (1627-1691). In his experiment, he put a ringing bell under a glass cover called a bell jar. After the air was pumped out, the ringing disappeared. This convinced him that sound cannot be conducted in vacuum. Here we describe an improved version of this demonstration.

  19. Does improved waste treatment have demonstrable biological benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagle, Henry H.; Hendricks, Albert C.; Cairns, John

    1980-01-01

    Since 1972, 10 benthic surveys and 9 static fish bioassays have been conducted to assess the impact of AVTEX Fibers, Inc. effluent on the lower South Fork of the Shenandoah River. AVTEX (formerly FMC Corp.) is a rayon and polyester fibers plant located in Front Royal, Virginia. Benthic samples were taken at four stations, one above and three below the plant discharges. Single surveys in 1972 and 1973 indicated a severe impact on the benthic community along the right side of the river, below the plant, as a result of the channelized effluent. Diversity values (¯ d) were low (0 2.42) and numbers of taxa and organisms were reduced. A fish bioassay in 1973 indicated the effluent to be acutely toxic at the 34.5% level (mixture of effluent and river water). In early 1974, FMC Corp. constructed an activated sludge treatment system to reduce BOD and supplement the neutralization and chemical precipitation (zinc hydroxide and liquid-solid separation) facilities that had been used to treat waste waters since 1948. After the new equipment was placed in operation, the previously stressed area became more stable. In 1975 and 1976 the stressed area exhibited greater ¯ d values (1.19 3.39) and an increased number of taxa and organisms. Bioassays showed the effluent to be acutely toxic to fish only once since 1973. The major improvements in the effluent were a 70% reduction in BOD5 and a 60% reduction in the amount of zinc entering the river. Community conditions in 1977 indicated a partial remission of improvement, probably due to drought conditions. The rehabilitation of damaged ecosystems is a process important to all biologists. An important factor in encouraging industry to participate in this activity is evidence that improved waste treatment will often have demonstrable biological benefits rather soon. As data accumulate on the recovery process it may be possible to predict the degree of rehabilitation and time required more precisely.

  20. Management of COPD in general practice in Denmark--participating in an educational program substantially improves adherence to guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Jensen, Michael Skov

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The general practitioner (GP) is the first contact with the health care system for most patients with COPD in Denmark. We studied, if participating in an educational program could improve adherence to guidelines, not least for diagnosis, staging, and treatment of the disease. ...

  1. Optoelectronic and Excitonic Properties of Oligoacenes: Substantial Improvements from Range-Separated Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Bryan M; 10.1021/ct100529s

    2010-01-01

    The optoelectronic and excitonic properties in a series of linear acenes (naphthalene up to heptacene) are investigated using range-separated methods within time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). In these rather simple systems, it is well-known that TDDFT methods using conventional hybrid functionals surprisingly fail in describing the low-lying La and Lb valence states, resulting in large, growing errors for the La state and an incorrect energetic ordering as a function of molecular size. In this work, we demonstrate that the range-separated formalism largely eliminates both of these errors and also provides a consistent description of excitonic properties in these systems. We further demonstrate that re-optimizing the percentage of Hartree-Fock exchange in conventional hybrids to match wavefunction-based benchmark calculations still yields serious errors, and a full 100% Hartree-Fock range separation is essential for simultaneously describing both of the La and Lb transitions. Based on an analysi...

  2. Residential Energy Efficiency Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.; Rutter, A.; Briggs, D.

    2014-03-01

    In order to meet its energy goals, the Department of Defense (DOD) has partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy-efficiency technologies. The scope of this project was to demonstrate tools and technologies to reduce energy use in military housing, with particular emphasis on measuring and reducing loads related to consumer electronics (commonly referred to as 'plug loads'), hot water, and whole-house cooling.

  3. LNA probes substantially improve the detection of bacterial endosymbionts in whole mount of insects by fluorescent in-situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Natarajan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of unculturable bacteria and their localization in the host, by fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH, is a powerful technique in the study of host-bacteria interaction. FISH probes are designed to target the 16 s rRNA region of the bacteria to be detected. LNA probes have recently been used in FISH studies and proven to be more efficient. To date no report has employed LNA probes for FISH detection of bacterial endosymbiont in the whole mount tissues. Further, though speculated, bacteriocytes have not been reported from males of Bemisia tabaci. Results In this study, we compared the efficiency in detecting bacteria by fluorescent DNA oligonucleotides versus modified probes containing Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA substitution in their structure. We used the insect Bemisia tabaci as the experimental material since it carried simultaneous infection by two bacteria: one a primary endosymbiont, Portiera (and present in more numbers while the other a secondary endosymbiont Arsenophonus (and present in less numbers. Thus a variation in the abundance of bacteria was expected. While detecting both the bacteria, we found a significant increase in the signal whenever LNA probes were used. However, the difference was more pronounced in detecting the secondary endosymbiont, wherein DNA probes gave weak signals when compared to LNA probes. Also, signal to noise ratio for LNA probes was higher than DNA probes. We found that LNA considerably improved sensitivity of FISH, as compared to the commonly used DNA oligonucleotide probe. Conclusion By employing LNA probes we could detect endosymbiotic bacteria in males, which have never been reported previously. We were able to detect bacteriocytes containing Portiera and Arsenophonus in the males of B. tabaci. Thus, employing LNA probes at optimized conditions will help to significantly improve detection of bacteria at the lowest concentration and may give a comprehensible depiction

  4. Batch correction of microarray data substantially improves the identification of genes differentially expressed in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupfer Peter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Batch effects due to sample preparation or array variation (type, charge, and/or platform may influence the results of microarray experiments and thus mask and/or confound true biological differences. Of the published approaches for batch correction, the algorithm “Combating Batch Effects When Combining Batches of Gene Expression Microarray Data” (ComBat appears to be most suitable for small sample sizes and multiple batches. Methods Synovial fibroblasts (SFB; purity > 98% were obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA and osteoarthritis (OA patients (n = 6 each and stimulated with TNF-α or TGF-β1 for 0, 1, 2, 4, or 12 hours. Gene expression was analyzed using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 chips, an alternative chip definition file, and normalization by Robust Multi-Array Analysis (RMA. Data were batch-corrected for different acquiry dates using ComBat and the efficacy of the correction was validated using hierarchical clustering. Results In contrast to the hierarchical clustering dendrogram before batch correction, in which RA and OA patients clustered randomly, batch correction led to a clear separation of RA and OA. Strikingly, this applied not only to the 0 hour time point (i.e., before stimulation with TNF-α/TGF-β1, but also to all time points following stimulation except for the late 12 hour time point. Batch-corrected data then allowed the identification of differentially expressed genes discriminating between RA and OA. Batch correction only marginally modified the original data, as demonstrated by preservation of the main Gene Ontology (GO categories of interest, and by minimally changed mean expression levels (maximal change 4.087% or variances for all genes of interest. Eight genes from the GO category “extracellular matrix structural constituent” (5 different collagens, biglycan, and tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-like 1 were differentially expressed between RA and OA (RA

  5. To demonstrate four ways to improve interpersonal communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽

    2010-01-01

    @@ Interpersonal communication is one way in which an individual might meet their needs and assist others in meeting their needs.In the process of communication we have the opportunity to gain information,and delonstrate the ability to request things to be done.So it's very important to maintain a good interpersonal communication.There are four ways to improve interpersonal communication which are positivity,openness,assurances,and sharing tasks.

  6. Design, development and demonstration of an improved bird washing machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Monsef, H; Moghadami, M; Zare, M; Armandei, A

    2014-07-01

    Since oil was first extracted, pollution of the seas and oceans or adjacent coasts has been an obstacle for the oil industry and environmental activists. The major concern is oil discharge into the water which may lead to birds' affliction or death, besides putting marine life in jeopardy. This paper presents the first description of the design and implementation of a new bird washing machine that can be utilized for cleaning of oil-coated birds with the minimum of stress. The machine is equipped with a pneumatic system comprised of 19 moving nozzles which evenly cover the bird's body and is designed to be used in contaminated environments where a vast number of birds are affected. Experimental trials show an improvement in operation efficiency compared to other methods in a reduction in washing time, energy consumption and a decrease in fatality rate of washed birds.

  7. Improving Your Exploratory Factor Analysis for Ordinal Data: A Demonstration Using FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Baglin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory factor analysis (EFA methods are used extensively in the field of assessment and evaluation. Due to EFA's widespread use, common methods and practices have come under close scrutiny. A substantial body of literature has been compiled highlighting problems with many of the methods and practices used in EFA, and, in response, many guidelines have been proposed with the aim to improve application. Unfortunately, implementing recommended EFA practices has been restricted by the range of options available in commercial statistical packages and, perhaps, due to an absence of clear, practical - how-to' demonstrations. Consequently, this article describes the application of methods recommended to get the most out of your EFA. The article focuses on dealing with the common situation of analysing ordinal data as derived from Likert-type scales. These methods are demonstrated using the free, stand-alone, easy-to-use and powerful EFA package FACTOR (http://psico.fcep.urv.es/utilitats/factor/, Lorenzo-Seva & Ferrando, 2006. The demonstration applies the recommended techniques using an accompanying dataset, based on the Big 5 personality test. The outcomes obtained by the EFA using the recommended procedures through FACTOR are compared to the default techniques currently available in SPSS.

  8. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  9. RM12-2703 Advanced Rooftop Unit Control Retrofit Kit Field Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebber, I.; Dean, J.; Dominick, J.; Holland, G.

    2014-03-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This was one of several demonstrations of new and underutilized commercial energy efficiency technologies. The consistent year-round demand for air conditioning and dehumidification in Hawaii provides an advantageous demonstration location for advanced rooftop control (ARC) retrofit kits to packaged rooftop units (RTUs). This report summarizes the field demonstration of ARCs installed on nine RTUs serving a 70,000-ft2 exchange store (large retail) and two RTUs, each serving small office buildings located on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH).

  10. Proteomics as a tool to improve investigation of substantial equivalence in genetically modified organisms: the case of a virus-resistant tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpillo, Davide; Gardini, Giulia; Vaira, Anna Maria; Basso, Manuela; Aime, Silvio; Accotto, Gian Paolo; Fasano, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    At present, the so-called "substantial equivalence" is the only widely accepted criterion for deciding whether or not a transgenic food is, from an alimentary point of view, to be considered totally correspondent to the "traditional" one from which it derives. Although never exactly defined, it deals with a comparison between the chemical composition of the two foods. A more in-depth analysis can be performed by one of the most suitable methods that allows for the simultaneous screening of many components without prior identification, the analysis of the proteome. As a model for testing this kind of approach, we compared protein expression of two types of tomato plants, having the same genetic background, except for a virus resistance trait introduced by genetic engineering. When proteins extracted from seedlings of the two types were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, no significant differences, either qualitative or quantitative, were detected, indicating that in this case the expression of major proteins was unmodified by the genetic manipulation. Fifteen proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting.

  11. Improved recovery demonstration for Williston Basin carbonates. Annual report, June 10, 1995--June 9, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrell, L.A.; Sippel, M.A.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate targeted infill and extension drilling opportunities, better determinations of oil-in-place, methods for improved completion efficiency and the suitability of waterflooding in Red River and Ratcliffe shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Williston Basin, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing three-dimensional and multi-component seismic are being investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Improved completion efficiency is being tested with extended-reach jetting lance and other ultra-short-radius lateral technologies. Improved completion efficiency, additional wells at closer spacing and better estimates of oil in place will result in additional oil recovery by primary and enhanced recovery processes.

  12. Demonstration & Testing of ClimaStat for Improved DX Air-Conditioning Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ClimaStat technology installed, which likely results in longer compressor life as well as sustainability of improved efficiency: compressor temperature...Canaveral AFS Demonstration Site Patrick Air Force Base is a 21,500-acre installation located a few miles from Cocoa Beach, FL, about 50 miles east...cooler with ClimaStat technology installed as shown in Figure 6.3-5, which likely will result in longer compressor life as well as sustainability of

  13. Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room Air Handlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Greenberg, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Vita, Corinne [Vigilent, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This report documents a demonstration of the energy-efficiency improvement provided by a new control system for computer room air handling devices. It also analyzes measured and reported air handling device fan power associated with changing the fan type. A 135,000 square foot commercial data center was used for the demonstration. All air handling units were upgraded with improved efficiency fans, and a control system that automatically adjusts the fan speed for the air handling units was added. Power measurements were collected for a baseline and for a period with the fan speed control system active. Changing the fan type resulted in a savings of 47 percent of energy used by the air handling equipment and associated chiller plant energy needed to cool the air handlers themselves. The addition of the fan speed control resulted in an additional 37 percent savings in the same two categories. The combined savings for the two improvements for the same categories was 66 percent compared to the data center fitted with the original fans without a control system. The energy use reduction provided by the complete air handling device improvement program for the whole data center site is estimated to be 2.9 million kilowatt hours per year—an overall data center site savings of 8.0 percent. The reduced electrical energy use at the site provides a 1.9 million pound yearly reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This demonstration showed that fan upgrades and a control system addition provide cost-effective improvements for data centers, with a payback reported to be under two years without utility incentives. In addition to the control system providing energy savings, the data collection and visual analysis capabilities provided immediate and long-term benefits. It is recommended that data center operators consider investing in fan upgrades and/or adding fan speed control for computer room air handlers.

  14. Experimental demonstration of improved fiber nonlinearity tolerance for unique-word DFT-spread OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, An; Gao, Guanjun; Shieh, William

    2011-12-19

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate transmission performance of optical DFT-spread OFDM systems in comparison with conventional OFDM systems. A 440.8-Gb/s superchannel consisting of 8 x 55.1-Gb/s densely-spaced DFT-S OFDM signal is successfully received after 1120-km transmission with a spectral efficiency of 3.5 b/s/Hz. It is shown that DFT-S OFDM can achieve an improvement of 1 dB in Q factor and 1 dB in launch power over conventional OFDM. Additionally, unique word aided phase estimation algorithm is proposed and demonstrated enabling extremely long OFDM symbol transmission.

  15. Experimental demonstration of improved analog device performance of nanowire-TFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Braucks, Christian; Richter, Simon; Knoll, Lars; Selmi, Luca; Zhao, Qing-Tai; Mantl, Siegfried

    2015-11-01

    We present experimental data on analog device performance of p-type planar- and gate all around (GAA) nanowire (NW) Tunnel-FETs (TFETs) as well as on n-type Tri-Gate-TFETs. A significant improvement of the analog performance by enhancing the electrostatics from planar TFETs to GAA-NW-TFETs with diameters of 20 nm and 10 nm is demonstrated. A maximum transconductance of 122 μS/μm and on-currents up to 23 μA/μm at a gate overdrive of Vgt = Vd = -1 V were achieved for the GAA NW-pTFETs. Furthermore, a good output current-saturation is observed leading to high intrinsic gain up to 217. The Tri-Gate nTFETs beat the fundamental MOSFET limit for the subthreshold slope of 60 mV/dec and by that also reach extremely high transconductance efficiencies up to 82 V-1.

  16. Engineered particles demonstrate improved flow properties at elevated drug loadings for direct compression manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trementozzi, Andrea N; Leung, Cheuk-Yui; Osei-Yeboah, Frederick; Irdam, Erwin; Lin, Yiqing; MacPhee, J Michael; Boulas, Pierre; Karki, Shyam B; Zawaneh, Peter N

    2017-05-15

    Optimizing powder flow and compaction properties are critical for ensuring a robust tablet manufacturing process. The impact of flow and compaction properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) becomes progressively significant for higher drug load formulations, and for scaling up manufacturing processes. This study demonstrated that flow properties of a powder blend can be improved through API particle engineering, without critically impacting blend tabletability at elevated drug loadings. In studying a jet milled API (D50=24μm) and particle engineered wet milled API (D50=70μm and 90μm), flow functions of all API lots were similarly poor despite the vast difference in average particle size (ffc10) compared with the jet milled API blends. Investigation of the compaction properties of both wet and jet milled powder blends also revealed that both jet and wet milled material produced robust tablets at the drug loadings used. The ability to practically demonstrate this uncommon observation that similarly poor flowing APIs can lead to a marked difference upon blending is important for pharmaceutical development. It is especially important in early phase development during API selection, and is advantageous particularly when material-sparing techniques are utilized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. GIP-overexpressing mice demonstrate reduced diet-induced obesity and steatosis, and improved glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP is a gastrointestinal hormone that potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during a meal. Since GIP has also been shown to exert β-cell prosurvival and adipocyte lipogenic effects in rodents, both GIP receptor agonists and antagonists have been considered as potential therapeutics in type 2 diabetes (T2DM. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that chronically elevating GIP levels in a transgenic (Tg mouse model would increase adipose tissue expansion and exert beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. In contrast, although GIP Tg mice demonstrated enhanced β-cell function, resulting in improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, they exhibited reduced diet-induced obesity. Adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and hepatic steatosis were both greatly reduced, and a number of genes involved in lipid metabolism/inflammatory signaling pathways were found to be down-regulated. Reduced adiposity in GIP Tg mice was associated with decreased energy intake, involving overexpression of hypothalamic GIP. Together, these studies suggest that, in the context of over-nutrition, transgenic GIP overexpression has the potential to improve hepatic and adipocyte function as well as glucose homeostasis.

  18. Antenatal screening for Down syndrome: a quantitative demonstration of the improvements over the past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Richard; Ellis, Katrina; Jacobs, Patricia; Morris, Joan

    2013-10-01

    Pregnant women who receive a high screening risk result for Down, Edwards or Patau syndrome are offered diagnostic tests that carry a procedure-related risk of miscarriage. This study quantifies the improvement in the screening tests by calculating the number of women who had such tests per syndrome diagnosis from 1991 to 2010. Routinely stored data on prenatal chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis samples performed from 1991 to 2010 from the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory in England were extracted from the laboratory database. The numbers of diagnostic tests performed per Down, Edwards or Patau syndrome diagnosis were calculated according to the type of diagnostic test, and were adjusted for maternal age and gestational age at diagnosis. A total of 32,345 CVSs and amniocenteses identified 872 diagnoses of Down syndrome and 328 of Edwards and Patau syndrome. In 1991, there were 46 (95%CI: 16-111) CVSs per syndrome diagnosis compared with five (95%CI: 4-7) in 2010. For amniocenteses, the number fell from 53 (37-78) to 15 (11-22). This analysis demonstrates the improvements in antenatal screening for Down syndrome that have been made over the past 20 years, resulting in a reduction in the number of women tested and thus in the number of foetal deaths attributable to the testing procedure.

  19. Co-suppression of synthesis of major x-kafirin sub-class together with y-kafirin-1 and y-kafirin-2 required for substantially improved protein digestibility in transgenic sorghum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grootboom, AW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell Reports Vol. 33/ PP 521-537 Co-suppression of synthesis of major a-kafirin sub-class together with c-kafirin-1 and c-kafirin-2 required for substantially improved protein digestibility in transgenic sorghum Andile W. Grootboom... kafirin in vitro digestibility. Co-suppression of a third gene, a-kafirin A1 (25 kDa), in addition to the two genes increases the digestibility further. The high-digestibility trait has previously only been obtained either through the co...

  20. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  1. Functional improvement after carotid endarterectomy: demonstrated by gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, G. E.; Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, D. G.; Moon, D. H. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Scientific documentation of neurologic improvement following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has not been established. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate whether CEA performed for the internal carotid artery flow lesion improves gait and cerebrovascular hemodynamic status in patients with gait disturbance. We prospectively performed pre- and postCEA gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT (Acz-SPECT) with Tc-99m ECD in 91 patients (M/F: 81/10, mean age: 64.1 y) who had gait disturbance before receiving CEA. Gait performance was assessed using a Vicon 370 motion analyzer. The gait improvement after CEA was correlated to cerebrovascular hemodynamic change as well as symptom duration. 12 hemiparetic stroke patients (M/F=9/3, mean age: 51 y) who did not receive CEA as a control underwent gait analysis twice in a week interval to evaluate whether repeat testing of gait performance shows learning effect. Of 91 patients, 73 (80%) patients showed gait improvement (change of gait speed > 10%) and 42 (46%) showed marked improvement (change of gait speed > 20%), but no improvement was observed in control group at repeat test. Post-operative cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement was noted in 49 (54%) of 91 patients. There was marked gait improvement in patients group with cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement compared to no change group (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement and cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement were noted in 53% and 61% of the patient who had less than 3 month history of symptom compared to 31% and 24% of the patients who had longer than 3 months, respectively (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement was obtained in patients who had improvement of cerebrovascular hemodynamic status on Acz-SPECT after CEA. These results suggest functional improvement such as gait can result from the improved perfusion of misery perfusion area, which is viable for a longer period compared to literatures previously reported.

  2. Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Holland, G.; Hanada, A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This project was one of several demonstrations of new or underutilized commercial energy technologies. The common goal was to demonstrate and measure the performance and economic benefit of the system while monitoring any ancillary impacts to related standards of service and operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In short, demonstrations at naval facilities simultaneously evaluate the benefits and compatibility of the technology with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) mission, and with NAVFAC's design, construction, operations, and maintenance practices, in particular. This project demonstrated the performance of commercially available advanced power strips (APSs) for plug load energy reductions in building A4 at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii.

  3. Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: the emptying of household ventilated improved pits: a case study from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: the emptying of household ventilated improved pits: a case study from South Africa K. Wall, O. Ive, J. Bhagwan, F. Kirwan, W...

  4. Demonstrate VERA Core Simulator Performance Improvements L2:PHI.P13.03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hamilton, Steven P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jarrett, Michael G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kochunas, Brendan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Liu, Yuxuan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Palmtag, Scott [Core Physics, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toth, Alex [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yee, Ben [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report describes the performance improvements made to the VERA Core Simulator (VERA-CS) during FY2016. The development of the VERA Core Simulator has focused on the capability needed to deplete physical reactors and help solve various problems; this capability required the accurate simulation of many operating cycles of a nuclear power plant. The first section of this report introduces two test problems used to assess the run-time performance of VERA-CS using a source dated February 2016. The next section provides a brief overview of the major modifications made to decrease the computational cost. Following the descriptions of the major improvements, the run-time for each improvement is shown. Conclusions on the work are presented, and further follow-on performance improvements are suggested.

  5. Improvements upon the "Colorful Cobalt Catalysis" Demonstration and Evidence for the Presence of an Autocatalytic Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation of potassium sodium tartrate by hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by cobalt(II) chloride is a favorite lecture demonstration. I present conditions under which this experiment may be performed without need for 30% hydrogen peroxide and without need for controlled heating or any heating of the reaction mixture. I further show that this…

  6. Improvement, Verification, and Refinement of Spatially Explicit Exposure Models in Risk Assessment - SEEM Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act TRV toxicity reference value TWEM Terrestrial Wildlife...and the heterogeneity of contamination (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA], 1997; 1998). An understanding of how individuals experience ...Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 9 4.0 SITE DESCRIPTIONS Two sites were identified for the demonstration of SEEM:  The

  7. Virtual Lab Demonstrations Improve Students’ Mastery of Basic Biology Laboratory Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace A. Maldarelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology laboratory classes are designed to teach concepts and techniques through experiential learning. Students who have never performed a technique must be guided through the process, which is often difficult to standardize across multiple lab sections. Visual demonstration of laboratory procedures is a key element in teaching pedagogy. The main goals of the study were to create videos explaining and demonstrating a variety of lab techniques that would serve as teaching tools for undergraduate and graduate lab courses and to assess the impact of these videos on student learning. Demonstrations of individual laboratory procedures were videotaped and then edited with iMovie. Narration for the videos was edited with Audacity. Undergraduate students were surveyed anonymously prior to and following screening to assess the impact of the videos on student lab performance by completion of two Participant Perception Indicator surveys. A total of 203 and 171 students completed the pre- and posttesting surveys, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed to compare student perceptions of knowledge of, confidence in, and experience with the lab techniques before and after viewing the videos. Eleven demonstrations were recorded. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of students reporting increased knowledge of, confidence in, and experience with the lab techniques after viewing the videos. Incorporation of instructional videos as prelaboratory exercises has the potential to standardize techniques and to promote successful experimental outcomes.

  8. An Improved Method of Presenting Laboratory Demonstrations in Physiology and Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Michael H.; Oliver, Jack W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a laboratory demonstration and discussion period in physiology and pharmacology instruction at the Univeristy of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine is described. The advantages for instruction include lower costs, fewer personnel and animals required, less time required in the curriculum, and increased student attention in class.…

  9. Designing Scholarships to Improve College Success: Final Report on the Performance-Based Scholarship Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alexander K.; Patel, Reshma; Rudd, Timothy; Ratledge, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Performance-based scholarships have two main goals: (1) to give students more money for college; and (2) to provide incentives for academic progress. MDRC launched the Performance-Based Scholarship (PBS) Demonstration in 2008 to evaluate the effectiveness of these scholarships in a diverse set of states, institutions, and low-income student…

  10. Improvements upon the "Colorful Cobalt Catalysis" Demonstration and Evidence for the Presence of an Autocatalytic Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation of potassium sodium tartrate by hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by cobalt(II) chloride is a favorite lecture demonstration. I present conditions under which this experiment may be performed without need for 30% hydrogen peroxide and without need for controlled heating or any heating of the reaction mixture. I further show that this…

  11. School Nurse Demonstrates that Mini-Grant Funding Can Improve Elementary Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Norma L.; Alles, Wesley F.

    1983-01-01

    A school nurse helped improve nutrition education in the Bellefonte (Pennsylvania) school district by making resource materials and a packaged curriculum available to elementary school teachers and by providing inservice education. As a result, teachers spent more class time on nutrition instruction, and students' knowledge increased. (Authors/PP)

  12. Waste-to-Energy: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.; Gelman, R.; Tomberlin, G.; Bain, R.

    2014-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Navy have worked together to demonstrate new or leading-edge commercial energy technologies whose deployment will support the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in meeting its energy efficiency and renewable energy goals while enhancing installation energy security. This is consistent with the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review report1 that encourages the use of 'military installations as a test bed to demonstrate and create a market for innovative energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies coming out of the private sector and DOD and Department of Energy laboratories,' as well as the July 2010 memorandum of understanding between DOD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that documents the intent to 'maximize DOD access to DOE technical expertise and assistance through cooperation in the deployment and pilot testing of emerging energy technologies.' As part of this joint initiative, a promising waste-to-energy (WTE) technology was selected for demonstration at the Hickam Commissary aboard the Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii. The WTE technology chosen is called high-energy densification waste-to-energy conversion (HEDWEC). HEDWEC technology is the result of significant U.S. Army investment in the development of WTE technology for forward operating bases.

  13. Powerplant productivity improvement study: demonstration of the DOE/MRI methodology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-11-17

    A methodology, distributed by DOE, may be used as a potential tool for the utility industry to assess and evaluate productivity and reliability problems of existing and future units. The model can be used to assess the impact of an improvement project or corrective action on unit productivity parameters such as heat rate, capacity factor, availability, or equivalent availability. The methodology analyzes: the effect of component redundancy on unit equivalent availability; the effect of component reliability on unit equivalent availability; and a component's outage trend to project the component's future outage rate. The first purpose of this study is to illustrate for the utilities how to apply the methodology. Thus, this report contains the analysis performed by applying the methodology at three units of Illinois power plants. The units evaluated were Wood River 5, Quad Cities 1, and Quad Cities 2. A total of 8 improvement projects were evaluated and all outage data and equations used are included in order to facilitate utility reproduction of the given results. The second purpose is to evaluate the methodology as a useful tool for individual utilities; a number of modifications are suggested.

  14. Probability, plausibility, and adequacy evaluations of the Oriente Study demonstrate that supplementation improved child growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-02-01

    This article presents evidence that the high-nutrient supplement in the Oriente study (Atole) improved child growth. The evidence is presented at 4 levels. There was a causal effect of the intervention on child length, as assessed by probability analyses of the randomized, controlled trial (P < 0.05). The plausibility analyses, which included an examination of wasting, showed that the nutritional impact was due to the Atole, especially in those who were <3 y old and who suffered from diarrhea. The adequacy analyses revealed excellent biological efficacy of the Atole at the individual level. At the level of the whole population, the efficacy of impact was much less, because many children did not participate fully in the supplementation program. The external validity of the biological impact is likely to be good for populations with similar diets and medical care.

  15. Oxygenated fixation demonstrates novel and improved ultrastructural features of the human endolymphatic sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe in detail the ultrastructure of the human endolymphatic sac using a new and improved method of fixation as well as a refined surgical approach in obtaining specimens. Transmission electron microscopy of the human endolymphatic sac, employing an oxygenated fixative. Eighteen tissue samples of the human endolymphatic sac were obtained during surgery for vestibular schwannoma using the translabyrinthine approach. The specimens were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in an oxygenated fluorocarbon blood substitute vehicle before preparation by routine methods for transmission electron microscopy. We focused on the epithelial cell layer, subepithelial tissue, intraluminal content, and vascular tissue in both the intra- and extraosseous part of the endolymphatic sac. We observed well-defined endolymphatic sac epithelial cell lining in all 18 specimens. In general, we found very well-preserved specimens with well-defined intracellular structures. In contrast to the results in former studies, a minimum of fixation artifacts was observed in the present study. Three different cell types were observed in the intraosseous part of the sac: mitochondria-rich cells, ribosome-rich cells, and nonclassifiable cells. A fourth cell type was found in the extraosseous part. Novel ultrastructural features of the epithelial lining and the subepithelial layer are described and discussed. The results in the present study indicate an improvement in obtaining human tissue with optimal fixation for ultrastructural analysis and provide several novel morphologic observations. The potential functions of the endolymphatic sac are discussed with reference to former studies. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Online Vape Shop Customers Who Use E-Cigarettes Report Abstinence from Smoking and Improved Quality of Life, But a Substantial Minority Still Have Vaping-Related Health Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinska Van Gucht

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Characteristics and usage patterns of vapers (e-cigarette users have mainly been studied in web-based convenience samples or in visitors of brick-and-mortar vape shops. We extended this by targeting customers of one particular online vape shop in the Netherlands; (2 Methods: Customers were questioned on their smoking history, current smoking and vaping status, reasons for vaping, perceived harmfulness, and potential health changes due to vaping; (3 Results: Almost everyone (99%, 95% CI 0.96, 1.00 smoked before they started vaping. A great majority agreed that unlike with other smoking-cessation aids, they could quit smoking (81%, 95% CI 0.79, 0.90 due to vaping. Almost all customers were regular vapers (93.6%, 95% CI 0.89, 0.96 who used state-of-the-art open system devices without modifications and e-liquid with 10 mg/mL nicotine on average. Vapers reported using e-cigs to quit smoking, because e-cigs are healthier, and for financial reasons. The majority (52.6%, 95% CI 0.46, 0.60 perceived vaping as not that harmful to not harmful at all, but one fifth (21.8%, 95% CI 0.16, 0.28 believed vaping to be harmful. More than half (57.8%, 95% CI 0.50, 0.65 reported gaining more pleasure from vaping than from smoking. A substantial majority (84.2%, 95% CI 0.78, 0.89 agreed that their health had improved since they started vaping; (4 Conclusions: Findings are similar to those obtained in other vape shop studies, but also to the results of convenience samples of less-well-defined populations.

  17. Trueness verification of actual creatinine assays in the European market demonstrates a disappointing variability that needs substantial improvement. An international study in the framework of the EC4 creatinine standardization working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanghe, Joris R; Cobbaert, Christa; Galteau, Marie-Madeleine; Harmoinen, Aimo; Jansen, Rob; Kruse, Rolf; Laitinen, Päivi; Thienpont, Linda M; Wuyts, Birgitte; Weykamp, Cas; Panteghini, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    The European In Vitro Diagnostics (IVD) directive requires traceability to reference methods and materials of analytes. It is a task of the profession to verify the trueness of results and IVD compatibility. The results of a trueness verification study by the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4) working group on creatinine standardization are described, in which 189 European laboratories analyzed serum creatinine in a commutable serum-based material, using analytical systems from seven companies. Values were targeted using isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results were tested on their compliance to a set of three criteria: trueness, i.e., no significant bias relative to the target value, between-laboratory variation and within-laboratory variation relative to the maximum allowable error. For the lower and intermediate level, values differed significantly from the target value in the Jaffe and the dry chemistry methods. At the high level, dry chemistry yielded higher results. Between-laboratory coefficients of variation ranged from 4.37% to 8.74%. Total error budget was mainly consumed by the bias. Non-compensated Jaffe methods largely exceeded the total error budget. Best results were obtained for the enzymatic method. The dry chemistry method consumed a large part of its error budget due to calibration bias. Despite the European IVD directive and the growing needs for creatinine standardization, an unacceptable inter-laboratory variation was observed, which was mainly due to calibration differences. The calibration variation has major clinical consequences, in particular in pediatrics, where reference ranges for serum and plasma creatinine are low, and in the estimation of glomerular filtration rate.

  18. Periowave demonstrates bactericidal activity against periopathogens and leads to improved clinical outcomes in the treatment of adult periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Cale N.; Andersen, Roger; Loebel, Nicolas G.

    2009-02-01

    Periodontitis affects half of the U.S. population over 50, and is the leading cause of tooth loss after 35. It is believed to be caused by growth of complex bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface below the gumline. Photodynamic therapy, a technology used commonly in antitumor applications, has more recently been shown to exhibit antimicrobial efficacy. We have demonstrated eradication of the periopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in vitro using PeriowaveTM; a commercial photodisinfection system. In addition, several clinical studies have now demonstrated the efficacy of this treatment. A pilot study in the U.S. showed that 68% of patients treated with PeriowaveTM adjunctively to scaling and root planing (SRP) showed clinical attachment level increase of >1 mm, as opposed to 30% with SRP alone. In a subsequent larger study, a second PeriowaveTM treatment 6 weeks after initial treatment led to pocket depth improvements of >1.5 mm in 89% of patients. Finally, in the most recent multicenter, randomized, examiner-blinded study conducted on 121 subjects in Canada, PeriowaveTM treatment produced highly significant gains in attachment level (0.88 mm vs. 0.57 mm; p=0.003) and pocket depth (0.87 mm vs. 0.63 mm; p=0.01) as compared to SRP alone. In summary, PeriowaveTM demonstrated strong bactericidal activity against known periopathogens, and treatment of periodontitis using this system produced significantly better clinical outcomes than SRP alone. This, along with the absence of any adverse events in patients treated to date demonstrates that PDT is a safe and effective treatment for adult chronic periodontitis.

  19. 77 FR 34887 - Substantial Business Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities AGENCY: Internal... substantial business activities in a foreign country. These regulations affect certain domestic corporations... whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in a foreign country for purposes...

  20. Demonstration of on Sky Contrast Improvement Using the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton Algorithm at the Palomar Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, Rick S.; Serabyn, Eugene; Mawet, Dimitri P.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Hickey, Jeffrey P.; Rykoski, Kevin; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Crepp, Justin R.

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated significant improvements in the high contrast detection limit of the Well-Corrected Subaperture (WCS) using the Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software package developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Palomar adaptive optics instrument (PALAO). APRC utilizes the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) wavefront sensing algorithm, also developed at JPL. The WCS delivers such excellent correction of the atmosphere that non-common path (NCP) wavefront errors not sensed by PALAO but present at the coronagraphic image plane begin to factor heavily as a limit to contrast. We have implemented the APRC program to reduce these NCP wavefront errors from 110 nm to 35 nm (rms) in the lab, and we have extended these exceptional results to targets on the sky for the first time, leading to a significant suppression of speckle noise. Consequently we now report a contrast level of very nearly 1x10(exp -4) at separations of 2 lambda/D before the data is post processed. We describe here the major components of our instrument, the work done to improve the NCP wavefront errors, and the ensuing excellent on sky results, including the detection of the three exoplanets orbiting the star HR8799.

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of lutein and zeaxanthin and improved vision under bright light conditions pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of lutein and zeaxanthin and improved vision under bright light conditions pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006....

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies; Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to creatine and increased attention (ID 1524) and improvement of memory (ID 1528) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to creatine and increased attention and improvement of memory. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...

  3. Improving the hot-spot pressure and demonstrating ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic deuterium tritium implosions on OMEGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V. N. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Sangster, T. C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Betti, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Boehly, T. R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Bonino, M. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Collins, T. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Craxton, R. S. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Delettrez, J. A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Edgell, D. H. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Epstein, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Follett, R. K. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Forrest, C. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Froula, D. H. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Yu. Glebov, V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Harding, D. R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Henchen, R. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Hu, S. X. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Igumenshchev, I. V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Janezic, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Kelly, J. H. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Kessler, T. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Kosc, T. Z. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Loucks, S. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Marozas, J. A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Marshall, F. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Maximov, A. V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; McCrory, R. L. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; McKenty, P. W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Michel, D. T. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Myatt, J. F. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Nora, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Radha, P. B. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Regan, S. P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Seka, W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Shmayda, W. T. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Short, R.W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Shvydky, A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Skupsky, S. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Yaakobi, B. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Frenje, J. A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu-Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Casey, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Reaching ignition in direct-drive (DD) inertial confinement fusion implosions requires achieving central pressures in excess of 100 Gbar. The OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] is used to study the physics of implosions that are hydrodynamically equivalent to the ignition designs on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. It is shown that the highest hot-spot pressures (up to 40 Gbar) are achieved in target designs with a fuel adiabat of α ≅ 4, an implosion velocity of 3.8 × 10⁷ cm/s, and a laser intensity of ~10¹⁵ W/cm². These moderate-adiabat implosions are well understood using two-dimensional hydrocode simulations. The performance of lower-adiabat implosions is significantly degraded relative to code predictions, a common feature between DD implosions on OMEGA and indirect-drive cryogenic implosions on the NIF. Simplified theoretical models are developed to gain physical understanding of the implosion dynamics that dictate the target performance. These models indicate that degradations in the shell density and integrity (caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the target acceleration) coupled with hydrodynamics at stagnation are the main failure mechanisms in low-adiabat designs. To demonstrate ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic implosions on OMEGA, the target-design robustness to hydrodynamic instability growth must be improved by reducing laser-coupling losses caused by cross beam energy transfer.

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 2750) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States...

  5. Improving the hot-spot pressure and demonstrating ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic deuterium–tritium implosions on OMEGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V. N.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Follett, R. K.; Forrest, C. J.; Froula, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Henchen, R. J.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Janezic, R.; Kelly, J. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); and others

    2014-05-15

    Reaching ignition in direct-drive (DD) inertial confinement fusion implosions requires achieving central pressures in excess of 100 Gbar. The OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] is used to study the physics of implosions that are hydrodynamically equivalent to the ignition designs on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. It is shown that the highest hot-spot pressures (up to 40 Gbar) are achieved in target designs with a fuel adiabat of α ≃ 4, an implosion velocity of 3.8 × 10{sup 7} cm/s, and a laser intensity of ∼10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. These moderate-adiabat implosions are well understood using two-dimensional hydrocode simulations. The performance of lower-adiabat implosions is significantly degraded relative to code predictions, a common feature between DD implosions on OMEGA and indirect-drive cryogenic implosions on the NIF. Simplified theoretical models are developed to gain physical understanding of the implosion dynamics that dictate the target performance. These models indicate that degradations in the shell density and integrity (caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the target acceleration) coupled with hydrodynamics at stagnation are the main failure mechanisms in low-adiabat designs. To demonstrate ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic implosions on OMEGA, the target-design robustness to hydrodynamic instability growth must be improved by reducing laser-coupling losses caused by cross beam energy transfer.

  6. Overexpression of the Rice SUMO E3 Ligase Gene OsSIZ1 in Cotton Enhances Drought and Heat Tolerance, and Substantially Improves Fiber Yields in the Field under Reduced Irrigation and Rainfed Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neelam; Sun, Li; Zhu, Xunlu; Smith, Jennifer; Prakash Srivastava, Anurag; Yang, Xiaojie; Pehlivan, Necla; Esmaeili, Nardana; Luo, Hong; Shen, Guoxin; Jones, Don; Auld, Dick; Burke, John

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase gene AtSIZ1 plays important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses as loss of function in AtSIZ1 leads to increased sensitivity to drought, heat and salt stresses. Overexpression of the AtSIZ1 rice homolog, OsSIZ1, leads to increased heat and drought tolerance in bentgrass, suggesting that the function of the E3 ligase SIZ1 is highly conserved in plants and it plays a critical role in abiotic stress responses. To test the possibility that the SUMO E3 ligase could be used to engineer drought- and heat-tolerant crops, the rice gene OsSIZ1 was overexpressed in cotton. We report here that overexpression of OsSIZ1 in cotton results in higher net photosynthesis and better growth than wild-type cotton under drought and thermal stresses in growth chamber and greenhouse conditions. Additionally, this tolerance to abiotic stresses was correlated with higher fiber yield in both controlled-environment and field trials carried out under reduced irrigation and rainfed conditions. These results suggest that OsSIZ1 is a viable candidate gene to improve crop yields under water-limited and rainfed agricultural production systems. PMID:28340002

  7. The End-to-end Demonstrator for improved decision making in the water sector in Europe (EDgE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Wanders, Niko; Pan, Ming; Sheffield, Justin; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan; Kumar, Rohinni; Prudhomme, Christel; Houghton-Carr, Helen

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution simulations of water resources from hydrological models are vital to supporting important climate services. Apart from a high level of detail, both spatially and temporally, it is important to provide simulations that consistently cover a range of timescales, from historical reanalysis to seasonal forecast and future projections. In the new EDgE project commissioned by the ECMWF (C3S) we try to fulfill these requirements. EDgE is a proof-of-concept project which combines climate data and state-of-the-art hydrological modelling to demonstrate a water-oriented information system implemented through a web application. EDgE is working with key European stakeholders representative of private and public sectors to jointly develop and tailor approaches and techniques. With these tools, stakeholders are assisted in using improved climate information in decision-making, and supported in the development of climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. Here, we present the first results of the EDgE modelling chain, which is divided into three main processes: 1) pre-processing and downscaling; 2) hydrological modelling; 3) post-processing. Consistent downscaling and bias corrections for historical simulations, seasonal forecasts and climate projections ensure that the results across scales are robust. The daily temporal resolution and 5km spatial resolution ensure locally relevant simulations. With the use of four hydrological models (PCR-GLOBWB, VIC, mHM, Noah-MP), uncertainty between models is properly addressed, while consistency is guaranteed by using identical input data for static land surface parameterizations. The forecast results are communicated to stakeholders via Sectoral Climate Impact Indicators (SCIIs) that have been created in collaboration with the end-user community of the EDgE project. The final product of this project is composed of 15 years of seasonal forecast and 10 climate change projections, all combined with four hydrological

  8. Patients Undergoing Subacute Physical Rehabilitation following an Acute Hospital Admission Demonstrated Improvement in Cognitive Functional Task Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. McPhail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated cognitive functioning among older adults with physical debility not attributable to an acute injury or neurological condition who were receiving subacute inpatient physical rehabilitation. Design. A cohort investigation with assessments at admission and discharge. Setting. Three geriatric rehabilitation hospital wards. Participants. Consecutive rehabilitation admissions (n=814 following acute hospitalization (study criteria excluded orthopaedic, neurological, or amputation admissions. Intervention. Usual rehabilitation care. Measurements. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM Cognitive and Motor items. Results. A total of 704 (86.5% participants (mean age = 76.5 years completed both assessments. Significant improvement in FIM Cognitive items (Z-score range 3.93–8.74, all P<0.001 and FIM Cognitive total score (Z-score = 9.12, P<0.001 occurred, in addition to improvement in FIM Motor performance. A moderate positive correlation existed between change in Motor and Cognitive scores (Spearman’s rho = 0.41. Generalized linear modelling indicated that better cognition at admission (coefficient = 0.398, P<0.001 and younger age (coefficient = −0.280, P<0.001 were predictive of improvement in Motor performance. Younger age (coefficient = −0.049, P<0.001 was predictive of improvement in FIM Cognitive score. Conclusions. Improvement in cognitive functioning was observed in addition to motor function improvement among this population. Causal links cannot be drawn without further research.

  9. Evaluation and demonstration of methods for improved fuel utilization. Fort Calhoun Poolside Inspection Programs: end-of-cycles 4 and 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaVake, J.C.; Smith, G.P.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to demonstrate two techniques for improving fuel utilization in current Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR): (1) more efficient fuel management, and (2) high burnup. These improvements are being demonstrated in the Fort Calhoun reactor, a 1420 Mwt PWR. A more efficient fuel management scheme called SAVFUEL (Shimmed And Very Flexible Uranium Element Loading), will be demonstrated which reduces neutron leakage and is expected to reduce uranium requirements. Another part of the demonstration program will increase the fuel burnup of the current 14 x 14 fuel design to further reduce uranium requirements. The program is a joint Department of Energy (DOE), Omaha Public Power District (OPPD) and Combustion Engineering (C-E) endeavor and is part of a national effort to improve uranium utilization in light water reactors.

  10. Substantial Life Extension and Meanings of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2001 and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research the project enables. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology (Aust

  11. Substantial Life Extension and Meanings of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2001 and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research the project enables. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology

  12. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...? How substantial would the harmful effects of disclosure be? What is the causal relationship between... data sheets or other similar materials for the microorganism or the resulting end product? (iii... information? What is the causal connection between the disclosure and harm? (7) If EPA disclosed to the...

  13. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 680) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA...... has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds. The Panel considers that OPCs from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds are sufficiently characterised...

  15. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  16. Retinyl Propionate and Climbazole Combination Demonstrates Clinical Improvement to the Appearance of Hyperpigmentation and Deep Wrinkling with Minimal Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stacy; Adamus, Jean; Chiang, Chung-Yi; Covell, Edwin; O'Leary, Jaime; Lee, Jian-Ming

    2017-07-22

    To evaluate a combination of retinyl propionate and climbazole (RPC) compared to 0.1% retinol for its efficacy, tolerance and aging appearance. Forty-five healthy Caucasian females, ages 40-70, with moderately photodamaged facial skin, were recruited for a 16 week randomized, double-blind, IRB approved facial study. The efficacy of RPC treatment was compared to 0.1% retinol, in the same product base formulation, with twice daily, split-face product application. Changes in overall photodamage, fine lines and wrinkles, pigmentation and irritation were visually evaluated and measured by instrumentation. Subjective appraisal of efficacy was self-assessed from images where subjects were blinded to treatment and time point. Irritancy potential was also evaluated in a 5 day randomized, double-blind, IRB approved patch study. Treatment with RPC resulted in significant (p<0.05) improvement in aging attributes compared to 0.1% retinol treatment, with minimal irritation. More than 50% of subjects showed improvement to deep wrinkles in the crow's feet area after 5 weeks of product application, and continued improvement to deep wrinkles was observed throughout the course of the study. Similarly, improvement was observed for the appearance of lines and wrinkles in the nasolabial fold (NLF) and for mottled hyperpigmentation. The results from subjective self-assessment confirmed in vivo clinical assessments. In a separate patch study, significantly less irritation was observed with the RPC product as compared to the 0.1% retinol control product. RPC delivered significant skin antiaging benefits comparable or greater than 0.1% retinol, with minimal irritation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Research and demonstration to improve air quality for the U.S. animal feeding operations in the 21st century - a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ji-Qin

    2015-05-01

    There was an increasing interest in reducing production and emission of air pollutants to improve air quality for animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the U.S. in the 21st century. Research was focused on identification, quantification, characterization, and modeling of air pollutions; effects of emissions; and methodologies and technologies for scientific research and pollution control. Mitigation effects were on pre-excretion, pre-release, pre-emission, and post-emission. More emphasis was given on reducing pollutant emissions than improving indoor air quality. Research and demonstrations were generally continuation and improvement of previous efforts. Most demonstrated technologies were still in a limited scale of application. Future efforts are needed in many fundamental and applied research areas. Advancement in instrumentation, computer technology, and biological sciences and genetic engineering is critical to bring major changes in this area. Development in research and demonstration will depend on the actual political, economic, and environmental situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An improved behavioural assay demonstrates that ultrasound vocalizations constitute a reliable indicator of chronic cancer pain and neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Deepitha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On-going pain is one of the most debilitating symptoms associated with a variety of chronic pain disorders. An understanding of mechanisms underlying on-going pain, i.e. stimulus-independent pain has been hampered so far by a lack of behavioural parameters which enable studying it in experimental animals. Ultrasound vocalizations (USVs have been proposed to correlate with pain evoked by an acute activation of nociceptors. However, literature on the utility of USVs as an indicator of chronic pain is very controversial. A majority of these inconsistencies arise from parameters confounding behavioural experiments, which include novelty, fear and stress due to restrain, amongst others. Results We have developed an improved assay which overcomes these confounding factors and enables studying USVs in freely moving mice repetitively over several weeks. Using this improved assay, we report here that USVs increase significantly in mice with bone metastases-induced cancer pain or neuropathic pain for several weeks, in comparison to sham-treated mice. Importantly, analgesic drugs which are known to alleviate tumour pain or neuropathic pain in human patients significantly reduce USVs as well as mechanical allodynia in corresponding mouse models. Conclusions We show that studying USVs and mechanical allodynia in the same cohort of mice enables comparing the temporal progression of on-going pain (i.e. stimulus-independent pain and stimulus-evoked pain in these clinically highly-relevant forms of chronic pain.

  19. Cardiac Sarcoidosis or Giant Cell Myocarditis? On Treatment Improvement of Fulminant Myocarditis as Demonstrated by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Bogabathina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell myocarditis, but not cardiac sarcoidosis, is known to cause fulminant myocarditis resulting in severe heart failure. However, giant cell myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis are pathologically similar, and attempts at pathological differentiation between the two remain difficult. We are presenting a case of fulminant myocarditis that has pathological features suggestive of cardiac sarcoidosis, but clinically mimicking giant cell myocarditis. This patient was treated with cyclosporine and prednisone and recovered well. This case we believe challenges our current understanding of these intertwined conditions. By obtaining a sense of severity of cardiac involvement via delayed hyperenhancement of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, we were more inclined to treat this patient as giant cell myocarditis with cyclosporine. This resulted in excellent improvement of patient’s cardiac function as shown by delayed hyperenhancement images, early perfusion images, and SSFP videos.

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) (CNCM I-1225) and improving immune defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 896), and protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) (CNCM I-1225) and improving immune defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, and protection of the skin from UV-induced damage. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...... in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) (CNCM I-1225). The Panel considers that Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La...

  1. Demonstration of Improved Charge Transfer in Graphene/Au Nanorods Plasmonic Hybrids Stabilized by Benzyl Thiol Linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Valerio Bianco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids based on graphene decorated with plasmonic gold (Au nanostructures are being investigated as possible materials combination to add to graphene functionalities of tunable plasmon resonance and enhanced absorption at selected wavelength in the visible-near-infrared region of the spectrum. Here, we report a solution drop-casting approach for fabricating stable hybrids based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD graphene and Au nanorods, which are able to activate effective charge transfer from graphene. We demonstrate that CVD graphene functionalization by benzyl thiol (BZT provides the linker to strong anchoring, via S-Au bonds, Au nanorods to graphene. Optical measurements by spectroscopic ellipsometry give evidence of the introduction of plasmon resonances at 1.85 and 2.25 eV in the Au nanorods/BZT/graphene hybrids, which enable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS detection. Furthermore, an effective electron transfer from graphene to Au nanorods, resulting in an enhancement of p-type doping of graphene with a consequent decrease of its sheet resistance, is probed by Raman spectroscopy and corroborated by electrical measurements.

  2. Analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic profiles demonstrates improved Madin-Darby canine kidney cell function in a renal microfluidic biochip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snouber, Leila Choucha; Letourneur, Franck; Chafey, Philippe; Broussard, Cedric; Monge, Matthieu; Legallais, Cécile; Leclerc, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the influence of the microfluidic environment on renal cell functionality. For that purpose, we performed a time lapse transcriptomic and proteomic analysis in which we compared gene and protein expressions of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells after 24 h and 96 h of culture in both microfluidic biochips and plates. The transcriptomic and proteomic integration revealed that the ion transporters involved in calcium, phosphate, and sodium homoeostasis and several genes involved in H(+) transporters and pH regulation were up-regulated in microfluidic biochips. Concerning drug metabolism, we found Phase I (CYP P450), Phase II enzymes (GST), various multidrug resistance genes (MRP), and Phase III transporters (SLC) were also up-regulated in the biochips. Furthermore, the study shows that those inductions were correlated with the induction of the Ahr and Nrf-2 dependent pathways, which results in a global cytoprotective response induced by the microenvironment. However, there was no apoptosis situation or cell death in the biochips. Microfluidic biochips may thus provide an important insight into exploring xenobiotic injury and transport modifications in this type of bioartificial microfluidic kidney. Finally, the investigation demonstrated that combining the transcriptomic and proteomic analyses obtained from a cell "on chip" culture would provide a pertinent new tool in the mechanistic interpretation of cellular mechanisms for predicting kidney cell toxicity and renal clearance in vitro. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  3. Remote Health Consultations Supported by a Diabetes Management Web Application With a New Glucose Meter Demonstrates Improved Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Mike; Cameron, Hilary; Levy, Brian L; Katz, Laurence B

    2016-05-01

    Cloud-connected diabetes applications enable health care professionals (HCPs) to monitor patient progress and offer the potential for remote consultations. OneTouch Reveal (OTR) is a cloud-based web application that aggregates data from blood glucose (BG) meters or insulin pumps and provides analytics to help patients and HCPs make more informed treatment and lifestyle decisions. This study assessed the experience of patients using OTR and the OneTouch Verio (OTV) BG meter and determined the extent of changes in glycemic control. Subjects with T1DM (23) or T2DM (17) uploaded BG meter results to OTR for 12 weeks. HCPs remotely reviewed progress using OTR and delivered telephone consultations at 4 and 8 weeks based on OTR insights. After 12 weeks, mean HbA1c decreased by 0.4% (P web application in combination with the OTV meter helped subjects with T1DM and T2DM effectively manage their diabetes and was associated with improved BG control over 12 weeks. Real-time visibility to subject data may help HCPs deliver focused and effective remote consultations. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Innovation in health economic modelling of service improvements for longer-term depression: demonstration in a local health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Jonathan; Kearns, Ben; Brennan, Alan; Parry, Glenys; Ricketts, Thomas; Saxon, David; Kilgarriff-Foster, Alexis; Thake, Anna; Chambers, Eleni; Hutten, Rebecca

    2013-04-26

    The purpose of the analysis was to develop a health economic model to estimate the costs and health benefits of alternative National Health Service (NHS) service configurations for people with longer-term depression. Modelling methods were used to develop a conceptual and health economic model of the current configuration of services in Sheffield, England for people with longer-term depression. Data and assumptions were synthesised to estimate cost per Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Three service changes were developed and resulted in increased QALYs at increased cost. Versus current care, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for a self-referral service was £11,378 per QALY. The ICER was £2,227 per QALY for the dropout reduction service and £223 per QALY for an increase in non-therapy services. These results were robust when compared to current cost-effectiveness thresholds and accounting for uncertainty. Cost-effective service improvements for longer-term depression have been identified. Also identified were limitations of the current evidence for the long term impact of services.

  5. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Ingersoll

    Full Text Available Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species - little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus, tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, Indiana myotis (M. sodalis, and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis - in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999-2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11% in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38% in P. subflavus, 30% (±26% in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18% in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and

  6. The CubeSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (CIRAS): Demonstrating key technologies for a future constellation to improve temporal sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Hyperspectral infrared sounding of the atmosphere has become a vital element in the observational system for weather forecast prediction at National Weather Prediction (NWP) centers worldwide. The NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument was the pathfinder for the hyperspectral infrared observations and was designed to provide accurate atmospheric temperature and water vapor profile information in support of weather prediction. AIRS was launched in 2002 and continues to operate well. The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the Suomi NPP satellite was launched in 2011 to continue the AIRS measurement record. CrIS also continues to operate well and additional sensors are planned for launch promising to continue the hyperspectral infrared measurements in support of NWP into the late 2030's. The high cost of IR sounders makes it costly to launch them into multiple orbits to improve temporal sampling, or into GEO, although EUMETSAT is planning a GEO IR Sounder to launch in the early 2020's. JPL NASA is offering an alternate hyperspectral IR sounder architecture for the future involving CubeSats. The latest technology in large format focal plane assemblies, wide field optics and active cryocoolers enables a reduction in size, mass and cost of the legacy sounders and offer new configurations. Lessons learned from AIRS and CrIS indicate that temperature and water vapor sounding in the lower troposphere can be achieved with only the MWIR portion of the spectrum. The CubeSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (CIRAS) employs only an MWIR spectrometer to achieve lower tropospheric temperature and water vapor profiles, but with comparable spatial, spectral and radiometric sensitivity in this band as AIRS and CrIS. CIRAS operates from 4.08-5.13 µm with 625 channels and spectral resolution of 1.2-2.0 cm-1. CIRAS employs an immersion grating spectrometer making the optics incredibly compact, and HOT-BIRD detectors enabling good uniformity and operability over the large

  7. Evaluating a Program Designed to Demonstrate Continuous Improvement in Teaching at an AACSB-Accredited College of Business at a Regional University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Robert E.; Saccucci, Michael S.; Potter, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a detailed statistical analysis of a process intended to demonstrate continuous improvement in teaching at an AACSB accredited college of business. The Educational Testing Service's SIR II student evaluation instrument was used to measure teaching effectiveness. A six-year longitudinal analysis of the SIR II results does not…

  8. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  9. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  10. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  11. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  12. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  14. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Transitech® and improvement of bowel function which is maintained after cessation of consumption of the food pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Vivatech, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Transitech® and improvement of bowel function which is maintained after cessation of consumption of the food. The food, Transitech®, that is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, improvement of bowel function which is maintained after cessation of consumption of the food, is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel considered that the one study that investigated the claimed effect did not show an effect of Transitech® on bowel function which is maintained after cessation of consumption of the food. A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Transitech® and improvement of bowel function which is maintained after cessation of consumption of the food.

  15. 76 FR 76905 - Extension of Comment Period for Proposed Rulemaking on Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... improvements to rural electric, water and waste, and telecom and broadband infrastructure, RUS also plays a big... of infrastructure projects in Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA). DATES: Comments must be... improvement of infrastructure projects in Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA). The RUS loan,...

  16. Substantial Union or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Jamei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body union, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial union. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial union of mind and body with their substantial distinction; despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than union theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories

  17. Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Jamei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body :union:, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial :union:. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial :union: of mind and body with their substantial distinction despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than :union: theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories.

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  20. Complete Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  3. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophilus LA 104 and improves stool frequency pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from PiLeJe submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophilus LA 104 and improves stools frequency. The food that is the subject of the health claim is a combination of B. longum LA 101, L. helveticus LA 102, L. lactis LA 103 and S. thermophilus LA 104. The information provided was insufficient to establish that the strain L. lactis LA 103 was sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that if in a combination of several microorganisms and/or ingredients one microorganism or ingredient used in the combination is not sufficiently characterised, then the combination is considered to be not sufficiently characterised. A combination of B. longum LA 101, L. helveticus LA 102, L. lactis LA 103, and S. thermophilus LA 104 is not sufficiently characterised. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship cannot be established between the consumption of a combination of B. longum LA 101, L. helveticus LA 102, L. lactis LA 103 and S. thermophilus LA 104 and improves stool frequency.

  4. Organizational Creativity: A Substantial Factor to Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikeh Beheshtifar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly seeking to foster creativity, because it is an important source of organizational innovation as well as competitive advantage. Creativity has been studied from different perspectives and is associated with a number of defining factors and elements. creative organization define as encompassing factors concerning the removal of barriers demonstrating managed innovation, idea evaluation procedures, motivational stimuli, communication procedures, development of idea sources, and evidence of the creative planning process; and organizational creativity is as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The creative climate encourages people to generate new ideas and helps the organization to grow and increase its efficiency and at the same time it enables members to generate and implement creative ideas more effectively.

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function (ID 1104, 1222, 1600, 1601, 1707, 1935, 2004, 2005), alleviation, of psychological stress (ID 1598, 1601), maintenance of normal sleep (ID 1222, 1737, 2004) and reduction of menstrual discomfort (ID 1599) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function, alleviation of psychological stress, maintenance of normal sleep and reduction of menstrual discomfort. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...

  9. [Population policy: substantial but insufficient advances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Y Gonzalez, A

    1988-01-01

    Population policy was revised in Mexico in 1973 following the introduction of family planning and the abolition of rules prohibiting contraceptives. The laws of 1936 and 1947 favored population growth, but it was due to the improvement of public health (and the resulting drop in mortality rates), agricultural reform, and industrialization that an accelerated demographic expansion occurred. The National Council on Population (CONAPO) was created whose activities include family planning with modern contraceptive technology and maternal-infant health care. In accordance with the goals set in 1977, population growth is sought to be reduced to 1%/year by the year 2000. Public educational programs about reproduction, the family, and the community have been launched. The integration of women into the development of the country under the aegis of the Comision Nacional de las Mujer has not been fully achieved. The processing and analysis of demographic information for longterm policy development has also been limited. The lack of clear guidance from CONAPO has limited the involvement of state and municipal councils in the solution of Mexico's population problems. Future challenges will focus on the legal framework for reconciling public and private interests, and the interaction of population programs and economic and social development. The centralized decision making of population policy has involved more organizations, but still more needs to be done.

  10. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  12. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning r...

  13. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... substantial radiation levels offsite. DOE will determine that there has been a substantial discharge or dispersal of radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation...

  14. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section 140.84 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as...

  15. A Randomized Comparison between Video Demonstration and Verbal Instruction in Improving Rota Haler Technique in Children with Persistent Asthma: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugom, Archana; Chandrasekaran, Venkatesh

    2017-06-01

    Inhalation therapy is the cornerstone in management of asthma. Failure to use the device properly is one of the factors incriminated in poor control of asthma. To compare the technique of rota haler use in children with persistent asthma immediately after receiving either verbal instruction or a video based demonstration and again at one month following intervention. A total of 28 children, older than six years attending the childhood asthma clinic of our hospital, who were prescribed rota halers for the first time and who were technique naïve were enrolled into the study, after obtaining informed consent from the parents after meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were then randomly assigned to either verbal instructions (group of 14) or video demonstration group (group of 14), for teaching them the rota haler technique. Their technique was then assessed using a modified version of the inhaler device assessment tool immediately after education and one month after the intervention. The proportions of children with good technique in both groups at both time points were compared. There was no significant difference in the baseline variables like age, gender, location, socio-economic status and disease duration between both groups. The proportion of children achieving good technique was significantly more in the video group than the oral instruction group at immediate assessment and also at one month post intervention with an odds of 8 and 23.40 respectively (p=0.0262 and 0.0075 respectively). Video demonstration is effective in improving the technique of rota haler use at immediate assessment and at one month post intervention. Further studies are needed to validate this study and to assess factors that predict successful device use.

  16. Five-year results from a prospective multicentre study of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation demonstrate sustained removal of significant pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and improved quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Alfred; Schubert, Stephan; Ewert, Peter; Søndergaard, Lars; Witsenburg, Maarten; Guccione, Paolo; Benson, Lee N; Suárez de Lezo, José; Lung, Te-Hsin; Hess, John; Eicken, Andreas; Berger, Felix

    2017-02-20

    Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) is used to treat patients with dysfunctional pulmonary valve conduits. Short- and longer-term results from multiple trials have outlined haemodynamic improvements. Our aim was to report the long-term results, including quality of life, from a multicentre trial in Europe and Canada. From October 2007 to April 2009, 71 patients (24 female; median age 19.0 [IQR: 14.0 to 25.0] years) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. PPVI was performed successfully in 63 patients. At five-year follow-up four patients had died. Moderate and severe pulmonary regurgitation were completely resolved in all except one patient, who needed re-PPVI. Outflow tract obstruction improved significantly from a mean pressure gradient of 37.7±12.1 mmHg before PPVI to 17.3±9.7 mmHg at five-year follow-up; however, 11 patients needed treatment for restenosis. The EQ-5D quality of life utility index and visual analogue scale scores were both significantly improved six months post PPVI and remained so at five years. Five-year results following PPVI demonstrate resolved moderate or severe pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and improved quality of life.

  17. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  18. Topography improvements in MEMS DMs for high-contrast, high-resolution imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop and demonstrate an innovative microfabrication process to substantially improve the surface quality achievable in high-resolution...

  19. Osteochondral Biopsy Analysis Demonstrates That BST-CarGel Treatment Improves Structural and Cellular Characteristics of Cartilage Repair Tissue Compared With Microfracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méthot, Stéphane; Changoor, Adele; Tran-Khanh, Nicolas; Hoemann, Caroline D.; Stanish, William D.; Restrepo, Alberto; Shive, Matthew S.; Buschmann, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The efficacy and safety of BST-CarGel, a chitosan-based medical device for cartilage repair, was compared with microfracture alone at 1 year during a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) in the knee. The quality of repair tissue of osteochondral biopsies collected from a subset of patients was compared using blinded histological assessments. Methods The international RCT evaluated repair tissue quantity and quality by 3-dimensional quantitative magnetic resonance imaging as co-primary endpoints at 12 months. At an average of 13 months posttreatment, 21/41 BST-CarGel and 17/39 microfracture patients underwent elective second look arthroscopies as a tertiary endpoint, during which ICRS (International Cartilage Repair Society) macroscopic scoring was carried out, and osteochondral biopsies were collected. Stained histological sections were evaluated by blinded readers using ICRS I and II histological scoring systems. Collagen organization was evaluated using a polarized light microscopy score. Results BST-CarGel treatment resulted in significantly better ICRS macroscopic scores (P = 0.0002) compared with microfracture alone, indicating better filling, integration, and tissue appearance. Histologically, BST-CarGel resulted in a significant improvement of structural parameters—Surface Architecture (P = 0.007) and Surface/Superficial Assessment (P = 0.042)—as well as cellular parameters—Cell Viability (P = 0.006) and Cell Distribution (P = 0.032). No histological parameters were significantly better for the microfracture group. BST-CarGel treatment also resulted in a more organized repair tissue with collagen stratification more similar to native hyaline cartilage, as measured by polarized light microscopy scoring (P = 0.0003). Conclusion Multiple and independent analyses in this biopsy substudy demonstrated that BST-CarGel treatment results in improved structural and cellular characteristics of repair tissue at 1 year posttreatment compared with

  20. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing...

  1. Maui Smart Grid Demonstration Project Managing Distribution System Resources for Improved Service Quality and Reliability, Transmission Congestion Relief, and Grid Support Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-30

    The Maui Smart Grid Project (MSGP) is under the leadership of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The project team includes Maui Electric Company, Ltd. (MECO), Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (HECO), Sentech (a division of SRA International, Inc.), Silver Spring Networks (SSN), Alstom Grid, Maui Economic Development Board (MEDB), University of Hawaii-Maui College (UHMC), and the County of Maui. MSGP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC26-08NT02871, with approximately 50% co-funding supplied by MECO. The project was designed to develop and demonstrate an integrated monitoring, communications, database, applications, and decision support solution that aggregates renewable energy (RE), other distributed generation (DG), energy storage, and demand response technologies in a distribution system to achieve both distribution and transmission-level benefits. The application of these new technologies and procedures will increase MECO’s visibility into system conditions, with the expected benefits of enabling more renewable energy resources to be integrated into the grid, improving service quality, increasing overall reliability of the power system, and ultimately reducing costs to both MECO and its customers.

  2. A substantial and unexpected enhancement of motion perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Tadin, Duje; Schauder, Kimberly B; Cascio, Carissa J

    2013-05-08

    Atypical perceptual processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is well documented. In addition, growing evidence supports the hypothesis that an excitatory/inhibitory neurochemical imbalance might underlie ASD. Here we investigated putative behavioral consequences of the excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in the context of visual motion perception. As stimulus size increases, typical observers exhibit marked impairments in perceiving motion of high-contrast stimuli. This result, termed "spatial suppression," is believed to reflect inhibitory motion-processing mechanisms. Motion processing is also affected by gain control, an inhibitory mechanism that underlies saturation of neural responses at high contrast. Motivated by these behavioral correlates of inhibitory function, we investigated motion perception in human children with ASD (n = 20) and typical development (n = 26). At high contrast, both groups exhibited similar impairments in motion perception with increasing stimulus size, revealing no apparent differences in spatial suppression. However, there was a substantial enhancement of motion perception in ASD: children with ASD exhibited a consistent twofold improvement in perceiving motion. Hypothesizing that this enhancement might indicate abnormal weakening of response gain control, we repeated our measurements at low contrast, where the effects of gain control should be negligible. At low contrast, we indeed found no group differences in motion discrimination thresholds. These low-contrast results, however, revealed weaker spatial suppression in ASD, suggesting the possibility that gain control abnormalities in ASD might have masked spatial suppression differences at high contrast. Overall, we report a pattern of motion perception abnormalities in ASD that includes substantial enhancements at high contrast and is consistent with an underlying excitatory/inhibitory imbalance.

  3. Zscan4 promotes genomic stability during reprogramming and dramatically improves the quality of iPS cells as demonstrated by tetraploid complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Lv, Wenjian; Ye, Xiaoying; Wang, Lingbo; Zhang, Man; Yang, Hui; Okuka, Maja; Zhou, Chikai; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Lin; Li, Jinsong

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generated using Yamanaka factors have great potential for use in autologous cell therapy. However, genomic abnormalities exist in human iPS cells, and most mouse iPS cells are not fully pluripotent, as evaluated by the tetraploid complementation assay (TCA); this is most likely associated with the DNA damage response (DDR) occurred in early reprogramming induced by Yamanaka factors. In contrast, nuclear transfer can faithfully reprogram somatic cells into embryonic stem (ES) cells that satisfy the TCA. We thus hypothesized that factors involved in oocyte-induced reprogramming may stabilize the somatic genome during reprogramming, and improve the quality of the resultant iPS cells. To test this hypothesis, we screened for factors that could decrease DDR signals during iPS cell induction. We determined that Zscan4, in combination with the Yamanaka factors, not only remarkably reduced the DDR but also markedly promoted the efficiency of iPS cell generation. The inclusion of Zscan4 stabilized the genomic DNA, resulting in p53 downregulation. Furthermore, Zscan4 also enhanced telomere lengthening as early as 3 days post-infection through a telomere recombination-based mechanism. As a result, iPS cells generated with addition of Zscan4 exhibited longer telomeres than classical iPS cells. Strikingly, more than 50% of iPS cell lines (11/19) produced via this "Zscan4 protocol" gave rise to live-borne all-iPS cell mice as determined by TCA, compared to 1/12 for lines produced using the classical Yamanaka factors. Our findings provide the first demonstration that maintaining genomic stability during reprogramming promotes the generation of high quality iPS cells.

  4. Zscan4 promotes genomic stability during reprogramming and dramatically improves the quality of iPS cells as demonstrated by tetraploid complementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jiang; Wenjian Lv; Xiaoying Ye; Lingbo Wang; Man Zhang; Hui Yang; Maja Okuka

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generated using Yamanaka factors have great potential for use in autologous cell therapy.However,genomic abnormalities exist in human iPS cells,and most mouse iPS cells are not fully pluripotent,as evaluated by the tetraploid complementation assay (TCA); this is most likely associated with the DNA damage response (DDR) occurred in early reprogramming induced by Yamanaka factors.In contrast,nuclear transfer can faithfully reprogram somatic cells into embryonic stem (ES) cells that satisfy the TCA.We thus hypothesized that factors involved in oocyte-induced reprogramming may stabilize the somatic genome during reprogramming,and improve the quality of the resultant iPS cells.To test this hypothesis,we screened for factors that could decrease DDR signals during iPS cell induction.We determined that Zscan4,in combination with the Yamanaka factors,not only remarkably reduced the DDR but also markedly promoted the efficiency of iPS cell generation.The inclusion of Zscan4 stabilized the genomic DNA,resulting in p53 downregulation.Furthermore,Zscan4 also enhanced telomere lengthening as early as 3 days post-infection through a telomere recombination-based mechanism.As a result,iPS cells generated with addition of Zscan4 exhibited longer telomeres than classical iPS cells.Strikingly,more than 50%of iPS cell lines (11/19) produced via this "Zscan4 protocol" gave rise to live-borne all-iPS cell mice as determined by TCA,compared to 1/12 for lines produced using the classical Yamanaka factors.Our findings provide the first demonstration that maintaining genomic stability during reprogramming promotes the generation of high quality iPS cells.

  5. Scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuexin

    2008-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the procedures involved in scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China. The definition of a functional food is discussed, in addition to the factors that led to its modification in 2005. The framework of administration includes the regulation of functional foods, steps involved in submission of dossiers, the safety control system for raw materials and products, and technical procedures for testing and evaluation. Scientific evidence required for a claim includes evidence from product tests in addition to evidence resulting from complete scientific literature searches relative to the food material or component in question. Currently, the 4 main rules for functional food assessment in China include 1) functional assessment procedures; 2) standard toxicological assessment; 3) regulations on nutrient supplements; and 4) standard analytical methods for functional components. The current situation for functional foods in China is analyzed, including a discussion of the distribution of the 27 currently allowed functional food health claims. The effectiveness of functional foods and health claims for improving health relies largely on the motivation and education of the public to be able to make good choices.

  6. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  7. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity and substantial compliance. 604.6... FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.6 Conformity and substantial compliance. (a) In... for the administration of its UC program. (b) Resolving Issues of Conformity and...

  8. New theory of arrhythmia. Conceptual substantiation of arrhythmia mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Ermoshkin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims A new attempt is made to substantiate the concept of the mechanism of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Methods The paper is based on a theoretical analysis of special literature, personal experience of participation in conferences and discussions with leading Russian cardiologists. Results We have succeeded in demonstrating the fact that researchers ignore the fact that cardiomyocytes can be excited by mechanical pulses, when considering the arrhythmia mechanisms. We have conducted trials using the Cardiocode device. Under stress in a human, opened may be large and small arteriovenous anastomoses, via which blood under high pressure is ejected into veins. It leads to pressure surges in arteries and veins. The vena cava dilates, its tonus increases. In some cases, the pulse waves travel via anastomoses along the vena cava walls to the atria and the ventricles. An above-threshold concentration of tensions from mechanical pulses may excite cardiomyocytes from different points of the myocardium, disturbing the sinus rhythm. As a result, extrasystoles, tachycardia attacks, blocking of blood circulation in the peripheral segments of the venous arterial networks, edemata, thrombosis and metabolism disorders appear. Arrhythmia, tachycardia attacks and concomitant myocardial ischemia lead to progression of heart fibrosis. Such changes increase the probability of fibrillations and sudden cardiac death. Conclusion Unhealthy lifestyle, the presence of opening and not properly closing anastomoses may provoke a number of diseases. To avoid the cardiac arrhythmia attacks and prevent SCD, it is necessary to suppress travel of the mechanical waves within the following circuitry: aorta – artery – anastomosis – vein – vena cava – atria – ventricles. The travel of the mechanical waves within the same vessel circuitry explains the fact that the fixed couplings under extrasystoles are observed, and the beat-to-beat RR intervals under tachycardia

  9. 76 FR 38961 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... comment noted that a dictionary definition of ``modification'' supported excluding these ``adjustments... select regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental... significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Section 202(a) of the Unfunded Mandates...

  10. Impact Findings from the Head Start CARES Demonstration: National Evaluation of Three Approaches to Improving Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Competence. Executive Summary. OPRE Report 2014-44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela; Mattera, Shira K.; Castells, Nina; Bangser, Michael; Bierman, Karen; Raver, Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Low-income preschool children face risks to their social-emotional development that can affect them later on. Although there are promising approaches to promoting preschoolers' social-emotional skills, the evidence base is limited, particularly on their effectiveness when implemented at scale. The Head Start CARES demonstration evaluated the…

  11. Improving Students' Participation in Active Learning Methods: Group Discussions, Presentations and Demonstrations: A Case of Madda Walabu University Second Year Tourism Management Students of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Sewnet; Berhanu, Kassegn

    2015-01-01

    Education is a means by which people develop and acquire knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. It paves the way for development and plays a vital role (serves as a catalyst) in bringing socio-cultural, economical, technological, political and environmental advancements. The general objective of this study was to improve Second Year Tourism…

  12. GPR21 KO mice demonstrate no resistance to high fat diet induced obesity or improved glucose tolerance [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghong Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gpr21 KO mice generated with Gpr21 KO ES cells obtained from Deltagen showed improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when fed a high fat diet. Further mRNA expression analysis revealed changes in Rabgap1 levels and raised the possibility that Rabgap1 gene may have been modified. To assess this hypothesis a new Gpr21 KO mouse line using TALENS technology was generated. Gpr21 gene deletion was confirmed by PCR and Gpr21 and Rabgap1 mRNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR. The newly generated Gpr21 KO mice when fed a normal or high fat diet chow did not maintain their improved metabolic phenotype. In conclusion, Rabgap1 disturbance mRNA expression levels may have contributed to the phenotype of the originally designed Gpr21 KO mice.

  13. GPR21 KO mice demonstrate no resistance to high fat diet induced obesity or improved glucose tolerance [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghong Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gpr21 KO mice generated with Gpr21 KO ES cells obtained from Deltagen showed improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when fed a high fat diet. Further mRNA expression analysis revealed changes in Rabgap1 levels and raised the possibility that Rabgap1 gene may have been modified. To assess this hypothesis a new Gpr21 KO mouse line using TALENS technology was generated. Gpr21 gene deletion was confirmed by PCR and Gpr21 and Rabgap1 mRNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR. The newly generated Gpr21 KO mice when fed a normal or high fat diet chow did not maintain their improved metabolic phenotype. In conclusion, Rabgap1 disturbance mRNA expression levels may have contributed to the phenotype of the originally designed Gpr21 KO mice.

  14. A clinical prediction rule for classifying patients with low back pain who demonstrate short-term improvement with mechanical lumbar traction

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Congcong; Pua, Yong Hao; Lim, Kian Chong

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a clinical prediction rule for identifying patients with low back pain, who improved with mechanical lumbar traction. A prospective, cohort study was conducted in a physiotherapy clinic at a local hospital. Patients with low back pain, referred to physiotherapy were included in the study. The intervention was a standardized mechanical lumbar traction program, which comprised three sessions provided within 9 days. Patient demographic information, stand...

  15. An improved grafting technique for mature Arabidopsis plants demonstrates long-distance shoot-to-root transport of phytochelatins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alice; Komives, Elizabeth A; Schroeder, Julian I

    2006-05-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are peptides that function in heavy-metal chelation and detoxification in plants and fungi. A recent study showed that PCs have the ability to undergo long-distance transport in a root-to-shoot direction in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). To determine whether long-distance transport of PCs can occur in the opposite direction, from shoots to roots, the wheat (Triticum aestivum) PC synthase (TaPCS1) gene was expressed under the control of a shoot-specific promoter (CAB2) in an Arabidopsis PC-deficient mutant, cad1-3 (CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3). Analyses demonstrated that TaPCS1 is expressed only in shoots and that CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3 lines complement the cadmium (Cd) and arsenic metal sensitivity of cad1-3 shoots. CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3 plants exhibited higher Cd accumulation in roots and lower Cd accumulation in shoots compared to wild type. Fluorescence HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry analyses directly detected PC2 in the roots of CAB2:TaPCS1/cad1-3 but not in cad1-3 controls, suggesting that PC2 is transported over long distances in the shoot-to-root direction. In addition, wild-type shoot tissues were grafted onto PC synthase cad1-3 atpcs2-1 double loss-of-function mutant root tissues. An Arabidopsis grafting technique for mature plants was modified to obtain an 84% success rate, significantly greater than a previous rate of approximately 11%. Fluorescence HPLC-mass spectrometry showed the presence of PC2, PC3, and PC4 in the root tissue of grafts between wild-type shoots and cad1-3 atpcs2-1 double-mutant roots, demonstrating that PCs are transported over long distances from shoots to roots in Arabidopsis.

  16. Improvements of sound localization abilities by the facial ruff of the barn owl (Tyto alba as demonstrated by virtual ruff removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hausmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When sound arrives at the eardrum it has already been filtered by the body, head, and outer ear. This process is mathematically described by the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs, which are characteristic for the spatial position of a sound source and for the individual ear. HRTFs in the barn owl (Tyto alba are also shaped by the facial ruff, a specialization that alters interaural time differences (ITD, interaural intensity differences (ILD, and the frequency spectrum of the incoming sound to improve sound localization. Here we created novel stimuli to simulate the removal of the barn owl's ruff in a virtual acoustic environment, thus creating a situation similar to passive listening in other animals, and used these stimuli in behavioral tests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HRTFs were recorded from an owl before and after removal of the ruff feathers. Normal and ruff-removed conditions were created by filtering broadband noise with the HRTFs. Under normal virtual conditions, no differences in azimuthal head-turning behavior between individualized and non-individualized HRTFs were observed. The owls were able to respond differently to stimuli from the back than to stimuli from the front having the same ITD. By contrast, such a discrimination was not possible after the virtual removal of the ruff. Elevational head-turn angles were (slightly smaller with non-individualized than with individualized HRTFs. The removal of the ruff resulted in a large decrease in elevational head-turning amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The facial ruff a improves azimuthal sound localization by increasing the ITD range and b improves elevational sound localization in the frontal field by introducing a shift of iso-ILD lines out of the midsagittal plane, which causes ILDs to increase with increasing stimulus elevation. The changes at the behavioral level could be related to the changes in the binaural physical parameters that occurred after the

  17. Improvements of sound localization abilities by the facial ruff of the barn owl (Tyto alba) as demonstrated by virtual ruff removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Laura; von Campenhausen, Mark; Endler, Frank; Singheiser, Martin; Wagner, Hermann

    2009-11-05

    When sound arrives at the eardrum it has already been filtered by the body, head, and outer ear. This process is mathematically described by the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), which are characteristic for the spatial position of a sound source and for the individual ear. HRTFs in the barn owl (Tyto alba) are also shaped by the facial ruff, a specialization that alters interaural time differences (ITD), interaural intensity differences (ILD), and the frequency spectrum of the incoming sound to improve sound localization. Here we created novel stimuli to simulate the removal of the barn owl's ruff in a virtual acoustic environment, thus creating a situation similar to passive listening in other animals, and used these stimuli in behavioral tests. HRTFs were recorded from an owl before and after removal of the ruff feathers. Normal and ruff-removed conditions were created by filtering broadband noise with the HRTFs. Under normal virtual conditions, no differences in azimuthal head-turning behavior between individualized and non-individualized HRTFs were observed. The owls were able to respond differently to stimuli from the back than to stimuli from the front having the same ITD. By contrast, such a discrimination was not possible after the virtual removal of the ruff. Elevational head-turn angles were (slightly) smaller with non-individualized than with individualized HRTFs. The removal of the ruff resulted in a large decrease in elevational head-turning amplitudes. The facial ruff a) improves azimuthal sound localization by increasing the ITD range and b) improves elevational sound localization in the frontal field by introducing a shift of iso-ILD lines out of the midsagittal plane, which causes ILDs to increase with increasing stimulus elevation. The changes at the behavioral level could be related to the changes in the binaural physical parameters that occurred after the virtual removal of the ruff. These data provide new insights into the function of

  18. Prescribing Data in General Practice Demonstration (PDGPD project - a cluster randomised controlled trial of a quality improvement intervention to achieve better prescribing for chronic heart failure and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Margaret

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research literature consistently documents that scientifically based therapeutic recommendations are not always followed in the hospital or in the primary care setting. Currently, there is evidence that some general practitioners in Australia are not prescribing appropriately for patients diagnosed with 1 hypertension (HT and 2 chronic heart failure (CHF. The objectives of this study were to improve general practitioner’s drug treatment management of these patients through feedback on their own prescribing and small group discussions with peers and a trained group facilitator. The impact evaluation includes quantitative assessment of prescribing changes at 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after the intervention. Methods A pragmatic multi site cluster RCT began recruiting practices in October 2009 to evaluate the effects of a multi-faceted quality improvement (QI intervention on prescribing practice among Australian general practitioners (GP in relation to patients with CHF and HT. General practices were recruited nationally through General Practice Networks across Australia. Participating practices were randomly allocated to one of three groups: two groups received the QI intervention (the prescribing indicator feedback reports and small group discussion with each group undertaking the clinical topics (CHF and HT in reverse order to the other. The third group was waitlisted to receive the intervention 6 months later and acted as a “control” for the other two groups. De-identified data on practice, doctor and patient characteristics and their treatment for CHF and HT are extracted at six-monthly intervals before and after the intervention. Post-test comparisons will be conducted between the intervention and control arms using intention to treat analysis and models that account for clustering of practices in a Network and clustering of patients within practices and GPs. Discussion This paper describes the study protocol for a

  19. Automated Analysis of Vital Signs Identified Patients with Substantial Bleeding Prior to Hospital Arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    threatening bleeding may be effectively treated when surgery and blood resuscitation are provided sufficiently quickly after injury [1, 2]. Standard...survive. Protocols for substantial bleeding , typically activated after the patient’s arrival in a hospital, are known to improve trauma outcomes. Early...

  20. Substantial generalization of sensorimotor learning from bilateral to unilateral movement conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsung Wang

    Full Text Available Controversy exists regarding whether bimanual skill learning can generalize to unimanual performance. For example, some investigators showed that dynamic adaptation could only partially generalize between bilateral and unilateral movement conditions, while others demonstrated complete generalization of visuomotor adaptation. Here, we identified three potential factors that might have contributed to the discrepancy between the two sets of findings. In our first experiment, subjects performed reaching movements toward eight targets bilaterally with a novel force field applied to both arms, then unilaterally with the force field applied to one arm. Results showed that the dynamic adaptation generalized completely from bilateral to unilateral movements. In our second experiment, the same force field was only applied to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. Results indicated complete transfer again. Finally, our subjects performed reaching movements toward a single target with the force field or a novel visuomotor rotation applied only to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. The reduced breadth of experience obtained during bilateral movements resulted in incomplete transfer, which explains previous findings of limited generalization. These findings collectively suggest a substantial overlap between the neural processes underlying bilateral and unilateral movements, supporting the idea that bilateral training, often employed in stroke rehabilitation, is a valid method for improving unilateral performance. However, our findings also suggest that while the neural representations developed during bilateral training can generalize to facilitate unilateral performance, the extent of generalization may depend on the breadth of experience obtained during bilateral training.

  1. Demonstration of a Novel, Integrated, Multi-Scale Procedure for High-Resolution 3D Reservoir Characterization and Improved CO2-EOR/Sequestration Management, SACROC Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott R. Reeves

    2007-09-30

    The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate a new and novel approach for high resolution, 3D reservoir characterization that can enable better management of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects and, looking to the future, carbon sequestration projects. The approach adopted has been the subject of previous research by the DOE and others, and relies primarily upon data-mining and advanced pattern recognition approaches. This approach honors all reservoir characterization data collected, but accepts that our understanding of how these measurements relate to the information of most interest, such as how porosity and permeability vary over a reservoir volume, is imperfect. Ideally the data needed for such an approach includes surface seismic to provide the greatest amount of data over the entire reservoir volume of interest, crosswell seismic to fill the resolution gap between surface seismic and wellbore-scale measurements, geophysical well logs to provide the vertical resolution sought, and core data to provide the tie to the information of most interest. These data are combined via a series of one or more relational models to enable, in its most successful application, the prediction of porosity and permeability on a vertical resolution similar to logs at each surface seismic trace location. In this project, the procedure was applied to the giant (and highly complex) SACROC unit of the Permian basin in West Texas, one of the world's largest CO{sub 2}-EOR projects and a potentially world-class geologic sequestration site. Due to operational scheduling considerations on the part of the operator of the field, the crosswell data was not obtained during the period of project performance (it is currently being collected however as part of another DOE project). This compromised the utility of the surface seismic data for the project due to the resolution gap between it and the geophysical well logs. An alternative approach was adopted that utilized a

  2. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....105-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.105-2 Substantial gainful... minimum wage prescribed by section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, 29 U.S.C...

  3. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the substantial owner's death; and (4) Immediately after the distribution, the plan has nonforfeitable... the form of a straight life annuity to a participant beginning at Social Security retirement age ($120...) Form 1 extension. The notice date is extended until 30 days after the plan's variable rate...

  4. 26 CFR 1.274-5A - Substantiation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... substantiated a particular element of an expenditure, but the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the.... If a taxpayer fails to establish to the satisfaction of the district director that he has... food and beverages for employees, section 274(e)(3) relating to expenses treated as...

  5. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... processor in the United States who converts or combines the imported article into the different article will... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35...

  6. Engineering Substantially Prolonged Human Lifespans: Biotechnological Enhancement and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has recently become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion in 2001 of the Human Genome Project and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research it has opened. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology.

  7. SUBSTANTIATION OF SOLUTIONS PERTAINING TO COMPLEX PRODUCTION RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Gurinovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While taking an example of reconstruction and modernization of OJSC «Construction and Mounting Trust No.16, Novopolotsk» the paper substantiates solutions for complex production reconstruction. The production reconstruction is divided in three start-up facilities ensuring continuous finished-product output.

  8. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  9. A clinical prediction rule for classifying patients with low back pain who demonstrate short-term improvement with mechanical lumbar traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Congcong; Pua, Yong Hao; Lim, Kian Chong

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a clinical prediction rule for identifying patients with low back pain, who improved with mechanical lumbar traction. A prospective, cohort study was conducted in a physiotherapy clinic at a local hospital. Patients with low back pain, referred to physiotherapy were included in the study. The intervention was a standardized mechanical lumbar traction program, which comprised three sessions provided within 9 days. Patient demographic information, standard physical examination, numeric pain scale, fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire and Oswestry low back pain disability index (pre- and post-intervention) were recorded. A total of 129 patients participated in the study and 25 had positive response to the mechanical lumbar traction. A clinical prediction rule with four variables (non-involvement of manual work, low level fear-avoidance beliefs, no neurological deficit and age above 30 years) was identified. The presence of all four variables (positive likelihood ratio = 9.36) increased the probability of response rate with mechanical lumbar traction from 19.4 to 69.2%. It appears that patients with low back pain who were likely to respond to mechanical lumbar traction may be identified.

  10. Female Rats Demonstrate Improved Locomotor Recovery and Greater Preservation of White and Gray Matter after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Compared to Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datto, Jeffrey P; Bastidas, Johana C; Miller, Nicole L; Shah, Anna K; Arheart, Kristopher L; Marcillo, Alexander E; Dietrich, W Dalton; Pearse, Damien D

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of a gender-related difference in recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a controversial subject. Current empirical animal research lacks sizable test groups to definitively determine whether significant differences exist. Evaluating locomotor recovery variances between sexes following a precise, clinically relevant spinal cord contusion model can provide valuable insight into a possible gender-related advantage in outcome post-SCI. In the current study, we hypothesized that by employing larger sample sizes in a reproducible contusive SCI paradigm, subtle distinctions in locomotor recovery between sexes, if they exist, would be elucidated through a broad range of behavioral tests. During 13 weeks of functional assessment after a thoracic (T8) contusive SCI in rat, significant differences owing to gender existed for the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and CatWalk hindlimb swing, support four, and single stance analyses. Significant differences in locomotor performance were noticeable as early as 4 weeks post-SCI. Stereological tissue-volume analysis determined that females, more so than males, also exhibited greater volumes of preserved gray and white matter within the injured cord segment as well as more spared ventral white matter area at the center of the lesion. The stereological tissue analysis differences favoring females directly correlated with the female rats' greater functional improvement observed at endpoint.

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to VeriSol ® P and a change in skin elasticity leading to an improvement in skin function pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    by an increased skin elasticity and a reduction of wrinkles volume”. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general adult population. The Panel considers that a change in skin elasticity leading to an improvement in skin function is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant presented two...

  12. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes.

  13. IMPROVED LIGHT MICROSCOPIC DEMONSTRATION OF D-AMINO-ACID OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CRYOTOME SECTIONS USING CERIUM IONS AS CAPTURING AND AMPLIFYING AGENT - THE CE/CE-H2O2-DAB PROCEDURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALBHUBER, KJ; FEUERSTEIN, H; ZIMMERMANN, N; KLINGER, M; KALICHARAN, D; HUPFER, U

    1991-01-01

    The light microscopical demonstration of D-amino acid oxidase (AAOX) activity with cerium (Ce III) as the capturing agent was improved. The incubation medium was stabilized by the employment of triethanolamine and detrane complexed cerium. A considerable increase in intensity of the reaction was

  14. Substantial Life Extension and the Fair Distribution of Healthspans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    One of the strongest objections to the development and use of substantially life-extending interventions is that they would exacerbate existing unjust disparities of healthy lifespans between rich and poor members of society. In both popular opinion and ethical theory, this consequence is sometimes thought to justify a ban on life-prolonging technologies. However, the practical and ethical drawbacks of banning receive little attention, and the viability of alternative policies is seldom considered. Moreover, where ethicists do propose alternatives, there is scant effort to consider their merits in light of developing world priorities. In response to these shortcomings, I distinguish four policy options and, on the basis of a plausible intuition about fairness, evaluate their implications for a fair distribution of healthy lifespans. I claim that even in developing nations it would be fairest to favor policies that promote equal access to at least one promising category of substantially life-extending intervention: calorie restriction mimetics.

  15. Pathophysiological Substantiation of Epidural Administration of Tenoxicam in Dorsalgia Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yastrebov D.N.; Shpagin М.V.; Artifexov S.B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to assess the efficiency of Tenoxicam epidural administration, and represent pathophysiological substantiation of new techniques of dorsalgias treatment. Materials and Methods. There have been examined 75 patients with intense lumbar pain syndrome who underwent epidural pharmacotherapy of pain syndrome. The 1st group (n=50) had epidural Tenoxicam introduction, by 20 mg in 10–20 ml of saline solution, the control group (n=25) was given the combination of cor...

  16. Optimal control of tip-tilt modes on-sky adaptive optics demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelman, N.J.; Fraanje, P.R.; Breeje, R. den

    2011-01-01

    An H2-optimal control approach for Adaptive Optics has been validated in an on-sky experiment on a solar telescope. A substantial performance improvement over the integrator control approach is demonstrated for control of the tip-tilt modes. The experimental results correspond reasonably well with

  17. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  18. COMPOSITIONAL AND SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURE OF THE MEDICAL DOCUMENT: FORMATION STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romashova Olga Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the compositional and substantial structure of the ambulatory medical record, or "case history", which has being formed for a long time. The author allocates the three main periods in the formation of this medical document: the first period (the beginning of the 19th century – 1920s is connected with the origin and formation; the second period (1920-1980s is marked by emergence of the normative legal acts regulating registration and maintaining; the third period (1980s – up to the present is associated with the cancellation of regulations and the introduction of the new order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR that changed the document's form and name. It is determined that the composition of the case history consists of the title page and the main part. The following processes take place in the course of ambulatory medical record's formation: strengthening formalization, increase in the number of pattern text fragments, increase in the text's volume, and the implementation of bigger number of functions. The author reveals the main (informative and cumulative, accounting and additional (scientific, controlling, legal, financial functions of the document. The implementation of these functions is reflected in the compositional and substantial structure of the document text and is conditioned by a number of extralinguistic factors.

  19. Opportunities and challenges in Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness (IAPT-SMI): evaluating the first operational year of the South London and Maudsley (SLaM) demonstration site for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Suzanne; Garety, Philippa; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam; Onwumere, Juliana; Harris, Victoria; Brabban, Alison; Johns, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Despite its demonstrated clinical and economic effectiveness, access to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) in routine practice remains low. The UK National Health Service (NHS England) Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness (IAPT-SMI) initiative aims to address this problem. We report 14-month outcomes for our psychosis demonstration site. Primary and secondary care and self-referrals were screened to check the suitability of the service for the person. Psychotic symptoms, distress, service use, functioning and satisfaction were measured before and after therapy, by trained assessors. User-defined wellbeing and goal-attainment were rated sessionally. Access to CBTp increased almost threefold (2011/12 accepted referrals/year n = 106; 2012/13, n = 300). The IAPT-SMI assessment protocol proved feasible and acceptable to service users, with paired primary outcomes for 97% of closed cases. Therapy completion (≥5 sessions) was high (83%) irrespective of ethnicity, age and gender. Preliminary pre-post outcomes showed clinical improvement and reduced service use, with medium/high effect sizes. User-rated satisfaction was high. We conclude that individual psychological interventions for people with psychosis can be successfully delivered in routine services using an IAPT approach. High completion rates for paired outcomes demonstrate good user experience, clinical improvement, and potential future cost savings.

  20. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  1. Pathogenetic substantiation of surgical treatment of recurrent inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilіanskyі L.S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose was to investigate tissue reactions on implantation of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen, after plastic surgery of experimental defect in rats in preperitoneal prosthesis localization. Research was performed in two experimental groups. Group 1 – in 17 rats an experimental defect of anterior abdominal wall with 3 cm of size with further preperitoneal fixation of the polypropylene mesh of 0,5×1,0 cm size was performed. Group 2 – in 20 rats under analogous conditions preperitoneal fixation of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen was performed. Morphological analysis of stages of scar tissue formation in the implantation region in the preperitoneal cavity of rats by stereological characteristics of cellular and fiber structures of connective tissue considering hemodynamic characteristics shows substantial benefits of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen, during 2 montha after experimental hernioplasty.

  2. RF Sputtering for preparing substantially pure amorphous silicon monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1982-10-12

    A process for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous silicon hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  3. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity § 416.972 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is work activity that is both substantial and gainful: (a) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity...

  4. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the unaffected hemisphere leg motor area in patients with subacute stroke and substantial leg impairment: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Nung; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Chi, Ju-yang; Lin, Li-Fong; Yen, Tze-Hsun; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on mobility among patients with substantial leg impairment after subacute stroke. Double-blinded, stratified, randomized trial involving a sham control group. Patients who developed unilateral hemiplegia after first-ever subacute stroke and underwent inpatient stroke rehabilitation. The 15-day intervention programme used in the present study included the application of rTMS (1 Hz, 15 min) over the leg motor area of the unaffected hemisphere, followed by 45 min physical therapy. Overall, 32 participants were randomly assigned to receive either real rTMS or sham stimulation. Clinical assessments, including the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS), balance subscale of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA-b), Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Barthel Index (BI), and Timed Up and Go test, were performed immediately before and after the intervention. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in all the test results over time. At the post-test assessment, the patients in the real rTMS group demonstrated greater improvements in the PASS, POMA, and BI scores than did the patients in the sham rTMS group. In addition, a significantly higher number of patients in the real rTMS group regained mobility at the post-test assessment compared with the corresponding number of patients in the sham rTMS group. Application of 1-Hz rTMS may improve mobility among patients with substantial leg impairment after subacute stroke.

  5. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  6. Substantial improvements in large-scale redocking and screening using the novel HYDE scoring function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nadine; Hindle, Sally; Lange, Gudrun; Klein, Robert; Albrecht, Jürgen; Briem, Hans; Beyer, Kristin; Claußen, Holger; Gastreich, Marcus; Lemmen, Christian; Rarey, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    The HYDE scoring function consistently describes hydrogen bonding, the hydrophobic effect and desolvation. It relies on HYdration and DEsolvation terms which are calibrated using octanol/water partition coefficients of small molecules. We do not use affinity data for calibration, therefore HYDE is generally applicable to all protein targets. HYDE reflects the Gibbs free energy of binding while only considering the essential interactions of protein-ligand complexes. The greatest benefit of HYDE is that it yields a very intuitive atom-based score, which can be mapped onto the ligand and protein atoms. This allows the direct visualization of the score and consequently facilitates analysis of protein-ligand complexes during the lead optimization process. In this study, we validated our new scoring function by applying it in large-scale docking experiments. We could successfully predict the correct binding mode in 93% of complexes in redocking calculations on the Astex diverse set, while our performance in virtual screening experiments using the DUD dataset showed significant enrichment values with a mean AUC of 0.77 across all protein targets with little or no structural defects. As part of these studies, we also carried out a very detailed analysis of the data that revealed interesting pitfalls, which we highlight here and which should be addressed in future benchmark datasets.

  7. Direct applications of natural gas. Part 1: Improved furnaces give substantial energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilgenhof, P.

    1987-11-01

    Due to a.o. the introduction of light-weight ceramic fibres and high-speed gas burners, construction, design and use of furnaces have been changed considerably. They are less heavy and have a shorter warming-up period. They are movable and can be placed over the load like a dome. While conventional furnaces are heating their loads by means of radiation, the modern ones use convection heat. Recuperation of heat got more attention of the designers. Examples of application are ceramics industry and aluminium industry.

  8. Substantial soil organic carbon retention along floodplains of mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Wohl, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    Small, snowmelt-dominated mountain streams have the potential to store substantial organic carbon in floodplain sediment because of high inputs of particulate organic matter, relatively lower temperatures compared with lowland regions, and potential for increased moisture conditions. This work (i) quantifies mean soil organic carbon (OC) content along 24 study reaches in the Colorado Rocky Mountains using 660 soil samples, (ii) identifies potential controls of OC content based on soil properties and spatial position with respect to the channel, and (iii) and examines soil properties and OC across various floodplain geomorphic features in the study area. Stepwise multiple linear regression (adjusted r2 = 0.48, p capture the variability of OC across floodplains in the study area. Mean floodplain OC (6.3 ± 0.3%) is more variable but on average greater than values in uplands (1.5 ± 0.08% to 2.2 ± 0.14%) of the Colorado Front Range and higher than published values from floodplains in other regions, particularly those of larger rivers.

  9. 77 FR 35245 - Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... can be at odds with spiritual, cultural, historical, and environmental values. Additionally, there are... clarification of the definition of ``trust land''; the Environmental Protection Agency, because it has... of proof be on the current service providers to demonstrate that they are actually providing service...

  10. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  11. PM2.5 pollution is substantially affected by ammonia emissions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiyun; Gu, Baojing; Erisman, Jan Willem; Reis, Stefan; Fang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Xuehe; Zhang, Xiuming

    2016-11-01

    Urban air quality in China has been declining substantially in recent years due to severe haze episodes. The reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions since 2013 does not yet appear to yield substantial benefits for haze mitigation. As the reductions of those key precursors to secondary aerosol formation appears not to sufficient, other crucial factors need to be considered for the design of effective air pollution control strategies. Here we argue that ammonia (NH3) plays a - so far - underestimated role in the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols, a main component of urban fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in China. By analyzing in situ concentration data observed in major cities alongside gridded emission data obtained from remote sensing and inventories, we find that emissions of NH3 have a more robust association with the spatiotemporal variation of PM2.5 levels than emissions of SO2 and NOx. As a consequence, we argue that urban PM2.5 pollution in China in many locations is substantially affected by NH3 emissions. We highlight that more efforts should be directed to the reduction of NH3 emissions that help mitigate PM2.5 pollution more efficiently than other PM2.5 precursors. Such efforts will yield substantial co-benefits by improving nitrogen use efficiency in farming systems. As a consequence, such integrated strategies would not only improve urban air quality, but also contribute to China's food-security goals, prevent further biodiversity loss, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lead to economic savings.

  12. Substantial reduction in caries from regular fluoride varnish application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2013-09-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS and BBO, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Web of Science Conference Proceedings and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched. Reference lists of identified articles were also scanned for relevant papers. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials using or indicating blind outcome assessment that compared fluoride varnish to placebo or no treatment for at least one year were included. Risk of bias assessment was undertaken. Study assessment and data extraction was carried out independently by at least two reviewers. The primary measure of effect was the prevented fraction, that is the difference in mean caries increments between the treatment and control groups expressed as a percentage of the mean increment in the control group. The caries increments nearest to three years were used from each included study. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed where data could be pooled. Potential sources of heterogeneity were examined in random-effects meta-regression analyses. Adverse effects information was collected from the included trials. Twenty-two trials (12,455 participants) were included. Thirteen trials were included in the permanent tooth surfaces meta-analysis, the pooled D(M)FS prevented fraction estimate comparing fluoride varnish with placebo or no treatment was 43% (95% confidence interval (CI) 30% to 57%; P fluorides, application features such as prior prophylaxis, concentration of fluoride or frequency of application. There was little information concerning possible adverse effects or acceptability of treatment. The conclusions of this updated review remain the same as when it was first published. The review suggests a substantial caries inhibiting effect of fluoride varnish in both permanent and primary teeth; however the quality of the evidence

  13. Forest soils in France are sequestering substantial amounts of carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonard, Mathieu; Nicolas, Manuel; Coomes, David A; Caignet, Isabelle; Saenger, Anaïs; Ponette, Quentin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether French forest soils are sources or sinks of carbon and to quantify changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks over time by resampling soil in long-term forest monitoring plots. Within each plot, and for each survey, soils were sampled at five points selected in five subplots and divided into layers. Composite samples were produced for each layer and subplot, then analysed for mass, bulk density and SOC. Linear mixed models were used to estimate SOC changes over 15years between two soil surveys carried out in 102 plots in France. A factor analysis and a budget approach were also used to identify which factors and processes were primarily responsible for SOC dynamics. Forest soils throughout France substantially accumulated SOC (+0.35MgCha(-1)yr(-1)) between 1993 and 2012. The SOC sequestration rate declined with stand age and was affected by stand structure. Uneven-aged stands sequestered more SOC than did even-aged stands (paffecting litter decomposition (climate and litter quality). For the mineral soil, the budget approach was unable to replicate the observed SOC sequestration rate, probably because SOC stocks were not yet at equilibrium with litter inputs at the beginning of the monitoring period (contrary to our steady-state assumption). This explanation is also supported by the fact that the SOC sequestration rate decreased with stand age. As the SOC sequestration rate declines with stand age and is higher in uneven-aged stands, forest management has the potential to influence this carbon sink. Copyright © 2016 Office national des forêts. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigators unable to substantiate suspected link between sponge, TSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Federal investigators have failed to substantiate a suspected link between the contraceptive sponge and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). In September the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported the case of a woman who inserted the contraceptive sponge last July 17 and removed itthe following day. About 6 hours later she noted the sudden onset of a fever of 104 degrees Farenheit, nausea, redness, shaking chills, and an inflamed vagina. Cultures from the sponge revealed S. aureus and S. epidemis. There was initial concern that the case may have represented early TSS. A toxin produced by certain strains of S. aureus is thought to cause TSS. The syndrome includes a fever greater than 102 degrees, rash, blood pressure less than 90mmHG, peelin g skin on the palms and soles 1-2 weeks after onset, and involvement of 3 or more of the following organ systems: gastrointestinal, muscular, mucous membrane, renal, hepatic, hematologic,or central nervous system. FDA medical Officers Dr. William J. McCann told "Contraceptive Technology Update" (CTU) that the reported case failed to fill the Centers for Disease Control criteriaof the diagnosis of TSS. Because the woman has been treated with antibiotics early in the course of her disease, McCann said he could not entirely exclude the possibility that she might have developed TSS if she had gone untreated. He added that the possibility was "remote". Dr. Gail Bolan, CDC epidemiologist, told CTU that "antibiotics do not seem to affect the outcome of the original episode" of TSS cases. She commented that milder forms of TSS might exist that may not meet CDC's strict case definition. Without a specific test, there is no way to separate milder TSS cases from viral or other diseases that may appear similar. According to Deborah Gaynor, the sponge's package insert states that clinical trials were not large enough to assess the risk of TSS. The sponge is not recommended for use during menstration. Gaynor cites a variety of reasons why the

  15. The Optimizing Patient Transfers, Impacting Medical Quality, andImproving Symptoms:Transforming Institutional Care approach: preliminary data from the implementation of a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services nursing facility demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unroe, Kathleen T; Nazir, Arif; Holtz, Laura R; Maurer, Helen; Miller, Ellen; Hickman, Susan E; La Mantia, Michael A; Bennett, Merih; Arling, Greg; Sachs, Greg A

    2015-01-01

    The Optimizing Patient Transfers, Impacting Medical Quality, and Improving Symptoms: Transforming Institutional Care (OPTIMISTIC) project aims to reduce avoidable hospitalizations of long-stay residents enrolled in 19 central Indiana nursing facilities. This clinical demonstration project, funded by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Innovations Center, places a registered nurse in each nursing facility to implement an evidence-based quality improvement program with clinical support from nurse practitioners. A description of the model is presented, and early implementation experiences during the first year of the project are reported. Important elements include better medical care through implementation of Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers tools and chronic care management, enhanced transitional care, and better palliative care with a focus on systematic advance care planning. There were 4,035 long-stay residents in 19 facilities enrolled in OPTIMISTIC between February 2013 and January 2014. Root-cause analyses were performed for all 910 acute transfers of these long stay residents. Of these transfers, the project RN evaluated 29% as avoidable (57% were not avoidable and 15% were missing), and opportunities for quality improvement were identified in 54% of transfers. Lessons learned in early implementation included defining new clinical roles, integrating into nursing facility culture, managing competing facility priorities, communicating with multiple stakeholders, and developing a system for collecting and managing data. The success of the overall initiative will be measured primarily according to reduction in avoidable hospitalizations of long-stay nursing facility residents.

  16. Multimodal exercise training in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial in persons with substantial mobility disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Bollaert, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Peterson, Melissa L; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    Mobility disability is a common, debilitating feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been identified as an approach to improve MS-related mobility disability. However, exercise randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mobility in MS have generally not selectively targeted those with the onset of irreversible mobility disability. The current multi-site RCT compared the efficacy of 6-months of supervised, multimodal exercise training with an active control condition for improving mobility, gait, physical fitness, and cognitive outcomes in persons with substantial MS-related mobility disability. 83 participants with substantial MS-related mobility disability underwent initial mobility, gait, fitness, and cognitive processing speed assessments and were randomly assigned to 6-months of supervised multimodal (progressive aerobic, resistance, and balance) exercise training (intervention condition) or stretching-and-toning activities (control condition). Participants completed the same outcome assessments halfway through and immediately following the 6-month study period. There were statistically significant improvements in six-minute walk performance (F(2158)=3.12, p=0.05, ηp(2)=0.04), peak power output (F(2150)=8.16, pdisability. This is critical for informing the development of multi-site exercise rehabilitation programs in larger samples of persons with MS-related mobility disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. IMMUNE DISTURBANCES AND SUBSTANTIATION OF THEIR CORRECTION IN THE CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC GASTRODUODENITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Shcherbak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. 72 patients and 30 healthy children of the age of 7-17 years were examined, aiming for substantiation of thymaline, vilon and ventramine application in treatment of chronic gastroduodenitis in children. Disbalance of cellular and humoral immunity and reduction of intensity of lymphocyte-platelet adhesions were established. An increase of IL-1β, IL-2, TNFα and IFNα concentration was registered in absence of IL-4 changes. Application of thymaline, vilon and ventramine essentially improves clinical course of disease, results in normalization of immune profile, reduced levels of proimflammatory cytokines, restoration of lymphocyte-platelet adhesions.

  18. Substantial local variation of the Seebeck coefficient in gold nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotavin, Pavlo; Evans, Charlotte I; Natelson, Douglas

    2017-07-06

    Nanoscale structuring holds promise to improve the thermoelectric properties of materials for energy conversion and photodetection. We report a study of the spatial distribution of the photothermoelectric voltage in thin-film nanowire devices fabricated from a single metal. A focused laser beam is used to locally heat the metal nanostructure via a combination of direct absorption and excitation of a plasmon resonance in Au devices. As seen previously, in nanowires shorter than the spot size of the laser, we observe a thermoelectric voltage distribution that is consistent with the local Seebeck coefficient being spatially dependent on the width of the nanostructure. In longer structures, we observe extreme variability of the net thermoelectric voltage as the laser spot is scanned along the length of the nanowire. The sign and magnitude of the thermoelectric voltage is sensitive to the structural defects, metal grain structure, and surface passivation of the nanowire. This finding opens the possibility of improved local control of the thermoelectric properties at the nanoscale.

  19. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  20. Experimental substantiation of planetary quarantine in orbital flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Nataliya; Polikarpov, Nikolay; Deshevaya, Elena; Svistunova, Yulia

    Planetary quarantine is one of the outstanding issues faced by planners of future exploration missions. Evaluation of risks associated with the hypothesized transfer of biological material through the interplanetary space has been listed among the high-priority goals of space research. To address this issue, the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences has developed a program of and equipment for space experiment BIORISK with the idea of extended exposure of various microorganisms on the outer surface of the International Space Station {ISS}. The experiment is to provide new data about patterns and limits of phenotypic adaptation and genotype modifications, if any, in bacterial-fungal associations that form typical microbiota found on the structural materials used in space vehicles. The first extended {18 months} exposure of microorganisms-artificial substrates systems in open space comparable with the length of voyage on the Earth-Mars-Earth itinerary demonstrated preservation of the viability of spore forms of bacteria and microscopic fungi. Also, after exposure to the extremities of open space most of the survived strains were shown to have mobilized a protection-adaptation mechanism consisting of intensification of the enzyme and biochemical activities. The present, second stage of BIORISK is being conducted with a broader variety of biological objects. The conditions of near-Earth orbits are entirely different from the conditions the exploration crew and their microbial companions will have to live in during the voyage, mainly in terms of values and spectra of radiation doses. For this reason, indication of space exploration trajectories with the help of different taxonomic groups of microorganisms will be essential to defining approaches to planetary quarantine and astrobiology.

  1. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  2. Expanding the substantial interactome of NEMO using protein microarrays.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenner, Beau J

    2010-01-01

    Signal transduction by the NF-kappaB pathway is a key regulator of a host of cellular responses to extracellular and intracellular messages. The NEMO adaptor protein lies at the top of this pathway and serves as a molecular conduit, connecting signals transmitted from upstream sensors to the downstream NF-kappaB transcription factor and subsequent gene activation. The position of NEMO within this pathway makes it an attractive target from which to search for new proteins that link NF-kappaB signaling to additional pathways and upstream effectors. In this work, we have used protein microarrays to identify novel NEMO interactors. A total of 112 protein interactors were identified, with the most statistically significant hit being the canonical NEMO interactor IKKbeta, with IKKalpha also being identified. Of the novel interactors, more than 30% were kinases, while at least 25% were involved in signal transduction. Binding of NEMO to several interactors, including CALB1, CDK2, SAG, SENP2 and SYT1, was confirmed using GST pulldown assays and coimmunoprecipitation, validating the initial screening approach. Overexpression of CALB1, CDK2 and SAG was found to stimulate transcriptional activation by NF-kappaB, while SYT1 overexpression repressed TNFalpha-dependent NF-kappaB transcriptional activation in human embryonic kidney cells. Corresponding with this finding, RNA silencing of CDK2, SAG and SENP2 reduced NF-kappaB transcriptional activation, supporting a positive role for these proteins in the NF-kappaB pathway. The identification of a host of new NEMO interactors opens up new research opportunities to improve understanding of this essential cell signaling pathway.

  3. METHOD FOR CALCULATION OF STRESSED STATE SUBSTANTIATED BY DYNAMIC MICROTWIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vlashevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Method for calculation of the stressed state in a dynamic twin has been developed on the basis of a non-thin non-coherent micro-twin model with continuous distribution of twinning dislocations at twin boundaries. In this case there is no additional generation with the help of twinning dislocation source. The model takes into account that the twin has coherent and noncoherent boundary sections. The developed model has made it possible to take into consideration a form of non-coherent sections of twinning boundaries in calculations of stressed and deformed state at dynamic twins. It has been established that localized stresses are migrating together with non-coherent sections of the twin. Normal stresses σxx change their sign in relation to direction of the twin development. Shear stresses σxy are alternating in signs in relation to an axis which is perpendicular to the direction of the twin development and which is passing through a mid-point of non-coherent twin section. Distribution of stresses σyy и σyz has similar configuration. Stresses σzx in the second and fourth quarters of XOY plane are negative and the stresses in the first and third quarters are positive. Distribution of stresses σzz practically does not differ from distribution of stresses σyy according to configuration but numerical values of stress tensor component data are different.The results have been obtained without thin twin model that permits to consider only elastic stage of the twinning process. The executed stress calculations at dynamic twin are important for forecasting at the accumulation stage of damage origination which is caused by twinning destruction and permit to improve forecasting accuracy of technical system resources on the basis of twinning materials such as alloys based on iron, copper, zinc, aluminium, titanium.

  4. Advanced MMIS Toward Substantial Reduction in Human Errors in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Poong Hyun; Kang, Hyun Gook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Man Gyun [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yoensub [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    This paper aims to give an overview of the methods to inherently prevent human errors and to effectively mitigate the consequences of such errors by securing defense-in-depth during plant management through the advanced man-machine interface system (MMIS). It is needless to stress the significance of human error reduction during an accident in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Unexpected shutdowns caused by human errors not only threaten nuclear safety but also make public acceptance of nuclear power extremely lower. We have to recognize there must be the possibility of human errors occurring since humans are not essentially perfect particularly under stressful conditions. However, we have the opportunity to improve such a situation through advanced information and communication technologies on the basis of lessons learned from our experiences. As important lessons, authors explained key issues associated with automation, man-machine interface, operator support systems, and procedures. Upon this investigation, we outlined the concept and technical factors to develop advanced automation, operation and maintenance support systems, and computer-based procedures using wired/wireless technology. It should be noted that the ultimate responsibility of nuclear safety obviously belongs to humans not to machines. Therefore, safety culture including education and training, which is a kind of organizational factor, should be emphasized as well. In regard to safety culture for human error reduction, several issues that we are facing these days were described. We expect the ideas of the advanced MMIS proposed in this paper to lead in the future direction of related researches and finally supplement the safety of NPPs.

  5. ADVANCED MMIS TOWARD SUBSTANTIAL REDUCTION IN HUMAN ERRORS IN NPPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POONG HYUN SEONG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give an overview of the methods to inherently prevent human errors and to effectively mitigate the consequences of such errors by securing defense-in-depth during plant management through the advanced man-machine interface system (MMIS. It is needless to stress the significance of human error reduction during an accident in nuclear power plants (NPPs. Unexpected shutdowns caused by human errors not only threaten nuclear safety but also make public acceptance of nuclear power extremely lower. We have to recognize there must be the possibility of human errors occurring since humans are not essentially perfect particularly under stressful conditions. However, we have the opportunity to improve such a situation through advanced information and communication technologies on the basis of lessons learned from our experiences. As important lessons, authors explained key issues associated with automation, man-machine interface, operator support systems, and procedures. Upon this investigation, we outlined the concept and technical factors to develop advanced automation, operation and maintenance support systems, and computer-based procedures using wired/wireless technology. It should be noted that the ultimate responsibility of nuclear safety obviously belongs to humans not to machines. Therefore, safety culture including education and training, which is a kind of organizational factor, should be emphasized as well. In regard to safety culture for human error reduction, several issues that we are facing these days were described. We expect the ideas of the advanced MMIS proposed in this paper to lead in the future direction of related researches and finally supplement the safety of NPPs.

  6. The POSEIDON Demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P.J.L.J. van de

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the Poseidon demonstrator: a demonstrator that integrates the individual research results of all partners of the Poseidon project. After describing how the Poseidon demonstrator was built, deployed, and operated, we will not only show many results obtained from the demons

  7. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  8. Substantial and sustained seizure reduction with ketogenic diet in a patient with Ohtahara syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adithya Sivaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet has been shown to be efficacious in some epileptic encephalopathies but rarely reported as being useful in children with Ohtahara syndrome. This could possibly be attributed to the rarity of the disease and associated short survival period. We report on a 5-year-old child with Ohtahara syndrome, whose seizures failed to improve with all known medications, continued to show persistent suppression-burst pattern on the electroencephalography (EEG and had substantial reduction in seizure frequency for one year post-initiation of ketogenic diet. He has not had a single visit to the emergency room because of seizures in the last one year, and more importantly, there has been a clear improvement noted in his level of interaction and temperament. Patients with Ohtahara syndrome invariably have medically intractable seizures and catastrophic neurodevelopmental outcome. Ketogenic diet is a treatment modality that might be worth considering even in this group of patients.

  9. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  10. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  11. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  12. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  13. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  14. Solar geoengineering could substantially reduce climate risks—A research hypothesis for the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David W.; Irvine, Peter J.

    2016-11-01

    We offer a hypothesis that if solar geoengineering (SG) were deployed to offset half of the increase in global-mean temperature from the date of deployment using a technology and deployment method chosen to approximate a reduction in the solar constant then, over the 21st century, it would (a) substantially reduce the global aggregate risks of climate change, (b) without making any country worse off, and (c) with the aggregate risks from side-effects being small in comparison to the reduction in climate risks. We do not set out to demonstrate this hypothesis; rather we propose it with the goal of stimulating a strategic engagement of the SG research community with policy-relevant questions. We elaborate seven sub-hypotheses on the effects of our scenario for key risks of climate change that could be assessed in future modeling work. As an example, we provide a defence of one of our sub-hypotheses, that our scenario of SG would reduce the risk of drought in dry regions, but also identify issues that may undermine this sub-hypothesis and how future work could resolve this question. SG cannot substitute for emissions mitigation but it may be a useful supplement. It is our hope that scientific and technical research over the next decade focuses more closely on well-articulated variants of the key policy-relevant question: could SG be designed and deployed in such a way that it could substantially and equitably reduce climate risks?

  15. Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Beth E; Goerge, Robert M; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, S V; Holton, John K; Duncan, Dustin T; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood's children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois' child protection agency, 1995-2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis-an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models-with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation-revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone.

  16. Toy Demonstrator's "VISIT" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The role of the toy demonstrator in a home-based, mother-involved intervention effort (Verbal Interaction Project) is presented in this handbook for staff members. It is believed that the prerequisites for functioning in the toy demonstrator's role are a sense of responsibility, patience with the children and their mothers, and willingness to be…

  17. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  18. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  19. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  20. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  1. Historical return on investment and improved quality resulting from development and mining of a hospital laboratory relational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, Bradley B; Hall, Timothy E; Walczak, Steven

    2006-01-01

    A hospital laboratory relational database, developed over eight years, has demonstrated significant cost savings and a substantial financial return on investment (ROI). In addition, the database has been used to measurably improve laboratory operations and the quality of patient care.

  2. Comparison of strategies for substantiating freedom from scrapie in a sheep flock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrot Christian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The public health threat represented by a potential circulation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in sheep population has led European animal health authorities to launch large screening and genetic selection programmes. If demonstrated, such a circulation would have dramatic economic consequences for sheep breeding sector. In this context, it is important to evaluate the feasibility of qualification procedures that would allow sheep breeders demonstrating their flock is free from scrapie. Classical approaches, based on surveys designed to detect disease presence, do not account for scrapie specificities: the genetic variations of susceptibility and the absence of live diagnostic test routinely available. Adapting these approaches leads to a paradoxical situation in which a greater amount of testing is needed to substantiate disease freedom in genetically resistant flocks than in susceptible flocks, whereas probability of disease freedom is a priori higher in the former than in the latter. The goal of this study was to propose, evaluate and compare several qualification strategies for demonstrating a flock is free from scrapie. Results A probabilistic framework was defined that accounts for scrapie specificities and allows solving the preceding paradox. Six qualification strategies were defined that combine genotyping data, diagnostic tests results and flock pedigree. These were compared in two types of simulated flocks: resistant and susceptible flocks. Two strategies allowed demonstrating disease freedom in several years, for the majority of simulated flocks: a strategy in which all the flock animals are genotyped, and a strategy in which only founders animals are genotyped, the flock pedigree being known. In both cases, diagnostic tests are performed on culled animals. The less costly strategy varied according to the genetic context (resistant or susceptible and to the relative costs of a genotyping exam and of a

  3. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  4. TENCompetence tool demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2009). TENCompetence tool demonstration. Presented at Zorgacademie Parkstad (Health Academy Parkstad), Limburg Leisure Academy, Life Long Learning Limburg and a number of regional educational institutions. May, 18, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, T

  5. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  6. Pancreaticopleural fistula : CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung [Chuncheon Medical Center, ChunChon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the pancreaticopleural fistula is known to cause recurrent exudative or hemorrhagic pleural effusions. These are often large in volume and require treatment, unlike the effusions in acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis can be made either by the finding of elevated pleural fluid amylase level or, using imaging studies, by the direct demonstration of the fistulous tract. We report two cases of pancreaticopleural fistula demonstrated by computed tomography.

  7. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  8. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  9. 20 CFR 404.446 - Definition of “substantial services” and “services.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Definition of “substantial services” and “services.” (a) General. In general, the substantial services test... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âsubstantial servicesâ and...)(1). It is a test of whether, in view of all the services rendered by the individual and...

  10. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial unemployment...

  11. 76 FR 32215 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Substantiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... nutritional deficiency, structure/function, or general well-being claim have substantiation that the statement... supplement manufacturers will only need to collect information to substantiate their product's nutritional...'s label. The standard discussed in the guidance for substantiation of a claim on the labeling of...

  12. 24 CFR 115.201 - The two phases of substantial equivalency certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The two phases of substantial... ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.201 The two phases of.... The Department has developed a two-phase process of substantial equivalency certification....

  13. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  14. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  15. Demonstrating Supernova Remnant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Denis A.; Williams, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    We have created a software tool to calculate at display supernova remnant evolution which includes all stages from early ejecta dominated phase to late-time merging with the interstellar medium. The software was created using Python, and can be distributed as Python code, or as an executable file. The purpose of the software is to demonstrate the different phases and transitions that a supernova remnant undergoes, and will be used in upper level undergraduate astrophysics courses as a teaching tool. The usage of the software and its graphical user interface will be demonstrated.

  16. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  17. Inductrack demonstration model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R.F.

    1998-02-03

    A small-scale model track of a new type of magnetic levitation system (dubbed the ``Inductrack`` system), and a passively magnetically levitated cart, has been designed, constructed and operated. The track consists of a close-packed array of rectangular levitation coils, 15 centimeters in width transversely and 20 meters in length. The array of coils is inductively loaded above and below its lower horizontal section with ferrite tiles. Paralleling the levitation coils on each side are aluminum-channel rails on which ride auxiliary wheels attached to the cart. The cart has, on its lower surface and on its sides, fore and aft, special arrays (``Halbach arrays``) of permanent magnet bars that produce a strong periodic magnetic field below the cart. This magnetic field, when the cart is in motion, induces repelling currents in the Inductrack coils, levitating it and centering it transversely. When mechanically launched (with a pulley- and-weight system) at speeds substantially above a ``transition speed`` of about 2 meters per second, the cart levitated and flew stably down the track, settling to rest on its wheels near the end of the track. In the last phase of the program an electromagnetic launching section consisting of another array of coils, connected to pulse-driver circuits, was added at the beginning of the track. Aided by an initial launch (from stretched ``bungee`` cords), this electromagnetic launching system was operated successfully, resulting again in levitation and subsequent stable flight of the cart.

  18. Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L.; Fowler, Veronica L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analys

  19. Arctic Craft Demonstration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    it received a lot of attention from the local population. Demonstration personnel, both Coast Guard and contractors, were asked to be receptive to...www.uscg.mil/top/missions/ . Counter-Drug Interdiction and Alien Migrant Interdiction operations are currently not included. In the non-Polar regions

  20. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  1. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  2. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  3. Passive damping technology demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert E.; Spencer, Susan M.; Austin, Eric M.; Johnson, Conor D.

    1995-05-01

    A Hughes Space Company study was undertaken to (1) acquire the analytical capability to design effective passive damping treatments and to predict the damped dynamic performance with reasonable accuracy; (2) demonstrate reasonable test and analysis agreement for both baseline and damped baseline hardware; and (3) achieve a 75% reduction in peak transmissibility and 50% reduction in rms random vibration response. Hughes Space Company teamed with CSA Engineering to learn how to apply passive damping technology to their products successfully in a cost-effective manner. Existing hardware was selected for the demonstration because (1) previous designs were lightly damped and had difficulty in vibration test; (2) multiple damping concepts could be investigated; (3) the finite element model, hardware, and test fixture would be available; and (4) damping devices could be easily implemented. Bracket, strut, and sandwich panel damping treatments that met the performance goals were developed by analysis. The baseline, baseline with damped bracket, and baseline with damped strut designs were built and tested. The test results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions and demonstrated that the desired reduction in dynamic response could be achieved. Having successfully demonstrated this approach, it can now be used with confidence for future designs as a means for reducing weight and enhancing reliability.

  4. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are no

  5. Distance Learning Environment Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Distance Learning Environment Demonstration (DLED) was a comparative study of distributed multimedia computer-based training using low cost high...measurement. The DLED project provides baseline research in the effective use of distance learning and multimedia communications over a wide area ATM/SONET

  6. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  7. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  8. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  9. Substantial nitrogen acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from organic material has implications for N cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Angela; Fitter, Alastair H

    2010-08-03

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are obligate biotrophs that acquire carbon (C) solely from host plants. AM fungi can proliferate hyphae in, and acquire nitrogen (N) from, organic matter. Although they can transfer some of that N to plants, we tested the hypothesis that organic matter is an important N source for the AM fungi themselves. We grew pairs of plants with and without the AM fungus Glomus hoi in microcosms that allowed only the fungus access to a 15N/13C-labeled organic patch; in some cases, one plant was shaded to reduce C supply to the fungus. The fungal hyphae proliferated vigorously in the patch, irrespective of shading, and increased plant growth and N content; approximately 3% of plant N came from the patch. The extraradical mycelium of the fungus was N-rich (3-5% N) and up to 31% of fungal N came from the patch, confirming the hypothesis. The fungus acquired N as decomposition products, because hyphae were not 13C-enriched. In a second experiment, hyphae of both G. hoi and Glomus mosseae that exploited an organic material patch were also better able to colonize a new host plant, demonstrating a fungal growth response. These findings show that AM fungi can obtain substantial amounts of N from decomposing organic materials and can enhance their fitness as a result. The large biomass and high N demand of AM fungi means that they represent a global N pool equivalent in magnitude to fine roots and play a substantial and hitherto overlooked role in the nitrogen cycle.

  10. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  11. The Majorana Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Aguayo, E; Hoppe, E W; Keillor, M E; Kephart, J D; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Merriman, J; Orrell, J L; Overman, N R; Avignone, F T; Back, H O; Combs, D C; Leviner, L E; Young, A R; Barabash, A S; Konovalov, S I; Vanyushin, I; Yumatov, V; Bergevin, M; Chan, Y-D; Detwiler, J A; Loach, J C; Martin, R D; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Vetter, K; Bertrand, F E; Cooper, R J; Radford, D C; Varner, R L; Yu, C -H; Boswell, M; Elliott, S R; Gehman, V M; Hime, A; Kidd, M F; LaRoque, B H; Rielage, K; Ronquest, M C; Steele, D; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Gusey, K; Kochetov, O; Shirchenko, M; Timkin, V; Yakushev, E; Busch, M; Esterline, J; Tornow, W; Christofferson, C D; Horton, M; Howard, S; Sobolev, V; Collar, J I; Fields, N; Creswick, R J; Doe, P J; Johnson, R A; Knecht, A; Leon, J; Marino, M G; Miller, M L; Robertson, R G H; Schubert, A G; Wolfe, B A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Hazama, R; Nomachi, M; Shima, T; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Henning, R; Howe, M A; MacMullin, S; Phillips, D G; Snavely, K J; Strain, J; Vorren, K; Guiseppe, V E; Keller, C; Mei, D -M; Perumpilly, G; Thomas, K; Zhang, C; Hallin, A L; Keeter, K J; Mizouni, L; Wilkerson, J F

    2011-01-01

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program including background reduction techniques is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% in 76Ge is given.

  12. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  13. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rue du Can, Stephane de la [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  14. Prolonging the hydration and active metabolism from light periods into nights substantially enhances lichen growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidussi, Massimo; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates how hydration during light and dark periods influences growth in two epiphytic old forest lichens, the green algal Lobaria pulmonaria and the cyanobacterial L. scrobiculata. The lichens were cultivated in growth chambers for 14 days (200 μmol m(-1) s(-2); 12 h photoperiod) at four temperature regimes (25/20 °C, 21/16 °C, 13/8 °C, and 6/1 °C; day/night temperatures) and two hydration regimes (12 h day-time hydration; 12 h day-time + 12 h night-time hydration). Growth was highly dynamic, showing that short-term growth experiments in growth cabinets have a high, but largely unexplored potential in functional lichen studies. The highest measured growth rates were not far from the maximal dry matter gain estimated from published net photosynthetic CO2 uptake data. For the entire data set, photobiont type, temperature, hydration regime and specific thallus mass accounted for 46.6 % of the variation in relative growth rate (RGR). Both species showed substantially higher relative growth rates based on both biomass (RGR) and thallus area (RTAGR) when they were hydrated day and night compared to hydration in light only. Chronic photoinhibition was substantial in thalli hydrated only during the day time and kept at the highest and lowest temperature regimes, resulting in exponential increases in RGR with increasing maximal PSII efficiency (F v/F m) in both species. However, the depression in F v/F m was stronger for the cyanolichen than for the cephalolichen at extreme temperatures. The growth-stimulating effect of night-time hydration suggests that nocturnal metabolic activity improves recovery of photoinhibition and/or enhances the conversion rate of photosynthates into thallus extension.

  15. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    . This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses...... of control, driven by such challenges as complying with cost goals, the need to choose a German prefab supplier, and local contractors. Energy calculations, indoor climate, issues related to square meter requirements, and the hydrogen element became problematic. The aim to obtain passive house certification...

  16. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    , and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...... encompasses both an evaluation of the design and Construction process as well as a post-occupancy evaluation. Process experiences include the use of a multidisciplinary competence group and performance measurement. The commencement of the project was enthusiastic, but it was forced into more traditional forms...

  17. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  18. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  19. Education Demonstration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A.; Lee, R. L.

    2003-10-01

    The General Atomics fusion education program ``Scientist in the Classroom" (SIC) now in its sixth year, uses scientists and engineers to present plasma as a state of matter to students in the classroom. Using hands-on equipment, students see how magnets, gas pressure changes, and different gases are turned into plasmas. A piston, sealed volume, and vacuum chamber illuminate ideal gas laws. Liquid nitrogen is used to explore thermodynamic temperature effects and changes in states of matter. Light bulbs are excited with a Tesla coil to ionize gases, thus becoming an inexpensive plasma devices and a plasma tube shows magnetic interactions with plasma. The demonstration equipment used in this program is built with simple designs and common commercial equipment keeping in mind a teacher's tight budget. The SIC program ( ˜25 school presentations per year) has become very popular and has acquired an enthusiastic group of regular teacher clientele requesting repeat visits. In addition, three very popular and successful ``Build-It" days, sponsored by the General Atomics Fusion Education Outreach Program, enables teachers to build and keep in their classroom some of this equipment. The demonstration devices will be presented along with their ``build-it" details.

  20. Inseparable phone books demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation and experiment steps are presented on how to turn a simple discrepant event into an instructional activity. Results showed the relationships between number of pages and force, as well as between amounts of interleave and force. In addition to these, the mathematical equation for the total force between all interleaved pages is derived. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that not only can phone books be used, but also ordinary books, to investigate this discrepant event. This experiment can be conducted as an example to show the agreement between theoretical and experimental results along with the confounding variables. This discrepant event can be used to create a cognitive conflict in students’ minds about the concepts of ‘force and motion’ and ‘friction force’.

  1. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  2. Smart Sensor Demonstration Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzel, John; Bracey, Andrew; Rawls, Stephen; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Figueroa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Sensors are a critical element to any monitoring, control, and evaluation processes such as those needed to support ground based testing for rocket engine test. Sensor applications involve tens to thousands of sensors; their reliable performance is critical to achieving overall system goals. Many figures of merit are used to describe and evaluate sensor characteristics; for example, sensitivity and linearity. In addition, sensor selection must satisfy many trade-offs among system engineering (SE) requirements to best integrate sensors into complex systems [1]. These SE trades include the familiar constraints of power, signal conditioning, cabling, reliability, and mass, and now include considerations such as spectrum allocation and interference for wireless sensors. Our group at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) works in the broad area of integrated systems health management (ISHM). Core ISHM technologies include smart and intelligent sensors, anomaly detection, root cause analysis, prognosis, and interfaces to operators and other system elements [2]. Sensor technologies are the base fabric that feed data and health information to higher layers. Cost-effective operation of the complement of test stands benefits from technologies and methodologies that contribute to reductions in labor costs, improvements in efficiency, reductions in turn-around times, improved reliability, and other measures. ISHM is an active area of development at SSC because it offers the potential to achieve many of those operational goals [3-5].

  3. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  4. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaktala, H.K. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses); Interrante, C.G. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of High-Level Waste Management)

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Aggrecan expression is substantially and abnormally upregulated in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemire, Joan M; Patis, Carrie; Gordon, Leslie B; Sandy, John D; Toole, Bryan P; Weiss, Anthony S

    2006-08-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disorder that displays features of segmental aging. It is manifested predominantly in connective tissue, with most prominent histological changes occurring in the skin, cartilage, bone and cardiovascular tissues. Detailed quantitative real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction studies confirmed the previous observation that platelet-derived growth factor A-chain transcripts are consistently elevated 11+/-2- to 13+/-2-fold in two HGPS dermal fibroblast lines compared with age-matched controls. Furthermore, we identified two additional genes with substantially altered transcript levels. Nucleotide pyrophosphatase transcription was virtually shut down with decreased expression of 13+/-3- to 59+/-3-fold in HGPS, whereas aggrecan mRNA was elevated to 24+/-5 times to 41+/-4 times that of chronologically age-matched controls. Aggrecan, normally a component of cartilage and not always detectable in normal fibroblasts cultures, was secreted by HGPS fibroblast lines and was produced as a proteoglycan. This demonstrates that elevated aggrecan expression and its secretion are aberrant features of HGPS. We conclude that HGPS cells can display massively altered transcript levels leading to the secretion of inappropriate protein species.

  6. Substantial iron sequestration during green-clay authigenesis in modern deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldermann, A.; Warr, L. N.; Letofsky-Papst, I.; Mavromatis, V.

    2015-11-01

    In much of the global ocean, iron is a limiting nutrient for marine productivity. The formation of pyrite has been considered the most important sink of reactive iron in modern, organic-rich sediments. However, clay mineral transformations can also lead to long-term sequestration of iron during late diagenesis and in hydrothermal settings. Here we present evidence for substantial iron sequestration during the early diagenetic formation of ferruginous clay minerals, also called green-clay authigenesis, in the deep-sea environment of the Ivory Coast-Ghana Marginal Ridge. Using high-resolution electron microscopic methods and sequential sediment extraction techniques, we demonstrate that iron uptake by green-clay authigenesis can amount to 76 +/- 127 μmol Fe cm-2 kyr-1, which is on average six times higher than that of pyrite in suboxic subsurface sediments 5 m below the sea floor or shallower. Even at depths of 15 m below the sea floor or greater, rates of iron burial by green clay and pyrite are almost equal at ~80 μmol Fe cm-2 kyr-1. We conclude that green-clay formation significantly reduces the pore water inventory of dissolved iron in modern and ancient pelagic sediments, which challenges the long-standing conceptual view that clay mineral diagenesis is of little importance in current biogeochemical models of the marine iron cycle.

  7. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  8. Nuclear power demonstrating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, V. V.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1980-08-12

    Apparatus for demonstrating the operation of a closed loop nuclear steam electric generating plant includes a transparent boiler assembly having immersion heating elements, which may be quartz lamps or stainless steel encased resistive immersion heating units with a quartz iodide lamp providing a source of visible radiation when using the encased immersion heating units. A variable voltage autotransformer is geared to a support rod for simulated reactor control rods for controlling the energy delivered to the heating elements and arranged so that when the voltage is high, the rods are withdrawn from the boiler to produce increased heating and illumination proportional to rod position, thereby simulating nuclear reaction. A relief valve, steam outlet pipe and water inlet pipe are connected to the boiler with a small stainless steel resistive heating element in the steam outlet pipe providing superheat. This heater is connected in series with a rheostat mounted on the front panel to provide superheat adjustments and an interlock switch that prevents the superheater from being energized when the steam valve is off with with no flow through the superheater. A heavy blue plastic radiation shield surrounds the boiler inside a bell jar.

  9. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  10. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  11. 加强课堂演示实验提高学习化学的兴趣%Improving Students' Interest in Learning Chemistry through Strengthening Class Demonstrative Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In classroom teaching, teachers can cultivate stu-dents'interest in chemistry learning through classroom demon-stration experiment. Classroom demonstration experiment can enhance visual effect of demonstration experiment, enhance ex-perimental interest, strengthen the enlightenment of experiment, give full play to the exemplary role of demonstrating experiment, and show the art of experiment, so it can mobilize students' learning initiative and enthusiasm and cultivate students' learning interest in chemistry.%  本文从课堂教学中,教师通过课堂演示实验的教学来培养学生学习化学的兴趣。课堂演示实验从增强演示实验的直观效果,增强实验的趣味性,加强实验的启发性,充分发挥演示实验的示范作用,展现演示实验的艺术美五个方面调动学生的学习主动性和积极性,培养学生学习化学的兴趣。

  12. Comparison of output-based approaches used to substantiate bovine tuberculosis free status in Danish cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Willeberg, Preben; Alban, Lis

    2015-09-01

    We compared two published studies based on different output-based surveillance models, which were used for evaluating the performance of two meat inspection systems in cattle and to substantiate freedom from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Denmark. The systems were the current meat inspection methods (CMI) vs. the visual-only inspection (VOI). In one study, the surveillance system sensitivity (SSe) was estimated to substantiate the bTB free status. The other study used SSe in the estimation of the probability of freedom (PFree), based on the epidemiological concept of negative predictive value to substantiate the bTB free status. Both studies found that changing from CMI to VOI would markedly decrease the SSe. However, the two studies reported diverging conclusions regarding the effect on the substantiation of Denmark as a bTB free country, if VOI were to be introduced. The objectives of this work were: (a) to investigate the reasons why conclusions based on the two models differed, and (b) to create a hybrid model based on elements from both studies to evaluate the impact of a change from CMI to VOI. The hybrid model was based on the PFree approach to substantiate freedom from bTB and was parametrized with inputs according to the newest available information. The PFree was updated on an annual basis for each of 42 years of test-negative surveillance data (1995-2037), while assuming a low (cattle herds. The most important reasons for the difference between the study conclusions were: the approach chosen to substantiate the bTB free status (SSe vs. PFree) and the number of years of surveillance data considered. With the hybrid model, the PFree reached a level >95% after the first year of surveillance and remained ≥96% with both the CMI and VOI systems until the end of the analyzed period. It is appropriate to use the PFree of the surveillance system to substantiate confidence in bTB free status, when test-negative surveillance results can be documented over an

  13. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  14. Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf......Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf...

  15. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  16. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in any type of substantial gainful activity which requires skills or abilities comparable to those of... THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Miscellaneous Deductions and... substantial gainful activity that does not require skills or ability used in his or her previous work. However...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a...

  18. An analysis of the transition of the Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW) from advanced technology demonstration to acquisition program

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Erik C.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited The OICW is envisioned to be a lightweight, shoulder-fired weapon having a dual munitions capability and an advanced day/night fire control. The OICW is expected to provide substantial improvements in lethality over the predecessor rifle and carbine families of weapons. The Office of the Program Manager for Small Arms assessed the OICW Advanced Technology Demonstration process and program progress in 1998 and concluded the ATD process ...

  19. Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project. Progress report II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project involves an evaluation of the reclamation process on a 13.8-ha abandoned deep coal mine refuse site in southwestern Illinois. The procedure included collection of preconstruction environmental data, determination of the site's final land use, and development and implementation of a detailed site development plan. Approximately 9.3 ha of refuse material was recontoured, covered with a minimum of 30 cm of soil obtained on site, and seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. Hydrologic investigation indicates some improvement in groundwater quality. Surface water quality also has shown improvement, but development of the aquatic ecosystem in the newly-constructed pond is slow. Revegetation has been successful, and a protective plant cover has been established on most areas of the site. Soil tests indicate that acceptable plant growth media have been constructed; however, continued application of fertilizer and limestone will probably be necessary to maintain the vegetation. The soil microbial community has achieved total numbers equal to those of old fields, but species' diversity is low. Small mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians have invaded and are utilizing the site. The economic value of the site and adjacent property has increased substantially, and the area's aesthetic value has been enhanced significantly. The two-year period of intensive monitoring and evaluation has been utilized to develop recommendations for improving the designs of future reclamation efforts.

  20. Development of a Field Demonstration for Cost-Effective Low-Grade Heat Recovery and Use Technology Designed to Improve Efficiency and Reduce Water Usage Rates for a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Russell [Southern Company Services, Incorporated, Birmingham, AL (United States); Dombrowski, K. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Bernau, M. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Morett, D. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Maxson, A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hume, S. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Coal-based power generation systems provide reliable, low-cost power to the domestic energy sector. These systems consume large amounts of fuel and water to produce electricity and are the target of pending regulations that may require reductions in water use and improvements in thermal efficiency. While efficiency of coal-based generation has improved over time, coal power plants often do not utilize the low-grade heat contained in the flue gas and require large volumes of water for the steam cycle make-up, environmental controls, and for process cooling and heating. Low-grade heat recovery is particularly challenging for coal-fired applications, due in large part to the condensation of acid as the flue gas cools and the resulting potential corrosion of the heat recovery materials. Such systems have also not been of significant interest as recent investments on coal power plants have primarily been for environmental controls due to more stringent regulations. Also, in many regions, fuel cost is still a pass-through to the consumer, reducing the motivation for efficiency improvements. Therefore, a commercial system combining low-grade heat-recovery technologies and associated end uses to cost effectively improve efficiency and/or reduce water consumption has not yet been widely applied. However, pressures from potential new regulations and from water shortages may drive new interest, particularly in the U.S. In an effort to address this issue, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sought to identify and promote technologies to achieve this goal.

  1. Experimental Demonstration of Blind Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Barz, Stefanie; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to provide the possibility of preserving the privacy of a computation. Here we show the first such experimental demonstration of blind quantum computation where the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. We demonstrate various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover algorithms. Remarkably, the client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for future unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  2. Child protection decisions to substantiate hospital child protection teams' reports of suspected maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedwab, Merav; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Siegal, Gil; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-02-01

    The present study focuses on the way child protection officers (CPOs) in Israel assess suspected abuse and neglect (SCAN) reports made by hospital child protection teams (CPTs), to determine whether the alleged maltreatment is substantiated. The study was conducted in six medical centers and included 358 reports investigated by CPOs for SCAN. A structured questionnaire was completed by hospital CPTs to capture all relevant information on each child referred to the CPTs. Structured phone interviews were conducted with each of the CPOs who received a CPT report. Bivariate associations and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the substantiation rate of cases reported by CPTs and the types of maltreatment substantiated, as well as to identify case characteristics of the child and the family that were associated with the CPOs' substantiation decision. CPO follow-up investigations revealed a substantiation rate of 53.5%. The maltreatment type most commonly substantiated was neglect. The case characteristics associated with substantiation included socio-demographic background, parents' health and functioning, previous contact with social services, characteristics of the hospital referral, medical findings and an assessment of the parents' behaviors. The findings of the study highlighted the importance of cooperation between the health and welfare services and the policy makers. This cooperation is essential for identifying early signs of maltreatment. Enhanced cooperation and effective information transfer between various professionals would help prevent or at least reduce the recurrence of maltreatment and would ensure that the children and their families are treated appropriately.

  3. NSRD-06. Computational Capability to Substantiate DOE-HDBK-3010 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David L.Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Alexander L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Safety basis analysts throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex rely heavily on the information provided in the DOE Hand book, DOE-HDBK-3010, Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Resp irable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities , to determine source terms. In calcula ting source terms, analysts tend to use the DOE Handbook's bounding values on airbor ne release fractions (ARFs) and respirable fractions (RFs) for various cat egories of insults (representing potential accident release categories). This is typica lly due to both time constraints and the avoidance of regulatory critique. Unfort unately, these bounding ARFs/RFs represent extremely conservative values. Moreover, th ey were derived from very limited small- scale table-top and bench/labo ratory experiments and/or fr om engineered judgment. Thus the basis for the data may not be re presentative to the actual unique accident conditions and configura tions being evaluated. The goal of this res earch is to develop a more ac curate method to identify bounding values for the DOE Handbook using the st ate-of-art multi-physics-based high performance computer codes. This enable s us to better understand the fundamental physics and phenomena associated with the ty pes of accidents for the data described in it. This research has examined two of the DOE Handbook's liquid fire experiments to substantiate the airborne release frac tion data. We found th at additional physical phenomena (i.e., resuspension) need to be included to derive bounding values. For the specific cases of solid powder under pre ssurized condition and mechanical insult conditions the codes demonstrated that we can simulate the phenomena. This work thus provides a low-cost method to establis h physics-justified sa fety bounds by taking into account specific geometri es and conditions that may not have been previously measured and/or are too costly to do so.

  4. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalwani, Manish S; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Young, Susan E; Regner, Michael F; Raymond, Kristen M; McWilliams, Shannon K; Banich, Marie T; Tanabe, Jody L; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at pbrain cluster-level threshold. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation of outcomes, decision-making, reward, risk-taking, and rule

  5. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish S Dalwani

    Full Text Available Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate, valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum.We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8 toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation

  6. 640 Gbaud (1.28 Tbit/s/ch) optical Nyquist pulse transmission over 525 km with substantial PMD tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harako, Koudai; Seya, Daiki; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2013-09-01

    We report a substantial increase in PMD tolerance in a single-channel ultrahigh-speed transmission using optical Nyquist pulses. We demonstrate both analytically and experimentally a large reduction in depolarization-induced crosstalk with optical Nyquist pulses, which is one of the major obstacles facing polarization-multiplexed ultrashort pulse transmission. By taking advantage of the high PMD tolerance, a low-penalty 1.28 Tbit/s/ch optical Nyquist TDM transmission at 640 Gbaud was achieved over 525 km.

  7. Imatinib treatment causes substantial transcriptional changes in adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro exhibiting pleiotropic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Buro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosome parasites cause schistosomiasis, one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. For decades Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug widely used for controlling schistosomiasis. The absence of a vaccine and fear of PZQ resistance have motivated the search for alternatives. Studies on protein kinases (PKs demonstrated their importance for diverse physiological processes in schistosomes. Among others two Abl tyrosine kinases, SmAbl1 and SmAbl2, were identified in Schistosoma mansoni and shown to be transcribed in the gonads and the gastrodermis. SmAbl1 activity was blocked by Imatinib, a known Abl-TK inhibitor used in human cancer therapy (Gleevec/Glivec. Imatinib exhibited dramatic effects on the morphology and physiology of adult schistosomes in vitro causing the death of the parasites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show modeling data supporting the targeting of SmAbl1/2 by Imatinib. A biochemical assay confirmed that SmAbl2 activity is also inhibited by Imatinib. Microarray analyses and qRT-PCR experiments were done to unravel transcriptional processes influenced by Imatinib in adult schistosomes in vitro demonstrating a wide influence on worm physiology. Surface-, muscle-, gut and gonad-associated processes were affected as evidenced by the differential transcription of e.g. the gynecophoral canal protein gene GCP, paramyosin, titin, hemoglobinase, and cathepsins. Furthermore, transcript levels of VAL-7 and egg formation-associated genes such as tyrosinase 1, p14, and fs800-like were affected as well as those of signaling genes including a ribosomal protein S6 kinase and a glutamate receptor. Finally, a comparative in silico analysis of the obtained microarray data sets and previous data analyzing the effect of a TGFβR1 inhibitor on transcription provided first evidence for an association of TGFβ and Abl kinase signaling. Among others GCP and egg formation-associated genes were identified as common

  8. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  9. Controlled-release fertilizer composition substantially coated with an impermeable layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankeny, Mark

    2016-03-29

    A controlled-release fertilizer composition is provided that is substantially coated with an impermeable layer. The fertilizer composition may further include one or more hollow sections to allow for root penetration and efficient delivery of nutrients.

  10. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-01-01

    ... on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations...

  11. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... substantial product hazard.'' B. The Product A hand-held hair dryer is a portable electrical appliance with a..., electrically energized wires across which a fan blows air. These dryers are typically used in bathrooms...

  12. Large-Scale Demonstration of Liquid Hydrogen Storage with Zero Boiloff for In-Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Flachbart, R. H.; Holt, K. A.; Johnson, E.; Hedayat, A.; Hipp, B.; Plachta, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Cryocooler and passive insulation technology advances have substantially improved prospects for zero-boiloff cryogenic storage. Therefore, a cooperative effort by NASA s Ames Research Center, Glenn Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was implemented to develop zero-boiloff concepts for in-space cryogenic storage. Described herein is one program element - a large-scale, zero-boiloff demonstration using the MSFC multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB). A commercial cryocooler was interfaced with an existing MHTB spray bar mixer and insulation system in a manner that enabled a balance between incoming and extracted thermal energy.

  13. Experimental demonstration of a mu=-1 metamaterial lens for magnetic resonance imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Manuel J; Jelinek, Lukas

    2008-01-01

    In this work a mu=-1 metamaterial (MM) lens for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is demonstrated. MRI uses surface coils to detect the radiofrequency(RF) energy absorbed and emitted by the nuclear spins in the imaged object. The proposed MM lens manipulates the RF field detected by these surface coils, so that the coil sensitivity and spatial localization is substantially improved. Beyond this specific application, we feel that the reported results are the experimental confirmation of a new concept for the manipulation of RF field in MRI, which paves the way to many other interesting applications.

  14. Time to substantially improve constitution toward real software use; Soft ka no tame no honshitsuteki taishitsu kaizen no toki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, T. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-23

    One of the factors for the American economy being in top shape is the activation of the information technology (IT) industry, against which the Japanese economy is left considerably far behind. Considerations were given on the background thereof, and measures that Japan should take. Due to the current rise of Internet-based communications networks, the IT application is proceeding, and electronic commercial transactions are moving forward at corporation levels. As a result of advance of networking in information infrastructures by digitization, a very large revolution has come. The revolution calls for the end of an industrial society and the start of an information society. Know-hows have been sold being fixed as electronic circuits to date, but the know-hows are now mounted as software, keeping its pace with the digitization. Therefore, the ratio of software accounting for in manufacturing cost has been overwhelmingly rising in recent years. Amid the paradigm shift advancing rapidly toward software, a system that activates the ability of an individual is the driving force for success. How quickly one can shed his or her skin will determine who will survive in this intense competition. (NEDO)

  15. Experimental Study on Group Demonstrate Teaching to Improve Middle School Students' Society Adaptability%分组展示教学促进中学生社会适应能力提高的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子凤

    2012-01-01

    本文以78名中学生为研究被试,采用实验法、问卷调查法、数理统计法等,对分组展示教学与中学生社会适应能力的关系进行研究。结果显示:实验班和对照班在同学关系维度上两班的差异达到了非常显著的水平(F=11.27,P〈0.01),在竞争气氛维度上差异达到了非常显著的水平(F=12.33,P〈0.01),在秩序纪律维度上差异达到了显著水平(F=5.23,P〈0.05)。认为:在中学体育教学中运用“分组展示”的教学方法,能促进学生社会适应能力的提高。%Take 78 middle school students for the study objects, using the experimental method, questionnaire, and mathe- matical statistics grouped to show the social adaptability of teaching secondary school students to study the relationship. The results showed that: the difference of two classes of experimental classes and control classes in the dimension of the relati- onship between students reached very significant levels (F = I 1.27, p 〈0.01) differences in the competitive atmosphere di- mension reached a very significant level (F = 12.33, p 〈0.01), differences in the dimensions of the order of discipline reached a significant level (F = 5.23, P 〈0.05). That: in the middle school physical education teaching, teaching methods, use of the "Group show" to promote the improvement of students' ability to adapt to society.

  16. Satellite observations indicate substantial spatiotemporal variability in biomass burning NOx emission factors for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Castellanos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is an important contributor to global total emissions of NOx (NO + NO2. Generally bottom-up fire emissions models calculate NOx emissions by multiplying fuel consumption estimates with static biome specific emission factors, defined in units of grams of NO per kilogram of dry matter consumed. Emission factors are a significant source of uncertainty in bottom-up fire emissions modeling because relatively few observations are available to characterize the large spatial and temporal variability of burning conditions. In this paper we use NO2 tropospheric column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI from the year 2005 over South America to calculate monthly NOx emission factors for four fire types: deforestation, savanna/grassland, woodland, and agricultural waste burning. In general, the spatial trends in NOx emission factors calculated in this work are consistent with emission factors derived from in situ measurements from the region, but are more variable than published biome specific global average emission factors widely used in bottom up fire emissions inventories such as the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED v3. Satellite based NOx emission factors also indicate substantial temporal variability in burning conditions. Overall, we found that deforestation fires have the lowest NOx emission factors, on average 30 % lower than the emission factors used in GFED v3. Agricultural fire NOx emission factors were the highest, on average a factor of 2 higher than GFED v3 values. For savanna, woodland, and deforestation fires early dry season NOx emission factors were a factor of ~1.5–2.0 higher than late dry season emission factors. A minimum in the NOx emission factor seasonal cycle for deforestation fires occurred in August, the time period of severe drought in South America in 2005. Our results support the hypothesis that prolonged dry spells may lead to an increase in the contribution of smoldering combustion

  17. Beyond Equal: From Same but Different to the Doctrine of Substantial Equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    A same-but-different dichotomy has recently been encapsulated within the ill-defined concept of “substantial equivalence”. By invoking this concept the genetically modified organism (GMO) industry has escaped the rigors of safety testing that might otherwise apply. The curious concept of “substantial equivalence” grants a presumption of safety to GMO food. This presumption has yet to be earned, and has been used to constrain labelling of both GMO and non-GMO food. It is an idea that w...

  18. Beyond Equal: From Same but Different to the Doctrine of Substantial Equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    A same-but-different dichotomy has recently been encapsulated within the ill-defined concept of “substantial equivalence”. By invoking this concept the genetically modified organism (GMO) industry has escaped the rigors of safety testing that might otherwise apply. The curious concept of “substantial equivalence” grants a presumption of safety to GMO food. This presumption has yet to be earned, and has been used to constrain labelling of both GMO and non-GMO food. It is an idea that w...

  19. Interactive Image Processing demonstrations for the web

    OpenAIRE

    Tella Amo, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal in this project is to improve the way how image processing developers can test their algorithms, and show them to other people to demonstrate their performance. This diploma thesis aims to provide a framework for developing web applications for ImagePlus, the software develpment platform in C++ of the Image Processing Group of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC). These web applications are to demonstrate the functionality of the image processing algorithms to any ...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adjustments on audit for 1989 increase taxable income to $51,500 and tax liability to $12,339. There was... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and...

  1. 45 CFR 305.63 - Standards for determining substantial compliance with IV-D requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... State income tax refund offset, which results in a collection received during the audit period, the... in substantial compliance with one or more of the IV-D requirements as a result of an audit conducted... this chapter to State and Federal income tax refund offset; and wage withholding under § 303.100...

  2. 5 CFR 5502.107 - Supplemental disclosure of financial interests in substantially affected organizations applicable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental disclosure of financial... SUPPLEMENTAL FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES § 5502.107 Supplemental disclosure of financial interests in substantially affected...

  3. 77 FR 65169 - Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... increases competition for National Forest System timber sales, results in higher prices paid for such timber... hazardous fuels. On June 1, 2012, there were 98 National Forest System timber sales under contract in... Forest Service Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public...

  4. Have Cognitive Diagnostic Models Delivered Their Goods? Some Substantial and Methodological Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Oliver; Robitzsch, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The paper by Rupp and Templin (2008) is an excellent work on the characteristics and features of cognitive diagnostic models (CDM). In this article, the authors comment on some substantial and methodological aspects of this focus paper. They organize their comments by going through issues associated with the terms "cognitive," "diagnostic" and…

  5. 16 CFR 1115.12 - Information which should be reported; evaluating substantial product hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in accordance with § 1115.11, about product use, experience, performance, design, or manufacture... of the product, and the population group exposed to the product (e.g., children, elderly, handicapped...; evaluating substantial product hazard. 1115.12 Section 1115.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT...

  6. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF HERB MATERIAL SELECTION IN THE MAKING OF COMPLEX TINCTURE FOR PERIODONTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piminov O.F.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During this work, possibility of using of licorice roots, sedge cane rootstocks as well as burnet rootstocks with its roots as components of a complex tincture for periodontitis treatment was experimentally substantiated, and an optimal raw material-extractant ratio, based on results of microbiological studings, was proved.

  7. Theoretical-and-Methodological Substantiation of Multilingual Model Activity in Kazakhstan Higher School Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospanova, Bikesh Revovna; Azimbayeva, Zhanat Amantayevna; Timokhina, Tatyana Vladimirovna; Seydakhmetova, Zergul Koblandiyevna

    2016-01-01

    The need of implementing the model of professional development in training an expert in the conditions of multilingualism is considered. The possibility of using the multilingual approach in the context of present day education with the use of innovative technologies of training is substantiated, the definition of "multilingual…

  8. 76 FR 41424 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Iowa State Implementation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... experience high incidences of lung disease, cardiac problems, renal and other serious life threatening...) is substantially inadequate to maintain the 2006 24-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS... this rule on February 2, 2011 (76 FR 9706). EPA received comments from the State of Iowa Department...

  9. 19 CFR 10.41b - Clearance of serially numbered substantial holders or outer containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance of serially numbered substantial holders or outer containers. 10.41b Section 10.41b Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... holders or outer containers. (a) The holders and containers described in this section may be...

  10. Substantial Molecular Evolution In Prolonged Latent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infections In Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebaek, Troels; Norman, Anders; Rasmussen, Erik Michael;

    2015-01-01

    , as well as evidence for distinct processes such as oxidative damage or natural selection having contributed to mutation accumulation. Conclusions: Our study shows that distinct processes can shape Mtb genomes during latent infection. Most importantly, we document substantial molecular evolution of Mtb...

  11. 26 CFR 1.6043-3 - Return regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return regarding liquidation, dissolution... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6043-3 Return regarding liquidation, dissolution... years preceding any liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of the...

  12. Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: Do maltreatment type, perpetrator, and substantiation status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Kotake, Chie; Fauth, Rebecca; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2017-01-01

    A maternal history of childhood maltreatment is thought to be a potent risk factor for child abuse and neglect, yet the extent of continuity across generations is unclear, with studies reporting vastly different rates of intergenerational transmission. Disparate findings may be due to lack of attention to the nature of maltreatment experiences in each generation. We sought to expand the current literature by examining the role of maltreatment type, perpetrator identity, and substantiation status of reports to child protective services (CPS) on intergenerational maltreatment among adolescent mothers (n=417) and their children. We found that when mothers had at least one report of childhood maltreatment (substantiated or not), the odds that they maltreated their children increased by 72% (OR=2.52), compared to mothers who are not maltreated, but the odds were considerably lower when we limited analysis to substantiated reports. Both a maternal history of substantiated neglect and multiple type maltreatment (neglect and physical or sexual abuse) were associated with increased risk of child maltreatment, yet the likelihood of children experiencing multiple maltreatment perpetrated with their mothers identified as perpetrators increased over 300% when mothers had a childhood history of multiple maltreatment.

  13. A thought-provoking demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, E. Roger; Holton, Brian; Horton, George K.

    1998-01-01

    We present and discuss a physics demonstration, similar to, but distinct from, the ballistic-pendulum demonstration, one that illustrates all three conservation laws of mechanics (for energy, momentum, and angular momentum) simultaneously.

  14. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  15. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka;

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  16. World Petroleum Congress Demonstrating Improved Image of China Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Wei

    2002-01-01

    @@ On 1-5 September 2002, the 17th World Petroleum Congress was successfully convened in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil with 3000 delegates coming from 59 countries and regions. Representatives from CNPC,Sinopec and CNOOC attended the congress.

  17. Apparel Advanced Manufacturing Technology Demonstration. Improved Marker Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-27

    results indicate good results.. Roodman (1986) presents a practical application where the linear programming round-off method turns out to be highly...Harmon, Paul and David King (1985), Expert Systems: Artificial Intelligence in Business, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: New York. Harris and Zinober...Trim-loss Algorithms, Engineering Costs and Production Economics, Vol. 12, pp. 71-78. 47 Roodman (1986), "Near-Optimal Solutions to One-Dimensional

  18. Demonstration of improved sensitivity of echo interferometers to gravitational acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, C; Carew, A; Berthiaume, R; Beattie, S; Kumarakrishnan, A

    2013-01-01

    We have developed two configurations of an echo interferometer that rely on standing wave excitation of a laser-cooled sample of rubidium atoms that measures acceleration. For a two-pulse configuration, the interferometer signal is modulated at the recoil frequency and exhibits a sinusoidal frequency chirp as a function of pulse spacing. For a three-pulse stimulated echo configuration, the signal is observed without recoil modulation and exhibits a modulation at a single frequency. The three-pulse configuration is less sensitive to effects of vibrations and magnetic field curvature leading to a longer experimental timescale. For both configurations of the atom interferometer (AI), we show that a measurement of acceleration with a statistical precision of 0.5% can be realized by analyzing the shape of the echo envelope that has a temporal duration of a few microseconds. Using the two-pulse AI, we obtain measurements of acceleration that are statistically precise to 6 parts per million (ppm) on a 25 ms timescal...

  19. Fuel consolidation demonstration program: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    EPRI, Northeast Utilities, Baltimore Gas and Electric, the US Department of Energy and Combustion Engineering are engaged in a program to develop a system for consolidating spent fuel and a method of storing the consolidated fuel in the spent fuel storage pool which is licensable by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Fuel consolidation offers a means of substantially increasing the capacity of spent fuel storage pools. This is a final report of the Fuel Consolidation Demonstration Program. It provides a review of the overall program, a summary of the results obtained, the lessons learned, and an assessment of the present status of the consolidation system developed in the program. 7 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, Robin J. D. [Smith Electric Vehicles Corporation, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  1. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, Charles, M., Jr.

    2009-07-07

    demonstrated robust operation when tested at various orientations, temperatures, and humidity levels. Durability testing has progressed significantly over the course of the program. MEA, engine, and system level steady state testing has demonstrated degradation rates acceptable for initial product introduction. Test duration of over 5000 hrs has been achieved at both the MEA and breadboard system level. P3 level prototype life testing on engines (stacks with reactant conditioning) showed degradation rates comparable to carefully constructed lab fixtures. This was a major improvement over the P2 and P1 engine designs, which exhibited substantial reductions in life and performance between the lab cell and the actual engine. Over the course of the work on the P3 technology set, a platform approach was taken to the system design. By working in this direction, a number of product iterations with substantial market potential were identified. Although the main effort has been the development of a prototype charger for consumer electronic devices, multiple other product concepts were developed during the program showing the wide variety of potential applications.

  2. Validation and substantiation of 25 kGy as sterilization dose for lyophilized human amnion membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djefal, A; Tahtat, D; Khodja, A Nacer; Bouzid, S Saad; Remane, N

    2007-01-01

    The validation and substantiation of sterilization dose for lyophilized human amnion membrane by gamma irradiation delivered by Co60 source were investigated. The validation experiments were conducted according to ISO 13409 method B. A total of 120 human amnion membranes were collected. Of these, 10 membranes were used for estimation of bioburden and 20 membranes were used for the individual sterility test at verification dose. The average bioburden per product unit with sample item portion (SIP = 1) for lyophilized human amnion membrane was 572 cfu. The verification dose experiments were done at dose of 8.1 kGy and the results of sterility tests showed that human amnion membrane got one positive. Consequently, the sterilization dose of 25 kGy was confirmed and substantiated.

  3. Leaky domino-modes in regular arrays of substantially thick metal nanostrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voroshilov, Pavel M.; Simovski, Constantin R.

    2016-07-01

    In previous works, an efficient light trapping performed by arrays of metal nanoantennas whose building block was a slightly tapered (trapezoidal) substantially thick nanostrip was revealed. This light trapping implied a broad spectrum of solar light concentrated in a subwavelength depth of the semiconductor substrate. This is a very advantageous feature allowing our structure to enhance thin-film solar cells. However, the physics of the broadband resonant absorption in the substrate was not investigated. In the present paper, we show that our arrays support so-called leaky domino-modes, responsible for such the light trapping. These modes are multipole oscillations of the array of substantially thick nanostrips. In this work we have thoroughly studied these leaky modes relating them to resonances of high-order multipole moments and to broadband light-trapping effect.

  4. Expanding Student International Awareness Through Short-Term Study Abroad Courses With Substantial Engineering Technical Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Schubert, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of Compact International Experience (CIE) courses is assessed in this study. These courses were developed with the aim to raise student international awareness while retaining substantial engineering technical content. The courses were motivated by a strong student desire for engineering international studies as well as a drive by the home institution for internationalization of the curriculum. The experiences gained from delivering two distinct three-semester-unit engineering elective courses in three-week time frames in France and Australia are discussed. While the two courses, Topics in Fluid Mechanics and Advanced Electronic Circuit Design, focused on their technical content, the desire for student understanding of the cultural environment and the impact of engineering solutions from a global and societal viewpoint were strong driving factors for each. Assessment validates the hypothesis that CIE courses can successfully deliver substantial engineering technical content while providing an enriching international experience to students.

  5. CHP Fuel Cell Durability Demonstration - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher J

    2014-07-21

    Plug Power has managed a demonstration project that has tested multiple units of its high-temperature, PEM fuel cell system in micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP) applications in California. The specific objective of the demonstration project was to substantiate the durability of GenSys Blue, and, thereby, verify its technology and commercial readiness for the marketplace. In the demonstration project, Plug Power, in partnership with the National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and Sempra, will execute two major tasks: • Task 1: Internal durability/reliability fleet testing. Six GenSys Blue units will be built and will undergo an internal test regimen to estimate failure rates. This task was modified to include 3 GenSys Blue units installed in a lab at UCI. • Task 2: External customer testing. Combined heat and power units will be installed and tested in real-world residential and/or light commercial end user locations in California.

  6. Trans- Substantial Motion and Man’s Evolution in Mulla Sadra’s Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qodratullah Qorbani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The above subject is considered in Islam and Islamic thought, especially in Islamicphilosophy and wisdom. We can find theories of it in Transcendent wisdom of Islam by Mulla SadraShirazi. He himself has a theory called Trans-substantial motion, which we try to provide and explainit here. First, we give a short account of the properties and principles of Mulla Sadra‟s philosophy.

  7. Do convective schemes substantially alter simulated global climate and cloud feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, S. C.; Webb, M.; Lock, A.; Bretherton, C. S.; Bony, S.; Cole, J. N.; Idelkadi, A.; Kang, S. M.; Koshiro, T.; Kawai, H.; Ogura, T.; Roehrig, R.; Shin, Y.; Mauritsen, T.; Vial, J.; Watanabe, M.; Woelfle, M.; Zhao, M.; Cairns, C. W.; Vallis, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate CFMIP-2 AMIP and AMIP+4K experiments with ten climate models which have had their convective parametrizations turned off. Previous studies have suggested that parameterized convection may be a leading source of inter-model spread in cloud feedbacks and other aspects. We find that model biases in 'ConvOff' runs (those with the convective schemes switched off), for example in tropical lapse rate and relative humidity, are generally smaller than intermodel differences in these fields, in spite of the fact that these fields are widely thought to be controlled by convective processes. This suggests that, to a considerable extent, explicitly resolved convection is able to do most of the overall job of convection in modern climate models at least with respect to phenomena at large scales. We find moreover that 'ConvOff' models have a similar overall range of cloud feedbacks compared to the standard configurations. Furthermore, applying a simple bias correction method to allow for differences in present day global cloud radiative effects substantially reduces the differences between the cloud feedbacks with and without parametrized convection in the individual models. We conclude that, while parametrized convection influences the strength of the cloud feedbacks substantially in some models, other processes must also contribute substantially to the overall inter-model spread. The positive shortwave cloud feedbacks seen in the models in subtropical regimes associated with shallow clouds are still present in the ConvOff experiments. Inter-model spread in shortwave cloud feedback increases slightly in regimes associated with trade cumulus in the ConvOff experiments but is quite similar in the most stable sub-tropical regimes associated with stratocumulus clouds. Inter-model spread in longwave cloud feedbacks in strongly precipitating regions of the tropics is substantially reduced in the ConvOff experiments however, indicating a considerable local contribution

  8. Patient health causes substantial portion of geographic variation in Medicare costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Megan

    2013-10-01

    Key findings. (1) Substantial geographic variation exists in Medicare costs, but to determine the source and extent of this variation requires proper accounting for population health differences. (2) While physician practice patterns likely affect Medicare geographic cost variations, population health explains at least 75 to 85 percent of the variations—more than previously estimated. (3) Policy strategies should consider the magnitude of the impact of beneficiary health status on Medicare costs in order to address geographic variation.

  9. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF PROJECTS OF THE AFFORDABLE HOUSING CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRAVCHUNOVSKA T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. The development of inhabitant locality of Ukraine is characterized by significant differences in levels of socio and economic development. An excessive concentration of population and industry in large cities, inefficient, slow development of most medium and small cities, towns and villages, considerable territorial disproportions of economic development of the country, considerable shortcomings in the territorial organization of society are observed. At the same time the tendency of the total area of increasing of inhabitant locality. The lands are used inefficiently. Among the most common problems of inhabitant locality is the housing problem. When making a decision on the design of affordable housing construction is one of the most important stages in the development of the technique and economic substantiation of the project is determination of the advisability and effectiveness of construction. The substantiation of advisability and effectiveness of affordable housing based on the definition of technical and economic indicators of projects, one of the most important among them is the cost, in its calculation is necessary to take into account the influence of organizational and technological factors, reflecting the features of construction in condition of compacted construction. Purpose. Development of methodical recommendations on substantiation of cost construction of affordable housing in the conditions of compacted construction. Conclusion. To provide a processing and the analysis of data is necessary development of the applied software on the basis of the developed block scheme of justification of cost construction of affordable housing.

  10. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration project will advance optical communications technology, expanding industry’s capability to produce competitive,...

  11. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  12. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  13. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  14. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  15. Demonstrative and non-demonstrative reasoning by analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Ippoliti, Emiliano

    2008-01-01

    The paper analizes a set of issues related to analogy and analogical reasoning, namely: 1) The problem of analogy and its duplicity; 2) The role of analogy in demonstrative reasoning; 3) The role of analogy in non-demonstrative reasoning; 4) The limits of analogy; 5) The convergence, particularly in multiple analogical reasoning, of these two apparently distinct aspects and its methodological and philosophical consequences. The paper, using example from number theory, argues for an heuristc c...

  16. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner {trademark}/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist{trademark}/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals.

  17. Crafting a Gauss Gun Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Matthew E.; Blodgett, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    A Gauss Gun launches a ferromagnetic projectile using a pulsed electromagnet. This demonstration provides a nice counterpoint to the popular Thompson's jumping ring demonstration, which launches a nonferromagnetic ring via repulsion of an induced current. The pulsed current must be short enough in duration so that the projectile is not retarded by lingering current in the launch solenoid, but also large enough to provide a suitably impressive velocity. This project involved an iterative design process, as we worked through balancing all the different design criteria. We recommend it as a very nice electronics design project which will produce a very portable and enjoyable demonstration. AAPT sponsor Earl Blodgett.

  18. The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Oliver S P; Band, Gavin; Pirinen, Matti; Haworth, Claire M A; Meaburn, Emma L; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Docherty, Sophia J; Hanscombe, Ken B; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Curtis, Charles J C; Strange, Amy; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz A Z; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Barroso, Ines; Peltonen, Leena; Dale, Philip S; Petrill, Stephen A; Schalkwyk, Leonard S; Craig, Ian W; Lewis, Cathryn M; Price, Thomas S; Donnelly, Peter; Plomin, Robert; Spencer, Chris C A

    2014-07-08

    Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children's ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child's cognitive abilities at age twelve.

  19. Substantial Result Achieved for China-Russia-ROK Gas Cooperation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jiqiang

    2003-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Rusia Petroleum of Russia and KOGAS, a natural gas company in Rpbulic of Korea, jointly announced in Moscow on November 14 that the feasibility study report of "Project for Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline to People's Republic of China and Republic of Korea from Kovykta Condensate Field in Russia's Irkutsk and Development of Kovykta Condensate Field" has been approved at the six meeting of the Coordination Committee thanks to the common efforts by the governments in the three countries. This marks a substantial result achieved in natural gas cooperation among China, Russia and ROK.

  20. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. Status of the MAJORANA Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Greenn, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Schmitt, C; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Timkin, V; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V

    2014-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  2. Demonstration of Cauchy: Understanding Algebraic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study we present some considerations about the End of Course Work undergraduate Full Degree in Mathematics / UFMT, drafted in 2011, and by taking title "A story about Cauchy and Euler's theorem on polyhedra" that gave birth to our research project Master of Education, begun in 2012, on the approaches of Euler's theorem on polyhedra in mathematics textbooks. At work in 2011 presented some considerations about the history of Euler's theorem for polyhedra which focus the demonstration presented by Cauchy (1789-1857, who tries to generalize it, relying on assumptions not observable in Euclidean geometry. Therefore, we seek the accessible literature on the history of mathematics; relate some aspects of the demonstration Cauchy with historical events on the development of mathematics in the nineteenth century, which allowed the acceptance of such a demonstration by mathematicians of his time.Keywords: History of Mathematics. Euler's Theorem on Polyhedra. Demonstration of Cauchy.

  3. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Detwiler, Jason A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Timkin, V.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-09

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  4. Teacher Training: The Demonstration Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan C.

    1977-01-01

    A teacher training technique is discussed involving a demonstration class given by a local teacher and observed by prospective teachers. After the class a discussion is held analyzing lesson content and teaching techniques. (CHK)

  5. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  6. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  7. Orcc's Compa-Backend demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Yaset; Casseau, Emmanuel; Martin, Kevin; Bomel, Pierre; Diguet, Jean-Philippe; Yviquel, Hervé; Raulet, Mickael; Raffin, Erwan; Morin, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the implementation of a video decoding application starting from its dataflow and CAL representations. Our objective is to demonstrate the ability of the Open RVC-CAL Compiler (Orcc) to generate code for embedded systems. For the demonstration, the video application will be an MPEG-4 Part2 decoder. The targeted architecture is a multi-core heterogeneous system deployed onto the Zynq platform from Xilinx.

  8. Lateral CO2 diffusion inside dicotyledonous leaves can be substantial: quantification in different light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, James I L; Lawson, Tracy; Cornic, Gabriel

    2007-11-01

    Substantial lateral CO(2) diffusion rates into leaf areas where stomata were blocked by grease patches were quantified by gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging in different species across the full range of photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD). The lateral CO(2) flux rate over short distances was substantial and very similar in five dicotyledonous species with different vascular anatomies (two species with bundle sheath extensions, sunflower [Helianthus annuus] and dwarf bean [Phaseolus vulgaris]; and three species without bundle sheath extensions, faba bean [Vicia faba], petunia [Petunia hybrida], and tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum]). Only in the monocot maize (Zea mays) was there little or no evident lateral CO(2) flux. Lateral diffusion rates were low when PPFD saturation in moderate PPFD (300 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) when lateral CO(2) diffusion represented 15% to 24% of the normal CO(2) assimilation rate. Smaller patches and higher ambient CO(2) concentration increased lateral CO(2) diffusion rates. Calculations with a two-dimensional diffusion model supported these observations that lateral CO(2) diffusion over short distances inside dicotyledonous leaves can be important to photosynthesis. The results emphasize that supply of CO(2) from nearby stomata usually dominates assimilation, but that lateral supply over distances up to approximately 1 mm can be important if stomata are blocked, particularly when assimilation rate is low.

  9. Pedigree error due to extra-pair reproduction substantially biases estimates of inbreeding depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jane M; Keller, Lukas F; Marr, Amy B; Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Sardell, Rebecca J; Arcese, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of inbreeding and inbreeding depression requires unbiased estimation of inbreeding depression across diverse mating systems. However, studies estimating inbreeding depression often measure inbreeding with error, for example, based on pedigree data derived from observed parental behavior that ignore paternity error stemming from multiple mating. Such paternity error causes error in estimated coefficients of inbreeding (f) and reproductive success and could bias estimates of inbreeding depression. We used complete "apparent" pedigree data compiled from observed parental behavior and analogous "actual" pedigree data comprising genetic parentage to quantify effects of paternity error stemming from extra-pair reproduction on estimates of f, reproductive success, and inbreeding depression in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Paternity error caused widespread error in estimates of f and male reproductive success, causing inbreeding depression in male and female annual and lifetime reproductive success and juvenile male survival to be substantially underestimated. Conversely, inbreeding depression in adult male survival tended to be overestimated when paternity error was ignored. Pedigree error stemming from extra-pair reproduction therefore caused substantial and divergent bias in estimates of inbreeding depression that could bias tests of evolutionary theories regarding inbreeding and inbreeding depression and their links to variation in mating system. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is pursuing a vision to improve the quality of health care by expanding the information available about quality of care and through direct incentives to reward...

  11. Worldwide Weather Radar Imagery May Allow Substantial Increase in Meteorite Fall Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc; Matson, Robert; Schaefer, Jacob; Fries, Jeffery; Hankey, Mike; Anderson, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Weather radar imagery is a valuable new technique for the rapid recovery of meteorite falls, to include falls which would not otherwise be recovered (e.g. Battle Mountain). Weather radar imagery reveals about one new meteorite fall per year (18 falls since 1998), using weather radars in the United States alone. However, an additional 75 other nations operate weather radar networks according to the UN World Meteorological Organization (WMO). If the imagery of those radars were analyzed, the current rate of meteorite falls could be improved considerably, to as much as 3.6 times the current recovery rate based on comparison of total radar areal coverage. Recently, the addition of weather radar imagery, seismometry and internet-based aggregation of eyewitness reports has improved the speed and accuracy of fresh meteorite fall recovery [e.g. 1,2]. This was demonstrated recently with the radar-enabled recovery of the Sutter's Mill fall [3]. Arguably, the meteorites recovered via these methods are of special scientific value as they are relatively unweathered, fresh falls. To illustrate this, a recent SAO/NASA ADS search using the keyword "meteorite" shows that all 50 of the top search results included at least one named meteorite recovered from a meteorite fall. This is true even though only 1260 named meteorite falls are recorded among the >49,000 individual falls recorded in the Meteoritical Society online database. The US NEXRAD system used thus far to locate meteorite falls covers most of the United States' surface area. Using a WMO map of the world's weather radars, we estimate that the total coverage of the other 75 national weather radar networks equals about 3.6x NEXRAD's coverage area. There are two findings to draw from this calculation: 1) For the past 16 years during which 18 falls are seen in US radar data, there should be an additional 65 meteorite falls recorded in worldwide radar imagery. Also: 2) if all of the world's radar data could be analyzed, the

  12. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Progress report on furnish evaluations for impulse drying commercialization demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.; Rudman, I.

    1995-02-01

    Laboratory and pilot scale experiments were performed to identify potential furnishes and operating parameters for upcoming high-speed pilot scale trials and commercial demonstration of impulse drying of heavy weight grades of paper. Results indicate that hydrodynamic specific surface is highly dependent on sheet formation and prehandling. Mill refined pulp and machine paper were comparable to laboratory prepared samples in regards to permeability and impulse drying. Process variables such as platen surface coating, felt type, felt moisture, and presteaming temperature profiles were investigated. Substantial improvements in sheet smoothness were achieved.

  13. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Buuck, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y.-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); and others

    2015-10-28

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, modular, HPGe detector array with a mass of 44-kg (29 kg {sup 76}Ge and 15 kg {sup nat}Ge) to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double beta decay searches will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is envisioned to demonstrate a path forward to achieve a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value of 2039 keV. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR follows a modular implementation to be easily scalable to the next generation experiment. First, the prototype module was assembled; it has been continuously taking data from July 2014 to June 2015. Second, Module 1 with more than half of the total enriched detectors and some natural detectors has been assembled and it is being commissioned. Finally, the assembly of Module 2, which will complete MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, is already in progress.

  14. Status of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Baldenegro-Barrera, C X; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2015-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, modular, HPGe detector array with a mass of 44-kg (29 kg 76Ge and 15 kg natGe) to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76. The next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double beta decay searches will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is envisioned to demonstrate a path forward to achieve a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value of 2039 keV. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR follows a modular implementation to be easily scalable to the next generation experiment. First, the prototype module was assembled; it has been continuously taking data from July 2014 to June 2015. Second, Module 1 with more than half of the total enriched detectors and some natural detectors has been assembled and it is being commissioned. Finally, the assembly of Module 2, which will complete MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, ...

  15. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  16. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  17. Solar energy parking canopy demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cylwik, Joe [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States); David, Lawrence [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The goal of this pilot/demonstration program is to measure the viability of using solar photovoltaic (PV) technology at three locations in a mountain community environment given the harsh weather conditions. An additional goal is to reduce long-term operational costs, minimize green house gas emissions, lower the dependency on energy produced from fossil fuels, and improve the working environment and health of city employees and residents.

  18. SECURES: Austin, Texas demonstration results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Glynn; Shaw, Scott; Scharf, Peter; Stellingworth, Bob

    2003-09-01

    The Law Enforcement technology development community has a growing interest in the technologies associated with gunshot detection and localization. These interests revolve around community-oriented policing. Technologies of interest include those associated with muzzle blast and bullet shockwave detection and the inter-netting of these acoustic sensors with electro-optic sensors. To date, no one sensor technology has proven totally effective for a complete solution. PSI has a muzzle blast detection and localization product which is wireless, highly mobile and reconfigurable, with a user-friendly laptop processor and display unit, which completed a one-year demonstration in Austin, Texas on July 6, 2002. This demonstration was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Institute of Justice and in cooperation with the Austin Police Department. This paper will discuss the details of the demonstrations, provide a summarized evaluation, elucidate the lessons learned, make recommendations for future deployments and discuss the developmental directions indicated for the future.

  19. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  20. Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

  1. Substantial early, but nonprogressive neuronal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Lucas; Albert, Monika; Buss, Armin; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Antel, Jack P; Brück, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine

    2009-11-01

    Research in multiple sclerosis (MS) has recently been focusing on the extent of neuroaxonal damage and its contribution to disease outcome. In the present study, we examined spinal cord tissue from 30 clinically well-characterized MS patients. MS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and control spinal cord tissue were subjected to morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry for markers of cell damage and regeneration. Data were related to disease duration and age at death. Here, we present evidence for substantial, nonprogressive neuronal loss on the cervical and lumbar levels early in the disease course of MS. Chromatolytic neurons and immunoreactivity for c-Jun and GAP43 were observed in the ventral gray matter in and adjacent to actively demyelinating lesions, pointing toward neuronal damage and regeneration as an early response to lesion formation.

  2. Challenges in Archiving and Sharing Video Data: Considering Moral, Pragmatic, and Substantial Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Kirsi Korkiakangas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Social science researchers are facing new challenges in data archiving and sharing. The challenges encountered for video data are different from those encountered for other types of qualitative data. I will consider these challenges with respect to the moral, pragmatic, and substantial arguments with which funding bodies justify data archiving and sharing. Throughout the article, I will draw on a recent Economic and Social Research Council funded project, “Transient Teams in the Operating Theatre,” in which our research team video recorded work activities in the operating theatre of a UK hospital, thereby dealing with highly sensitive footage. I will consider how video data, on most occasions, cannot be archived for re-use by the wider research community, but how new avenues could be developed so as to benefit from further research on such “unarchivable” datasets.

  3. Pachytene asynapsis drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and leads to substantial postmeiotic repression in spermatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James M A; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Ellis, Peter J I; Mitchell, Michael J; Burgoyne, Paul S

    2006-04-01

    Transcriptional silencing of the sex chromosomes during male meiosis (MSCI) is conserved among organisms with limited sex chromosome synapsis, including mammals. Since the 1990s the prevailing view has been that MSCI in mammals is transient, with sex chromosome reactivation occurring as cells exit meiosis. Recently, we found that any chromosome region unsynapsed during pachytene of male and female mouse meiosis is subject to transcriptional silencing (MSUC), and we hypothesized that MSCI is an inevitable consequence of this more general meiotic silencing mechanism. Here, we provide direct evidence that asynapsis does indeed drive MSCI. We also show that a substantial degree of transcriptional repression of the sex chromosomes is retained postmeiotically, and we provide evidence that this postmeiotic repression is a downstream consequence of MSCI/MSUC. While this postmeiotic repression occurs after the loss of MSUC-related proteins at the end of prophase, other histone modifications associated with transcriptional repression have by then become established.

  4. Exact alpha-error determination for two-stage sampling strategies to substantiate freedom from disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacka, I; Hofrichter, J; Fuchs, K

    2013-05-01

    Sampling strategies to substantiate freedom from disease are important when it comes to the trade of animals and animal products. When considering imperfect tests and finite populations, sample size calculation can, however, be a challenging task. The generalized hypergeometric formula developed by Cameron and Baldock (1998a) offers a framework that can elegantly be extended to multi-stage sampling strategies, which are widely used to account for disease clustering at herd-level. The achieved alpha-error of such surveys, however, typically depends on the realization of the sample and can differ from the pre-calculated value. In this paper, we introduce a new formula to evaluate the exact alpha-error induced by a specific sample. We further give a numerically viable approximation formula and analyze its properties using a data example of Brucella melitensis in the Austrian sheep population.

  5. Substantiation of Reference Method For Determining Concrete’s Freeze-Thaw Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolskiy, S.; Pertseva, O.

    2017-01-01

    It has been analytically proved that using concrete’s rate of set ε as a measure of damage, instead of decreasing of tensile strength R, increases freeze-thaw resistance’s accuracy of estimation a lot under otherwise equal conditions by the time of freeze-thaw cycling. Also it has been experimentally shown that ratio of relative decreasing R to ε in direction, perpendicular to compression, is assumed to be independent on values R and ε for a given concrete and on the ways of achieving them during mechanical or freeze-thaw cycling. Taking this into account patented methods for estimation of concrete’s freeze-thaw resistance as per values R and ε received after freezing and thawing cycles of some specimens and their postliminary failure by linear compression was substantiated.

  6. Experimental substantiation of methodic of 11-13 years old boxers’ coordination development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimental substantiation of methodic of junior boxers’ coordination training. Material: in the research 18 boxers of 11-13 year old age participated. In total, during 4 months 42 trainings were conducted. Total time of coordination load’s fulfillment at each training was 15-45 minutes. Results: dynamic of results in control tests was statistically confident in the tested parameters of movements. It proves effectiveness of usage the tasks with complex-coordination orientation, accented on impact on sensor-informational and motor systems of movements in junior boxers’ trainings. Conclusions: coordination training in boxing at initial stage shall include specialized varied means and methods, which would facilitate formation of motor condition and skills’ basis. Motor condition and skills are a reserve for further rising of coordination abilities’ level of junior sportsmen.

  7. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0{sub 2} removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0{sub 2} emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  8. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-05

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk-basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological-genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk-basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation.

  9. Technique of Substantiating Requirements for the Vision Systems of Industrial Robotic Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ya. Kolyuchkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In references, there is a lack of approaches to describe the justified technical requirements for the vision systems (VS of industrial robotics complexes (IRC. Therefore, an objective of the work is to develop a technique that allows substantiating requirements for the main quality indicators of VS, functioning as a part of the IRC.The proposed technique uses a model representation of VS, which, as a part of the IRC information system, sorts the objects in the work area, as well as measures their linear and angular coordinates. To solve the problem of statement there is a proposal to define the target function of a designed IRC as a dependence of the IRC indicator efficiency on the VS quality indicators. The paper proposes to use, as an indicator of the IRC efficiency, the probability of a lack of fault products when manufacturing. Based on the functions the VS perform as a part of the IRC information system, the accepted indicators of VS quality are as follows: a probability of the proper recognition of objects in the working IRC area, and confidential probabilities of measuring linear and angular orientation coordinates of objects with the specified values of permissible error. Specific values of these errors depend on the orientation errors of working bodies of manipulators that are a part of the IRC. The paper presents mathematical expressions that determine the functional dependence of the probability of a lack of fault products when manufacturing on the VS quality indicators and the probability of failures of IRC technological equipment.The offered technique for substantiating engineering requirements for the VS of IRC has novelty. The results obtained in this work can be useful for professionals involved in IRC VS development, and, in particular, in development of VS algorithms and software.

  10. Comparative genomics of Gardnerella vaginalis strains reveals substantial differences in metabolic and virulence potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J Yeoman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gardnerella vaginalis is described as a common vaginal bacterial species whose presence correlates strongly with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Here we report the genome sequencing and comparative analyses of three strains of G. vaginalis. Strains 317 (ATCC 14019 and 594 (ATCC 14018 were isolated from the vaginal tracts of women with symptomatic BV, while Strain 409-05 was isolated from a healthy, asymptomatic individual with a Nugent score of 9. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Substantial genomic rearrangement and heterogeneity were observed that appeared to have resulted from both mobile elements and substantial lateral gene transfer. These genomic differences translated to differences in metabolic potential. All strains are equipped with significant virulence potential, including genes encoding the previously described vaginolysin, pili for cytoadhesion, EPS biosynthetic genes for biofilm formation, and antimicrobial resistance systems, We also observed systems promoting multi-drug and lantibiotic extrusion. All G. vaginalis strains possess a large number of genes that may enhance their ability to compete with and exclude other vaginal colonists. These include up to six toxin-antitoxin systems and up to nine additional antitoxins lacking cognate toxins, several of which are clustered within each genome. All strains encode bacteriocidal toxins, including two lysozyme-like toxins produced uniquely by strain 409-05. Interestingly, the BV isolates encode numerous proteins not found in strain 409-05 that likely increase their pathogenic potential. These include enzymes enabling mucin degradation, a trait previously described to strongly correlate with BV, although commonly attributed to non-G. vaginalis species. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results indicate that all three strains are able to thrive in vaginal environments, and therein the BV isolates are capable of occupying a niche that is unique from 409-05. Each strain has significant virulence

  11. Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

  12. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  13. SunJammer Technology Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sunjammer Project is a NASA funded contract to L?Garde Inc. to fly a solar sail demonstration for a period of approximately one year. L?Garde is also partnered...

  14. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  15. Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

  16. Demonstration of melatonin in amphibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerdonk, F.C.G. van de

    1967-01-01

    The presence of melatonin in the amphibian epiphysis has been ascertained earlier by several indirect methods, demonstrating the synthesizing enzyme or precursors of the compound. This communication describes the presence of melatonin in amphibian brain in a direct way, using dextran gel chromatogra

  17. Natural Hazard Demonstrations for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents several demonstrations that have been developed or gathered from other sources in the general area of natural hazards (e.g. landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, wildfires, tsunamis, mass movements, asteroid impacts, etc.). There are many methods of teaching, but as university lecturers, particularly for large class sizes, we find ourselves too often presenting material to students by direct speaking, or some combination of blackboard/whiteboard/slide projector/digital projector. There are certainly a number of techniques to more actively involve students, so that teaching is not just `receiving of information', including breaking up students into small group discussions, encouraging students to actively participate in class through comments and questions, and/or some combination of hands-on activities and demonstrations. It is this latter which is concentrated on here. As a teaching tool, the students themselves became much more excited about what they are learning if use is made of 5--10 minute demonstrations, even if only peripherally related to the subject at hand. The resultant discussion with questions and comments by students keeps both the students and the lecturer (in this case the author) motivated and intrigued about the subjects being discussed. Days, weeks, and months later, the students remember these `demonstrations', but to set these up takes time, effort, and resources of equipment, although not necessarily a large amount of the latter. Several natural hazards demonstrations are presented here, most inexpensive, that have been used in front of large university classes and smaller `break-out groups', and which can also be adapted for secondary-school students.

  18. WiFi RFID demonstration for resource tracking in a statewide disaster drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stacey L; Siddiqui, Javeed; Harry, David J; Sandrock, Christian E

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the capabilities of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking of patients and medical equipment during a simulated disaster response scenario. RFID infrastructure was deployed at two small rural hospitals, in one large academic medical center and in two vehicles. Several item types from the mutual aid equipment list were selected for tracking during the demonstration. A central database server was installed at the UC Davis Medical Center (UCDMC) that collected RFID information from all constituent sites. The system was tested during a statewide disaster drill. During the drill, volunteers at UCDMC were selected to locate assets using the traditional method of locating resources and then using the RFID system. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of RFID infrastructure in real-time resource identification and tracking. Volunteers at UCDMC were able to locate assets substantially faster using RFID, demonstrating that real-time geolocation can be substantially more efficient and accurate than traditional manual methods. A mobile, Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled RFID system was installed in a pediatric ambulance and connected to the central RFID database via secure cellular communication. This system is unique in that it provides for seamless region-wide tracking that adaptively uses and seamlessly integrates both outdoor cellular-based mobile tracking and indoor WiFi-based tracking. RFID tracking can provide a real-time picture of the medical situation across medical facilities and other critical locations, leading to a more coordinated deployment of resources. The RFID system deployed during this study demonstrated the potential to improve the ability to locate and track victims, healthcare professionals, and medical equipment during a region-wide disaster.

  19. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States); Irwin, Mark [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  20. Decision support software technology demonstration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.; ARMSTRONG,A.

    1998-09-01

    The performance evaluation of innovative and alternative environmental technologies is an integral part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mission. Early efforts focused on evaluating technologies that supported the implementation of the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts. In 1986 the Agency began to demonstrate and evaluate the cost and performance of remediation and monitoring technologies under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program (in response to the mandate in the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA)). In 1990, the US Technology Policy was announced. This policy placed a renewed emphasis on making the best use of technology in achieving the national goals of improved quality of life for all Americans, continued economic growth, and national security. In the spirit of the technology policy, the Agency began to direct a portion of its resources toward the promotion, recognition, acceptance, and use of US-developed innovative environmental technologies both domestically and abroad. Decision Support Software (DSS) packages integrate environmental data and simulation models into a framework for making site characterization, monitoring, and cleanup decisions. To limit the scope which will be addressed in this demonstration, three endpoints have been selected for evaluation: Visualization; Sample Optimization; and Cost/Benefit Analysis. Five topics are covered in this report: the objectives of the demonstration; the elements of the demonstration plan; an overview of the Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot; an overview of the technology verification process; and the purpose of this demonstration plan.

  1. The MAJORANA Demonstrator Radioassay Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P. H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Dunmore, J. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S.; Finnerty, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, Victor M.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Massarcyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan W.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, David; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, K.; Vorren, Kris R.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-05-03

    The Majorana collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope 76Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are suffciently pure is described. The resulting measurements of the radioactiveisotope contamination for a number of materials studied for use in the detector are reported.

  2. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR radioassay program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Arnquist, I.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Back, H.O. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Barabash, A.S. [National Research Center, “Kurchatov Institute” Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boswell, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, A.W. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Buuck, M. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Byram, D. [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Caldwell, A.S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, Y.-D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christofferson, C.D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chu, P.-H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); and others

    2016-08-21

    The MAJORANA collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope {sup 76}Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are sufficiently pure is described. The resulting measurements from gamma-ray counting, neutron activation and mass spectroscopy of the radioactive-isotope contamination for the materials studied for use in the detector are reported. We interpret these numbers in the context of the expected background for the experiment.

  3. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR radioassay program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, H. O.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunmore, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Finnerty, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, V. M.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, D.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-08-01

    The MAJORANA collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope 76Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are sufficiently pure is described. The resulting measurements from gamma-ray counting, neutron activation and mass spectroscopy of the radioactive-isotope contamination for the materials studied for use in the detector are reported. We interpret these numbers in the context of the expected background for the experiment.

  4. Performance demonstration by ROC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Hannelore; Nockemann, Christina; Tillack, Gerd-Rüdiger; Mattis, Arne

    1994-12-01

    The question of the efficiency of a material testing system is important, when a competing or advanced system appears at the market. The comparison of the different systems can be done partly by the comparison of the technical specification of the systems, but not all parameters can be expressed by measured values, especially not the influence of human inspectors. A testing system in the field of NDT - for example weld inspection - often consists of several different devices and components (radiographic film, its irradiation and development, conventional inspection with a light box, human inspector). The demonstration of the performance of such a system with similar or advanced methods can be done by a statistical method, the ROC method. This quantitative measure for testing performance allows the comparison of complex NDT systems which will be demonstrated in detail by the comparison of conventional weld inspection with inspection of welds using the digitised image of the radiographs.

  5. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, David L.; Mills, Raymond A.; Bowden, Mary L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) was to create a near-term Shuttle flight experiment focusing on the deployment and erection of structural truss elements. The activities of the MIT Space Systems Laboratory consist of three major areas: preparing and conducting neutral buoyancy simulation test series; producing a formal SADE Experiment plan; and studying the structural dynamics issues of the truss structure. Each of these areas is summarized.

  6. Solar heating demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonicatto, L.; Kozak, C.

    1980-01-01

    The demonstration involved a 4-panel solar collector mounted on the industrial arts building. A 120 gallon storage tank supplements a 66 gallon electric hot water heater which supplies hot water for 5 shop wash basins, girl's and boy's lavatories, and a pressure washer in the auto shop. The installation and educational uses of the system are described. (MHR)

  7. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and on affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a DOE request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. This report discusses the demonstration of ETS equipment at four member light departments.

  8. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and on affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a DOE request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. This report discusses the demonstration of ETS equipment at four member light departments.

  9. Lethal and pre-lethal effects of a fungal biopesticide contribute to substantial and rapid control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blanford

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7-14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that 'slow acting' fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins.

  10. The Australian paradox: a substantial decline in sugars intake over the same timeframe that overweight and obesity have increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-04-01

    Ecological research from the USA has demonstrated a positive relationship between sugars consumption and prevalence of obesity; however, the relationship in other nations is not well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in obesity and sugar consumption in Australia over the past 30 years and to compare and contrast obesity trends and sugar consumption patterns in Australia with the UK and USA. Data on consumption of sugar in Australia, the UK and USA were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization for the years 1980-2003. The prevalence of obesity has increased 3 fold in Australians since 1980. In Australia, the UK and USA, per capita consumption of refined sucrose decreased by 23%, 10% and 20% respectively from 1980 to 2003. When all sources of nutritive sweeteners, including high fructose corn syrups, were considered, per capita consumption decreased in Australia (-16%) and the UK (-5%), but increased in the USA (+23%). In Australia, there was a reduction in sales of nutritively sweetened beverages by 64 million liters from 2002 to 2006 and a reduction in percentage of children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages between 1995 and 2007. The findings confirm an "Australian Paradox"--a substantial decline in refined sugars intake over the same timeframe that obesity has increased. The implication is that efforts to reduce sugar intake may reduce consumption but may not reduce the prevalence of obesity.

  11. The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Barclay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological research from the USA has demonstrated a positive relationship between sugars consumption and prevalence of obesity; however, the relationship in other nations is not well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in obesity and sugar consumption in Australia over the past 30 years and to compare and contrast obesity trends and sugar consumption patterns in Australia with the UK and USA. Data on consumption of sugar in Australia, the UK and USA were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization for the years 1980–2003. The prevalence of obesity has increased 3 fold in Australians since 1980. In Australia, the UK and USA, per capita consumption of refined sucrose decreased by 23%, 10% and 20% respectively from 1980 to 2003. When all sources of nutritive sweeteners, including high fructose corn syrups, were considered, per capita consumption decreased in Australia (−16% and the UK (−5%, but increased in the USA (+23%. In Australia, there was a reduction in sales of nutritively sweetened beverages by 64 million liters from 2002 to 2006 and a reduction in percentage of children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages between 1995 and 2007. The findings confirm an “Australian Paradox”—a substantial decline in refined sugars intake over the same timeframe that obesity has increased. The implication is that efforts to reduce sugar intake may reduce consumption but may not reduce the prevalence of obesity.

  12. Aerospace Communications Security Technologies Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, James H.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2003-01-01

    In light of the events of September 11, 2001, NASA senior management requested an investigation of technologies and concepts to enhance aviation security. The investigation was to focus on near-term technologies that could be demonstrated within 90 days and implemented in less than 2 years. In response to this request, an internal NASA Glenn Research Center Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Aviation Security Tiger Team was assembled. The 2-year plan developed by the team included an investigation of multiple aviation security concepts, multiple aircraft platforms, and extensively leveraged datalink communications technologies. It incorporated industry partners from NASA's Graphical Weather-in-the-Cockpit research, which is within NASA's Aviation Safety Program. Two concepts from the plan were selected for demonstration: remote "black box," and cockpit/cabin surveillance. The remote "black box" concept involves real-time downlinking of aircraft parameters for remote monitoring and archiving of aircraft data, which would assure access to the data following the loss or inaccessibility of an aircraft. The cockpit/cabin surveillance concept involves remote audio and/or visual surveillance of cockpit and cabin activity, which would allow immediate response to any security breach and would serve as a possible deterrent to such breaches. The datalink selected for the demonstrations was VDL Mode 2 (VHF digital link), the first digital datalink for air-ground communications designed for aircraft use. VDL Mode 2 is beginning to be implemented through the deployment of ground stations and aircraft avionics installations, with the goal of being operational in 2 years. The first demonstration was performed December 3, 2001, onboard the LearJet 25 at Glenn. NASA worked with Honeywell, Inc., for the broadcast VDL Mode 2 datalink capability and with actual Boeing 757 aircraft data. This demonstration used a cockpitmounted camera for video surveillance and a coupling to

  13. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  14. Adams natural gas/diesel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The results of a ore-year program to demonstrate the viability of fuelling and operating diesel road vehicles on dual fuel natural gas/diesel under commercial operating conditions is presented. During this project a natural gas fuelling station designed to accomodate the specific needs of heavy trucks was constructed, and a Canada Safeway Ltd. tractor was converted to dual fuel natural gas/diesel operation. The truck accumulated more than 64,000 km during the one-year monitoring period, providing useful data in terms of comparative fuel efficiency, natural gas/diesel proportions of fuel use, operating range, and refuelling times, along with assessments of its performance by drivers and fleet management. In the dual fuel mode the truck experienced a 15% loss in thermal efficiency relative to straight diesel fuel during highway operation, and a 20% loss during local operation. Fuel cost savings resulting from the use of natural gas were not large given the increased level of fuel consumption and the purchase of natural gas at higher prices. If the fleet were to have its own natural gas fuelling station fuel cost savings would be substantially increased. Areas in which further development is needed for natural gas to emerge as a significant fuel for heavy trucks are mentioned. 3 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kotter, D.; Walrath, W.M.; Zamecnik, R.J. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-07-01

    We present a summary of efforts associated with the installation of an integrated system for the surveillance and monitoring of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides in long-term storage. The product of this effort will include a Pu storage requirements document, baseline integrated monitoring and surveillance system (IMSS) prototype and test bed that will be installed in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) nuclear material vault at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), and a Pu tracking database including data analysis capabilities. The prototype will be based on a minimal set of vault and package monitoring requirements as derived from applicable DOE documentation and guidelines, detailed in the requirements document, including DOE-STD-3013-96. The use of standardized requirements will aid individual sites in the selection of sensors that best suit their needs while the prototype IMSS, located at ANL-W, will be used as a test bed to compare and contrast sensor performance against a baseline integrated system (the IMSS), demonstrate system capabilities, evaluate potential technology gaps, and test new hardware and software designs using various storage configurations. With efforts currently underway to repackage and store a substantial quantity of plutonium and plutonium-bearing material within the DOE complex, this is an opportune time to undertake such a project. 4 refs.

  16. Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichi, Marcello; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Manzini, Elisa [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Fogli, Pier Giuseppe [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); ENEA, Rome (Italy); Patara, Lavinia [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), Kiel (Germany); Scoccimarro, Enrico [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric ''target'' concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the

  17. The Utility of the KELS Test in Substantiated Cases of Elder Self-neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Sabrina; Naik, Aanand D.; Burnett, Jason; Kelly, P.A.; Gleason, Mary; Dyer, Carmel B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Self-neglect is the most prevalent finding among cases reported to Adult Protective Services and is characterized by an inability to meet one’s own basic needs. The Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills (KELS) has been validated in geriatric populations to assess performance with both instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (ADL), and as an assessment tool for the capacity to live independently, therefore, the purpose of this analysis was to compare the scores of the KELS between substantiated cases of self-neglect and matched community-dwelling elders. Methods This is a cross-sectional pilot study of 50 adults aged 65 years and older who were recruited from Adult Protective Services (APS) as documented cases of self-neglect and 50 control participants recruited from Harris County Hospital District outpatient clinics. Control participants were matched for age, race, gender and zip code. A geriatric nurse practitioner-led team administered a comprehensive geriatric assessment in homes of all study participants. The assessment included the KELS and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) tests. Chi-square analyses were used to determine if cases of self-neglect were significantly more likely to fail the KELS test than matched controls. Summary of Results The analyses revealed that self-neglectors were significantly more likely to fail the KELS than non-self-neglectors (50% vs. 30%, p=0.025). When stratified by MMSE scores, self-neglectors with intact cognitive function remained significantly more likely to fail the KELS compared to matched, cognitively intact controls (45% vs. 17%, p=0.013). Conclusion Abnormal results using an in-home KELS test was significantly associated with substantiated cases of self-neglect. These findings suggest that the KELS test has significant utility as part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment to aid clinicians in suspected cases of self-neglect. Implications for Practice There is currently no gold standard

  18. An Active Area Model of Rapid Infiltration Response at Substantial Depth in the Unsaturated Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, L.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    In a porous medium subject to preferential flow, response to surface water infiltration can occur rapidly even at substantial depth in the unsaturated zone. In a ponding experiment at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) the profile of undisturbed natural soil, seasonally dry at the start, was observed to approach field saturation throughout a 2 meter depth within 6 hours (Nimmo and Perkins, 2007). Traditional use of Richards' equation would require an unrealistically large unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of 40 m/day to capture the observed non-classic wetting behavior. Here we present a model for rapid flow using an active area concept similar to the active fracture model (Liu and others, 1998, WRR 34:2633-2646). The active area concept is incorporated within the preferential flow domain (which allows rapid downward movement) of a dual-domain model that also contains a diffuse-flow domain in which flow can be described by Richards' equation. Development of the active area model is motivated by observation of rapid wetting at substantial depth, as well as a phenomenon in which deep flow is observed before shallow flow. In this model water movement in the preferential domain can be physically conceptualized as laminar flow in free-surface films of constant average thickness. For a given medium, the preferential domain is characterized by an effective areal density (area per unit bulk volume) that describes the free-surface film capacity of the domain as a function of depth. The active area is defined as a portion of the effective areal density that dictates the depth and temporal distribution of domain-exchange and new infiltration within the preferential domain. With the addition of the active area concept, the model is capable of simulating non-diffusive vertical transport patterns. Advantages of the model include simulating rapid response for a variety of infiltration types, including ponding and rain events, as well as modeling relatively rapid aquifer

  19. Warming in the Yukon River Basin is Likely to Release Substantial Amounts of Soil Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, G. P.; Huntington, T. G.

    2005-12-01

    In recent decades the Yukon River Basin (YRB) in northwestern Canada and central Alaska has experienced a substantial warming trend resulting in a variety of geophysical and biological responses. Climatologic measurements consistent with rapid warming in the YRB during the last several decades of the 20th century include surface air temperature (especially daily minima), number of frost-free days, and the number of very warm days. During the 20th century daily maxima in the warm season in the YRB have increased only weakly, and modest autumn cooling occurred. Indirect indicators of warming include shrinkage in lake area, decreases in glacier mass, increased fire frequency and annual area burned, and changes in permafrost thickness and permafrost temperature. Changes in tree growth rates and susceptibility to pests have been related to warming and drying in interior Alaska. Oral histories of Alaska Natives have also revealed many other warming related changes in the YRB. If ongoing warming trends continue there is a concern that large stores of soil organic carbon (SOC) will be at risk for release to the atmosphere through heterotrophic decomposition. Warming tends to accelerate microbial decomposition at a faster rate than net primary productivity. One of the most important effects of warming in the YRB is likely to be its influence on the hydrologic and cryospheric regimes. Warming may be accompanied by soil drying and lowering of the water table in wetlands and lakes exposing more SOC to aerobic decomposition. A substantial portion of the YRB is underlain by permafrost that thaws to a variable depth (active layer) each summer. Increasing the thickness of the active layer exposes more SOC to microbial decomposition. Increasing the burned area results in direct SOC losses by oxidation during the fire and decreases albedo that warms surface soils and increases the thickness of the active layer. Warming and increasing length of the growing season increases seasonal

  20. Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Marcello; Manzini, Elisa; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Alessandri, Andrea; Patara, Lavinia; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric "target" concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the projected concentration

  1. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  2. Demonstration projects : learning by experience : the Seabird Island demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-10-15

    This article described the Seabird Island sustainable community housing demonstration project near Agassiz, British Columbia. The project provides a sustainable, affordable place for 7 families and demonstrates a new way to build and design communities using renewable energy technologies to provide residents with better quality, energy efficient housing while reducing costs and minimizing environmental impacts. The design integrates renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and geothermal energy to save on heating and lighting costs. This article noted some of the dubious design features that could have been screened out at the design stage if careful analysis had been carried out. It described features such as the solar orientation; climatic factors that influenced the form and details of the building; the high-efficiency, condensing, natural gas water heater for space heating combined with a forced-air and radiant-floor heating system; solariums that provided solar preheating of domestic hot water; ventilation air preheating; the solar roof; an earth-tube ventilation system; and 3 wind turbines to generate electricity to offset conventional electricity sources. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation has monitored several of the systems in order to evaluate the extent to which these features have influenced the performance of the dwelling units. The energy use in all 7 units was documented along with indoor air quality. An energy performance rating of EnerGuide 80 was achieved, which is comparable to R-2000. The monitoring study revealed that wind energy at this location was not sufficient to justify the installation of the wind turbines. The solar steel roof/solarium energy system did not perform as expected. In addition, the earth-tube ventilation system provided little heat and its overall contribution to ventilation was uncertain. Other deficiencies were also noted, such as leaky ductwork, non-operational dampers and poorly integrated control systems. The

  3. Substantiating Recommendations on the Choice of an Efficient Strategy of the State Regulation for System of Monitoring Economy Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashchaulov Vitalii V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with substantiating recommendations on the choice of an effective strategy of the State regulation for system of monitoring economy branches. To display the financial aspect of the enterprise's strategic positioning in the sectoral environment, a modified ADL matrix was used. A matrix of choosing an optimum variant (scenario of the enterprise's financial strategy has been considered taking into account possibilities of its use in the system of monitoring the development of economic sectors. Disadvantages in the use of modified ADL matrices and in choosing an optimum variant (scenario financial strategy of the enterprise's financial strategy have been identified. Factors of internal and external environment, which affect the strategic choice of enterprises, have been determined and analyzed. The SPACE matrix for building the model of choosing a strategy of financing the development of enterprises in the economy branches has been modified in the context of the system of monitoring the development of economy branches. A description of the strategies proposed by author for financing the development of enterprise has been provided, their advantages and disadvantages have been determined. Individual tools of the proposed models of actions can be accepted as a way of improving the strategic positions with a view to achieving a higher quantitative-qualitative situation as well as adjustment of the existing model of behavior.

  4. Sleeve Muscle Actuator: Concept and Prototype Demonstration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tad Driver; Xiangrong Shen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and prototype demonstration results of a new sleeve muscle actuator,which provides a significantly improved performance through a fundamental structural change to the traditional pneumatic muscle.Specifically,the sleeve muscle incorporates a cylindrical insert to the center of the pneumatic muscle,and thus eliminates the central portion of the intemal volume.Through the analysis of the actuation mechanism,it is shown that the sleeve muscle is able to provide a consistent increase of force capacity over the entire range of motion.Furthermore,the sleeve muscle provides a significant energy saving effect,as a result of the reduced internal volume as well as the enhance force capacity.To demonstrate this new concept,a sleeve muscle prototype was designed and fabricated.Experiments conducted on the prototype verified the improvement in the force capacity and demonstrated a significant energy saving effect (20%-37%).Finally,as the future work on this new concept,the paper presents a new robotic elbow design actuated with the proposed sleeve muscle.This unique design is expected to provide a highly compact and powerful actuation approach for robotic systems.

  5. Peptoids successfully inhibit the growth of gram negative E-coli causing substantial membrane damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Carretero, Gustavo; Larsen, Sylvester

    2017-01-01

    demonstrate that both peptoids are able to cause loss of viability in E. coli susceptible cells at their MIC (16-32 mu g/ml) concentrations. Dye leakage assays demonstrate slow and low membrane permeabilization for peptoid 1, that is still higher for lipid compositions mimicking bacterial membranes than lipid...... compositions containing Cholesterol. At concentrations of 4 x MIC (64-128 mu g/ml), pore formation, leakage of cytoplasmic content and filamentation were the most commonly observed morphological changes seen by SEM in E. coli treated with both peptoids. Flow cytometry data supports the increase of cell size...

  6. Private insurers' payments for routine physician office visits vary substantially across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Laurence; Bundorf, M Kate; Royalty, Anne

    2013-09-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that substantial variation exists in private insurers' payments for physician services, but systematic evidence is lacking. Using a retrospective analysis of insurance claims for routine office visits, consultations, and preventive visits from more than forty million physician claims in 2007, we examined variations in private payments to physicians and the extent to which variation is explained by patients' and physicians' characteristics and by geographic region. We found much variation in payments for these routine evaluation and management services. Physicians at the high end of the payment distribution were generally paid more than twice what physicians at the low end were paid for the same service. Little variation was explained by patients' age or sex, physicians' specialty, place of service, whether the physician was a "network provider," or type of plan, although about one-third of the variation was associated with the geographic area of the practice. Interventions that promote more price-consciousness on the part of patients could help reduce health care spending, but more data on the specific causes of price variation are needed to determine appropriate policy responses.

  7. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex K. Y.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Li, Shao-Meng; Sjostedt, Steve J.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Liggio, John; Macdonald, Anne Marie

    2016-06-01

    Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identified two types of BSOA (BSOA-1 and BSOA-2), which were primarily generated by gas-phase oxidation of monoterpenes and perhaps sesquiterpenes. The temporal variations of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 can be explained by gas-particle partitioning in response to ambient temperature and the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms between day and night. While BSOA-1 arises from gas-phase ozonolysis and nitrate radical chemistry at night, BSOA-2 is likely less volatile than BSOA-1 and consists of products formed via gas-phase oxidation by OH radical and ozone during the day. Organic nitrates produced through nitrate radical chemistry can account for 22-33 % of BSOA-1 mass at night. The mass spectra of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 have higher values of the mass fraction of m/z 91 (f91) compared to the background organic aerosol. Using f91 to evaluate BSOA formation pathways in this unpolluted, forested region, heterogeneous oxidation of BSOA-1 is a minor production pathway of BSOA-2.

  8. Six-Month Market Exclusivity Extensions To Promote Research Offer Substantial Returns For Many Drug Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Rome, Benjamin N; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-02-01

    To incentivize pharmaceutical manufacturers to invest in areas of unmet medical need, policy makers frequently propose extending the market exclusivity period of desired drugs. Some such proposals are modeled after the pediatric exclusivity patent extension program, which since 1997 has provided six additional months of market exclusivity for drugs studied in children. The most recent proposal would encourage rare disease research by providing six months of extended exclusivity for any existing drug that is granted subsequent FDA approval for a new rare disease indication. Yet the economic impact of such proposals is rarely addressed. We found that for the thirteen FDA-approved drugs that gained supplemental approval for a rare disease indication from 2005 through 2010, the median projected cost of clinical trials leading to approval was $29.8 million. If the exclusivity extension had been in place, the median discounted financial gain to manufacturers would have been $94.6 million. Median net returns would have been $82.4 million, with higher returns for drugs with higher annual sales. Extending market exclusivity would provide substantial compensation to many manufacturers, particularly for top-selling products, far in excess of the cost of conducting these trials. Alternative strategies to incentivize the study of approved drugs for rare diseases may offer similar benefits at a lower cost. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. A substantial number of scientific publications originate from non-university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedder, Jens; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Petersen, Lars J; Rasmussen, Claus; Lauszus, Finn F; Frost, Lars; Hornung, Nete; Lederballe, Ole; Andersen, Jens Peter

    2011-11-01

    As we found no recent published reports on the amount and kind of research published from Danish hospitals without university affiliation, we have found it relevant to conduct a bibliometric survey disclosing these research activities. We retrieved all scientific papers published in the period 2000-2009 emanating from all seven Danish non-university hospitals in two regions, comprising 1.8 million inhabitants, and which were registered in a minimum of one of the three databases: PubMed MEDLINE, Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Elsevier's Scopus. In 878 of 1,252 papers, the first and/or last author was affiliated to a non-university hospital. Original papers made up 69% of these publications versus 86% of publications with university affiliation on first or last place. Case reports and reviews most frequently had authors from regional hospitals as first and/or last authors. The total number of publications from regional hospitals increased by 48% over the 10-year period. Publications were cited more often if the first or last author was from a university hospital and even more so if they were affiliated to foreign institutions. Cardiology, gynaecology and obstetrics, and environmental medicine were the three specialities with the largest number of regional hospital publications. A substantial number of scientific publications originate from non-university hospitals. Almost two thirds of the publications were original research published in international journals. Variations between specialities may reflect local conditions. not relevant. not relevant.

  10. Earliest and first Northern Hemispheric hoatzin fossils substantiate Old World origin of a "Neotropic endemic".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L

    2014-02-01

    The recent identification of hoatzins (Opisthocomiformes) in the Miocene of Africa showed part of the evolution of these birds, which are now only found in South America, to have taken place outside the Neotropic region. Here, we describe a new fossil species from the late Eocene of France, which constitutes the earliest fossil record of hoatzins and the first one from the Northern Hemisphere. Protoazin parisiensis gen. et sp. nov. is more closely related to South American Opisthocomiformes than the African taxon Namibiavis and substantiates an Old World origin of hoatzins, as well as a relictual distribution of the single extant species. Although recognition of hoatzins in Europe may challenge their presumed transatlantic dispersal, there are still no North American fossils in support of an alternative, Northern Hemispheric, dispersal route. In addition to Opisthocomiformes, other avian taxa are known from the Cenozoic of Europe, the extant representatives of which are only found in South America. Recognition of hoatzins in the early Cenozoic of Europe is of particular significance because Opisthocomiformes have a fossil record in sub-Saharan Africa, which supports the hypothesis that extinction of at least some of these "South American" groups outside the Neotropic region was not primarily due to climatic factors.

  11. Medicaid 'welcome-mat' effect of Affordable Care Act implementation could be substantial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonier, Julie; Boudreaux, Michel H; Blewett, Lynn A

    2013-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act will have important impacts on state Medicaid programs, likely increasing participation among populations that are currently eligible but not enrolled. The size of this "welcome-mat" effect is of concern for two reasons. First, the eligible but uninsured constitute a substantial share of the uninsured population in some states. Second, the newly eligible population will affect states' Medicaid caseloads and budgets. Using the Massachusetts 2006 health reforms as a case study and controlling for other factors, we found that among low-income parents who were previously eligible for Medicaid in Massachusetts, Medicaid enrollment increased by 16.3 percentage points, and Medicaid participation by those without private coverage increased by 19.4 percentage points, in comparison to a group of control states. In many states the potential size of the welcome-mat effect could be even larger than what we observed in Massachusetts. Our analysis has potentially important implications for other states attempting to predict the impact of this effect on their budgets.

  12. Observing System Simulations for the NASA ASCENDS Lidar CO2 Mission Concept: Substantiating Science Measurement Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Stephan R.; Baker, David Frank; Schuh, Andrew E.; Abshire, James Brice; Browell, Edward V.; Michalak, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) is envisioned as the next generation of dedicated, space-based CO2 observing systems, currently planned for launch in about the year 2022. Recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages, in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments, that promise to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle understanding into the next decade. Assessment and testing of possible lidar instrument technologies indicates that such sensors are more than feasible, however, the measurement precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency. It is, therefore, important to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for the prospective active system in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. This amounts to establishing minimum requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we present results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, for a range of possible mission implementation options that are intended to substantiate science measurement requirements for a laser-based CO2 space instrument.

  13. Substantial composition and reactivity of coal vitrinites from Donetsk and Kusnetsk basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.A. Aipshtein; O.I. Suprunenko; O.V. Barabanova [Moscow State University of Mining (MSMU), Moscow (Russian Federation). Department of Physics

    2007-07-01

    Review of works about substantial composition and reactivity coals of different rank. It is shown, that isometamorphic coals of different genetic types on a reducing degree differ on petrographic (a degree of decomposition of organic substance) features, structural - chemical parameters and physical and chemical properties. The interrelation between genetic features of coals and their reactivity in various processes is established. The new data about having an effect of heat treatment of coals on its calorific value are led. Coals of genotypes 1 and 2 (designated as type 'b') have a higher calorific value in comparison with isometamorphic coals of a genotype 'a'. The thermal treatment of coals leads to decrease in its calorific values in a various degree. This decrease occurs in a greater degree for the coals of a genotype 'a'. It is characteristic as Donetsk basin so Kuznetsk one's coals. By comparison the different basin coals it is interesting to notice existing of additional extremum at the 573K for Kuznetsk coals. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Dispelling an urban legend: frequent emergency department users have substantial burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, John; Raven, Maria C

    2013-12-01

    Urban legend has often characterized frequent emergency department (ED) patients as mentally ill substance users who are a costly drain on the health care system and who contribute to ED overcrowding because of unnecessary visits for conditions that could be treated more efficiently elsewhere. This study of Medicaid ED users in New York City shows that behavioral health conditions are responsible for a small share of ED visits by frequent users, and that ED use accounts for a small portion of these patients' total Medicaid costs. Frequent ED users have a substantial burden of disease, and they have high rates of primary and specialty care use. They also have linkages to outpatient care that are comparable to those of other ED patients. It is possible to use predictive modeling to identify who will become a repeat ED user and thus to help target interventions. However, policy makers should view reducing frequent ED use as only one element of more-comprehensive intervention strategies for frequent health system users.

  15. A Substantial Dust Disk Surrounding an Actively Accreting First-Ascent Giant Star

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, C; Song, I; Rhee, J H; Metchev, S

    2009-01-01

    We report identification of the first unambiguous example of what appears to be a new class of first-ascent giant stars that are actively accreting gas and dust and that are surrounded by substantial dusty disks. These old stars, who are nearing the end of their lives, are experiencing a rebirth into characteristics typically associated with newborn stars. The F2-type first-ascent giant star TYC 4144 329 2 is in a wide separation binary system with an otherwise normal G8 IV star, TYC 4144 329 1. From Keck near-infrared imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy we are able to determine that these two stars are $\\sim$1 Gyr old and reside at a distance of $\\sim$550 pc. One possible explanation for the origin of the accreting material is common-envelope interaction with a low-mass stellar or sub-stellar companion. The gaseous and dusty material around TYC 4144 329 2, as it is similar to the primordial disks observed around young classical T Tauri stars, could potentially give rise to a new generation of planets an...

  16. Large rainfall changes consistently projected over substantial areas of tropical land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Robin; Good, Peter; Martin, Gill; Rowell, David P.

    2016-02-01

    Many tropical countries are exceptionally vulnerable to changes in rainfall patterns, with floods or droughts often severely affecting human life and health, food and water supplies, ecosystems and infrastructure. There is widespread disagreement among climate model projections of how and where rainfall will change over tropical land at the regional scales relevant to impacts, with different models predicting the position of current tropical wet and dry regions to shift in different ways. Here we show that despite uncertainty in the location of future rainfall shifts, climate models consistently project that large rainfall changes will occur for a considerable proportion of tropical land over the twenty-first century. The area of semi-arid land affected by large changes under a higher emissions scenario is likely to be greater than during even the most extreme regional wet or dry periods of the twentieth century, such as the Sahel drought of the late 1960s to 1990s. Substantial changes are projected to occur by mid-century--earlier than previously expected--and to intensify in line with global temperature rise. Therefore, current climate projections contain quantitative, decision-relevant information on future regional rainfall changes, particularly with regard to climate change mitigation policy.

  17. The Male Fetal Biomarker INSL3 Reveals Substantial Hormone Exchange between Fetuses in Early Pig Gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Vernunft

    Full Text Available The peptide hormone INSL3 is uniquely produced by the fetal testis to promote the transabdominal phase of testicular descent. Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig. INSL3 production by the fetal testis begins at around GD30. At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation. At later time-points (GD63, GD92 there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses. This study thus provides evidence for substantial transfer of a peptide hormone between fetuses, and probably also across the placenta, emphasizing the vulnerability of the fetus to extrinsic hormonal influences within the uterus.

  18. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  19. Substantial Increases Occur in Serum Activins and Follistatin during Lung Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M de Kretser

    Full Text Available Lung transplantation exposes the donated lung to a period of anoxia. Re-establishing the circulation after ischemia stimulates inflammation causing organ damage. Since our published data established that activin A is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, we assessed the roles of activin A and B, and their binding protein, follistatin, in patients undergoing lung transplantation.Sera from 46 patients participating in a published study of remote ischemia conditioning in lung transplantation were used. Serum activin A and B, follistatin and 11 other cytokines were measured in samples taken immediately after anaesthesia induction, after remote ischemia conditioning or sham treatment undertaken just prior to allograft reperfusion and during the subsequent 24 hours.Substantial increases in serum activin A, B and follistatin occurred after the baseline sample, taken before anaesthesia induction and peaked immediately after the remote ischemia conditioning/sham treatment. The levels remained elevated 15 minutes after lung transplantation declining thereafter reaching baseline 2 hours post-transplant. Activin B and follistatin concentrations were lower in patients receiving remote ischemia conditioning compared to sham treated patients but the magnitude of the decrease did not correlate with early transplant outcomes.We propose that the increases in the serum activin A, B and follistatin result from a combination of factors; the acute phase response, the reperfusion response and the use of heparin-based anti-coagulants.

  20. GADAMER AND SUBSTANTIAL EQUALITY OF THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE IN ST. AUGUSTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Llanes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In one of the last chapters of his book Truth and Method, Gadamer writes a “coining of the concept of language throughout the history of Western thought,” and when reaching the study of the Middle Ages, he surprises his readers by considering the theological issue of the “incarnation of the Verb” to explain the relationship between thought and language. However, this resource allows him to develop an argument in support of his ontological-hermeneutical theory of language. The analogy between theological theme and mode of being of language was already thought by Saint Augustine and recorded in his book On the Trinity. There he elaborates on the substantial nature of the inside or internal verb, and the particular way in which it undergoes the process that leads to its incarnation into vox, neither getting lost nor becoming a mere conventional sign. By ways of the connection between the interior verb with notitias, with the ideas in the Verb, and with the essence of physical things in this world, an interesting and coherent ontologization of language it achieved, which would later inspire Gadamer. [The article written in Spanish

  1. Genome-wide data substantiate Holocene gene flow from India to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, Irina; Delfin, Frederick; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2013-01-29

    The Australian continent holds some of the earliest archaeological evidence for the expansion of modern humans out of Africa, with initial occupation at least 40,000 y ago. It is commonly assumed that Australia remained largely isolated following initial colonization, but the genetic history of Australians has not been explored in detail to address this issue. Here, we analyze large-scale genotyping data from aboriginal Australians, New Guineans, island Southeast Asians and Indians. We find an ancient association between Australia, New Guinea, and the Mamanwa (a Negrito group from the Philippines), with divergence times for these groups estimated at 36,000 y ago, and supporting the view that these populations represent the descendants of an early "southern route" migration out of Africa, whereas other populations in the region arrived later by a separate dispersal. We also detect a signal indicative of substantial gene flow between the Indian populations and Australia well before European contact, contrary to the prevailing view that there was no contact between Australia and the rest of the world. We estimate this gene flow to have occurred during the Holocene, 4,230 y ago. This is also approximately when changes in tool technology, food processing, and the dingo appear in the Australian archaeological record, suggesting that these may be related to the migration from India.

  2. Safety assessment of nonbrowning potatoes: opening the discussion about the relevance of substantial equivalence on next generation biotech crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Briardo; Alonso, Guillermo D; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Rodríguez, Vanina; López, Mariana G; Carrari, Fernando; Torres, Héctor N; Flawiá, Mirtha M

    2011-02-01

    It is expected that the next generation of biotech crops displaying enhanced quality traits with benefits to both farmers and consumers will have a better acceptance than first generation biotech crops and will improve public perception of genetic engineering. This will only be true if they are proven to be as safe as traditionally bred crops. In contrast with the first generation of biotech crops where only a single trait is modified, the next generation of biotech crops will add a new level of complexity inherent to the mechanisms underlying their output traits. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of the comparative safety approach on a quality-improved biotech crop with metabolic modifications is presented. Three genetically engineered potato lines with silenced polyphenol oxidase (Ppo) transcripts and reduced tuber browning were characterized at both physiological and molecular levels and showed to be equivalent to wild-type (WT) plants when yield-associated traits and photosynthesis were evaluated. Analysis of the primary metabolism revealed several unintended metabolic modifications in the engineered tubers, providing evidence for potential compositional inequivalence between transgenic lines and WT controls. The silencing construct sequence was in silico analysed for potential allergenic cross-reactivity, and no similarities to known allergenic proteins were identified. Moreover, in vivo intake safety evaluation showed no adverse effects in physiological parameters. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence supporting that the safety of next generation biotech crops can be properly assessed following the current evaluation criterion, even if the transgenic and WT crops are not substantially equivalent.

  3. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  4. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. [CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO{sub 2} removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO{sub 2} removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20{degree}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ({del}T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO{sub 2} removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, {del}T = 20--22{degree}F, and 70% SO{sub 2} removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO{sub 2} emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  5. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. (CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO[sub 2] removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO[sub 2] removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20[degree]F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ([del]T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO[sub 2] removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, [del]T = 20--22[degree]F, and 70% SO[sub 2] removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO[sub 2] emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  6. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  7. HIV and cancer registry linkage identifies a substantial burden of cancers in persons with HIV in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Sheela V; Nandy, Karabi; Gauniyal, Mansi; Nalawade, Pallavi; Sane, Suvarna; Koyande, Shravani; Toyama, Joy; Hegde, Asha; Virgo, Phil; Bhatia, Kishor; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Risbud, Arun R; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T

    2016-09-01

    We utilized computerized record-linkage methods to link HIV and cancer databases with limited unique identifiers in Pune, India, to determine feasibility of linkage and obtain preliminary estimates of cancer risk in persons living with HIV (PLHIV) as compared with the general population.Records of 32,575 PLHIV were linked to 31,754 Pune Cancer Registry records (1996-2008) using a probabilistic-matching algorithm. Cancer risk was estimated by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) in the early (4-27 months after HIV registration), late (28-60 months), and overall (4-60 months) incidence periods. Cancers diagnosed prior to or within 3 months of HIV registration were considered prevalent.Of 613 linked cancers to PLHIV, 188 were prevalent, 106 early incident, and 319 late incident. Incident cancers comprised 11.5% AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs), including cervical cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but not Kaposi sarcoma (KS), and 88.5% non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs). Risk for any incident cancer diagnosis in early, late, and combined periods was significantly elevated among PLHIV (SIRs: 5.6 [95% CI 4.6-6.8], 17.7 [95% CI 15.8-19.8], and 11.5 [95% CI 10-12.6], respectively). Cervical cancer risk was elevated in both incidence periods (SIRs: 9.6 [95% CI 4.8-17.2] and 22.6 [95% CI 14.3-33.9], respectively), while NHL risk was elevated only in the late incidence period (SIR: 18.0 [95% CI 9.8-30.20]). Risks for NADCs were dramatically elevated (SIR > 100) for eye-orbit, substantially (SIR > 20) for all-mouth, esophagus, breast, unspecified-leukemia, colon-rectum-anus, and other/unspecified cancers; moderately elevated (SIR > 10) for salivary gland, penis, nasopharynx, and brain-nervous system, and mildly elevated (SIR > 5) for stomach. Risks for 6 NADCs (small intestine, testis, lymphocytic leukemia, prostate, ovary, and melanoma) were not elevated and 5 cancers, including multiple myeloma not seen.Our study demonstrates the feasibility of

  8. 25 CFR 63.22 - Can an employer certify an individual with a prior conviction or substantiated misconduct as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can an employer certify an individual with a prior conviction or substantiated misconduct as suitable for employment? 63.22 Section 63.22 Indians BUREAU OF... individual with a prior conviction or substantiated misconduct as suitable for employment? (a) The Bureau...

  9. 76 FR 42502 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Children's Upper Outerwear in Sizes 2T to 12 With Neck or Hood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... House Dictionary of the English Language defines ``substantial'' as ``of ample or considerable amount... agencies review proposed and final rules for their potential economic impact on small entities, including... have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. We received no comments...

  10. 42 CFR 418.66 - Condition of participation: Nursing services-Waiver of requirement that substantially all nursing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nursing services-Waiver of requirement that substantially all nursing services be routinely provided directly by a hospice... Services § 418.66 Condition of participation: Nursing services—Waiver of requirement that substantially...

  11. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Gouda microcheese: No growth, and substantial inactivation after extended ripening times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wemmenhove, E.; Stampelou, I.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    This challenge study demonstrates that Listeria monocytogenes does not grow in Gouda cheese: during the first 8 weeks of ripening no growth was observed and between 8 and 52 weeks viable numbers declined significantly in a well-established Gouda microcheese system. Cheese milk was artificially conta

  12. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Gouda microcheese: No growth, and substantial inactivation after extended ripening times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wemmenhove, E.; Stampelou, I.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    This challenge study demonstrates that Listeria monocytogenes does not grow in Gouda cheese: during the first 8 weeks of ripening no growth was observed and between 8 and 52 weeks viable numbers declined significantly in a well-established Gouda microcheese system. Cheese milk was artificially

  13. Demonstration Telescopes Using "Dollar Optics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Paul

    2008-05-01

    I propose a poster that illustrates the use of "dollar optics” for experimentation and for the creation of demonstration telescopes. Handling a variety of lenses and mirrors provides an opportunity for discovering practical optics. Some part of this path of exploration must have been traveled by Galileo as he experimented with spectacle lenses. "Dollar optics” include reading glasses (positive meniscus lenses), convex and concave mirrors, Fresnel sheets, magnifying lenses, and eye loupes. Unwanted distance spectacles (negative meniscus lenses) are available at second-hand stores. Galileo telescopes, "long” 17th century telescopes, and useful demonstration models of Newtonian reflectors can be made with "dollar” optics. The poster will illustrate practical information about "dollar optics” and telescopes: magnification, focal length, and "diopters” disassembling spectacles; creating cheap mounts for spectacle lenses; the importance of optical axes and alignment; eyepieces; and focusing. (A table would be useful with the poster to set out a hands-on display of "dollar optic” telescopes.) Educators, experimenters, and those concerned with astronomy outreach might be interested in this poster. Working with "dollar optics” requires facility with simple tools, interest in planning projects, patience, imagination, and the willingness to invest some time and effort. "Dollar optics” may help to foster creativity and hands-on enthusiasm - as did Galileo's work with simple lenses 400 years ago. "Oh! When will there be an end put to the new observations and discoveries of this admirable instrument?” - Galileo Galilei as quoted by Henry C. King, The History of the Telescope.

  14. Bentonite mat demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.G.

    1994-12-30

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration was developed to provide the Environmental Restoration Department with field performance characteristics and engineering data for an alternative closure cover system configuration. The demonstration was initiated in response to regulatory concerns regarding the use of an alternative cover system for future design configurations. These design considerations are in lieu of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Recommended Design for Closure Cover Systems and specifically a single compacted kaolin clay layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. This alternative configuration is a composite geosynthetic material hydraulic barrier consisting from bottom to top: 2 ft compacted sandy clay layer (typical local Savannah River Site soil type) that is covered by a bentonite mat--geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and is overlaid by a 40 mil High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane--flexible membrane liner. This effort was undertaken to obtain and document the necessary field performance/engineering data for future designs and meet regulatory technical requirements for an alternative cover system configuration. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is the recommended alternative cover system configuration for containment of hazardous and low level radiological waste layers that have a high potential of subsidence to be used at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This alternative configuration mitigates subsidence effects in providing a flexible, lightweight cover system to maintain the integrity of the closure. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is recommended for the Sanitary Landfill and Low Level Radiological Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) Closures.

  15. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS) function description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, A. J.; Bailey, D. G.; Gaabo, R. J.; Lahn, T. G.; Larson, J. C.; Peterson, E. M.; Schuck, J. W.; Rodgers, D. L.; Wroblewski, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Demonstration Advanced Avionics System, DAAS, is an integrated avionics system utilizing microprocessor technologies, data busing, and shared displays for demonstrating the potential of these technologies in improving the safety and utility of general aviation operations in the late 1980's and beyond. Major hardware elements of the DAAS include a functionally distributed microcomputer complex, an integrated data control center, an electronic horizontal situation indicator, and a radio adaptor unit. All processing and display resources are interconnected by an IEEE-488 bus in order to enhance the overall system effectiveness, reliability, modularity and maintainability. A detail description of the DAAS architecture, the DAAS hardware, and the DAAS functions is presented. The system is designed for installation and flight test in a NASA Cessna 402-B aircraft.

  16. High voltage testing for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barabash, A.S. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute” Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bradley, A.W. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Buuck, M. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Byram, D. [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Caldwell, A.S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, Y-D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christofferson, C.D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chu, P.-H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cuesta, C., E-mail: ccuesta@uw.edu [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detwiler, J.A.; Doe, P.J. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2016-07-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. This effect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of the high-voltage path, including different improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR was characterized and the micro-discharge effects during the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR commissioning phase were studied. A stable configuration has been achieved, and the cables and connectors can supply HPGe detector operating voltages without exhibiting discharge.

  17. High voltage testing for the MAJORANA Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fu, Z; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Li, A; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Thompson, A; Ton, K T; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V

    2016-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in Ge-76. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of the MAJORANA Demonstrator. This eff?ect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of the high-voltage path, including diff?erent improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the MAJORANA Demonstrator was characterized and the micro-discharge eff?ects during the MAJORANA Demonstrator commissioning phase were studied. A stable c...

  18. High voltage testing for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fu, Z.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Li, A.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, A.; Ton, K. T.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    2016-07-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. This effect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of the high-voltage path, including different improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR was characterized and the micro-discharge effects during the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR commissioning phase were studied. A stable configuration has been achieved, and the cables and connectors can supply HPGe detector operating voltages without exhibiting discharge.

  19. High voltage testing for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A.; Bertrand, F.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, Pamela M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, P. J.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fu, Z.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Li, Alexander D.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarcyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, Alan W.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero Romo, M.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie E.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, Andrew; Ton, K. T.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.

    2016-07-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing theMajorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of theMajorana Demonstrator. This effect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of the high-voltage path, including different improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the Majorana Demonstrator was characterized and the micro-discharge effects during theMajorana Demonstrator commissioning phase were studied. A stable configuration has been achieved, and the cables and connectors can supply HPGe detector operating voltages without exhibiting discharge.

  20. Energy 2007. Research, development, demonstration; Energi 07. Forskning, udvikling, demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byriel, I.P.; Justesen, Helle; Beck, A.; Borup Jensen, J.; Rosenfeldt Jakobsen, Kl; Jacobsen, Steen Hartvig (eds.)

    2007-08-10

    Danish energy research is in an exciting and challenging situation. Rising oil prices, unstable energy supply, climate policy responsibilities and globalization have brought development of new environmentally friendly and more efficient energy technologies into focus. Promising international markets for newly developed energy technologies are emerging, and at the same time well established Danish positions of strength are challenged by new strong actors on the global market. The Danish government has set to work on its vision of an appreciable strengthening of public energy research funding through the recent law on the energy technological development and demonstration programme EUDP and the realization of globalization funds. The interaction between basic and applied research must be kept intact. In this report the various Danish energy research programmes administered by Energinet.dk, Danish Energy Authority, Danish Energy Association, Danish Council for Strategic Research's Programme Commission on Energy and Environment and Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, coordinate their annual reports for the first time. The aim of Energy 2007 is to give the reader an idea of how the energy research programmes collaborate on solving the major energy technology challenges - also in an international context. (BA)

  1. Navy’s Organizational Transformation: Substantiative Change or Just More Management Hype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    management approach developed by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt . In 2003, the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) and the Chief of Naval Air Forces (CNAF...May 2007, 2-3. 14 Eliyahu M. Goldratt and Jeff Cox, The Goal: A Process of Ongoing Improvement. Great Barrington, MA: North River Press, 3rd ed

  2. The probabilistic niche model reveals substantial variation in the niche structure of empirical food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard J; Purves, Drew W

    2011-09-01

    The structure of food webs, complex networks of interspecies feeding interactions, plays a crucial role in ecosystem resilience and function, and understanding food web structure remains a central problem in ecology. Previous studies have shown that key features of empirical food webs can be reproduced by low-dimensional "niche" models. Here we examine the form and variability of food web niche structure by fitting a probabilistic niche model to 37 empirical food webs, a much larger number of food webs than used in previous studies. The model relaxes previous assumptions about parameter distributions and hierarchy and returns parameter estimates for each species in each web. The model significantly outperforms previous niche model variants and also performs well for several webs where a body-size-based niche model performs poorly, implying that traits other than body size are important in structuring these webs' niche space. Parameter estimates frequently violate previous models' assumptions: in 19 of 37 webs, parameter values are not significantly hierarchical, 32 of 37 webs have nonuniform niche value distributions, and 15 of 37 webs lack a correlation between niche width and niche position. Extending the model to a two-dimensional niche space yields networks with a mixture of one- and two-dimensional niches and provides a significantly better fit for webs with a large number of species and links. These results confirm that food webs are strongly niche-structured but reveal substantial variation in the form of the niche structuring, a result with fundamental implications for ecosystem resilience and function.

  3. Substantial loss of conserved and gain of novel MicroRNA families in flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Bastian; Worren, Merete Molton; Hahn, Christoph; Hovig, Eivind; Bachmann, Lutz

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies on microRNA (miRNA) evolution focused mainly on the comparison of miRNA complements between animal clades. However, evolution of miRNAs within such groups is poorly explored despite the availability of comparable data that in some cases lack only a few key taxa. For flatworms (Platyhelminthes), miRNA complements are available for some free-living flatworms and all major parasitic lineages, except for the Monogenea. We present the miRNA complement of the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus salaris that facilitates a comprehensive analysis of miRNA evolution in Platyhelminthes. Using the newly designed bioinformatics pipeline miRCandRef, the miRNA complement was disentangled from next-generation sequencing of small RNAs and genomic DNA without a priori genome assembly. It consists of 39 miRNA hairpin loci of conserved miRNA families, and 22 novel miRNAs. A comparison with the miRNA complements of Schmidtea mediterranea (Turbellaria), Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda), and Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda) reveals a substantial loss of conserved bilaterian, protostomian, and lophotrochozoan miRNAs. Eight of the 46 expected conserved miRNAs were lost in all flatworms, 16 in Neodermata and 24 conserved miRNAs could not be detected in the cestode and the trematode. Such a gradual loss of miRNAs has not been reported before for other animal phyla. Currently, little is known about miRNAs in Platyhelminthes, and for the majority of the lost miRNAs there is no prediction of function. As suggested earlier they might be related to morphological simplifications. The presence and absence of 153 conserved miRNAs was compared for platyhelminths and 32 other metazoan taxa. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria + Neodermata [Monogenea {Trematoda + Cestoda}]).

  4. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Eiji; Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2012-06-15

    Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent pathway.

  5. Seventy years of continuous encroachment substantially increases 'blue carbon' capacity as mangroves replace intertidal salt marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleway, Jeffrey J; Saintilan, Neil; Macreadie, Peter I; Skilbeck, Charles G; Zawadzki, Atun; Ralph, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Shifts in ecosystem structure have been observed over recent decades as woody plants encroach upon grasslands and wetlands globally. The migration of mangrove forests into salt marsh ecosystems is one such shift which could have important implications for global 'blue carbon' stocks. To date, attempts to quantify changes in ecosystem function are essentially constrained to climate-mediated pulses (30 years or less) of encroachment occurring at the thermal limits of mangroves. In this study, we track the continuous, lateral encroachment of mangroves into two south-eastern Australian salt marshes over a period of 70 years and quantify corresponding changes in biomass and belowground C stores. Substantial increases in biomass and belowground C stores have resulted as mangroves replaced salt marsh at both marine and estuarine sites. After 30 years, aboveground biomass was significantly higher than salt marsh, with biomass continuing to increase with mangrove age. Biomass increased at the mesohaline river site by 130 ± 18 Mg biomass km(-2)  yr(-1) (mean ± SE), a 2.5 times higher rate than the marine embayment site (52 ± 10 Mg biomass km(-2) yr(-1) ), suggesting local constraints on biomass production. At both sites, and across all vegetation categories, belowground C considerably outweighed aboveground biomass stocks, with belowground C stocks increasing at up to 230 ± 62 Mg C km(-2) yr(-1) (± SE) as mangrove forests developed. Over the past 70 years, we estimate mangrove encroachment may have already enhanced intertidal biomass by up to 283 097 Mg and belowground C stocks by over 500 000 Mg in the state of New South Wales alone. Under changing climatic conditions and rising sea levels, global blue carbon storage may be enhanced as mangrove encroachment becomes more widespread, thereby countering global warming.

  6. Results of a "GWAS plus:" general cognitive ability is substantially heritable and massively polygenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Kirkpatrick

    Full Text Available We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS for general cognitive ability (GCA plus three other analyses of GWAS data that aggregate the effects of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in various ways. Our multigenerational sample comprised 7,100 Caucasian participants, drawn from two longitudinal family studies, who had been assessed with an age-appropriate IQ test and had provided DNA samples passing quality screens. We conducted the GWAS across ∼ 2.5 million SNPs (both typed and imputed, using a generalized least-squares method appropriate for the different family structures present in our sample, and subsequently conducted gene-based association tests. We also conducted polygenic prediction analyses under five-fold cross-validation, using two different schemes of weighting SNPs. Using parametric bootstrapping, we assessed the performance of this prediction procedure under the null. Finally, we estimated the proportion of variance attributable to all genotyped SNPs as random effects with software GCTA. The study is limited chiefly by its power to detect realistic single-SNP or single-gene effects, none of which reached genome-wide significance, though some genomic inflation was evident from the GWAS. Unit SNP weights performed about as well as least-squares regression weights under cross-validation, but the performance of both increased as more SNPs were included in calculating the polygenic score. Estimates from GCTA were 35% of phenotypic variance at the recommended biological-relatedness ceiling. Taken together, our results concur with other recent studies: they support a substantial heritability of GCA, arising from a very large number of causal SNPs, each of very small effect. We place our study in the context of the literature-both contemporary and historical-and provide accessible explication of our statistical methods.

  7. Maintained peak leg and pulmonary VO2 despite substantial reduction in muscle mitochondrial capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushel, R; Gnaiger, E; Larsen, F J; Helge, J W; González-Alonso, J; Ara, I; Munch-Andersen, T; van Hall, G; Søndergaard, H; Saltin, B; Calbet, J A L

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported the circulatory and muscle oxidative capacities of the arm after prolonged low-intensity skiing in the arctic (Boushel et al., 2014). In the present study, leg VO2 was measured by the Fick method during leg cycling while muscle mitochondrial capacity was examined on a biopsy of the vastus lateralis in healthy volunteers (7 male, 2 female) before and after 42 days of skiing at 60% HR max. Peak pulmonary VO2 (3.52 ± 0.18 L.min(-1) pre vs 3.52 ± 0.19 post) and VO2 across the leg (2.8 ± 0.4L.min(-1) pre vs 3.0 ± 0.2 post) were unchanged after the ski journey. Peak leg O2 delivery (3.6 ± 0.2 L.min(-1) pre vs 3.8 ± 0.4 post), O2 extraction (82 ± 1% pre vs 83 ± 1 post), and muscle capillaries per mm(2) (576 ± 17 pre vs 612 ± 28 post) were also unchanged; however, leg muscle mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity was reduced (90 ± 3 pmol.sec(-1) .mg(-1) pre vs 70 ± 2 post, P VO2 can be sustained with a substantial reduction in mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity. This is achieved at a similar O2 delivery and a higher relative ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration at a higher mitochondrial p50. These findings support the concept that muscle mitochondrial respiration is submaximal at VO2max , and that mitochondrial volume can be downregulated by chronic energy demand.

  8. Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports an average ammonia (NH3 emission factor (EF by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique or measurement plot size and year of measurement. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method. Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002. More recent measurements show substantially lower EFs which calls for new measurement series in order to validate the various measurement approaches against each other and to derive revised inputs for inclusion into emission inventories.

  9. Substantial Loss of Conserved and Gain of Novel MicroRNA Families in Flatworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Bastian; Worren, Merete Molton; Hahn, Christoph; Hovig, Eivind; Bachmann, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on microRNA (miRNA) evolution focused mainly on the comparison of miRNA complements between animal clades. However, evolution of miRNAs within such groups is poorly explored despite the availability of comparable data that in some cases lack only a few key taxa. For flatworms (Platyhelminthes), miRNA complements are available for some free-living flatworms and all major parasitic lineages, except for the Monogenea. We present the miRNA complement of the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus salaris that facilitates a comprehensive analysis of miRNA evolution in Platyhelminthes. Using the newly designed bioinformatics pipeline miRCandRef, the miRNA complement was disentangled from next-generation sequencing of small RNAs and genomic DNA without a priori genome assembly. It consists of 39 miRNA hairpin loci of conserved miRNA families, and 22 novel miRNAs. A comparison with the miRNA complements of Schmidtea mediterranea (Turbellaria), Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda), and Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda) reveals a substantial loss of conserved bilaterian, protostomian, and lophotrochozoan miRNAs. Eight of the 46 expected conserved miRNAs were lost in all flatworms, 16 in Neodermata and 24 conserved miRNAs could not be detected in the cestode and the trematode. Such a gradual loss of miRNAs has not been reported before for other animal phyla. Currently, little is known about miRNAs in Platyhelminthes, and for the majority of the lost miRNAs there is no prediction of function. As suggested earlier they might be related to morphological simplifications. The presence and absence of 153 conserved miRNAs was compared for platyhelminths and 32 other metazoan taxa. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria + Neodermata [Monogenea {Trematoda + Cestoda}]). PMID:24025793

  10. National South African HIV prevalence estimates robust despite substantial test non-participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South African (SA national HIV seroprevalence estimates are of crucial policy relevance in the country, and for the worldwide HIV response. However, the most recent nationally representative HIV test survey in 2012 had 22% test non-participation, leaving the potential for substantial bias in current seroprevalence estimates, even after controlling for selection on observed factors. Objective. To re-estimate national HIV prevalence in SA, controlling for bias due to selection on both observed and unobserved factors in the 2012 SA National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. Methods. We jointly estimated regression models for consent to test and HIV status in a Heckman-type bivariate probit framework. As selection variable, we used assigned interviewer identity, a variable known to predict consent but highly unlikely to be associated with interviewees’ HIV status. From these models, we estimated the HIV status of interviewed participants who did not test. Results. Of 26 710 interviewed participants who were invited to test for HIV, 21.3% of females and 24.3% of males declined. Interviewer identity was strongly correlated with consent to test for HIV; declining a test was weakly associated with HIV serostatus. Our HIV prevalence estimates were not significantly different from those using standard methods to control for bias due to selection on observed factors: 15.1% (95% confidence interval (CI 12.1 - 18.6 v. 14.5% (95% CI 12.8 - 16.3 for 15 - 49-year-old males; 23.3% (95% CI 21.7 - 25.8 v. 23.2% (95% CI 21.3 - 25.1 for 15 - 49-year-old females. Conclusion. The most recent SA HIV prevalence estimates are robust under the strongest available test for selection bias due to missing data. Our findings support the reliability of inferences drawn from such data.

  11. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde R; van 't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; Quiroz, Diana; Towns, Alexandra M; Ruysschaert, Sofie; van den Berg, Margot

    2014-12-16

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces the origin of 2,350 Afro-Surinamese (Sranantongo and Maroon) plant names to those plant names used by local Amerindians, Europeans, and related groups in West and Central Africa. We compared vernacular names from herbarium collections, literature, and recent ethnobotanical fieldwork in Suriname, Ghana, Benin, and Gabon. A strong correspondence in sound, structure, and meaning among Afro-Surinamese vernaculars and their equivalents in other languages for botanically related taxa was considered as evidence for a shared origin. Although 65% of the Afro-Surinamese plant names contained European lexical items, enslaved Africans have recognized a substantial part of the neotropical flora. Twenty percent of the Sranantongo and 43% of the Maroon plant names strongly resemble names currently used in diverse African languages for related taxa, represent translations of African ones, or directly refer to an Old World origin. The acquisition of new ethnobotanical knowledge is captured in vernaculars derived from Amerindian languages and the invention of new names for neotropical plants from African lexical terms. Plant names that combine African, Amerindian, and European words reflect a creolization process that merged ethnobotanical skills from diverse geographical and cultural sources into new Afro-American knowledge systems. Our study confirms the role of Africans as significant agents of environmental knowledge in the New World.

  12. Updated systematic review identifies substantial number of retention strategies: using more strategies retains more study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen A; Dinglas, Victor D; Sukrithan, Vineeth; Yalamanchilli, Ramakrishna; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl; Needham, Dale M

    2015-12-01

    The retention of participants in studies is important for the validity of research. We updated our prior systematic review (2005) to assess retention strategies for in-person follow-up in health care studies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Methodology Register, and Embase (August 2013) for English-language reports of studies that described retention strategies for in-person follow-up in health care studies. We abstracted each retention strategy, and two authors independently classified each retention strategy with one of the themes developed in our prior review. We identified 88 studies (67 newly identified studies), six of which were designed to compare retention strategies, whereas the remainder described retention strategies and retention rates. There were 985 strategies abstracted from the descriptive studies (617 from new studies), with a median (interquartile range) number of strategies per study of 10 (7 to 17) and a median (interquartile range) number of themes per study of 6 (4 to 7). Financial incentives were used in 47 (57%) of the descriptive studies. We classified 28% of the strategies under the theme of "contact and scheduling methods," with 83% of the identified studies using at least one strategy within this theme. The number of strategies used was positively correlated with retention rate (P = 0.027), but the number of themes was not associated with retention rate (P = 0.469). The number of studies describing retention strategies has substantially increased since our prior review. However, the lack of comparative studies and the heterogeneity in the types of strategies, participant population and study designs, prohibits synthesis to determine the types of cohort retention strategies that were most effective. However, using a larger number of retention strategies, across five or six different themes, appears to retain more study participants. Copyright

  13. Substantiation of Resource Territories Development: Complex «Meso-Level» Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatolievich Kryukov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to the analysis and evaluation of integrated investment projects, which consist of infrastructure facilities and industrial clusters, allocated in poorly developed areas rich with natural resources. It shows the feasibility of a public-private partnership during the construction of infrastructure facilities in order to minimize the risks and maximize the benefits. The conceptual framework of developed approach is associated with the ideas and principles of the «impact investing» («creating shared values» and inclusive economic development. These are increasingly used in the world, especially to accelerate the socio-economic development of the backward countries and territories. The article describes an international experience and justifies the relevance of the application of these concepts to the Russian context. We revealed methodical problems associated with the applying of traditional methods to evaluate economic effects of the project investment in conditions of high uncertainty. It is necessary to use models and methods (real options analysis, fuzzy cognitive models, which allow directly to take into account uncertainty and project risks. The novelty of the article consists in methodical tools for evaluating the socio-economic efficiency of the complex projects for infrastructure development and resources development. The elaborated approach has been applied for substantiation of the road construction project in the Berezovsky district of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. It is shown that there are opportunities to generate a complex of institutional, organizational and financial conditions, under which the implementation of the project will be attractive for investors and for the state and will bring socio-economic benefits to the territory. The proposed approach and tools can be used in the socio-economic strategic planning under the justification of infrastructure projects in the new development areas of

  14. USING SPLINE FUNCTIONS FOR THE SUBSTANTIATION OF TAX POLICIES BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otgon Cristian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to approach innovative financial instruments for the management of public resources. In the category of these innovative tools have been included polynomial spline functions used for budgetary sizing in the substantiating of fiscal and budgetary policies. In order to use polynomial spline functions there have been made a number of steps consisted in the establishment of nodes, the calculation of specific coefficients corresponding to the spline functions, development and determination of errors of approximation. Also in this paper was done extrapolation of series of property tax data using polynomial spline functions of order I. For spline impelementation were taken two series of data, one reffering to property tax as a resultative variable and the second one reffering to building tax, resulting a correlation indicator R=0,95. Moreover the calculation of spline functions are easy to solve and due to small errors of approximation have a great power of predictibility, much better than using ordinary least squares method. In order to realise the research there have been used as methods of research several steps, namely observation, series of data construction and processing the data with spline functions. The data construction is a daily series gathered from the budget account, reffering to building tax and property tax. The added value of this paper is given by the possibility of avoiding deficits by using spline functions as innovative instruments in the publlic finance, the original contribution is made by the average of splines resulted from the series of data. The research results lead to conclusion that the polynomial spline functions are recommended to form the elaboration of fiscal and budgetary policies, due to relatively small errors obtained in the extrapolation of economic processes and phenomena. Future research directions are taking in consideration to study the polynomial spline functions of second-order, third

  15. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-31

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  16. Remote control of an impact demonstration vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, P. F.; Craft, J. B., Jr.; Johnson, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    Uplink and downlink telemetry systems were installed in a Boeing 720 aircraft that was remotely flown from Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base and impacted into a designated crash site on the lake bed. The controlled impact demonstration (CID) program was a joint venture by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to test passenger survivability using antimisting kerosene (AMK) to inhibit postcrash fires, improve passenger seats and restraints, and improve fire-retardent materials. The uplink telemetry system was used to remotely control the aircraft and activate onboard systems from takeoff until after impact. Aircraft systems for remote control, aircraft structural response, passenger seat and restraint systems, and anthropomorphic dummy responses were recorded and displayed by the downlink stems. The instrumentation uplink and downlink systems are described.

  17. A demonstrator for bolometric interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ghribi, Adnan; Galli, Silvia; Piat, Michel; Breelle, Eric; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Spinelli, Sebastiano; Gervasi, Massimo; Zannoni, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Bolometric Interferometry (BI) is one of the most promising techniques for precise measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background polarization. In this paper, we present the results of DIBO (Demonstrateur d'Interferometrie Bolometrique), a single-baseline demonstrator operating at 90 GHz, built to proof the validity of the BI concept applied to a millimeter-wave interferometer. This instrument has been characterized in the laboratory with a detector at room temperature and with a 4 K bolometer. This allowed us to measure interference patterns in a clean way, both (1) rotating the source and (2) varying with time the phase shift among the two interferometer's arms. Detailed modelisation has also been performed and validated with measurements.

  18. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, Don T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Archiblad, Kip E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  19. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  20. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Dvorak, E; Hahn, A; Jaskierny, W; Johnson, C; Jostlein, H; Kendziora, C; Lockwitz, S; Pahlka, B; Plunkett, R; Pordes, S; Rebel, B; Schmitt, R; Stancari, M; Tope, T; Voirin, E; Yang, T

    2014-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  1. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  2. Contaminant analysis automation demonstration proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; Heubach, J.G.

    1993-10-01

    The nation-wide and global need for environmental restoration and waste remediation (ER&WR) presents significant challenges to the analytical chemistry laboratory. The expansion of ER&WR programs forces an increase in the volume of samples processed and the demand for analysis data. To handle this expanding volume, productivity must be increased. However. The need for significantly increased productivity, faces contaminant analysis process which is costly in time, labor, equipment, and safety protection. Laboratory automation offers a cost effective approach to meeting current and future contaminant analytical laboratory needs. The proposed demonstration will present a proof-of-concept automated laboratory conducting varied sample preparations. This automated process also highlights a graphical user interface that provides supervisory, control and monitoring of the automated process. The demonstration provides affirming answers to the following questions about laboratory automation: Can preparation of contaminants be successfully automated?; Can a full-scale working proof-of-concept automated laboratory be developed that is capable of preparing contaminant and hazardous chemical samples?; Can the automated processes be seamlessly integrated and controlled?; Can the automated laboratory be customized through readily convertible design? and Can automated sample preparation concepts be extended to the other phases of the sample analysis process? To fully reap the benefits of automation, four human factors areas should be studied and the outputs used to increase the efficiency of laboratory automation. These areas include: (1) laboratory configuration, (2) procedures, (3) receptacles and fixtures, and (4) human-computer interface for the full automated system and complex laboratory information management systems.

  3. Engineered Geothermal System Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, Susan

    2014-06-19

    In June 2009, AltaRock Energy began field work on a project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “Use of Multiple Stimulations to Improve Economics of Engineered Geothermal Systems in Shallow High Temperature Intrusives.” The goal of the project was to develop an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) in the portion of The Geysers geothermal field operated by the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA). The project encountered several problems while deepening Well E-7 which culminated in the suspension of field activities in September 2009. Some of the problems encountered are particular to The Geysers area, while others might be encountered in any geothermal field, and they might be avoided in future operations.

  4. Demonstration of an instrumented patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M.; Renaud, G.; Backman, D.; Genest, M.; Delannoy, M.

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration at its tip. This stress concentration was designed to produce a disbond during fatigue testing, without the need for the introduction of any foreign material to create an artificial disbond condition. The aluminum substrate was grit blasted and the instrumented patch was bonded using FM ®73 adhesive, and was cured following the recommendations of the manufacturer. The geometric characteristics of the patch followed standard repair guidelines for such variables as material selection, taper angles and loading conditions, with the exception of the area designed for premature disbond. All test specimens were inspected using non-destructive testing technique (ultrasound pulse echo) to guarantee that no disbonding had occurred during curing of the specimen. The specimens were placed under fatigue loading to induce a disbond condition between the aluminum substrate and the patch. The specimens were cyclically loaded and strain gauges bonded to strategic locations on the aluminum and composite patch surface to be able to measure changes in surface strains as the disbond progressed. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was also used to measure full field strains over the gauge length of the coupon. The DIC results were compared with the strain gauge data and were used to provide a qualitative measure of the load transfer in the bonded specimen, which clearly demonstrated the change in surface strain that occurred as the composite patch disbonded from the aluminum substrate. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) was also used to measure surface strains on the

  5. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Eiji, E-mail: e-nemoto@dent.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Masahiro [Department of Aging and Geriatric Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tamura, Masato [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Shimauchi, Hidetoshi [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through {beta}-catenin-dependent canonical and {beta}-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent

  6. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki, E-mail: nmiki@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  7. A SUBSTANTIAL POPULATION OF MASSIVE QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 4 FROM ZFOURGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Labbé, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Allen, Rebecca; Glazebrook, Karl; Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Altieri, Bruno [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)/ESA, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28691, Madrid (Spain); Brammer, Gabriel B. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Dickinson, Mark; Inami, Hanae [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Kawinwanichakij, Lalit; Mehrtens, Nicola; Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kelson, Daniel D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Monson, Andy; Murphy, David; Persson, S. Eric; Quadri, Ryan, E-mail: straatman@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2014-03-01

    We report the likely identification of a substantial population of massive M ∼ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} galaxies at z ∼ 4 with suppressed star formation rates (SFRs), selected on rest-frame optical to near-IR colors from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). The observed spectral energy distributions show pronounced breaks, sampled by a set of near-IR medium-bandwidth filters, resulting in tightly constrained photometric redshifts. Fitting stellar population models suggests large Balmer/4000 Å breaks, relatively old stellar populations, large stellar masses, and low SFRs, with a median specific SFR of 2.9 ± 1.8 × 10{sup –11} yr{sup –1}. Ultradeep Herschel/PACS 100 μm, 160 μm and Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm data reveal no dust-obscured SFR activity for 15/19(79%) galaxies. Two far-IR detected galaxies are obscured QSOs. Stacking the far-IR undetected galaxies yields no detection, consistent with the spectral energy distribution fit, indicating independently that the average specific SFR is at least 10 × smaller than that of typical star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 4. Assuming all far-IR undetected galaxies are indeed quiescent, the volume density is 1.8 ± 0.7 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup –3} to a limit of log{sub 10} M/M {sub ☉} ≥ 10.6, which is 10 × and 80 × lower than at z = 2 and z = 0.1. They comprise a remarkably high fraction (∼35%) of z ∼ 4 massive galaxies, suggesting that suppression of star formation was efficient even at very high redshift. Given the average stellar age of 0.8 Gyr and stellar mass of 0.8 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, the galaxies likely started forming stars before z = 5, with SFRs well in excess of 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, far exceeding that of similarly abundant UV-bright galaxies at z ≥ 4. This suggests that most of the star formation in the progenitors of quiescent z ∼ 4 galaxies was obscured by dust.

  8. Future runoff from glacierized catchments in the Central Andes could substantially decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Marlene; Schauwecker, Simone; Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Drenkhan, Fabian; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Kaser, Georg; Suarez, Wilson; García Hernández, Javier; Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Ayros, Edwin; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    during the dry season when glacier melt water used to represent substantial amounts of total runoff in high Andean catchments. Seasonal shifts of water availability may be mitigated by artificial reservoirs, but possible reductions of annual runoff cannot be compensated by such constructions. Furthermore, these possible water shortages may interact with other climatic and non-climatic stressors as well as socioeconomic drivers such as agroindustrial development leading to an increased need of comprehensive adaptation strategies.

  9. Substantial decline in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among California’s children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Lu Shi, Jeroen van MeijgaardUCLA Health Forecasting, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USAIntroduction: Few studies have looked at changes among risk factors that might help explain why childhood obesity prevalence in the US has leveled off in recent years. We present an analysis of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS that examines trends in childhood and adolescent obesity as well as trends in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption.Method: We compared 3 separate cross-sectional samples (2003, 2005, and 2007 from biennial CHIS for 3 age groups, age 2–5, age 6–11 and age 12–17. We calculated the prevalence of high SSB consumption (defined as having more than one SSB during the previous day. 2 measures of obesity were used – weight-for-age at or above the 95th percentile on national growth charts for children aged 2–11, and body mass index for age at or above the 95th percentile on national growth charts for adolescents aged 12–17. Logistic regression analysis is used to estimate adjusted odds ratios of high SSB consumption in 2005 and 2007 compared with the baseline year of 2003.Results: From 2003 to 2007, each age group experienced a substantial decline in high SSB consumption (16.4%–5.0% for age 2–5, P < 0.001; 22.5%–9.9% for age 6–11, P < 0.001; 35.7%–25.7% for age 12–17, P < 0.001. Declines in the prevalence of children’s obesity were significant among children age 2–5 (P < 0.001 and age 6–11 (P < 0.05 but not among adolescents (P = 0.42. Children and teenagers in 2005 and 2007 were significantly less likely than those surveyed in 2003 to have high SSB consumption after adjusting for gender, age, race/ethnicity, poverty level, and parental education (P < 0.001.Conclusion: Policy actions may have impacted the prevalence of SSB consumption in the population. Further research is needed to examine the contribution of declining SSB consumption on the leveling off of obesity trends and the

  10. The ideal hydrogen demonstration platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, J. [Village Technology, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper suggested that the best platform to demonstrate hydrogen's capability as an emission-free fuel regime is an urban pedestrian system. The on-grade bi-directional downtown people-mover was designed to fit in existing street-scapes without eliminating traffic lanes. The system is comprised of rubber-tired tram-buses that are synchronized to arrive at stop-boarding areas at the same time in order to provide a seamless headway along a single, dedicated guide-lane. The system was designed to operate along strategic urban corridors in order to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. The vehicles are inductively charged with fixed fuel cell generators at stop-boarding areas. A single people-mover has the capacity to replace several thousand car trips and parking movements per day, or 8000 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It was concluded that the system was designed to dovetail with fuel cell generator stations planned for private vehicles as they begin to be converted in the future. 8 figs.

  11. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  12. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  13. Can widespread hypersensitivity in carpal tunnel syndrome be substantiated if neck and arm pain are absent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A B; Soon, B T C; Wasner, G; Coppieters, M W

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) have signs of thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in extra-median territories suggesting an involvement of central pain mechanisms. As previous studies included patients with shoulder/arm symptoms or neck pain, a potential influence of these coexisting disorders cannot be excluded. This study therefore evaluated whether widespread sensory changes (hypoesthesia or hyperalgesia) are present in patients with unilateral CTS in the absence of coexisting disorders. Twenty-six patients with unilateral CTS with symptoms localised to their hand and 26 healthy controls participated in the study. A comprehensive quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol including thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds was performed over the hands (median, ulnar and radial innervation area), lateral elbows, neck and tibialis anterior muscle. Patients with CTS demonstrated thermal and mechanical hypoesthesia in the hand but not at distant sites. Thermal or mechanical hyperalgesia was not identified at any location with traditional QST threshold testing. However, patients with CTS rated the pain during thermal pain testing significantly higher than healthy participants. This was especially apparent for heat pain ratings which were elevated not only in the affected hand but also in the neck and tibialis anterior muscle. In conclusion, CTS alone in the absence of coexisting neck and arm pain does not account for sensory changes outside the affected hand as determined by traditional QST threshold testing. Elevated pain ratings may however be an early indication of central pain mechanisms.

  14. Substantial air quality and climate co-benefits achievable now with sectoral mitigation strategies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Yang, Junnan; Wagner, Fabian; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2017-11-15

    China is the world's top carbon emitter and suffers from severe air pollution. We examine near-term air quality and CO2 co-benefits of various current sector-based policies in China. Using a 2015 base case, we evaluate the potential benefits of four sectoral mitigation strategies. All scenarios include a 20% increase in conventional air pollution controls as well as the following sector-specific fuel switching or technology upgrade strategies. Power sector (POW): 80% replacement of small coal power plants with larger more efficient ones; Industry sector (IND): 10% improvement in energy efficiency; Transport sector (TRA): replacement of high emitters with average vehicle fleet emissions; and Residential sector (RES): replacement of 20% of coal-based stoves with stoves using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Conducting an integrated assessment using the regional air pollution model WRF-Chem, we find that the IND scenario reduces national air-pollution-related deaths the most of the four scenarios examined (27,000, 24,000, 13,000 and 23,000 deaths reduced annually in IND, POW, TRA and RES, respectively). In addition, the IND scenario reduces CO2 emissions more than 8times as much as any other scenario (440, 53, 0 and 52Mt CO2 reduced in IND, POW, TRA and RES, respectively). We also examine the benefits of an industrial efficiency improvement of just 5%. We find the resulting air quality and health benefits are still among the largest of the sectoral scenarios, while the carbon mitigation benefits remain more than 3 times larger than any other scenario. Our analysis hence highlights the importance of even modest industrial energy efficiency improvements and air pollution control technology upgrades for air quality, health and climate benefits in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Substantial reduction in the number of amputations among patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Benjamin S B; Yderstraede, Knud B; Carstensen, Bendix;

    2016-01-01

    as well as the incidence of further amputations, subdivided by level of amputation. RESULTS: During the period 1996-2011, a total of 2,832 amputations were performed, of which 1,285 were among patients with diabetes and 1,547 among individuals without diabetes. Relative to persons without diabetes...... in BAA rates among patients with diabetes of 9.8%, and the annual reduction in BKA for patients with diabetes was 15.1%. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The amputation rate in patients with diabetes is still several-fold higher than in persons without diabetes, but the improvements in diabetes care in recent...

  16. Continuous Improvement and Collaborative Improvement: Similarities and Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, Rick; Boer, Harry; Fisscher, Olaf

    2006-01-01

    A substantial body of theoretical and practical knowledge has been developed on continuous improvement. However, there is still a considerable lack of empirically grounded contributions and theories on collaborative improvement, that is, continuous improvement in an inter-organizational setting. The

  17. Deep Stimulation at Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, K.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Petty, S.; Garrison, G. H.; Nordin, Y.; Uddenberg, M.; Swyer, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration is a 5 year field project designed to demonstrate recent technological advances for engineered geothermal systems (EGS) development. Advances in reservoir stimulation, diverter, and monitoring are being tested in a hot (>300 C), dry well (NWG 55-29) drilled in 2008. These technologies could reduce the cost of electrical power generation. The project began in 2010 with two years of permitting, technical planning, and development of a project-specific Induced Seismicity Mitigation Plan (ISMP), and is funded in part by the Department of Energy. In 2012, the well was hydraulically stimulated with water at pressures below the principle stress for 7 weeks, resulting in hydroshearing. The depth of stimulation was successfully shifted by injection of two pills of Thermally-degradable Zonal Isolation Materials (TZIMs). Injectivity changes, thermal profiles and seismicity indicate that fracture permeability in well NWG 55-29 was enhanced during stimulation. This work successfully demonstrated the viability of large-volume (40,000 m3), low-pressure stimulation coupled with non-mechanical diverter technology, and microseismic monitoring for reservoir mapping. Further analysis and field testing in 2013 indicates further stimulation will be required in order to develop an economically viable reservoir, and is scheduled in 2014. The 2014 stimulation will use improved stimulation and monitoring equipment, better knowledge based on 2012 outcomes, and create a deep EGS reservoir in the hottest part of the wellbore.

  18. Throat infections are associated with exacerbation in a substantial proportion of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorleifsdottir, Ragna H.; Eysteinsdottir, Jenna H.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Sigurdsson, Martin I.; Johnston, Andrew; Valdimarsson, Helgi; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcal throat infections are known to trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, and several studies support the benefit of tonsillectomy. To evaluate the potential of tonsillectomy as a treatment, we used a retrospective study-specific questionnaire to assess the proportion of psoriasis patients with sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations. Our survey sampled 275 psoriasis patients. 42% of patients with plaque psoriasis reported sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations, and 72% of patients with confirmed streptococcal infections reported aggravation. Notably, women and early onset psoriasis patients were more likely to report psoriasis exacerbation after a sore throat (p<0.001, p=0.046 respectively). Other psoriasis aggravation factors were more common in patients with sore throat-associated exacerbations (p<0.01). 49% of tonsillectomized patients reported subsequent improvement and had more frequent sore throat-associated aggravation of psoriasis than patients who did not improve after tonsillectomy (p=0.015). These findings suggest a closer association between sore throats, streptococcal throat infections and plaque psoriasis than previously reported. PMID:26984718

  19. Substantial health and economic returns from delayed aging may warrant a new focus for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana P; Cutler, David; Rowe, John W; Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Sullivan, Jeffrey; Peneva, Desi; Olshansky, S Jay

    2013-10-01

    Recent scientific advances suggest that slowing the aging process (senescence) is now a realistic goal. Yet most medical research remains focused on combating individual diseases. Using the Future Elderly Model--a microsimulation of the future health and spending of older Americans--we compared optimistic "disease specific" scenarios with a hypothetical "delayed aging" scenario in terms of the scenarios' impact on longevity, disability, and major entitlement program costs. Delayed aging could increase life expectancy by an additional 2.2 years, most of which would be spent in good health. The economic value of delayed aging is estimated to be $7.1 trillion over fifty years. In contrast, addressing heart disease and cancer separately would yield diminishing improvements in health and longevity by 2060--mainly due to competing risks. Delayed aging would greatly increase entitlement outlays, especially for Social Security. However, these changes could be offset by increasing the Medicare eligibility age and the normal retirement age for Social Security. Overall, greater investment in research to delay aging appears to be a highly efficient way to forestall disease, extend healthy life, and improve public health.

  20. An Undergraduate Laboratory Activity Demonstrating Bacteriophage Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Allen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage are among the most diverse and numerous microbes inhabiting our planet. Yet many laboratory activities fail to engage students in meaningful exploration of their diversity, unique characteristics, and abundance. In this curriculum activity students use a standard plaque assay to enumerate bacteriophage particles from a natural sample and use the scientific method to address questions about host specificity and diversity. A raw primary sewage sample is enriched for bacteriophage using hosts in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Students hypothesize about host specificity and use quantitative data (serial dilution and plaque assay to test their hypotheses. Combined class data also help them answer questions about phage diversity. The exercise was field tested with a class of 47 students using pre- and posttests. For all learning outcomes posttest scores were higher than pretest scores at or below p = 0.01. Average individualized learning gain (G was also calculated for each learning outcome. Students’ use of scientific language in reference to bacteriophage and host interaction significantly improved (p = 0.002; G = 0.50. Improved means of expression helped students construct better hypotheses on phage host specificity (G = 0.31, p = 0.01 and to explain the plaque assay method (G = 0.33, p = 0.002. At the end of the exercise students also demonstrated improved knowledge and understanding of phage specificity as related to phage therapy in humans (p < 0.001; G = 51.

  1. To what extent can isotopes help substantiate natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badin, A.; Broholm, Mette Martina; Hunkeler, D.

    Chlorinated ethenes are common groundwater contaminants which biodegradation into non-toxic end-products is difficult, contrary to petroleum hydrocarbons. As natural attenuation by biodegradation is a cost-effective environmental friendly remediation approach, evaluating a chlorinated ethenes plume...... degree of attenuation by biodegradation is essential. Yet, the degree to which this process is involved in concentration decrease in the field is not always straightforward as concentration can also decrease due to dilution or sorption. In the past ten years, isotopic methods have gained interest...... as they are mainly affected by biodegradation and would thus allow quantifying the extent of biodegradation regardless of any dilution process. Numerous studies demonstrated this method potential to evaluate the extent of biodegradation based on laboratory-scale studies, but few were dedicated to evaluate the degree...

  2. Efficient nonlinear companding scheme for substantial reduction in peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kasun Bandara,Atul Sewaiwar,; Yeon-Ho Chung

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) produces a high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) that ad-versely affects high-speed OFDM data transmission. In order to reduce the high PAPR, an efficient nonlinear companding trans-form (NCT) function is proposed. With the proposed NCT function, the compression and expansion weights can be applied indepen-dently with suitably chosen function parameter values. As a re-sult, the proposed function can easily maintain the average signal power approximately unchanged during the companding process. In this regard, the proposed function is superior to previously pro-posed schemes. Also, the simulations show the outstanding PAPR reduction performance of the proposed function. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme performs wel with nonlinear transmitter amplifiers and delivers superior error performance, compared with error function and exponential function based schemes.

  3. Molecular profiles: a new tool to substantiate serum banks for evaluation of potential allergenicity of GMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D; Rodríguez, R; Salcedo, G

    2008-10-01

    Assessment of the allergenicity of GMOs involves performing a test with a panel of sera obtained from allergic donors. However, there is no clear indication of how to characterize the above-mentioned panel. The patient selection criteria should take into account the geographical location of patients, the intensity and nature of the environmental allergens in the area and the potential cross-reactivity among allergenic molecules. Sera for serum banks, obtained from patients with demonstrated food allergy, should be subjected to a further characterization by screening with a panel of relevant allergenic molecules. A representative panel of these sera should be used in the allergenicity assessment. Finally, the "in vitro" methodologies should have the adequate specificity and sensitivity, and the integrity of the molecules tested should be guaranteed.

  4. Farm cooperation to improve sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Hans; Larsén, Karin; Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan; Andersson, Chrisitian; Blad, Fredrik; Samuelsson, Johan; Skargren, Per

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that partnership arrangements between farmers might be a way to secure the economic viability of their farms as well as to increase profitability. The article discusses empirical analyses of three different forms of collaboration, with an emphasis on the environmental improvements associated with collaboration. Collaboration between a dairy farm and a crop farm is analyzed in the first case. The results show that potential gains from improved diversification and crop rotation are substantial, and even larger when the collaboration also involves machinery. The second analysis considers external integration between farrowing and finishing-pig operations. Gains from collaboration originate from biological and technical factors, such as improved growth rate of the pigs and better utilization of buildings. Finally, an evaluation of a group of collaborating crop farmers is performed. In this case, the benefits that arise are mainly due to reduced machinery costs and/or gains due to other factors, such as improved crop rotation and managerial/marketing strategies.

  5. Evidence of substantial recombination among Trypanosoma cruzi II strains from Minas Gerais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Rodrigo de Paula; D'Ávila, Daniella Alchaar; Segatto, Marcela; do Valle, Ítalo Faria; Franco, Glória Regina; Valadares, Helder Magno Silva; Gontijo, Eliane Dias; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho; Chiari, Egler; Machado, Carlos Renato; Macedo, Andréa Mara

    2014-03-01

    Due to the scarcity of evidence of sexuality in Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, it has been general accepted that the parasite reproduction is essentially clonal with infrequent genetic recombination. This assumption is mainly supported by indirect evidence, such as Hardy-Weinberg imbalances, linkage disequilibrium and a strong correlation between independent sets of genetic markers of T. cruzi populations. However, because the analyzed populations are usually isolated from different geographic regions, the possibility of population substructuring as generating these genetic marker imbalances cannot be eliminated. To investigate this possibility, we firstly compared the allele frequencies and haplotype networks using seven different polymorphic loci (two from mitochondrial and five from different nuclear chromosomes) in two groups of TcII strains: one including isolates obtained from different regions in Latin America and the other including isolates obtained only from patients of the Minas Gerais State in Brazil. Our hypothesis was that if the population structure is essentially clonal, Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium and a sharp association between the clusters generated by analyzing independent markers should be observed in both strain groups, independent of the geographic origin of the samples. The results demonstrated that the number of microsatellite loci in linkage disequilibrium decreased from 4 to 1 when only strains from Minas Gerais were analyzed. Moreover, we did not observed any correlation between the clusters when analyzing the nuclear and mitochondrial loci, suggesting independent inheritance of these markers among the Minas Gerais strains. Besides, using a second subset of five physically linked microsatellite loci and the Minas Gerais strains, we could also demonstrate evidence of homologous recombination roughly proportional to the relative distance among them. Taken together, our results do not support a clonal population

  6. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy

  7. Substantial contribution of anthropogenic air pollution to catastrophic floods in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Chun; Leung, L. Ruby; Li, Zhanqing

    2015-07-01

    Extreme weather events have become more frequent and are likely linked to increases in greenhouse gases and aerosols, which alter the Earth's radiative balance and cloud processes. On 8-9 July 2013, a catastrophic flood devastated the mountainous area to the northwest of the Sichuan Basin. Atmospheric simulations at a convection-permitting scale with aerosols and chemistry included show that heavy air pollution trapped in the basin significantly enhances the rainfall intensity over the mountainous areas through "aerosol-enhanced conditional instability." That is, aerosols suppress convection by absorbing solar radiation and increasing atmospheric stability in the basin during daytime. This allows excess moist air to be transported to the mountainous areas and orographically lifted, generating strong convection and extremely heavy precipitation at night. We show that reducing pollution in the Sichuan Basin can effectively mitigate floods. It is suggested that coupling aerosol with meteorology can be crucial to improve weather forecast in polluted regions.

  8. Throat Infections are Associated with Exacerbation in a Substantial Proportion of Patients with Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorleifsdottir, Ragna H; Eysteinsdóttir, Jenna H; Olafsson, Jón H; Sigurdsson, Martin I; Johnston, Andrew; Valdimarsson, Helgi; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur

    2016-08-23

    Streptococcal throat infections are known to trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, and several studies support the benefit of tonsillectomy. To evaluate the potential of tonsillectomy as a treatment, we used a retrospective study-specific questionnaire to assess the proportion of psoriasis patients with sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations. Our survey sampled 275 psoriasis patients. Of patients with plaque psoriasis, 42% reported sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations, and of patients with confirmed streptococcal infections, 72% reported aggravation. Notably, women and patients with early onset psoriasis were more likely to report psoriasis exacerbation after a sore throat (p psoriasis aggravation factors were more common in patients with sore throat-associated exacerbations (p psoriasis than patients who did not improve after tonsillectomy (p = 0.015). These findings suggest a closer association between sore throats, streptococcal throat infections and plaque psoriasis than reported previously.

  9. Substantiation of effectiveness of trainings on health related methodic for students with weakened motor fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin V.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out methodic, facilitating successful conduct of health related trainings of students withy weakened motor (physical fitness. Material: in the research 47 students with weakened motor fitness participated. Analysis of indicators of morbidity frequency and duration was carried out on the base of medical records’ studying during all academic year. Experimental methodic consisted of three chapters: execution of specifically selected Hatha yoga static postures, breathing exercises and boxing techniques. Breathing exercises were grouped in four complexes. Every complex was fulfilled during 6 trainings, after each of them the next followed. Results: it was found that frequency and duration of diseases statistically confidently decreased in academic year. It was shown that formation of healthy life style skills statistically confidently improved. Conclusions: we have determined: increased students’ interest to physical culture practicing; reduction of frequency and duration of diseases; higher level of formation of healthy life style skills.

  10. Substantial impact of illness perceptions on quality of life in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Have, Mike; Minderhoud, Itta M; Kaptein, Adrian A; Leenders, Max; Siersema, Peter D; Fidder, Herma H; Oldenburg, Bas

    2013-09-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) negatively impact patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We used the common sense model to examine the contribution of illness perceptions and coping to HRQOL, in addition to clinical and socio-demographic characteristics. This provides insight into potential targets for psychological interventions aimed at improving HRQOL. Consecutive CD patients undergoing colonoscopy were included. Disease activity was assessed by a clinical and an endoscopic index. Patients completed questionnaires assessing illness perceptions (IPQ-R), coping (Utrecht Coping List), self-perceived health, neuroticism, and HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to assess the contribution of illness perceptions and coping to HRQOL. Illness perceptions were compared to patients with rheumatoid arthritis, myocardial infarction (MI), and head and neck cancer (HNC). Of 82 CD patients, mean age was 42±14years. Clinical and endoscopic active disease was present in 42 (52%) and 49 (60%) patients, respectively. HRQOL was strongly impaired by clinical active disease (r=-0.79), self-perceived health (r=-0.60), and perceived consequences of CD (r=-0.54), but correlated poorly with endoscopic disease activity (r=-0.29). Illness perceptions significantly contributed 3-27% to HRQOL. Coping had no contributory role. CD patients perceived similarly strong consequences of their illness as patients with MI and HNC and had the strongest thoughts about the chronic nature of their illness. CD has a similar impact on patients' daily lives as was observed in patients with MI and HNC. Illness perceptions contribute to HRQOL and should therefore be incorporated in clinical practice, thereby improving HRQOL. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Demonstrational Optics Part 2: Coherent and Statistical Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Marchenko, Oleg; Windholz, Laurentius

    2007-01-01

    Demonstrational Optics presents a new didactical approach to the study of optics. Emphasizing the importance of elaborate new experimental demonstrations, pictorial illustrations, computer simulations and models of optical phenomena in order to ensure a deeper understanding of wave and geometric optics. It includes problems focused on the pragmatic needs of students, secondary school teachers, university professors and optical engineers. Part 2, Coherent and Statistical Optics, contains chapters on interference, diffraction, Fourier optics, light quanta, thermal radiation (Shot noise and Gaussian light), Correlation of light fields and Correlation of light intensities. A substantial part of this volume is devoted to thermal radiation and its properties, especially with partial coherence. A detailed treatment of the photo-effect with respect to statistical properties leads to the basics of statistical optics. To illustrate the phenomena covered by this volume, a large number of demonstration experiments are de...

  12. Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, Thoman

    2014-12-31

    The Consolidated Edison, Inc., of New York (Con Edison) Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP), sponsored by the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), demonstrated that the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of the grid can be improved through a combination of enhanced monitoring and control capabilities using systems and resources that interoperate within a secure services framework. The project demonstrated the capability to shift, balance, and reduce load where and when needed in response to system contingencies or emergencies by leveraging controllable field assets. The range of field assets includes curtailable customer loads, distributed generation (DG), battery storage, electric vehicle (EV) charging stations, building management systems (BMS), home area networks (HANs), high-voltage monitoring, and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). The SGDP enables the seamless integration and control of these field assets through a common, cyber-secure, interoperable control platform, which integrates a number of existing legacy control and data systems, as well as new smart grid (SG) systems and applications. By integrating advanced technologies for monitoring and control, the SGDP helps target and reduce peak load growth, improves the reliability and efficiency of Con Edison’s grid, and increases the ability to accommodate the growing use of distributed resources. Con Edison is dedicated to lowering costs, improving reliability and customer service, and reducing its impact on the environment for its customers. These objectives also align with the policy objectives of New York State as a whole. To help meet these objectives, Con Edison’s long-term vision for the distribution grid relies on the successful integration and control of a growing penetration of distributed resources, including demand response (DR) resources, battery storage units, and DG. For example, Con Edison is expecting significant long-term growth of DG

  13. Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, Thoman [Consolidated Edison Company Of New York, Inc., NY (United States)

    2014-12-28

    The Consolidated Edison, Inc., of New York (Con Edison) Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP), sponsored by the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), demonstrated that the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of the grid can be improved through a combination of enhanced monitoring and control capabilities using systems and resources that interoperate within a secure services framework. The project demonstrated the capability to shift, balance, and reduce load where and when needed in response to system contingencies or emergencies by leveraging controllable field assets. The range of field assets includes curtailable customer loads, distributed generation (DG), battery storage, electric vehicle (EV) charging stations, building management systems (BMS), home area networks (HANs), high-voltage monitoring, and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). The SGDP enables the seamless integration and control of these field assets through a common, cyber-secure, interoperable control platform, which integrates a number of existing legacy control and data systems, as well as new smart grid (SG) systems and applications. By integrating advanced technologies for monitoring and control, the SGDP helps target and reduce peak load growth, improves the reliability and efficiency of Con Edison’s grid, and increases the ability to accommodate the growing use of distributed resources. Con Edison is dedicated to lowering costs, improving reliability and customer service, and reducing its impact on the environment for its customers. These objectives also align with the policy objectives of New York State as a whole. To help meet these objectives, Con Edison’s long-term vision for the distribution grid relies on the successful integration and control of a growing penetration of distributed resources, including demand response (DR) resources, battery storage units, and DG. For example, Con Edison is expecting significant long-term growth of DG

  14. Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Substantial Reduction of Lead Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Fan, Jiandong; Li, Hongliang; Zhang, Cuiling; Mai, Yaohua

    2016-10-01

    Despite organometal halide perovskite solar cells have recently exhibited a significant leap in efficiency, the Sn-based perovskite solar cells still suffer from low efficiency. Here, a series homogeneous CH3NH3Pb(1-x)SnxI3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) perovskite thin films with full coverage were obtained via solvent engineering. In particular, the intermediate complexes of PbI2/(SnI2)•(DMSO)x were proved to retard the crystallization of CH3NH3SnI3, thus allowing the realization of high quality Sn-introduced perovskite thin films. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of as-prepared solar cells were demonstrated to extend a broad absorption minimum over 50% in the wavelength range from 350 to 950 nm accompanied by a noteworthy absorption onset up to 1050 nm. The CH3NH3Pb0.75Sn0.25I3 perovskite solar cells with inverted structure were consequently realized with maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.12%.

  15. Peripartum cardiomyopathy coexistent with human immunodeficiency virus: A substantial obstetric jeopardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasmita Mandal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a rare cause of pregnancy-related heart failure, which affects a woman during the last months of pregnancy or first months of parturition. Its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. Coexistence of PPCM with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been scarcely analyzed. A low CD4 count is proposed to be one of the predictors of dilated cardiomyopathy in HIV. Here, a pregnant woman with HIV presented with signs of congestive heart failure for the first time during her last trimester. Echocardiography revealed a dilated cardiomyopathy with ejection fraction of 34% which proved the diagnosis of PPCM. She underwent cesarean section for impending previous scar rupture. Her status deteriorated subsequently in spite of all efforts and she succumbed due to ventricular tachycardia. This case necessitates an awareness regarding coexistence of HIV with PPCM and dreaded clinical sequences. Patients suffering from HIV should be treated well and their CD4 count should be improved before conception to avoid such complications in pregnancy.

  16. The zero-wall puncture: a novel angiographic puncture technique with substantial benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leswick, D.A.; Szkup, P.; Stoneham, G.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)]. E-mail: davidleswick@hotmail.com

    2005-04-15

    Medical education can be busy, exhausting, and stressful, with potential adverse effects on trainees' physical and mental health. Radiology residency is no exception. In addition to increased daily workload and study requirements, Canadian radiology residents are performing a diverse and increasing number of emergent diagnostic examinations after hours. In an attempt to improve resident self-worth and efficiency during angiographic rotations, we investigated the effects of a novel angiographic puncture procedure on various resident lifestyle indexes. Standard techniques for accessing the femoral artery are either the single-wall puncture or double-wall puncture (Seldinger technique). Both of these techniques are widely known and practiced. Following procedure completion, hemostasis must be achieved at the puncture site. This has traditionally required manual compression at the puncture site, which may require 15 to 20 minutes. At our institution the standard policy is that 'whoever makes the puncture, compresses the groin,' also known as 'you broke it, you fix it'. This has prompted our industrious resident complement to develop a novel, previously undescribed, angiographic puncture technique known as the 'zero-wall puncture technique.' Preliminary unpublished results from our institution show that when residents employ the zero-wall puncture technique the attending staff radiologist subsequently both performs the puncture and compresses the groin at the end of the procedure. We investigated the effect of zero-wall puncture on various resident lifestyle indexes. (author)

  17. Peripartum cardiomyopathy coexistent with human immunodeficiency virus: a substantial obstetric jeopardy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debasmita; Dattaray, Chaitalli; Dutta, Mousumi; Sarkar, Gouranga; Sinha, Pooja

    2013-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare cause of pregnancy-related heart failure, which affects a woman during the last months of pregnancy or first months of parturition. Its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. Coexistence of PPCM with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been scarcely analyzed. A low CD4 count is proposed to be one of the predictors of dilated cardiomyopathy in HIV. Here, a pregnant woman with HIV presented with signs of congestive heart failure for the first time during her last trimester. Echocardiography revealed a dilated cardiomyopathy with ejection fraction of 34% which proved the diagnosis of PPCM. She underwent cesarean section for impending previous scar rupture. Her status deteriorated subsequently in spite of all efforts and she succumbed due to ventricular tachycardia. This case necessitates an awareness regarding coexistence of HIV with PPCM and dreaded clinical sequences. Patients suffering from HIV should be treated well and their CD4 count should be improved before conception to avoid such complications in pregnancy.

  18. Substantial stores of sedimentary carbon held in mid-latitude fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Craig; Austin, William E. N.; Davies, Althea L.; Baltzer, Agnès; Abell, Richard E.; Howe, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Quantifying marine sedimentary carbon stocks is key to improving our understanding of long-term storage of carbon in the coastal ocean and to further constraining the global carbon cycle. Here we present a methodological approach which combines seismic geophysics and geochemical measurements to quantitatively estimate the total stock of carbon held within marine sediment. Through the application of this methodology to Loch Sunart, a fjord on the west coast of Scotland, we have generated the first full sedimentary carbon inventory for a fjordic system. The sediments of Loch Sunart hold 26.9 ± 0.5 Mt of carbon split between 11.5 ± 0.2 and 15.0 ± 0.4 Mt of organic and inorganic carbon respectively. These new quantitative estimates of carbon stored in coastal sediments are significantly higher than previous estimates. Through an area-normalised comparison to adjacent Scottish peatland carbon stocks, we have determined that these mid-latitude fjords are significantly more effective as carbon stores than their terrestrial counterparts. This initial work supports the concept that fjords are important environments for the burial and long-term storage of carbon and therefore should be considered and treated as unique environments within the global carbon cycle.

  19. SUBSTANTIATION OF DEVELOPING MEAT PRODUCTS FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE IN THE CONDITIONS OF UNFAVORABLE ECOLOGICAL SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisovitskaya E. P.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a deficit of irreplaceable and physiologically necessary nutrients in everyday ration to a large extent connected with unfavorable environmental conditions and the increase of morbidity of humans of all ages cause the cute necessity in the creation of functional food that is products with additional functions which are healthy nutritive and physiological characteristics. One of the main demands under their creation is in the positive influence of introduced products on the food value of products because they must be enriched with ingredients which have antioxidant properties. Therefore, nowadays the introduction of functional meat-plant products will promote the effective improvement in the direction of prophylaxis of different diseases. In Russia, the concept of healthy nutrition became a part of state politics. The aim of this politics is the conservation and consolidation of population’s health and the prophylaxis of diseases. In this work, there was considered the technology of the production of meat-plant tinned food of functional purpose enriched with nutrients and intended for preventive human nutrition, for those who are in the conditions of harmful influence of environment and professional activity. There were described the advantages of the given developing, there were recommended the introduced into the product components of functional purpose

  20. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2002-07-30

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results. Also includes Power Plant Improvement Initiative Projects.

  1. Ancillary services and the integration of substantial quantities of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEstergaard, Poul Alberg [Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, 9220 Aalborg OE (Denmark)

    2006-05-15

    Denmark has the World's highest penetration of grid connected wind power in electricity generation with a share of 15.0% of total domestic demand in 2002 [Danish Energy Authority. Rapport fra arbejdsgruppen om kraftvarme- og VE-elektricitet. Bilagsrapport. Copenhagen: Danish Energy Authority; 2001]. This is unevenly distributed in the two separate electricity systems comprising Denmark, giving a 2003 share as high as 21% in Western Denmark [Eltra. http://www.Eltra.dk. Skaerbaek: Eltra; 2004] compared with a more modest 8% in the more densely populated Eastern Denmark [Elkraft System. Miljoberetning 2004. Ballerup: Elkraft System; 2004]. At the same time, Denmark has other forms of distributed generation, e.g., extensive cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) plants for district heating or for covering industrial heat demands. This results in a high fuel-efficiency but also in a technically complex energy system. This combination of wind power and CHP is a challenge for system operators but also gives opportunities. This article analyses the possibilities for integrating even more wind power using new power balancing strategies that exploit the possibilities given by the existence of CHP plants as well as the potential impact of heat pumps used for district heating and installed for integration purposes. The analyses are made with particular focus on grid stability and delivery of ancillary services (required to control voltage and frequency) and demonstrate that it is possible to accommodate 50% or more wind power without having to rely on import or export for power balancing. Relying on import and export sets demands on the neighbouring countries which may not be met. Compulsion to export or import furthermore gives a poor bargaining position on the electricity market. However, in order to reach such high levels of wind power, the generating equipment must be able to supply ancillary services in contrast to their present abilities. (author)

  2. Substantiation of the simplified method of determining heat losses through underground parts of building enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the successful development of construction industry depends on the improved energy performance of buildings, structures and facilities, as well as on the quality assurance of the indoor climate. The approximate calculation of two-dimensional temperature field of the ground outside the underground part of the building is considered using the analytical solution of differential equation of thermal conduction by the method of sources and sinks according to the existing boundary conditions. This problem is a very high-priority task now because of actualization of building standards in Russian Federation and because of the increasing demands to safety and security of heat supply. That’s why it is very important to find a simple but accurate enough dependence for the heat losses through the floor situated on the ground. The results of the estimation of thermal resistance of floor areas on the ground are presented on the basis of the obtained temperature field. The comparison of these results with the regulatory requirements specified in SP 50.13330.2012, and with the data of numerical calculations of other authors using finite difference approximation of the thermal conduction equation with consideration of soil freezing is held. It is shown that the requirements of the SP 50.13330.2012 are physically reasonable, and numerical calculations can also be described by the analytical dependence obtained in this paper with appropriate selection of the numerical coefficients with the preservation of engineering form of the calculation procedure. The obtained model is easy to use in engineering practice especially during preliminary calculations. The presentation is illustrated with numerical and graphical examples.

  3. NSRD-11: Computational Capability to Substantiate DOE-HDBK-3010 Data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gelbard, Fred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bignell, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pierce, Flint [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Voskuilen, Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Salvador B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zepper, Ethan T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Juan, Pierre-Alexandre [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Le, San [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, Lindsay Noelle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Safety basis analysts throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex rely heavily on the information provided in the DOE Handbook, DOE - HDBK - 3010, Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, to determine radionuclide source terms. In calculating source terms, analysts tend to use the DOE Handbook's bounding values on airborne release fractions (ARFs) and respirable fractions (RFs) for various categories of insults (representing potential accident release categories). This is typically due to both time constraints and the avoidance of regulatory critique. Unfortunately, these bounding ARFs/RFs represent extremely conservative values. Moreover, they were derived from very limited small-scale bench/laboratory experiments and/or from engineered judgment. Thus, the basis for the data may not be representative of the actual unique accident conditions and configurations being evaluated. The goal of this research is to develop a more accurate and defensible method to determine bounding values for the DOE Handbook using state - of - art multi - physics - based computer codes. This enables us to better understand the fundamental physics and phenomena associated with the types of accidents in the handbook. In this year, this research included improvements of the high fidelity codes to model particle resuspension and multi - component evaporation for fire scenarios. We also began to model ceramic fragmentation experiments, and to reanalyze the liquid fire and powder release experiments that were done last year. The results show that the added physics better describes the fragmentation phenomena. Thus, this work provides a low-cost method to establish physics-justified safety bounds by taking into account specific geometries and conditions that may not have been previously measured and/or are too costly to perform.

  4. Topsoil depth substantially influences the responses to drought of the foliar metabolomes of Mediterranean forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Barbeta, Adrià; Sardans, Jordi; Guenther, Alex; Ogaya, Romà; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-08-01

    Soils provide physical support, water, and nutrients to terrestrial plants. Upper soil layers are crucial for forest dynamics, especially under drought conditions, because many biological processes occur there and provide support, water and nutrients to terrestrial plants. We postulated that tree size and overall plant function manifested in the metabolome composition, the total set of metabolites, were dependent on the depth of upper soil layers and on water availability. We sampled leaves for stoichiometric and metabolomic analyses once per season from differently sized Quercus ilex trees under natural and experimental drought conditions as projected for the coming decades. Different sized trees had different metabolomes and plots with shallower soils had smaller trees. Soil moisture of the upper soil did not explain the tree size and smaller trees did not show higher concentrations of biomarker metabolites related to drought stress. However, the impact of drought treatment on metabolomes was higher in smaller trees in shallower soils. Our results suggested that tree size was more dependent on the depth of the upper soil layers, which indirectly affect the metabolomes of the trees, than on the moisture content of the upper soil layers. Metabolomic profiling of Q. ilex supported the premise that water availability in the upper soil layers was not necessarily correlated with tree size. The higher impact of drought on trees growing in shallower soils nevertheless indicates a higher vulnerability of small trees to the future increase in frequency, intensity, and duration of drought projected for the Mediterranean Basin and other areas. Metabolomics has proven to be an excellent tool detecting significant metabolic changes among differently sized individuals of the same species and it improves our understanding of the connection between plant metabolomes and environmental variables such as soil depth and moisture content.

  5. PATHOGENESIS OF OSTEOARTHRITIS AND SUBSTANTIATION OF THE USE OF STRONTIUM RANELATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mikhailovna Zaitseva

    2013-01-01

    the formation of bone matrix (namely, synthesis of high molecular weight proteoglycans both in the normal articular cartilage and in patients with OA. The symptomatic effect of SR has been demonstrated in clinical trials. A reliable deceleration of joint space narrowing in patients who received SR therapy (compared to those who received placebo has also been proved.

  6. Land cover uncertainty generates substantial uncertainty in earth system model carbon and climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2017-04-01

    Several climate adaptation and mitigation strategies incorporate Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) to address global carbon balance and climate. However, LULCC is not consistent across the CMIP5 model simulations because only the land use input is harmonized. The associated LULCC uncertainty generates uncertainty in regional and global carbon and climate dynamics that obfuscates the evaluation of whether such strategies are effective in meeting their goals. For example, the integrated Earth System Model (iESM) overestimates 2004 atmospheric CO2 concentration by 14 ppmv, and we explore the contribution of historical LULCC uncertainty to this bias in relation to the effects of CO2 fertilization, climate change, and nitrogen deposition on terrestrial carbon. Using identical land use input, a chronologically referenced LULCC that accounts for pasture, as opposed to the default year-2000 referenced LULCC, increases this bias to 20 ppmv because more forest needs to be cleared for land use. Assuming maximum forest retention for all land conversion reduces the new bias to 19 ppmv, while minimum forest retention increases the new bias to 24 ppmv. There is a 33 Pg land carbon uncertainty range due to maximizing versus minimizing forest area, which is 80% of the estimated 41 PgC gain in land carbon due to CO2 fertilization combined with climate change from 1850-2004 and 150% of the estimated 22 PgC gain due to nitrogen deposition. These results demonstrate that LULCC accuracy and uncertainty are critical for estimating the carbon cycle, and also that LULCC may be an important lever for constraining global carbon estimates. Furthermore, different land conversion assumptions can generate local differences of over 1.0 °C between the two forest retention cases with less than 5% difference in tree cover within a grid cell. Whether these temperature differences are positive or negative depends more on region than on latitude. Sensible heat appears to be more sensitive than

  7. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    An autodock was demonstrated using straightforward techniques and real sensor hardware. A simulation testbed was established and validated. The sensor design was refined with improved optical performance and image processing noise mitigation techniques, and the sensor is ready for production from off-the-shelf components. The autonomous spacecraft architecture is defined. The areas of sensors, docking hardware, propulsion, and avionics are included in the design. The Guidance Navigation and Control architecture and requirements are developed. Modular structures suitable for automated control are used. The spacecraft system manager functions including configuration, resource, and redundancy management are defined. The requirements for autonomous spacecraft executive are defined. High level decisionmaking, mission planning, and mission contingency recovery are a part of this. The next step is to do flight demonstrations. After the presentation the following question was asked. How do you define validation? There are two components to validation definition: software simulation with formal and vigorous validation, and hardware and facility performance validated with respect to software already validated against analytical profile.

  8. Experimental demonstration of coupled optical springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, N. A.; Barr, B. W.; Bell, A.; Graef, C.; Hild, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Leavey, S. S.; Macarthur, J.; Sorazu, B.; Wright, J.; Strain, K. A.

    2017-02-01

    Optical rigidity will play an important role in improving the sensitivity of future generations of gravitational wave (GW) interferometers, which employ high laser power in order to reach and exceed the standard quantum limit. Several experiments have demonstrated the combined effect of two optical springs on a single system for very low-weight mirror masses or membranes. In this paper we investigate the complex interactions between multiple optical springs and the surrounding apparatus in a system of comparable dynamics to a large-scale GW detector. Using three 100 g mirrors to form a coupled cavity system capable of sustaining two or more optical springs, we demonstrate a number of different regimes of opto-mechanical rigidity and measurement techniques. Our measurements reveal couplings between each optical spring and the control loops that can affect both the achievable increase in sensitivity and the stability of the system. Hence this work establishes a better understanding of the realisation of these techniques and paves the way to their application in future GW observatories, such as upgrades to Advanced LIGO.

  9. SUBSTANTIATION OF EFFICIENCY OF THE MULTI-PURPOSE CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY IN EARTHWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOLOV I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Construction of buildings and structures is a complex process, one of the components of which are the processing of digging. The cost structure constructed earthworks, depending on the types of buildings and structures, ranging from three to sixty percent. Currently, excavation work on 98% mechanized. Machines for the production of excavation, are one of the main vehicles by which the comprehensive mechanization of construction. Equipment construction vehicle with high, fast replacement of obsolete equipment with new, highly productive - one of the main ways of increasing the efficiency of excavation in construction. Intensification excavation mainly ensured by improving the organizational and technological measures to ensure efficient use of earthmoving equipment fleet. The current structure of the fleet, each of which can perform only one operation of the production cycle, resulting in the fact that for the implementation of the entire set of works on creation of earthworks necessary to form a set of machines capable to realize them. An alternative is to use a set of machines earth-moving equipment, multi-purpose equipped with 5-10 kinds of changeable working equipment with 20-40 working bodies, which provides all kinds of earthworks single machine. The purpose of the article. Develop a mechanism for technical and economic assessment of the effectiveness of the set of specialized earth-moving machines as compared to earth-moving machines, multi-purpose allows, under specified production parameters, to establish the limits of their effective application. To determine the efficiency of each unit of the considered earth-moving equipment, and further, to form a rational set of machines that can run on time given the amount of work at minimum cost. Conclusions. Systematic approach to the design of complete production process of digging it possible to establish the relationship between technology and feasibility indexes

  10. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongchao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently degrades crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels production. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Plasmid transformation, random mutagenesis and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism, hindering genetic engineering. Results The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain, resulting in a substantial shift in fermentation toward ethanol production. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products, corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant's tricarboxylic acid pathway. Conclusions The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first non-random, targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox

  11. γ-Tocotrienol does not substantially protect DS neurons from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Then Sue-Mian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS neurons are more susceptible to oxidative stress and previous studies have shown that vitamin E was able to reduce oxidative stress and improve DS neurons' viability. Therefore, this study was done to investigate the protective role of γ-tocotrienol (γT3 in DS neurons from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 -induced oxidative stress. The pro-apoptosis tendency of γT3 was compared to α-tocopherol (αT in non-stress condition as well. Methods Primary culture of DS and euploid neurons were divided into six groups of treatment: control, H2O2, γT3 pre-treatment with H2O2, γT3 only, αT pre-treatment with H2O2 and αT only. The treatments were assessed by MTS assay and apoptosis assay by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA apoptosis ELISA assay, Hoechst and Neu-N immunofluorescence staining. The cellular uptake of γT3 and αT was determined by HPLC while protein expressions were determined by Western blot. Comparison between groups was made by the Student's t test, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni adjustment as well as two-way ANOVA for multiple comparisons. Results One day incubation of γT3 was able to reduced apoptosis of DS neurons by 10%, however γT3 was cytotoxic at longer incubation period (14 days and at concentrations ≥ 100 μM. Pre-treatment of αT and γT3 only attenuate apoptosis and increase cell viability in H2O2-treated DS and euploid neurons by 10% in which the effects were minimal to maintain most of the DS cells' morphology. γT3 act as a free radical scavenger by reducing ROS generated by H2O2. In untreated controls, DS neurons showed lower Bcl-2/Bax ratio and p53 expression compared to normal neurons, while cPKC and PKC-δ expressions were higher in DS neurons. On the other hand, pre-treatment of γT3 in H2O2-treated DS neurons have reduced Bcl-2/Bax ratio, which was not shown in euploid neurons. This suggests that pre-treatment of γT3 did not promote DS cell survival. Meanwhile γT3 and αT treatments

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophilus LA 104 and improves stools frequency. The food that is the subject of the health claim is a combination of B. longum LA 101, L...

  13. Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

    2009-12-31

    The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this

  14. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to various microorganisms and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970, improved lactose digestion (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970, “intestinal flora/digestive health” (ID 4231, defence against vaginal pathogens (ID 2950, 2957, 2967 and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells (ID 2960, 2962, 2971 (further assessment pursuant to Article 13(1 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to provide a scientific opinion on health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to various microorganisms and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, “intestinal flora/digestive health”, defence against vaginal pathogens and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells. The food constituents Lactobacillus crispatus BCCM/LMG P-17631, Lactobacillus gasseri BCCM/LMG P-17632, Lactobacillus gasseri BCCM/LMG P-18137, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1687, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1688, Lactobacillus plantarum BCCM/LMG P-17630, Lactobacillus salivarius CNCM I-1794 and a combination of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 and Lactobacillus johnsonii La-1 (ACD-1(CLbA22 are sufficiently characterised. The evidence provided did not establish that the proposed claimed effect, increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells, is a beneficial physiological effect. The claimed effect “intestinal flora/digestive health” is general and non-specific, and does not refer to any specific health claim as required by Regulation (EC No 1924/2006. The references provided in relation to the claims evaluated in this opinion included studies which assessed the effects of food constituents other than the food constituents which are the subject of the claims and/or investigated health outcomes unrelated to the claimed effects. No human studies which investigated the effects of the food constituents on appropriate measures of the claimed effects were provided. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel

  15. Demonstration of innovative monitoring technologies at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossabi, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jenkins, R.A.; Wise, M.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an Integrated Demonstration Program at the Savannah River Site in 1989. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate innovative technologies that can improve present-day environmental restoration methods. The Integrated Demonstration Program at SRS is entitled ``Cleanup of Organics in Soils and Groundwater at Non-Arid Sites.`` New technologies in the areas of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation are being demonstrated and evaluated for their technical performance and cost effectiveness in comparison with baseline technologies. Present site characterization and monitoring methods are costly, time-consuming, overly invasive, and often imprecise. Better technologies are required to accurately describe the subsurface geophysical and geochemical features of a site and the nature and extent of contamination. More efficient, nonintrusive characterization and monitoring techniques are necessary for understanding and predicting subsurface transport. More reliable procedures are also needed for interpreting monitoring and characterization data. Site characterization and monitoring are key elements in preventing, identifying, and restoring contaminated sites. The remediation of a site cannot be determined without characterization data, and monitoring may be required for 30 years after site closure.

  16. Promoting Critical Reflection: An Evaluation of the Longer-Term Impact of a Substantial Faculty Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Susanna; Harris, Muveddet

    2017-01-01

    For many faculty, critical reflection on teaching and learning requires space and time that is not readily available. For fifteen years, we have run a substantial year-long faculty development program designed to help participants: (1) reflect critically on their teaching and their students' learning; and (2) develop a project related to their…

  17. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  18. Long Strides on the Journey toward Self-Authorship: Substantial Developmental Shifts in College Students' Meaning Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James P.; King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the subset of qualitative cases in the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education where students experienced substantial self-authorship shifts over the first three college years (N = 30 students, 90 narratives). Engagement in experiences and roles demanding more sophisticated, internal meaning…

  19. 18 CFR 2.1a - Public suggestions, comments, proposals on substantial prospective regulatory issues and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public suggestions, comments, proposals on substantial prospective regulatory issues and problems. 2.1a Section 2.1a Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  20. WE-G-BRA-02: Visual Demonstrations of Medical Physics Concepts of Transmission Imaging for Resident Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, I

    2012-06-01

    To improve the radiology residents' understanding of medical physics concepts through visualization of physical phenomena. Several medical physics concepts in x-ray transmission imaging are relevant to many radiographic modalities, not only to planar radiography. Therefore, it is important that the diagnostic radiology residents obtain a good understanding of these concepts. However, standard PowerPoint slides or blackboard-based graphical representations are not always effective ways to communicate these novel concepts to the residents. To improve upon the understanding of these concepts, the computer, projector and screen in the lecture room are used as surrogates of an x-ray imaging system. The projector is the source of light (x-rays) with PowerPoint slides defining the pattern emitted (x-ray field) on to the projector screen (detector/monitor). Several different transparencies and acrylic objects are used to demonstrate varied medical physics phenomena relevant to transmission imaging, such as: straight-line travel of electromagnetic radiation; tissue superimposition; object, subject, image and display contrast; linear systems; point spread functions; frequency domain; contrast and modulation transfer functions; quantum and image noise; noise frequency and noise power spectrum; anatomical noise; magnification and geometric unsharpness; inverse square distance relationship; sampling and aliasing; and x-ray scatter. The residents' comprehension and ability to explain these concepts has substantially improved, in addition to their interest in these topics. This was reflected on improved test scores and on anonymous feedback surveys post- lectures. The use of demonstrations that mimic the conditions and physical phenomena found in transmission imaging by taking advantage of the projector and screen together with transparencies and other objects improves the residents' grasp of basic radiographic concepts and promotes live interactions between the residents and the