WorldWideScience

Sample records for demonstrated significant associations

  1. [Significance of the demonstration of Actinomyces in cervical cytological smears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybdahl, H; Baandrup, U

    1988-10-17

    In recent years there has been well documented evidence of a connection between adnexitis and the use of IUDs. It has also been reported that Actinomyces-caused adnexitis is often a serious precursor of tubo-ovarian abscesses which require surgical attention. The investigation included a total of 17,734 routine Pap smears taken in the pathology department over a 4-month period. The smears were screened for the presence of Actinomyces and information on type of IUD and gynecological symptoms was gathered from women testing positive for Actinomyces. Comparable information was gathered from 2 age-matched control groups. 1 group consisted of women with an IUD but without Actinomyces; the other group consisted of women without an IUD and without Actinomyces. Of the 180 patients with Actinomyces, 175 were IUD users and only 5 were nonusers. The incidence of gynecological symptoms among the patients showed increased frequency for women with Actinomyces only with regard to cervical discharge. The Nova-T IUD was found to be significantly less frequently associated with Actinomyces than the other IUDs.

  2. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  3. Behaviorally inhibited individuals demonstrate significantly enhanced conditioned response acquisition under non-optimal learning conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J L; Allen, M T; Myers, C E; Servatius, R J

    2014-03-15

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an anxiety vulnerability factor associated with hypervigilance to novel stimuli, threat, and ambiguous cues. The progression from anxiety risk to a clinical disorder is unknown, although the acquisition of defensive learning and avoidance may be a critical feature. As the expression of avoidance is also central to anxiety development, the present study examined avoidance acquisition as a function of inhibited temperament using classical eyeblink conditioning. Individuals were classified as behaviorally inhibited (BI) or non-inhibited (NI) based on combined scores from the Adult and Retrospective Measures of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI and RMBI, respectively). Acquisition was assessed using delay, omission, or yoked conditioning schedules of reinforcement. Omission training was identical to delay, except that the emission of an eyeblink conditioned response (CR) resulted in omission of the unconditioned airpuff stimulus (US) on that trial. Each subject in the yoked group was matched on total BI score to a subject in the omission group, and received the same schedule of CS and US delivery, resulting in a partial reinforcement training schedule. Delay conditioning elicited significantly more CRs compared to the omission and yoked contingencies, the latter two of which did not differ from each other. Thus, acquisition of an avoidance response was not apparent. BI individuals demonstrated enhanced acquisition overall, while partial reinforcement training significantly distinguished between BI and NI groups. Enhanced learning in BI may be a function of an increased defensive learning capacity, or sensitivity to uncertainty. Further work examining the influence of BI on learning acquisition is important for understanding individual differences in disorder etiology in anxiety vulnerable cohorts.

  4. A correlation significance learning scheme for auto-associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D L; Wang, W J

    1995-12-01

    A new concept called correlation significance for expanding the attraction regions around all the stored vectors (attractors) of an asynchronous auto-associative memory is introduced. Since the well known outer product rule adopts equally-weighted correlation matrix for the neuron connections, the attraction region around each attractor is not maximized. In order to maximize these attraction regions, we devise a rule that all the correlations between two different components of two different stored patterns should be unequally weighted. By this formalism, the connection matrix T of the asynchronous neural network is designed by using the gradient descent approach. Additionally, an exponential type error function is constructed such that the number of successfully stored vectors can be directly examined during the entire learning process. Finally, computer simulations demonstrate the efficiency and capability of this scheme.

  5. Novel stable isotope analyses demonstrate significant rates of glucose cycling in mouse pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Martha L; Pound, Lynley D; Trenary, Irina; O'Brien, Richard M; Young, Jamey D

    2015-06-01

    A polymorphism located in the G6PC2 gene, which encodes an islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit, is the most important common determinant of variations in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in humans. Studies of G6pc2 knockout (KO) mice suggest that G6pc2 represents a negative regulator of basal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) that acts by hydrolyzing glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), thereby reducing glycolytic flux. However, this conclusion conflicts with the very low estimates for the rate of glucose cycling in pancreatic islets, as assessed using radioisotopes. We have reassessed the rate of glucose cycling in pancreatic islets using a novel stable isotope method. The data show much higher levels of glucose cycling than previously reported. In 5 mmol/L glucose, islets from C57BL/6J chow-fed mice cycled ∼16% of net glucose uptake. The cycling rate was further increased at 11 mmol/L glucose. Similar cycling rates were observed using islets from high fat-fed mice. Importantly, glucose cycling was abolished in G6pc2 KO mouse islets, confirming that G6pc2 opposes the action of the glucose sensor glucokinase by hydrolyzing G6P. The demonstration of high rates of glucose cycling in pancreatic islets explains why G6pc2 deletion enhances GSIS and why variants in G6PC2 affect FBG in humans. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. The demonstration of significant ferroelectricity in epitaxial Y-doped HfO2 film

    OpenAIRE

    Takao Shimizu; Kiliha Katayama; Takanori Kiguchi; Akihiro Akama; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Osami Sakata; Hiroshi Funakubo

    2016-01-01

    Ferroelectricity and Curie temperature are demonstrated for epitaxial Y-doped HfO2 film grown on (110) yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconium oxide (YSZ) single crystal using Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) as bottom electrodes. The XRD measurements for epitaxial film enabled us to investigate its detailed crystal structure including orientations of the film. The ferroelectricity was confirmed by electric displacement filed – electric filed hysteresis measurement, which revealed saturated polarization of 16...

  7. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han...... Chinese with a sample size 2.7 times the largest previously published GWAS on centenarians. We identified 11 independent loci associated with longevity replicated in Southern-Northern regions of China, including two novel loci (rs2069837-IL6; rs2440012-ANKRD20A9P) with genome-wide significance...

  8. Significance of coronary artery calcification demonstrated by computed tomography in detecting coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraki, Teruo; Akiyama, Yoko; Kita, Masahide [Iwakuni national Hospital, Yamaguchi (Japan)] [and others

    2002-02-01

    Serial 27 patients with angina attack were enrolled in this trial. Plain computed tomography (CT) of the chest and coronary angiogram were performed simultaneously. Calcification of main branch of coronary arteies (left main trunk, left anterior desending artery, left circumflex artery, right coronary artery) was judged visually. More than 50% stenosis was defined significant by quantitative coronary angiogram. Correlation between calcified lesions detected by CT and angiographic stenoses showed high specificity and negative predictive value was also high (sensitity=58%, specificity=80%, positive predictive value=27%, negative predictive value=94%, p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between patients with calcification of corornary artery and angiographic stenosis. The present study showed the low probability of significant stenosis without calcification and the high probability with multiple calcified lesions. (author)

  9. Identification of sequence motifs significantly associated with antisense activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peek Andrew S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the suppression activity of antisense oligonucleotide sequences is the main goal of the rational design of nucleic acids. To create an effective predictive model, it is important to know what properties of an oligonucleotide sequence associate significantly with antisense activity. Also, for the model to be efficient we must know what properties do not associate significantly and can be omitted from the model. This paper will discuss the results of a randomization procedure to find motifs that associate significantly with either high or low antisense suppression activity, analysis of their properties, as well as the results of support vector machine modelling using these significant motifs as features. Results We discovered 155 motifs that associate significantly with high antisense suppression activity and 202 motifs that associate significantly with low suppression activity. The motifs range in length from 2 to 5 bases, contain several motifs that have been previously discovered as associating highly with antisense activity, and have thermodynamic properties consistent with previous work associating thermodynamic properties of sequences with their antisense activity. Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between a motif's position within an antisense sequence and that sequences antisense activity. Also, many significant motifs existed as subwords of other significant motifs. Support vector regression experiments indicated that the feature set of significant motifs increased correlation compared to all possible motifs as well as several subsets of the significant motifs. Conclusion The thermodynamic properties of the significantly associated motifs support existing data correlating the thermodynamic properties of the antisense oligonucleotide with antisense efficiency, reinforcing our hypothesis that antisense suppression is strongly associated with probe/target thermodynamics, as there are no enzymatic

  10. The demonstration of significant ferroelectricity in epitaxial Y-doped HfO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takao; Katayama, Kiliha; Kiguchi, Takanori; Akama, Akihiro; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Sakata, Osami; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Ferroelectricity and Curie temperature are demonstrated for epitaxial Y-doped HfO2 film grown on (110) yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconium oxide (YSZ) single crystal using Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) as bottom electrodes. The XRD measurements for epitaxial film enabled us to investigate its detailed crystal structure including orientations of the film. The ferroelectricity was confirmed by electric displacement filed – electric filed hysteresis measurement, which revealed saturated polarization of 16 μC/cm2. Estimated spontaneous polarization based on the obtained saturation polarization and the crystal structure analysis was 45 μC/cm2. This value is the first experimental estimations of the spontaneous polarization and is in good agreement with the theoretical value from first principle calculation. Curie temperature was also estimated to be about 450 °C. This study strongly suggests that the HfO2-based materials are promising for various ferroelectric applications because of their comparable ferroelectric properties including polarization and Curie temperature to conventional ferroelectric materials together with the reported excellent scalability in thickness and compatibility with practical manufacturing processes.

  11. Missouri Soybean Association Biodiesel Demonstration Project: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Dale [Missouri Soybean Association, Jefferson City, MO (United States); Hamilton, Jill [Sustainable Energy Strategies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2011-10-27

    The Missouri Soybean Association (MSA) and the National Biodiesel Board (NBB) partnered together to implement the MSA Biodiesel Demonstration project under a United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant. The goal of this project was to provide decision makers and fleet managers with information that could lead to the increased use of domestically produced renewable fuels and could reduce the harmful impacts of school bus diesel exhaust on children. This project was initiated in September 2004 and completed in April 2011. The project carried out a broad range of activities organized under four areas: 1. Petroleum and related industry education program for fuel suppliers; 2. Fleet evaluation program using B20 with a Missouri school district; 3. Outreach and awareness campaign for school district fleet managers; and 4. Support of ongoing B20 Fleet Evaluation Team (FET) data collection efforts with existing school districts. Technical support to the biodiesel industry was also provided through NBB’s Troubleshooting Hotline. The hotline program was established in 2008 to troubleshoot fuel quality issues and help facilitate smooth implementation of the RFS and is described in greater detail under Milestone A.1 - Promote Instruction and Guidance on Best Practices. As a result of this project’s efforts, MSA and NBB were able to successfully reach out to and support a broad spectrum of biodiesel users in Missouri and New England. The MSA Biodiesel Demonstration was funded through a FY2004 Renewable Energy Resources Congressional earmark. The initial focus of this project was to test and evaluate biodiesel blends coupled with diesel oxidation catalysts as an emissions reduction technology for school bus fleets in the United States. The project was designed to verify emissions reductions using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols, then document – with school bus fleet experience – the viability of utilizing B20 blends. The fleet experience was expected to

  12. The environment associated with significant tornadoes in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikos, Dan; Finch, Jonathan; Case, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the environmental parameters favoring significant tornadoes in Bangladesh through a simulation of ten high-impact events. A climatological perspective is first presented on classifying significant tornadoes in Bangladesh, noting the challenges since reports of tornadoes are not documented in a formal manner. The statistical relationship between United States and Bangladesh tornado-related deaths suggests that significant tornadoes do occur in Bangladesh so this paper identifies the most significant tornadic events and analyzes the environmental conditions associated with these events. Given the scarcity of observational data to assess the near-storm environment in this region, high-resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) numerical weather prediction simulations are performed for events identified to be associated with a significant tornado. In comparison to similar events over the United States, significant tornado environments in Bangladesh are characterized by relatively high convective available potential energy, sufficient deep-layer vertical shear, and a propensity for deviant (i.e., well to the right of the mean flow) storm motion along a low-level convergence boundary.

  13. Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Shanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.

  14. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Linda E.; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan; Li, Qiyuan; M. Lee, Janet; Seo, Ji-Heui; Phelan, Catherine M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqin; Spindler, Tassja J.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T.; Edwards, Robert P.; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B.; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wlodzimierz, Sawicki; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sellers, Thomas A.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Berchuck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas (OC) but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOC). Genotypes from OC cases and controls were imputed into the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. Analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls identified three novel risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10−8), rs711830 at 2q31.1 (P = 7.5 × 10−12) and rs688187 at 19q13.2 (P = 6.8 × 10−13). Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis in ovarian and colorectal tumors (which are histologically similar to MOC) identified significant eQTL associations for HOXD9 at 2q31.1 in ovarian (P = 4.95 × 10−4, FDR = 0.003) and colorectal (P = 0.01, FDR = 0.09) tumors, and for PAX8 at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease. PMID:26075790

  15. Lexical Co-occurrence, Statistical Significance, and Word Association

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhari, Dipak; Laxman, Srivatsan

    2010-01-01

    Lexical co-occurrence is an important cue for detecting word associations. We present a theoretical framework for discovering statistically significant lexical co-occurrences from a given corpus. In contrast with the prevalent practice of giving weightage to unigram frequencies, we focus only on the documents containing both the terms (of a candidate bigram). We detect biases in span distributions of associated words, while being agnostic to variations in global unigram frequencies. Our framework has the fidelity to distinguish different classes of lexical co-occurrences, based on strengths of the document and corpuslevel cues of co-occurrence in the data. We perform extensive experiments on benchmark data sets to study the performance of various co-occurrence measures that are currently known in literature. We find that a relatively obscure measure called Ochiai, and a newly introduced measure CSA capture the notion of lexical co-occurrence best, followed next by LLR, Dice, and TTest, while another popular m...

  16. PADI2 is significantly associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Chang

    Full Text Available Citrullination, a posttranslational modification of peptidyl arginine to citrulline, plays an essential role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Citrullination is catalyzed by a group of peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs including PADI 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6. Many studies have indicated that the gene encoding PADI4 is a factor in susceptibility to RA. Some studies have detected PADI2 expression in RA synovial tissues, suggesting that PADI2 also plays an important role in the disease. This study evaluated the possible association between the PADI2-encoding gene and RA. Seventeen tag SNPs across the PAD locus were genotyped using a custom-designed Illumina 96-SNP VeraCode microarray. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with RA (n = 267, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, n = 51 and healthy controls (n = 160. The results of genotyping were verified using Sequenom MassARRAY in an independent cohort of 307 patients with RA, 324 patients with AS and 509 healthy controls. A western blot analysis was performed using synovial tissue from patients with RA (n = 7, osteoarthritis (OA, n = 7 and AS (n = 5 to determine the levels of expression of PADI2. A microarray analysis revealed a significant association between three selected PADI2 SNPs (rs2235926, rs2057094, rs2076616 and the presence of RA. The increased susceptibility to RA associated with rs2235926 (OR = 1.706733, 95% CI = [1.576366-1.866587], p = 0.000839 and rs2057094 (OR = 1.360432, 95% CI = [1.065483-1.869482], p = 0.003291 was further confirmed by the Sequenom MassARRAY. No tag SNPs in the PADI2 locus showed a significant association with AS. Increased expression of PADI2 was detected in RA synovial tissues compared with samples from patients with OA and AS. PADI2 is significantly associated with RA and may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  17. Demonstration of Cutaneous Allodynia in Association with Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, John

    2009-01-01

    Pelvic pain is a common condition that is associated with dysmenorrhea and endometriosis. In some women the severe episodes of cyclic pain change and the resultant pain becomes continuous and this condition becomes known as Chronic Pelvic Pain. This state can be present even after the appropriate medical or surgical therapy has been instituted. It can be associated with pain and tenderness in the muscles of the abdomen wall and intra-pelvic muscles leading to severe dyspareunia. Additional symptoms of irritable bowel and interstitial cystitis are common. A common sign of the development of this state is the emergence of cutaneous allodynia which emerges from the so-called viscero-somatic reflex. A simple bedside test for the presence of cutaneous allodynia is presented that does not require excessive time or special equipment. This test builds on previous work associated with changes in sensation related to gall bladder function and the viscera-somatic reflex(1;2). The test is undertaken with the subject s permission after an explanation of how the test will be performed. Allodynia refers to a condition in which a stimulus that is not normally painful is interpreted by the subject as painful. In this instance the light touch associated with a cotton-tipped applicator would not be expected to be painful. A positive test is however noted by the woman as suddenly painful or suddenly sharp. The patterns of this sensation are usually in a discrete pattern of a dermatome of the nerves that innervate the pelvis. The underlying pathology is now interpreted as evidence of neuroplasticity as a consequence of severe and repeating pain with changes in the functions of the dorsal horns of the spinal cord that results in altered function of visceral tissues and resultant somatic symptoms(3). The importance of recognizing the condition lies in an awareness that this process may present coincidentally with the initiating condition or after it has been treated. It also permits the

  18. Clinical significance of urothelial carcinoma associated 1 in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kun; Yang, Jing; Hu, Yuemei; Sun, Yaohua; Tan, Zhenyu; Duan, Jinglin; Zhang, Feng; Yan, Hongli; Deng, Anmei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (UCA1) in cancer tissues and plasma of colon cancer patients, and evaluate its clinical significance. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the expression levels of UCA1 in 80 pairs of colon cancer and adjacent normal tissues, plasma samples from 20 healthy controls, 20 colon cancer patients before and after tumor removal. The relationships between UCA1 expression and clinical features and overall survival were analyzed. Compared with adjacent normal tissues, UCA1 was significantly upregulated in colon cancer tissues, especially in cases with LNM and advanced TNM stages (P TNM stages (P colon cancer patients were significantly higher than those of controls (P = 0.016). There was significant difference in plasma level of UCA1 between samples taken before and after surgery (P = 0.048). In conclusion, tissue expression of UCA1 is related to prognosis in colon cancer. Plasma UCA1 may serve as a potential biomarker for early diagnosis and disease monitoring of colon cancer patients.

  19. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is Associated with Significant Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL- 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX and total antioxidant capacity (TAC by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01 and TPX (P < 0.0001 were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05 and TAC (P < 0.0001 were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely, as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001, but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies.

  20. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia;

    2016-01-01

    and inflammation; MAPK; calcium signaling) highly associated with longevity (P ≤ 0.006) in Han Chinese. The association with longevity of three of these four pathways (MAPK; immunity; calcium signaling) is supported by findings in other human cohorts. Our novel finding on the association of starch, sucrose...

  1. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan;

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOCs). Our analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls with imputation identified 3 new risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10(-8)), rs711830 at...

  2. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    ) and retinal venular calibre (central retinal vein equivalent) were measured computer-assisted on retinal photographs. Data on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and smoking were collected....... Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men...... cardiovascular risk factors were independently associated with retinal vascular calibre, with stronger effect of HDL cholesterol and BMI in men than in women. Blood pressure and smoking contributed most to the explained variance....

  3. Ectodermal dysplasias associated with clefting: significance of scalp dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosko, S W; Stenn, K S; Bolognia, J L

    1992-08-01

    Several clinical syndromes are characterized by ectodermal dysplasia (ED) in association with clefting of the lip and/or palate. The three most commonly recognized entities are (1) the EEC syndrome (ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, cleft lip/palate); (2) the Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome with ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate, and mid facial hypoplasia; and (3) the Hay-Wells or AEC syndrome (ankyloblepharon, ectodermal defects, cleft lip/palate). The clinical characteristics of these entities as well as several less common syndromes are reviewed and summarized. The presence of scalp dermatitis in patients with the AEC syndrome and less often the Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome is emphasized.

  4. Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: a globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, Laurence J; Ayling, Tony; Cappo, Mike; Choat, J Howard; Evans, Richard D; De Freitas, Debora M; Heupel, Michelle; Hughes, Terry P; Jones, Geoffrey P; Mapstone, Bruce; Marsh, Helene; Mills, Morena; Molloy, Fergus J; Pitcher, C Roland; Pressey, Robert L; Russ, Garry R; Sutton, Stephen; Sweatman, Hugh; Tobin, Renae; Wachenfeld, David R; Williamson, David H

    2010-10-26

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) provides a globally significant demonstration of the effectiveness of large-scale networks of marine reserves in contributing to integrated, adaptive management. Comprehensive review of available evidence shows major, rapid benefits of no-take areas for targeted fish and sharks, in both reef and nonreef habitats, with potential benefits for fisheries as well as biodiversity conservation. Large, mobile species like sharks benefit less than smaller, site-attached fish. Critically, reserves also appear to benefit overall ecosystem health and resilience: outbreaks of coral-eating, crown-of-thorns starfish appear less frequent on no-take reefs, which consequently have higher abundance of coral, the very foundation of reef ecosystems. Effective marine reserves require regular review of compliance: fish abundances in no-entry zones suggest that even no-take zones may be significantly depleted due to poaching. Spatial analyses comparing zoning with seabed biodiversity or dugong distributions illustrate significant benefits from application of best-practice conservation principles in data-poor situations. Increases in the marine reserve network in 2004 affected fishers, but preliminary economic analysis suggests considerable net benefits, in terms of protecting environmental and tourism values. Relative to the revenue generated by reef tourism, current expenditure on protection is minor. Recent implementation of an Outlook Report provides regular, formal review of environmental condition and management and links to policy responses, key aspects of adaptive management. Given the major threat posed by climate change, the expanded network of marine reserves provides a critical and cost-effective contribution to enhancing the resilience of the Great Barrier Reef.

  5. [Polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moth Henriksen, Marie; Kolmos, Eva Brøsted; Abildgaard, Niels; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Sindrup, Søren

    2012-10-22

    The prevalence of polyneuropathy in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) has been reported to be 10-50%. The majority of patients have a chronic, slowly progressive, distal, symmetric and predominantly sensory polyneuropathy. A caused relationship between polyneuropathy and immunoglobulin (Ig)M MGUS is better established than the relationship between polyneuropathy and IgG/IgA MGUS because of the observed binding of IgM to myelin sheaths and widening of myelin lamellae. In randomized controlled trials plasma exchange, immunosuppressive, rituximab and intravenous Ig have been found to have a clinical meaningful effect.

  6. Dimethyl fumarate-associated lymphopenia: Risk factors and clinical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longbrake, Erin E; Naismith, Robert T; Parks, Becky J; Wu, Gregory F; Cross, Anne H

    2015-01-01

    Background Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a disease-modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), causes lymphopenia in a fraction of patients. The clinical significance of this is unknown. Several cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in lymphopenic fumarate-treated patients have raised concerns about drug safety. Since lymphocytes contribute to MS pathology, lymphopenia may also be a biomarker for response to the drug. Objective The objective of this manuscript is to evaluate risk factors for DMF-induced lymphopenia and drug failure in a real-world population of MS patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 221 patients prescribed DMF at a single academic medical center between March 2013 and February 2015. Results Grade 2–3 lymphopenia developed in 17% of the total cohort and did not resolve during DMF treatment. Older age (>55), lower baseline absolute lymphocyte count and recent natalizumab exposure increased the risk of developing moderate to severe lymphopenia while on DMF. Lymphopenia was not predictive of good clinical response or of breakthrough MS activity on DMF. Conclusions Lymphopenia develops in a significant minority of DMF-treated patients, and if grade 2 or worse, is unlikely to resolve while on the drug. Increased vigilance in lymphocyte monitoring and infection awareness is particularly warranted in older patients and those switching from natalizumab. PMID:26550483

  7. Solubility increases associated with crystalline drug nanoparticles: methodologies and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Vermant, Jan; Martens, Johan A; Froyen, Ludo; Humbeeck, Jan Van; Van den Mooter, Guy; Augustijns, Patrick

    2010-10-01

    In this manuscript, the determination of solubility of crystalline drug nanosuspensions by a range of methods is critically investigated. As the determinations of solubility were performed in the presence of the solubilizing nanosuspension stabilizer d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), the potential effects of this excipient on the measurements were studied first. Solubility data of nanosuspensions of itraconazole, loviride, phenytoin and naproxen were generated using different methodologies. Data obtained using separation-based methodologies (centrifugation, filtration and ultracentrifugation) proved to be of limited use, due to poor nanoparticle separation efficiencies and/or significant adsorption of TPGS onto the nanoparticle surfaces. Light scattering and turbidity were found to be more suitable for the determination of nanosuspension solubility. The obtained data show that, unlike earlier reports, the solubility increases due to nanosizing are small, with measured increases of only 15%. These solubility increases are in fair agreement with what would be predicted based on the Ostwald-Freundlich equation.

  8. TLR3 Plays Significant Roles against HBV-Associated HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-lan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 is a pattern-recognizing receptor that is involved in immune signaling and plays a crucial role in survival by being able to recognize various viral components including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA. The role of TLR3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with hepatitis B virus (HBV infections is not well understood. To investigate the ability of TLR3 in regulating HBV replication in HCC, 80 cases of human HCC were collected and their tissue microarray was made. In HCC cells, the expression and location of TLR3, hepatitis-associated virus, and interstitial immunoreactive cells were assayed with immunohistochemical staining. The apoptosis of tumor cells was also detected by TUNEL stain. Correlations between TLR3 expression and HBV infection, interstitial immunoreactive cells, and cells apoptosis in HCC were investigated. In addition, we explored whether TLR3 agonist dsRNA can inhibit HepG2.2.15 cells secreting HBV. We found that the cytoplasmic expression of TLR3 in HCC is positively related to HBsAg infection and HCC with cirrhosis and promotes interstitial immunoreactive cells infiltration and cancer cells apoptosis. In HepG2.2.15 cells, dsRNA inhibited the secretion of HBV and induced apoptosis. These results indicate that TLR3 signaling activity may be involved in immune responses against HBV in HCC.

  9. Neural compensation in adulthood following very preterm birth demonstrated during a visual paired associates learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Brittain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Very preterm birth (VPT; < 33 weeks of gestation is associated with an increased risk of learning disability, which contributes to more VPT-born children repeating grades and underachieving in school. Learning problems associated with VPT birth may be caused by pathophysiological alterations in neurodevelopment resulting from perinatal brain insult; however, adaptive neuroplastic processes may subsequently occur in the developing preterm brain which ameliorate, to an extent, the potential sequelae of altered neurophysiology. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare neuronal activation in 24 VPT individuals and 22 controls (CT in young adulthood during a learning task consisting of the encoding and subsequent recognition of repeated visual paired associates. Structural MRI data were also collected and analysed in order to explore possible structure-function associations. Whilst the two groups did not differ in their learning ability, as demonstrated by their capacity to recognize previously-seen and previously–unseen visual pairs, between-group differences in linear patterns of Blood Oxygenation Level Dependant (BOLD activity were observed across the four repeated blocks of the task for both the encoding and recognition conditions, suggesting that the way learning takes place differs between the two groups. During encoding, significant between-group differences in patterns of BOLD activity were seen in clusters centred on the cerebellum, the anterior cingulate gyrus, the midbrain/substantia nigra, medial temporal (including parahippocampal gyrus and inferior and superior frontal gyri. During the recognition condition, significant between-group differences in patterns of BOLD activity were seen in clusters centred on the claustrum and the posterior cerebellum. Structural analysis revealed smaller grey matter volume in right middle temporal gyrus in VPT individuals compared to controls, however volume in this region

  10. How significant is the ‘significant other’? Associations between significant others’ health behaviors and attitudes and young adults’ health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Jerica M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status. This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n = 1212. Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

  11. Oxytocin and vasopressin genes are significantly associated with schizophrenia in a large Arab-Israeli pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teltsh, Omri; Kanyas-Sarner, Kyra; Rigbi, Amihai; Greenbaum, Lior; Lerer, Bernard; Kohn, Yoav

    2012-04-01

    We have previously studied the genetics of schizophrenia in a large inbred Arab-Israeli pedigree and found evidence for linkage on chromosome 20p13. This locus harbours four strong candidate genes for schizophrenia: atractin (ATRN), pantonate-kinase2 (PANK2), oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP). In this study we further explored the association of these genes with schizophrenia in the pedigree and searched for the disease-causing variants. A mutation screening of affected individuals from the pedigree was performed by using intensive sequencing in these four genes of interest. Then, we studied the prevalence of the identified variants in all family members (n=56) as well as in Arab-Israeli nuclear families (n=276) and a Jewish case-control sample (n=545). We also studied the possible functional role of these variants by examining their association with gene expression in the brain (n=104). We identified seven genetic variants in the OXT-AVP cluster in affected individuals from the pedigree. Three of these variants were significantly associated with schizophrenia in this pedigree. A 7-SNP haplotype was also significantly associated with disease. We found significant association of some of these variants in the two samples from the general population. Expression data analysis showed a possible functional role of two of these variants in regulation of gene expression. Involvement of OXT and AVP in the aetiology of schizophrenia has been suggested in the past. This study demonstrates, for the first time, a significant genetic association of these neuropeptides with schizophrenia and strongly supports this hypothesis.

  12. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Provide Significant Prognostic Information in Urothelial Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna M Boström

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of carcinogenesis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs can be associated with either poor or improved prognosis, depending on their properties and polarization. Current knowledge of the prognostic significance of TAMs in bladder cancer is limited and was investigated in this study. We analyzed 184 urothelial bladder cancer patients undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor or radical cystectomy. CD68 (pan-macrophage marker, MAC387 (polarized towards type 1 macrophages, and CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 (type 2 macrophages and lymphatic/blood vessels were detected immunohistochemically. The median follow-up time was 6.0 years. High macrophage counts associated with a higher pT category and grade. Among patients undergoing transurethral resection, all studied markers apart from CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 were associated with increased risk of progression and poorer disease-specific and overall survival in univariate analyses. High levels of two macrophage markers (CD68/MAC387+/+ or CD68/CLEVER-1+/+ groups had an independent prognostic role after transurethral resection in multivariate analyses. In the cystectomy cohort, MAC387, alone and in combination with CD68, was associated with poorer survival in univariate analyses, but none of the markers were independent predictors of outcome in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that macrophage phenotypes provide significant independent prognostic information, particularly in bladder cancers undergoing transurethral resection.

  13. Orienting response elicitation by personally significant information under subliminal stimulus presentation: demonstration using the concealed information test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Keren; Breska, Assaf; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2012-12-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that subliminal information can trigger cognitive and neural processes. Here, we examined whether elicitation of orienting response by personally significant (PS) verbal information requires conscious awareness of the input. Subjects were exposed to the Concealed Information Test (CIT), in which autonomic responses for autobiographical items are typically larger than for control items. These items were presented subliminally using two different masking protocols: single or multiple presentation of the masked item. An objective test was used to verify unawareness to the stimuli. As predicted, PS items elicited significantly stronger skin conductance responses than the control items in both exposure conditions. The results extend previous findings showing that autonomic responses can be elicited following subliminal exposure to aversive information, and also may have implications on the applied usage of the CIT.

  14. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Lorraine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm{sup 3} (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm{sup 3}, (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence.

  15. Lupus anticoagulant is significantly associated with inflammatory reactions in patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Sjøland, Jonas A.; Gram, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lupus anticoagulant (LA) and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are suggested as risk factors for development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) among patients without systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Other conditions, e.g. inflammation, are reported to induce LA and it is uncertain whether...... of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. The concentration of anticardiolipin (aCL) and beta(2)-glycoprotein I (anti-beta(2)-GPI) antibodies as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) was determined with sensitive and precise methods. RESULTS: LA was demonstrated in 8 patients with DVT and in 10 patients...... without DVT, relative risk 1.33 (CI: 0.55-3.18). No significant association was observed between aCL or anti-beta(2)-GPI and DVT. Patients suffering from DVT had significantly higher concentrations of CRP than patients without DVT. However, CRP was also significantly higher in patients positive for LA...

  16. Phenome Wide Association Studies demonstrating pleiotropy of genetic variants within FTO with and without adjustment for body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michael Cronin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS have demonstrated utility in validating genetic associations derived from traditional genetic studies as well as identifying novel genetic associations. Here we used an electronic health record (EHR-based PheWAS to explore pleiotropy of genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO, some of which have been previously associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D. We used a population of 10,487 individuals of European ancestry with genome-wide genotyping from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE Network and another population of 13,711 individuals of European ancestry from the BioVU DNA biobank at Vanderbilt genotyped using Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. A meta-analysis of the two study populations replicated the well-described associations between FTO variants and obesity (odds ratio [OR]=1.25, 95% Confidence Interval=1.11-1.24, p=2.10 x 10 9 and FTO variants and T2D (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.08-1.21, p=2.34 x 10 6. The meta-analysis also demonstrated that FTO variant rs8050136 was significantly associated with sleep apnea (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.07-1.22, p=3.33 x 10 5; however, the association was attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI. Novel phenotype associations with obesity-associated FTO variants included fibrocystic breast disease (rs9941349, OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.74-0.91, p=5.41x10 5 and trends toward associations with nonalcoholic liver disease and gram-positive bacterial infections. FTO variants not associated with obesity demonstrated other potential disease associations including noninflammatory disorders of the cervix and chronic periodontitis. These results suggest that genetic variants in FTO may have pleiotropic associations, some of which are not mediated by obesity.

  17. The prognostic significance of cancer-associated fibroblasts in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yun Ha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF are activated fibroblasts in the cancer stroma and play an important role in cancer progression. Some reports have indicated the correlation between the expression of CAF markers and adverse prognosis in several cancers. However, no reports have studied CAF phenotype and its clinical relevance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. METHODS: We investigated CAF phenotype of ESCC based on histology and immunohistochemical expressions of five CAF markers such as fibroblast activation protein (FAP, smooth muscle actin (SMA, fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRα, and PDGFRβ in 116 ESCC tissue samples. Besides, we also examined the correlation of the CAF phenotype with clinical relevance as well as other cancer-microenvironment related factors. RESULTS: Histologically immature CAF phenotype was correlated with poor prognosis (p<0.001 and associated with increased microvessel density, increased tumor associated macrophages, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. CAF markers were characteristically expressed in stromal fibroblast close to tumor cells and the expression pattern of 5 CAF markers was highly heterogeneous in every individual cases. Of five CAF markers, SMA, FSP1, and PDGFRα were unfavorable prognostic indicators of ESCC. The number of positive CAF markers was greater in ESCC with immature CAFs than in those with mature ones. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that histologic classification of CAF phenotype is a reliable and significant prognostic predictor in ESCC. CAF markers have the potential to be diagnostic and therapeutic targets in ESCC.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus is associated with gastric carcinoma: The question is what is the significance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the possible role of the Epstein- Barr Virus (EBV) in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). It is unclear whether EBV is involved in GC development or is a consequence of gastric inflammation secondary to immunosuppressive treatments. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out of all published observational studies on the temporal association between EBV and GC, with a view to determine a causal relationship. RESULTS: The present study showed that the worldwide crude prevalence of EBV in gastric adenocarcinoma was 8.29%. The prevalence varied from 7.08% for intestinal type and 9.82% for diffuse type of GC. It was observed that Western and Central Asian countries had a significantly higher frequency of EBV positive cases compared to South-Eastern countries. America had the highest EBV-GC prevalence whereas Europe had the lowest. CONCLUSION: The present review has demonstrated a high prevalence of EBV in gastric adenocarcinoma. However, studies designed to assess a temporal relationship and histological association using sensitive techniques should be carried out to establish the role of EBV in GC carcinogenesis.

  19. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Pistelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001 and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01, but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72 or overall survival (p = 0.93. Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  20. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistelli, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.pistelli@alice.it; Caramanti, Miriam [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo [Anatomia Patologica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy)

    2014-06-27

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  1. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, Mirco; Caramanti, Miriam; Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo; Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target. PMID:24978437

  2. A functionally significant polymorphism in ID3 is associated with human coronary pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Manichaikul

    Full Text Available We previously identified association between the ID3 SNP rs11574 and carotid intima-media thickness in the Diabetes Heart Study, a predominantly White diabetic population. The nonsynonymous SNP rs11574 results in an amino acid substitution in the C-terminal region of ID3, attenuating the dominant negative function of ID3 as an inhibitor of basic HLH factor E12-mediated transcription. In the current investigation, we characterize the association between the functionally significant polymorphism in ID3, rs11574, with human coronary pathology.The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA is a longitudinal study of subclinical cardiovascular disease, including non-Hispanic White (n = 2,588, African American (n = 2,560 and Hispanic (n = 2,130 participants with data on coronary artery calcium (CAC. The Coronary Assessment in Virginia cohort (CAVA included 71 patients aged 30-80 years, undergoing a medically necessary cardiac catheterization and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS at the University of Virginia. ID3 SNP rs11574 risk allele was associated with the presence of CAC in MESA Whites (P = 0.017. In addition, the risk allele was associated with greater atheroma burden and stenosis in the CAVA cohort (P = 0.003, P = 0.04 respectively. The risk allele remained predictive of atheroma burden in multivariate analysis (Model 1: covariates age, gender, and LDL, regression coefficient = 9.578, SE = 3.657, p = 0.0110; Model 2: covariates Model 1, presence of hypertension, presence of diabetes, regression coefficient = 8.389, SE = 4.788, p = 0.0163.We present additional cohorts that demonstrate association of ID3 SNP rs11574 directly with human coronary artery pathology as measured by CAC and IVUS: one a multiethnic, relatively healthy population with low levels of diabetes and the second a predominantly White population with a higher incidence of T2DM referred for cardiac catheterization.

  3. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  4. Association Mapping in Turkish Olive Cultivars Revealed Significant Markers Related to Some Important Agronomic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya Sozer; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2016-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important fruit trees especially in the Mediterranean countries due to high consumption of table olive and olive oil. In olive breeding, the phenotypic traits associated to fruit are the key factors that determine productivity. Association mapping has been used in some tree species and a lot of crop plant species, and here, we perform an initial effort to detect marker-trait associations in olive tree. In the current study, a total of 96 olive genotypes, including both oil and table olive genotypes from Turkish Olive GenBank Resources, were used to examine marker-trait associations. For olive genotyping, SNP, AFLP, and SSR marker data were selected from previously published study and association analysis was performed between these markers and 5 yield-related traits. Three different approaches were used to check for false-positive results in association tests, and association results obtained from these models were compared. Using the model utilizing both population structure and relative kinship, eleven associations were significant with FDR ≤ 0.05. The largest number of significant associations was detected for fruit weight and stone weight. Our results suggested that association mapping could be an effective approach for identifying marker-trait associations in olive genotypes, without the development of mapping populations. This study shows for the first time the use of association mapping for identifying molecular markers linked to important traits in olive tree.

  5. Determining the significance of associations between two series of discrete events : bootstrap methods /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehof, Jonathan T.; Morley, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    We review and develop techniques to determine associations between series of discrete events. The bootstrap, a nonparametric statistical method, allows the determination of the significance of associations with minimal assumptions about the underlying processes. We find the key requirement for this method: one of the series must be widely spaced in time to guarantee the theoretical applicability of the bootstrap. If this condition is met, the calculated significance passes a reasonableness test. We conclude with some potential future extensions and caveats on the applicability of these methods. The techniques presented have been implemented in a Python-based software toolkit.

  6. NCK2 is significantly associated with opiates addiction in African-origin men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifa; Guo, Xiaobo; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Heping

    2013-01-01

    Substance dependence is a complex environmental and genetic disorder with significant social and medical concerns. Understanding the etiology of substance dependence is imperative to the development of effective treatment and prevention strategies. To this end, substantial effort has been made to identify genes underlying substance dependence, and in recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have led to discoveries of numerous genetic variants for complex diseases including substance dependence. Most of the GWAS discoveries were only based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a single dichotomized outcome. By employing both SNP- and gene-based methods of analysis, we identified a strong (odds ratio = 13.87) and significant (P value = 1.33E - 11) association of an SNP in the NCK2 gene on chromosome 2 with opiates addiction in African-origin men. Codependence analysis also identified a genome-wide significant association between NCK2 and comorbidity of substance dependence (P value = 3.65E - 08) in African-origin men. Furthermore, we observed that the association between the NCK2 gene (P value = 3.12E - 10) and opiates addiction reached the gene-based genome-wide significant level. In summary, our findings provided the first evidence for the involvement of NCK2 in the susceptibility to opiates addiction and further revealed the racial and gender specificities of its impact.

  7. ER, p53 and MIB-1 are significantly associated with malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati H Munawer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phyllodes tumors (PT are rare. We evaluated the expression status of ER, Bcl2, p53, and MIB-1 protein in these tumors. Methods: One hundred and ninety-three tumors were examined using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray. Results: ERβ (p <0.001, and p53 (p=0.006 in the stromal component were associated with tumor size. p53 expression was significantly associated with both epithelial and stro­mal components of malignant PTs (p<0.05. In PT, the decreased expressions of p53 and MIB-1 were significantly different with positive Bcl2 protein expression in epi­thelial component (p=0.000. Besides, MIB-1 was also found to be associated with ERα and ERβ in stromal component (p=0.000. Conclusion: The expression of p53 with tumor size and histological grade in PTs may increase risk for malignancy.

  8. Statistics Related Self-Efficacy A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Demonstrating a Significant Link to Prior Mathematics Experiences for Graduate Level Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Larwin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined students' statistics-related self-efficacy, as measured with the current statistics self-efficacy (CSSE inventory developed by Finney and Schraw (2003. Structural equation modeling was used to check the confirmatory factor analysis of the one-dimensional factor of CSSE. Once confirmed, this factor was used to test whether a significant link to prior mathematics experiences exists. Additionally a new post-structural equation modeling (SEM application was employed to compute error-free latent variable score for CSSE in an effort to examine the ancillary effects of gender, age, ethnicity, department, degree level, hours completed, expected course grade, number of college-level math classes, current GPA on students' CSSE scores. Results support the one-dimensional construct and as expected, the model demonstrated a significant link between CSSE scores and prior mathematics experiences to CSSE. Additionally the students' department, expected grade, and number of prior math classes were found to have a significant effect on student's CSSE scores.

  9. Significance of Circulating and Crevicular Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Rheumatoid Arthritis-Chronic Periodontitis Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Silosi

    2015-01-01

    periodontal disease have been identified. Emerging as a chronic inflammatory joint disease, RA displays various features and pathogenetic events similar to chronic periodontitis (CP. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of determining systemic and crevicular levels of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 as potential biomarkers for association between RA and CP. A total of fifty-six patients were included in the study. The subjects were categorized into four groups as follows: healthy-control (n=21, active RA (n=16, CP (n=14, and RA-CP association (n=12. Assessment of serum and crevicular concentrations of total MMP-9 (active and pro-MMP-9 was based on ELISA technique. The results of this study showed statistically significant differences of serum MMP-9 between patients groups and control. Serum levels of MMP-9 were similar in RA and RA-CP associated patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF recorded increased MMP-9 levels in RA-CP association subjects as compared to CP. Considering that RA-CP association is characterized by a disregulation of the inflammatory response, MMP-9 may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA-CP association. MMP-9 is therefore a sensitive tool in the diagnosis and management of patients affected by this binomial association.

  10. Significant factors associated with fatal outcome in emergency open surgery for perforated peptic ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario Testini; Piero Portincasa; Giuseppe Piccinni; Germana Lissidini; Fabio Pellegrini; Luigi Greco

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the main factors associated with mortality in patients undergoing surgery for perforated peptic ulcer referred to an academic department of general surgery in a large southern Italian city.METHODS: One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients (M:F ratio=110:39, mean age 52 yrs, range 16-95) with peptic ulcer disease were investigated for clinical history (including age, sex, previous history of peptic ulcer, associated diseases, delayed abdominal surgery, ulcer site, operation type, shock on admission, postoperative general complications,and intra-abdominal and/or wound infections), serum analyses and radiological findings.RESULTS: The overall mortality rate was 4.0%. Among all factors, an age above 65 years, one or more associated diseases, delayed abdominal surgery, shock on admission,postoperative abdominal complications and/or wound infections, were significantly associated (χ2) with increased mortality in patients undergoing surgery (0.0001<P<0.03).CONCLUSION: Factors such as concomitant diseases, shock on admission, delayed surgery, and postoperative abdominal and wound infections are significantly associated with fatal outcomes and need careful evaluation within the general workup of patients admitted for perforated peptic ulcer.

  11. The association of genome-wide significant spirometric loci with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Peter J; Cho, Michael H; Litonjua, Augusto A; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A; Anderson, Wayne; Beaty, Terri H; Hokanson, John E; Crapo, James D; Laird, Nan; Silverman, Edwin K

    2011-12-01

    Two recent metaanalyses of genome-wide association studies conducted by the CHARGE and SpiroMeta consortia identified novel loci yielding evidence of association at or near genome-wide significance (GWS) with FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC. We hypothesized that a subset of these markers would also be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility. Thirty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 17 genes in 11 previously identified GWS spirometric genomic regions were tested for association with COPD status in four COPD case-control study samples (NETT/NAS, the Norway case-control study, ECLIPSE, and the first 1,000 subjects in COPDGene; total sample size, 3,456 cases and 1,906 controls). In addition to testing the 32 spirometric GWS SNPs, we tested a dense panel of imputed HapMap2 SNP markers from the 17 genes located near the 32 GWS SNPs and in a set of 21 well studied COPD candidate genes. Of the previously identified GWS spirometric genomic regions, three loci harbored SNPs associated with COPD susceptibility at a 5% false discovery rate: the 4q24 locus including FLJ20184/INTS12/GSTCD/NPNT, the 6p21 locus including AGER and PPT2, and the 5q33 locus including ADAM19. In conclusion, markers previously associated at or near GWS with spirometric measures were tested for association with COPD status in data from four COPD case-control studies, and three loci showed evidence of association with COPD susceptibility at a 5% false discovery rate.

  12. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with pregnancy outcome. Progesterone concentration was measured on stimulation day 1 and on the day of HCG administration in 475 patients who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment following ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and recombinant FSH...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late...

  13. NCK2 Is Significantly Associated with Opiates Addiction in African-Origin Men

    OpenAIRE

    Zhifa Liu; Xiaobo Guo; Yuan Jiang; Heping Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Substance dependence is a complex environmental and genetic disorder with significant social and medical concerns. Understanding the etiology of substance dependence is imperative to the development of effective treatment and prevention strategies. To this end, substantial effort has been made to identify genes underlying substance dependence, and in recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have led to discoveries of numerous genetic variants for complex diseases including substa...

  14. Longer duration of asthma is significantly associated with increased RV/TLC ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Anupama; Rahman, Kazi; Abejie, Belayneh; Jain, Vipul V; Vempilly, Jose Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Although FEV1/FVC ratio has been shown to be negatively associated with longer duration of asthma; an association between RV/TLC ratio and longer duration of asthma has not been explored. Patients with established asthma for more than a year and met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited. Data obtained by questionnaire after informed consent was obtained, Pulmonary function tests and laboratory results were collected through chart review. Correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data. Among the 93 subjects, 61 were women. The mean age of patients was 58 ± 15 years, and the mean duration of asthma was 21 ± 18 years. The ethnic composition included: Caucasians 64%, Hispanics 28% and other groups 8%. The FEV1/FVC ratio was not significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.15, p = 0.05). However, the RV/TLC ratio was significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.46, p TLC ratio may be a better indicator than FEV1/FVC ratio to detect airway obstruction related to longer duration of asthma. Lung volume measurements should be done in addition to spirometry to detect changes related to airway obstruction in patients with longer duration of asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism and erythrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-11-05

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that sub-clinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with CHD or mortality from cardiovascular causes but is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Moreover increased factor X activity in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism represents a potential hypercoagulable state. It has been also reported an acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries associated with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism and with a myocardial bridge too. It has been also reported an acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Furthermore it has been reported that at highly increased hematocrit levels patients may experience hyperviscosity symptoms. We present a case of atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism and erythrocytosis. Also this case focuses attention on the importance of a correct evaluation of subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  16. Diabetes is associated with impaired myocardial performance in patients without significant coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Peter R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM have high risk of heart failure. Whether some of the risk is directly linked to metabolic derangements in the myocardium or whether the risk is primarily caused by coronary artery disease (CAD and hypertension is incompletely understood. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging was therefore performed in DM patients without significant CAD to examine whether DM per se influenced cardiac function. Methods Patients with a left ventricular (LV ejection fraction (EF > 35% and without significant CAD, prior myocardial infarction, cardiac pacemaker, atrial fibrillation, or significant valve disease were identified from a tertiary invasive center register. DM patients were matched with controls on age, gender and presence of hypertension. Results In total 31 patients with diabetes and 31 controls were included. Mean age was 58 ± 12 years, mean LVEF was 51 ± 7%, and 48% were women. No significant differences were found in LVEF, left atrial end systolic volume, or left ventricular dimensions. The global longitudinal strain was significantly reduced in patients with DM (15.9 ± 2.9 vs. 17.7 ± 2.9, p = 0.03, as were peak longitudinal systolic (S' and early diastolic (E' velocities (5.7 ± 1.1 vs. 6.4 ± 1.1 cm/s, p = 0.02 and 6.1 ± 1.7 vs. 7.7 ± 2.0 cm/s, p = 0.002. In multivariable regression analyses, DM remained significantly associated with impairments of S' and E', respectively. Conclusion In patients without significant CAD, DM is associated with an impaired systolic longitudinal LV function and global diastolic dysfunction. These abnormalities are likely to be markers of adverse prognosis.

  17. Involvement of the PRKCB1 gene in autistic disorder: significant genetic association and reduced neocortical gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintas, C; Sacco, R; Garbett, K; Mirnics, K; Militerni, R; Bravaccio, C; Curatolo, P; Manzi, B; Schneider, C; Melmed, R; Elia, M; Pascucci, T; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Reichelt, K-L; Persico, A M

    2009-07-01

    Protein kinase C enzymes play an important role in signal transduction, regulation of gene expression and control of cell division and differentiation. The fsI and betaII isoenzymes result from the alternative splicing of the PKCbeta gene (PRKCB1), previously found to be associated with autism. We performed a family-based association study in 229 simplex and 5 multiplex families, and a postmortem study of PRKCB1 gene expression in temporocortical gray matter (BA41/42) of 11 autistic patients and controls. PRKCB1 gene haplotypes are significantly associated with autism (Pautism-associated alleles displayed mRNA levels comparable to those of controls. Whole genome expression analysis unveiled a partial disruption in the coordinated expression of PKCbeta-driven genes, including several cytokines. These results confirm the association between autism and PRKCB1 gene variants, point toward PKCbeta roles in altered epithelial permeability, demonstrate a significant downregulation of brain PRKCB1 gene expression in autism and suggest that it could represent a compensatory adjustment aimed at limiting an ongoing dysreactive immune process. Altogether, these data underscore potential PKCbeta roles in autism pathogenesis and spur interest in the identification and functional characterization of PRKCB1 gene variants conferring autism vulnerability.

  18. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg

    2010-09-01

    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P < .001) as well as alterations in clinical protocols (84% vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume.

  19. Significant association between polymorphism of the erythropoietin gene promoter and myelodysplastic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Susan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS may be induced by certain mutagenic environmental or chemotherapeutic toxins; however, the role of susceptibility genes remains unclear. The G/G genotype of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1617640 in the erythropoietin (EPO promoter has been shown to be associated with decreased EPO expression. We examined the association of rs1617640 genotype with MDS. Methods We genotyped the EPO rS1617640 SNP in 189 patients with MDS, 257 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 106 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 97 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 353 with chronic myeloid leukemia, and 95 healthy controls. Results The G/G genotype was significantly more common in MDS patients (47/187; 25.1% than in controls (6/95; 6.3% or in patients with other leukemias (101/813; 12.4% (all P P = 0.03. Time to neutrophils recovery after therapy was significantly longer in MDS patients with the G/G genotype (P = 0.02. Conclusions These findings suggest a strong association between the rs1617640 G/G genotype and MDS. Further studies are warranted to investigate the utility of screening for this marker in individuals exposed to environmental toxins or chemotherapy.

  20. Clinical significance of pharmacogenomic studies in tardive dyskinesia associated with patients with psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang FC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Florence CF Chang, Victor SC Fung Movement Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Pharmacogenomics is the study of the effects of genetic polymorphisms on medication pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. It offers advantages in predicting drug efficacy and/or toxicity and has already changed clinical practice in many fields of medicine. Tardive dyskinesia (TD is a movement disorder that rarely remits and poses significant social stigma and physical discomfort for the patient. Pharmacokinetic studies show an association between cytochrome P450 enzyme-determined poor metabolizer status and elevated serum antipsychotic and metabolite levels. However, few prospective studies have shown this to correlate with the occurrence of TD. Many retrospective, case-control and cross-sectional studies have examined the association of cytochrome P450 enzyme, dopamine (receptor, metabolizer and transporter, serotonin (receptor and transporter, and oxidative stress enzyme gene polymorphisms with the occurrence and severity of TD. These studies have produced conflicting and confusing results secondary to heterogeneous inclusion criteria and other patient characteristics that also act as confounding factors. This paper aims to review and summarize the pharmacogenetic findings in antipsychotic-associated TD and assess its clinical significance for psychiatry patients. In addition, we hope to provide insight into areas that need further research. Keywords: pharmacogenomics, tardive dyskinesia, cytochrome P450, pharmacogenetic, schizophrenia

  1. The significance of caudate volume for age-related associative memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, E; Toepper, M; Gebhardt, H; Gallhofer, B; Sammer, G

    2015-10-05

    Aging comes along with reduced gray matter (GM) volume in several cerebral areas and with cognitive performance decline in different cognitive domains. Moreover, regional GM volume is linked to specific cognitive sub processes in older adults. However, it remains unclear which regional changes in older individuals are directly associated with decreased cognitive performance. Moreover, most of the studies on this topic focused on hippocampal and prefrontal brain regions and their relation to memory and executive functioning. Interestingly, there are only a few studies that reported an association between striatal brain volume and cognitive performance. This is insofar surprising that striatal structures are (1) highly affected by age and (2) involved in different neural circuits that serve intact cognition. To address these issues, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to analyze GM volume in 18 younger and 18 older adults. Moreover, several neuropsychological tests from different neuropsychological test batteries were applied to assess a broad range of cognitive domains. Older adults showed less GM volume than younger adults within frontal, striatal, and cerebellar brain regions. In the group of older adults, significant correlations were found between striatal GM volume and memory performance and between prefrontal/temporal GM volume and executive functioning. The only direct overlap between brain regions associated with regional atrophy and cognitive performance in older adults was found for the right caudate: older adults showed reduced caudate volume relative to younger adults. Moreover, caudate volume was positively correlated with associative memory accuracy in older adults and older adults showed poorer performances than younger adults in the respective associative memory task. Taken together, the current findings indicate the relevance of the caudate for associative memory decline in the aging brain.

  2. Paradoxical emboli: demonstration using helical computed tomography of the pulmonary artery associated with abdominal computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalu, P.; Ferretti, G.R.; Bricault, I.; Ayanian, D.; Coulomb, M. [Service Central de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, CHU Grenoble (France)

    2000-02-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with a recent history of a cerebrovascular accident. Because of clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism and negative Doppler ultrasound findings of the lower limbs, spiral computed tomography of the pulmonary artery was performed and demonstrated pulmonary emboli. We emphasize the role of computed tomography of the abdomen, performed 3 min after the thoracic acquisition, which showed an unsuspected thrombus within the abdominal aorta and the left renal artery with infarction of the left kidney. Paradoxical embolism was highly suspected on computed tomography data and confirmed by echocardiography which demonstrated a patent foramen ovale. (orig.)

  3. Significant association of insulin and proinsulin with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-Zhi Jia; Xin-Li Li; Hai-Yan Wang; Wen-Zhu Ma; Zhi-Jian Yang; Shi-Wei Chen; Guang-Yao Qi; Chun-Fa You; Jian-Feng Ma; Jing-Xin Zhang; Zhen-Zhen Wang; Wei-Chong Qian

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between true insulin and proinsulin and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors.METHODS: Based on the random stratified sampling principles, 1196 Chinese people (533 males and 663 females,aged 35-59 years with an average age of 46.69 years) were recruited. Biotin-avidin based double monoclonal antibody ELISA method was used to detect the true insulin and proinsulin, and a risk factor score was set to evaluate individuals according to the number of risk factors.RESULTS: The median (quartile range) of true insulin and proinsulin was 4.91 mIu/L (3.01-7.09 mIu/L) and 3.49 pmol/L (2.14-5.68 pmol/L) respectively, and the true insulin level of female subjects was significantly higher than that of male subjects (P = 0.000), but the level of proinsulin displayed no significant difference between males and females (P = 0.566). The results of covariate ANOVA after age and sex were controlled showed that subjects with any of the risk factors had a significantly higher true insulin level (P = 0.002 for hypercholesterolemia, P = 0.021 for high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, P = 0.003 for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and P = 0.000 for other risk factors) and proinsulin level (P = 0.001 for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and P = 0.000 for other risk factors)than those with no risk factors. Furthermore, subjects with higher risk factor scores had a higher true insulin and proinsulin level than those with lower risk factor scores (P = 0.000). The multiple linear regression models showed that true insulin and proinsulin were significantly related to cardiovascular risk factor scores respectively (P = 0.000).CONCLUSION: True insulin and proinsulin are significantly associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors.

  4. An initial appraisal of the clinical significance of Roseomonas species associated with human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, M; Wong, J; Janda, J M

    1996-10-01

    We reviewed laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic data on 35 patients from whom organisms belonging to the genus Roseomonas, a pink-pigmented gram-negative coccobacillus, were isolated over a 22-year period (1972-1994). Roseomonas strains were most commonly isolated from middle-aged women with one of several underlying conditions, including cancer and diabetes. Roseomonas was most commonly isolated from the blood, in association with clinical signs of sepsis. Approximately 60% of all isolates were judged to be of possible clinical significance, either as primary or secondary pathogens; 75% of all strains were recovered in pure culture. Roseomonas gilardii was the most frequently isolated species and was significantly associated with septicemia and underlying immunocompromised conditions; the species of 29% of all Roseomonas isolates could not be unequivocally identified with presently available differential tests. Genomospecies 5, currently an unnamed taxon within the genus Roseomonas, was primarily recovered as a commensal from young adults attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. The findings suggest that although this genus appears to have an overall low pathogenic potential for humans, Roseomonas species-in particular, R. gilardii-may be significant pathogens in persons with underlying medical complications.

  5. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-04

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%-27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile.

  6. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, J Halskou; Ahlehoff, O; Dreyer, L

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor. Less is known about cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we investigated the risk of mortality and adverse cardiovascular events in patients diagnosed....... The corresponding HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.32 (95% CI 1.20-1.45) for CLE and 2.21 (95% CI 2.03-2.41) for SLE. CLE and SLE were associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. Local and chronic inflammation may be the driver of low-grade systemic inflammation....

  7. Significant chemical burns associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jason L; Wiles, Devin A; Kenney, Brian; Spiller, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    Concentrated laundry pods have been reported to cause significant clinical effects including oropharyngeal burns and respiratory distress requiring intubation. Dermal burns have been reported, but no incidents of serious isolated dermal injury have been published. We report a case of significant, isolated dermal injury as a result of dermal exposure to a concentrated laundry detergent pod. Total body surface area partial thickness burns in this case were estimated at approximately 2 % with an additional 4-5 % of total body surface area (TBSA) displaying superficial burns/chemical dermatitis. Health-care providers should be aware of this complication and should perform thorough dermal decontamination in the event of an exposure. Parents should be educated regarding the dangers associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod compounds and the need to secure these items away from children as well as proper decontamination techniques should an exposure occur.

  8. Familial adenomatous polyposis-associated desmoids display significantly more genetic changes than sporadic desmoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Robanus-Maandag

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumours (also called deep or aggressive fibromatoses are potentially life-threatening fibromatous lesions. Hereditary desmoid tumours arise in individuals affected by either familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP or hereditary desmoid disease (HDD carrying germline mutations in APC. Most sporadic desmoids carry somatic mutations in CTNNB1. Previous studies identified losses on 5q and 6q, and gains on 8q and 20q as recurrent genetic changes in desmoids. However, virtually all genetic changes were derived from sporadic tumours. To investigate the somatic alterations in FAP-associated desmoids and to compare them with changes occurring in sporadic tumours, we analysed 17 FAP-associated and 38 sporadic desmoids by array comparative genomic hybridisation and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Overall, the desmoids displayed only a limited number of genetic changes, occurring in 44% of cases. Recurrent gains at 8q (7% and 20q (5% were almost exclusively found in sporadic tumours. Recurrent losses were observed for a 700 kb region at 5q22.2, comprising the APC gene (11%, a 2 Mb region at 6p21.2-p21.1 (15%, and a relatively large region at 6q15-q23.3 (20%. The FAP-associated desmoids displayed a significantly higher frequency of copy number abnormalities (59% than the sporadic tumours (37%. As predicted by the APC germline mutations among these patients, a high percentage (29% of FAP-associated desmoids showed loss of the APC region at 5q22.2, which was infrequently (3% seen among sporadic tumours. Our data suggest that loss of region 6q15-q16.2 is an important event in FAP-associated as well as sporadic desmoids, most likely of relevance for desmoid tumour progression.

  9. Elizabethkingia anophelis bacteremia is associated with clinically significant infections and high mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Foo, Chuen-Hing; Curreem, Shirly O. T.; Lo, George Chi-Shing; Teng, Jade L. L.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Ng, Ricky H. Y.; Wu, Alan K. L.; Cheung, Ingrid Y. Y.; Chau, Sandy K. Y.; Lung, David C.; Lee, Rodney A.; Tse, Cindy W. S.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Que, Tak-Lun; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, the clinical importance of E. anophelis is poorly understood. We determined the clinical and molecular epidemiology of bacteremia caused by Elizabethkingia-like species from five regional hospitals in Hong Kong. Among 45 episodes of Elizabethkingia-like bacteremia, 21 were caused by Elizabethkingia, including 17 E. anophelis, three E. meningoseptica and one E. miricola; while 24 were caused by other diverse genera/species, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of the 17 cases of E. anophelis bacteremia, 15 (88%) were clinically significant. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (n = 5), followed by catheter-related bacteremia (n = 4), neonatal meningitis (n = 3), nosocomial bacteremia (n = 2) and neutropenic fever (n = 1). E. anophelis bacteremia was commonly associated with complications and carried 23.5% mortality. In contrast, of the 24 episodes of bacteremia due to non-Elizabethkingia species, 16 (67%) were clinically insignificant. Compared to non-Elizabethkingia bacteremia, Elizabethkingia bacteremia was associated with more clinically significant infections (P < 0.01) and positive cultures from other sites (P < 0.01), less polymicrobial bacteremia (P < 0.01), and higher complication (P < 0.05) and mortality (P < 0.05) rates. Elizabethkingia bacteremia is predominantly caused by E. anophelis instead of E. meningoseptica. Elizabethkingia bacteremia, especially due to E. anophelis, carries significant morbidity and mortality, and should be considered clinically significant unless proven otherwise. PMID:27185741

  10. Expression and clinical significance of obesity-associated gene STEAP4 in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H M; Cui, Y Z; Wang, W G; Cheng, H X; Sun, Y J; Zhao, H Y; Yan, Y Q

    2016-10-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical significance of the obesity-associated gene STEAP4 in obese children. Fifty-three obese children and 33 children with a standard body weight (control) from our hospital were recruited to this study. The expression of STEAP4 mRNA and protein in the adipose tissue were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in order to analyze the relationship between STEAP4 mRNA and protein levels and blood pressure, blood lipid profile, blood glucose levels, and inflammation in obese children. Obese children showed significantly lower levels of STEAP4 mRNA and protein in the adipose tissue compared to the control subjects (P obese subjects exhibited significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, and a significantly lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, compared to the control subjects (P obese children and was closely related to the blood pressure, blood lipid, blood glucose, and inflammation in these patients; therefore, these results could provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of childhood obesity.

  11. Position Weight Matrix, Gibbs Sampler, and the Associated Significance Tests in Motif Characterization and Prediction

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    Xuhua Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Position weight matrix (PWM is not only one of the most widely used bioinformatic methods, but also a key component in more advanced computational algorithms (e.g., Gibbs sampler for characterizing and discovering motifs in nucleotide or amino acid sequences. However, few generally applicable statistical tests are available for evaluating the significance of site patterns, PWM, and PWM scores (PWMS of putative motifs. Statistical significance tests of the PWM output, that is, site-specific frequencies, PWM itself, and PWMS, are in disparate sources and have never been collected in a single paper, with the consequence that many implementations of PWM do not include any significance test. Here I review PWM-based methods used in motif characterization and prediction (including a detailed illustration of the Gibbs sampler for de novo motif discovery, present statistical and probabilistic rationales behind statistical significance tests relevant to PWM, and illustrate their application with real data. The multiple comparison problem associated with the test of site-specific frequencies is best handled by false discovery rate methods. The test of PWM, due to the use of pseudocounts, is best done by resampling methods. The test of individual PWMS for each sequence segment should be based on the extreme value distribution.

  12. A significant association between BDNF promoter methylation and the risk of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuting; Ji, Huihui; Liu, Guili; Wang, Qinwen; Liu, Huifen; Shen, Wenwen; Li, Longhui; Xie, Xiaohu; Zhou, Wenhua; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-06-10

    As a member of the neurotrophic factor family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons. The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of BDNF promoter methylation in drug addiction. A total of 60 drug abusers (30 heroin and 30 methylamphetamine addicts) and 52 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for the current case control study. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to determine the methylation levels of five CpGs (CpG1-5) on the BDNF promoter. Among the five CpGs, CpG5 methylation was significantly lower in drug abusers than controls. Moreover, significant associations were found between CpG5 methylation and addictive phenotypes including tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and depression-dejection. In addition, luciferase assay showed that the DNA fragment of BDNF promoter played a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Our results suggest that BDNF promoter methylation is associated with drug addiction, although further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which BDNF promoter methylation contributes to the pathophysiology of drug addiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. Methods To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. Results We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor

  14. Prognostic significance of telomerase-associated parameters in glioblastoma: effect of patient age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Daniela; Ghanim, Bahil; Laaber, Magdalena; Wurm, Gabriele; Weis, Serge; Lenz, Stefan; Webersinke, Gerald; Pichler, Josef; Berger, Walter; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a heterogeneous, highly aggressive primary brain tumor with strongly variable patient survival. Because reliable prognostic biomarkers are lacking, we investigated the relation between telomerase-associated parameters and the disease course. Telomerase-associated parameters were determined in 100 GBM tissues and associated with clinical characteristics and overall survival. Expressions of telomere length, telomerase activity (TA), and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) were analyzed by quantitative PCR, telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay, and reverse transcriptase-PCR, respectively. Mutation status of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 was determined by direct sequencing, and O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR. Of 100 GBM tissues, 61 were positive for both hTERT mRNA and TA, with a highly significant correlation between both parameters (linear regression, P 60 y at diagnosis, P 60 y, both ns). Telomerase activation is not an independent prognostic parameter in GBM but predicts aggressive tumor behavior solely in a younger patient cohort.

  15. Proteus bacteriuria is associated with significant morbidity in spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, EW; Darouiche, RO; Trautner, BW

    2007-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective chart review. Objectives We investigated the morbidity associated with Proteus bacteriuria in a spinal cord injured (SCI) population. Setting Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Houston, Texas, USA. Methods We reviewed the medical records of all veterans with SCI who received care in our medical center during the past 3 years. Proteus bacteriuria was defined as the growth of Proteus species in any urine culture during the study period. Urinary stones were defined as either renal or bladder calculi. Results During the study period, 71 of the 501 subjects (14%) had Proteus and 90 (18%) had urinary stones. Twenty-seven percent of the subjects with Proteus had stones, and the association of Proteus with stones was significant (Pbacteriuria was likewise associated with complete injury, hospitalization, decubitus ulcers, and history of stones (PBacteriuria with Proteus predicted urologic complications in persons with SCI. Statement of Ethics All applicable institutional and governmental regulations concerning the ethical use of human volunteers were followed during the course of this research. Sponsorship This work was supported by USPHS grant HD42014. PMID:17179975

  16. Factors associated with an increased risk of vertebral fracture in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, J M; Royer, M; Schmidt-Tanguy, A; Hoppé, E; Gardembas, M; Bourrée, T; Hunault, M; François, S; Boyer, F; Ifrah, N; Renier, G; Chevailler, A; Audran, M; Chappard, D; Libouban, H; Mabilleau, G; Legrand, E; Bouvard, B

    2015-08-28

    Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of fractures. This study describes prospectively the bone status of MGUS patients and determines the factors associated with vertebral fracture. We included prospectively 201 patients with MGUS, incidentally discovered, and with no known history of osteoporosis: mean age 66.6±12.5 years, 48.3% women, 51.7% immunoglobulin G (IgG), 33.3% IgM and 10.4% IgA. Light chain was kappa in 64.2% patients. All patients had spinal radiographs and bone mineral density measurement in addition to gammopathy assessment. At least one prevalent non-traumatic vertebral fracture was discovered in 18.4% patients and equally distributed between men and women. Fractured patients were older, had a lower bone density and had also more frequently a lambda light chain isotype. Compared with patients with κ light chain, the odds ratio of being fractured for patients with λ light chain was 4.32 (95% confidence interval 1.80-11.16; P=0.002). These results suggest a high prevalence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures in MGUS associated with lambda light chain isotype and not only explained by low bone density.

  17. Measurement of biomarkers in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients and their significant association with disease severity: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, B E; Chauhan, A K; Low, J M; Moore, T L

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients a biomarker panel of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), IgM rheumatoid factor (RF), IgG RF, and IgA RF and compare to the presence of joint erosions (JE), joint space narrowing (JSN), and synovitis in order to evaluate aggressive disease. Sixty-eight JIA patients (19 RF positive polyarthritis, 23 RF negative polyarthritis, 17 persistent oligoarthritis, and 9 systemic-onset) were evaluated using the biomarker panel and compared to 18 healthy controls. All RF isotypes, anti-CCP antibodies, and COMP were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Statistically significant differences and associations were assessed for each biomarker in relation to JE, JSN, and synovitis. Multiple regression analysis was used to find the variables associated with joint damage and synovitis. Patients with JE and JSN had significantly elevated levels of IgA RF, IgM RF, and anti-CCP antibodies. COMP levels were higher in early disease, but also later in disease in patients with no JE or JSN. ESR, CRP, and IgA RF were significantly elevated in patients with active synovitis. Regression analysis showed IgM RF and disease duration to be associated with JE and JSN. Anti-CCP antibodies and COMP were also associated with JSN. CRP and IgA RF were associated with synovitis. Our findings demonstrate the importance of measuring IgM RF and IgA RF by ELISA and anti-CCP antibodies by ELISA, in addition to COMP in the assessment of JIA patients to determine severity of disease.

  18. Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is significantly associated with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Duy An; Nguyen, Thi Hong Duyen; Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Lan; Dai, Viet Hoa; Dang, Thi Minh Ha; Vo, Sy Kiet; Do, Dang Anh Thu; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; Nguyen, Huy Dung; Dinh, Ngoc Sy; Farrar, Jeremy; Caws, Maxine

    2009-11-01

    Consecutive fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant isolates (n = 109) identified at the Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital for Tuberculosis, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, were sequenced in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA and gyrB genes and typed by large sequence polymorphism typing and spoligotyping to identify the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Beijing genotype prevalence was compared with 109 consecutive isolates from newly presenting patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from the hospital outpatient department. Overall, 82.6% (n = 90/109) of isolates had mutations in gyrAB. Nine novel mutations were identified in gyrB (S486F, N538T, T539P, D500A, D500H, D500N, G509A, E540V, and E540D). The influence of these novel gyrB mutations on FQ resistance is not proven. The Beijing genotype was significantly associated with FQ resistance (odds ratio [OR], 2.39 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.34 to 4.25]; P = 0.003). Furthermore, Beijing genotype FQ-resistant isolates were significantly more likely than FQ-resistant isolates of other genotypes to have gyrA mutations (OR, 7.75 [95% CI, 2.84 to 21.15]; P = 0.0001) and high-level (>8 microg/ml) FQ resistance (OR, 11.0 [95% CI, 2.6 to 47.0]; P = 0.001). The underlying mechanism of the association of the Beijing genotype with high-level FQ resistance in this setting remains to be determined. The association of the Beijing genotype with relatively high-level FQ resistance conferred by specific gyrA mutations reported here is of grave concern given the epidemic spread of the Beijing genotype and the current hopes for shorter first-line treatment regimens based on FQs.

  19. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Yes-associated protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Wen-Fang; Guo, Gang; Gong, Jian-Ping; Ding, Xiong

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC) are the most aggressive malignancies with a poor prognosis in humans, and hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC) exhibits greater malignant behaviour. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an important downstream target of the Hippo signalling pathway. As an oncogene, it plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of tumours. Our study focuses on the clinical significance of YAP protein expression in HCC and CC. Furthermore, we sought to explore the different survival rates between HCC and CC. A total of 137 patients with HCC and 122 with CC after resection were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the expression of YAP. Our results showed that positive expression rates of YAP were more frequently noted in CC 67.2 % (82/122) than in HCC 56.9 % (78/137) (P = 0.024). High YAP expression in HCC and CC was significantly associated with tumour size (P < 0.001 and P = 0.019, respectively), liver cirrhosis (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively), vascular invasion (P = 0.047 and P = 0.018, respectively), multiplicity (P = 0.019 and P = 0.015, respectively), and intrahepatic metastasis (P = 0.015 and P = 0.047, respectively). Importantly, recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival rates were lower in CC with high YAP expression than in HCC with high YAP expression (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Overall, high YAP expression was more frequently found in CC than in HCC, and YAP overexpression was associated with poor survival rates in patients with HCC and CC. Targeting YAP treatment requires further prospective investigations in larger patient populations.

  20. Genome-wide significant association between alcohol dependence and a variant in the ADH gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Josef; Cichon, Sven; Treutlein, Jens; Ridinger, Monika; Mattheisen, Manuel; Hoffmann, Per; Herms, Stefan; Wodarz, Norbert; Soyka, Michael; Zill, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; Mössner, Rainald; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Dahmen, Norbert; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schmäl, Christine; Steffens, Michael; Lucae, Susanne; Ising, Marcus; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nöthen, Markus M; Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk; Rietschel, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is an important contributory factor to the global burden of disease. The etiology of AD involves both environmental and genetic factors, and the disorder has a heritability of around 50%. The aim of the present study was to identify susceptibility genes for AD by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The sample comprised 1333 male in-patients with severe AD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and 2168 controls. These included 487 patients and 1358 controls from a previous GWAS study by our group. All individuals were of German descent. Single-marker tests and a polygenic score-based analysis to assess the combined contribution of multiple markers with small effects were performed. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1789891, which is located between the ADH1B and ADH1C genes, achieved genome-wide significance [P = 1.27E-8, odds ratio (OR) = 1.46]. Other markers from this region were also associated with AD, and conditional analyses indicated that these made a partially independent contribution. The SNP rs1789891 is in complete linkage disequilibrium with the functional Arg272Gln variant (P = 1.24E-7, OR = 1.31) of the ADH1C gene, which has been reported to modify the rate of ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde in vitro. A polygenic score-based approach produced a significant result (P = 9.66E-9). This is the first GWAS of AD to provide genome-wide significant support for the role of the ADH gene cluster and to suggest a polygenic component to the etiology of AD. The latter result may indicate that many more AD susceptibility genes still await identification.

  1. Circulating TRAIL shows a significant post-partum decline associated to stressful conditions.

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    Giorgio Zauli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since circulating levels of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL may be important in the physiopathology of pregnancy, we tested the hypothesis that TRAIL levels change at delivery in response to stressful conditions. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a longitudinal study in a cohort of 73 women examined at week 12, week 16, delivery and in the corresponding cord blood (CB. Serum TRAIL was assessed in relationship with maternal characteristics and to biochemical parameters. TRAIL did not vary between 12 (67.6±27.6 pg/ml, means±SD and 16 (64.0±16.2 pg/ml weeks' gestation, while displaying a significant decline after partum (49.3±26.4 pg/ml. Using a cut-off decline >20 pg/ml between week 12 and delivery, the subset of women with the higher decline of circulating TRAIL (41.7% showed the following characteristics: i nullipara, ii higher age, iii operational vaginal delivery or urgent CS, iv did not receive analgesia during labor, v induced labor. CB TRAIL was significantly higher (131.6±52 pg/ml with respect to the corresponding maternal TRAIL, and the variables significantly associated with the first quartile of CB TRAIL (<90 pg/ml were higher pre-pregnancy BMI, induction of labor and fetal distress. With respect to the biochemical parameters, maternal TRAIL at delivery showed an inverse correlation with C-reactive protein (CRP, total cortisol, glycemia and insulin at bivariate analysis, but only with CRP at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Stressful partum conditions and elevated CRP levels are associated with a decrease of circulating TRAIL.

  2. Clinical significance of tumor-associated macrophage infiltration in supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Ying Lin; Xiao-Yan Li; Nakashima Tadashi; Ping Dong

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can elicit contrasting effects on tumor progression, depending on different tumor microenvironment. This study aimed to explore the correlation between TAM infiltration and clinicopathologic characteristics, metastasis, and prognosis of supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma. TAMs in intratumoral and peritumoral regions of 84 specimens of supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal CD68 antibody. The density of peritumoral CD68+ TAMs in recurrence cases (9/11) and in dead cases (17/23) were significantly higher than those in non-recurrence cases (33/73) and in survival cases (25/61), with significant differences (P = 0.024 and 0.007, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significant relationship between the infiltration of both intratumoral and peritumoral CD68+ TAMs and the overall survival of patients. The 5year survival rate was significantly lower in the group with a high density of intratumoral CD68+ TAMs than in the group with a low density (39.6% vs. 82.5%, P < 0.05). Similarly, the 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in the group with a high density of peritumoral CD68+ TAMs than in the group with a low density (50.6% vs. 73.1%, P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that T classification, distant metastasis, and intratumoral or peritumoral CD68+ TAMs were independent factors for disease-free survival, whereas T classification and intratumoral CD68+ TAMs were independent factors for overall survival. The results indicate that TAM infiltration in supraglottic laryngeal caminoma can be used to predict metastasis and prognosis and is an independent factor for prognosis.

  3. Presence of proteolipid protein in coelacanth brain myelin demonstrates tetrapod affinities and questions a chondrichthyan association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waehneldt, T V; Malotka, J

    1989-06-01

    The protein and glycoprotein compositions of CNS myelin from the living coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. An unglycosylated component of 25 kilodaltons showed substantially stronger immunoblot reactivity with antibodies against mammalian proteolipid protein (PLP) than lungfish glycosylated PLP. DM-20 (intermediate protein) was not detectable in either fish. The presence of unglycosylated PLP in CNS myelin of the actinistian coelacanth contradicts an association with cartilaginous fishes but supports tetrapod affinities closer than those of lungfish.

  4. Acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2012-04-05

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with coronary heart disease or mortality from cardiovascular causes but it is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Nowadays, there is growing interest regarding endogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses in a 75-year-old Italian woman with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Also this case focuses attention on the importance of a correct evaluation of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Significant association between TIM1 promoter polymorphisms and protection against cerebral malaria in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuchnoi, P; Ohashi, J; Kimura, R; Hananantachai, H; Naka, I; Krudsood, S; Looareesuwan, S; Tokunaga, K; Patarapotikul, J

    2008-05-01

    Although cerebral malaria is a major life-threatening complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Prolonged activation of the T helper type 1 (Th1) response characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha has been suggested to be responsible for immunopathological process leading to cerebral malaria unless they are downregulated by the anti-inflamatory cytokines produced by the Th2 response. The T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family of proteins are cell surface proteins involved in regulating Th1 and Th2 immune responses. In this study, the possible association between the polymorphisms of TIM1, TIM3, and TIMD4 genes and the severity of malaria was examined in 478 adult Thai patients infected with P. falciparum malaria. The TIM1 promoter haplotype comprising three derived alleles, -1637A (rs7702919), -1549C (rs41297577) and -1454A (rs41297579), which were in complete linkage disequilibrium, was significantly associated with protection against cerebral malaria (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.24-0.71; P= 0.0009). Allele-specific transcription quantification analysis revealed that the level of mRNA transcribed from TIM1 was higher for the protective promoter haplotype than for the other promoter haplotype (P= 0.004). Engagement with TIM1 in combination with T cell receptor stimulation induces anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokine production, which can protect the development of cerebral malaria caused by overproduction of pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines. The present results suggest that the higher TIM1 expression associated with the protective TIM1 promoter haplotype confers protection against cerebral malaria.

  6. Prognostic Significance and Clinicopathological Associations of COX-2 SNP in Patients with Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Grimminger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To further improve the screening, diagnosis, and therapy of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC additional diagnostic tools are urgently needed. Gene expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 has been linked to prognosis in patients with NSCLC. The role of the COX-2 926G>C Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in patients with NSCLC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the COX-2 926G>C SNP as a molecular marker in this disease. Methods. COX-2 926G>C SNP was analyzed in surgically resected tumor tissue of 85 patients with NSCLC using a PCR-based RFLP technique. Results. The COX-2 926G>C SNP genotypes were detected with the following frequencies: GG n=62 (73%, GC n=20 (23%, CC n=3 (4%. There were no associations between COX-2 SNP genotype and histology, grading or gender detectable. COX-2 SNP was significantly associated with tumor stage (P=.032 and lymph node status (P=.016, Chi-square test. With a median followup of 85.9 months, the median survival was 59.7 months. There were no associations seen between the COX-2 SNP genotype and patients prognosis. Conclusions. The COX-2 926G>C SNP is detectable at a high frequency in patients with NSCLC. The COX-2 926G>C SNP genotype is not a prognostic molecular marker in this disease. However, patients with the GC or CC genotype seem more susceptible to lymph node metastases and higher tumor stage than patients with the GG genotype. The results suggest COX-2 926G>C SNP as a molecular marker for lymph node involvement in this disease.

  7. Significant association of GRM7 and GRM8 genes with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjin; Ju, Kang; Li, Zhiqiang; He, Kuanjun; Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Qingzhong; Yang, Beimeng; An, Lin; Feng, Guoyin; Sun, Weiming; Zhou, Juan; Zhang, Shasha; Song, Pingping; Khan, Raja; Ji, Weidong; Shi, Yongyong

    2016-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7 (GRM7) and type 8 (GRM8) are involved in the neurotransmission of glutamate which is supposed to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorders (MDD). We designed this study to investigate whether common DNA variants or their genetic interactions within GRM7 and GMR8 genes were associated with these disorders in the Han Chinese population. Fourteen SNPs in GRM7 and GRM8 were selected within a sample set comprising 1235 SCZ patients, 1045 MDD patients and 1235 normal controls. Significant association in SCZ case-control subjects was observed for rs2229902 (permutated Pallele=0.0005, OR=1.492 [95% CI=1.231-1.807]) and rs9870680 (permutated Pallele=0.0023, OR=1.262 [95% CI=1.116-1.426]) in GRM7 and rs2237781 (permutated Pallele=0.0027, OR=1.346 [95% CI=1.149-1.575]) in GRM8. Association analysis for MDD case-control subjects revealed positive results in rs779706 (permutated Pallele=0.0099, OR=1.237 [95% CI=1.093-1.399]) of GRM7 and in rs1361995 (permutated Pallele=0.0017, OR=1.488 [95% CI=1.215-1.823]) of GRM8. Moreover, a three-locus model, constituted by polymorphisms in GRM7 and GRM8 significantly correlated with MDD in the gene-gene interaction analysis. Meta-analysis and haplotype analysis further confirmed our significant results. We demonstrated the genetic association of GRM7 and GRM8 with SCZ and MDD in the Han Chinese population. We also found susceptibility interactive effects of these two genes with both psychiatric disorders, which might provide new insights into the etiology of them.

  8. [Uncommon acne-associated syndromes and their significance in understanding the pathogenesis of acne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J-B; Prucha, H; Melnik, B; Ziai, M; Ring, J; Chen, W

    2013-04-01

    Acne is an intriguing model for the study of interactions between hormones, innate immunity, inflammation and wound healing (scarring). The manifestations and involvement of acne in different systemic diseases and some rare syndromes demonstrate its multifaceted nature. Synovitis-Acne-Pustulosis-Hyperostosis-Osteitis (SAPHO) and Pyogenic Arthritis-Pyoderma gangrenosum-Acne (PAPA) syndromes, both regarded as autoinflammatory diseases, highlight the attributes of inflammation in acne. While SAPHO syndrome can be used to explore the pathogenic role of Propionibacterium acnes in acne, PAPA syndrome and Apert syndrome can help understand the genetic influence on acne. The genetic defects in the gain-of-function of FGFR2 mutations in Apert syndrome and acne nevus of Munro lend further support to the hypothesis that the interaction of forkhead box class O (FoxOs)-mediated transcriptional regulation with androgen receptor transactivation and insulin/insulin like growth factor-1(IGF-1)-signaling is crucial in acne pathogenesis. Novel biologics, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers and IL-1 inhibitors, appear promising in opposing the inflammation associated with SAPHO and PAPA syndromes, but it remains to seen if they can also improve severe acne particularly in the long term.

  9. Physical exercise associated with NO production: Signaling pathways and significance in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Yu Dyakova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we review available data on nitric oxide (NO-mediated signaling in skeletal muscle during physical exercise. Nitric oxide modulates skeletal myocyte function, hormone regulation, and local microcirculation. Nitric oxide underlies the therapeutic effects of physical activity whereas the pharmacological modulators of NO-mediated signaling are the promising therapeutic agents in different diseases. Nitric oxide production increases in skeletal muscle in response to physical activity. This molecule can alter energy supply in skeletal muscle through hormonal modulation. Mitochondria in skeletal muscle tissue are highly abundant and play a pivotal role in metabolism. Considering NO a plausible regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis that directly affects cellular respiration, we discuss the mechanisms of NO-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle cells. We also review available data on myokines, the molecules that are expressed and released by the muscle fibers and exert autocrine, paracrine and/or endocrine effects. The article suggests the presence of putative interplay between NO-mediated signaling and myokines in skeletal muscle. Data demonstrate an important role of NO in various diseases and suggest that physical training may improve health of patients with diabetes, chronic heart failure, and even degenerative muscle diseases. We conclude that NO-associated signaling represents a promising target for the treatment of various diseases and for the achievement of better athletic performance.

  10. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-IIalcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity.

  11. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  12. Specific filaggrin mutations cause ichthyosis vulgaris and are significantly associated with atopic dermatitis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Toshifumi; Akiyama, Masashi; Sandilands, Aileen; Nemoto-Hasebe, Ikue; Sakai, Kaori; Nagasaki, Akari; Ota, Mitsuhito; Hata, Hiroo; Evans, Alan T; Palmer, Colin N A; Shimizu, Hiroshi; McLean, W H Irwin

    2008-06-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG) have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) and shown to be major predisposing factors for atopic dermatitis (AD). However, these studies have been mainly carried out in European populations. In early 2007, we identified two Oriental-specific FLG mutations in four Japanese families with IV and reported that filaggrin mutations were also significant predisposing factors for AD in Japan. However, the frequency of FLG mutations observed in our Japanese AD cohort (5.6%), was much lower than that seen in Europeans (up to 48%). Here, we studied a further seven Japanese families with IV and identified two additional nonsense mutations in FLG, S2889X, and S3296X. We found that more than 20% of patients in our Japanese AD case series carry FLG mutations, and there is significant statistical association between the four mutations and AD (chi(2) P=8.4 x 10(-6); heterozygote odds ratio 7.57, 95% CI 2.84-23.03). These data emphasize that skin-barrier impairment due to reduced filaggrin expression plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD and sheds further light on the genetic architecture of atopy in Japan.

  13. Association between micronucleus frequency and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade in Thinprep cytological test and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong-Hua; Wang, Bo-Wei; Tuokan, Talaf; Li, Qiao-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Jing

    2015-01-01

    A micronucleus is an additional small nucleus formed due to chromosomes or chromosomal fragments fail to be incorporated into the nucleus during cell division. In this study, we assessed the utility of micronucleus counting as a screening tool in cervical precancerous lesions in Thinprep cytological test smears under oil immersion. High risk HPV was also detected by hybrid capture-2 in Thinprep cytological test smears. Our results showed that micronucleus counting was significantly higher in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and invasive carcinoma cases compared to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and non-neoplastic cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that micronucleus counting possessed a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for identifying HSIL and invasive carcinoma. Cut-off of 7.5 for MN counting gave a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 66.7% (P = 0.024 and AUC = 0.892) for detecting HSIL and invasive carcinoma lesions. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only HSIL and invasive cancer lesions not age, duration of marital life and number of pregnancy are significantly associated with MN counting. The positive rate of high risk HPV was distinctly higher in LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer than that in non-neoplstic categories. In conclusions, MN evaluation may be viewed as an effective biomarker for cervical cancer screening. The combination of MN count with HPV DNA detection and TCT may serve as an effective means to screen precancerous cervical lesions in most developing nations.

  14. Yield of 48-hour Holter monitoring in children with unexplained palpitations and significance of associated symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Rabbia; Qureshi, Ahmad Usaid; Sadiq, Masood

    2017-07-01

    To determine the yield of 48-hour Holter monitoring in children with unexplained palpitations and the significance of associated symptoms. This descriptive study was conducted at the Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan, from January 1 to December 31, 2015. All children above 5 years of age with history of intermittent palpitations and normal basic cardiovascular workup were enrolled. A 48-hour Holter study was performed using Motara Holter Monitoring System. Frequency of various symptoms and abnormal Holter findings were analysed. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Of the 107 patients, 69(64.5%) were males and 38(34.5%) females. The median age was 10 years (interquartile range: 5-18 years). Most common concomitant symptoms with palpitation included syncope/pre-syncope in 35(32.7%) patients, chest pain 22(20.5%), shortness of breath 21(19.6%) and colour change/pallor 11(10.3%). Holter recording was positive in 40(37%) patients. Frequent premature ventricular contractions 12(11.2%) and atrial ectopic beats 9(8.4%) were the most common findings. Holter findings were significantly more common in patients with history of shortness of breath and colour change/pallor during palpitations (p=0.002). Extended 24-hour Holter monitoring in children with palpitations was an inexpensive, non-invasive investigation with a reasonably high diagnostic yield in detecting arrhythmias.

  15. Postranslational modifications significantly alter the binding-folding pathways of proteins associating with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoian, Garegin

    2012-02-01

    Many important regulators of gene activity are natively disordered, but fully or partially order when they bind to their targets on DNA. Interestingly, the ensembles of disordered states for such free proteins are not structurally featureless, but can qualitatively differ from protein to protein. In particular, in random coil like states the chains are swollen, making relatively few contacts, while in molten globule like states a significant collapse occurs, with ensuing high density of intra-protein interactions. Furthermore, since many DNA binding proteins are positively charged polyelectrolytes, the electrostatic self-repulsion also influences the degree of collapse of the chain and its conformational preferences in the free state and upon binding to DNA. In our work, we have found that the nature of the natively disordered ensemble significantly affects the way the protein folds upon binding to DNA. In particular, we showed that posttranslational modifications of amino acid residues, such as lysine acetylation, can alter the degree of collapse and conformational preferences for a free protein, and also profoundly impact the binding affinity and pathways for the protein DNA association. These trends will be discussed in the context of DNA interacting with various histone tails and the p53 protein.

  16. No significant association between halitosis and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adnan Tas; Seyfettin K(o)klü; (I)lhami Yüksel; (O)mer Ba(s)ar; Erdem Akbal; Ahmet Cimbek

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have focused on the relationship between halitosis,gastroesophageal reflux disease and Helicobacter pylori.In this study we aimed to investigate the interaction between halitosis and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings.Methods Patients who previously had dyspepsia and had undergone endoscopic examination were included in the study.Symptoms of dyspepsia were investigated by means of a questionnaire that investigated halitosis.Patients who suffered from objective halitosis (confirmed by questions both to the patient and their relatives) were further investigated.Patients with known local or systemic causes of halitosis or structural disorders at endoscopy were excluded.Results The study included 358 patients (121 men and 237 women) with dyspeptic symptoms.The patients with and without halitosis had mean ages of (39.4+13.5) and (43.1±14.9) years,respectively.Patients without halitosis were significantly older than those in the halitosis group (P <0.05).Patients in the halitosis group had significantly higher frequencies of regurgitation,bloating and nausea (P <0.05) when compared to patients without halitosis.Endoscopic findings,including esophagitis,open cardia,hiatal hernia,gastritis and duodenitis,were comparable in the two groups.Conclusions The frequency of halitosis was high in patients with dyspepsia who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.Halitosis had a close relationship with several upper gastrointestinal symptoms,including regurgitation,nausea and bloating.There was no significant association between upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and halitosis.

  17. Blood F2-isoprostanes are significantly associated with abnormalities of lipid status in rats with steatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man-Sie Zhu; Li-Juan Sun; Yue-Qin Uu; Yan-Ling Feng; Hai-Tao Tong; Ying-He Hu; Zheng Zhao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate oxidative stress and lipid peroxi-dation in hepatic steatosis and the underlying implica-tions in pathological mechanisms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).METHODS: F2-isoprostanes (iPF2α-Ⅲ) in blood and liver samples from steatotic (n = 9) and control (n = 7)rats were measured as in vivo marker of lipid peroxida-tion by a mass spectrometric approach. The lipid pro-file and endogenous antioxidant status (SOD and CAT)in the rats were also analyzed.RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of iPF2α-Ⅲ (mean3.47 vs 2.40 pmol/mg tissue, P = 0.004) and lower activities of SOD (mean 1.26 U vs 1.40 U, P < 0.001) and CAT (mean 1026.36 U/mg vs 1149.68 U/mg pro-tein, without significance) were observed in the livers of steatotic rats. Plasma total iPF2α-Ⅲ was significantly correlated with the abnormalities of blood lipids as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in the rats with simple steatosis, whereas no similar tendencies were observed in the control rats.CONCLUSION: Enhancement of hepatic oxidative imbalance occurring at the steatotic stage of NAFLD suggests a possibility that manifestation of the local oxidative damage precedes that of systemic oxidativeimbalance. Predominant metabolic features of the in-creased lipid peroxidation further suggest a close asso-ciation of the oxidative imbalance and the dyslipidemia with functional deterioration of the steatotic liver. The findings need to be further evaluated, especially in hu-man studies.

  18. Homeostatic plasticity in human motor cortex demonstrated by two consecutive sessions of paired associative stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J Florian M; Orekhov, Yuriy; Liu, Yali; Ziemann, Ulf

    2007-06-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) underlie most models of learning and memory, but neural activity would grow or shrink in an uncontrolled manner, if not guarded by stabilizing mechanisms. The Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM) rule proposes a sliding threshold for LTP/LTD induction: LTP induction becomes more difficult if neural activity was high previously. Here we tested if this form of homeostatic plasticity applies to the human motor cortex (M1) in vivo by examining the interactions between two consecutive sessions of paired associative stimulation (PAS). PAS consisted of repeated pairs of electrical stimulation of the right median nerve followed by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left M1. The first PAS session employed an interstimulus interval equalling the individual N20-latency of the median nerve somatosensory-evoked cortical potential plus 2 ms, N20-latency minus 5 ms, or a random alternation between these intervals, to induce an LTP-like increase in motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes in the right abductor pollicis brevis muscle (PAS(LTP)), an LTD-like decrease (PAS(LTD)), or no change (PAS(Control)), respectively. The second PAS session 30 min later was always PAS(LTP). It induced an moderate LTP-like effect if conditioned by PAS(Control), which increased if conditioned by PAS(LTD), but decreased if conditioned by PAS(LTP). Effects on MEP amplitude induced by the second PAS session exhibited a negative linear correlation with those in the first PAS session. Because the two PAS sessions activate identical neuronal circuits, we conclude that 'homosynaptic-like' homeostatic mechanisms in accord with the BCM rule contribute to regulating plasticity in human M1.

  19. Colon cancer associated genes exhibit signatures of positive selection at functionally significant positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Claire C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer, much like most human disease, is routinely studied by utilizing model organisms. Of these model organisms, mice are often dominant. However, our assumptions of functional equivalence fail to consider the opportunity for divergence conferred by ~180 Million Years (MY of independent evolution between these species. For a given set of human disease related genes, it is therefore important to determine if functional equivalency has been retained between species. In this study we test the hypothesis that cancer associated genes have different patterns of substitution akin to adaptive evolution in different mammal lineages. Results Our analysis of the current literature and colon cancer databases identified 22 genes exhibiting colon cancer associated germline mutations. We identified orthologs for these 22 genes across a set of high coverage (>6X vertebrate genomes. Analysis of these orthologous datasets revealed significant levels of positive selection. Evidence of lineage-specific positive selection was identified in 14 genes in both ancestral and extant lineages. Lineage-specific positive selection was detected in the ancestral Euarchontoglires and Hominidae lineages for STK11, in the ancestral primate lineage for CDH1, in the ancestral Murinae lineage for both SDHC and MSH6 genes and the ancestral Muridae lineage for TSC1. Conclusion Identifying positive selection in the Primate, Hominidae, Muridae and Murinae lineages suggests an ancestral functional shift in these genes between the rodent and primate lineages. Analyses such as this, combining evolutionary theory and predictions - along with medically relevant data, can thus provide us with important clues for modeling human diseases.

  20. Colon cancer associated genes exhibit signatures of positive selection at functionally significant positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer, much like most human disease, is routinely studied by utilizing model organisms. Of these model organisms, mice are often dominant. However, our assumptions of functional equivalence fail to consider the opportunity for divergence conferred by ~180 Million Years (MY) of independent evolution between these species. For a given set of human disease related genes, it is therefore important to determine if functional equivalency has been retained between species. In this study we test the hypothesis that cancer associated genes have different patterns of substitution akin to adaptive evolution in different mammal lineages. Results Our analysis of the current literature and colon cancer databases identified 22 genes exhibiting colon cancer associated germline mutations. We identified orthologs for these 22 genes across a set of high coverage (>6X) vertebrate genomes. Analysis of these orthologous datasets revealed significant levels of positive selection. Evidence of lineage-specific positive selection was identified in 14 genes in both ancestral and extant lineages. Lineage-specific positive selection was detected in the ancestral Euarchontoglires and Hominidae lineages for STK11, in the ancestral primate lineage for CDH1, in the ancestral Murinae lineage for both SDHC and MSH6 genes and the ancestral Muridae lineage for TSC1. Conclusion Identifying positive selection in the Primate, Hominidae, Muridae and Murinae lineages suggests an ancestral functional shift in these genes between the rodent and primate lineages. Analyses such as this, combining evolutionary theory and predictions - along with medically relevant data, can thus provide us with important clues for modeling human diseases. PMID:22788692

  1. Significant association between Helicobacter pylori infection and serum C-reactive protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Ishida, Koji Suzuki, Kentaro Taki, Toshimitsu Niwa, Shozo Kurotsuchi, Hisao Ando, Akira Iwase, Kazuko Nishio, Kenji Wakai, Yoshinori Ito, Nobuyuki Hamajima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in gastric mucosa may cause systemic inflammatory reaction. This study aimed to examine the association between the infection and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP. Methods: Subjects were comprised of three groups; 453 health checkup examinees from Yakumo town inhabitants in Hokkaido, Japan (YTI, 153 males and 300 females, 449 health checkup examinees (ENUH, 273 males and 176 females, and 255 female patients of an infertility clinic (PIC, Nagoya University Hospital. Twenty participants with hsCRP more than 1 mg/dl were excluded from the analysis. Those with hsCRP more than 0.1mg/dl were defined as high hsCRP individuals. H. pylori infection status was examined with a serum IgG antibody test. Results: When the three groups were combined, the geometric mean of hsCRP concentration was significantly higher among the seropositives (0.047mg/dl than among the seronegatives (0.035mg/dl; p<0.0001 by a t-test. The percentage of high hsCRP individuals was also higher in the seropositives than in the seronegatives among any group; 23.3% and 20.1% in YTI, 22.0% and 16.0% in ENUH, and 32.7% and 18.7% in PIC, respectively, although the difference was significant only in ENUH. The summary odds ratio of the high hsCRP for the seropositives relative to the seronegatives was 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.89, when age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and subject group were adjusted by a logistic model. Conclusions: In three groups, hsCRP was higher among the infected individuals. The summary odd ratio indicated that H. pylori infection could influence the serum hsCRP level.

  2. SULF 1 gene polymorphism, rs6990375 is in significant association with fetus failure in IVF technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Taghizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfatase 1 (SULF1 function is to remove the 6-O-sulphate group from heparan sulfate. This action changes the binding sites of extracellular growth factors. SULF1 expression has been reported to be changed in angiogenesis. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of SULF1 would impact clinicopathologic characteristics. Objective: Study of SULF1 gene polymorphism with fetus failure in in vitro fertilization (IVF technique. Materials and Methods: We studied one common (minor allele frequency >0.05 regulatory SNP, rs6990375, with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method, in 53 infertile women with fetus failure in IVF technique and 53 women with at least one healthy child as controls. Results: We found that rs6990375 is significantly associated with an early failure in IVF and frequency of G allele is high in women with fetus failure in IVF technique (p<0.001. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SULF1genetic variations may play a role in IVF technique fetus failure. Further studies with large sample sizes on SULF1 SNPs may be useful in support of this claim.

  3. Bifurcation Location Is Significantly Associated with Rupture of Small Intracranial Aneurysms (<5 mm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Ji, Wenjun; Qian, Zenghui; Liu, Peng; Kang, Huibin; Wen, Xiaolong; Xu, Wenjuan; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue; Liu, Aihua

    2017-02-01

    Patients with small (center between February 2009 and December 2014. The enrolled patients were divided into ruptured and unruptured groups. The risk factors for aneurysmal rupture were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 548 patients with 618 small intracranial aneurysms (267 ruptured and 351 unruptured) were included. Univariate analysis showed that rupture of small aneurysms was related to sex, age, smoking, hypertension, aspect ratio, size ratio, irregular shape, aneurysm width, height, and neck diameter, and location at bifurcation or posterior circulation. Multivariate logistic regression showed that rupture was associated with bifurcation location (odds ratio [OR], 5.409; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.656-8.001; P location (OR, 2.624; 95% CI, 1.428-4.824; P = 0.002), hypertension (OR, 1.698; 95% CI, 1.1140-2.527; P = 0.009), and age at diagnosis of UIA (OR, 1.826; 95% CI, 1.225-2.723; P = 0.003). This study showed that 70.4% of small ruptured intracranial aneurysms (located at parent artery bifurcations and that bifurcation location was a significant independent factor for the risk of rupture of small UIAs (location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Significant worsening sperm parameters are associated to testicular hypotrophy in patients with a high grade varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, O; Aslan, Y; Balci, M; Tuncel, A; Unal, B; Atan, A

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between testicular volume and semen parameter sin patients with unilateral high grade left varicocele. One hundred eighty seven patients who had left high grade varicocele aged 19-to-25 years were included in this study. All patients underwent a standard evaluation, including medical history and physical examination. The percentage testicular volume difference between the right and left testicles was calculated. The patients were divided into the following three groups; Group 1 (n=72) testicular volume difference 20% Group 3 (n=41). The mean age and BMI of the patients were 21.5 years and 23.1kg/m(2), respectively (P=.596, P=.943). The semen parameters and testicular volumes of the three groups were compared. The total motile sperm count, percentage of motile sperm, percentage of normal morphology sperm were found to be lower in Group 3 (P=.011, P=.012, P=.029 respectively). The mean testicular volumes for the left and the right testis were found to be 15.2cm(3) and 17.7cm(3) (P<.001), respectively. No significant difference was found in the right testicular volumes between groups (17.4, 17.7 and 18.1cm(3), P=.573). A high grade left testicular varicocele is associated with ipsilateral testicular hypotrophy and parallel to worsened sperm parameters. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  6. The prognostic significance of virus-associated changes in grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Worning, A M; Nordsten, M

    1987-01-01

    patients the treatment was unsuccessful (persistence, recurrence, or progression of the neoplasia). The frequency of treatment failure was 33% in patients with, and 10% in patients without virus-associated changes (p less than 0.025). It is recommended that patients with CIN 1 and virus-associated changes......Virus-associated changes of the cervix uteri were assessed in patients treated for grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). Of 106 patients evaluated, 67 (63%) had virus-associated changes. The patients were treated without regard to the presence/absence of virus-associated changes. In 26...... should, after initial treatment, be followed-up with increased attention....

  7. Continuous Collection of Adeno-Associated Virus from Producer Cell Medium Significantly Increases Total Viral Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benskey, Matthew J; Sandoval, Ivette M; Manfredsson, Fredric P

    2016-02-01

    The ability to efficiently produce large amounts of high-titer recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a prerequisite to the continued success of AAV as a gene therapy tool targeted toward large-animal preclinical studies or human clinical therapeutics. Current manufacturing procedures necessitate laborious and time-consuming purification procedures to obtain AAV particles of sufficient titer and purity for these demanding biomedical applications. The finding that AAV can be harvested and purified from producer cell medium may represent an efficient alternative to purifying AAV from cellular lysates. Here we sought to determine the maximum duration of time, and frequency within which AAV can be harvested from producer cell medium, in order to maximize the yield obtained from a single transfection preparation. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with polyethylenimine to produce AAV2/5 expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), and cellular medium was harvested every 2 days until a maximum duration of 19 days posttransfection. AAV2/5-GFP was released into producer cell medium at a steady state until 7 days posttransfection, at which time titers dropped dramatically. Harvesting medium every two days resulted in the maximum yield of AAV from a single preparation, and the cumulative yield of AAV harvested from the producer cell medium was 4-fold higher than the yield obtained from a traditional purification of AAV from cellular lysates. The AAV2/5 harvested from medium within the 7-day collection time-course mediated high levels of transduction in vivo, comparable to AAV2/5 harvested from cellular lysates. AAV purified from cell lysates showed increasing amounts of empty particles at 5 and 7 days posttransfection, whereas AAV purified from cell medium did not show an increase in the amount of empty particles throughout the 7-day time course. Finally, we extended these findings to AAV2/9, demonstrating that a comparable ratio of AAV2/9 particles are

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma associated microRNA expression signature: integrated bioinformatics analysis, experimental validation and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ke-Qing; Lin, Zhuo; Chen, Xiang-Jian; Song, Mei; Wang, Yu-Qun; Cai, Yi-Jing; Yang, Nai-Bing; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Dong, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2015-09-22

    microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles varied greatly among current studies due to different technological platforms and small sample size. Systematic and integrative analysis of published datesets that compared the miRNA expression profiles between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue and paired adjacent noncancerous liver tissue was performed to determine candidate HCC associated miRNAs. Moreover, we further validated the confirmed miRNAs in a clinical setting using qRT-PCR and Tumor Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. A miRNA integrated-signature of 5 upregulated and 8 downregulated miRNAs was identified from 26 published datesets in HCC using robust rank aggregation method. qRT-PCR demonstrated that miR-93-5p, miR-224-5p, miR-221-3p and miR-21-5p was increased, whereas the expression of miR-214-3p, miR-199a-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-150-5p and miR-145-5p was decreased in the HCC tissues, which was also validated on TCGA dataset. A miRNA based score using LASSO regression model provided a high accuracy for identifying HCC tissue (AUC = 0.982): HCC risk score = 0.180E_miR-221 + 0.0262E_miR-21 - 0.007E_miR-223 - 0.185E_miR-130a. E_miR-n = Log 2 (expression of microRNA n). Furthermore, expression of 5 miRNAs (miR-222, miR-221, miR-21 miR-214 and miR-130a) correlated with pathological tumor grade. Cox regression analysis showed that miR-21 was related with 3-year survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.509, 95%CI: 1.079-2.112, P = 0.016) and 5-year survival (HR: 1.416, 95%CI: 1.057-1.897, P = 0.020). However, none of the deregulated miRNAs was related with microscopic vascular invasion. This study provides a basis for further clinical application of miRNAs in HCC.

  9. Retroaortic left innominate vein – Incidence, association with congenital heart defects, embryology, and clinical significance

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis of echocardiograms, the incidence of retroaortic innominate vein was found to be 0.55% amongst children with congenital heart disease. It was most commonly associated with tetralogy of Fallot and right aortic arch.

  10. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yongbo Wang; Xiang Gao; Pardis Pedram; Mariam Shahidi; Jianling Du; Yanqing Yi; Wayne Gulliver; Hongwei Zhang; Guang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects particip...

  11. When neutral turns significant: brain dynamics of rapidly formed associations between neutral stimuli and emotional contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Bort, Carlos; Löw, Andreas; Wendt, Julia; Dolcos, Florin; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2016-09-01

    The ability to associate neutral stimuli with motivationally relevant outcomes is an important survival strategy. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate brain dynamics of associative emotional learning when participants were confronted with multiple heterogeneous information. Participants viewed 144 different objects in the context of 144 different emotional and neutral background scenes. During each trial, neutral objects were shown in isolation and then paired with the background scene. All pairings were presented twice to compare ERPs in response to neutral objects before and after single association. After single pairing, neutral objects previously encoded in the context of emotional scenes evoked a larger P100 over occipital electrodes compared to objects that were previously paired with neutral scenes. Likewise, larger late positive potentials (LPPs) were observed over parieto-occipital electrodes (450-750 ms) for objects previously associated with emotional relative to neutral contexts. The LPP - but not P100 - enhancement was also related to subjective object/context binding. Taken together, our ERP data provide evidence for fast emotional associative learning, as reflected by heightened perceptual and sustained elaborative processing for neutral information previously encountered in emotional contexts. These findings could assist in understanding binding mechanisms in stress and anxiety, as well as in addiction and eating-related disorders. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Lack of significant association between spina bifida and the fragile X syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiano, C.M. [United Cerebral Palsy of Nassau County, Roosevelt, NY (United States); Demb, H.B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Brown, W.T. [Inst. for Basic Research, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    1995-12-04

    Folic acid is involved in two common disorders associated with developmental disabilities. Spina bifida is a malformation that may be associated with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and epilepsy. Its incidence can be reduced by the ingestion of folic acid before, and at the time of, conception. The fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder which is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. This disorder can be diagnosed by the induction of fragile sites on the X chromosome which is cultured in a medium deficient in folic acid. In several studies, folic acid was reported to alleviate some of the developmental and behavioral manifestations associated in the fragile X syndrome, while in others, it has no effect. 9 refs.

  13. Diversity and significance of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea associated with coniferous trees in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiedrowicz Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the approximately 200 eriophyoid mite species associated with coniferous trees worldwide, 33 species (of the families Eriophyidae and Phytoptidae infest conifers in Poland, and 24 of them can cause visible feeding symptoms. In this paper we discuss the importance of eriophyoid mites to coniferous plants in Poland and their potential impact on the decorative value of ornamental plants. We emphasize the general lack of knowledge about the diversity of eriophyoid mites associated with coniferous trees and its role in the management and control of this economically important mite group.

  14. Mumps Parotitis and Ovarian Cancer: Modern Significance of an Historic Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    parotitis and subsequent development of ovarian cancer. On June of 2009, we searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science and EMBASE using the...association between history of mumps parotitis and subsequent development of ovarian cancer. On June of 2009, we searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science and

  15. Tuberculosis relapse in Vietnam is significantly associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M.N.; Buu, T.N.; Tiemersma, E.; Lan, N.T.; Dung, N.H.; Kremer, K.; Soolingen, D.V.; Cobelens, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is associated with multi-drug resistance and is emerging. A possible explanation for this genotype's success is an increased rate of relapse. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, isolates from patients with smear-positive tub

  16. [Functional rheoencephalographic studies of the frontomastoid line in work associated with significant neuropsychologic stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolski, I

    1981-01-01

    Rheoencephalographic investigations of frontal-mastoid trace were carried out on 27 clinically healthy subjects - bank women book-keepers, inspectors and women tellers, their labour activity being associated with a considerable nervous psychic strain and high professional responsibility. The data from the investigations revealed certain unfavourable functional changes in the rheoencephalographic indices studied: Light elevation (16%) of amplitude of rheographic wave, asymmetry of 20-88.13% of that index in 51.8 per cent of the subjects examined; asymmetry of the time of rheographic wave spread over 20 per cent in 37 per cent of the case and 55.53 per cent of the subjects examined - moderately manifested vegetative dystonic phenomena. The unfavourable functional changes could be associated with a considerable nervous-psychic strain during the labour activity of the subjects examined.

  17. A Study to Interpret the Biological Significance of Behavior Associated with 3S Experimental Sonar Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Behavior Associated with 3S Experimental Sonar Exposures Patrick Miller Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute School of Biology...to investigate behavioral reactions of cetaceans to naval sonar and various control sounds, and the sound exposures required to elicit responses, in...order to establish safety limits for sonar operations. 3S project efforts have been focused upon informing the ‘exposure-effect assessment

  18. Significant association between Helicobacter pylori infection and serum C-reactive protein

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in gastric mucosa may cause systemic inflammatory reaction. This study aimed to examine the association between the infection and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Methods: Subjects were comprised of three groups; 453 health checkup examinees from Yakumo town inhabitants in Hokkaido, Japan (YTI, 153 males and 300 females), 449 health checkup examinees (ENUH, 273 males and 176 females), and 255 female patients of an inferti...

  19. Traction bronchiectasis in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: associated computed tomographic features and physiological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Sujal R. [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, SE5 9RS, London (United Kingdom); Wells, Athol U.; Bois, Roland M. du [Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, Emmanuel Kaye Building, Manresa Road, Fulham, SW6 6LR, London (United Kingdom); Rubens, Michael B.; Hansell, David M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, SW3 6NP, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the associated CT features and physiological consequences of traction bronchiectasis in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). The CT scans of 212 patients with CFA (158 men, 54 women; mean age 62.2{+-}10.6 years) were evaluated independently by two observers. The extent of fibrosis, the proportions of a reticular pattern and ground-glass opacification and the extent of emphysema were scored at five levels. The predominant CT pattern, coarseness of a reticular pattern and severity of traction bronchiectasis were graded semiquantitatively. Physiological indices were correlated with CT features. There was traction bronchiectasis on CT in 202 of 212 (95%) patients. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis was independently associated with increasingly extensive CFA (p<0.0005), a coarser reticular pattern (p<0.001), a lower proportion of ground-glass opacification (p<0.005) and less extensive emphysema (p<0.0005). Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis was independently related to depression of DL{sub CO} (p<0.005), FVC (p=0.02) and pO{sub 2} (p<0.0005), but not indices of air-flow obstruction. In CFA, traction bronchiectasis increases with more extensive disease, a lower proportion of ground-glass opacification and a coarser reticular pattern, but it decreases with concurrent emphysema. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis is associated with additional physiological impairment for a given extent of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. (orig.)

  20. 76 FR 74069 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; Finding of No Significant Impact Associated With the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    .... ADDRESSES: A copy of the Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact may be accessed... these administrative changes. Completing this EA would allow the administrative changes but would not... need to issue a license agreement to JSSD as part of the process. Dated: November 21, 2011. Reed R...

  1. No significant association of aspirin use with cerebral microbleeds in the asymptomatic elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Kyung; Kwon, Hyuk Tae; Kwon, Hyung-Min

    2012-08-15

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) may predict future risk for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ICH is one of the most important complications of aspirin use. The association between aspirin use and CMBs is still controversial. In this context, we sought to investigate whether aspirin use is associated with CMBs in subjects without previous history of stroke. Asymptomatic elderly subjects (n=1452; age ≥ 65 years) who visited for routine health check-ups were included in this study. CMBs were evaluated through T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo MRI. Information about aspirin or warfarin use was obtained using a structured questionnaire. A total of 138 subjects (9.5%) were found to have CMBs. In the group of aspirin use, 43 subjects (11.2%) had CMBs; among them 9 (2.3%) had strictly lobar microbleeds and 34 (8.9%) had deep or infratentorial microbleeds. Compared with the non-use group, the risk for CMBs did not increase in the group of aspirin use (adjusted odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.66). For the group of aspirin use above 5 years, the proportion of CMBs (11.1%) did not increase compared with the group of short-term use (≤ 5 years, 9.5%, p=0.99) and non-use group (8.9%, p=0.66). We found that the prevalence of CMBs did not increase in the group of aspirin use, and the presence of CMBs was not associated with the duration of aspirin use in asymptomatic elderly subjects without a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with pregnancy outcome. Progesterone concentration was measured on stimulation day 1 and on the day of HCG administration in 475 patients who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment following ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and recombinant FSH...

  3. Clay mineral association in the salt formation of the Transylvanian Basin and its paleoenvironmental significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Bican-Bris̡an

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigated clay fraction was separated from salt samples recovered from three boreholes located in the Praid salt deposit area. For comparison, samples collected from Turda deposit (Franz Josef adit, the Rudolf and Ghizele chambers and from the salt massif from Sărăţel were also analyzed. The qualitative investigations evidenced a clay minerals association dominated by illite and chlorite accompanied by subordinate amounts of kaolinite, smectite, fibrous clays (sepiolite, palygorskite, and in minor amounts, by 14/14 chlorite/vermiculite and chlorite/smectite interstratifications. A quantitative evaluation (% including a standard graphical representation was performed only for the borehole samples (Praid, according to the vertical distribution. The genetical interpretation of the identified clay minerals association took into account the influence of the sedimentation mechanisms and the climate control on the mineral phases. The environment of formation for the salt in the Transylvanian Basin was defined by the presence of specific climatic factors, also suggested by the palynological investigations.

  4. Diabetes is associated with impaired myocardial performance in patients without significant coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Gislason, Gunnar H; Weeke, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have high risk of heart failure. Whether some of the risk is directly linked to metabolic derangements in the myocardium or whether the risk is primarily caused by coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension is incompletely understood. Echocardiographic tis...... tissue Doppler imaging was therefore performed in DM patients without significant CAD to examine whether DM per se influenced cardiac function....

  5. Pathophysiological significance of a reaction in mouse gastrointestinal tract associated with delayed-type hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Gui Yu; Ping Lin; Hui Pan; Lan Xiao; En-Cong Gong; Lin Mei

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the pathophysiological significance of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in mouse gastrointestinal tract induced by an allergen 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB).METHODS: BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control and DTH1-6 groups. After sensitized by DNCB smeared on the abdominal skin, the mice were challenged with DNCB by gavage or enema. The weight, stool viscosity and hematochezia were observed and accumulated as disease active index (DAI) score; the gastrointestinal motility was represented by active charcoal propulsion rate;the colon pathological score was achieved by macropathology and HE staining of section prepared for microscopy; and the leukocyte migration inhibitory factor (LMIF) activity was determined by indirect capillary assay of the absorbance (4) of migrated leukocytes.RESULTS: Active charcoal propulsion rates of small intestine in the DNCB gavages groups were significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). The DAI scores and pathological score in DNCB enema groups were also higher than that in the control group (P<0.05), and there were significant rises in LMIF activity in DNCB enema groups as compared with control groups (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Mouse gastrointestinal DTH reaction could be induced by DNCB, which might facilitate the mechanism underlying the ulcerative colitis.

  6. Clinical Significance of Colonic Diverticulosis Associated with Bowel Symptoms and Colon Polyp

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang-Moon; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Chung, Woo Chul; Jung, Sung Hoon; Chang, U-Im; Yang, Jin Mo

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate prospectively the clinical significance of colonic diverticulosis. In the 1,030 consecutive outpatients undergoing colonoscopy, the information on the demographics, the patterns of bowel symptoms, and the prevalence of colon polyp were analyzed according to the presence of colonic diverticulosis. The mean age of 1,030 patients were 52.2 yr and 59.3% were male. The prevalence of diverticulosis was 19.7% (203/1,030). Of 203 diverticulosis patients 85.2% were in p...

  7. Non-secretory immunoglobulin E myeloma associated with immunoglobulin G monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Yasuyama

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year old woman came to our hospital with a severe case of anemia. Serum immunoelectropheresis identified a monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig G and κ protein. The serum IgE level was within the nomal range and the amounts of remaining immuno - globlins were low. On bone marrow aspirate, plasma cells made up 55.5% of nucleated cells and the plasma cells showed positive readings for IgE κ and IgG by immunohistochemistry. Serum immunofixation did not reveal the IgE monoclonal band. She was diagnosed as having non-secretory IgE myeloma with IgG monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. The nature of this rare myeloma will be discussed.

  8. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d-1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  9. How significant is the association between metabolic syndrome and prevalence of colorectal neoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanek, Stepan; Grega, Tomas; Ngo, Ondrej; Vojtechova, Gabriela; Majek, Ondrej; Minarikova, Petra; Brogyuk, Nagyija; Bunganic, Bohus; Seifert, Bohumil; Dusek, Ladislav; Zavoral, Miroslav

    2016-09-28

    The incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been rising in developed countries. The association between these two diseases has been widely studied and reported. Less evidence is available about the relationship between MS and CRC precancerous lesions (adenomatous polyps, adenomas). The aim of this paper is to present an overview of our scientific understanding of that topic and its implication in clinical practice. One of the principal goals of current CRC secondary prevention efforts is to detect and remove the precancerous lesions in individuals with an average CRC risk to prevent the development of invasive cancer. MS is not currently considered a high-risk CRC factor and is therefore not included in the guidelines of organized screening programs. However, in light of growing scientific evidence, the approach to patients with MS should be changed. Metabolic risk factors for the development of adenomas and cancers are the same - obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Therefore, the key issue in the near future is the development of a simple scoring system, easy to use in clinical practice, which would identify individuals with high metabolic risk of colorectal neoplasia and would be used for individual CRC secondary prevention strategies. Currently, such scoring systems have been published based on Asian (Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening Score; APCS) and Polish populations.

  10. Consumption of Red/Processed Meat and Colorectal Carcinoma: Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Significant Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Ulf; Bergman Laurila, Jonas; Grafström, Roland; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology and experimental studies provide an overwhelming support of the notion that diets high in red or processed meat accompany an elevated risk of developing pre-neoplastic colorectal adenoma and frank colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The underlying mechanisms are disputed; thus several hypotheses have been proposed. A large body of reports converges, however, on haem and nitrosyl haem as major contributors to the CRC development, presumably acting through various mechanisms. Apart from a potentially higher intestinal mutagenic load among consumers on a diet rich in red/processed meat, other mechanisms involving subtle interference with colorectal stem/progenitor cell survival or maturation are likewise at play. From an overarching perspective, suggested candidate mechanisms for red/processed meat-induced CRC appear as three partly overlapping tenets: (i) increased N-nitrosation/oxidative load leading to DNA adducts and lipid peroxidation in the intestinal epithelium, (ii) proliferative stimulation of the epithelium through haem or food-derived metabolites that either act directly or subsequent to conversion, and (iii) higher inflammatory response, which may trigger a wide cascade of pro-malignant processes. In this review, we summarize and discuss major findings of the area in the context of potentially pertinent mechanisms underlying the above-mentioned association between consumption of red/processed meat and increased risk of developing CRC.

  11. Genes Associated with Human Cancers: Their Expressions, Features, Functions, and Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddaly, Ravi; Sahu, Bellona; Mohan, Divya K

    2015-01-01

    Various types of cancer continue to be subjects of intense research because of the impact of these diseases and their socioeconomic implications. Also, the complexity involved in the pathogenesis, nature of the triggers, and the progression of cancers is intriguing. An important aspect of cancers is the genetics involved, and studies involving cancer genes contributed immensely in not only understanding cancers better, but also for obtaining useful markers and therapy targets. We review the salient features, functions, and changes in gene expression for 103 carcinoma genes, 20 sarcoma genes, and 36 lymphoma genes. Apart from the three major levels of cancer type, we discuss the implications of altered gene expression at the tissue level as well. The possible uses of these gene functions and expression changes for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications are presented. Also, the 159 genes are assessed for their involvement in more than a single cancer and tissue type. Only the p53 gene is commonly implicated in carcinomas, sarcoma and lymphomas. The CHEK2 and ERBB2 (HER2) genes are commonly found to be associated with carcinomas and sarcomas, whereas the MDM2, MSH2, and MSH6 genes are commonly implicated among carcinomas and lymphomas.

  12. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d−1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%. PMID:27157062

  13. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J M; Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Baker, E T; Resing, J A; Walker, S L

    2016-05-09

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 10(5) ± 1.1 10(5 )kg d(-1) which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  14. Ubiquity and quantitative significance of detoxification catabolism of chlorophyll associated with protistan herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiyama, Yuichiro; Yokoyama, Akiko; Kinoshita, Yusuke; Shoji, Sunao; Miyashiya, Hideaki; Shiratori, Takashi; Suga, Hisami; Ishikawa, Kanako; Ishikawa, Akira; Inouye, Isao; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Fujinuma, Daiki; Aoki, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Masami; Nomoto, Shinya; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2012-10-23

    Chlorophylls are essential components of the photosynthetic apparati that sustain all of the life forms that ultimately depend on solar energy. However, a drawback of the extraordinary photosensitizing efficiency of certain chlorophyll species is their ability to generate harmful singlet oxygen. Recent studies have clarified the catabolic processes involved in the detoxification of chlorophylls in land plants, but little is understood about these strategies in aquatic ecosystem. Here, we report that a variety of heterotrophic protists accumulate the chlorophyll a catabolite 13(2),17(3)-cyclopheophorbide a enol (cPPB-aE) after their ingestion of algae. This chlorophyll derivative is nonfluorescent in solution, and its inability to generate singlet oxygen in vitro qualifies it as a detoxified catabolite of chlorophyll a. Using a modified analytical method, we show that cPPB-aE is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, and it is often the major chlorophyll a derivative. Our findings suggest that cPPB-aE metabolism is one of the most important, widely distributed processes in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the herbivorous protists that convert chlorophyll a to cPPB-aE are suggested to play more significant roles in the modern oceanic carbon flux than was previously recognized, critically linking microscopic primary producers to the macroscopic food web and carbon sequestration in the ocean.

  15. Clinically Significant Fatigue: Prevalence and Associated Factors in an International Sample of Adults with Multiple Sclerosis Recruited via the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Weiland, Tracey J.; Jelinek, George A.; Claudia H. Marck; Emily J Hadgkiss; van der Meer, Dania M.; Pereira, Naresh G.; Taylor, Keryn L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fatigue contributes a significant burden of disease for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Modifiable lifestyle factors have been recognized as having a role in a range of morbidity outcomes in PwMS. There is significant potential to prevent and treat fatigue in PwMS by addressing modifiable risk factors. Objectives To explore the associations between clinically significant fatigue and demographic factors, clinical factors (health-related quality of life, disability and relapse...

  16. Distribution of surface rupture associated the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and its significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, H.; Kumahara, Y.; Tsutsumi, H.; Toda, S.; Ishimura, D.; Okada, S.; Nakata, T.; Kagohara, K.; Kaneda, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Tsumura, S.; Matsuta, N.; Ishiyama, T.; Sugito, N.; Hirouchi, D.; Ishiguro, S.; Yoshida, H.; Tanaka, K.; Takenami, D.; Kashihara, S.; Tanaka, T.; Moriki, H.

    2016-12-01

    A Mj 6.5 earthquake hit Kumamoto prefecture, central Kyushu, southwest Japan at 21:26 JST on April 14th. About 28 hours after, The Mj 7.3 earthquake occurred at 01:25 JST on April 16, and caused severe shaking in and around the epicentral region. An ENE-to-NE-trending surface rupture zone associated with the earthquakes appeared along the previously mapped 100-km-long active fault called the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone (FHFZ) (Watanabe et al., 1979; Research Group for Active Tectonics in Kyushu, 1989; Research Group for Active Faults of Japan, 1991; Ikeda et al., 2001; Nakata and Imaizumi ed, 2002). According to our field survey for three months, we found the 31-km-length surface rupture close to the traces of the northeastern part of the FHFZ, and another 5-km-length rupture on a part of the Denokuchi fault. The rupture along the FHFZ shows right-lateral strike slip mainly ( 2.1 m in maximum). The rupture on the Denokuchi fault, far from about 2km east of the FHFZ, is the normal component with down to northwest. These coseismic ruptures of the Mj 7.3 earthquake have been represented to be a characteristic movement of the northeastern part of the FHFZ. The deformations such as a series of the open cracks with NW-SE trending were traceable for a distance of 5.4 km from Kengun to Shirakawa River in and around the downtown of Kumamoto city. Those features followed on tectonic landform by the active fault and on the line of the fringe abnormal in InSAR image (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, 2016) represent small triggered slip. The eyewitness of local resident and our observation revealed that a coseismic small rupture of the Mj 6.5 earthquake had been appeared along the southern end of Mj 7.3 earthquake ruptures. Seismic inversion theory (DPRI, Kyoto Univ, 2016) showed that the coseismic rupture propagated toward NE along the strike of the FHFZ, and an asperity near the surface was recognized from 10 km far from the epicenter toward NE. The area of maximum

  17. Structural and Genetic Studies Demonstrate Neurologic Dysfunction in Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency Is Associated with Impaired Synaptic Vesicle Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, Bartholomew P.; Zeccola, Alison M.; Larsen, Samantha B.; Amrich, Christopher G.; Talsma, Aaron D.; Stuchul, Kimberly A.; Heroux, Annie; Levitan, Edwin S.; VanDemark, Andrew P.; Palladino, Michael J.; Pallanck, Leo J.

    2016-03-31

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is a poorly understood disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, cardiomyopathy, neurologic dysfunction, and early death. TPI deficiency is one of a group of diseases known as glycolytic enzymopathies, but is unique for its severe patient neuropathology and early mortality. The disease is caused by missense mutations and dysfunction in the glycolytic enzyme, TPI. Previous studies have detailed structural and catalytic changes elicited by disease-associated TPI substitutions, and samples of patient erythrocytes have yielded insight into patient hemolytic anemia; however, the neuropathophysiology of this disease remains a mystery. This study combines structural, biochemical, and genetic approaches to demonstrate that perturbations of the TPI dimer interface are sufficient to elicit TPI deficiency neuropathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that neurologic dysfunction resulting from TPI deficiency is characterized by synaptic vesicle dysfunction, and can be attenuated with catalytically inactive TPI. Collectively, our findings are the first to identify, to our knowledge, a functional synaptic defect in TPI deficiency derived from molecular changes in the TPI dimer interface.

  18. Targeted CNS delivery using human MiniPromoters and demonstrated compatibility with adeno-associated viral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N de Leeuw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical for human gene therapy is the availability of small promoters tools to drive gene expression in a highly specific and reproducible manner. We tackled this challenge by developing human DNA MiniPromoters (MiniPs using computational biology and phylogenetic conservation. MiniPs were tested in mouse as single-copy knock-ins at the Hprt locus on the X chromosome and evaluated for lacZ reporter expression in central nervous system (CNS and non–CNS tissue. Eighteen novel MiniPs driving expression in mouse brain were identified, 2 MiniPs for driving pan-neuronal expression and 17 MiniPs for the mouse eye. Key areas of therapeutic interest were represented in this set: the cerebral cortex, embryonic hypothalamus, spinal cord, bipolar and ganglion cells of the retina, and skeletal muscle. We also demonstrated that three retinal ganglion cell MiniPs exhibit similar cell type specificity when delivered via adeno-associated virus vectors intravitreally. We conclude that our methodology and characterization has resulted in desirable expression characteristics that are intrinsic to the MiniPromoter, not dictated by copy-number effects or genomic location, and results in constructs predisposed to success in adeno-associated virus. These MiniPs are immediately applicable for preclinical studies toward gene therapy in humans and are publicly available to facilitate basic and clinical research, and human gene therapy.

  19. Targeted CNS delivery using human MiniPromoters and demonstrated compatibility with adeno-associated viral vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Charles N; Dyka, Frank M; Boye, Sanford L; Laprise, Stéphanie; Zhou, Michelle; Chou, Alice Y; Borretta, Lisa; McInerny, Simone C; Banks, Kathleen G; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Swanson, Magdalena I; D’Souza, Cletus A; Boye, Shannon E; Jones, Steven JM; Holt, Robert A; Goldowitz, Daniel; Hauswirth, William W; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Simpson, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Critical for human gene therapy is the availability of small promoters tools to drive gene expression in a highly specific and reproducible manner. We tackled this challenge by developing human DNA MiniPromoters (MiniPs) using computational biology and phylogenetic conservation. MiniPs were tested in mouse as single-copy knock-ins at the Hprt locus on the X chromosome and evaluated for lacZ reporter expression in central nervous system (CNS) and non–CNS tissue. Eighteen novel MiniPs driving expression in mouse brain were identified, 2 MiniPs for driving pan-neuronal expression and 17 MiniPs for the mouse eye. Key areas of therapeutic interest were represented in this set: the cerebral cortex, embryonic hypothalamus, spinal cord, bipolar and ganglion cells of the retina, and skeletal muscle. We also demonstrated that three retinal ganglion cell MiniPs exhibit similar cell type specificity when delivered via adeno-associated virus vectors intravitreally. We conclude that our methodology and characterization has resulted in desirable expression characteristics that are intrinsic to the MiniPromoter, not dictated by copy-number effects or genomic location, and results in constructs predisposed to success in adeno-associated virus. These MiniPs are immediately applicable for preclinical studies toward gene therapy in humans and are publicly available to facilitate basic and clinical research, and human gene therapy. PMID:24761428

  20. Significant association of periodontal disease with anti-citrullinated peptide antibody in a Japanese healthy population - The Nagahama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Chikashi; Asai, Keita; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Toru; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Takahashi, Katsu; Takei, Noriko; Ishii, Takanori; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Meiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Fujii, Takao; Yamada, Ryo; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2015-05-01

    Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) is a highly specific autoantibody to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have revealed that periodontal disease (PD) is closely associated with RA and production of ACPA in RA. Analyses of associations between PD and ACPA production in a healthy population may deepen our understandings. Here, we analyzed a total of 9554 adult healthy subjects. ACPA and IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) was quantified and PD status was evaluated using the number of missing teeth (MT), the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LA) for these subjects. PD status was analyzed for its association with the positivity and categorical levels of ACPA and RF conditioned for covariates which were shown to be associated with PD, ACPA or RF. As a result, all of MT, CPI and LA showed suggestive or significant associations with positivity (p = 0.024, 0.0042 and 0.037, respectively) and levels of ACPA (p ≤ 0.00031), but none of the PD parameters were associated with those of RF. These association patterns were also observed when we analyzed 6206 non-smokers of the participants. The significant associations between PD parameters and positivity and levels of ACPA in healthy population support the fundamental involvement of PD with ACPA production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Erythrocytosis-associated HIF-2α Mutations Demonstrate a Critical Role for Residues C-terminal to the Hydroxylacceptor Proline*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlow, Paul W.; Percy, Melanie J.; Sutherland, Scott; Bierl, Charlene; McMullin, Mary Frances; Master, Stephen R.; Lappin, Terence R. J.; Lee, Frank S.

    2009-01-01

    A classic physiologic response to hypoxia in humans is the up-regulation of the ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO) gene, which is the central regulator of red blood cell mass. The EPO gene, in turn, is activated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). HIF is a transcription factor consisting of an α subunit (HIF-α) and a β subunit (HIF-β). Under normoxic conditions, prolyl hydroxylase domain protein (PHD, also known as HIF prolyl hydroxylase and egg laying-defective nine protein) site specifically hydroxylates HIF-α in a conserved LXXLAP motif (where underlining indicates the hydroxylacceptor proline). This provides a recognition motif for the von Hippel Lindau protein, a component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets hydroxylated HIF-α for degradation. Under hypoxic conditions, this inherently oxygen-dependent modification is arrested, thereby stabilizing HIF-α and allowing it to activate the EPO gene. We previously identified and characterized an erythrocytosis-associated HIF2A mutation, G537W. More recently, we reported two additional erythrocytosis-associated HIF2A mutations, G537R and M535V. Here, we describe the functional characterization of these two mutants as well as a third novel erythrocytosis-associated mutation, P534L. These mutations affect residues C-terminal to the LXXLAP motif. We find that all result in impaired degradation and thus aberrant stabilization of HIF-2α. However, each exhibits a distinct profile with respect to their effects on PHD2 binding and von Hippel Lindau interaction. These findings reinforce the importance of HIF-2α in human EPO regulation, demonstrate heterogeneity of functional defects arising from these mutations, and point to a critical role for residues C-terminal to the LXXLAP motif in HIF-α. PMID:19208626

  2. Presence of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is significantly associated with good prognosis in infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Rathore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of CD3+ TILs in infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast. Materials and Methods: Immuno-histochemistry was done with CD3 antibodies in tissue sections of 127 breast cancer patients, and CD3+ intra-tumoral and stromal TILs were counted in relation to clinico-pathological variables. Results: Intra-tumoral and stromal CD3+ TILs were significantly associated with positive lymph node status (P = 0.006, P = 0.043, respectively without significant association with age, menopausal status, family history, and hormonal status. The higher CD3 intra-tumoral and stromal counts both showed significant association with good prognosis (P = 0.039, P = 0.044, respectively. The intra-tumoral count was higher than stromal count and was independently associated with disease-free survival in stage I and II cancer (P = 0.021. Conclusions: CD3+ TILs may serve as independent marker of good prognosis in IDC breast. The findings of this study need further validation on a larger sample size.

  3. The significance of platelet-associated immunoglobulin G in non-thrombocytopenic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P G; Mickley, H; Fristed, P

    1985-01-01

    The possible pathogenetic significance of platelet-associated immunoglobulin G in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been studied, using a semiquantitative immunofluorescence technique. The study included 22 patients suffering from SLE during the period 1973-81. Thirteen patients had various...

  4. Haplotypes of the D-Amino Acid Oxidase Gene Are Significantly Associated with Schizophrenia and Its Neurocognitive Deficits.

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    Yu-Li Liu

    Full Text Available D-amino acid oxidase (DAO has been reported to be associated with schizophrenia. This study aimed to search for genetic variants associated with this gene. The genomic regions of all exons, highly conserved regions of introns, and promoters of this gene were sequenced. Potentially meaningful single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs obtained from direct sequencing were selected for genotyping in 600 controls and 912 patients with schizophrenia and in a replicated sample consisting of 388 patients with schizophrenia. Genetic associations were examined using single-locus and haplotype association analyses. In single-locus analyses, the frequency of the C allele of a novel SNP rs55944529 located at intron 8 was found to be significantly higher in the original large patient sample (p = 0.016. This allele was associated with a higher level of DAO mRNA expression in the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes. The haplotype distribution of a haplotype block composed of rs11114083-rs2070586-rs2070587-rs55944529 across intron 1 and intron 8 was significantly different between the patients and controls and the haplotype frequencies of AAGC were significantly higher in patients, in both the original (corrected p < 0.0001 and replicated samples (corrected p = 0.0003. The CGTC haplotype was specifically associated with the subgroup with deficits in sustained attention and executive function and the AAGC haplotype was associated with the subgroup without such deficits. The DAO gene was a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and the genomic region between intron 1 and intron 8 may harbor functional genetic variants, which may influence the mRNA expression of DAO and neurocognitive functions in schizophrenia.

  5. Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symptoms—A Nonlinear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James; Kruger, Uwe; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Fimbres, Valeria; Pollard, Elena; Mitchell, Jessica; Ingram, Julie; Hellmers, Robert; Quig, David; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. Methods In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field. First morning urine samples were collected from 67 children and adults with ASD and 50 neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. The samples were analyzed to determine the levels of 10 urinary toxic metals (UTM). Autism-related symptoms were assessed with eleven behavioral measures. Statistical analysis was used to distinguish participants on the ASD spectrum and neurotypical participants based upon the UTM data alone. The analysis also included examining the association of autism severity with toxic metal excretion data using linear and nonlinear analysis. “Leave-one-out” cross-validation was used to ensure statistical independence of results. Results and Discussion Average excretion levels of several toxic metals (lead, tin, thallium, antimony) were significantly higher in the ASD group. However, ASD classification using univariate statistics proved difficult due to large variability, but nonlinear multivariate statistical analysis significantly improved ASD classification with Type I/II errors of 15% and 18%, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the urinary toxic metal excretion profiles of participants in the ASD group were significantly different from those of the neurotypical participants. Similarly, nonlinear methods determined a significantly stronger association between the behavioral measures and toxic metal excretion. The association was strongest for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (including subscales on Irritability, Stereotypy, Hyperactivity, and Inappropriate

  6. Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symptoms-A Nonlinear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James; Howsmon, Daniel P; Kruger, Uwe; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Fimbres, Valeria; Pollard, Elena; Mitchell, Jessica; Ingram, Julie; Hellmers, Robert; Quig, David; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field. First morning urine samples were collected from 67 children and adults with ASD and 50 neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. The samples were analyzed to determine the levels of 10 urinary toxic metals (UTM). Autism-related symptoms were assessed with eleven behavioral measures. Statistical analysis was used to distinguish participants on the ASD spectrum and neurotypical participants based upon the UTM data alone. The analysis also included examining the association of autism severity with toxic metal excretion data using linear and nonlinear analysis. "Leave-one-out" cross-validation was used to ensure statistical independence of results. Average excretion levels of several toxic metals (lead, tin, thallium, antimony) were significantly higher in the ASD group. However, ASD classification using univariate statistics proved difficult due to large variability, but nonlinear multivariate statistical analysis significantly improved ASD classification with Type I/II errors of 15% and 18%, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the urinary toxic metal excretion profiles of participants in the ASD group were significantly different from those of the neurotypical participants. Similarly, nonlinear methods determined a significantly stronger association between the behavioral measures and toxic metal excretion. The association was strongest for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (including subscales on Irritability, Stereotypy, Hyperactivity, and Inappropriate Speech), but significant associations were found

  7. Initial evidence demonstrating the association between the vascular status in surgically resected renal parenchymal pathology and sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejima, T; Iwamoto, H; Masago, T; Morizane, S; Yao, A; Umekita, Y; Honda, M; Takenaka, A

    2015-01-01

    Our goal is to evaluate the association between histopathology of glomerulosclerosis (GS) and atherosclerosis (AS) in the nephrectomized normal parenchyma together with patients' background, and erectile dysfunction (ED) of patients treated with radical nephrectomy (RN) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). ED was assessed with the International Index of Erectile Function in 65 patients who were less than age 70 years at the time of questionnaire. Glomeruli status was assessed by the extent of global GS. AS was graded based on lumen occlusion and frequency of involvement. Patients' backgrounds included any comorbidities, post-RN renal insufficiency, tumor pathology, demographics and social status. The presence of diabetes mellitus and lack of a spouse were independent predictors for severe ED, whereas G0/1 AS was an independent predictor for mild/no ED. The extent of global GS was significantly lower in patients with mild/no ED than in other patients. Our study represents the first report identifying healthy arterial status in the renal parenchyma as a significant indicator of favorable erectile function and that the evaluation of AS severity is not a superior indicator of severe ED in the presence of comorbidities or social status among patients treated with RN.

  8. HIV-Related Sexual Risk among African American Men Preceding Incarceration: Associations with Support from Significant Others, Family, and Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatsworth, Ashley M; Scheidell, Joy D; Wohl, David A; Whitehead, Nicole E; Golin, Carol E; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the association between social support received from significant others, family, and friends and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among African American men involved in the criminal justice system. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study among African American men released from prison in North Carolina (N = 189). During the baseline (in-prison) survey, we assessed the amount of support men perceived they had received from significant others, family, and friends. We measured associations between low support from each source (well-being during community re-entry, while supporting and strengthening relationships with a significant other in particular may help reduce sex risk. Studies should evaluate the protective effects of distinct support sources to avoid masking effects of support and to best understand the influence of social support on health.

  9. The association of pretreatment thrombocytosis with prognosis and clinicopathological significance in cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yan, Ronghua; Liang, Changyan; Wang, Jia; Yi, Mixuan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies reported inconsistent findings about the relationship between pretreatment thrombocytosis and survival in patients with cervical cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of thrombocytosis in cervical cancer. We searched databases to identify relevant articles. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Fourteen studies including 3,394 patients were eligible for the meta-analysis. Overall, an elevated platelet count was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (OS, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42–1.95, P thrombocytosis status was significantly associated with higher clinical stage (odd ratio [OR]: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.68–3.38, P thrombocytosis is an independent prognosis predictor in cervical cancer patients. It may be used as a readily available biomarker to refine clinical outcome prediction for cervical cancer patients. PMID:28212582

  10. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene rs11642015 polymorphism is significantly associated with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes subsequent to adjustment for body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAN, LIYUAN; TANG, LINLIN; WANG, CHANGYI; CHEN, ZHONGWEI; ZHANG, TAO; CHEN, SIHAN; LIU, SHENGYUAN; PENG, XIAOLIN; MAI, YIFENG; DUAN, SHIWEI

    2014-01-01

    The association of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs11642015 polymorphism with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity in certain populations has not been previously reported. A population-based study was conducted that included 490 type 2 diabetic, 471 prediabetic and 575 normal subjects. The main outcomes of the study were prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Binary logistic regression was performed to estimate the association of FTO rs11642015 with the risk of prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity following adjustment for the corresponding confounders. A meta-analysis was also conducted to evaluate the association between FTO rs11642015 and obesity. FTO rs11642015 was significantly associated with prediabetes in the whole sample under the additive model [odds ratio (OR), 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17–1.93; P=0.002], particularly in females. The polymorphism remained consistently significant following adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), showing an increased prediabetes risk with an additive effect (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.19–2.01; P=0.001). In addition, a significant association was found for rs11642015 with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes under the dominant model. However, under the stringent Bonferroni’s correction there was no evidence of positive associations for FTO rs11642015 with obesity in the whole sample, females or males. Findings of the meta-analysis showed that FTO rs11642015 was not predisposed to obesity. In conclusion, the T allele of FTO rs11642015 is positively associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, even after adjustment for age and BMI, particularly in females. Subjects carrying the CT + TT genotype are predisposed to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, results of the population-based study and follow-up meta-analysis suggested that FTO rs11642015 is not significantly associated with susceptibility to obesity. PMID:25054011

  11. Where did I put that? Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrate widespread reductions in activity during the encoding of ecologically relevant object-location associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampstead, Benjamin M.; Stringer, Anthony Y.; Stilla, Randall F.; Amaraneni, Akshay; Sathian, K.

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the location of objects in the environment is both important in everyday life and difficult for patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a clinical precursor to Alzheimer’s disease. To test the hypothesis that memory impairment for object location in aMCI reflects hippocampal dysfunction, we used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to compare patients with aMCI and healthy elderly controls (HEC) as they encoded 90 ecologically-relevant object-location associations (OLAs). Two additional OLAs, repeated a total of 45 times, served as control stimuli. Memory for these OLAs was assessed following a 1-hour delay. The groups were well matched on demographics and brain volumetrics. Behaviorally, HEC remembered significantly more OLAs than did aMCI patients. Activity differences were assessed by contrasting activation for successfully encoded novel stimuli vs. repeated stimuli. The HEC demonstrated activity within object-related (ventral visual stream), spatial location-related (dorsal visual stream), and feature binding-related cortical regions (hippocampus and other memory-related regions) as well as in frontal cortex and associated subcortical structures. Activity in most of these regions correlated with memory test performance. Although the aMCI patients demonstrated a similar activation pattern, the HEC showed significantly greater activity within each of these regions. Memory test performance in aMCI patients, in contrast to the HEC, was correlated with activity in regions involved in sensorimotor processing. We conclude that aMCI patients demonstrate widespread cerebral dysfunction, not limited to the hippocampus, and rely on encoding-related mechanisms that differ substantially from healthy individuals. PMID:21530556

  12. Clinically significant fatigue: prevalence and associated factors in an international sample of adults with multiple sclerosis recruited via the internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J Weiland

    Full Text Available Fatigue contributes a significant burden of disease for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS. Modifiable lifestyle factors have been recognized as having a role in a range of morbidity outcomes in PwMS. There is significant potential to prevent and treat fatigue in PwMS by addressing modifiable risk factors.To explore the associations between clinically significant fatigue and demographic factors, clinical factors (health-related quality of life, disability and relapse rate and modifiable lifestyle, disease-modifying drugs (DMD and supplement use in a large international sample of PwMS.PwMS were recruited to the study via Web 2.0 platforms and completed a comprehensive survey measuring demographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics, including health-related quality of life, disability, and relapse rate.Of 2469 participants with confirmed MS, 2138 (86.6% completed a validated measure of clinically significant fatigue, the Fatigue Severity Scale. Participants were predominantly female from English speaking countries, with relatively high levels of education, and due to recruitment methods may have been highly pro-active about engaging in lifestyle management and self-help. Approximately two thirds of our sample (1402/2138; 65.6% (95% CI 63.7-67.7 screened positive for clinically significant fatigue. Bivariate associations were present between clinically significant fatigue and several demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and medication variables. After controlling for level of disability and a range of stable socio-demographic variables, we found increased odds of fatigue associated with obesity, DMD use, poor diet, and reduced odds of fatigue with exercise, fish consumption, moderate alcohol use, and supplementation with vitamin D and flaxseed oil.This study supports strong and significant associations between clinically significant fatigue and modifiable lifestyle factors. Longitudinal follow-up of this sample may help clarify the contribution

  13. Pain interference and physical function demonstrate poor longitudinal association in people living with pain: a PROMIS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, Nicholas V; Sturgeon, John A; Chih-Kao, Ming; Cooley, Corinne; Mackey, Sean C

    2017-06-01

    A primary goal in managing pain is to reduce pain and increase physical function (PF). This goal is also tied to continuing payment for treatment services in many practice guidelines. Pain interference (PI) is often used as a proxy for measurement and reporting of PF in these guidelines. A common assumption is that reductions in PI will translate into improvement in PF over time. This assumption needs to be tested in a clinical environment. Consequently, we used the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) to describe the topology of the longitudinal relationship between PI in relation to PF. Longitudinal data of 389 people with chronic pain seeking health care demonstrated that PI partially explained the variance in PF at baseline (r = -0.50) and over 90 days of care (r = -0.65). The relationship between pain intensity and PF was not significant when PI was included as a mediator. A parallel process latent growth curve model analysis showed a weak, unidirectional relationship (β = 0.18) between average PF scores and changes in PI over the course of 90 days of care, and no relationship between average PI scores and changes in PF across time. Although PI and PF seem moderately related when measured concurrently, they do not cluster closely together across time. The differential pathways between these 2 domains suggest that therapies that target both the consequences of pain on relevant aspects of persons' lives, and capability to perform physical activities are likely required for restoration of a vital life.

  14. Sequence variants of interleukin 6 (IL-6 are significantly associated with a decreased risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease

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    Chen Shih-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin 6 (IL-6 has been related to beta-amyloid aggregation and the appearance of hyperphosphorylated tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD brain. However, previous studies relating IL-6 genetic polymorphisms to AD included few and unrepresentative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the results were inconsistent. Methods This is a case-control study. A total of 266 patients with AD, aged≧65, were recruited from three hospitals in Taiwan (2007-2010. Controls (n = 444 were recruited from routine health checkups and volunteers of the hospital during the same period of time. Three common IL-6 haplotype-tagging SNPs were selected to assess the association between IL-6 polymorphisms and the risk of late-onset AD (LOAD. Results Variant carriers of IL-6 rs1800796 and rs1524107 were significantly associated with a reduced risk of LOAD [(GG + GC vs. CC: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 0.64 and (CC + CT vs. TT: AOR = 0.60, respectively]. Haplotype CAT was associated with a decreased risk of LOAD (0 and 1 copy vs. 2 copies: AOR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.44-0.95. These associations remained significant in ApoE e4 non-carriers only. Hypertension significantly modified the association between rs2069837 polymorphisms and the risk of LOAD (pinteraction = 0.03. Conclusions IL-6 polymorphisms are associated with reduced risk of LOAD, especially in ApoE e4 non-carriers. This study identified genetic markers for predicting LOAD in ApoE e4 non-carriers.

  15. Genome-wide significant associations in schizophrenia to ITIH3/4, CACNA1C and SDCCAG8, and extensive replication of associations reported by the Schizophrenia PGC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamshere, M L; Walters, J T R; Smith, R;

    2013-01-01

    The Schizophrenia Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Study Consortium (PGC) highlighted 81 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with moderate evidence for association to schizophrenia. After follow-up in independent samples, seven loci attained genome-wide significance (GWS), but multi-locus t...... interval (CI) 78-100%) of the original set of 78 SNPs represent true associations. We also provide strong evidence for overlap in genetic risk between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 22 May 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.67....

  16. Diplotype Trend Regression Analysis of the ADH Gene Cluster and the ALDH2 Gene: Multiple Significant Associations with Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingguang; Kranzler, Henry R.; Zuo, Lingjun; Wang, Shuang; Schork, Nicholas J.; Gelernter, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The set of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes has considerable genetic and functional complexity. The relationships between some alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes and alcohol dependence (AD) have long been studied in many populations, but not comprehensively. In the present study, we genotyped 16 markers within the ADH gene cluster (including the ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C, ADH5, ADH6, and ADH7 genes), 4 markers within the ALDH2 gene, and 38 unlinked ancestry-informative markers in a case-control sample of 801 individuals. Associations between markers and disease were analyzed by a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test, a conventional case-control comparison, a structured association analysis, and a novel diplotype trend regression (DTR) analysis. Finally, the disease alleles were fine mapped by a Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) measure (J). All markers were found to be in HWE in controls, but some markers showed HWD in cases. Genotypes of many markers were associated with AD. DTR analysis showed that ADH5 genotypes and diplotypes of ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH7, and ALDH2 were associated with AD in European Americans and/or African Americans. The risk-influencing alleles were fine mapped from among the markers studied and were found to coincide with some well-known functional variants. We demonstrated that DTR was more powerful than many other conventional association methods. We also found that several ADH genes and the ALDH2 gene were susceptibility loci for AD, and the associations were best explained by several independent risk genes. PMID:16685648

  17. Polymorphisms in the TLR4 and TLR5 gene are significantly associated with inflammatory bowel disease in German shepherd dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Kathrani

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is considered to be the most common cause of vomiting and diarrhoea in dogs, and the German shepherd dog (GSD is particularly susceptible. The exact aetiology of IBD is unknown, however associations have been identified between specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Toll-like receptors (TLRs and human IBD. However, to date, no genetic studies have been undertaken in canine IBD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in canine TLR 2, 4 and 5 genes are associated with IBD in GSDs. Mutational analysis of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5 was performed in 10 unrelated GSDs with IBD. Four non-synonymous SNPs (T23C, G1039A, A1571T and G1807A were identified in the TLR4 gene, and three non-synonymous SNPs (G22A, C100T and T1844C were identified in the TLR5 gene. The non-synonymous SNPs identified in TLR4 and TLR5 were evaluated further in a case-control study using a SNaPSHOT multiplex reaction. Sequencing information from 55 unrelated GSDs with IBD were compared to a control group consisting of 61 unrelated GSDs. The G22A SNP in TLR5 was significantly associated with IBD in GSDs, whereas the remaining two SNPs were found to be significantly protective for IBD. Furthermore, the two SNPs in TLR4 (A1571T and G1807A were in complete linkage disequilibrium, and were also significantly associated with IBD. The TLR5 risk haplotype (ACC without the two associated TLR4 SNP alleles was significantly associated with IBD, however the presence of the two TLR4 SNP risk alleles without the TLR5 risk haplotype was not statistically associated with IBD. Our study suggests that the three TLR5 SNPs and two TLR4 SNPs; A1571T and G1807A could play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD in GSDs. Further studies are required to confirm the functional importance of these polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  18. Pathophysiological role and clinical significance of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A₂ (Lp-PLA₂) bound to LDL and HDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellis, Constantinos C; Tselepis, Alexandros D

    2014-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also named as platelet-activating factor (PAF)-acetylhydrolase, exhibits a Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 activity and catalyzes the hydrolysis of the ester bond at the sn-2 position of PAF and oxidized phospholipids (oxPL). These phospholipids are formed under oxidative and inflammatory conditions, and may play important roles in atherogenesis. The vast majority of plasma Lp-PLA2 mass binds to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) while a smaller amount is associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Lp-PLA2 is also bound to lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and remnant lipoproteins. Several lines of evidence suggest that the role of plasma Lp-PLA2 in atherosclerosis may depend on the type of lipoprotein particle with which this enzyme is associated. Data from large Caucasian population studies have supported plasma Lp-PLA2 (primarily LDL-associated Lp-PLA2) as a cardiovascular risk marker independent of, and additive to, traditional risk factors. On the contrary, the HDL-associated Lp-PLA2 may express antiatherogenic activities and is also independently associated with lower risk for cardiac death. The present review presents data on the biochemical and enzymatic properties of Lp-PLA2 as well as its structural characteristics that determine the association with LDL and HDL. We also critically discuss the possible pathophysiological and clinical significance of the Lp- PLA2 distribution between LDL and HDL in human plasma, in view of the results of prospective epidemiologic studies on the association of Lp-PLA2 with future cardiovascular events as well the recent studies that evaluate the possible effectiveness of specific Lp-PLA2 inhibitors in reducing residual cardiovascular risk.

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies 3 genomic loci significantly associated with serum levels of homoarginine: the AtheroRemo Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, Marcus E; Seppälä, Ilkka; Pilz, Stefan; Hoffmann, Michael M; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Oksala, Niku; Raitoharju, Emma; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Laaksonen, Reijo; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli T; Huang, Jie; Kienreich, Katharina; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Drechsler, Christiane; Krane, Vera; Boehm, Bernhard O; Koenig, Wolfgang; Wanner, Christoph; Lehtimäki, Terho; März, Winfried; Meinitzer, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Low serum levels of the amino acid derivative, homoarginine, have been associated with increased risk of total and cardiovascular mortality. Homoarginine deficiency may be related to renal and heart diseases, but the pathophysiologic role of homoarginine and the genetic regulation of its serum levels are largely unknown. In 3041 patients of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study referred for coronary angiography and 2102 participants of the Young Finns Study (YFS), we performed a genome-wide association study to identify genomic loci associated with homoarginine serum levels and tested for associations of identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms with mortality in LURIC. We found genome-wide significant associations with homoarginine serum levels on chromosome 2 at the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I locus, on chromosome 5 at the alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 locus, and on chromosome 15 at the glycine amidinotransferase locus, as well as a suggestive association on chromosome 6 at the Homo sapiens mediator complex subunit 23 gene/arginase I locus. All loci harbor enzymes located in the mitochondrium are involved in arginine metabolism. The strongest association was observed for rs1153858 at the glycine amidinotransferase locus with a P value of 1.25E-45 in the combined analysis and has been replicated in both the Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse Studie (4D study) and the Graz Endocrine Causes of Hypertension (GECOH) study. In our genome-wide association study, we identified 3 chromosomal regions significantly associated with serum homoarginine and another region with suggestive association, providing novel insights into the genetic regulation of homoarginine.

  20. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2016-01-01

    at advanced ages. Such significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p =0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p =0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers...... of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably...... gene expression and its biological functions, which reduces the negative impacts of FOXO1A-209 gene on longevity (as reported in the literature) and offers protection against mortality risk at oldest-old ages. Our empirical findings imply that the health outcomes of particular nutritional interventions...

  1. Painful Intercourse Is Significantly Associated with Evoked Pain Perception and Cognitive Aspects of Pain in Women with Pelvic Pain

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    Meryl J. Alappattu, DPT, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Differences in local pain ratings suggest that women with pelvic pain perceive stimuli in this region as more painful than pain-free women although the magnitude of stimuli does not differ. Alappattu MJ, George SZ, Robinson ME, Fillingim RB, Moawad N, LeBrun EW, and Bishop MD. Painful intercourse is significantly associated with evoked pain perception and cognitive aspects of pain in women with pelvic pain. Sex Med 2015;3:14–23.

  2. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

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    Seabury Christopher M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular

  3. Mucin variable number tandem repeat polymorphisms and severity of cystic fibrosis lung disease: significant association with MUC5AC.

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    Xueliang Guo

    Full Text Available Variability in cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease is partially due to non-CFTR genetic modifiers. Mucin genes are very polymorphic, and mucins play a key role in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease; therefore, mucin genes are strong candidates as genetic modifiers. DNA from CF patients recruited for extremes of lung phenotype was analyzed by Southern blot or PCR to define variable number tandem repeat (VNTR length polymorphisms for MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC7. VNTR length polymorphisms were tested for association with lung disease severity and for linkage disequilibrium (LD with flanking single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. No strong associations were found for MUC1, MUC2, or MUC7. A significant association was found between the overall distribution of MUC5AC VNTR length and CF lung disease severity (p = 0.025; n = 468 patients; plus, there was robust association of the specific 6.4 kb HinfI VNTR fragment with severity of lung disease (p = 6.2×10(-4 after Bonferroni correction. There was strong LD between MUC5AC VNTR length modes and flanking SNPs. The severity-associated 6.4 kb VNTR allele of MUC5AC was confirmed to be genetically distinct from the 6.3 kb allele, as it showed significantly stronger association with nearby SNPs. These data provide detailed respiratory mucin gene VNTR allele distributions in CF patients. Our data also show a novel link between the MUC5AC 6.4 kb VNTR allele and severity of CF lung disease. The LD pattern with surrounding SNPs suggests that the 6.4 kb allele contains, or is linked to, important functional genetic variation.

  4. Somatic Complaints Are Significantly Associated with Chronic Uninvestigated Dyspepsia and Its Symptoms: A Large Cross-sectional Population Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Adibi, Payman

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Somatization may influence persistence and severity of symptoms in gastrointestinal diseases. Some studies suggest that somatization is associated with chronic uninvestigated dyspepsia (CUD); however, the association is unclear. We aimed to determine the association between the profiles of somatic complaints with CUD and its symptoms. Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted on 4763 Iranian adults, somatic complaints were assessed using a comprehensive 31-items questionnaire. Patients with CUD were identified by the Rome III diagnostic criteria. Profiles of somatic complaints were derived from factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between extracted profiles with CUD and its symptoms. Results CUD, bothersome postprandial fullness, early satiation, and epigastric pain or burning was identified in 723 (15.2%), 384 (8.1%), 302 (6.3%), and 371 (7.8%) of the study population. The frequency of all 31 somatic complaints was significantly higher in patients with CUD compared with controls (P < 0.001), and the most frequent was severe fatigue (45.1%). The profiles of somatic complaints were extracted in 4 domains, including “psychological”, “gastrointestinal”, “neuro-skeletal”, and “pharyngeal-respiratory”. The psychological (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.44–1.54), gastrointestinal (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 2.09–2.37), neuro-skeletal (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.44–1.59), and pharyngeal-respiratory (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.94–2.25) profiles were significantly associated with greater odds of CUD. Conclusions CUD and its symptoms are strongly associated with higher levels of somatic complaints and their related extracted profiles. This perhaps explains that why it can be difficult to treat, however further prospective investigations are required to confirm these associations. PMID:27503912

  5. Significant associations of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 gene with fat deposition and composition in skeletal muscle

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    Zhihua Jiang, Jennifer J. Michal, David J. Tobey, Tyler F. Daniels, Daniel C. Rule, Michael D. MacNeil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression studies in humans and animals have shown that elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 activity is associated with increased fat accumulation and monounsaturation of saturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle. However, results of the two reported association studies in humans are inconsistent. In the present study, we annotated the bovine SCD1 gene and identified 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in its 3'untranslated region (UTR. Genotyping these SNPs on a Wagyu x Limousin reference population revealed that the SCD1 gene was significantly associated with six fat deposition and fatty acid composition traits in skeletal muscle, but not with subcutaneous fat depth and percent kidney-pelvic-heart fat. In particular, we confirmed that the high stearoyl-CoA desaturase activities/alleles were positively correlated with beef marbling score, amount of monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid content, but negatively with amount of saturated fatty acids. The inconsistent associations between human studies might be caused by using different sets of markers because we obeserved that most associated markers are located near the end of 3'UTR. We found that the proximity of the polyadenylation signal site is highly conserved among human, cattle and pig, indicating that the region might contain functional elements involved in posttranscriptional control of SCD1 activity. In conclusion, our cross species study provided solid evidence to support SCD1 gene as a critical player in skeletal muscle fat metabolism.

  6. Association between expression of Carboxypeptidase 4 and stem cell markers and their clinical significance in liver cancer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lichao; Guo, Chunguang; Burnett, Joseph; Pan, Jian; Yang, Zhihua; Ran, Yuliang; Sun, Duxin

    2017-01-01

    The development of liver cancer would undergo a sequential progression from chronic inflammatory liver disease, cirrhosis to neoplasia. During these pathophysiological changes, abnormal liver microenvironment might induce the hepatocytes to die, abnormally proliferate and initiate cancer stem cells. Metallocarboxypeptidases (MCPs) involved in multiple biological functions including inflammation, fibrosis and stem cell niche formation. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of carboxypeptidase 4 (CPA4) in hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer tissues, and revealed its clinical significance in liver cancer progression. We firstly found that the CPA4 levels in tissues were significantly higher in liver cancer patients than those in other three groups. Then, elevated levels of CPA4 was observed in 57/100 (57%) liver cancer samples, and significantly correlated with Grade and Stage. We also identified a significant positive correlation between aberrant elevation of CPA4 and overexpression of stem cell markers including CD90, AFP and CD34 with follow-up data (n=100). Further Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that high levels of CPA4 and CD90 were significant predictors of poor overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression model showed that CPA4 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with liver cancer. This study demonstrated for the first time that high CPA4 expression was closely correlated with hepatocarcinogenesis, and might be used as an independent poor prognostic factor in liver cancer.

  7. Achievement goals and sportsmanlike attitudes in young soccer players and its association with perceived pressure from significant social agents

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    António Trindade Vaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to characterize the achievement goals and sportsmanlike attitudes in young soccer players and their association with perceived pressure from different significant social agents (parents/family, coaches, teammates and friends. The sample of the study was comprised of 118 young soccer players, aged between 11 and 19 years (M= 14.68, SD= 2.16. Athletes had 5.40 ± 2.39 years of sport experience and 71 (60.2% of the athletes had competed at a regional level, while 47 (39.8% had participated in national competitions. Participants completed a socio-demographic survey, the Task and Ego Orientation in Sports Questionnaire and the Sports Values Questionnaire. The statistical analyses involved univariate normality and descriptive, comparative and correlational analyses. Results revealed that task orientation was positively correlated with sportsmanlike attitudes (r= 0.47, p<0.01 and negatively associated with unsportsmanlike attitudes (r= −0.46, p<0.01, whereas ego orientation effects were contrary (sportsmanlike attitudes: r= −0.33, p<0.01 and unsportsmanlike attitudes: r= 0.42, p<0.01. Perceived pressures from all significant social agents were positively and significantly associated with unsportsmanlike attitudes (p<0.05, with perceived pressure from coaches also being associated with higher ego orientation scores and with lower task orientation and sportsmanlike attitudes in young soccer players. In summary, these results indicate the need for coaches and other social agents to promote a competition climate that reinforces selfreferenced improvements and the expression of positive social attitudes in sports contexts.

  8. Highly significant association between two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in CORIN gene and preeclampsia in Caucasian women.

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    Alain Stepanian

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a frequent medical complication during pregnancy. Corin, a serine protease which activates pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to search for CORIN gene variations and their association to preeclampsia in Caucasian and African women. Our study population was composed of 571 pregnant women (295 with preeclampsia and 276 normotensive controls matched for maternal and gestational age, and ethnic origin. The 22 exons of the CORIN gene were sequenced in a discovery sample (n = 260, where 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. In a replication sample (n = 311, 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested. Two minor alleles (C for rs2271036 and G for rs2271037 were significantly associated to preeclampsia. Adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval] were 2.5 [1.2-3.8] (p = 0.007 and 2.3 [1.5-3.5] (p = 1.3 × 10(-4, respectively. These associations were ethnic-specific, as only found in the Caucasian of subjects (odds ratio = 3.5 [1.8-6.6], p = 1.1 × 10(-4; odds ratio = 3.1 [1.7-5.8], p = 2.1 × 10(-4, for each single nucleotide polymorphism, respectively. The two single nucleotide polymorphisms are in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium (r(2 = 0.93. No specific association was found with severe preeclampsia, early-onset preeclampsia nor fetal growth retardation. In conclusion, this is the first report of a highly significant association between these two single nucleotide polymorphisms in CORIN gene and preeclampsia. Our findings further support the probability of a critical role of corin in preeclamspia pathophysiology at the uteroplacental interface.

  9. The association between parenting stress, parenting self-efficacy, and the clinical significance of child ADHD symptom change following behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Corey L; Curtis, David F; Fan, Weihua; McPherson, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We examined parenting stress (PST) and self-efficacy (PSE) following participation in behavioral parent training (BPT) with regard to child treatment response. Forty-three families of children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a modified BPT program. Change in PST and PSE was evaluated using a single group, within-subjects design. Parenting outcomes based on child treatment response were evaluated based upon (1) magnitude and (2) clinical significance of change in child symptom impairment. Parents reported significant improvements in stress and self-efficacy. Parents of children who demonstrated clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms reported lower stress and higher self-efficacy than those of children with continued impairments. Magnitude of child impairment was not associated with parent outcomes. Clinical implications for these results include extending treatment duration to provide more time for symptom amelioration and parent-focused objectives to improve coping and stress management.

  10. Rib fractures and their association With solid organ injury: higher rib fractures have greater significance for solid organ injury screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Jack W; Lively, Timothy B; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammad A; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patients with rib injuries who were at risk for solid organ injury. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients with rib fractures during the period from July 2007 to July 2012. Data were analyzed for association of rib fractures and solid organ injury. In all, 1,103 rib fracture patients were identified; 142 patients had liver injuries with 109 (77%) associated right rib fractures. Right-sided rib fractures with highest sensitivity for liver injury were middle rib segment (5 to 8) and lower segment (9 to 12) with liver injury sensitivities of 68% and 43%, respectively (P rib fractures. Left middle segment rib fractures and lower segment rib fractures had sensitivities of 80% and 63% for splenic injury, respectively (P Rib fractures higher in the thoracic cage have significant association with solid organ injury. Using rib fractures from middle plus lower segments as indication for abdominal screening will significantly improve rib fracture sensitivity for identification of solid organ injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A large population histology study showing the lack of association between ALT elevation and significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B.

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    Wai-Kay Seto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We determined the association between various clinical parameters and significant liver injury in both hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients. METHODS: From 1994 to 2008, liver biopsy was performed on 319 treatment-naïve CHB patients. Histologic assessment was based on the Knodell histologic activity index for necroinflammation and the Ishak fibrosis staging for fibrosis. RESULTS: 211 HBeAg-positive and 108 HBeAg-negative patients were recruited, with a median age of 31 and 46 years respectively. 9 out of 40 (22.5% HBeAg-positive patients with normal ALT had significant histologic abnormalities (necroinflammation grading ≥ 7 or fibrosis score ≥ 3. There was a significant difference in fibrosis scores among HBeAg-positive patients with an ALT level within the Prati criteria (30 U/L for men, 19 U/L for women and patients with a normal ALT but exceeding the Prati criteria (p = 0.024. Age, aspartate aminotransferase and platelet count were independent predictors of significant fibrosis in HBeAg-positive patients with an elevated ALT by multivariate analysis (p = 0.007, 0.047 and 0.045 respectively. HBV DNA and platelet count were predictors of significant fibrosis in HBeAg-negative disease (p = 0.020 and 0.015 respectively. An elevated ALT was not predictive of significant fibrosis for HBeAg-positive (p = 0.345 and -negative (p = 0.544 disease. There was no significant difference in fibrosis staging among ALT 1-2 × upper limit of normal (ULN and > × 2 ULN for both HBeAg-positive (p = 0.098 and -negative (p = 0.838 disease. CONCLUSION: An elevated ALT does not accurately predict significant liver injury. Decisions on commencing antiviral therapy should not be heavily based on a particular ALT threshold.

  12. Prognostic significance of metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1 expression in patients with gallbladder cancer

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    Lijian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1, in human gallbladder cancer, is not yet established. This study was performed to assess the expression of MACC1 in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions, and to assess its clinicopathological significance. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples from resected gallbladder cancer (n = 70 and cholelithiasis (n = 70 were evaluated for MACC1 expression by immunohistochemical staining. Their expression was correlated with different clinicopathological parameters. Results: Cytoplasmic MACC1 expression was significantly higher (58.6% in gallbladder cancer than in chronic cholecystitis (27.1%, P 0.05. The univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a positive MACC1 expression was associated with decreased overall survival (P < 0.001. The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that MACC1 expression and the histopathological subtypes were independent risk factors for disease-free survival. Conclusion: The expression of MACC1 might be closely related to carcinogenesis, clinical biological behaviors, and prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.

  13. Significant association between glycemic status and increased estimated postglomerular resistance in nondiabetic subjects - study of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid clearance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumoto, Mari; Tsuda, Akihiro; Ishimura, Eiji; Uedono, Hideki; Ohno, Yoshiteru; Ichii, Mitsuru; Ochi, Akinobu; Nakatani, Shinya; Mori, Katsuhito; Uchida, Junji; Emoto, Masanori; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Inaba, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    We investigated whether glomerular hemodynamic parameters in nondiabetic subjects, including healthy subjects, are associated with glycemic status indices, by simultaneous measurement of inulin (Cin) and para-aminohippuric acid (CPHA) clearance. Twenty-six subjects (age 49.5 ± 13.3 years; 13 men and 13 women; 14 healthy subjects and 12 subjects with mild proteinuria) were enrolled. Cin and CPAH were measured simultaneously. All 26 subjects were nondiabetics. Estimated preglomerular resistance, estimated postglomerular resistance, and estimated glomerular hydrostatic pressure (Pglo) were calculated according to Gomez' formula. Pglo correlated significantly and positively with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in both healthy subjects (r = 0.532, P = 0.0498) and subjects with mild proteinuria (r = 0.681, P = 0.015). While there was no significant correlation between estimated preglomerular resistance and HbA1c, estimated postglomerular resistance correlated significantly and positively with HbA1c both in healthy subjects (r = 0.643, P = 0.013) and subjects with mild proteinuria (r = 0.589, P = 0.044). Glomerular filtration fraction, estimated Pglo and estimated postglomerular resistance in total subjects were associated significantly with HbA1c after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index. These results demonstrate that, even in nondiabetic subjects, glycemic status is associated with estimated postglomerular resistance, but not estimated preglomerular resistance. It is suggested that increased estimated postglomerular resistance associated with higher HbA1c levels, even within the normal range, causes increased estimated Pglo, leading to increased FF. Thus, hemodynamic abnormalities associated with higher HbA1c levels may be related to glomerular hypertension, even in nondiabetic subjects.

  14. Significant Association between Serum Interleukin-6 and Helicobacter pylori Antibody Levels among H. pylori-Positive Japanese Adults

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    Hiroko Nakagawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine produced by many types of cells. Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis that is an underlying cause of coronary heart disease (CHD. Since the 1990s, some studies have shown an association between H. pylori infection and CHD, which may be mediated by inflammation. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the association between serum anti-H. pylori IgG levels and serum IL-6 levels in H. pylori-infected adults. Methods. We enrolled 158 subjects who visited a clinic located in an urban area to be tested for H. pylori infection, using the 13C-urea breath test, and who were found to be infected and subsequently received eradication. Results. The geometric mean serum IL-6 level was 1.78 pg/mL for men, 1.57 pg/mL for women, and 1.64 pg/mL overall. Logarithms of serum IL-6 levels were positively correlated with logarithms of serum H. pylori IgG levels (r=0.24, P=0.002. In multiple linear regression analysis adjusting for sex and age, the serum IL-6 level was still significantly associated with the IgG level in all subjects (β=0.18, P=0.012. Conclusion. Higher H. pylori IgG levels were significantly associated with higher serum IL-6 levels among H. pylori-infected individuals.

  15. CD56-positive lymphocyte infiltration in relation to human papillomavirus association and prognostic significance in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Steffen; Wittekindt, Claus; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Hennig, Ben; Thevarajah, Mauran; Würdemann, Nora; Prigge, Elena-Sophie; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Dreyer, Thomas; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Klussmann, Jens Peter

    2016-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (OSCC) are clinical and biological distinct from their HPV-unrelated counterparts. Patients with HPV-related OSCC display improved prognosis and therefore we investigated possible immune cell infiltrations associated with this tumor phenotype. We retrospectively analyzed a randomly selected cohort of 140 OSCC for presence of immune cells and HPV by immunohistochemistry and PCR followed by bead-based hybridization (Luminex technology). HPV prevalence was 24.3% as determined by positive staining of p16INK4a and detection of high risk HPV-DNA. We found significantly higher numbers of CD56 positive (CD56+) cells in tumor and surrounding microenvironment in HPV-associated compared to HPV-negative OSCC (t-test: p = 0.004 and p = 0.002). For the entire cohort presence of CD56+ cells was associated with increased overall survival independent from HPV (Kaplan-Meier: p = 0.002; Cox regression: p = 0.042). Presence of CD56+ cells also correlated with a better outcome in HPV-negative and especially in HPV-negative OSCC with alcohol consumption ≤ 2 standard drinks per day (Kaplan-Meier: p = 0.05 and p = 0.003). Immunofluorescence localization of granular Granzyme B (GZMB) within CD56+ cells and coexpression of CD16 and CD56 suggests that detected CD56+ cells mainly represent cytotoxic Natural Killer (NK) cells. The fraction of potentially cytotoxic NK cells was significantly higher in HPV-associated compared to HPV-negative OSCC (Mann-Whitney-U-Test: p = 0.011). The elevated abundance and activity of cytotoxic NK cells in OSCC with HPV driven carcinogenesis might contribute to favorable outcome in HPV-related OSCC.

  16. Significant inverse association of equol-producer status with coronary artery calcification but not dietary isoflavones in healthy Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vasudha; Miura, Katsuyuki; Vishnu, Abhishek; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Evans, Rhobert; Zaid, Maryam; Miyagawa, Naoko; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadota, Aya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Sekikawa, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Equol, a metabolite of the dietary isoflavone daidzein, is produced by the action of gut bacteria in some individuals who are termed as equol-producers. It is proposed to have stronger atheroprotective properties than dietary isoflavones. We examined a cross-sectional association of dietary isoflavones and equol-producer status with coronary artery calcification (CAC), a biomarker of coronary atherosclerosis, among men in Japan. A population-based sample of 272 Japanese men aged 40-49 years recruited from 2004 to 2007 was examined for serum isoflavones, serum equol, CAC and other factors. Equol-producers were classified as individuals having a serum level of equol >83 nm. The presence of CAC was defined as a coronary Ca score ≥10 Agatston units. The associations of dietary isoflavones and equol-producers with CAC were analysed using multiple logistic regression. The median of dietary isoflavones, equol and CAC were 512·7 (interquartile range (IQR) 194·1, 1170·0), 9·1 (IQR 0·10, 33·1) and 0·0 (IQR 0·0, 1·0) nm, respectively. Prevalence of CAC and equol-producers was 9·6 and 16·0 %, respectively. Dietary isoflavones were not significantly associated with CAC. After multivariable adjustment, the OR for the presence of CAC in equol-producers compared with equol non-producers was 0·10 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·90, PCAC than equol non-producers, but there was no significant association between dietary isoflavones and CAC, suggesting that equol may be a key factor for atheroprotective properties of isoflavones in Japanese men. This finding must be confirmed in larger studies or clinical trials of equol that is now available as a dietary supplement.

  17. No significant association between RELN polymorphism and autism in case-control and family-based association study in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiqun; Xun, Guanglei; Xia, Kun; Hu, Zhengmao; Lv, Luxian; Deng, Zemin; Zhao, Jingping

    2011-05-30

    The present study genotyped four SNPs (rs736707, rs2229864, rs362691, and rs2073559) of the Reelin gene (RELN) in 165 autistic trios, 67 sporadic autistic children and 283 healthy controls with Chinese Han pedigree. Both case-control analysis and transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) found no evidence of significant association. The results do not support previous positive findings and suggest that the four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of RELN are unlikely to be associated with childhood autism in Chinese Han population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle.

  19. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly M Verhagen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism. RESULTS: Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18% while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37% and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%. Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%. Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and

  20. Large-scale Demonstration and Deployment Project for D&D of Fuel Storage Canals and Associated Facilities at INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmill, Larry Joseph

    2001-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA), sponsored a Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under management of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The INEEL LSDDP is one of several LSDDPs sponsored by DOE. The LSDDP process integrates field demonstrations into actual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations by comparing new or improved technologies against existing baseline technologies using a side-by-side comparison. The goals are (a) to identify technologies that are cheaper, safer, faster, and cleaner (produce less waste), and (b) to incorporate those technologies into D&D baseline operations. The INEEL LSDDP reviewed more than 300 technologies, screened 141, and demonstrated 17. These 17 technologies have been deployed a total of 70 times at facilities other than those where the technology was demonstrated, and 10 have become baseline at the INEEL. Fifteen INEEL D&D needs have been modified or removed from the Needs Management System as a direct result of using these new technologies. Conservatively, the ten-year projected cost savings at the INEEL resulting from use of the technologies demonstrated in this INEEL LSDDP exceeds $39 million dollars.

  1. Genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence: significant findings in African- and European-Americans including novel risk loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelernter, J; Kranzler, HR; Sherva, R; Almasy, L; Koesterer, R; Smith, AH; Anton, R; Preuss, UW; Ridinger, M; Rujescu, D; Wodarz, N; Zill, P; Zhao, H; Farrer, LA

    2014-01-01

    We report a GWAS of alcohol dependence (AD) in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) populations, with replication in independent samples of EAs, AAs and Germans. Our sample for discovery and replication was 16 087 subjects, the largest sample for AD GWAS to date. Numerous genome-wide significant (GWS) associations were identified, many novel. Most associations were population specific, but in several cases were GWS in EAs and AAs for different SNPs at the same locus, showing biological convergence across populations. We confirmed well-known risk loci mapped to alcohol-metabolizing enzyme genes, notably ADH1B (EAs: Arg48His, P = 1.17 × 10−31; AAs: Arg369Cys, P = 6.33 × 10−17) and ADH1C in AAs (Thr151Thr, P = 4.94 × 10−10), and identified novel risk loci mapping to the ADH gene cluster on chromosome 4 and extending centromerically beyond it to include GWS associations at LOC100507053 in AAs (P = 2.63 × 10−11), PDLIM5 in EAs (P = 2.01 × 10−8), and METAP in AAs (P = 3.35 × 10−8). We also identified a novel GWS association (1.17 × 10−10) mapped to chromosome 2 at rs1437396, between MTIF2 and CCDC88A, across all of the EA and AA cohorts, with supportive gene expression evidence, and population-specific GWS for markers on chromosomes 5, 9 and 19. Several of the novel associations implicate direct involvement of, or interaction with, genes previously identified as schizophrenia risk loci. Confirmation of known AD risk loci supports the overall validity of the study; the novel loci are worthy of genetic and biological follow-up. The findings support a convergence of risk genes (but not necessarily risk alleles) between populations, and, to a lesser extent, between psychiatric traits. PMID:24166409

  2. The expression and significance of P-glycoprotein, lung resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To detect the expression of multidrug resistance molecules P-glycoprotein (P-gp, Lung resistnce protein (LRP and Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP and analyze the relationship between them and the clinico-pathological features. Methods The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 59 gastric cancer patients were determined by a labbelled Streptavidin-Peroxidase (SP immunohistochemical technique, and the results were analyzed in correlation with clinicopathological data. None of these patients received chemotherapy prior to surgery. Results The positive rates of P-gp, LRP, MRP were 86.4%, 84.7% and 27.1%, respectively. The difference between the positive rate of P-gp and MRP was significant statistically, as well as the difference between the expression of MRP and LRP. No significant difference was observed between P-gp and LRP, but the positively correlation between the expression of P-gp and LRP had been found. No significant correlation between the expression of P-gp, LRP, MRP and the grade of differentiation were observed. The expression of P-gp was correlated with clinical stages positively (r = 0.742, but the difference with the expression of P-gp in different stages was not significant. Conclusion The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in patients with gastric cancer without prior chemotherapy are high, indicating that innate drug resistance may exist in gastric cancer.

  3. Triglyceride content in remnant lipoproteins is significantly increased after food intake and is associated with plasma lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Sakamaki, Koji; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Kamachi, Keiko; Tanaka, Akira; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J; Wang, Tao; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Previous large population studies reported that non-fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) reflect a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than TG in the fasting plasma. This is suggestive of the presence of higher concentration of remnant lipoproteins (RLP) in postprandial plasma. TG and RLP-TG together with other lipids, lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both fasting and postprandial plasma were determined in generally healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after consuming a fat load or a more typical moderate meal. RLP-TG/TG ratio (concentration) and RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio (particle size) were significantly increased in the postprandial plasma of both healthy controls and CAD patients compared with those in fasting plasma. LPL/RLP-TG ratio demonstrated the interaction correlation between RLP concentration and LPL activity The increased RLP-TG after fat consumption contributed to approximately 90% of the increased plasma TG, while approximately 60% after a typical meal. Plasma LPL in postprandial plasma was not significantly altered after either type of meal. Concentrations of RLP-TG found in the TG along with its particle size are significantly increased in postprandial plasma compared with fasting plasma. Therefore, non-fasting TG determination better reflects the presence of higher RLP concentrations in plasma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-wide association study of CSF levels of 59 alzheimer's disease candidate proteins: significant associations with proteins involved in amyloid processing and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S K Kauwe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF 42 amino acid species of amyloid beta (Aβ42 and tau levels are strongly correlated with the presence of Alzheimer's disease (AD neuropathology including amyloid plaques and neurodegeneration and have been successfully used as endophenotypes for genetic studies of AD. Additional CSF analytes may also serve as useful endophenotypes that capture other aspects of AD pathophysiology. Here we have conducted a genome-wide association study of CSF levels of 59 AD-related analytes. All analytes were measured using the Rules Based Medicine Human DiscoveryMAP Panel, which includes analytes relevant to several disease-related processes. Data from two independently collected and measured datasets, the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, were analyzed separately, and combined results were obtained using meta-analysis. We identified genetic associations with CSF levels of 5 proteins (Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2, Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 4 (CCL4, Interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R and Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3 with study-wide significant p-values (p<1.46×10-10 and significant, consistent evidence for association in both the Knight ADRC and the ADNI samples. These proteins are involved in amyloid processing and pro-inflammatory signaling. SNPs associated with ACE, IL6R and MMP3 protein levels are located within the coding regions of the corresponding structural gene. The SNPs associated with CSF levels of CCL4 and CCL2 are located in known chemokine binding proteins. The genetic associations reported here are novel and suggest mechanisms for genetic control of CSF and plasma levels of these disease-related proteins. Significant SNPs in ACE and MMP3 also showed association with AD risk. Our findings suggest that these proteins/pathways may be valuable therapeutic targets for AD. Robust associations in cognitively normal

  5. A genome scan revealed significant associations of growth traits with a major QTL and GHR2 in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Fei; Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Jian; Fu, Gui Hong; Lin, Grace; Tu, Rong Jian; Wan, Zi Yi; Quek, Delia; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-12-01

    Growth is an important trait in animal breeding. However, the genetic effects underpinning fish growth variability are still poorly understood. QTL mapping and analysis of candidate genes are effective methods to address this issue. We conducted a genome-wide QTL analysis for growth in tilapia. A total of 10, 7 and 8 significant QTLs were identified for body weight, total length and standard length at 140 dph, respectively. The majority of these QTLs were sex-specific. One major QTL for growth traits was identified in the sex-determining locus in LG1, explaining 71.7%, 67.2% and 64.9% of the phenotypic variation (PV) of body weight, total length and standard length, respectively. In addition, a candidate gene GHR2 in a QTL was significantly associated with body weight, explaining 13.1% of PV. Real-time qPCR revealed that different genotypes at the GHR2 locus influenced the IGF-1 expression level. The markers located in the major QTL for growth traits could be used in marker-assisted selection of tilapia. The associations between GHR2 variants and growth traits suggest that the GHR2 gene should be an important gene that explains the difference in growth among tilapia species.

  6. Significant Association of Serum Adiponectin and Creatine Kinase-MB Levels in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsukawa, Tomoaki; Maeda, Norikazu; Fukuda, Shiro; Yamaoka, Masaya; Fujishima, Yuya; Nagao, Hirofumi; Sato, Fumi; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Sawano, Hirotaka; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Funahashi, Tohru; Kai, Tatsuro; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2017-08-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific secretory protein, abundantly exists in the blood stream while its concentration paradoxically decreases in obesity. Hypoadiponectinemia is one of risks of cardiovascular diseases. However, impact of serum adiponectin concentration on acute ischemic myocardial damages has not been fully clarified. The present study investigated the association of serum adiponectin and creatine kinase (CK)-MB levels in subjects with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study is a physician-initiated observational study and is also registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (Number: UMIN 000014418). Patients were admitted to Senri Critical Care Medical Center, given a diagnosis of STEMI, and treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Finally, 49 patients were enrolled and the association of serum adiponectin, CK-MB, and clinical features were mainly analyzed. Serum adiponectin levels decreased rapidly and reached the bottom at 24 hours after recanalization. Such reduction of serum adiponectin was inversely correlated with the area under the curve (AUC) of serum CK-MB (p=0.013). Serum adiponectin concentrations were inversely correlated with AUC of serum CK-MB. In multivariate analysis, serum adiponectin concentration on admission (p=0.002) and collateral (p=0.037) were significantly and independently correlated with serum AUC of CK-MB. Serum AUC of CK-MB in STEMI subjects was significantly associated with serum adiponectin concentration on admission and reduction of serum adiponectin levels from baseline to bottom. The present study may provide a possibility that serum adiponectin levels at acute phase are useful in the prediction for prognosis after PCI-treated STEMI subjects.

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  8. Significant modifications of the salivary proteome potentially associated with complications of Down syndrome revealed by top-down proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, Tiziana; Pisano, Elisabetta; Montaldo, Caterina; Giuca, Maria Rita; Iavarone, Federica; Zampino, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2013-07-01

    People with Down syndrome, a frequent genetic disorder in humans, have increased risk of health problems associated with this condition. One clinical feature of Down syndrome is the increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in comparison with the general population. Because saliva plays an important role in maintaining oral health, in the present study the salivary proteome of Down syndrome subjects was investigated to explore modifications with respect to healthy subjects. Whole saliva of 36 Down syndrome subjects, divided in the age groups 10-17 yr and 18-50 yr, was analyzed by a top-down proteomic approach, based on the high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-MS analysis of the intact proteins and peptides, and the qualitative and quantitative profiles were compared with sex- and age-matched control groups. The results showed the following interesting features: 1) as opposed to controls, in Down syndrome subjects the concentration of the major salivary proteins of gland origin did not increase with age; as a consequence concentration of acidic proline rich proteins and S cystatins were found significantly reduced in older Down syndrome subjects with respect to matched controls; 2) levels of the antimicrobial α-defensins 1 and 2 and histatins 3 and 5 were significantly increased in whole saliva of older Down syndrome subjects with respect to controls; 3) S100A7, S100A8, and S100A12 levels were significantly increased in whole saliva of Down syndrome subjects in comparison with controls. The increased level of S100A7 and S100A12 may be of particular interest as a biomarker of early onset Alzheimer's disease, which is frequently associated with Down syndrome.

  9. Significant Modifications of the Salivary Proteome Potentially Associated with Complications of Down Syndrome Revealed by Top-down Proteomics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, Tiziana; Pisano, Elisabetta; Montaldo, Caterina; Giuca, Maria Rita; Iavarone, Federica; Zampino, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2013-01-01

    People with Down syndrome, a frequent genetic disorder in humans, have increased risk of health problems associated with this condition. One clinical feature of Down syndrome is the increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in comparison with the general population. Because saliva plays an important role in maintaining oral health, in the present study the salivary proteome of Down syndrome subjects was investigated to explore modifications with respect to healthy subjects. Whole saliva of 36 Down syndrome subjects, divided in the age groups 10–17 yr and 18–50 yr, was analyzed by a top-down proteomic approach, based on the high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–MS analysis of the intact proteins and peptides, and the qualitative and quantitative profiles were compared with sex- and age-matched control groups. The results showed the following interesting features: 1) as opposed to controls, in Down syndrome subjects the concentration of the major salivary proteins of gland origin did not increase with age; as a consequence concentration of acidic proline rich proteins and S cystatins were found significantly reduced in older Down syndrome subjects with respect to matched controls; 2) levels of the antimicrobial α-defensins 1 and 2 and histatins 3 and 5 were significantly increased in whole saliva of older Down syndrome subjects with respect to controls; 3) S100A7, S100A8, and S100A12 levels were significantly increased in whole saliva of Down syndrome subjects in comparison with controls. The increased level of S100A7 and S100A12 may be of particular interest as a biomarker of early onset Alzheimer's disease, which is frequently associated with Down syndrome. PMID:23533003

  10. The Gut-Brain Axis in Healthy Females: Lack of Significant Association between Microbial Composition and Diversity with Psychiatric Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Susan C.; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C.; Glenny, Elaine M.; Zerwas, Stephanie C.; Huh, Eun Young; Tsilimigras, Matthew C. B.; Fodor, Anthony A.; Carroll, Ian M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study examined associations between the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota and measures of depression, anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, stress, and personality in a group of healthy adult females. Methods Female participants (n = 91) ages 19–50 years with BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2 were recruited from central North Carolina between July 2014 and March 2015. Participants provided a single fecal sample and completed an online psychiatric questionnaire that included five measures: (i) Beck Anxiety Inventory; (ii) Beck Depression Inventory-II; (iii) Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; (iv) Perceived Stress Scale; and (v) Mini International Personality Item Pool. Bacterial composition and diversity were characterized by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and associations were examined using Kendall’s tau-b correlation coefficient, in conjunction with Benjamini and Hochberg’s False Discovery Rate procedure. Results We found no significant associations between microbial markers of gut composition and diversity and scores on psychiatric measures of anxiety, depression, eating-related thoughts and behaviors, stress, or personality in a large cohort of healthy adult females. Discussion This study was the first specifically to examine associations between the intestinal microbiota and psychiatric measures in healthy females, and based on 16S rRNA taxonomic abundances and diversity measures, our results do not suggest a strong role for the enteric microbe-gut-brain axis in normal variation on responses to psychiatric measures in this population. However, the role of the intestinal microbiota in the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness may be limited to more severe psychopathology. PMID:28103291

  11. Nonapnea Sleep Disorders in Patients Younger than 65 Years Are Significantly Associated with CKD: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo You-Hsien Lin

    Full Text Available Nonapnea sleep disorders (NASD and sleep-related problems are associated with poor health outcomes. However, the association between NASD and the development and prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD has not been investigated thoroughly. We explored the association between CKD and NASD in Taiwan.We conducted a population-based study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database with1,000,000 representative data for the period from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009. We investigated the incidence and risk of CKD in 7,006 newly diagnosed NASD cases compared with 21,018 people without NASD matched according to age, sex, index year, urbanization, region, and monthly income at a 1:3 ratio.The subsequent risk of CKD was 1.48-foldhigher in the NASD cohort than in the control cohort (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-1.73, p< 0.001. Men, older age, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and gout were significant factors associated with the increased risk of CKD (p< 0.001. Among different types of NASDs, patients with insomnia had a 52% increased risk of developing CKD (95%CI = 1.23-1.84; P<0.01, whereas patients with sleep disturbance had a 49%increased risk of subsequent CKD (95% CI = 1.19-1.87; P<0.001. Younger women (aged < 65 years were at a high risk of CKD with NASD (adjusted hazard ratio, [HR] = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.35-2.40, p< 0.001.In this nationwide population-based cohort study, patients with NASD, particularly men of all ages and women aged younger than 65 years, were at high risk of CKD.

  12. Association of systemic health and functional outcomes with changes in hard exudates associated with clinically significant macular oedema over the natural course of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Yusuke; Kumakawa, Makiko; Endo, Naoko; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko; Kitano, Shigehiko

    2010-06-01

    Hard exudates associated with clinically significant macular oedema (CSMO) do not always increase without laser photocoagulation and can generally be classified as regressing or progressing. We studied the systemic differences and functional outcomes between the two groups. In this retrospective observational controlled study, we compared blood pressure, biochemical parameters and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between 26 patients with regressed hard exudates with CSMO (group A) and 27 patients with progressing hard exudates with CSMO (group B). The eyes had no history of ophthalmic treatments including laser therapy for diabetic retinopathy or maculopathy until the end of the study. Group B had significant increases in the mean total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.0194) and mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p=0.0147) after at least 6 months of follow-up compared with group A. The final mean BCVA was significantly (p=0.0189) higher in group A than group B. A separate within-group analysis showed a significant (p=0.0015) decrease in BCVA from baseline in group B at the final visit. For hard exudates associated with CSMO, strict lipid-lowering therapy, especially regulation of elevated TC and LDL, before a decrease in visual acuity might result in better macular anatomical outcomes and visual preservation through the natural course of the disease.

  13. Routine pathology evaluation of hydrocele and spermatocele specimens is associated with significant costs and no identifiable benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Viral S; Nepple, Kenneth G; Lee, Daniel K

    2014-10-01

    Hydrocelectomy and spermatocelectomy are routine scrotal surgeries. A significant number of the surgical specimens are sent for pathology analysis. However, to our knowledge no study has been done to examine outcomes and necessity, which results in significant potentially unnecessary costs to the patient and the health care system. We evaluated outcomes and surgical pathology analysis of hydroceles and spermatoceles. We performed a retrospective, single institution chart review of all patients who underwent initial surgery for hydrocele or spermatocele between January 2000 and August 2013. We determined the number of cases in which a surgical specimen was sent for pathology examination. The cost for each specimen was estimated at the department of pathology. A total of 264 routine scrotal cases were performed during the 14-year period. Surgical specimens were sent for pathology analysis in 102 hydrocelectomy cases (51%) and in 57 spermatocelectomy cases (90%). No pathology specimen showed any indication of malignancy. The estimated direct total cost of pathology analysis was $49,449 in this cohort. No malignancy was detected in 159 hydrocele and spermatocele specimens during the 14 study years, suggesting that the pathology analysis is of little clinical benefit. Forgoing surgical pathology analysis of these specimens would result in significant cost savings to the patient and the health care system. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prognostic significance of tumor-associated macrophages in solid tumor: a meta-analysis of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-wen Zhang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs are considered with the capacity to have both negative and positive effects on tumor growth. The prognostic value of TAM for survival in patients with solid tumor remains controversial. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a meta-analysis of 55 studies (n = 8,692 patients that evaluated the correlation between TAM (detected by immunohistochemistry and clinical staging, overall survival (OS and disease free survival (DFS. The impact of M1 and M2 type TAM (n = 5 on survival was also examined. RESULTS: High density of TAM was significantly associated with late clinical staging in patients with breast cancer [risk ratio (RR  = 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.14-1.28] and bladder cancer [RR = 3.30 (95%CI, 1.56-6.96] and with early clinical staging in patients with ovarian cancer [RR = 0.52 (95%CI, 0.35-0.77]. Negative effects of TAM on OS was shown in patients with gastric cancer [RR = 1.64 (95%CI, 1.24-2.16], breast cancer [RR = 8.62 (95%CI, 3.10-23.95], bladder cancer [RR = 5.00 (95%CI, 1.98-12.63], ovarian cancer [RR = 2.55 (95%CI, 1.60-4.06], oral cancer [RR = 2.03 (95%CI, 1.47-2.80] and thyroid cancer [RR = 2.72 (95%CI, 1.26-5.86],and positive effects was displayed in patients with colorectal cancer [RR = 0.64 (95%CI, 0.43-0.96]. No significant effect was showed between TAM and DFS. There was also no significant effect of two phenotypes of TAM on survival. CONCLUSIONS: Although some modest bias cannot be excluded, high density of TAM seems to be associated with worse OS in patients with gastric cancer, urogenital cancer and head and neck cancer, with better OS in patients with colorectal cancer.

  15. Significant differences in fecal microbiota are associated with various stages of glucose tolerance in African American male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Irina; Green, Stefan J; Kukreja, Subhash; Barengolts, Elena

    2015-11-01

    The importance of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between microbiota and metabolic markers in African American men (AAM) with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The study was ancillary to a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation with weekly ergocalciferol (50,000 IU) conducted in AAM veterans over 12 months (D Intervention in Veterans Affairs). Glycemic groups (Gr) were characterized based on changes in oral glucose tolerance between baseline and exit. Subjects with stable normal glucose tolerance were assigned to Gr-1 and those with stable prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose) to Gr-2. Microbiota composition was analyzed in stool collected at the exit (n = 115) and compared between Gr-1 and Gr-2, as well as between the lowest and highest quartiles of dietary intake of energy and fat, hemoglobin A1c, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level. Differences between Gr-1 and Gr-2 included the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and Bacteroidales/Clostridia ratios and differences in genera such as Ruminococcus and Dialister. Changes in specific taxa associated with the lowest and highest quartiles of 25(OH)D (eg, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Blautia, Dorea) were clearly distinct from those of dietary intake (eg, Bacteroides, Bacteroides/Prevotella ratio) or A1c (eg, Faecalibacterium, Catenibacterium, Streptococcus). These findings suggest a novel interaction between microbiota and vitamin D and a role for microbiota in early stages of diabetes development. Although results suggest that specific taxa are associated with glycemic stability over time, a causative relationship between microbiota makeup and dysglycemia is still to be demonstrated. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Multilocus sequence typing of a global collection of pasteurella multocida isolates from cattle and other host species demonstrates niche association

    OpenAIRE

    Hotchkiss, E.J.; Hodgson, J.C.; Lainson, F. A.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Pasteurella multocida causes disease in many host species throughout the world. In bovids, it contributes to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and causes haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS). Previous studies have suggested that BRD-associated P. multocida isolates are of limited diversity. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for P. multocida was used to determine whether the low levels of diversity reported are due to the limited discriminatory power of the typing method u...

  17. Hypoalbuminemia is significantly associated with increased clearance time of high dose methotrexate in patients being treated for lymphoma or leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Samantha N; Buie, Larry W; Adel, Nelly; Goldman, Debra A; Devlin, Sean M; Douer, Dan

    2016-12-01

    As a weak acid, methotrexate (MTX) is bound to serum albumin and has variable protein binding. The purpose of this study was to assess serum albumin's relationship with MTX pharmacokinetics by comparing MTX clearance and toxicities between patients with normal serum albumin to those with hypoalbuminemia. This single-center retrospective study included adult patients with leukemia or lymphoma who received their first MTX at a dose ≥1 g/m(2). Hypoalbuminemia was defined as serum albumin ≤3.4 g/dL. MTX clearance was defined as the first documented time the MTX level ≤0.05 μM. Fisher's exact tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to examine differences in toxicities, and Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess relationship with time to clearance. Of 523 patients identified, 167 patients were evaluable. One hundred thirty-five patients had normal serum albumin and 32 had hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with a higher proportion of patients experiencing edema, ascites or pleural effusions (34 vs. 12 %, p = 0.006), and the concomitant use of nephrotoxic agents (41 vs. 20 %, p = 0.021). Hypoalbuminemia was associated with a significantly longer time to MTX clearance (median 96 vs. 72 h, p = 0.004). In addition, patients with hypoalbuminemia had a higher proportion of hyperbilirubinemia and significantly longer hospitalization (median 14 vs. 5 days, p clearance and increased length of hospitalization. High dose MTX is safe to administer in patients with low albumin levels, with appropriate leucovorin rescue, and good supportive care.

  18. Using the longest significance run to estimate region-specific p-values in genetic association mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association testing is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes underlying complex diseases. Technological advances have yielded a dramatic increase in the density of available genetic markers, necessitating an increase in the number of association tests required for the analysis of disease susceptibility genes. As such, multiple-tests corrections have become a critical issue. However the conventional statistical corrections on locus-specific multiple tests usually result in lower power as the number of markers increases. Alternatively, we propose here the application of the longest significant run (LSR method to estimate a region-specific p-value to provide an index for the most likely candidate region. Results An advantage of the LSR method relative to procedures based on genotypic data is that only p-value data are needed and hence can be applied extensively to different study designs. In this study the proposed LSR method was compared with commonly used methods such as Bonferroni's method and FDR controlling method. We found that while all methods provide good control over false positive rate, LSR has much better power and false discovery rate. In the authentic analysis on psoriasis and asthma disease data, the LSR method successfully identified important candidate regions and replicated the results of previous association studies. Conclusion The proposed LSR method provides an efficient exploratory tool for the analysis of sequences of dense genetic markers. Our results show that the LSR method has better power and lower false discovery rate comparing with the locus-specific multiple tests.

  19. Significant obesity-associated gene expression changes occur in the stomach but not intestines in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Chen, Lihong; Sanseau, Philippe; Freudenberg, Johannes M; Rajpal, Deepak K

    2016-05-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract can have significant impact on the regulation of the whole-body metabolism and may contribute to the development of obesity and diabetes. To systemically elucidate the role of the GI tract in obesity, we performed a transcriptomic analysis in different parts of the GI tract of two obese mouse models: ob/ob and high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Compared to their lean controls, significant changes in the gene expression were observed in both obese mouse groups in the stomach (ob/ob: 959; HFD: 542). In addition, these changes were quantitatively much higher than in the intestine. Despite the difference in genetic background, the two mouse models shared 296 similar gene expression changes in the stomach. Among those genes, some had known associations to obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. In addition, the gene expression profiles strongly suggested an increased gastric acid secretion in both obese mouse models, probably through an activation of the gastrin pathway. In conclusion, our data reveal a previously unknown dominant connection between the stomach and obesity in murine models extensively used in research.

  20. Association between the delta estimated glomerular filtration rate and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Korean males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Tae-Dong; Lee, Woochang; Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association between the reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in Korean males. We enrolled 723 healthy Korean males. Serum creatinine concentration, serum electrophoresis, serum immunofixation, and the serum free light chain assay were performed. We calculated delta eGFR per year (ΔeGFR/yr). The prevalence of MGUS was compared based on the ΔeGFR/yr and age group. Thirteen (1.8%) of 723 participants exhibited the monoclonal band on serum immunofixation. Prevalence of MGUS by age group was 0.00% (0/172 for 40 years), 1.63% (6/367 for 60 years), and 3.80% (7/184 for >60 years). The median decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was 5.3%. The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decline in ΔeGFR/yr was significantly higher than those with 5.3% decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was similar to that of healthy males in their 60s. Using the rate of reduction in ΔeGFR/yr in healthy Korean males who had their serum creatinine level checked regularly may increase the MGUS detection rate in clinical practice.

  1. Eph/ephrin profiling in human breast cancer reveals significant associations between expression level and clinical outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Brantley-Sieders

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical studies provide compelling evidence that Eph family receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs and ligands promote cancer growth, neovascularization, invasion, and metastasis. Tumor suppressive roles have also been reported for the receptors, however, creating a potential barrier for clinical application. Determining how these observations relate to clinical outcome is a crucial step for translating the biological and mechanistic data into new molecularly targeted therapies. We investigated eph and ephrin expression in human breast cancer relative to endpoints of overall and/or recurrence-free survival in large microarray datasets. We also investigated protein expression in commercial human breast tissue microarrays (TMA and Stage I prognostic TMAs linked to recurrence outcome data. We found significant correlations between ephA2, ephA4, ephA7, ephB4, and ephB6 and overall and/or recurrence-free survival in large microarray datasets. Protein expression in TMAs supported these trends. While observed no correlation between ephrin ligand expression and clinical outcome in microarray datasets, ephrin-A1 and EphA2 protein co-expression was significantly associated with recurrence in Stage I prognostic breast cancer TMAs. Our data suggest that several Eph family members are clinically relevant and tractable targets for intervention in human breast cancer. Moreover, profiling Eph receptor expression patterns in the context of relevant ligands and in the context of stage may be valuable in terms of diagnostics and treatment.

  2. Multilocus sequence typing of a global collection of Pasteurella multocida isolates from cattle and other host species demonstrates niche association

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    Lainson F Alex

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pasteurella multocida causes disease in many host species throughout the world. In bovids, it contributes to bovine respiratory disease (BRD and causes haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS. Previous studies have suggested that BRD-associated P. multocida isolates are of limited diversity. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme for P. multocida was used to determine whether the low levels of diversity reported are due to the limited discriminatory power of the typing method used, restricted sample selection or true niche association. Bovine respiratory isolates of P. multocida (n = 133 from the UK, the USA and France, collected between 1984 and 2008 from both healthy and clinically affected animals, were typed using MLST. Isolates of P. multocida from cases of HS, isolates from other host species and data from the MLST database were used as comparison. Results Bovine respiratory isolates were found to be clonal (ISA 0.45 with 105/128 belonging to clonal complex 13 (CC13. HS isolates were not related to bovine respiratory isolates. Of the host species studied, the majority had their own unique sequence types (STs, with few STs being shared across host species, although there was some cross over between porcine and bovine respiratory isolates. Avian, ovine and porcine isolates showed greater levels of diversity compared to cattle respiratory isolates, despite more limited geographic origins. Conclusions The homogeneity of STs of bovine respiratory P. multocida observed, and the differences between these and P. multocida subpopulations from bovine non-respiratory isolates and non-bovine hosts may indicate niche association.

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  5. Complete Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  8. Civilian cerebral gunshot wounds in rural South African patients are associated with significantly higher mortality rates than in urban patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, V Y; Bruce, J L; Sartorius, B; Laing, G L; Odendaal, J; Brysiewicz, P; Clarke, D L

    2017-06-13

    This study focuses on a specific and often dramatic injury, namely gunshot wounds (GSW) of the head in order to determine whether there is a discrepancy in outcome between patients who sustain their injury in a rural setting and those who sustain it in an urban setting. This study involves a retrospective review of our prospectively maintained regional electronic trauma registry. All patients who sustained a cerebral GSW from January 2010 to December 2014 were reviewed. During the 5-year study period, a total of 102 patients sustained an isolated cerebral GSW. Ninety-two per cent (94/102) were male and the mean age was 29 years. Ninety-four per cent (94/102) of injuries were related to interpersonal violence. Of the 102 patients in the study, 54% (55/102) were urban and were transported directly to our trauma centre. The remaining 46% (47/102) were rural and were transported to a rural district hospital prior to being referred to our trauma centre. The time of injury was available in 60% (61/102) of patients. The mean time from injury to arrival for all patients was 11 h (SD 7). The mean time from injury to arrival was significantly shorter for urban versus rural, 6 h (SD 5) and 15 h (SD 5), respectively (p urban patients (p = 0.022). The need for neurosurgery, need for ICU admission or length of hospital stay was not significantly different between rural and urban patients. Rural patients have a fourfold higher mortality compared with urban patients (36 vs 9%, p = 0.001). Amongst survivors, there was no significant difference in median length of hospital stay or mean discharge GCS. Cerebral GSWs are highly lethal injuries associated with significant mortality. Rural patients have a significantly longer transfer time, lower GCS on arrival and higher mortality than urban patients. Efforts should be directed at improving the pre-hospital EMS system in order to reduce delay to definitive care so that patient outcome can be optimised.

  9. Quercetin phospholipid complex significantly protects against oxidative injury in ARPE-19 cells associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Rong; Yu, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yan; Hang, Li; Yang, Xue-Wen; Ding, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-05

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of dry AMD. Quercetin has potent anti-oxidative activities, but poor bioavailability limits its therapeutic application. Herein, we prepared the phospholipid complex of quercetin (quercetin-PC), characterized its structure by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectrum and x-ray diffraction. Quercetin-PC had equilibrium solubility of 38.36 and 1351.27μg/ml in water and chloroform, respectively, which was remarkably higher than those of quercetin alone. Then we established hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury model in human ARPE-19 cells to examine the effects of quercetin-PC. Quercetin-PC, stronger than quercetin, promoted cell proliferation, and the proliferation rate was increased to be 78.89% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 400μM. Moreover, quercetin-PC effectively prevented ARPE-19 cells from apoptosis, and the apoptotic rate was reduced to be 3.1% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 200μM. In addition, quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly increased the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX, and reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species and MDA in H2O2-treated ARPE-19 cells, but quercetin at 200μM failed to do so. Molecular examinations revealed that quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly activated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and significantly enhanced the expression of target genes HO-1, NQO-1 and GCL by different folds at both mRNA and protein levels. Our current data collectively indicated that quercetin-PC had stronger protective effects against oxidative-induced damages in ARPE-19 cells, which was associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway and its target genes implicated in antioxidant defense.

  10. Demonstration of the Enhanced Disinfection of E. coli Water Contamination by Associated Solar Irradiation with Potassium Persulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHANIZADEH, Ghader; NASERI ARA, Ali; ESMAILI, Davoud; MASOUMBEIGI, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tremendous amount of researches have investigated the issue of water photodisnfection. The aim of this research is to illustrate the influences of bacterial density, turbidity, exposure time and potassium persulfate (KPS) dosage on the efficacy of associated solar disinfection (SODIS) with KPS for E. coli (ATCC: 25922) eradication as an efficient and inexpensive process. Methods: Desired bacterial density and turbidity was achieved by spiking of 0.5 Mc Farland (1.5×108 cell/ml) and sterile soil slurry in 1 liter of the commercially bottled water. Results: The highest value of UVA solar irradiation measured at 13.30 p.m was 5510 μW/Cm2. Increase of bacterial density from 1000 to 1500 cell/ml led to an increase in disinfection lapse time, except in 2 mMol/l KPS. Spiking of 0.1 mMol/l of KPS was not effective; however, increase of KPS dosage from 0.1 mMol/l to 0.7, 1.5 and 2 mMol/l led to the enhancement of disinfection time from 4 h to 3 h and 1 h, respectively. For bacterial density of 1000 cell/ml, increasing KPS dosage up to 0.7 mMol/l had no improved effect; however, beyond this dosage the disinfection time decreased to 1 h. Without KPS and up to 150 NTU within 4 h exposure time, E. coli disinfection was completed. In 2 mMol/l KPS and 1000 and 1500 cell/ml, the 2 h contact time was sufficient up to 150 and 100 NTU, respectively; moreover, complete disinfection was not achieved at higher turbidity. Conclusion: Association of KPS with SODIS can lead to decreasing of water disinfection time. PMID:26576351

  11. Repeated dose studies with pure Epigallocatechin-3-gallate demonstrated dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity with associated dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available EGCG (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is the major active principle catechin found in green tea. Skepticism regarding the safety of consuming EGCG is gaining attention, despite the fact that it is widely being touted for its potential health benefits, including anti-cancer properties. The lack of scientific data on safe dose levels of pure EGCG is of concern, while EGCG has been commonly studied as a component of GTE (Green tea extract and not as a single active constituent. This study has been carried out to estimate the maximum tolerated non-toxic dose of pure EGCG and to identify the treatment related risk factors. In a fourteen day consecutive treatment, two different administration modalities were compared, offering an improved [i.p (intraperitoneal] and limited [p.o (oral] bioavailability. A trend of dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity was observed particularly with i.p treatment and EGCG increased serum lipid profile in parallel to hepatotoxicity. Fourteen day tolerable dose of EGCG was established as 21.1 mg/kg for i.p and 67.8 mg/kg for p.o. We also observed that, EGCG induced effects by both treatment routes are reversible, subsequent to an observation period for further fourteen days after cessation of treatment. It was demonstrated that the severity of EGCG induced toxicity appears to be a function of dose, route of administration and period of treatment.

  12. Significant effects of antiretroviral therapy on global gene expression in brain tissues of patients with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders.

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    Alejandra Borjabad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has reduced morbidity and mortality in HIV-1 infection; however HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND persist despite treatment. The reasons for the limited efficacy of ART in the brain are unknown. Here we used functional genomics to determine ART effectiveness in the brain and to identify molecular signatures of HAND under ART. We performed genome-wide microarray analysis using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry in brain tissues from seven treated and eight untreated HAND patients and six uninfected controls. We also determined brain virus burdens by real-time PCR. Treated and untreated HAND brains had distinct gene expression profiles with ART transcriptomes clustering with HIV-1-negative controls. The molecular disease profile of untreated HAND showed dysregulated expression of 1470 genes at p<0.05, with activation of antiviral and immune responses and suppression of synaptic transmission and neurogenesis. The overall brain transcriptome changes in these patients were independent of histological manifestation of HIV-1 encephalitis and brain virus burdens. Depending on treatment compliance, brain transcriptomes from patients on ART had 83% to 93% fewer dysregulated genes and significantly lower dysregulation of biological pathways compared to untreated patients, with particular improvement indicated for nervous system functions. However a core of about 100 genes remained similarly dysregulated in both treated and untreated patient brain tissues. These genes participate in adaptive immune responses, and in interferon, cell cycle, and myelin pathways. Fluctuations of cellular gene expression in the brain correlated in Pearson's formula analysis with plasma but not brain virus burden. Our results define for the first time an aberrant genome-wide brain transcriptome of untreated HAND and they suggest that antiretroviral treatment can be broadly effective in reducing

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  16. Activation of leukemia-associated RhoGEF by Galpha13 with significant conformational rearrangements in the interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuchika; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Hajicek, Nicole; Daigo, Kenji; Tokita, Reiko; Minami, Shiro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Hamakubo, Takao; Kozasa, Tohru

    2009-02-20

    The transient protein-protein interactions induced by guanine nucleotide-dependent conformational changes of G proteins play central roles in G protein-coupled receptor-mediated signaling systems. Leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho, contains an RGS homology (RH) domain and Dbl homology/pleckstrin homology (DH/PH) domains and acts both as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and an effector for Galpha(13). However, the molecular mechanism of LARG activation upon Galpha(13) binding is not yet well understood. In this study, we analyzed the Galpha(13)-LARG interaction using cellular and biochemical methods, including a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The results obtained using various LARG fragments demonstrated that active Galpha(13) interacts with LARG through the RH domain, DH/PH domains, and C-terminal region. However, an alanine substitution at the RH domain contact position in Galpha(13) resulted in a large decrease in affinity. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that binding of Galpha(13) proceeds with a large negative heat capacity change (DeltaCp degrees ), accompanied by a positive entropy change (DeltaS degrees ). These results likely indicate that the binding of Galpha(13) with the RH domain triggers conformational rearrangements between Galpha(13) and LARG burying an exposed hydrophobic surface to create a large complementary interface, which facilitates complex formation through both GAP and effector interfaces, and activates the RhoGEF. We propose that LARG activation is regulated by an induced-fit mechanism through the GAP interface of Galpha(13).

  17. The significance of antiretroviral-associated acute kidney injury in a cohort of ambulatory human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman, Philip; Safont, Pablo; Del Palacio, María; Moreno, Ana; Moreno, Santiago; Casado, José L

    2013-08-01

    To determine the incidence and significance of acute kidney injury (AKI) after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A prospective cohort study of 271 consecutively treated HIV-infected patients, initiating first (75) or sequential HAART (196) from January 2008 to June 2011. AKI was diagnosed according to the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage renal disease (RIFLE)/Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, and the risk of progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) was evaluated. A greater estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decrease after 1 year was observed for patients initiating a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based regimen (-6.45 versus +0.98 mL/min/1.73 m(2) when compared with patients without TDF; P < 0.01), both in the case of the first (-8.5 versus -2.27; P = 0.04) or successive regimens (-5.3 versus + 1.18 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P < 0.01). AKI, as defined, was observed in 10% (28 cases, 6.98 episodes/100 patients-year), mostly stage I (27 cases), in a median time of 6 (3-16.5) months. Four cases (14%), having a worse baseline renal function progressed to CKD, whereas four recovered completely. In the multivariate analysis, AKI was associated with the concomitant use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and to low CD4+ count. CKD was diagnosed in 2% (six cases) of patients. Therefore, the overall rate of HAART-associated renal disorders was 11% (30 cases, 7.46 episodes/100 patients-year (95% confidence interval, 6.09-8.83). The initiation of a tenofovir-based regimen is followed by a significant decline in eGFR, although it could be misinterpreted by the concomitant use of cotrimoxazole. A substantial proportion of patients develop AKI, but only a minority progress to CKD. Patients initiating HAART and developing AKI should be carefully monitored for progression of renal disease.

  18. Prognostic significance of L1CAM expression and its association with mutant p53 expression in high-risk endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gool, Inge C; Stelloo, Ellen; Nout, Remi A; Nijman, Hans W; Edmondson, Richard J; Church, David N; MacKay, Helen J; Leary, Alexandra; Powell, Melanie E; Mileshkin, Linda; Creutzberg, Carien L; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Bosse, Tjalling

    2016-02-01

    Studies in early-stage, predominantly low- and intermediate-risk endometrial cancer have demonstrated that L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) overexpression identifies patients at increased risk of recurrence, yet its prognostic significance in high-risk endometrial cancer is unclear. To evaluate this, its frequency, and the relationship of L1CAM with the established endometrial cancer biomarker p53, we analyzed the expression of both markers by immunohistochemistry in a pilot series of 116 endometrial cancers (86 endometrioid, 30 non-endometrioid subtype) with high-risk features (such as high tumor grade and deep myometrial invasion) and correlated results with clinical outcome. We used The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) endometrial cancer series to validate our findings. Using the previously reported cutoff of 10% positive staining, 51/116 (44%) tumors were classified as L1CAM-positive, with no significant association between L1CAM positivity and the rate of distant metastasis (P=0.195). However, increasing the threshold for L1CAM positivity to 50% resulted in a reduction of the frequency of L1CAM-positive tumors to 24% (28/116), and a significant association with the rate of distant metastasis (P=0.018). L1CAM expression was strongly associated with mutant p53 in the high-risk and TCGA series (Pp53-mutant endometrial cancers displayed p53-wild-type non-endometrioid endometrial cancers demonstrated diffuse L1CAM staining, suggesting p53-independent mechanisms of L1CAM overexpression. In conclusion, the previously proposed threshold for L1CAM positivity of >10% does not predict prognosis in high-risk endometrial cancer, whereas an alternative threshold (>50%) does. L1CAM expression is strongly, but not universally, associated with mutant p53, and may be strong enough for clinical implementation as prognostic marker in combination with p53. The high frequency of L1CAM expression in high-risk endometrial cancers suggests that it may also be a promising therapeutic target

  19. Perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain are prevalent and significantly associated in adolescents: an epidemiological cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerås, Berit; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2015-10-23

    Long-term musculoskeletal pain and negative stress are health risks with adverse long-term health effects, and these health risks seem to increase among young people. The mechanisms behind this are unclear. There is a need for a better understanding of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents, in order to improve health promotion and treatment approaches in this group. Objectives were to evaluate the current prevalence of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain in 15 and 16 year olds, to explore stress-pain associations and the probability that perceived stress (PSQ) was related to the reporting of pain and variations in pain, and to investigate possible differences in stress between different types of musculoskeletal pain in the adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Elementary schools participated. The outcomes were stress (Perceived stress questionnaire; PSQ) and musculoskeletal pain (pain/no pain, pain sites, pain duration and pain intensity (Visual analogue scale; VAS). Fifty-one point two percent (N = 422) reported pain, of which 70.8 % reported long-term pain. Some more girls (57.9 %) reported pain. 22.0 % of the study population reported moderate to severe stress (PSQ ≥ 0.45), of which 79.6 % were bothered by pain (Pearson Chi-square 38.47, p ≤ .001). All stress and pain variables were significantly associated (p stress (PSQ) (r = 0.40). Perceived stress (PSQ) was associated with the reporting of pain among the adolescents (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.68) and could explain some of the variation in pain intensity (VAS; β = 0.15, p stress (PSQ) between different types of musculoskeletal pain. There was high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, long-term pain and moderate to severe stress (PSQ ≥ 0.45) in this study sample. Perceived stress (PSQ) was related to the reporting of musculoskeletal pain among the adolescents and could explain some of the variation in pain intensity (VAS) and number of pain

  20. Postpartum diagnosis demonstrates a high risk for metastasis and merits an expanded definition of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callihan, Eryn B; Gao, Dexiang; Jindal, Sonali; Lyons, Traci R; Manthey, Elizabeth; Edgerton, Susan; Urquhart, Alexander; Schedin, Pepper; Borges, Virginia F

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies report conflicting data on outcomes of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC). Our aim was to examine the effect of a postpartum diagnosis on maternal prognosis in a young women's breast cancer cohort. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women age ≤45 years, diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 619) during 1981-2011 at the University of Colorado Hospital and The Shaw Cancer Center in Edwards, CO. Breast cancer cases were grouped according to time between giving birth and diagnosis: nulliparous (n = 125), pregnant (n = 24), 5-cancer during the first five-years postpartum confers poorer maternal prognoses after adjustment for biologic subtype, stage, and year of diagnosis. We propose that the definition of PABC should include cases diagnosed up to at least five-years postpartum to better delineate the increased risk imparted by a postpartum diagnosis. Based on emerging preclinical and epidemiologic data, we propose that pregnant and postpartum cases be researched as distinct subsets of PABC to clarify the risk imparted by pregnancy and the events subsequent to pregnancy, such as breast involution, on breast cancer. Further, we highlight the importance of postpartum breast cancer as an area for further research to reduce the increased metastatic potential and mortality of PABC.

  1. Taurolidine-citrate lock solution (TauroLock significantly reduces CVAD-associated grampositive infections in pediatric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischhack Gudrun

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™, a lock solution with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, may prevent bloodstream infection (BSI due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS or 'MRSE' in case of methicillin-resistant isolates in pediatric cancer patients with a long term central venous access device (CVAD, Port- or/Broviac-/Hickman-catheter type. Methods In a single center prospective 48-months cohort study we compared all patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy from April 2003 to March 2005 (group 1, heparin lock with 200 IU/ml sterile normal saline 0.9%; Canusal® Wockhardt UK Ltd, Wrexham, Wales and all patients from April 2005 to March 2007 (group 2; taurolidine 1.35%/Sodium Citrate 4%; TauroLock™, Tauropharm, Waldbüttelbrunn, Germany. Results In group 1 (heparin, 90 patients had 98 CVAD in use during the surveillance period. 14 of 30 (47% BSI were 'primary Gram positive BSI due to CoNS (n = 4 or MRSE (n = 10' [incidence density (ID; 2.30 per 1000 inpatient CVAD-utilization days]. In group 2 (TauroLock™, 89 patients had 95 CVAD in use during the surveillance period. 3 of 25 (12% BSI were caused by CoNS. (ID, 0.45. The difference in the ID between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.004. Conclusion The use of Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™ significantly reduced the number and incidence density of primary catheter-associated BSI due to CoNS and MRSE in pediatric cancer patients.

  2. Integrated metagenomic data analysis demonstrates that a loss of diversity in oral microbiota is associated with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Dongmei; Huang, Ruocheng; Wen, Jin; Li, Chao; Zhu, Jiangping; Xia, Li Charlie

    2017-01-25

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease affecting the tissues supporting teeth (periodontium). Integrative analysis of metagenomic samples from multiple periodontitis studies is a powerful way to examine microbiota diversity and interactions within host oral cavity. A total of 43 subjects were recruited to participate in two previous studies profiling the microbial community of human subgingival plaque samples using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We integrated metagenomic sequence data from those two studies, including six healthy controls, 14 sites representative of stable periodontitis, 16 sites representative of progressing periodontitis, and seven periodontal sites of unknown status. We applied phylogenetic diversity, differential abundance, and network analyses, as well as clustering, to the integrated dataset to compare microbiological community profiles among the different disease states. We found alpha-diversity, i.e., mean species diversity in sites or habitats at a local scale, to be the single strongest predictor of subjects' periodontitis status (P periodontal status (not used in training). Phylogenetic profiling resulted in the discovery of nine marker microbes, and these species are able to differentiate between stable and progressing periodontitis, achieving an accuracy of 94.4%. Finally, we found that the reduction of negatively correlated species is a notable signature of disease progression. Our results consistently show a strong association between the loss of oral microbiota diversity and the progression of periodontitis, suggesting that metagenomics sequencing and phylogenetic profiling are predictive of early periodontitis, leading to potential therapeutic intervention. Our results also support a keystone pathogen-mediated polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis (PSD) model to explain the etiology of periodontitis. Apart from P. gingivalis, we identified three additional keystone species potentially mediating the progression of periodontitis

  3. Arthroscopic Latarjet and Capsular Shift (ALCS) procedure: a new "freehand" technique for anterior shoulder instability associated with significant bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Deepak N

    2015-03-01

    Anterior shoulder instability associated with significant bone loss has been described as "bony-instability," and this condition is usually treated with an anterior glenoid bone grafting procedure (Latarjet procedure). The Latarjet procedure involves transfer of the horizontal limb of the coracoid process along with the conjoint tendon to the anterior glenoid rim, and is traditionally performed as an open surgical procedure. Recently, an arthroscopic technique for the Latarjet procedure has been described; the technique necessitates the use of specialized instrumentation and involves excision of the entire anterior capsule to facilitate coracoid fixation. We describe a new "freehand" arthroscopic technique for the Latarjet procedure, and, in addition, a simultaneous capsular shift to further optimize mid and end range stability. This technique eliminates the use of additional instrumentation and can be done using routine arthroscopic instruments. Preliminary experience with this technique suggests that the arthroscopic Latarjet and capsular shift is a technically demanding procedure. Glenohumeral capsule can be preserved, and this should be attempted wherever possible to optimize stability. Additional specialized instrumentation would probably reduce surgical time; however, the procedure can be performed with routine instruments.

  4. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  5. Familial longevity study reveals a significant association of mitochondrial DNA copy number between centenarians and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong-Han; Chen, Xiao-Qiong; Yan, Dong-Jing; Xiao, Fu-Hui; Lin, Rong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Yao-Wen; Pu, Shao-Yan; Yu, Qin; Sun, Hong-Peng; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Cai, Wang-Wei; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2016-11-01

    Reduced mitochondrial function is an important cause of aging and age-related diseases. We previously revealed a relatively higher level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in centenarians. However, it is still unknown whether such an mtDNA content pattern of centenarians could be passed on to their offspring and how it was regulated. To address these issues, we recruited 60 longevity families consisting of 206 family members (cohort 1) and explored their mtDNA copy number. The results showed that the first generation of the offspring (F1 offspring) had a higher level of mtDNA copy number than their spouses (p copy number in centenarians with that in F1 offspring (r = 0.54, p = 0.0008) but not with that in F1 spouses. These results were replicated in another independent cohort consisting of 153 subjects (cohort 2). RNA sequencing analysis suggests that the single-stranded DNA-binding protein 4 was significantly associated with mtDNA copy number and was highly expressed in centenarians as well as F1 offspring versus the F1 spouses, thus likely regulates the mtDNA copy number in the long-lived family members. In conclusion, our results suggest that the pattern of high mtDNA copy number is likely inheritable, which may act as a favorable factor to familial longevity through assuring adequate energy supply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The association with Turner syndrome significantly affects the course of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in children, irrespective of karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, Tommaso; Messina, Maria Francesca; Mazzanti, Laura; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Mussa, Alessandro; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Scarano, Emanuela; De Luca, Filippo; Wasniewska, Malgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Only few studies have investigated to now whether the association with Turner syndrome (TS) may affect the course of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in children. Aim of this study was to ascertain whether the presentation and long-term course of HT in TS children may be characterized by a peculiar and atypical pattern. The clinical and biochemical findings at HT diagnosis in 90 TS children (group A) were compared with those recorded in 449 girls with HT but without TS (group B); in group A patients, thyroid function tests were re-evaluated after a median time interval of 4.9 years. At HT diagnosis median TSH levels and the rate of cases presenting with a thyroid dysfunction picture were significantly lower in group A, irrespective of karyotype abnormalities. In group A only 34.8 % of the girls who had initially presented with euthyroidism remained euthyroid even at re-evaluation, whilst 67.7 % of those who had presented with subclinical hypothyroidism became overtly hypothyroid over time; also such evolutive pattern was irrespective of karyotype abnormalities. (1) In TS girls, HT presents with a milder hormonal pattern, which often deteriorates over time; (2) these biochemical features are not necessarily linked with a specific karyotype.

  7. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  8. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselvig, J Halskou; Ahlehoff, O; Dreyer, L; Gislason, G; Kofoed, K

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor. Less is known about cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we investigated the risk of mortality and adverse cardiovascular events in patients diagnosed with SLE and CLE. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged ≥ 18 and ≤ 100 years, followed from 1997 to 2011 by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for a composite cardiovascular endpoint and all-cause mortality, for patients with SLE and CLE. A total of 3282 patients with CLE and 3747 patients with SLE were identified and compared with 5,513,739 controls. The overall HR for the composite CVD endpoint was 1.31 (95% CI 1.16-1.49) for CLE and 2.05 (95% CI 1.15-3.44) for SLE. The corresponding HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.32 (95% CI 1.20-1.45) for CLE and 2.21 (95% CI 2.03-2.41) for SLE. CLE and SLE were associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. Local and chronic inflammation may be the driver of low-grade systemic inflammation.

  9. Five-year results from a prospective multicentre study of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation demonstrate sustained removal of significant pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and improved quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Alfred; Schubert, Stephan; Ewert, Peter; Søndergaard, Lars; Witsenburg, Maarten; Guccione, Paolo; Benson, Lee N; Suárez de Lezo, José; Lung, Te-Hsin; Hess, John; Eicken, Andreas; Berger, Felix

    2017-02-20

    Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) is used to treat patients with dysfunctional pulmonary valve conduits. Short- and longer-term results from multiple trials have outlined haemodynamic improvements. Our aim was to report the long-term results, including quality of life, from a multicentre trial in Europe and Canada. From October 2007 to April 2009, 71 patients (24 female; median age 19.0 [IQR: 14.0 to 25.0] years) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. PPVI was performed successfully in 63 patients. At five-year follow-up four patients had died. Moderate and severe pulmonary regurgitation were completely resolved in all except one patient, who needed re-PPVI. Outflow tract obstruction improved significantly from a mean pressure gradient of 37.7±12.1 mmHg before PPVI to 17.3±9.7 mmHg at five-year follow-up; however, 11 patients needed treatment for restenosis. The EQ-5D quality of life utility index and visual analogue scale scores were both significantly improved six months post PPVI and remained so at five years. Five-year results following PPVI demonstrate resolved moderate or severe pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and improved quality of life.

  10. The Final Report on the Tarrant County Junior College Phase of the Social Science Demonstration Project Sponsored by the American Association of Junior Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert M.

    An account of Tarrant Count Junior College's participation in the American Association of Junior Colleges' Social Science Demonstration Project was presented. The purpose of the project was to involve introductory sociology students in the use of the community as a laboratory to enliven the teaching-learning experience and develop in students a…

  11. Associations of Middle School Student Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science with Student-Reported Frequency of Teacher Lecture Demonstrations and Student-Centered Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Bell, Clare Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes about science with student-reported frequency of teacher lecture demonstrations and student-centered learning. The student sample was composed of 602 seventh- and eighth-grade students enrolled in middle school science. Multiple…

  12. Expression and significance of glucose transporter-1, P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein and glutathione S-transferase-π in laryngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAO, ZHONG-PING; ZHAO, LI-JUN; ZHOU, SHUI-HONG; LIU, MENG-QIN; TAN, WEI-FENG; YAO, HONG-TIAN

    2015-01-01

    Increasing glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) activity is one of the most important ways to increase the cellular influx of glucose. We previously demonstrated that increased GLUT-1 expression was an independent predictor of survival in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Thus, GLUT-1 may present a novel therapeutic target in laryngeal carcinoma. In this study, the expression of GLUT-1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and glutathione S-transferase-π (GST-π) in laryngeal carcinomas was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, possible correlations between GLUT-1 and P-gp, MRP1 and GST-π and various clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. In this study, 52.9% (18/34), 58.8% (20/34), 20.6% (7/34) and 58.8% (20/34) of the laryngeal carcinomas were positive for GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-π, respectively. The expression of GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-π was higher in laryngeal carcinoma specimens when compared with laryngeal precancerous lesions (P<0.05). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed correlations between GLUT-1 and P-gp (r=0.364; P=0.034), GLUT-1 and MRP1 (r=0.359; P=0.037) and P-gp and GST-π (r=0.426; P=0.012). GLUT-1 expression was found to significantly correlate with tumor-node-metastasis classification (P=0.02) and clinical stage (P=0.037). Furthermore, P-gp was found to significantly correlate with clinical stage (P=0.026). Univariate analysis showed that MRP1 expression was significantly associated with poor survival (c2=5.16; P=0.023). Multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis (P=0.009) and MRP1 overexpression (P=0.023) were significant predictors of poor survival. In the present study, the expression of GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-π in laryngeal carcinomas was investigated, as well as the correlations between these proteins. P-gp was found to significantly correlate with clinical stage, while MRP1 overexpression was significantly associated with poor survival. PMID:25621055

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  14. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning r...

  15. Sense of coherence is significantly associated with both metabolic syndrome and lifestyle in Japanese computer software office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusaku Morita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sense of coherence (SOC is an individual characteristic related to a positive life orientation, leading to effective coping. Little is known about the relationship between SOC and metabolic syndrome (MetS. This cross-sectional study aimed at testing the hypothesis that workers with a strong SOC have fewer atherosclerotic risk factors, including MetS, and healthier lifestyle behaviors. Material and Methods: One hundred and sixty-seven computer software workers aged 20–64 years underwent a periodical health examination including assessment of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipid levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS levels and lifestyle behaviors (walking duration, smoking status, nutrition, alcohol consumption, and sleep duration. During this period, the participants also completed a 29-item questionnaire of SOC and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire to assess job stressors such as job strain and workplace social support. Results: Our results showed that the participants with a stronger SOC were likely to walk for at least 1 h a day, to eat slowly or at a moderate speed, and to sleep for at least 6 h. Compared with the participants with the weakest SOC, those with the strongest SOC had a significantly lower odds ratio (OR for being overweight (OR = 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.11–0.81, and having higher FBS levels (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02–0.54, dyslipidemia (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09–0.84, and MetS (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.02–0.63, even after adjusting for age, gender and job stressors. Conclusions: High SOC is associated with a healthy lifestyle and fewer atherosclerotic risk factors, including MetS.

  16. Sense of coherence is significantly associated with both metabolic syndrome and lifestyle in Japanese computer software office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yusaku; Ohta, Masanori; Inoue, Tomohiro; Honda, Toru; Konno, Yoshimasa; Eguchi, Yasumasa; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Sense of coherence (SOC) is an individual characteristic related to a positive life orientation, leading to effective coping. Little is known about the relationship between SOC and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This cross-sectional study aimed at testing the hypothesis that workers with a strong SOC have fewer atherosclerotic risk factors, including MetS, and healthier lifestyle behaviors. One hundred and sixty-seven computer software workers aged 20-64 years underwent a periodical health examination including assessment of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipid levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and lifestyle behaviors (walking duration, smoking status, nutrition, alcohol consumption, and sleep duration). During this period, the participants also completed a 29-item questionnaire of SOC and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire to assess job stressors such as job strain and workplace social support. Our results showed that the participants with a stronger SOC were likely to walk for at least 1 h a day, to eat slowly or at a moderate speed, and to sleep for at least 6 h. Compared with the participants with the weakest SOC, those with the strongest SOC had a significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for being overweight (OR = 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11-0.81), and having higher FBS levels (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02-0.54), dyslipidemia (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09-0.84), and MetS (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.02-0.63), even after adjusting for age, gender and job stressors. High SOC is associated with a healthy lifestyle and fewer atherosclerotic risk factors, including MetS.

  17. The hetero-transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells carried by hydrogel unexpectedly demonstrates a significant role in the functional recovery in the injured spinal cord of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynald; Li, Yanbin; Yu, Hao; Huang, Hua; Guo, Muyao; Hua, Rongrong; Jiang, Fenjun; Zhang, Kaihua; Li, Hailong; Wang, Fei; Li, Lusheng; Cui, FuZhai; An, Yihua

    2016-03-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes a disturbance in the microenvironment in the lesion site resulting in sudden loss of sensory and motor function. Transplantation of stem cells provides a promising strategy in the treatment of SCI. But limited growth and immunological incompatibility of the stem cells with the host limits the application of this strategy. In order to get better survival and integration with the host, we employed a hyaluronic acid (HA) based scaffold covalently modified by poly-l-Lysine (PLL) as a vehicle to deliver the human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to the injured spinal cord of rats. The BMSCs were chosen as an ideal candidate for its advantage of low expression of major histocompatibility complex II. The data unexpectedly showed that the hetero-transplanted cells survived well in the lesion site even at 8 weeks post injury. Both the immunofluorescent and the electrophysiological assay indicated better survival of the transplanted cells and improved axonal growth in SCI rats transplanted with BMSCs in HA-PLL in contrast to the groups without either BMSCs or the HA scaffold transplantation. These promotions may account for the functional recovery assessed by Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale in the HA-PLL seeded with BMSCs group. These data suggests that hetero-transplantation of human BMSCs delivered by HA scaffold demonstrates a significant role in the functional recovery in the injured spinal cord of rats.

  18. Expression and Significance of Toll-like Receptor 2, 4 of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Acute Abdomen Patients Associated with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jing; WANG Yang; ZHU Zhonghua; LIU Jianshe

    2006-01-01

    The changes of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the acute abdomen patients associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and their potential significance were explored. A clinical study was performed on 103 acute abdomen patients in whom 65 were associated with SIRS. Forty healthy individuals served as normal controls. The mRNA expression of TLR2, 4 was detected by RT-PCR, and the expression of TNF-αand IL-6 by ELISA. The level of plasma endotoxin, hospital stay and mortality were measured. It was found that the endotoxin level was increased to varying degrees in all the acute abdomen patients, and the endotoxin level was and hospital stay longer in SIRS group than in non-SIRS group (P<0.01).TLR2 mRNA, TLR4 mRNA, IL-6 and TNF-α could be detected with low value in normal controls,but they were up-regulated markedly on the 1 st day after admission. Then TLR4 mRNA, IL-6 and TNF-α were decreased gradually, but TLR2 mRNA maintained at a high level till the 5th day. These indexes above in SIRS group were higher than those in non-SIRS group (P<0.01). The results of correlation analysis revealed the expression of TLR2, 4 mRNA was positively correlated with the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, and the hospital stay. The results of Logistic regression demonstrated that overexpression of TLR2, 4 mRNA might result in higher risk of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). It was concluded that in the acute abdomen patients associated with SIRS, the expression of TLR2, 4 in PBMCs was increased markedly, suggesting that TLR might play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute abdomen associated with SIRS.

  19. Convergence of linkage, gene expression and association data demonstrates the influence of the RAR-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene on neovascular AMD: A systems biology based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Alexandra C.; Morrison, Margaux A.; Ji, Fei; Xu, Haiyan; Reinecke, James B.; Adams, Scott M.; Arneberg, Trevor M.; Janssian, Maria; Lee, Joo-Eun; Yuan, Yang; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Kotoula, Maria G.; Tsironi, Evangeline E.; Tsiloulis, Aristoteles N.; Chatzoulis, Dimitrios Z.; Miller, Joan W.; Kim, Ivana K.; Hageman, Gregory H.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Haider, Neena B.; DeAngelis, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    To identify novel genes and pathways associated with AMD, we performed microarray gene expression and linkage analysis which implicated the candidate gene, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA, 15q). Subsequent genotyping of 159 RORA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a family-based cohort, followed by replication in an unrelated case-control cohort, demonstrated that SNPs and haplotypes located in intron 1 were significantly associated with neovascular AMD risk in both cohorts. This is the first report demonstrating a possible role for RORA, a receptor for cholesterol, in the pathophysiology of AMD. Moreover, we found a significant interaction between RORA and the ARMS2/HTRA1 locus suggesting a novel pathway underlying AMD pathophysiology. PMID:19786043

  20. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Ruiz, C.I. Sierra; Hermans, P.W.M.; Hoek, D. van der; Ponce, M.; Waard, J.H. de; Pinelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. METHODS: This

  1. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Ruiz, C.I. Sierra; Hermans, P.W.M.; Hoek, D. van der; Ponce, M.; Waard, J.H. de; Pinelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. METHODS: This

  2. ACAT1-associated Late Endosomes/Lysosomes Significantly Improve Impaired Intracellular Cholesterol Metabolism and the Survival of Niemann-Pick Type C Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Masashi; Lei, XiaoFeng; Fujiwara, Yukio; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro; Sakashita, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that macrophages exhibit endoplasmic reticulum fragmentation under cholesterol-rich conditions, which results in the generation of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1)-associated late endosomes/lysosomes (ACAT1-LE). ACAT1-LE efficiently esterify free cholesterol in loco, even with abnormal egress of free cholesterol from late endosomes. Because impaired free cholesterol transport from late endosomes results in Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC), the induction of ACAT1-LE is a potential therapeutic intervention for NPC. To examine the effects of ACAT1-LE induction on intracellular cholesterol metabolism, we incubated bone marrow-derived macrophages possessing NPC phenotype (npc1 (-/-)) with methyl-β-cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex (mβCD-cho), a cholesterol donor. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed that mβCD-cho treatment of npc1 (-/-) macrophages resulted in significant colocalization of signals from ACAT1 and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, a late endosome/lysosome marker. npc1 (-/-) macrophages contained significant amounts of free cholesterol with negligible amounts of cholesteryl ester, while wild-type macrophages possessed the same amounts of both cholesterols. mβCD-cho treatment also induced marked restoration of cholesterol esterification activity. mβCD-cho administration in neonate npc1 (-/-) mice improved survival. These results indicate that ACAT1-LE induction in npc1 (-/-) mice corrects impaired intracellular cholesterol metabolism and that restoring cholesterol esterification improves prognosis of npc1 (-/-). These data suggest that ACAT1-LE induction is a potential alternative therapeutic strategy for NPC.

  3. Significant Association Between Fc Receptor-Like 3 Polymorphisms (-1901A>G and -658C>T) and Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) Susceptibility in the Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinling; Yu, Tao; Yan, Qichang; Wang, Wei; Meng, Nan; Li, Xuejiao; Luo, Yahong

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder. In pathogenesis, NMO-immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) selectively binds to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and resulted in neuritis, myelitis, and brain lesion. Fc receptor-like 3 (FCRL3) gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin receptor superfamily, which plays an important part in regulating immune activities. This study aimed at investigating the association between FCRL3 polymorphisms and NMO susceptibility and, hopefully, to contribute to the development of novel methods for diagnosis and treatment of NMO. We selected 150 NMO patients and 300 healthy controls from the Chinese population. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified with reference to CBI-dbSNP and HapMap databases. DNA were extracted and amplified. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied to determine the polymorphisms. χ (2), odds ratio (OR), and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were presented to evaluate genotype distribution and association between SNPs and NMO susceptibility. Six out of 15 SNPs were selected according to the filter. No significant altered genotype distribution was observed concerning -11G>C, -166C>T, -219G>C, and -1629C>G polymorphisms. The G allele of -1901A>G variation was demonstrated to be more frequent in patients compared with controls (P T polymorphism was significantly more prevalent in NMO patients than controls (P = 0.009). In summary, the study revealed that the G allele in -1901A>G polymorphism and T allele in -658C>T polymorphism are genetic risk factors for NMO in the Chinese population. Further research is needed to account for different ethnicities and clarify the mechanisms behind, which might contribute to the elucidation of novel diagnosis methods.

  4. FOXO1 downregulation is associated with worse outcome in bladder cancer and adds significant prognostic information to p53 overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloreta, Josep; Font-Tello, Alba; Juanpere, Núria; Frances, Albert; Lorenzo, Marta; Nonell, Lara; de Muga, Silvia; Vázquez, Ivonne; Cecchini, Lluís; Hernández-Llodrà, Silvia

    2017-01-10

    Nuclear FOXOs mediate cell cycle arrest and promote apoptosis. FOXOs and p53 could have similar effects as tumor suppressor genes. In spite of extensive literature, little is known about the role of FOXO1 and its relationship with p53 status in bladder cancer. Expression of FOXO1 and p53 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 162 urothelial carcinomas (UC). Decreased FOXO1 expression, p53 overexpression and the combination FOXO1 downregulation/p53 overexpression were strongly associated with high grade (P=.030; P=.017; P=.004, respectively), high stage (P=.0001; Pp53 overexpression was associated with tumor progression (HR=3.18, 95% CI 1.19-8.48 P=.02), but this association was even stronger if having any alteration in any of the two genes was considered (HR=3.51, 95% CI 1.34-9.21 P=.01). Having both FOXO1 downregulation and p53 overexpression was associated with disease recurrence (HR=2.75, 95% CI 1.06-7.13 P=.03). In the analysis of the different subgroups, having any alteration in any of the two genes was associated with progression in low grade (P=.005) and pTa (P=.006) tumors. Finally, the combined FOXO1 downregulation/p53 overexpression was associated with disease recurrence specifically in high grade (P=.04) and in pT1 stage tumors (P=.007). Adding FOXO1 expression to the immunohistochemical analysis of p53 can provide relevant prognostic information on progression and recurrence of bladder cancer. It may be particularly informative on the risk of progression in the more indolent and on the risk of recurrence in the more aggressive tumors.

  5. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  6. Large cohort study finds a statistically significant association between excessive crying in early infancy and subsequent ear symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Sannes, Marianne Myhre; Lous, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of infantile colic is based on excessive crying. However, several causal factors can account for this disconcerting, non-specific symptom. The main aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between excessive crying during the first six months of life and subsequent...

  7. A putatively functional polymorphism in the HTR2C gene is associated with depressive symptoms in white females reporting significant life stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly H Brummett

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress is well known to be positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Cortisol response to stress may be one of a number of biological mechanisms that links psychological stress to depressive symptoms, although the precise causal pathway remains unclear. Activity of the x-linked serotonin 5-HTR2C receptor has also been shown to be associated with depression and with clinical response to antidepressant medications. We recently demonstrated that variation in a single nucleotide polymorphism on the HTR2C gene, rs6318 (Ser23Cys, is associated with different cortisol release and short-term changes in affect in response to a series of stress tasks in the laboratory. Based on this observation, we decided to examine whether rs6318 might moderate the association between psychosocial stress and subsequent depressive symptoms. In the present study we use cross-sectional data from a large population-based sample of young adult White men (N = 2,366 and White women (N = 2,712 in the United States to test this moderation hypothesis. Specifically, we hypothesized that the association between self-reported stressful life events and depressive symptoms would be stronger among homozygous Ser23 C females and hemizygous Ser23 C males than among Cys23 G carriers. In separate within-sex analyses a genotype-by-life stress interaction was observed for women (p = .022 but not for men (p = .471. Homozygous Ser23 C women who reported high levels of life stress had depressive symptom scores that were about 0.3 standard deviations higher than female Cys23 G carriers with similarly high stress levels. In contrast, no appreciable difference in depressive symptoms was observed between genotypes at lower levels of stress. Our findings support prior work that suggests a functional SNP on the HTR2C gene may confer an increased risk for depressive symptoms in White women with a history of significant life stress.

  8. Functional significance of membrane associated proteolysis in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin against Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Robles, Inmaculada; Ochoa-Campuzano, Camila; Sánchez, Jorge; Contreras, Estefanía; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are widely used as biocontrol agents in bioinsecticides and transgenic plants. In the three domain-Cry toxins, domain II has been identified as an important determinant of their highly specific activity against insects. In this work, we assessed the role in membrane associated proteolysis and toxicity in Colorado potato beetle (CPB) of a previously reported ADAM recognition motif present in Cry3Aa toxin domain II. We used site-directed mutagenesis to modify the Bacillus thuringiensis cry3A gene in amino acid residues 344, 346, 347, 351 and 353 of the ADAM recognition motif in Cry3Aa toxin. Cry3Aa toxin mutants displayed decreased toxicity when compared to the wild type toxin and impaired ability to compete CPB brush border membrane associated cleavage of an ADAM fluorogenic substrate. Although the proteolytic profile of Cry3Aa toxin mutants generated by brush border membrane associated proteases was similar to that of Cry3Aa toxin, the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline was less efficient on the proteolysis of mutants than on that of the wild type toxin. The relevance of the Cry3Aa-ADAM interaction through the predicted recognition sequence was further confirmed by analyzing the effect of membrane integrity disturbance on Cry3Aa toxin membrane associated proteolysis and CPB larvae toxicity. Data support that Cry3Aa proteolysis, as a result of the interaction with ADAM through the Cry3Aa recognition motif, is essential for Cry3Aa toxic action in CPB. Detailed knowledge of Cry3Aa interaction with CPB midgut membrane should facilitate the development of more effective Bt based products against this devastating pest and other Coleoptera. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Presence of anomalous coronary seen on angiogram is not associated with increased risk of significant coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, Prakash; Kollampare, Shubha; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Lee, Justin; Husnain, Muhammad; Luni, Faraz Khan; Movahed, Mohammad Reza

    2014-12-01

    It is unclear if anomalous coronary arteries are at higher risk for atherosclerosis. The link between anomalous coronary artery and early coronary artery disease has been suggested. The aim of this study is to determine whether the coronary artery anomaly predisposes to development of significant coronary disease. Using retrospective chart review, patients with documented anomalous coronary arteries recognized during coronary angiography between years 2000 to 2007 were analyzed. Prevalence of significant atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (defined as more than 50% luminal narrowing) was compared between normal and anomalous coronaries. A total of 147 patients with anomalous coronary arteries were found. Right coronary artery was the most common anomalous artery 128 of 148 (86.5%) in our dataset. There was no difference in the occurrence of atherosclerosis between anomalous and nonanomalous coronaries. Significant atherosclerosis was present in 59 of the 148 anomalous coronary arteries (37.8%), and 112 of the 293 nonanomalous coronary arteries (38.2%, p = 0.9). On the basis of our study, there is no evidence that anomalous coronary arteries predispose to significant coronary artery disease in comparison to normal coronary arteries.

  10. Association of age-of-onset groups with GWAS significant schizophrenia and bipolar disorder loci in Romanian bipolar I patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Diaconu, Carmen C; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Neagu, Ana Iulia; Becker, Tim

    2015-12-30

    We investigated the influence of the age-of-onset (AO) on the association of 45 loci conferring risk for bipolar disorder (BP) and schizophrenia with BP-type-I in a Romanian sample (461 patients, 436 controls). The AO-analysis implicated the EGFR gene, as well as loci in other genes, in the AO variation of BP-type-I and revealed for the first time the link between BP-type-I and risk variants considered specific to schizophrenia (polymorphisms in MMP16/RIPK2 and CNNM2 genes).

  11. Development of Assays for Detecting Significant Prostate Cancer Based on Molecular Alterations Associated with Cancer in Non-Neoplastic Prostate Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0744 TITLE: Development of Assays for Detecting Significant Prostate Cancer Based on Molecular Alterations Associated...with Cancer in Non-Neoplastic Prostate Tissue PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Farhad Kosari, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN...Significant Prostate Cancer Based on Molecular Alterations Associated with Cancer in Non- Neoplastic Prostate Tissue 5b. GRANT NUMBER 10623678 5c

  12. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others.

  13. The distribution of P-values in medical research articles suggested selective reporting associated with statistical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perneger, Thomas V; Combescure, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Published P-values provide a window into the global enterprise of medical research. The aim of this study was to use the distribution of published P-values to estimate the relative frequencies of null and alternative hypotheses and to seek irregularities suggestive of publication bias. This cross-sectional study included P-values published in 120 medical research articles in 2016 (30 each from the BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine). The observed distribution of P-values was compared with expected distributions under the null hypothesis (i.e., uniform between 0 and 1) and the alternative hypothesis (strictly decreasing from 0 to 1). P-values were categorized according to conventional levels of statistical significance and in one-percent intervals. Among 4,158 recorded P-values, 26.1% were highly significant (P P ≥ 0.001 to P ≥ 0.01 to P ≥ 0.05). We noted three irregularities: (1) high proportion of P-values P-values equal to 1, and (3) about twice as many P-values less than 0.05 compared with those more than 0.05. The latter finding was seen in both randomized trials and observational studies, and in most types of analyses, excepting heterogeneity tests and interaction tests. Under plausible assumptions, we estimate that about half of the tested hypotheses were null and the other half were alternative. This analysis suggests that statistical tests published in medical journals are not a random sample of null and alternative hypotheses but that selective reporting is prevalent. In particular, significant results are about twice as likely to be reported as nonsignificant results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Microdeletions of chromosome 7p21, including TWIST1, associated with significant microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, Andreas; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard M; Zweier, Christiane; Rauch, Anita; Klopocki, Eva; Horn, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Saethre-Chotzen syndrome due to TWIST1 mutations is characterized by coronal synostosis, facial dysmorphism and additional variable anomalies. Small deletions comprising the whole TWIST1 account for a small proportion of patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Here we describe 3 patients with facial dysmorphism, marked microcephaly, short stature (2/3 patients), and overlapping 7p21 microdeletions. Molecular karyotyping identified small deletions of chromosome 7p21 including TWIST1 with a size of 526 kb, 9.2 Mb, and 11.7 Mb, respectively. The clinical manifestations of these patients do not resemble the typical phenotype of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. In the two patients with larger microdeletions, severe mental retardation and significant short stature are present. Facial dysmorphism of patient 3 includes also signs of blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome.

  15. Rolling Tobacco in Banana Leaves, Newspaper, or Copybook Paper Associated With Significant Reduction in Lung Function in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Charles A; Olszowy, Kathryn M; Dancause, Kelsey N; Sun, Cheng; Pomer, Alysa; Silverman, Howard; Lee, G; Tarivonda, Len; Chan, Chim W; Kaneko, Akira; Lum, J K; Garruto, Ralph M

    2017-04-01

    In addition to the widespread availability of packaged cigarettes, the inhabitants of island nations of the Southwest Pacific frequently smoke commercially available loose tobacco using manufactured rolling papers, as well as locally grown tobacco rolled in manufactured rolling paper or wrapped in leaves, copybook paper, and newspaper. In this study, Vanuatu men who smoked local tobacco rolled in leaves, copybook paper, or newspaper showed significantly lower forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC ratios than men who smoked packaged cigarettes, store-bought tobacco rolled in manufactured rolling paper, or who smoked locally grown tobacco rolled in manufactured rolling papers. The addition of toxins from these unusual tobacco-wrapping media produces lung function deficits similar to the pattern noted among tobacco smokers who also inhale smoke from burning biomass. Thus, public health initiatives should consider including strategies addressing the use of wrapping media among smokers in South Pacific island societies.

  16. [Prognostic significance of leukemia-associated phenotype in correlation with other biologic markers in acute myeloid leukemia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dăscălescu, Angela; Zlei, Mihaela; Grigore, Georgiana; Dănăila, C; Jitaru, Daniela; Carasevici, E

    2009-01-01

    Leukemic cells have unique aberrant phenotypes, which permit identification of this cells at diagnose and in evolution of the disease. Signaling molecules with other cells and bone marrow stroma are part of the leukemic cells phenotype. Genetic and molecular abnormalities have the main prognostic significance and confer the leukemic cell status. The main aim of the current study is to identify correlation between recognized prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and other phenotypic markers. Imunophenotypic analysis (BDFACS CantoII, FACSDiva Software) was performed on peripheral blood/bone marrow aspirate samples of 56 patients diagnosed with AML (9 M0, 3 M1, 10 M2, 4 M3, 28 M4/M5, 1 M6, 1 M7) between 2007-2009 in Hematology Department of "Sf. Spiridon" Hospital Iaşi. We used an extended panel of monoclonal antibodies and we determined the level of expression of cytokines receptors (IL3Ra, IL7R) and chemokines (CXCR4, CKR5). In our study, IL7R expression on AML blasts was significant correlate with low WBC count at diagnosis (p = 0.04) and with multilinear displasia (p = 0.01), high CXCR4 expression was correlate (p = 0.05) with lack of response at first induction therapy and CD123 (IL3Ra) expression was correlate with M4 FAB phenotype. Survival was negative influenced by presence of IL3R on AML blasts, but flt3 mutations, CXCR4, IL7R expression on leukemic cells, other phenotypic aberrancies did not influenced treatment response and survival in our patients population. Complete investigation of leukemic cells phenotype extended with cytokines/chemokines receptors at diagnostic is useful for correct characterization of the disease, for discover new prognostic categories and for better identification of minimal residual disease.

  17. Climbing ripple structure and associated storm-lamination from a Proterozoic carbonate platform succession: Their environmental and petrogenetic significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asru K Chaudhuri

    2005-06-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Pandikunta Limestone, a shallow water carbonate platform succession in the Pranhita–Godavari Valley, south India, displays well developed climbing ripple lamination and storm deposited structures, such as HCS, wave ripple-lamination, combined-flow ripple-lamination and low angle trough cross-stratification. Different types of stratification developed in calcisiltite with minor amounts of very fine quartz sand and silt. The climbing ripple structures exhibit a complex pattern of superposition of different types (type A, B and S) within cosets pointing to a fluctuating rate of suspension deposition versus bedform migration, and an unsteady character of the flow. Close association of climbing ripple structures, HCS with anisotropic geometry, wavy lamination and combined-flow ripple-lamination suggest that the structures were formed by storm generated combined-flow in a mid-shelf area above the storm wave base. The combined-flow that deposited the climbing ripple structures had a strong unidirectional flow component of variable magnitude. The climbing ripple structure occurs as a constituent of graded stratified beds with an ordered vertical sequence of different types of lamination, reflecting flow deceleration and increased rate of suspension deposition. It is inferred that the beds were deposited from high-density waning flows in the relatively deeper part of the ancient shelf. The structures indicate that the Pandikunta platform was subjected to open marine circulation and intense storm activities. The storm deposited beds, intercalated with beds of lime-mudstone, consist primarily of fine sand and silt size carbonate particles that were hydrodynamically similar to quartz silt. Detrital carbonate particles are structureless and are of variable roundness. The particles were generated as primary carbonate clasts in coastal areas by mechanical disintegration of rapidly lithified beds, stromatolites or laminites, and the finest grade was

  18. Associations between hurtful weight-related comments by family and significant other and the development of disordered eating behaviors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Berge, Jerica M; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-10-01

    Research has found that weight-teasing is associated with disordered eating in adolescents. This study expands on the existing research by examining associations between hurtful weight comments by family and a significant other and disordered eating in young adults. Data come from 1,902 young adults (mean age 25) who completed surveys in 1998, 2003 and 2009. Correlations were examined between receiving hurtful comments from family and significant others, and four disordered eating behaviors in young adulthood, adjusting for prior disordered eating and prior teasing. Disordered eating behaviors were common in young adulthood, and were associated with hearing hurtful weight-related comments from family members and a significant other, for both females and males. Disordered eating prevention activities, which include messages about the potential harm associated with hurtful weight-related comments, should be expanded to address young adults, and programs may want to target relationship partners.

  19. GABA uptake into astrocytes is not associated with significant metabolic cost: implications for brain imaging of inhibitory transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Jean-Yves; Pellerin, Luc; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2003-10-14

    Synaptically released glutamate has been identified as a signal coupling excitatory neuronal activity to increased glucose utilization. The proposed mechanism of this coupling involves glutamate uptake into astrocytes resulting in increased intracellular Na+ (Nai+) and activation of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Increased metabolic demand linked to disruption of Nai+ homeostasis activates glucose uptake and glycolysis in astrocytes. Here, we have examined whether a similar neurometabolic coupling could operate for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), also taken up by Na+-dependent transporters into astrocytes. Thus, we have compared the Nai+ response to GABA and glutamate in mouse astrocytes by microspectrofluorimetry. The Nai+ response to GABA consisted of a rapid rise of 4-6 mM followed by a plateau that did not, however, significantly activate the pump. Indeed, the GABA transporter-evoked Na+ influxes are transient in nature, almost totally shutting off within approximately 30 sec of GABA application. The metabolic consequences of the GABA-induced Nai+ response were evaluated by monitoring cellular ATP changes indirectly in single cells and measuring 2-deoxyglucose uptake in astrocyte populations. Both approaches showed that, whereas glutamate induced a robust metabolic response in astrocytes (decreased ATP levels and glucose uptake stimulation), GABA did not cause any measurable metabolic response, consistent with the Nai+ measurements. Results indicate that GABA does not couple inhibitory neuronal activity with glucose utilization, as does glutamate for excitatory neurotransmission, and suggest that GABA-mediated synaptic transmission does not contribute directly to brain imaging signals based on deoxyglucose.

  20. The dynamics of the Breccia Museo eruption (Campi Flegrei, Italy) and the significance of spatter clasts associated with lithic breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio

    1994-02-01

    The Breccia Museo Member is a pyroclastic deposit produced during an eruptive event that occurred in the southwestern sector of Campi Flegrei about 20,000 years ago. Two depositional units divided by a co-ignimbrite ash-fall deposit have been recognized. Facies variations in the deposits resulted from the interaction between the flow and paleomorphology, from the relative abundance of the lithic and juvenile components supplied by the source, and from the variations of the flow regime. The Lower Depositional Unit is a pyroclastic flow deposit characterized by a thick, coarse valley facies laterally grading into a thin, layered and fine-grained overbank facies. These different facies are due to the interaction between a density-stratified flow and topography. The more basal, high-concentration part of the flow was deposited along the axis of the paleovalleys (valley facies), whereas the upper, low-concentration part was deposited on the slopes (overbank facies). Vertical variations of the structures observed in the deposits of the Lower Depositional Unit resulted from flow unsteadiness during emplacement and, hence, on the variations of the suspended load fallout from the low-concentration upper part of the flow to the high-concentration boundary layer. The Upper Depositional Unit, made up of the Breccia, Spatter and Upper Pumice Flow Units, consists of horizons of lithic breccias and coarse welded spatter which thicken into the valleys. They are closely related to a gas-pipe-rich ash and pumice flow deposit. The strongly fines-poor character of the breccias and spatter beds is due to a very rapid segregation of the dense and coarse clasts and to the high rates of gas ascent through the hindered-settling zone in the basal part of the flow. After deposition of the majority of the dense and coarse material, the subsequent high-density depositional system came to rest immediately, thus yielding a pyroclastic flow deposit that is closely associated with the breccia. The

  1. Demonstrated brain insulin resistance in Alzheimer’s disease patients is associated with IGF-1 resistance, IRS-1 dysregulation, and cognitive decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Konrad; Wang, Hoau-Yan; Kazi, Hala; Han, Li-Ying; Bakshi, Kalindi P.; Stucky, Andres; Fuino, Robert L.; Kawaguchi, Krista R.; Samoyedny, Andrew J.; Wilson, Robert S.; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Schneider, Julie A.; Wolf, Bryan A.; Bennett, David A.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Arnold, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    While a potential causal factor in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain insulin resistance has not been demonstrated directly in that disorder. We provide such a demonstration here by showing that the hippocampal formation (HF) and, to a lesser degree, the cerebellar cortex in AD cases without diabetes exhibit markedly reduced responses to insulin signaling in the IR→IRS-1→PI3K signaling pathway with greatly reduced responses to IGF-1 in the IGF-1R→IRS-2→PI3K signaling pathway. Reduced insulin responses were maximal at the level of IRS-1 and were consistently associated with basal elevations in IRS-1 phosphorylated at serine 616 (IRS-1 pS616) and IRS-1 pS636/639. In the HF, these candidate biomarkers of brain insulin resistance increased commonly and progressively from normal cases to mild cognitively impaired cases to AD cases regardless of diabetes or APOE ε4 status. Levels of IRS-1 pS616 and IRS-1 pS636/639 and their activated kinases correlated positively with those of oligomeric Aβ plaques and were negatively associated with episodic and working memory, even after adjusting for Aβ plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and APOE ε4. Brain insulin resistance thus appears to be an early and common feature of AD, a phenomenon accompanied by IGF-1 resistance and closely associated with IRS-1 dysfunction potentially triggered by Aβ oligomers and yet promoting cognitive decline independent of classic AD pathology. PMID:22476197

  2. How significant is submarine groundwater discharge and its associated dissolved inorganic carbon in a river-dominated shelf system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD and its impact on the carbonate system on the northern South China Sea (NSCS shelf, we measured seawater concentrations of four radium isotopes 223,224,226,228Ra along with carbonate system parameters in June–July, 2008. Complementary groundwater sampling was conducted in coastal areas in December 2008 and October 2010 to constrain the groundwater end-members. The distribution of Ra isotopes in the NSCS was largely controlled by the Pearl River plume and coastal upwelling. Long-lived Ra isotopes (228Ra and 226Ra were enriched in the river plume but low in the offshore surface water and subsurface water/upwelling zone. In contrast, short-lived Ra isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra were elevated in the subsurface water/upwelling zone as well as in the river plume but depleted in the offshore surface water. In order to quantify SGD, we adopted two independent mathematical approaches. Using a three end-member mixing model with total alkalinity (TAlk and Ra isotopes, we derived a SGD flux into the NSCS shelf of 2.3–3.7 × 108 m3 day−1. Our second approach involved a simple mass balance of 228Ra and 226Ra and resulted in a first order but consistent SGD flux estimate of 2.2–3.7 × 108 m3 day−1. These fluxes were equivalent to 12–21 % of the Pearl River discharge, but the source of the SGD was mostly recirculated seawater. Despite the relatively small SGD volume flow compared to the river, the associated material fluxes were substantial given their elevated concentrations of dissolved inorganic solutes. In this case, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC flux through SGD was 153–347 × 109 mol yr−1, or ~23–53 % of the riverine DIC export flux. Our estimates of the groundwater-derived phosphate flux ranged 3–68 × 10

  3. Surface deformation associated with the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake: Geologic slip rates may significantly underestimate strain release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan; Reitman, Nadine; Briggs, Richard; Barnhart, William; Hayes, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    sections with narrow deformation zones in order to capture the full deformation field. Our results imply that hazard analyses based on geologically-determined fault slip rates (e.g., near-field) should consider the significant and heterogeneous mismatch we document between on- and off-fault coseismic deformation.

  4. Presence and significance of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins associated with the Andean weevil Premnotrypes vorax (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SilvioAlejandro López-Pazos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Andean weevil Premnotrypes vorax represents an important cause of damage to Colombian potato crops. Due to the impact of this plague on the economy of the country, we searched for new alternatives for its biological control, based on the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. A total of 300 B. thuringiensis strains obtained from potato plantations infested with P. vorax were analyzed through crystal morphology, SDS-PAGE, PCR and bioassays. We used site- directed mutagenesis to modify the Cry3Aa protein. Most of the B. thuringiensis isolates had a bipyramidal crystal morphology. SDS-PAGE analyses had seven strains groups with σ-endotoxins from 35 to 135 kDa. The genes cry 2 and cry 1 were significantly more frequent in the P. vorax habitat (PCR analyses. Three mutant toxins, 1 (D354E, 2 (R345A, ∆Y350, ∆Y351, and 3 (Q482A, S484A, R485A, were analyzed to assess their activity against P. vorax larvae. Toxicity was low, or absent, against P. vorax for isolates, wild type cry 3Aa and cry 3Aa mutants. The genetic characterization of the collection provides opportunities for the selection of strains to be tested in bioassays against other insect pests of agricultural importance, and for designing Cry proteins with improved insecticidal toxicity. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1235-1243. Epub 2009 December 01.El gorgojo andino Premnotrypes vorax es una causa importante de daño en los cultivos colombianos de este tubérculo. Debido al impacto que esta plaga tiene sobre la economía del país, nos interesamos en buscar alternativas nuevas para el control biológico de P. vorax, basadas en la bacteria entomopatógena Bacillus thuringiensis. Se recolectaron un total de 300 cepas de B. thuringiensis a partir de plantaciones de papa infestadas con P. vorax, las cuales fueron analizadas por medio de la morfología del cristal, SDS-PAGE, PCR y ensayos biológicos. La mayoría de los aislamientos de B. thuringiensis presentaron cristales

  5. Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Shimbo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The association of socioeconomic status (SES with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05. After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (β = 0.117, p < 0.001. The structural equation model (SEM shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health.

  6. Treatment-associated polymorphisms in protease are significantly associated with higher viral load and lower CD4 count in newly diagnosed drug-naive HIV-1 infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theys Kristof

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of drug resistance transmission on disease progression in the newly infected patient is not well understood. Major drug resistance mutations severely impair viral fitness in a drug free environment, and therefore are expected to revert quickly. Compensatory mutations, often already polymorphic in wild-type viruses, do not tend to revert after transmission. While compensatory mutations increase fitness during treatment, their presence may also modulate viral fitness and virulence in absence of therapy and major resistance mutations. We previously designed a modeling technique that quantifies genotypic footprints of in vivo treatment selective pressure, including both drug resistance mutations and polymorphic compensatory mutations, through the quantitative description of a fitness landscape from virus genetic sequences. Results Genotypic correlates of viral load and CD4 cell count were evaluated in subtype B sequences from recently diagnosed treatment-naive patients enrolled in the SPREAD programme. The association of surveillance drug resistance mutations, reported compensatory mutations and fitness estimated from drug selective pressure fitness landscapes with baseline viral load and CD4 cell count was evaluated using regression techniques. Protease genotypic variability estimated to increase fitness during treatment was associated with higher viral load and lower CD4 cell counts also in treatment-naive patients, which could primarily be attributed to well-known compensatory mutations at highly polymorphic positions. By contrast, treatment-related mutations in reverse transcriptase could not explain viral load or CD4 cell count variability. Conclusions These results suggest that polymorphic compensatory mutations in protease, reported to be selected during treatment, may improve the replicative capacity of HIV-1 even in absence of drug selective pressure or major resistance mutations. The presence of this

  7. Screening of Clock Gene Polymorphisms Demonstrates Association of a PER3 Polymorphism with Morningness–Eveningness Preference and Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Akiko; Kitamura, Shingo; Katayose, Yasuko; Kato, Mie; Ono, Hiroko; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Makoto; Ebisawa, Takashi; Inoue, Yuichi; Kamei, Yuichi; Okawa, Masako; Takahashi, Kiyohisa; Mishima, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    A system of self-sustained biological clocks controls the 24-h rhythms of behavioral and physiological processes such as the sleep–wake cycle. The circadian clock system is regulated by transcriptional and translational negative feedback loops of multiple clock genes. Polymorphisms in circadian clock genes have been associated with morningness–eveningness (diurnal) preference, familial advanced sleep phase type (ASPT), and delayed sleep phase type (DSPT). We genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms in circadian clock genes in 182 DSPT individuals, 67 free-running type (FRT) individuals, and 925 controls. The clock gene polymorphisms were tested for associations with diurnal preference and circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD) phenotypes. The PER3 polymorphism (rs228697) was significantly associated with diurnal preference and the FRT phenotype. The minor allele of rs228697 was more prevalent in evening types than in morning types (sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.483, Bonferroni-corrected P = 0.012) and in FRT individuals compared with the controls (age- and sex-adjusted OR, 2.021, permutated P = 0.017). Our findings support the notion that PER3 polymorphisms could be a potential genetic marker for an individual's circadian and sleep phenotypes. PMID:25201053

  8. Screening of clock gene polymorphisms demonstrates association of a PER3 polymorphism with morningness-eveningness preference and circadian rhythm sleep disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Akiko; Kitamura, Shingo; Katayose, Yasuko; Kato, Mie; Ono, Hiroko; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Makoto; Ebisawa, Takashi; Inoue, Yuichi; Kamei, Yuichi; Okawa, Masako; Takahashi, Kiyohisa; Mishima, Kazuo

    2014-09-09

    A system of self-sustained biological clocks controls the 24-h rhythms of behavioral and physiological processes such as the sleep-wake cycle. The circadian clock system is regulated by transcriptional and translational negative feedback loops of multiple clock genes. Polymorphisms in circadian clock genes have been associated with morningness-eveningness (diurnal) preference, familial advanced sleep phase type (ASPT), and delayed sleep phase type (DSPT). We genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms in circadian clock genes in 182 DSPT individuals, 67 free-running type (FRT) individuals, and 925 controls. The clock gene polymorphisms were tested for associations with diurnal preference and circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD) phenotypes. The PER3 polymorphism (rs228697) was significantly associated with diurnal preference and the FRT phenotype. The minor allele of rs228697 was more prevalent in evening types than in morning types (sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.483, Bonferroni-corrected P = 0.012) and in FRT individuals compared with the controls (age- and sex-adjusted OR, 2.021, permutated P = 0.017). Our findings support the notion that PER3 polymorphisms could be a potential genetic marker for an individual's circadian and sleep phenotypes.

  9. Choosing Outcomes of Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Outcomes are high-quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context. The High Success Network uses the "Demonstration Mountain" to differentiate among three major "learning zones" and six different forms of learning demonstrations that increase in complexity, generalizability, and significance, along with…

  10. Administrators' Perceptions of Factors Related to Student Retention at Colleges with a Significant Black Student Enrollment Affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wesley B.

    2013-01-01

    This study described and explored the factors perceived as relevant to student retention by administrators at colleges and universities with significant Black student populations. The sample was 31 institutions affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE) that had Black student enrollment of 20% or more. The study sought to…

  11. An Aggregate Measure of Sleep Health Is Associated With Prevalent and Incident Clinically Significant Depression Symptoms Among Community-Dwelling Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Ryuji; Hall, Martica H; Stone, Katie L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Smagula, Stephen F; Cauley, Jane A; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Uchiyama, Makoto; Buysse, Daniel J

    2017-03-01

    Sleep can be characterized along multiple dimensions. We investigated whether an aggregate measure of sleep health was associated with prevalent and incident clinically significant depression symptoms in a cohort of older women. Participants were older women (mean age 80.1 years) who completed baseline (n = 6485) and follow-up (n = 3806) visits, approximately 6 years apart, in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Self-reported sleep over the past 12 months was categorized as "good" or "poor" across 5 dimensions: satisfaction with sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, mid-sleep time, sleep onset latency, and sleep duration. An aggregate measure of sleep health was calculated by summing the number of "poor" dimensions. Clinically significant depression symptoms were defined as a score ≥6 on the Geriatric Depression Scale. Relationships between sleep health and depression symptoms were evaluated with multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for health measures and medications. Individual sleep health dimensions of sleep satisfaction, daytime sleepiness, mid-sleep time, and sleep onset latency were significantly associated with prevalent depression symptoms (odds ratios [OR] = 1.26-2.69). Sleep satisfaction, daytime sleepiness, and sleep onset latency were significantly associated with incident depression symptoms (OR = 1.32-1.79). The number of "poor" sleep health dimensions was associated in a gradient fashion with greater odds of prevalent (OR = 1.62-5.41) and incident (OR = 1.47-3.15) depression symptoms. An aggregate, multidimensional measure of sleep health was associated with both prevalent and incident clinically-significant depression symptoms in a gradient fashion. Future studies are warranted to extend these findings in different populations and with different health outcomes.

  12. Lipoprotein (a) is not significantly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus: cross-sectional study of 1604 cases and 7983 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Xu, Ming-Xing; He, Yong-Ming; Zhao, Xin; Du, Xiao-Jiao; Yang, Xiang-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)), a well-established risk factor for coronary artery diseases (CAD), would also be anticipated to be associated in a similar manner with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on the common soil hypothesis of etiology of T2DM and CAD. Unfortunately, there remains considerable uncertainty regarding the association of Lp(a) with the risk of T2DM. We aimed to examine the association of Lp(a) with T2DM. Cross-sectional study of 1604 cases and 7983 controls was performed for identifying the association of Lp(a) with T2DM, its possible interactions with risk factors and threshold effects on T2DM. The association of Lp(a) with CAD was also examined and compared within the same study. On a continuous scale, 10 mg/L higher Lp(a) levels were insignificantly associated with a fully adjusted OR of 1.011, 95% CI 0.961-1.063 for T2DM. On a categorical scale, the fully adjusted ORs for T2DM were 0.733 (0.526-1.022), 0.554 (0.387-0.793), 0.848 (0.612-1.176), 0.727 (0.515-1.026), 0.692 (0.488-0.981), 0.696 (0.492-0.985), 0.719 (0.509-1.016), 0.74 (0.523-1.045), 0.809 (0.571-1.146), and 0.99 (0.962-1.019) for decile 2-10 in reference to decile 1. The magnitude of association did not increase with increasing decile (P for trend test = 0.990). In contrast, higher Lp(a) levels were significantly associated with prevalent CAD on a continuous or categorical scale in a fully adjusted model. No threshold effects were observed in terms of association of Lp(a) with T2DM or with CAD in Lp(a) <50 mg/dL. The current study suggested that there was a lack of association of Lp(a) levels with prevalent T2DM. In contrast, Lp(a) levels were significantly associated with CAD in a dose-responding manner. Our findings provided evidence for differential approaches to higher Lp(a) levels in patients with T2DM or with CAD.

  13. Pharmacogenetics of efficacy and safety of HCV treatment in HCV-HIV coinfected patients: significant associations with IL28B and SOCS3 gene variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Vidal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This was a safety and efficacy pharmacogenetic study of a previously performed randomized trial which compared the effectiveness of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with pegylated interferon alpha (pegIFNα 2a vs. 2b, both with ribavirin, for 48 weeks, in HCV-HIV coinfected patients. METHODS: The study groups were made of 99 patients (efficacy pharmacogenetic substudy and of 114 patients (safety pharmacogenetic substudy. Polymorphisms in the following candidate genes IL28B, IL6, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ, CCL5, MxA, OAS1, SOCS3, CTLA4 and ITPA were assessed. Genotyping was carried out using Sequenom iPLEX-Gold, a single-base extension polymerase chain reaction. Efficacy end-points assessed were: rapid, early and sustained virological response (RVR, EVR and SVR, respectively. Safety end-points assessed were: anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, flu-like syndrome, gastrointestinal disturbances and depression. Chi square test, Student's T test, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression were used for statistic analyses. RESULTS: As efficacy is concerned, IL28B and CTLA4 gene polymorphisms were associated with RVR (p<0.05 for both comparisons. Nevertheless, only polymorphism in the IL28B gene was associated with SVR (p = 0.004. In the multivariate analysis, the only gene independently associated with SVR was IL28B (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.2-5.6, p = 0.01. With respect to safety, there were no significant associations between flu-like syndrome or depression and the genetic variants studied. Gastrointestinal disturbances were associated with ITPA gene polymorphism (p = 0.04. Anemia was associated with OAS1 and CTLA4 gene polymorphisms (p = 0.049 and p = 0.045, respectively, neutropenia and thromobocytopenia were associated with SOCS3 gene polymorphism (p = 0.02 and p = 0.002, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the associations of the SOCS3 gene polymorphism with neutropenia (OR 0.26, 95%CI 0

  14. Association analysis for detecting significant single nucleotide polymorphisms for phosphorus-deficiency tolerance at the seedling stage in soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Lihua; Kan, Guizhen; Du, Wenkai; Guo, Shiwei; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Guozheng; Cheng, Hao; Yu, Deyue

    2016-03-01

    Tolerance to low-phosphorus soil is a desirable trait in soybean cultivars. Previous quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies for phosphorus-deficiency tolerance were mainly derived from bi-parental segregating populations and few reports from natural population. The objective of this study was to detect QTLs that regulate phosphorus-deficiency tolerance in soybean using association mapping approach. Phosphorus-deficiency tolerance was evaluated according to five traits (plant shoot height, shoot dry weight, phosphorus concentration, phosphorus acquisition efficiency and use efficiency) comprising a conditional phenotype at the seedling stage. Association mapping of the conditional phenotype detected 19 SNPs including 13 SNPs that were significantly associated with the five traits across two years. A novel cluster of SNPs, including three SNPs that consistently showed significant effects over two years, that associated with more than one trait was detected on chromosome 3. All favorable alleles, which were determined based on the mean of conditional phenotypic values of each trait over the two years, could be pyramided into one cultivar through parental cross combination. The best three cross combinations were predicted with the aim of simultaneously improving phosphorus acquisition efficiency and use efficiency. These results will provide a thorough understanding of the genetic basis of phosphorus deficiency tolerance in soybean.

  15. Preclinical characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 1-pseudotyped vector demonstrates dose-dependent injection site inflammation and dissemination of vector genomes to distant sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotte, Terence R; Conlon, Thomas J; Poirier, Amy; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Byrne, Barry J

    2007-03-01

    To translate the potential advantages of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 1 (rAAV1) vectors into a clinical application for muscle-directed gene therapy for alpha1 -antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, we performed safety studies in 170 C57BL/6 mice and 26 New Zealand White rabbits. A mouse toxicology study included 8 cohorts of 10 mice each (5 per sex). Mice were killed either 21 or 90 days after intramuscular injection of doses ranging up to 1x10(13)vector genomes (VG), equivalent to 4 x 10(14)VG/kg. A mouse biodistribution study was performed in 5 cohorts of 10 mice, receiving intramuscular injections at the same doses; as well as in a lower dose cohort (3 x 10(8) VG; equivalent to 1.2 x 10(10)VG/kg); and in 4 other cohorts (excluding the vehicle control) injected with identical doses intravenously. Finally, biodistribution was examined in rabbits, with serial collection of blood and semen, as well as terminal tissue collection. Two significant findings were present, both of which were dose dependent. First, inflammatory cell infiltrates were detected at the site of injection 21, 60, or 90 days after intramuscular injection of 1 x 10(13)VG. This was not associated with loss of transgene expression. Second, vector DNA sequences were detected in most animals, levels being highest with the highest doses and earliest time points. Vector DNA was also present in liver, spleen, kidneys, and a number of other organs, including the gonads of animals receiving the highest dose. Likewise, vector DNA was present in the semen of male rabbits at higher doses. The copy number of vector DNA in the blood and semen declined over time throughout the study. These two dose-dependent findings have served to guide to the design of a phase 1 human trial of rAAV1-AAT.

  16. [Primary risk of hemorrhage due to esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients: significance of the associated endoscopic signs and hepatic functional reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jmelnitzky, A; Palazzolo, A; Viola, L; Landoni, N; Morgante, P; Chopita, N; Romero, G; Giulioni, P

    1991-01-01

    Significance of endoscopic findings associated to esophageal varices (Japanese Research Society for Portal Hypertension) and hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pough classification) as predictive factors of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients is analyzed. In a cooperative prospective experience 137 cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices were examined in the period May 1987/89: 83 out of them had never bled from their varices (VENS group) while 54 recently had (VES group). A highly significative association was found between variceal size over 3 mm (grade II-III) and bleeding: 96.3% vs. 34.9% in VENS group (p = 0.01); similar association was found with regard to endoscopic detection of "red signs": 92.6% in bleeding group vs. 20.5% in VENS one (p = 0.01). "Red signs" were found on grade II-III varices in 98.5% of cases, and this association were related to variceal bleeding in 75.5%. Hepatic dysfunction was not directly related to bleeding episodes but "red signs" endoscopic detection in VENS group increased with liver function deterioration: 9.1% in Child A class, 27.3% in Child B, and 41.2% in Child C (p = 0.01). The strong association founded between bleeding and both grade II-III variceal size and "red signs" detection, suggest the possibility to identify a high risk group of cirrhotic patients candidate to prophylactic methodologies.

  17. Serum osteocalcin is associated with dietary vitamin D, body weight and serum magnesium in postmenopausal women with and without significant coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Alnahdi, Wafa A; Alama, Nabeel; Ferns, Gordon A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis often present atypically in postmenopausal women, making clinical recognition difficult. Prospective studies suggest independent associations between bone mass and vascular calcification through vitamin D deficiency as an established predictor of both conditions. We aimed to examine the relationship between serum osteocalcin and vitamin D status in postmenopausal women with and without angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). One hundred and eighty postmenopausal women undergoing coronary angiography were selected sequentially from the Catheterization unit of King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Socio-demographic, anthropometric parameters and dietary habits were measured. Biochemical variables were estimated in blood samples. Half of the postmenopausal women did not have significant CAD, 24% had significant CAD in a single and/or double coronary vessels, 26% had significant CAD in three coronary vessels. Mean serum vitamin D concentrations showed that vitamin D deficiency was a common finding in the whole population. Vitamin D and calcium intakes were uniformly low in the study cohort. Serum osteocalcin was significantly correlated with dietary vitamin D in all subgroups (r=-0.172, pmagnesium, alkaline phosphatase, dietary vitamin D, and body weight were independent variables of serum osteocalcin level. In conclusion, elevated levels of serum C reactive protein and vitamin D were associated with low serum osteocalcin levels. Therefore, osteocalcin may be a potential cardiovascular risk marker. However, further studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiological processes underlying the relationship between serum osteocalcin level and atherosclerosis parameters.

  18. Significance of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplifications in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: associations with radiation exposure and histologic grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Shiro; Nakashima, Masahiro; Ito, Masahiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Meirmanov, Serik; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Soda, Midori; Matsuo, Takeshi; Sekine, Ichiro

    2008-05-15

    It has been postulated that radiation induces breast cancers in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Oncogene amplification is an important mechanism during breast carcinogenesis and also serves as an indicator of genomic instability (GIN). The objective of this study was to clarify the association of oncogene amplification in breast cancer in A-bomb survivors with radiation exposure. In total, 593 breast cancers were identified in A-bomb survivors from 1968 to 1999, and the association between breast cancer incidence and A-bomb radiation exposure was evaluated. Invasive ductal cancers from 67 survivors and 30 nonsurvivors were analyzed for amplification of the HER2 and C-MYC genes by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and expression levels of hormone receptors were analyzed by immunostaining. The incidence rate increased significantly as exposure distance decreased from the hypocenter (hazard ratio per 1-km decrement, 1.47; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.30-1.66). The incidence of HER2 and C-MYC amplification was increased significantly in the order of the control group, the distal group (P = .0238), and the proximal group (P = .0128). Multivariate analyses revealed that distance was a risk factor for the coamplification of C-MYC and HER2 in breast cancer in survivors (odds ratio per 1-km increment, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.01-0.63). The histologic grade of breast cancers became significantly higher in the order of the control group, the distal group, and the proximal group and was associated with oncogene amplifications. The current results suggested that A-bomb radiation may affect the development of oncogene amplification by inducing GIN and may be associated with a higher histologic grade in breast cancer among A-bomb survivors. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  19. The clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of MN1 gene and MN1-associated microRNA expression in adult patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lili; Li, Man; Liu, Yan; Cen, Jiangnong; Chen, Zixing; Zhen, Xiao; Xie, Xiaobao; Cao, Xiangshan; Gu, Weiying

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of the meningioma 1 (MN1) gene and MN1-associated microRNA expression in Chinese adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. The expression level of MN1, microRNA-20 (miR-20a), and microRNA-181b (miR-181b) in bone marrow mononuclear cells was measured in 158 newly diagnosed AML patients and 20 cases of normal healthy donors by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. All AML patients significantly overexpressed MN1 at the level of 0.01983 (P miR-181b expression levels (P = 0.035). MiR-20a (P = 0.029) and miR-181b (P = 0.017) overexpressed in the bone marrow cells of patients with certain subtypes of AML compared with healthy donors. High MN1 expressers had lower complete remission (CR) rates and shorter overall survival (OS) within the Southwest Oncology Group classification. In multivariable models, high MN1 expression was associated with worse CR rates (P = 0.01), relapse-free survival (RFS; P = 0.02), and OS (P = 0.02); high miR-20a expression was associated with higher CR rates (P = 0.008) and longer OS (P = 0.04), whereas high miR-181b expression was associated with lower CR rates (P = 0.03), and shorter RFS (P = 0.045) and OS (P = 0.017). High MN1 expression confers worse prognosis in Chinese adult patients with de novo AML. MN1 gene and MN1-associated microRNAs provide clinical prognosis of AML patients and may refine their molecular risk classification.

  20. The polymorphism interleukin-8 -251A/T is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancers from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziliang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Lina; Yin, Sheng; Zang, Rongyu; Yang, Gong

    2014-07-01

    Emerging evidences show that interleukin-8 (IL-8) has important regulatory functions in tumorigenesis. IL-8 -251A/T is a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-8 gene and affects IL-8 production. Analysis of previous studies on the association of -251A/T polymorphism with different cancer types remained to be illustrated. To further assess the effect of -251A/T polymorphism on cancer risks, we performed this meta-analysis, up to November 2013, of 12,917 cases with different cancer types and 17,689 controls from 47 published case-control designed studies. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 11.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. ORs with 95 % CIs for IL-8 -251A/T polymorphism and cancer were estimated using fixed- and random-effects models when appropriate. Significantly increased risks were found in overall under the models of A allele vs. T allele, AA vs. TT, and AA vs. AT/TT. Significantly elevated risks were observed in breast cancer under the models of A allele vs. T allele, AT vs. TT, AA/AT vs. TT, and AA vs. AT/TT, and in nasopharyngeal carcinoma under the models of AT vs. TT, AA/AT vs. TT, and AA vs. AT/TT. We found that significantly elevated risks were observed in the Asian population and hospital-based studies in all comparison models. Thus, this meta-analysis indicates that IL-8 -251A/T polymorphism is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancers and may provide evidence-based medical certificate to study the cancer susceptibility.

  1. Subthreshold Depression and Clinically Significant Depression in an Italian Population of 70–74-Year-Olds: Prevalence and Association with Perceptions of Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Paola; Abbondanza, Simona; Davin, Annalisa; Colombo, Mauro; Francesca Vitali, Silvia; Villani, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of depressive disorders in the elderly vary depending on how cases are defined. We estimated the prevalence of subthreshold depression (SD) and clinically significant depression (D) in a population of 70–74-year-olds. We also looked for associations with sociodemographic factors and perceptions of self. Participants underwent a multidimensional assessment (social, medical, and neuropsychological). The estimated prevalence of SD was 15.71% (95% CI: 13.70–17.72), while that of D was 5.58% (95% CI: 4.31–6.85). Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender and dissatisfaction with family relationships were related to SD and D. A self-perception of physical age as older than actual age (but not comorbidity) and greater self-perceived stress caused by negative life events both increased the probability of SD. The likelihood of D was decreased in those who perceived their own health as good, whereas a self-perception of mental age as older than actual age and dissatisfaction with relationships with friends were both significantly associated with D. Both SD and D emerged as key problems in our population. Female gender and self-perceptions of various characteristics, which can be explored through simple questions, are associated with late-life depression in elderly people independently of their actual physical condition and other characteristics.

  2. The C(-1019G 5-HT1A promoter polymorphism and personality traits: no evidence for significant association in alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zill P

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 5HT1A receptor is one of at least 14 different receptors for serotonin which has a role in moderating several brain functions and may be involved in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders. The C(-1019G 5-HT1A promoter polymorphism was reported to be associated with major depression, depression-related personality traits and suicidal behavior in various samples. The G(-1019 allele carriers are prone to depressive personality traits and suicidal behavior, because serotonergic neurotransmission is reduced. The aim of this study is to replicate previous findings in a sample of 185 Alcohol-dependent individuals. Personality traits were evaluated using the NEO FFI and TCI. History of suicidal behavior was assessed by a standardized semistructured interview (SSAGA. No significant differences across C(-1019G 5-HT1A genotype groups were found for TCI temperament and character traits and for NEO FFI personality scales. No association was detected between this genetic variant and history of suicide attempts. These results neither support a role of C(-1019G 5-HT1A promoter polymorphism in the disposition of personality traits like harm avoidance or neuroticism, nor confirm previous research reporting an involvement of the G allele in suicidal behavior in alcoholics. Significant associations, however, were detected between Babor's Type B with number of suicide attempts in history, high neuroticism and harm avoidance scores in alcoholics.

  3. Assessment of Tools for Marker-Assisted Selection in a Marine Commercial Species: Significant Association between MSTN-1 Gene Polymorphism and Growth Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Sánchez-Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection in complex traits as growth. Polymorphisms have been studied in five candidate genes influencing growth in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata: the growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, myostatin (MSTN-1, prolactin (PRL, and somatolactin (SL genes. Specimens evaluated were from a commercial broodstock comprising 131 breeders (from which 36 males and 44 females contributed to the progeny. In all samples eleven gene fragments, covering more than 13,000 bp, generated by PCR-RFLP, were analyzed; tests were made for significant associations between these markers and growth traits. ANOVA results showed a significant association between MSTN-1 gene polymorphism and growth traits. Pairwise tests revealed several RFLPs in the MSTN-1 gene with significant heterogeneity of genotypes among size groups. PRL and MSTN-1 genes presented linkage disequilibrium. The MSTN-1 gene was mapped in the centromeric region of a medium-size acrocentric chromosome pair.

  4. Cluster analysis of bone microarchitecture from high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography demonstrates two separate phenotypes associated with high fracture risk in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M H; Robinson, D E; Ward, K A; Javaid, M K; Walker-Bone, K; Cooper, C; Dennison, E M

    2016-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare problem which is conventionally assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). New technologies such as high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) also predict fracture risk. HRpQCT measures a number of bone characteristics that may inform specific patterns of bone deficits. We used cluster analysis to define different bone phenotypes and their relationships to fracture prevalence and areal bone mineral density (BMD). 177 men and 159 women, in whom fracture history was determined by self-report and vertebral fracture assessment, underwent HRpQCT of the distal radius and femoral neck DXA. Five clusters were derived with two clusters associated with elevated fracture risk. "Cluster 1" contained 26 women (50.0% fractured) and 30 men (50.0% fractured) with a lower mean cortical thickness and cortical volumetric BMD, and in men only, a mean total and trabecular area more than the sex-specific cohort mean. "Cluster 2" contained 20 women (50.0% fractured) and 14 men (35.7% fractured) with a lower mean trabecular density and trabecular number than the sex-specific cohort mean. Logistic regression showed fracture rates in these clusters to be significantly higher than the lowest fracture risk cluster [5] (pcluster 5 in women in cluster 1 and 2 (pcluster 2 (pclusters in both men and women which may differ in etiology and response to treatment. As cluster 1 in men does not have low areal BMD, these men may not be identified as high risk by conventional DXA alone. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Alpha2C-adrenoceptor Del322-325 polymorphism and risk of psychiatric disorders: significant association with opiate abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Guadalupe; Martín-Guerrero, Idoia; de Prado, Elena; Gabilondo, Ane M; Callado, Luis F; García-Sevilla, Jesús A; García-Orad, África; Meana, J Javier

    2016-06-01

    Objectives α2C-adrenoceptors (α2C-AR) are involved in behavioural responses relevant to psychiatric disorders and suicide completion. The genetic polymorphism α2CDel322-325-AR confers a loss-of-function phenotype. Functional human studies have associated α2CDel322-325-AR polymorphism with major depression pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to analyse, for the first time, the association of α2CDel322-325-AR polymorphism with suicide completion and with related psychiatric disorders: major depression, schizophrenia, opiate and alcohol abuse and dependence. Methods Post-mortem brain DNA was extracted (n = 516) and genotyping performed by HaeIII restriction endonuclease digestion of PCR products and DNA fragment analysis on capillary sequencer. Amplified products were sequenced to confirm the presence of the polymorphism. Results The frequency of α2CDel322-325-AR in suicide (9%, n = 236) and non-suicide victims (11%, n = 280) was similar. Genotype frequencies for the α2CDel322-325-AR polymorphism in depressed (15%, n = 39) and schizophrenic subjects (18%, n = 39) were higher than in controls (7%, n = 187), but these differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.125 and P = 0.063, respectively). A selective and significant association of α2CDel322-325-AR polymorphism with opiate abuse and dependence was found (23%, n = 35, P = 0.011). Conclusions Our results indicate that α2CDel322-325-AR may play a role in the pathophysiology of opiate abuse and dependence and raise the interest for larger genetic associative studies.

  6. Significant association among the Fas -670 A/G (rs1800682) polymorphism and esophageal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and prostate cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zuo, Li; Li, Lin; Yin, Lei; Liang, Kai; Yu, Hongyuan; Ren, Hui; Zhou, Wen; Jing, Hongwei; Liu, Yang; Kong, Chuize

    2014-11-01

    The Fas gene plays a key role in regulation of apoptotic cell death, and corruption of this signaling pathway has been shown to participate in immune escape and tumorgenesis. Single-nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of Fas gene at position -670 A/G may affect its expression and play an important role in the pathology of many kinds of cancer. The association between Fas -670 A/G polymorphism and cancer risk is still controversial and ambiguous. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the currently literature to clarify this relationship. We conducted a search in the PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, and WanFang databases, covering all papers published by May 5, 2014. Overall, 59 case-control studies with 17,035 cases and 23,155 controls were retrieved based on the search criteria for cancer susceptibility related to -670 A/G polymorphism in Fas gene. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) revealed association strengths. Although no significant relationship was detected between Fas -670 A/G polymorphism and whole cancer risk, in the ethnicity subgroup, significant associations were found in three types of cancer: prostate cancer (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01-1.11 for A-allele vs. G-allele); hepatocellular carcinoma (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80-0.99 for AG vs. GG); esophageal cancer (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99 for AA + AG vs. GG). Moreover, lower cancer risk was found in smokers carried A-allele, when compared to smokers carried the GG genotype. The Fas -670 A/G polymorphism may be associated with esophageal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and prostate cancer susceptibility from our meta-analysis. Studies with larger samples and gene-environment interactions are warranted to understand the role of Fas -670 A/G polymorphism for cancer risk.

  7. Gunshot wounds and blast injuries to the face are associated with significant morbidity and mortality: results of an 11-year multi-institutional study of 720 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackford, Steven R; Kahl, Jessica E; Calvo, Richard Y; Kozar, Rosemary A; Haugen, Christine E; Kaups, Krista L; Willey, Marybeth; Tibbs, Brian M; Mutto, Susan M; Rizzo, Anne G; Lormel, Christy S; Shackford, Meghan C; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Moore, Ernest E; Cogbill, Thomas H; Kallies, Kara J; Haan, James M; Ward, Jeanette

    2014-02-01

    Gunshot wounds and blast injuries to the face (GSWBIFs) produce complex wounds requiring management by multiple surgical specialties. Previous work is limited to single institution reports with little information on processes of care or outcome. We sought to determine those factors associated with hospital complications and mortality. We performed an 11-year multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of patients sustaining GSWBIF. The face, defined as the area anterior to the external auditory meatuses from the top of the forehead to the chin, was categorized into three zones: I, the chin to the base of the nose; II, the base of the nose to the eyebrows; III, above the brows. We analyzed the effect of multiple factors on outcome. From January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010, we treated 720 patients with GSWBIF (539 males, 75%), with a median age of 29 years. The wounding agent was handgun in 41%, explosive (shotgun and blast) in 20%, rifle in 6%, and unknown in 33%. Prehospital or resuscitative phase airway was required in 236 patients (33%). Definitive care was rendered by multiple specialties in 271 patients (38%). Overall, 185 patients died (26%), 146 (79%) within 48 hours. Of the 481 patients hospitalized greater than 48 hours, 184 had at least one complication (38%). Factors significantly associated with any of a total of 207 complications were total number of operations (p < 0.001), Revised Trauma Score (RTS, p < 0.001), and head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score (p < 0.05). Factors significantly associated with mortality were RTS (p < 0.001), head AIS score (p < 0.001), total number of operations (p < 0.001), and age (p < 0.05). An injury located in Zone III was independently associated with mortality (p < 0.001). GSWBIFs have high mortality and are associated with significant morbidity. The multispecialty involvement required for definitive care necessitates triage to a trauma center and underscores the need for an organized approach and the development of

  8. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehling, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.stehling@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Souza, Richard B. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Inc. New London, CT (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008-0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  9. Association study between genome-wide significant variants of vitamin B12 metabolism and gastric cancer in a han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wei, Yucai; Song, Ailing; Li, Yumin

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin B12 plays an important role in the development of gastric cancer. Genome-wide association studies on metabolites in the one-carbon metabolism pathway identified several vitamin B12-related polymorphisms. Therefore, we investigated the association between variants within vitamin B12-related genes and gastric cancer in a Han Chinese population. Eight variants within the genome were significant vitamin B12-related genes, and they were selected for analysis in this case-control study. This study used a total of 492 gastric cancer patients and 550 noncancer controls. The variant rs526934 from the TCN1 gene was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. Increased risks of gastric cancer occurrence were observed in the minor G allele (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.03-1.52, P = 0.031) and GG genotype (OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.24-3.42, P = 0.0043) compared with the wild-type A allele and AA-GA genotype, respectively. In the haplotypic analysis, we found that the CUBN haplotypes were associated with an altered gastric cancer risk. The rs1801222T/rs11254363A (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.05-1.86, P = 0.021) and rs1801222C/rs11254363G (OR = 4.39, 95% CI = 2.32-8.30, P B12 concentration-related variants were associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer. This finding shed light on the unexpected role of vitamin B12 metabolism genes in gastric carcinogenesis and highlighted the interplay of diet, genetics, and human cancers.

  10. Stomatin-like protein 2 overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma is significantly associated with high-risk clinicopathological parameters and BRAFV600E mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, Aleksandar; Boskovic, Srdjan; Paunovic, Ivan; Bozic, Vesna; Cvejic, Dubravka

    2016-04-01

    Stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2), a member of the stomatin protein family, has emerged as a potential molecular hallmark of tumor progression in several human malignancies. The aim of this study was to analyze SLP-2 expression pattern in benign and malignant thyroid tumors (n = 210) and to examine its relationship with clinicopathological parameters and BRAFV600E mutation in thyroid cancer. SLP-2 immunohistochemical expression was not detected in benign adenomas and was absent/weak in follicular and anaplastic carcinomas. High expression levels of SLP-2, found only in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), particularly in the classical variant, were significantly associated with adverse clinicopathological parameters: lymph node metastasis (p = 0.002), extrathyroid invasion (p < 0.001), pT status (p < 0.001), and advanced tumor stage (p = 0.001). Additional genotyping of PTC cases for the BRAFV600E mutation revealed for the first time a close relation between SLP-2 overexpression and the presence of BRAF mutation (p = 0.02) with high positive rates of lymph node metastasis (70%) and extrathyroid invasion (80%) in these cases. The significant association of SLP-2 overexpression with unfavorable clinicopathological characteristics and BRAFV600E mutation indicates that SLP-2 may have a role in aggressiveness of BRAF-mutated PTC and that SLP-2 evaluation could be clinically useful in identification of high-risk PTC patients.

  11. E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma and their prognostic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the role of E-cadherin and betacatenin in carcinogenesis and to assess their prognostic implication in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas (EBV-GCs).METHODS: We compared the frequency of E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression in 59 EBV-GCs and 120 non-EBV-GCs, and examined the association between patients' prognosis and the expressions of these proteins.RESULTS: Neither the cellular-membranous nor the cytoplasmic E-cadherin expression showed any difference between EBV-GCs and non-EBV-GCs. On the other hand, loss of membranous expression of betacatenin occurred more frequently in non-EBV-GCs than EBV-GCs [odds ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI),0.19-0.90]. Furthermore, the nuclear and/or cytoplosmic expression of beta-catenin was seen more frequently in EBV-GCs than non-EBV-GCs (odds ratio = 2.23; 95% CI, 0.97-5.09), and was observed in a larger proportion of carcinoma cells of EBV-GCs than non-EBV-GCs (P = 0.024). Survival analysis for non-EBV-GC revealed that lymph node metastasis was significantly associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.001). Among EBVGCs, the depth of invasion (P = 0.005), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.004) and an intestinal type by Lauren classification (hazard ratio = 9.47; 95% CI, 2.67-33.6)were significantly associated with poor prognosis. On the other hand, nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression of beta-catenin was associated with a better prognosis in patients with EBV-GC (hazard ratio = 0.32; 95% CI,0.11-0.93).CONCLUSION: We observed more frequent preservation of beta-catenin in cell membrane and accumulation in nuclei and/or cytoplasm in EBV-GCs than in non-EBV-GCs. Factors involved in the prognosis of EBV-GCs and non-EBV-GCs are different in the two conditions.

  12. Significant Association of HLA-B Alleles and Genotypes in Thai Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apichaya Puangpetch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Many susceptible causative genes have been identified. Most of the previous reports showed the relationship between the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA gene and etiology of autism. In order to identify HLA-B alleles associated with autism in Thai population, we compared the frequency of HLA-B allele in 364 autistic subjects with 952 normal subjects by using a two-stage sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe system (PCR-SSOP method based on flow-cytometry technology. HLA-B⁎13:02 (P=0.019, OR = 2.229, HLA-B⁎38:02 (P=0.049, OR = 1.628, HLA-B⁎44:03 (P=0.016, OR = 1.645, and HLA-B⁎56:01 (P = 1.78 × 10−4, OR = 4.927 alleles were significantly increased in autistic subjects compared with normal subjects. Moreover, we found that the HLA-B⁎18:02 (P=0.016, OR = 0.375 and HLA-B⁎46:12 (P=0.008, OR = 0.147 alleles were negatively associated with autism when compared to normal controls. Both alleles might have a protective role in disease development. In addition, four HLA-B genotypes of autistic patients had statistically significant relationship with control groups, consisting of HLA-B⁎3905/⁎5801 (P=0.032, OR = 24.697, HLA-B⁎2704/⁎5801 (P=0.022, OR = 6.872, HLA-B⁎3501/⁎4403 (P=0.021, OR = 30.269, and HLA-B⁎1801/⁎4402 (P = 0.017, OR = 13.757. This is the first report on HLA-B associated with Thai autism and may serve as a marker for genetic susceptibility to autism in Thai population.

  13. Significant association of KIR2DL3-HLA-C1 combination with cerebral malaria and implications for co-evolution of KIR and HLA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouyuki Hirayasu

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is a major, life-threatening complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and has very high mortality rate. In murine malaria models, natural killer (NK cell responses have been shown to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. To investigate the role of NK cells in the developmental process of human cerebral malaria, we conducted a case-control study examining genotypes for killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR and their human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I ligands in 477 malaria patients. We found that the combination of KIR2DL3 and its cognate HLA-C1 ligand was significantly associated with the development of cerebral malaria when compared with non-cerebral malaria (odds ratio 3.14, 95% confidence interval 1.52-6.48, P = 0.00079, corrected P = 0.02. In contrast, no other KIR-HLA pairs showed a significant association with cerebral malaria, suggesting that the NK cell repertoire shaped by the KIR2DL3-HLA-C1 interaction shows certain functional responses that facilitate development of cerebral malaria. Furthermore, the frequency of the KIR2DL3-HLA-C1 combination was found to be significantly lower in malaria high-endemic populations. These results suggest that natural selection has reduced the frequency of the KIR2DL3-HLA-C1 combination in malaria high-endemic populations because of the propensity of interaction between KIR2DL3 and C1 to favor development of cerebral malaria. Our findings provide one possible explanation for KIR-HLA co-evolution driven by a microbial pathogen, and its effect on the global distribution of malaria, KIR and HLA.

  14. Significant association of TREM-1 with HMGB1, TLRs and RAGE in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obese diabetic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Saravanan; Pallati, Pradeep K; Sharma, Poonam; Agrawal, Devendra K; Nandipati, Kalyana C

    2017-01-01

    Activated cell surface and intracellular receptors lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Among these receptors, triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1, toll like receptors (TLRs), and receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) play a significant role in the induction of inflammatory response in innate immunity. TREM-1 potentially amplifies TLRs and RAGE synergistically with DNA-binding high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1). The objective of the study was to analyze the association between TREM-1/DAP12 and HMGB-1, RAGE and TLRs in obesity-induced insulin resistance. We examined the mRNA expression by RT-PCR and protein expression by Western blotting and immunofluorescence for TREM-1, TREM-2, DAP-12, HMGB-1, RAGE, TLR-4 and TLR-2 in omentum, subcutaneous and liver biopsy tissues of obese diabetic (n=22) and non-diabetic subjects (n=24) and compared with the non-obese non-diabetic controls (n=5). There was a significantly increased expression of TREM-1, DAP-12, HMGB-1, RAGE, TLR-4 and TLR-2 and decreased expression of TREM-2 in the omentum, subcutaneous and liver biopsy of obese diabetic subjects compared to obese non-diabetics and the non-obese population. Overall, obese diabetic subjects had high expression of TREM-1 in association with HMGB1 (100% vs 58.3%, P=0.003), RAGE (77.3% vs 41.7%, P=0.045), TLR4 (100% vs 58.3%, P=0.003), and TLR2 (100% vs 50%, P=0.003) in liver biopsy samples in comparison to obese non-diabetic subjects. Obese diabetics have significantly increased TREM-1, HMGB1, RAGE, and TLRs compared to obese non-diabetics. Our findings suggest a potential pathophysiological role of TREM-1 in conjunction with HMGB1 and inflammatory cell receptors (RAGE, TLR-4 and TLR-2) in obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  15. Independent associations of polymorphisms in vitamin D binding protein (GC) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes with obesity and plasma 25OHD3 levels demonstrate sex dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almesri, Norah; Das, Nagalla S; Ali, Muhallab E; Gumaa, Khalid; Giha, Hayder Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    We investigated a possible association between polymorphisms in vitamin D binding protein (GC) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes and obesity in Bahraini adults. For this purpose, 406 subjects with varying body mass indexes (BMIs) were selected. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms, 2 in the VDR gene (rs731236 TC and rs12721377 AG) and 4 in the GC gene (rs2282679 AC, rs4588 CA, rs7041 GT, and rs2298849 TC), were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that the rs7041 minor allele (G) and rare genotype (GG) were associated with higher BMI (p = 0.007 and p = 0.012, respectively), but they did not influence 25OHD3 levels. However, the minor alleles of rs2282679 (A) and rs4588 (C) were associated with low 25OHD3 plasma levels (p = 0.039 and p = 0.021, respectively), but not with BMI. Having categorized the subjects based on their sex, we found that (i) rs7041 GG associated with high BMI in females (p = 0.003), (ii) rs4588 CC associated with high BMI in females (p = 0.034) and low 25OHD3 levels in males (p = 0.009), and (iii) rs12721377 AA associated with low 25OHD3 levels in females (p = 0.039). Notably, none of the common haplotypes (6 in the GC gene and 3 in the VDR gene) were associated with BMI. Therefore, polymorphisms in the GC (rs2282679, rs4588, rs7041) and VDR (rs12721377) genes were independently associated with obesity and 25OHD3 levels with a clear sex dimorphism.

  16. Differential expression and prognostic significance of GLUT1 according to histologic type of non-small-cell lung cancer and its association with volume-dependent parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Wha; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Seong Yong

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) expression, together with volume-based(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) parameters, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and examined the prognostic significance of those parameters according to its histologic subtype. A total of 269 patients, who underwent surgical resection for NSCLC, were reviewed retrospectively. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) values were measured by preoperative (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography. GLUT1 and CAIX expression was evaluated using immunohistochemical method. The mean MTV and TLG values were 30.0±57.1 and 165.4±361.3, respectively, and were significantly higher in patients with squamous cell carcinoma than with adenocarcinoma (p=0.047 for MTV; p=0.042 for TLG). GLUT1 expression was identified in 99% of squamous cell carcinoma and 50% of adenocarcinoma patients. MTV and TLG values were significantly higher in GLUT1-positive than GLUT-negative adenocarcinomas; however, CAIX expression did not show this pattern. GLUT1-positive adenocarcinoma patients had a lower OS than GLUT1-negative patients (p<0.001), whereas CAIX-positive and CAIX-negative patients showed similar OS rates (p=0.226). Patients with high MTV and TLG values showed lower OS rates than those with low MTV and TLG values. Multivariate analysis showed that GLUT1 positivity was an independent risk factor for a lower OS rate in lung adenocarcinoma patients (hazard ratio=2.574, p=0.016). GLUT1 expression was associated with micropapillary/solid histology, lymphovascular invasion, and advanced pTNM stage. MTV and TLG values, and GLUT1 expression, significantly differed between patients with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. High GLUT1 expression levels were significantly associated with MTV and TLG values and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with adenocarcinoma. Copyright

  17. FLT3 Mutation as a Significant Prognostic Marker in de novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients: Incidence, Distribution and Association with Cytogenetic Findings in a Study from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhi Sarojam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 is a tyrosine kinase receptor that plays an important role in proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Internal tandem duplication and tyrosine kinase domain mutation are the two most common types of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 mutations frequently reported in acute myeloid leukemia associated with pathogenesis of this disease. The present study investigates the prevalence and distribution pattern in different acute myeloid leukemia sub- and cytogenetic groups, the association with clinical parameters and the prognostic importance of these mutations in acute myeloid leukemia patients from South India. Methods:Mutation analysis was performed in 276 de novo acute myeloid leukemia patients by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism using specific restriction enzymes followed by sequencing to confirm the mutations. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to detect the prognosis. Results: Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication mutations were observed in 20%, tyrosine kinase domain mutation in 4% and dual mutations in 0.3% of the analyzed cases. The internal tandem duplication mutations ranged from 15-107 nucleotides with the majority at the juxta membrane domain of the receptor. Three types of tyrosine kinase domain point mutations were identified: D835Y, D835H and D835V. We observed a significant association between fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 mutations and increased WBC and LDH counts (P<0.001 and blast percentage but not with age, gender and FAB subtypes. A significant association with normal karyotype was observed for the mutants (P=0.002. Survival analysis revealed that the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene mutation was a negative prognostic marker for acute myeloid leukemia patients. The risk stratified analysis showed the mutation to be a risk factor for the intermediate karyotype group, especially for those with normal cytogenetics

  18. In vitro reactivity to implant metals demonstrates a person-dependent association with both T-cell and B-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallab, Nadim James; Caicedo, Marco; Epstein, Rachel; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2010-02-01

    Hypersensitivity to metallic implants remains relatively unpredictable and poorly understood. We initially hypothesized that metal-induced lymphocyte proliferation responses to soluble metal challenge (ions) are mediated exclusively by early T-cell activation (not B-cells), typical of a delayed-type-hypersensitivity response. We tested this by comparing proliferation (6 days) of primary lymphocytes with early T-cell and B-cell activation (48 h) in three groups of subjects likely to demonstrate elevated metal reactivity: group 1 (n = 12) history of metal sensitivity with no implant; group 2a (n = 6) well performing metal-on-metal THRs, and group 2b (n = 20) subjects with poorly performing metal-on-polymer total joint arthroplasties (TJA). Group 1 showed 100% (12/12) metal reactivity (stimulation index > 2) to Ni. Groups 2a and 2b were 83% (5/6) and 75% (15/22) metal reactive (to Co, Cr, or Ni), respectively. Of the n = 32 metal-reactive subjects to Co, Cr, or Ni (SI > 2), n = 22/32 demonstrated >2-fold elevations in % of T-cell or B-cell activation (CD25+, CD69+) to metal challenge when compared with untreated control. 18/22 metal-activated subjects demonstrated an exclusively T-cell or B-cell activation response to metal challenge, where 6/18 demonstrated exclusively B-cell activation and 12/18 demonstrated a T-cell only response, as measured by surface activation markers CD25+ and CD69+. However, there was no direct correlation (R(2) metal reactivity than did subject-dependent results of flow-cytometry analysis of T-cell or B-cell activation. The high incidence of lymphocyte reactivity and activation indicate that more complex than initially hypothesized immune responses may contribute to the etiology of debris-induced osteolysis in metal-sensitive individuals.

  19. Petrogenesis and its significance to continental dynamics of the Neogene high-potassium calc-alkaline volcanic rock association from north Qiangtang, Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖绍聪; 刘池阳; S.Y.O’Reilly

    2001-01-01

    Detailed studies indicate that the main rock type of the Neogene high-potassium calc-alkaline volcanic rock association from north Qiangtang is andesite, dacite and rhyolite. They belong to typical crust-generation magmatic system and originate from the special thickened crust of the Tibetan Plateau by dehydration melting. This group of rocks exhibits LREE enrichment but no remarkable Eu anomaly that shows their source region should be a thickened deep crust consisting of eclogitic mass group, implying that the crust had been thickened and an eclogitic deep crust had been formed during the Neogene period in Qiangtang area. This understanding is important and significant to making further discussion on the uplift mechanism and continental dynamics of the Tibetan Plateau.

  20. Expression of papillary thyroid carcinoma-associated molecular markers and their significance in follicular epithelial dysplasia with papillary thyroid carcinoma-like nuclear alterations in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Heng; Yan, Jin; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Shenghui; Qin, Lingzhi; Liu, Liwei; Wang, Xi; Li, Naping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)-associated tumor markers in follicular epithelial dysplasia showing PTC-like nuclear alterations (FED) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and to explore the relationship between HT and PTC. In this study, 43 PTC, 18 HT with FED and 16 peritumoral benign thyroid tissues were immunohistochemically analyzed for CK19, galectin-3, HBME-1, CD56, claudin-1 and NGAL expression. Our research revealed that in HT, the expression of CK19, galectin-3, HBME-1, claudin-1 and NGAL was focal and limited to FED, while CD56 was strongly positive in FED and most Hürthle cells. The stain intensity of CK19, claudin-1 and NGAL in FED decreased compared with PTC, but were significantly higher than that in peritumoral benign thyroid tissues (all P 0.05). In conclusion, In HT, FED might be a precancerous condition closely associated with PTC development as they have overlaps in cytological and immunomarker profiles, indicating that in patients with HT, under prolonged stimuli from chronic inflammation, part of follicular epithelia may show regeneration, hyperplasia, Hürthle cell metaplasia and dysplasia, eventually malignant transformation. Hence, long term follow-up and regular inspection would be necessary for Hashimoto's thyroiditis with FED.

  1. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  2. Keratosis punctata of the palmar creases. A report on three generations, demonstrating an association with ichthyosis vulgaris and evidence of involvement of the acrosyringium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Río, E; Vázquez-Veiga, H; Aguilar, A; Vélez, A; Sánchez Yus, E

    1994-03-01

    Five patients in the same family showed small keratotic plugs of the palmar creases. Transmission in lineage was consistent with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. The syndrome was highly associated with ichthyosis vulgaris in several members of the family. The histopathology in two patients revealed a close relation between the plugs and the acrosyringium.

  3. Association text classification of mining ItemSet significance%挖掘重要项集的关联文本分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡金凤; 白清源

    2011-01-01

    针对在关联规则分类算法的构造分类器阶段中只考虑特征词是否存在,忽略了文本特征权重的问题,基于关联规则的文本分类方法(ARC-BC)的基础上提出一种可以提高关联文本分类准确率的ISARC(ItemSet Significance-based ARC)算法.该算法利用特征项权重定义了k-项集重要度,通过挖掘重要项集来产生关联规则,并考虑提升度对待分类文本的影响.实验结果表明,挖掘重要项集的ISARC算法可以提高关联文本分类的准确率.%Text classification technology is an important basis of information retrieval and text mining,and its main task is to mark category according to a given category set.Text classification has a wide range of applications in natural language processing and understanding、information organization and management、information filtering and other areas.At present,text classification can be mainly divided into three groups: based on statistical methods、based on connection method and the method based on rules. The basic idea of the traditional association text classification algorithm associative rule-based classifier by category(ARC-BC) is to use the association rule mining algorithm Apriori which generates frequent items that appear frequently feature items or itemsets,and then use these frequent items as rule antecedent and category is used as rule consequent to form the rule set and then make these rules constitute a classifier.During classifying the test samples,if the test sample matches the rule antecedent,put the rule that belongs to the class counterm to the cumulative confidence.If the confidence of the category counter is the maximum,then determine the test sample belongs to that category. However,ARC-BC algorithm has two main drawbacks:(1) During the structure classifier,it only considers the existence of feature words and ignores the weight of text features for mining frequent itemsets and generated association rules

  4. Specific VpU Codon Changes were Significantly associated with gp120 V3 Tropic Signatures in HIV-1 B-subtype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salvatore Dimonte; Muhammed Babakir-Mina; Stefano Aquaro; Carlo-Federico Perno

    2012-01-01

    After infection and integration steps,HIV-1 transcriptions increase sharply and singly-spliced mRNAs are produced.These encode Env (gpl20 and gp41) and auxiliary proteins Vif,Vpr and VpU.The same localization within the unique structure of the mRNAs suggests that the VpU sequence prior to the Env could affect the Env polyprotein expression.The HIV-1 infection process begins when the gp120 subunit of the envelope glycoprotein complex interacts with its receptor(s) on the target cell.The V3 domain of gp120 is the major determinant of cellular co-receptor binding.According to phenotypic information of HIV-1 isolates,sequences from the VpU to V3 regions (119 in R5-and 120 X4-tropic viruses; oneper patient) were analysed.The binomial correlation phi coefficient was used to assess covariation among VpU and gp120v3 signatures.Subsequently,average linkage hierarchical agglomerative clustering was performed.Beyond the classical V3 signatures (R5-viruses:S11,E25D; X4-viruses:S11KR,E25KRQ),other specific V3 and novel VpU signatures were found to be statistically associated with co-receptor usage.Several statistically significant associations between V3 and VpU mutations were also observed.The dendrogram showed two distinct large clusters:one associated with R5-tropic sequences (bootstrap=0.94),involving:(a) H13NPV3,E25DV3,S11V3,T22AV3 and Q61HVpU,(b) E25AV3 and L12FVpU:,(c) D44EVpU,R18QV3 and D80NVpU; and another associated with X4-tropic sequences (bootstrap=0.97),involving:(i) E25Iv3 and V10AvpU,(ii)0-1insVVpU,H13Rv3,146LVpU,I30Mv3 and 60-62delVpU,(iii) S11KRV3 and E25KRQV3.Some of these pairs of mutations were encoded always by one specific codon.These data indicate the possible VpU mutational patterns contributing to regulation of HIV-1 tropism.

  5. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    group (P=0.0123. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596, 2-year (P=0.8620, 5-year (P=0.2737, or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786.Conclusion: Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. Keywords: amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, heart transplantation, mortality

  6. Restoration of bone mineralization by cinacalcet is associated with a significant reduction in calcitriol-induced vascular calcification in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Tineke M; Behets, Geert J; Jung, Susanne; Neven, Ellen; D'Haese, Patrick C; Querfeld, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigated to what extent normalization of bone turnover goes along with a reduction of high-dose calcitriol-induced vascular calcifications in uremic rats. Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: sham-operated controls (n = 7), subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) uremic (CRF) animals (n = 12), CRF + calcitriol (vitD) (0.25 μg/kg/day) (n = 12), CRF + vitD + cinacalcet (CIN) (10 mg/kg/day) (n = 12), and CRF + vitD + parathyroidectomy (PTX) (n = 12). Treatment started 2 weeks after SNX and continued for the next 14 weeks. High-dose calcitriol treatment in hyperparathyroid rats went along with the development of distinct vascular calcification, which was significantly reduced by >50 %, in both CIN-treated and PTX animals. Compared to control animals and those of the CRF group, calcitriol treatment either in combination with CIN or PTX or not was associated with a significant increase in bone area comprising ±50 % of the total tissue area. However, whereas excessive woven bone accompanied by a dramatically increased osteoid width/area was seen in the CRF + vitD group, CIN treatment and PTX resulted in significantly reduced serum PTH level, which was accompanied by a distinct reduction of both the bone formation rate and the amount of osteoid. These data indicate that less efficient calcium and phosphorus incorporation in bone inherent to the severe hyperparathyroidism in vitamin D-treated uremic rats goes along with excessive vascular calcification, a process which is partially reversed by CIN treatment in combination with a more efficacious bone mineralization, thus restricting the availability of calcium and phosphate for being deposited in the vessel wall.

  7. History of autoimmune disease is associated with impaired survival in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Ebba K; Landgren, Ola; Lund, Sigrún H; Turesson, Ingemar; Hultcrantz, Malin; Goldin, Lynn; Björkholm, Magnus; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y

    2017-02-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Incidence of MM and MGUS is higher among patients with autoimmune disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether a history of autoimmunity has an impact on survival in MM and MGUS. Using high-quality national Swedish registries, we identified 8367 patients with MM, 18,768 patients with MGUS, and 110,251 matched control subjects, and obtained information on previous autoimmune disease in patients and controls. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In patients with MM and a prior autoimmune disease, the risk of death was significantly increased, HR = 1.2 (95 % CI 1.2-1.3) compared to MM patients with no history of autoimmunity. In MGUS patients, a prior autoimmune disease was associated with a significantly 1.4-fold elevated risk of death (95 % CI 1.3-1.4). When analyzing different types of autoimmune diseases, a history of ulcerative colitis had a stronger impact on survival in MM than in controls. Our findings that a history of autoimmune disease has a negative impact on survival in MM and MGUS could be due to shared underlying common genetic factors, or that patients with a history of autoimmunity develop more severe cases of MM and MGUS, or cumulative comorbidity in the individual. Our results suggest that more attention should be paid to comorbidity as a prognostic factor in MGUS and MM, and underlines the need for studies aimed at tailoring therapy according to comorbidity.

  8. Clinical significance of serum tumor markers for gastric cancer: a systematic review of literature by the Task Force of the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Noie, Tamaki; Ohashi, Manabu; Oba, Koji; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum tumor markers, particularly CEA, CA19-9, and CA72-4, in patients with gastric cancer. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "gastric cancer" and "tumor marker," to select 4,925 relevant reports published before the end of November 2012. A total of 187 publications contained data for CEA and CA19-9, and 19 publications contained data related to all three tumor markers. The positive rates were 21.1 % for CEA, 27.8 % for CA19-9, and 30.0 % for CA72-4. These three markers were significantly associated with tumor stage and patient survival. Serum markers are not useful for early cancer, but they are useful for detecting recurrence and distant metastasis, predicting patient survival, and monitoring after surgery. Tumor marker monitoring may be useful for patients after surgery because the positive conversion of tumor markers usually occurs 2-3 months before imaging abnormalities. Among other tumor markers, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is useful for detecting and predicting liver metastases. Moreover, CA125 and sialyl Tn antigens (STN) are useful for detecting peritoneal metastases. Although no prospective trial has yet been completed to evaluate the clinical significance of these serum markers, this literature survey suggests that combinations of CEA, CA19-9, and CA72-4 are the most effective ways for staging before surgery or chemotherapy. In particular, monitoring tumor markers that were elevated before surgery or chemotherapy could be useful for detection of recurrence or evaluation of the response.

  9. Clinical significance of high c-MYC and low MYCBP2 expression and their association with Ikaros dysfunction in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zheng; Guo, Xing; Li, Jianyong; Hartman, Melanie; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Dovat, Sinisa; Song, Chunhua

    2015-12-01

    Increased expression of c-MYC is observed in both Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL). MYC binding protein 2 (MYCBP2) is a probable E3 ubiquitin ligase and its function in leukemia is unknown. IKZF1 deletion is associated with the development and poor outcome of ALL. Here, we observed significant high c-MYC expression and low MYCBP2 expression in adult ALL patients. Patients with high c-MYC expression and/or low MYCBP2 expression had higher WBC counts and a higher percentage of CD34+ or CD33+ cells, as well as splenomegaly, liver infiltration, higher BM blasts, and lower CR rate. Ikaros bound to the regulatory regions of c-MYC and MYCBP2, suppressed c-MYC and increased MYCBP2 expression in ALL cells. Expression of c-MYC mRNA was significantly higher in patients with IKZF1 deletion; conversely MYCBP2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in those patients. A CK2 inhibitor, which acts as an Ikaros activator, also suppressed c-MYC and increased MYCBP2 expression in an Ikaros (IKZF1) dependent manner in the ALL cells. In summary, our data indicated the correlation of high c-MYC expression, low MYCBP2 expression and high c-MYC plus low MYCBP2 expression with high-risk factors and proliferation markers in adult ALL patients. Our data also revealed an oncogenic role for an Ikaros/MYCBP2/c-MYC axis in adult ALL, providing a mechanism of target therapies that activate Ikaros in adult ALL.

  10. [The significances of peripheral neutrophils CD(55) and myeloperoxidase expression in patients with myeloperoxidase-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X L; Zheng, M J; Shuai, Z W; Zhang, L; Zhang, M M; Chen, S Y

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of CD(55) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) on neutrophils in patients with MPO-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis(MPO-AAV), and analyze the relationship between the expression and clinical manifestation. Methods: Forty untreated patients with active MPO-AAV (patient group) and 30 healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. The CD(55) on neutrophils and both membrane and cytoplasmic MPO were detected by flow cytometry. Serum fragment-from the activated complement factor B(Ba) and MPO were measured by ELISA. The clinical activity of vasculitis was valued by Birmingham vasculitis activity score-version 3(BVAS-V3). The significance of laboratory data was evaluated by Spearman correlation test and multivariate linear regression analysis. Results: (1)The mean fluorescence intensity(MFI) of CD(55) expressed on neutrophils was significantly higher than that in control group[4 068.6±2 306.0 vs 2 999.5±1 504.9, P=0.033]. Similar results of serum MPO and Ba in patient group were found compared to controls [500.0(381.0, 612.7) IU/L vs 286.9(225.5, 329.1) IU/L, P<0.001; 35.2(25.2, 79.5) ng/L vs 18.0(15.0, 28.0) ng/L, P<0.001], respectively. However, MIF of cytoplasmic MPO in patients was significantly lower than that of control group(1 577.1±1 175.9 vs 3 105.3±2 323.0, P=0.003) . (2) In patient group, cytoplasmic intensity of MPO was negatively associated with the serum levels of MPO(r=-0.710, P<0.001) and Ba (r=-0.589, P=0.001). Moreover, serum MPO was positively associated with serum Ba(r=0.691, P<0.001). Membrane intensity of CD(55) on neutrophils was positively correlated with patient age (r=0.514, P=0.001), C reactive protein (r=0.376, P=0.018), peripheral neutrophils count (r=0.485, P=0.001) and BVAS-V3 (r=0.484, P=0.002), whereas negative correlation between membrane CD(55) and disease duration was seen (r=-0.403, P=0.01). (3) The result of multiple linear regression analysis

  11. Demonstrating the cost effectiveness of an expert occupational and environmental health nurse: application of AAOHN's success tools. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J A; Smith, P S

    2001-12-01

    According to DiBenedetto, "Occupational health nurses enhance and maximize the health, safety, and productivity of the domestic and global work force" (1999b). This project clearly defined the multiple roles and activities provided by an occupational and environmental health nurse and assistant, supported by a part time contract occupational health nurse. A well defined estimate of the personnel costs for each of these roles is helpful both in demonstrating current value and in future strategic planning for this department. The model highlighted both successes and a business cost savings opportunity for integrated disability management. The AAOHN's Success Tools (1998) were invaluable in launching the development of this cost effectiveness model. The three methods were selected from several tools of varying complexities offered. Collecting available data to develop these metrics required internal consultation with finance, human resources, and risk management, as well as communication with external health, safety, and environmental providers in the community. Benchmarks, surveys, and performance indicators can be found readily in the literature and online. The primary motivation for occupational and environmental health nurses to develop cost effectiveness analyses is to demonstrate the value and worth of their programs and services. However, it can be equally important to identify which services are not cost effective so knowledge and skills may be used in ways that continue to provide value to employers (AAOHN, 1996). As evidence based health care challenges the occupational health community to demonstrate business rationale and financial return on investment, occupational and environmental health nurses must meet that challenge if they are to define their preferred future (DiBenedetto, 2000).

  12. A significant association between rs8067378 at 17q12 and invasive cervical cancer originally identified by a genome-wide association study in Han Chinese is replicated in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kiyonori; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Yasunami, Michio; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Kitajima, Michio; Abe, Shuhei; Higashijima, Ai; Fuchi, Naoki; Miura, Shoko; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    In this study, associations between invasive cervical cancer and four cervical cancer susceptibility loci (rs13117307 at 4q12, rs8067378 at 17q12, and rs4282438 and rs9277952 at 6p21.32) in the Han Chinese population were investigated in a Japanese population. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPB1 alleles were also investigated for their association with cervical cancer risk in the Japanese population. After receiving written informed consent, 214 unrelated Japanese women with invasive cervical cancer and 288 cancer-free Japanese women were recruited, and DNA samples were obtained (study protocol approved by Institutional Review Board of Nagasaki University). Of the four single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs8067378 showed a significant association with invasive cervical cancer (P=0.0071). Under a recessive model, the minor allele G of rs8067378 contributed to the risk of invasive cervical cancer (odds ratio=2.92, 95% confidence interval=1.40-6.36; P=0.0021). No association was detected between HLA-DPB1 alleles and cervical cancer risk in the Japanese population. In conclusion, we show for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that an association between increased risk of invasive cervical cancer and rs8067378 in the Han Chinese population is replicated in a Japanese population. In addition, Japanese women with the GG genotype of rs8067378 are a candidate high-risk group for invasive cervical carcinoma.

  13. Predictive significance of kidney myeloid-related protein 8 expression in patients with obesity- or type 2 diabetes-associated kidney diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashige Kuwabara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We have reported that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and one of its endogenous ligands, myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP8 or S100A8, play an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy in mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate significance of kidney MRP8 expression in patients with obesity- or type 2 diabetes-associated kidney diseases. METHODS: In diabetic, obese or control subjects, MRP8 mRNA and protein expression levels in renal biopsy samples were determined by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (n = 28 and 65, respectively, and their associations with baseline and prognostic parameters were analyzed. Effects of MRP8 upon pro-inflammatory gene expressions were examined using macrophages. RESULTS: Kidney MRP8 gene and protein expression levels were elevated in obese or diabetic groups compared to control group. Among all subjects, by univariate linear regression analysis, glomerular MRP8-positive cell count and tubulointerstitial MRP8-positive area at baseline were both, respectively, correlated not only with various known risk factors for diabetic nephropathy (such as systolic blood pressure, proteinuria and serum creatinine but also with extent of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Independent factors predicting urinary protein levels a year later were examined by multivariate analysis, and they included glomerular MRP8-positive cell count (β = 0.59, P<0.001, proteinuria (β = 0.37, P = 0.002 and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.21, P = 0.04 at baseline, after adjustment for known risk factors. MRP8 protein expression was observed in CD68-positive macrophages and atrophic tubules. In cultured mouse macrophages, MRP8 protein induced proinflammatory cytokine expressions and also triggered auto-induction of MRP8 in a TLR4-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: Glomerular MRP8 expression appears to be associated with progression of proteinuria in obese or type 2

  14. Secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is frequently associated with high response rate and superior survival in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dehui; An, Gang; Zhu, Guoqing; Wang, Jinhong; Shi, Lihui; Meng, Hengxing; Xu, Yan; Sui, Weiwei; Deng, Shuhui; Zhan, Fenghuang; Qiu, Lugui

    2014-03-01

    Secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a special phenomenon that occurs during the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). The incidence, biological characteristics, and prognostic value of secondary MGUS in patients with MM remain undefined. We proceed with a retrospective systematic review of serum immunofixation electrophoresis studies performed in 438 cases of patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, including 409 cases of newly diagnosed MM and 29 cases of primary plasma cell leukemia. Secondary MGUS was more common in patients with myeloma who had undergone stem cell transplantation than in those who had not (17 [29.8%] of 57 versus 5 [1.4%] of 352, P < .001). The clinical parameters and cytogenetic characteristics in patients with or without secondary MGUS were comparable. The complete response rates in patients with or without secondary MGUS were 81.8% and 21.8% respectively (P < .01). For the cohort as a whole, secondary MGUS was associated with significantly prolonged progression-free survival (median, 52.0 months versus 22.5 months; P = .002) and overall survival (median, not reached versus 35.0 months; P < .001). The presence of secondary MGUS retained independent prognostic value with a moderate impact on overall survival (hazard ratio .128 [95% confidence interval .018 to .922]; P = .041) in the multivariate Cox regression model. However, when analysis was restricted to patients undergoing stem cell transplantation, no statistical differences in progression-free survival and overall survival were found. In conclusion, we observe that secondary MGUS was frequently observed in MM patients after transplantation and conferred a survival prolongation. The favorable survival in patients with secondary MGUS may be explained by beneficial effect from myeloablative therapy. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  15. Global transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood identifies the most significantly down-regulated genes associated with metabolism regulation in Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Deng, Hua; Chang, Liang; Liu, Qinli; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine differences in gene expression patterns between KS patients and control individuals to help identify disease-related genes and biological pathways. Gene expression profiles of five KS patients and five healthy men were determined by microarray; 21 differentially expressed genes with a fold-change >1.5 and q-value <0.05 were identified between the groups. Genes associated with metabolism regulation and encoding liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1), and vitronectin (VTN) were the most-significantly down-regulated in KS, as confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Notably, none of these differentially expressed genes are normally found on the X chromosome. Thus, our results indicate that aberrant metabolism is involved in the pathogenesis of KS. Further elucidation of the how aberrant expression of metabolism-related genes affect the pathogenesis of KS may lead to the development of novel preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  16. Quantum mechanically based estimation of perturbed-chain polar statistical associating fluid theory parameters for analyzing their physical significance and predicting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhu, Nguyen Van; Singh, Mahendra; Leonhard, Kai

    2008-05-08

    We have computed molecular descriptors for sizes, shapes, charge distributions, and dispersion interactions for 67 compounds using quantum chemical ab initio and density functional theory methods. For the same compounds, we have fitted the three perturbed-chain polar statistical associating fluid theory (PCP-SAFT) equation of state (EOS) parameters to experimental data and have performed a statistical analysis for relations between the descriptors and the EOS parameters. On this basis, an analysis of the physical significance of the parameters, the limits of the present descriptors, and the PCP-SAFT EOS has been performed. The result is a method that can be used to estimate the vapor pressure curve including the normal boiling point, the liquid volume, the enthalpy of vaporization, the critical data, mixture properties, and so on. When only two of the three parameters are predicted and one is adjusted to experimental normal boiling point data, excellent predictions of all investigated pure compound and mixture properties are obtained. We are convinced that the methodology presented in this work will lead to new EOS applications as well as improved EOS models whose predictive performance is likely to surpass that of most present quantum chemically based, quantitative structure-property relationship, and group contribution methods for a broad range of chemical substances.

  17. Demonstration of the Enhanced Disinfection of E. coli Water Con¬tamination by Associated Solar Irradiation with Potassium Per¬sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader GHANIZADEH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Tremendous amount of researches have investigated the issue of water photodisnfection. The aim of this research is to illustrate the influences of bacterial density, turbidity, exposure time and potassium persulfate (KPS dosage on the efficacy of associated solar disinfection (SODIS with KPS for E. coli (ATCC: 25922 eradication as an efficient and inexpensive process.Methods: Desired bacterial density and turbidity was achieved by spiking of 0.5 Mc Farland (1.5×108 cell/ml and sterile soil slurry in 1 liter of the commercially bottled water.Results: The highest value of UVA solar irradiation measured at 13.30 p.m was 5510 µW/Cm2. Increase of bacterial density from 1000 to 1500 cell/ml led to an increase in disinfection lapse time, except in 2 mMol/l KPS. Spiking of 0.1 mMol/l of KPS was not effective; however, increase of KPS dosage from 0.1 mMol/l to 0.7, 1.5 and 2 mMol/l led to the enhancement of disinfection time from 4 h to 3 h and 1 h, respectively. For bacterial density of 1000 cell/ml, increasing KPS dosage up to 0.7 mMol/l had no improved effect; however, beyond this dosage the disinfection time decreased to 1 h. Without KPS and up to 150 NTU within 4 h exposure time, E. coli disinfection was completed. In 2 mMol/l KPS and 1000 and 1500 cell/ml, the 2 h contact time was sufficient up to 150 and 100 NTU, respectively; moreover, complete disinfection was not achieved at higher turbidity.Conclusion: Association of KPS with SODIS can lead to decreasing of water disinfection time. Keywords: Disinfection, Solar irradiation, Potassium persulfate, Water, E. coli

  18. Expression and significance of fat mass and obesity associated gene and forkhead transcription factor O1 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jielei; Li Shan; Li Jingyi; Han Chao; Wang Zhifang; Li Chong; Wang Xiaoman

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex disorder and has been closely linked to obesity.The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is a newly discovered gene related to obesity,which enhances oxidative stress and tipogenesis in NAFLD.The forkhead transcription factor O1 (FoxO1) is another important gene involved in NAFLD,which causes lipid disorders when insulin resistance appears in the liver.However,the interactions between FTO and FoxO1 during the pathogenesis of NAFLD have not been fully elucidated.This study was designed to identify the relationship between these two factors that are involved in the development of NAFLD.Methods This study includes two parts referred to as animal and cell experiments.Twelve female SPF C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to serve as an NAFLD animal model.Aspartate aminotransferase (AST),alanine aminotransferase (ALT),total triglyceride (TG),total cholesterol (TC),alkaline phosphatase (ALP),high-density lipoprotein (HDL),and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured.Immunohistochemical analysis was used to detect the expression and histological localization of FTO,FoxO1,and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK).The L02 cells were exposed to high fat for 24,48,or 72 hours.Oil red O staining was used to detect intracellular lipid droplets.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used for analyzing the levels of FTO and FoxO1 mRNA.Results At the end of 10 weeks,ALP,ALT,AST,and LDL were significantly increased (P <0.01),while TC and TG were also significantly higher (P <0.05).In addition,HDL was significantly decreased (P <0.05).The FTO and FoxO1 proteins were weakly expressed in the control group,but both FTO and FoxO1 were expressed significantly higher (P <0.01) in the experimental group,and the expression of the two factors was significantly correlated.AMPK in the high-fat group showed a low level of correlation with FTO,but not with FoxO1.Oil Red O

  19. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  20. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and semaphorin4D genes involved with tumor-associated macrophage-induced metastatic behavior and clinical significance in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Linjun; Wang, Jinshen; Chen, Yuezhi; Li, Leping; Guo, Xiaobo; Zheng, Sheng; Jing, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes tumor angiogenesis and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) plays a pivotal role in this process. Recently identified pro-angiogenic factor, semaphorin4D (Sema4D) also promotes angiogenesis and enhances invasive proliferation in some tumors. Furthermore, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can increase the expression of HIF-1α and Sema4D in cancer cells and thus influence tumor growth and progression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of TAMs on the expression of Sema4D and HIF-1α and the impact of biologic behavior in colon cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze HIF-1α and Sema4D expression in 86 curatively resected colon cancer samples and 52 normal colon tissues samples. The relationship between their expression and clinicopathological factors was analyzed. Furthermore, macrophage-tumor cell interactions, such as metastasis, angiogenesis, were also studied using in vitro co-culture systems. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software (SPSS Inc., USA). Differences between two groups were analyzed with Student's t test. HIF-1α (58%) and Sema4D (60%) were expressed at a significantly higher level in tumors than in normal tissues (P TNM stages (P 0.05). Sema4D expression was correlated with that of HIF-1α (r = 0.567, P colon cancer cells and subsequently increased their migration and invasion. HIF-1α and Sema4D expression are closely related to lymphatic metastasis, specific histological types and TNM stages in colon cancer. Furthermore, TAMs promote migration and invasion of colon cancer cells and endothelial tube formation, possibly through up-regulation of HIF-1α and Sema4D.

  1. Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is significantly associated with linezolid resistance in multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijian; Pang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Liu, Changting; Zhao, Yanlin

    2014-03-01

    Linezolid (LNZ) is a promising antimicrobial agent for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB). To investigate the efficacy of LNZ among MDR-TB and XDR-TB in China, the LNZ susceptibility of 158 MDR-TB isolates from the national drug resistance survey was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration method. The 158 MDR-TB isolates were also sequenced in the 23S rRNA, rplC and rplD genes conferring LNZ resistance and were typed using spoligotyping to identify the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall, the prevalence of LNZ-resistant isolates was 10.8% (17/158) among MDR-TB isolates circulating in China. Beijing genotype was significantly associated with LNZ resistance in MDR-TB and XDR-TB (odds ratio=4.66, 95% confidence interval 1.03-21.16; P=0.033). In addition, a higher frequency of LNZ-resistant isolates was observed among XDR-TB strains (60%) compared with the MDR (5.6%; PMutations in 23S rRNA and rplC were responsible for only 29.4% of LNZ-resistant M. tuberculosis among MDR-TB isolates, and a novel non-synonymous substitution His155Asp in rplC was first identified to be contributing to low-level LNZ resistance (2μg/mL) in M. tuberculosis. The unsatisfactory correlation between mutant genotypes highlights the urgent need to investigate another mechanism for LNZ resistance that has not yet been described.

  2. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  3. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  4. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  5. Healthy sheep that differ in scrapie associated PRNP genotypes exhibit significant differences of expression pattern associated with immune response and cell-to-cell signalling in retropharyngeal lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolka, Katrin; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Schwerin, Manfred

    2013-04-15

    The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis whether prion protein gene (PRNP) associated scrapie susceptibility is connected with physiological changes in tissue involved in pathogen uptake, migration and propagation. Jejunum, ileal Peyer's patches, retropharyngeal lymph nodes, brain stem and liver of healthy and non scrapie-infected sheep with PRNP genotypes representing the scrapie risk class R1 (scrapie-resistant) and R5 (scrapie-susceptible), respectively, were comparatively analysed by microarray technology and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT qPCR). Significantly higher expression levels of genes involved in immune response and cell communication pathways in retropharyngeal lymph nodes of R1 sheep in comparison with R5 animals strongly suggest PRNP associated physiological processes with impact as an early barrier in pathogen defence. Equal expression patterns in brain stem suggest no physiological differences in brain of healthy R1 and R5 animals. In addition, similar expression pattern in liver indicates that there are no transcriptional differences in genes of the hepatic energy metabolism between animals of scrapie classes R1 and R5.

  6. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows a significant association between the ATM rs1801516 SNP and toxicity after radiotherapy in 5456 breast and prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Rosenstein, Barry S; Kerns, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several small studies have indicated that the ATM rs1801516 SNP is associated with risk of normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy. However, the findings have not been consistent. In order to test this SNP in a well-powered study, an individual patient data meta-analysis was carried ou...

  7. PolySearch2: a significantly improved text-mining system for discovering associations between human diseases, genes, drugs, metabolites, toxins and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifeng; Liang, Yongjie; Wishart, David

    2015-07-01

    PolySearch2 (http://polysearch.ca) is an online text-mining system for identifying relationships between biomedical entities such as human diseases, genes, SNPs, proteins, drugs, metabolites, toxins, metabolic pathways, organs, tissues, subcellular organelles, positive health effects, negative health effects, drug actions, Gene Ontology terms, MeSH terms, ICD-10 medical codes, biological taxonomies and chemical taxonomies. PolySearch2 supports a generalized 'Given X, find all associated Ys' query, where X and Y can be selected from the aforementioned biomedical entities. An example query might be: 'Find all diseases associated with Bisphenol A'. To find its answers, PolySearch2 searches for associations against comprehensive collections of free-text collections, including local versions of MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, Wikipedia full-text articles and US Patent application abstracts. PolySearch2 also searches 14 widely used, text-rich biological databases such as UniProt, DrugBank and Human Metabolome Database to improve its accuracy and coverage. PolySearch2 maintains an extensive thesaurus of biological terms and exploits the latest search engine technology to rapidly retrieve relevant articles and databases records. PolySearch2 also generates, ranks and annotates associative candidates and present results with relevancy statistics and highlighted key sentences to facilitate user interpretation.

  8. Temporal course of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in angioplasty-treated ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients and potential significance of concomitant heparin administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Christian J; Oxvig, Claus; Nørgaard, Bjarne L

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a putative plaque instability marker. In acute coronary syndromes, the disrupted culprit plaque contains abundant PAPP-A, and circulating PAPP-A levels predict clinical outcomes. Determinants of circulating PAPP-A levels, however, are not fully...

  9. Genome-wide meta-analysis for serum calcium identifies significantly associated SNPs near the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kapur

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has a pivotal role in biological functions, and serum calcium levels have been associated with numerous disorders of bone and mineral metabolism, as well as with cardiovascular mortality. Here we report results from a genome-wide association study of serum calcium, integrating data from four independent cohorts including a total of 12,865 individuals of European and Indian Asian descent. Our meta-analysis shows that serum calcium is associated with SNPs in or near the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR gene on 3q13. The top hit with a p-value of 6.3 x 10(-37 is rs1801725, a missense variant, explaining 1.26% of the variance in serum calcium. This SNP had the strongest association in individuals of European descent, while for individuals of Indian Asian descent the top hit was rs17251221 (p = 1.1 x 10(-21, a SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs1801725. The strongest locus in CASR was shown to replicate in an independent Icelandic cohort of 4,126 individuals (p = 1.02 x 10(-4. This genome-wide meta-analysis shows that common CASR variants modulate serum calcium levels in the adult general population, which confirms previous results in some candidate gene studies of the CASR locus. This study highlights the key role of CASR in calcium regulation.

  10. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  11. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  12. The POSEIDON Demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P.J.L.J. van de

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the Poseidon demonstrator: a demonstrator that integrates the individual research results of all partners of the Poseidon project. After describing how the Poseidon demonstrator was built, deployed, and operated, we will not only show many results obtained from the demons

  13. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  14. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  15. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  16. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  17. Development of Assays for Detecting Significant Prostate Cancer Based on Molecular Alterations Associated with Cancer in Non-Neoplastic Prostate Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    surgery or radiation therapy . In contrast, men with more poorly differentiated tumors (GS7 and higher) have a significantly increased risk of...of that, many of the 800,000 patients with a negative biopsy undergo repeat biopsies which can be frustrating for both patients and urologists. When a

  18. Upregulation of Dicer is more frequent in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance than in multiple myeloma patients and is associated with longer survival in symptomatic myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasquete, María E; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Paiva, Bruno; Chillón, María C; Alcoceba, Miguel; García-Sanz, Ramón; Hernández, Jesús M; González, Marcos; San-Miguel, Jesús F

    2011-03-01

    Dicer and Drosha are key enzymes in the miRNA-processing pathway which is altered in many human cancers. We analyzed Dicer and Drosha expression levels by quantitative PCR in 151 patients with monoclonal gammopathies: 102 symptomatic myeloma patients, 23 smoldering myelomas and 26 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We found that Dicer expression values were significantly higher in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance than in smoldering myelomas and symptomatic myeloma (mean ± SD, 0.84 ± 0.36 vs. 0.60 ± 0.23 and 0.62 ± 0.51; P<0.01). Moreover, the median progression-free survival was significantly longer in symptomatic myeloma patients with high expression of Dicer (not reached vs. 23.6 months; P=0.02). By contrast, no differences in the expression of Drosha among these groups of patients were observed. Our data suggest that Dicer expression may play an important role in the progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathies.

  19. Copy number variation in sulfotransferase isoform 1A1 (SULT1A1 is significantly associated with enzymatic activity in Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu X

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Xinfeng Yu,1 Takahiro Kubota,2 Ishwori Dhakal,1 Setsuo Hasegawa,3 Suzanne Williams,1 Shogo Ozawa,4 Susan Kadlubar11Division of Medical Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA; 2Chiba Institute of Science, Chiba, Japan; 3Sekino Clinical Pharmacology Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 4Iwate Medical University, Iwate, JapanAbstract: Sulfotransferase isoform 1A1 (SULT1A1 plays a key role in the metabolism of a variety of endo- and xenobiotics and it's activity could influence response to drugs. Our previous studies have focused on the impact of genetic variants of SULT1A1 on enzymatic activity in Caucasians and African-Americans. However, the contribution of genetic variants to SULT1A1 activity in Asians has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the collective effects of both SULT1A1 copy number variants (CNVs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the promoter region, coding region, and 3´ untranslated region on SULT1A1 activity in Japanese subjects. SNPs in the SULT1A1 promoter and 3´ untranslated region were not associated with SULT1A1 activity (P > 0.05. SULT1A1*1/2 (Arg213His was marginally associated with SULT1A1 activity (P = 0.037. However, SULT1A1 CNVs were strongly associated with SULT1A1 activity (trend test P = 0.008 and accounted for 10% of the observed variability in activity for Japanese subjects. In conclusion, SULT1A1 CNVs play a pivotal role in determination of SULT1A1 activity in Japanese subjects, highlighting the influence of ethnic differences in SULT1A1 genetic variants on drug metabolism and therapeutic efficacy.Keywords: CNV, genotype, phenotype, SULT1A1, single nucleotide polymorphisms

  20. Identification of a member of the catalase multigene family on wheat chromosome 7A associated with flour b* colour and biological significance of allelic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dora A; Walker, Esther; Francki, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    Carotenoids (especially lutein) are known to be the pigment source for flour b* colour in bread wheat. Flour b* colour variation is controlled by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on wheat chromosome 7AL and one gene from the carotenoid pathway, phytoene synthase, was functionally associated with the QTL on 7AL in some, but not all, wheat genotypes. A SNP marker within a sequence similar to catalase (Cat3-A1snp) derived from full-length (FL) cDNA (AK332460), however, was consistently associated with the QTL on 7AL and implicated in regulating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to control carotenoid accumulation affecting flour b* colour. The number of catalase genes on chromosome 7AL was investigated in this study to identify which gene may be implicated in flour b* variation and two were identified through interrogation of the draft wheat genome survey sequence consisting of five exons and a further two members having eight exons identified through comparative analysis with the single catalase gene on rice chromosome 6, PCR amplification and sequencing. It was evident that the catalase genes on chromosome 7A had duplicated and diverged during evolution relative to its counterpart on rice chromosome 6. The detection of transcripts in seeds, the co-location with Cat3-A1snp marker and maximised alignment of FL-cDNA (AK332460) with cognate genomic sequence indicated that TaCat3-A1 was the member of the catalase gene family associated with flour b* colour variation. Re-sequencing identified three alleles from three wheat varieties, TaCat3-A1a, TaCat3-A1b and TaCat3-A1c, and their predicted protein identified differences in peroxisomal targeting signal tri-peptide domain in the carboxyl terminal end providing new insights into their potential role in regulating cellular H2O2 that contribute to flour b* colour variation.

  1. Clinical significance of overexpression of metastasis-associated gene MTA1 in cervical cancer and bioinformatic analysis of genes coordinately expressed with MTA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ying FAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the clinical significance of MTA1 overexpression in cervical cancer and bioinformatically screen the potential treatment targets from the gene network correlated with MTA1 overexpression. Methods  SPSS software package was used to analyze the correlation of MTA1 with clinical metastasis and pathological grade of cervical cancer based on TCGA-CESC data set. The edgeR software was used to screen the gene set whose expression was correlated with MTA1 in cervical cancer at a global transcriptional level. DAVID platform was adopted to identify the enriched biological functions of the gene set significantly correlated with MTA1 expression. The transcriptional regulation network of the gene set was constructed with STRING online platform and Cytospace softwares to identify the key regulators. Results  TCGA-CESC database assay showed a significant positive correlation of MTA1 expression with clinical metastasis of cervical cancer (P<0.01. There was a gene set in which gene expression was closely correlated with MTA1 level. Functional enrichment of the gene set indicated that cancer pathways, stem cell pathways, cell migration, cell differentiation, etc. were closely linked to MTA1-correlated malignant behaviors of cancers. Bioinformatical screening showed that Agt, Acta1, Fpr2, Pmch and RGS18, which are correlated with MTA1 expression in cervical cancer, were the key regulators in differentially expressed gene sets. And these genes were located to the GPCR pathway. Conclusions  MTA1 overexpression is significantly correlated with clinical metastasis of cervical cancer and paralleled with the activation of gene regulation involved in stem cell pathway, cytokine receptor signaling, cell migration and differentiation pathways. These genes are correlated with MTA1 expression and potential treatment targets in cervical cancer and should be further experimentally evaluated in the future. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.05.03

  2. The XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism is significantly associated with lung adenocarcinoma: a case-control study in an Eastern European Caucasian group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătană A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Andreea Cătană,1 Monica Pop,2 Bianca Domokos Hincu,2 Ioan V Pop,1 Felicia M Petrişor,1 Mihai D Porojan,3 Radu A Popp1 1Department of Molecular Sciences, 2Department of Pneumology, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Abstract: DNA repair plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the genome by repairing DNA damage induced by carcinogens. Certain genetic polymorphisms that occur in DNA-repair genes may affect the ability to repair DNA defects, and may represent a risk factor in carcinogenesis. The gene XRCC1 is involved in DNA repair. The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms and the risk of lung cancer in a Romanian population. We recruited 222 healthy controls and 102 patients with lung cancer. Genotypes were determined by multiplex polymerase chain-reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism. Statistical analysis (odds ratio, recessive model revealed an increased risk for lung cancer for the homozygous 194Trp genotype (χ2=0.186, odds ratio 10.667, 95% confidence interval 1.309–86.933; P=0.007. Also, we found an association between the 194Trp allele and women with lung adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, the results of the study place the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism among independent risk factors for developing lung cancer. Keywords: lung cancer, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln

  3. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC, which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  4. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  5. Rapid Gene Turnover as a Significant Source of Genetic Variation in a Recently Seeded Population of a Healthcare-Associated Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Graña-Miraglia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing has been useful to gain an understanding of bacterial evolution. It has been used for studying the phylogeography and/or the impact of mutation and recombination on bacterial populations. However, it has rarely been used to study gene turnover at microevolutionary scales. Here, we sequenced Mexican strains of the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii sampled from the same locale over a 3 year period to obtain insights into the microevolutionary dynamics of gene content variability. We found that the Mexican A. baumannii population was recently founded and has been emerging due to a rapid clonal expansion. Furthermore, we noticed that on average the Mexican strains differed from each other by over 300 genes and, notably, this gene content variation has accrued more frequently and faster than the accumulation of mutations. Moreover, due to its rapid pace, gene content variation reflects the phylogeny only at very short periods of time. Additionally, we found that the external branches of the phylogeny had almost 100 more genes than the internal branches. All in all, these results show that rapid gene turnover has been of paramount importance in producing genetic variation within this population and demonstrate the utility of genome sequencing to study alternative forms of genetic variation.

  6. Temporal Variability of Zooplankton (2000-2013) in the Levantine Sea: Significant Changes Associated to the 2005-2010 EMT-like Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouba, Anthony; Abboud-Abi Saab, Marie; Stemmann, Lars

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated, for the first time, the potential impact of environmental changes on zooplankton abundance over a fourteen year period (2000-2013) at an offshore station in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (the Levantine basin, offshore Lebanon). Samples were collected monthly and analyzed using the semi-automated system ZooScan. Salinity, temperature and phytoplankton abundance (nano and microphytoplankton) were also measured. Results show no significant temporal trend in sea surface temperature over the years. Between 2005-2010, salinity in the upper layer (0-80 m) of the Levantine basin increased (~0.3°C). During this 5 year period, total zooplankton abundance significantly increased. These modifications were concomitant to the activation of Aegean Sea as a source of dense water formation as part of the "Eastern Mediterranean Transient-like" event. The results of the present study suggested that zooplankton benefited from enhanced phytoplankton production during the mixing years of the event. Changes in the phenology of some taxa were observed accordingly with a predominantly advanced peak of zooplankton abundance. In conclusion, long-term changes in zooplankton abundance were related to the Levantine thermohaline circulation rather than sea surface warming. Sampling must be maintained to assess the impact of long-term climate change on zooplankton communities.

  7. Temporal Variability of Zooplankton (2000-2013 in the Levantine Sea: Significant Changes Associated to the 2005-2010 EMT-like Event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ouba

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated, for the first time, the potential impact of environmental changes on zooplankton abundance over a fourteen year period (2000-2013 at an offshore station in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (the Levantine basin, offshore Lebanon. Samples were collected monthly and analyzed using the semi-automated system ZooScan. Salinity, temperature and phytoplankton abundance (nano and microphytoplankton were also measured. Results show no significant temporal trend in sea surface temperature over the years. Between 2005-2010, salinity in the upper layer (0-80 m of the Levantine basin increased (~0.3°C. During this 5 year period, total zooplankton abundance significantly increased. These modifications were concomitant to the activation of Aegean Sea as a source of dense water formation as part of the "Eastern Mediterranean Transient-like" event. The results of the present study suggested that zooplankton benefited from enhanced phytoplankton production during the mixing years of the event. Changes in the phenology of some taxa were observed accordingly with a predominantly advanced peak of zooplankton abundance. In conclusion, long-term changes in zooplankton abundance were related to the Levantine thermohaline circulation rather than sea surface warming. Sampling must be maintained to assess the impact of long-term climate change on zooplankton communities.

  8. Metallogenetic systems associated with granitoid magmatism in the Amazonian Craton: An overview of the present level of understanding and exploration significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Jorge Silva; Juliani, Caetano; Xavier, Roberto P.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Bastos Neto, Artur C.; Klein, Evandro L.; Assis, Rafael R.; Leite, Washington Barbosa, Jr.; Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Fernandes, Carlos Marcello Dias; Pereira, Vitor Paulo

    2016-07-01

    The Amazonian Craton hosts world-class metallogenic provinces with a wide range of styles of primary precious, rare, base metal, and placer deposits. This paper provides a synthesis of the geological database with regard to granitoid magmatic suites, spatio temporal distribution, tectonic settings, and the nature of selected mineral deposits. The Archean Carajás Mineral Province comprises greenstone belts (3.04-2.97 Ga), metavolcanic-sedimentary units (2.76-2.74 Ga), granitoids (3.07-2.84 Ga) formed in a magmatic arc and syn-collisional setting, post-orogenic A2-type granites as well as gabbros (ca. 2.74 Ga), and anorogenic granites (1.88 Ga). Archean iron oxide-Cu-Au (IOCG) deposits were synchronous or later than bimodal magmatism (2.74-2.70 Ga). Paleoproterozoic IOCG deposits, emplaced at shallow-crustal levels, are enriched with Nb-Y-Sn-Be-U. The latter, as well as Sn-W and Au-EGP deposits are coeval with ca. 1.88 Ga A2-type granites. The Tapajós Mineral Province includes a low-grade meta-volcano-sedimentary sequence (2.01 Ga), tonalites to granites (2.0-1.87 Ga), two calc-alkaline volcanic sequences (2.0-1.95 Ga to 1.89-1.87 Ga) and A-type rhyolites and granites (1.88 Ga). The calc-alkaline volcanic rocks host epithermal Au and base metal mineralization, whereas Cu-Au and Cu-Mo ± Au porphyry-type mineralization is associated with sub-volcanic felsic rocks, formed in two continental magmatic arcs related to an accretionary event, resulting from an Andean-type northwards subduction. The Alta Floresta Gold Province consists of Paleoproterozoic plutono-volcanic sequences (1.98-1.75 Ga), generated in ocean-ocean orogenies. Disseminated and vein-type Au ± Cu and Au + base metal deposits are hosted by calc-alkaline I-type granitic intrusions (1.98 Ga, 1.90 Ga, and 1.87 Ga) and quartz-feldspar porphyries (ca. 1.77 Ga). Timing of the gold deposits has been constrained between 1.78 Ga and 1.77 Ga and linked to post-collisional Juruena arc felsic magmatism (e.g., Col

  9. Clinical significance of telomerase and its associate genes expression in the maintenance of telomere length in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-Ping Hsu; Li-Wen Lee; Sen-Ei Shai; Chih-Yi Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the interaction between the expression of telomerase activity (TA) and its associate genes in regulation of the terminal restriction fragment length(TRFL) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).METHODS: Seventy-four specimens of esophageal SCC were examined. The TA was measured by telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay, and the associated genes [human telomerase-specific reverse transcriptase (hTERT), hTERC, TP1, c-Myc, TRF1,and TRF2] were detected using RT-PCR method. The TRFL was measured by Telomere Length Assay Kit and Southern blotting. The correlations between the expression of telomerase and its associated genes with the TRFL and survivals were examined.RESULTS: Expressions of the TA, hTERT, hTERC, TP1,c-Myc, TRF1, and TRF2 genes were observed in 85.1%,64.9%, 79.7%, 100.0%, 94.6%, 82.4%, and 91.9% of the tumor tissues, respectively. The TRFL of the tumor and normal esophageal tissues were 2.70±1.42 and 4.93±1.74 kb, respectively (P<0.0001). The TRFL of the telomerase positive and telomerase negative tumor tissues were 2.72±1.44 and 2.58±1.32 kb, respectively (P = 0.767).The TRFL ratios (TRFLR) of the telomerase positive and telomerase negative tumor tissues were 0.55±0.22 and 0.59±0.41, respectively (P = 0.742). The expression rates of h-TERT (P = 0.0002), hTERC (P<0.0001), and TRF1(P = 0.002) in the tumor tissues are higher than those of the normal paired tissues. Though TA is markedly activated in tumor tissues (P<0.0001), its expression is not related to clinicopathological parameters including gender, tumor differentiation, and TNM stages. The cumulative 4-year survival rates of telomerase positive and telomerase negative cases were 35.86% and 31.2%,respectively (P = 0.8442). The cumulative 4-year survival rates of patients with their TRFLR ≤85% and >85%were 38.7% and 15.7%, respectively (P = 0.1307).CONCLUSION: Though telomerase expression is not related to tumor stages and prognosis, our data support

  10. Toy Demonstrator's "VISIT" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The role of the toy demonstrator in a home-based, mother-involved intervention effort (Verbal Interaction Project) is presented in this handbook for staff members. It is believed that the prerequisites for functioning in the toy demonstrator's role are a sense of responsibility, patience with the children and their mothers, and willingness to be…

  11. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  12. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  13. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  14. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  15. Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

  16. Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

  17. The clinical significance of HRCT in evaluation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease: a report from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Qiong; Li, Ya-Song; Ding, Xiao-Nan; Ying, Zhen-Hua

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the interstitial lung disease (ILD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients of China, and to study clinical significance of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in evaluation and treatment. One hundred and ten Chinese patients (79 women and 31 man) diagnosed with RA between December 2008 to November 2009 were analyzed. According to the HRCT, 47 (42.73%) RA patients were diagnosed as ILD. Old age, smoking and pulmonary rales were closely related to ILD (P pulmonary nodules (11.82%), emphysema (9.09%), bronchiectasis (3.64%), subpleural nodules (11.82%) and pleural thickening (24.55%). In treatment, honeycombing and subpleural nodules were more common in patients with methotrexate (MTX) and/or leflunomide treatment than without (P 0.05). Pulmonary involvement is common in RA patients, and it is suggested that HRCT could be a sensitive and useful way in evaluating the lung of RA patients.

  18. The discovery and significance of the northeastern Jiangxi Province ophiolite (NEJXO), its metamorphic peridotite and associated high temperature-high pressure metamorphic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoqing, Zhou

    The NEJXO with a N.E.-S.W. elongation occurs in the mid-Lower Qigong Group, under which lies the Jiuling Group (1401 Ma) and above which lies the Shangshu Group (817 ± 87 Ma), so that the age of NEJXO is defined to be Proterozoic between 1401 Ma and 817 ± 87 Ma. The sediments of the Jiuling Group show evidence of continental derivation, but the Qigong Group and Shangshu Group are characterised by CA volcanic rocks and probably represent a gradually growing island-arc. Thus, we regard the NEJXO as occurring in a back-island-arc basin between the ancient continent and the island-arc. On the whole, the main members of dismembered ophiolite are all present. The metamorphic periodotite present in them, is considered to be especially important, because it may be the sole representative of the older mantle present and it differs from those younger. The high-T metamorphic rocks associated with the NEJXO are various hornstones and melilite marble, whereas the high-P metamorphic rocks are aragonite-jadeite-glaucophane schist and schistose lawsonite marble. From the fact that high-P metamorphism was superimposed on the high-T metamorphic rocks, it may be suggested that early tension (at opening stage) and late compression (at closing stage) occurred during the development of the basin.

  19. Role of the HSP90-associated cochaperone p23 in enhancing activity of the androgen receptor and significance for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reebye, Vikash; Querol Cano, Laia; Lavery, Derek N; Brooke, Greg N; Powell, Sue M; Chotai, Deepa; Walker, Marjorie M; Whitaker, Hayley C; Wait, Robin; Hurst, Helen C; Bevan, Charlotte L

    2012-10-01

    Prostate tumor growth initially depends on androgens, which act via the androgen receptor (AR). Despite androgen ablation therapy, tumors eventually progress to a castrate-resistant stage in which the AR remains active. The mechanisms are poorly understood but it may be that changes in levels or activity of AR coregulators affect trafficking and activation of the receptor. A key stage in AR signaling occurs in the cytoplasm, where unliganded receptor is associated with the heat shock protein (HSP)90 foldosome complex. p23, a key component of this complex, is best characterized as a cochaperone for HSP90 but also has HSP90-independent activity and has been reported as having differential effects on the activity of different steroid receptors. Here we report that p23 increases activity of the AR, and this appears to involve steps both in the cytoplasm (increasing ligand-binding capacity, possibly via direct interaction with AR) and the nucleus (enhancing AR occupancy at target promoters). We show, for the first time, that AR and p23 can interact, perhaps directly, when HSP90 is not present in the same complex. The effects of p23 on AR activity are at least partly HSP90 independent because a mutant form of p23, unable to bind HSP90, nevertheless increases AR activity. In human prostate tumors, nuclear p23 was higher in malignant prostate cells compared with benign/normal cells, supporting the utility of p23 as a therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

  20. SECURES: Austin, Texas demonstration results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Glynn; Shaw, Scott; Scharf, Peter; Stellingworth, Bob

    2003-09-01

    The Law Enforcement technology development community has a growing interest in the technologies associated with gunshot detection and localization. These interests revolve around community-oriented policing. Technologies of interest include those associated with muzzle blast and bullet shockwave detection and the inter-netting of these acoustic sensors with electro-optic sensors. To date, no one sensor technology has proven totally effective for a complete solution. PSI has a muzzle blast detection and localization product which is wireless, highly mobile and reconfigurable, with a user-friendly laptop processor and display unit, which completed a one-year demonstration in Austin, Texas on July 6, 2002. This demonstration was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Institute of Justice and in cooperation with the Austin Police Department. This paper will discuss the details of the demonstrations, provide a summarized evaluation, elucidate the lessons learned, make recommendations for future deployments and discuss the developmental directions indicated for the future.

  1. Pre-transplant phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibody concentration is associated with clinically significant recurrence of membranous nephropathy post-kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Fattah, Hasan; Ayalon, Rivka; Kidd, Jason; Gehr, Todd; Quintana, Luis F; Kimball, Pamela; Sadruddin, Salima; Massey, H Davis; Kumar, Dhiren; King, Anne L; Beck, Laurence H

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies that have assessed the association of pre-transplant antiphospholipase A2 receptor autoantibody (PLA2R-Ab) concentration with a recurrence of membranous nephropathy (rMN) post-kidney transplant have yielded variable results. We tested 16 consecutive transplant patients with a history of iMN for pre-transplant PLA2R-Ab. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers (Euroimmun, NJ, USA) >14 RU/mL were considered positive. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed after combining data from Quintana et al. (n = 21; Transplantation February 2015) to determine a PLA2R-Ab concentration which could predict rMN. Six of 16 (37%) patients had biopsy-proven rMN at a median of 3.2 yr post-transplant. Of these, five of six (83%) had a positive PLA2R-Ab pre-transplant with a median of 82 RU/mL (range = 31-1500). The only patient who had rMN with negative PLA2R-Ab was later diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma. One hundred percent (n = 10) of patients with no evidence of rMN (median follow-up = five yr) had negative pre-transplant PLA2R-Ab. In a combined ROC analysis (n = 37), a pre-transplant PLA2R-Ab > 29 RU/mL predicted rMN with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 92%. Pre-transplant PLA2R-Ab could be a useful tool for the prediction of rMN. Patients with rMN in the absence of PLA2R-Ab should be screened for occult malignancy and/or alternate antigens.

  2. Drug resistance in cortical and hippocampal slices from resected tissue of epilepsy patients: no significant impact of P-glycoprotein and Multidrug resistance associated proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora eSandow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistant patients undergoing epilepsy surgery have a good chance to become sensitive to anticonvulsant medication, suggesting that the resected brain tissue is responsible for drug resistance. Here, we address the question whether P-glycoprotein (Pgp and multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRPs expressed in the resected tissue contribute to drug resistance in vitro. Effects of anti-epileptic drugs (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, phenytoin and two unspecific inhibitors of Pgp and MRPs (verapamil and probenecid on seizure-like events induced in slices from 35 hippocampal and 35 temporal cortex specimens of altogether 51 patients (161 slices were studied. Although in slice preparations the blood brain barrier is not functional, we found that seizure-like events predominantly persisted in the presence of anticonvulsant drugs (90% and also in the presence of verapamil and probenecid (86%. Following subsequent co-administration of antiepileptic drugs and drug transport inhibitors, seizure-like events continued in 63% of 143 slices. Drug sensitivity in slices was recognized either as transition to recurrent epileptiform transients (30% or as suppression (7%, particularly by perfusion with carbamazepine in probenecid containing solutions (43%, 9%. Summarizing responses to co-administration from more than one slice per patient revealed that suppression of seizure-like activity in all slices was only observed in 7 % of patients. Patients whose tissue was completely or partially sensitive (65 % presented with higher seizure frequencies than those with resistant tissue (35 %. However, corresponding subgroups of patients don’t differ with respect to expression rates of drug transporters. Our results imply that parenchymal MRPs and Pgp are not responsible for drug resistance in resected tissue.

  3. Ligand association rates to the inner-variable-domain of a dual-variable-domain immunoglobulin are significantly impacted by linker design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiammarino, Enrico L; Harlan, John E; Walter, Karl A; Ladror, Uri S; Edalji, Rohinton P; Hutchins, Charles W; Lake, Marc R; Greischar, Amy J; Liu, Junjian; Ghayur, Tariq; Jakob, Clarissa G

    2011-01-01

    The DVD-Ig (TM) protein is a dual-specific immunoglobulin. Each of the two arms of the molecule contains two variable domains, an inner variable domain and an outer variable domain linked in tandem, each with binding specificity for different targets or epitopes. One area of on-going research involves determining how the proximity of the outer variable domain affects the binding of ligands to the inner variable domain. To explore this area, we prepared a series of DVD-Ig proteins with binding specificities toward TNFα and an alternate therapeutic target. Kinetic measurements of TNFα binding to this series of DVD-Ig proteins were used to probe the effects of variable domain position and linker design on ligand on- and off-rates. We found that affinities for TNFα are generally lower when binding to the inner domain than to the outer domain and that this loss of affinity is primarily due to reduced association rate. This effect could be mitigated, to some degree, by linker design. We show several linker sequences that mitigate inner domain affinity losses in this series of DVD-Ig proteins. Moreover, we show that single chain proteolytic cleavage between the inner and outer domains, or complete outer domain removal, can largely restore inner domain TNFα affinity to that approaching the reference antibody. Taken together, these results suggest that a loss of affinity for inner variable domains in this set of DVD-Ig proteins may be largely driven by simple steric hindrance effects and can be reduced by careful linker design.

  4. How significant is submarine groundwater discharge and its associated dissolved inorganic carbon in a river-dominated shelf system-the northern South China Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD and its impact on the carbonate system on the northern South China Sea (NSCS shelf, we measured seawater concentrations of four radium isotopes 223,224,226,228Ra along with carbon dioxide parameters in June–July, 2008. Complementary groundwater sampling was conducted in coastal areas in December 2008 and October 2010 to constrain the groundwater end-members. The distribution of Ra isotopes in the NSCS was largely controlled by the Pearl River plume and coastal upwelling. Long-lived Ra isotopes (228Ra and 226Ra were enriched in the river plume but low in the offshore surface water and subsurface water/upwelling zone. In contrast, short-lived Ra isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra were elevated in the subsurface water/upwelling zone as well as the river plume but depleted in the offshore surface water. In order to quantify SGD, we adopted two independent mathematical approaches. Using a three end-member mixing model with total alkalinity (TAlk and Ra isotopes, we derived a SGD flux into the NSCS shelf of 2.3–3.7 ×108 m3 d−1. Our second approach involved a simple mass balance of 228Ra and 226Ra and resulted in a first order but consistent SGD rate estimate of 2.8–4.5 × 108 m3 d−1. These fluxes were equivalent to 13–25 % of the Pearl River discharge, but the source of the SGD is mostly recirculated seawater. Despite the relatively small SGD volume flow compared to the river, the associated material fluxes were substantial given the elevated concentrations of dissolved inorganic solutes. In this case, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC flux through SGD was 266–520 × 109 mol yr−1, which was ~44–73 % of the riverine DIC export flux. Given our estimates of the groundwater-derived phosphate flux, SGD may be

  5. The designer aminoglycoside NB84 significantly reduces glycosaminoglycan accumulation associated with MPS I-H in the Idua-W392X mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Belakhov, Valery; Kandasamy, Jeyakumar; Baasov, Timor; Li, Su-Chen; Li, Yu-Teh; Bedwell, David M; Keeling, Kim M

    2012-01-01

    Suppression therapy utilizes compounds that suppress translation termination at in-frame premature termination codons (PTCs) to restore full-length, functional protein. This approach may provide a treatment for diseases caused by nonsense mutations such as mucopolysaccharidosis type I-Hurler (MPS I-H). MPS I-H is a lysosomal storage disease caused by severe α-L-iduronidase deficiency and subsequent lysosomal glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation. MPS I-H represents a good target for suppression therapy because the majority of MPS I-H patients carry nonsense mutations, and restoration of even a small amount of functional α-L-iduronidase may attenuate the MPS I-H phenotype. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of suppression therapy agents to suppress the Idua-W392X nonsense mutation in an MPS I-H mouse model. The drugs tested included the conventional aminoglycosides gentamicin, G418, amikacin, and paromomycin. In addition, the designer aminoglycosides NB54 and NB84, two compounds previously designed to mediate efficient PTC suppression with reduced toxicity, were also examined. Overall, NB84 suppressed the Idua-W392X nonsense mutation much more efficiently than any of the other compounds tested. NB84 treatment restored enough functional α-L-iduronidase activity to partially reverse abnormal GAG accumulation and lysosomal abundance in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from the Idua-W392X mouse. Finally, in vivo administration of NB84 to Idua-W392X mice significantly reduced urine GAG excretion and tissue GAG storage. Together, these results suggest that NB84-mediated suppression therapy has the potential to attenuate the MPS I-H disease phenotype. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  7. TENCompetence tool demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2009). TENCompetence tool demonstration. Presented at Zorgacademie Parkstad (Health Academy Parkstad), Limburg Leisure Academy, Life Long Learning Limburg and a number of regional educational institutions. May, 18, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, T

  8. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  9. Pancreaticopleural fistula : CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung [Chuncheon Medical Center, ChunChon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the pancreaticopleural fistula is known to cause recurrent exudative or hemorrhagic pleural effusions. These are often large in volume and require treatment, unlike the effusions in acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis can be made either by the finding of elevated pleural fluid amylase level or, using imaging studies, by the direct demonstration of the fistulous tract. We report two cases of pancreaticopleural fistula demonstrated by computed tomography.

  10. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  11. High-pressure metamorphic age and significance of eclogite-facies continental fragments associated with oceanic lithosphere in the Western Alps (Etirol-Levaz Slice, Valtournenche, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassmer, Kathrin; Obermüller, Gerrit; Nagel, Thorsten J.; Kirst, Frederik; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Sandmann, Sascha; Miladinova, Irena; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Etirol-Levaz Slice in the Penninic Alps (Valtournenche, Italy) is a piece of eclogite-facies continental basement sandwiched between two oceanic units, the blueschist-facies Combin Zone in the hanging wall and the eclogite-facies Zermatt-Saas Zone in the footwall. It has been interpreted as an extensional allochthon from the continental margin of Adria, emplaced onto ultramafic and mafic basement of the future Zermatt-Saas Zone by Jurassic, rifting-related detachment faulting, and later subducted together with the future Zermatt-Saas Zone. Alternatively, the Etirol-Levaz Slice could be derived from a different paleogeographic domain and be separated from the Zermatt-Saas Zone by an Alpine shear zone. We present Lu-Hf whole rock-garnet ages of two eclogite samples, one from the center of the unit and one from the border to the Zermatt-Saas Zone below. These data are accompanied by a new geological map of the Etirol-Levaz Slice and the surrounding area, as well as detailed petrology of these two samples. Assemblages, mineral compositions and garnet zoning in both samples indicate a clockwise PT-path and peak-metamorphic conditions of about 550-600 °C/20-25 kbar, similar to conditions proposed for the underlying Zermatt-Saas Zone. Prograde garnet ages of the two samples are 61.8 ± 1.8 Ma and 52.4 ± 2.1 Ma and reflect different timing of subduction. One of these is significantly older than published ages of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Zermatt-Saas Zone and thus contradicts the hypothesis of Mesozoic emplacement. The occurrence of serpentinite and metagabbro bodies possibly derived from the Zermatt-Saas Zone inside the Etirol-Levaz Slice suggests that the latter is a tectonic composite. The basement slivers forming the Etirol-Levaz Slice and other continental fragments were subducted earlier than the Zermatt-Saas Zone, but nonetheless experienced similar pressure-temperature histories. Our results support the hypothesis that the Zermatt-Saas Zone and the

  12. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  13. Ocular copper deposition associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: case report Depósito ocular de cobre associado a gamopatia monoclonal de significância indeterminada: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick F. Tzelikis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of ocular copper deposition in both eyes at the level of Descemet's membrane associated with a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS. A 49-year-old white woman had golden-brown metallic dust-like deposits on Descemet's membrane of both eyes. A systemic examination revealed an elevated serum copper, normal serum ceruloplasmin and a normal level of total protein. Serum protein electrophoresis demonstrated a single peak (M-spike in the gamma region (M-protein in serum = 11 g/l. Flow cytometric analysis of the marrow aspirate identified a monoclonal plasma cell population that represents approximately 2% of the total marrow cells consistent with the diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Copper deposits at the level of Descemet's membrane may be a finding in a patient with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.Relatar um caso de depósito corneano de cobre em ambos os olhos a nível da membrana de Descemet associado a gamopatia monoclonal de significância indeterminada (GMSI. Paciente feminina, 49 anos, leucodérmica, apresentando depósito corneano de aspecto marrom-ouro a nível da membrana de Descemet em ambos os olhos. Exame sistêmico revelou cobre sérico elevado, ceruloplasmina sérica normal, e proteína total normal. Eletroforese de proteínas séricas demonstrou um pico único na região gama (proteína M = 11 g/l. Análise citométrica de aspirado medular evidenciou uma população de células plasmáticas monoclonais de aproximadamente 2% do total de células medulares consistente com o diagnóstico de gamopatia monoclonal de significância indeterminada. Depósitos de cobre a nível da membrana de Descemet podem ser encontrados em pacientes com gamopatia monoclonal de significância indeterminada.

  14. Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

  15. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  16. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  17. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  18. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  19. Demonstrating Supernova Remnant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Denis A.; Williams, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    We have created a software tool to calculate at display supernova remnant evolution which includes all stages from early ejecta dominated phase to late-time merging with the interstellar medium. The software was created using Python, and can be distributed as Python code, or as an executable file. The purpose of the software is to demonstrate the different phases and transitions that a supernova remnant undergoes, and will be used in upper level undergraduate astrophysics courses as a teaching tool. The usage of the software and its graphical user interface will be demonstrated.

  20. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  1. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  2. Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L.; Fowler, Veronica L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analys

  3. Arctic Craft Demonstration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    it received a lot of attention from the local population. Demonstration personnel, both Coast Guard and contractors, were asked to be receptive to...www.uscg.mil/top/missions/ . Counter-Drug Interdiction and Alien Migrant Interdiction operations are currently not included. In the non-Polar regions

  4. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  5. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  6. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  7. Passive damping technology demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert E.; Spencer, Susan M.; Austin, Eric M.; Johnson, Conor D.

    1995-05-01

    A Hughes Space Company study was undertaken to (1) acquire the analytical capability to design effective passive damping treatments and to predict the damped dynamic performance with reasonable accuracy; (2) demonstrate reasonable test and analysis agreement for both baseline and damped baseline hardware; and (3) achieve a 75% reduction in peak transmissibility and 50% reduction in rms random vibration response. Hughes Space Company teamed with CSA Engineering to learn how to apply passive damping technology to their products successfully in a cost-effective manner. Existing hardware was selected for the demonstration because (1) previous designs were lightly damped and had difficulty in vibration test; (2) multiple damping concepts could be investigated; (3) the finite element model, hardware, and test fixture would be available; and (4) damping devices could be easily implemented. Bracket, strut, and sandwich panel damping treatments that met the performance goals were developed by analysis. The baseline, baseline with damped bracket, and baseline with damped strut designs were built and tested. The test results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions and demonstrated that the desired reduction in dynamic response could be achieved. Having successfully demonstrated this approach, it can now be used with confidence for future designs as a means for reducing weight and enhancing reliability.

  8. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are no

  9. Distance Learning Environment Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Distance Learning Environment Demonstration (DLED) was a comparative study of distributed multimedia computer-based training using low cost high...measurement. The DLED project provides baseline research in the effective use of distance learning and multimedia communications over a wide area ATM/SONET

  10. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  11. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  12. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  13. 'Fat mass and obesity associated' gene (FTO: No significant association of variant rs9939609 with weight loss in a lifestyle intervention and lipid metabolism markers in German obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Timo D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously identified strong association of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene to early onset extreme obesity within the first genome wide association study (GWA for this phenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the obesity risk allele of one of these SNPs (rs9939609 is associated with weight loss in a lifestyle intervention program. Additionally, we tested for association of rs9939609 alleles with fasting blood parameters indicative of glucose and lipid metabolism. Methods We initially analysed rs9939609 in a case-control study comprising 519 German overweight and obese children and adolescents and 178 normal weight adults. In 207 of the obese individuals who took part in the outpatient obesity intervention program 'Obeldicks' we further analysed whether carrier status of the obesity risk A-allele of rs9939609 has a differential influence on weight loss after the intervention program. Additionally, we investigated in 480 of the overweight and obese patients whether rs9939609 is associated with fasting blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and HDL and LDL-cholesterol. Genotyping was performed using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR. For the association study (case-control approach, the Cochran-Armitage trend test was applied. Blood parameters were analysed using commercially available test kits and the log10-transformed blood parameters and changes in BMI-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS were analysed by linear regression with sex and age as covariates under an additive mode of inheritance with the rs9939609 A-allele as risk allele. Results We confirmed the association of the risk A-allele of rs9939609 with overweight and early onset obesity (one sided p = 0.036. However, we observed no association of rs9939609 alleles with weight loss or fasting levels of blood glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Conclusion We confirmed

  14. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  15. The Majorana Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Aguayo, E; Hoppe, E W; Keillor, M E; Kephart, J D; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Merriman, J; Orrell, J L; Overman, N R; Avignone, F T; Back, H O; Combs, D C; Leviner, L E; Young, A R; Barabash, A S; Konovalov, S I; Vanyushin, I; Yumatov, V; Bergevin, M; Chan, Y-D; Detwiler, J A; Loach, J C; Martin, R D; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Vetter, K; Bertrand, F E; Cooper, R J; Radford, D C; Varner, R L; Yu, C -H; Boswell, M; Elliott, S R; Gehman, V M; Hime, A; Kidd, M F; LaRoque, B H; Rielage, K; Ronquest, M C; Steele, D; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Gusey, K; Kochetov, O; Shirchenko, M; Timkin, V; Yakushev, E; Busch, M; Esterline, J; Tornow, W; Christofferson, C D; Horton, M; Howard, S; Sobolev, V; Collar, J I; Fields, N; Creswick, R J; Doe, P J; Johnson, R A; Knecht, A; Leon, J; Marino, M G; Miller, M L; Robertson, R G H; Schubert, A G; Wolfe, B A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Hazama, R; Nomachi, M; Shima, T; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Henning, R; Howe, M A; MacMullin, S; Phillips, D G; Snavely, K J; Strain, J; Vorren, K; Guiseppe, V E; Keller, C; Mei, D -M; Perumpilly, G; Thomas, K; Zhang, C; Hallin, A L; Keeter, K J; Mizouni, L; Wilkerson, J F

    2011-01-01

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program including background reduction techniques is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% in 76Ge is given.

  16. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  17. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    . This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses...... of control, driven by such challenges as complying with cost goals, the need to choose a German prefab supplier, and local contractors. Energy calculations, indoor climate, issues related to square meter requirements, and the hydrogen element became problematic. The aim to obtain passive house certification...

  18. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    , and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...... encompasses both an evaluation of the design and Construction process as well as a post-occupancy evaluation. Process experiences include the use of a multidisciplinary competence group and performance measurement. The commencement of the project was enthusiastic, but it was forced into more traditional forms...

  19. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  20. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  1. A candidate gene study of serotonergic pathway genes and pain relief during treatment with escitalopram in patients with neuropathic pain shows significant association to serotonin receptor2C (HTR2C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Møller, Malik U; Christiansen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    the association between polymorphisms in genes involved in the serotonergic pathway and the effect of escitalopram on peripheral neuropathic pain. METHODS: We genotyped 34 participants from a placebo-controlled trial of escitalopram in peripheral neuropathic pain for polymorphisms in five genes: the serotonin.......047), with 75% carrying the C allele being responders. The same tendency was seen in women. Similarly, carriership of the C allele at rs6318 was associated with better pain relief during treatment with escitalopram [odds ratio (OR) 15.5, p = 0.014)] Furthermore, there was a tendency of better relief...... with increasing number of short alleles for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (OR 5.7, p = 0.057). None of the other polymorphisms showed a significant association with treatment response to escitalopram. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that variation in the HTR2C gene is associated...

  2. Education Demonstration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A.; Lee, R. L.

    2003-10-01

    The General Atomics fusion education program ``Scientist in the Classroom" (SIC) now in its sixth year, uses scientists and engineers to present plasma as a state of matter to students in the classroom. Using hands-on equipment, students see how magnets, gas pressure changes, and different gases are turned into plasmas. A piston, sealed volume, and vacuum chamber illuminate ideal gas laws. Liquid nitrogen is used to explore thermodynamic temperature effects and changes in states of matter. Light bulbs are excited with a Tesla coil to ionize gases, thus becoming an inexpensive plasma devices and a plasma tube shows magnetic interactions with plasma. The demonstration equipment used in this program is built with simple designs and common commercial equipment keeping in mind a teacher's tight budget. The SIC program ( ˜25 school presentations per year) has become very popular and has acquired an enthusiastic group of regular teacher clientele requesting repeat visits. In addition, three very popular and successful ``Build-It" days, sponsored by the General Atomics Fusion Education Outreach Program, enables teachers to build and keep in their classroom some of this equipment. The demonstration devices will be presented along with their ``build-it" details.

  3. Inseparable phone books demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation and experiment steps are presented on how to turn a simple discrepant event into an instructional activity. Results showed the relationships between number of pages and force, as well as between amounts of interleave and force. In addition to these, the mathematical equation for the total force between all interleaved pages is derived. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that not only can phone books be used, but also ordinary books, to investigate this discrepant event. This experiment can be conducted as an example to show the agreement between theoretical and experimental results along with the confounding variables. This discrepant event can be used to create a cognitive conflict in students’ minds about the concepts of ‘force and motion’ and ‘friction force’.

  4. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  5. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  6. Comparison of murine leukemia virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and adeno-associated virus vectors for gene transfer in multiple myeloma: lentiviral vectors demonstrate a striking capacity to transduce low-proliferating primary tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, John; Bagnis, Claude; Bonnafoux, Lydie; Requirand, Guilhem; Jourdan, Michel; Imbert, Marie-Christine; Jourdan, Eric; Rossi, Jean-François; Mannoni, Patrice; Klein, Bernard

    2003-12-10

    Genetic modification of primary tumor cells by gene transfer is of major interest to study the role of specific genes in the biology of a given malignancy and to modify tumor cells for therapeutic use. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a low-proliferating cancer, with often less than 1% of the cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. As primary myeloma cells are notoriously difficult to transduce, we conducted a comparison of various viral vectors, known to integrate the transgene of interest into the target genome, for their ability to stably promote the expression of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene. We compared three murine leukemia virus-based vectors, differing only in their viral envelope, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-based vector pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G), and an adeno-associated virus type 2 vector. Transduction characteristics of these vectors were evaluated in human myeloma cell lines and in primary myeloma cells. Unequivocally, we observed that the VSV-G/HIV vector was the most efficient vector for transducing the cell lines and the only one able to transduce primary myeloma cells reproducibly. The mean percentage of transduced primary myeloma cells was 43.6% (range, 16.3-77.6%), with one round of infection at a low multiplicity of infection, including MM cell samples with less than 1% of cells in the S phase. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay demonstrated that this more efficient EGFP expression was associated with a higher GFP copy number in the targeted cell. We propose that lentiviral vectors should be used for transduction of nonproliferating primary tumor cells such as myeloma cells.

  7. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  8. Nuclear power demonstrating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, V. V.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1980-08-12

    Apparatus for demonstrating the operation of a closed loop nuclear steam electric generating plant includes a transparent boiler assembly having immersion heating elements, which may be quartz lamps or stainless steel encased resistive immersion heating units with a quartz iodide lamp providing a source of visible radiation when using the encased immersion heating units. A variable voltage autotransformer is geared to a support rod for simulated reactor control rods for controlling the energy delivered to the heating elements and arranged so that when the voltage is high, the rods are withdrawn from the boiler to produce increased heating and illumination proportional to rod position, thereby simulating nuclear reaction. A relief valve, steam outlet pipe and water inlet pipe are connected to the boiler with a small stainless steel resistive heating element in the steam outlet pipe providing superheat. This heater is connected in series with a rheostat mounted on the front panel to provide superheat adjustments and an interlock switch that prevents the superheater from being energized when the steam valve is off with with no flow through the superheater. A heavy blue plastic radiation shield surrounds the boiler inside a bell jar.

  9. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  10. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesinger, K; Cuppett, D; Dyer, D

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with Kalwall building panels. An added feature of the Kalwall system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  11. Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration - Phase I Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, William L. [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Petty, Susan [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Cladouhos, Trenton T. [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Iovenitti, Joe [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Nofziger, Laura [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Callahan, Owen [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Perry, Douglas S. [Davenport Newberry Holdings LLC, Stamford, CT (United States); Stern, Paul L. [PLS Environmental, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-10-23

    Phase I of the Newberry Volcano Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration included permitting, community outreach, seismic hazards analysis, initial microseismic array deployment and calibration, final MSA design, site characterization, and stimulation planning. The multi-disciplinary Phase I site characterization supports stimulation planning and regulatory permitting, as well as addressing public concerns including water usage and induced seismicity. A review of the project's water usage plan by an independent hydrology consultant found no expected impacts to local stakeholders, and recommended additional monitoring procedures. The IEA Protocol for Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems was applied to assess site conditions, properly inform stakeholders, and develop a comprehensive mitigation plan. Analysis of precision LiDAR elevation maps has concluded that there is no evidence of recent faulting near the target well. A borehole televiewer image log of the well bore revealed over three hundred fractures and predicted stress orientations. No natural, background seismicity has been identified in a review of historic data, or in more than seven months of seismic data recorded on an array of seven seismometers operating around the target well. A seismic hazards and induced seismicity risk assessment by an independent consultant concluded that the Demonstration would contribute no additional risk to residents of the nearest town of La Pine, Oregon. In Phase II of the demonstration, an existing deep hot well, NWG 55-29, will be stimulated using hydroshearing techniques to create an EGS reservoir. The Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration is allowing geothermal industry and academic experts to develop, validate and enhance geoscience and engineering techniques, and other procedures essential to the expansion of EGS throughout the country. Successful development will demonstrate to the American public that EGS can play a significant role

  12. HIF-1α 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms are significantly associated with higher cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis from 34 case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIF-1 activates various genes in cancer progression and metastasis. HIF-1α 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms are reportedly associated with cancer risk; however, the results are inconclusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A meta-analysis of 34 studies that involved 7522 cases and 9847 controls for 1772 C/T and 24 studies that involved 4884 cases and 8154 controls for 1790 G/A was conducted to identify the association of C/T and G/A polymorphisms with cancer risk. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were used to assess the strength of association. HIF-1α 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms were associated with higher cancer risk in homozygote comparison (1772C/T: TT vs. CC: OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.96; P heterogeneity = 0.028; 1790G/A: AA vs. GG: OR=4.74, 95% CI: 1.78, 12.6; P heterogeneity < 0.01, dominant model (1772C/T: TT/CT vs. CC: OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.55; P heterogeneity < 0.01, 1790G/A: AA/GA vs. GG: OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.60; P heterogeneity < 0.01, T allele versus C allele (T vs. C: OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.70; P heterogeneity < 0.01, and A allele versus G allele (A vs. G: OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.96; P heterogeneity < 0.01. On a subgroup analysis, the 1772 C/T polymorphism was significantly linked to higher risks for breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer, whereas the 1790 G/A polymorphism was significantly linked to higher risks for lung cancer and prostate cancer. A significantly increased cancer risk was found in both Asians and Caucasians for 1772C/T polymorphism, whereas a significantly increased cancer risk was found in Caucasians in the heterozygote comparison and recessive model for 1790G/A polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: HIF-1α 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms are significantly associated with higher cancer risk.

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study Demonstrating Increased Serum Amyloid A Related Inflammation in High-Density Lipoproteins from Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and How this Association Was Augmented by Poor Glycaemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneny, Jane; Daniels, Jane-Ann; McGowan, Anne; Gunness, Anjuli; Moore, Kevin; Stevenson, Michael; Young, Ian S; Gibney, James

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory atherosclerosis is increased in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Normally high-density lipoproteins (HDL) protect against atherosclerosis; however, in the presence of serum amyloid-A- (SAA-) related inflammation this property may be reduced. Fasting blood was obtained from fifty subjects with T1DM, together with fifty age, gender and BMI matched control subjects. HDL was subfractionated into HDL2 and HDL3 by rapid ultracentrifugation. Serum-hsCRP and serum-, HDL2-, and HDL3-SAA were measured by ELISAs. Compared to control subjects, SAA was increased in T1DM subjects, nonsignificantly in serum (P = 0.088), and significantly in HDL2(P = 0.003) and HDL3(P = 0.005). When the T1DM group were separated according to mean HbA1c (8.34%), serum-SAA and HDL3-SAA levels were higher in the T1DM subjects with HbA1c ≥ 8.34%, compared to when HbA1c was 0.05). This cross-sectional study demonstrated increased SAA-related inflammation in subjects with T1DM that was augmented by poor glycaemic control. We suggest that SAA is a useful inflammatory biomarker in T1DM, which may contribute to their increased atherosclerosis risk.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study Demonstrating Increased Serum Amyloid A Related Inflammation in High-Density Lipoproteins from Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and How This Association Was Augmented by Poor Glycaemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane McEneny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory atherosclerosis is increased in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Normally high-density lipoproteins (HDL protect against atherosclerosis; however, in the presence of serum amyloid-A- (SAA- related inflammation this property may be reduced. Fasting blood was obtained from fifty subjects with T1DM, together with fifty age, gender and BMI matched control subjects. HDL was subfractionated into HDL2 and HDL3 by rapid ultracentrifugation. Serum-hsCRP and serum-, HDL2-, and HDL3-SAA were measured by ELISAs. Compared to control subjects, SAA was increased in T1DM subjects, nonsignificantly in serum (P=0.088, and significantly in HDL2(P=0.003 and HDL3(P=0.005. When the T1DM group were separated according to mean HbA1c (8.34%, serum-SAA and HDL3-SAA levels were higher in the T1DM subjects with HbA1c ≥ 8.34%, compared to when HbA1c was 0.05. This cross-sectional study demonstrated increased SAA-related inflammation in subjects with T1DM that was augmented by poor glycaemic control. We suggest that SAA is a useful inflammatory biomarker in T1DM, which may contribute to their increased atherosclerosis risk.

  15. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Van Dooren, P

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationa...

  16. Significant HLA class I type associations with aromatic antiepileptic drug (AED)-induced SJS/TEN are different from those found for the same AED-induced DRESS in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Elena; Bellón, Teresa; Tong, Hoi Y; Borobia, Alberto M; de Abajo, Francisco J; Lerma, Victoria; Moreno Hidalgo, Miguel A; Castañer, José L; Cabañas, Rosario; Fiandor, Ana; González-Ramos, Jessica; Herranz, Pedro; Cachafeiro, Lucía; González-Herrada, Carlos; González, Olga; Aramburu, José A; Laosa, Olga; Hernández, Rafael; Carcas, Antonio J; Frías, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are among the drugs most frequently involved in severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). This study investigated the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of HLA class-I and AED-induced SCARs in the Spanish population. HLA class-I genotypes were determined in AED (phenytoin[PHT],lamotrigine[LTG],carbamazepine[CBZ],phenobarbital[PB])-induced SJS/TEN (n=15) or DRESS (n=12) cases included in the Spanish SCAR registry, PIELenRed. There were 3 control groups: (A)tolerant to a single AED, (B)tolerant to any AED, and (C)Spanish population controls. For SJS/TEN, concomitant HLA-A*02:01/Cw15:02 alleles were significantly associated with PHT-cases compared to control groups B and C [(B)odds ratio(OR):14.75, p=0.009;(C)OR:27.50, p<0.001], and were close to significance with respect to control group A (p=0.060). The genotype frequency of the HLA-B*38:01 was significantly associated with PHT-LTG-cases compared with the 3 groups of controls [(A)OR:12.86, p=0.012;(B)OR:13.81; p=0.002;(C)OR:14.35, p<0.001], and with LTG-cases [(A)OR:147.00, p=0.001;(B)OR:115.00, p<0.001;(C)OR:124.70, p<0.001]. We found the HLA-B*15:02 allele in a Spanish Romani patient with a CBZ-case. The HLA-A*11:01 was significantly associated with CBZ-cases [(A)OR:63.89, p=0.002;(B)OR:36.33, p=0.005;(C)OR:28.29, p=0.007]. For DRESS, the HLA-A*24:02 genotype frequency was statistically significant in the PHT-LTG-cases [(A)OR:22.56, p=0.003;(B)OR:23.50. p=0.001; (C)OR:33.25, p<0.001], and in the LTG-cases [(A),OR:49.00, p=0.015;(B)OR:27.77, p=0.005; (C)OR:34.53, p=0.002]. HLA-A*31:01 was significantly associated with the CBZ-cases [(A)OR:22.00, p=0.047;(B)OR:29.50, p=0.033;(C)OR:35.14, p=0.006]. In conclusion, we identified several significant genetic risk factors for the first time in the Spanish Caucasian population: HLA

  17. PROBA-3: Precise formation flying demonstration mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, J. S.; Agenjo, A.; Carrascosa, C.; de Negueruela, C.; Mestreau-Garreau, A.; Cropp, A.; Santovincenzo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Formation Flying (FF) has generated a strong interest in many space applications, most of them involving a significant complexity for building for example on-board large "virtual structures or distributed observatories". The implementation of these complex formation flying missions with critical dependency on this new, advanced and critical formation technology requires a thorough verification of the system behaviour in order to provide enough guarantees for the target mission success. A significant number of conceptual or preliminary designs, analyses, simulations, and HW on-ground testing have been performed during the last years, but still the limitations of the ground verification determine that enough confidence of the behaviour of the formation flying mission will only be possible by demonstration in flight of the concept and the associated technologies. PROBA-3 is the mission under development at ESA for in-flight formation flying demonstration, dedicated to obtain that confidence and the necessary flight maturity level in the formation flying technologies for those future target missions. PROBA-3 will demonstrate technologies such as formation metrology sensors (from very coarse to highest accuracy), formation control and GNC, system operability, safety, etc. During the last years, PROBA-3 has evolved from the initial CDF study at ESA, to two parallel phase A studies, followed by a change in the industrial configuration for the Bridging step between A and B phases. Currently the SRR consolidation has been completed, and the project is in the middle of the phase B. After the phase A study SENER and GMV were responsible for the Formation Flying System, within a mission core team completed by OHB-Sweden, QinetiQ Space and CASA Espacio. In this paper an overview of the PROBA-3 mission is provided, with a more detailed description of the formation flying preliminary design and results.

  18. Expression and prognostic significance of APAF-1, caspase-8 and caspase-9 in stage II/III colon carcinoma: caspase-8 and caspase-9 is associated with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sträter, Jörn; Herter, Ines; Merkel, Gaby; Hinz, Ulf; Weitz, Jürgen; Möller, Peter

    2010-08-15

    Apoptosis protease activating factor-1 (APAF-1), caspase-8 and caspase-9 are important factors in the execution of death signals. To study their prognostic influence in colon carcinoma, expression of APAF-1, caspase-8 and caspase-9 was determined by immunohistochemistry in normal colon mucosa (n = 8) and R0-resected stage II/III colon carcinomas (n >or= 124) using a semiquantitative score. Staining results were correlated with disease-free survival by Kaplan-Meier estimates, and multivariate Cox analyses were performed. In normal colon, APAF-1 and caspase-8 are most strongly expressed in the luminal surface epithelium, whereas caspase-9 is expressed all along the crypt axis. In colon carcinomas, there is considerable variability in the expression of these proapoptotic factors, although complete loss of caspase-8 and caspase-9 is rare. APAF-1 expression did not correlate with disease-free survival. Instead, both expression of caspase-9 and high-level expression of caspase-8 in a majority of tumor cells were significantly associated with adverse prognosis (p = 0.004 and p = 0.029, respectively). The influence of caspase-8 expression was mainly seen in patients with stage III colon carcinoma (p = 0.011), whereas the prognostic influence of caspase-9 expression was significant in stage II cases (p = 0.037) and just failed to be significant in stage III tumors (p = 0.0581). After adjusting for confounding factors in a multivariate Cox analysis, the effect of caspase-9 in predicting disease-free survival was confirmed (p = 0.003). Our data suggest that, in colon carcinomas, expression of caspase-8 and caspase-9 is significantly associated with poor survival. Caspase-9 may be an independent prognosticator in colon carcinoma.

  19. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. V. Demonstration of two binding sites for the cocaine analog [125I]RTI-55 associated with the 5-HT transporter in rat brain membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, M L; Dersch, C M; Baumann, M H; Cadet, J L; Partilla, J S; Rice, K C; Carroll, F I; Becketts, K M; Brockington, A; Rothman, R B

    1995-04-01

    Earlier work characterized the binding of the high-affinity cocaine analog 3 beta-(4-125iodophenyl)-tropane-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([125I]RTI-55) to membranes prepared from rat caudate. That investigation demonstrated that [125I]RTI-55-labeled serotonin (5-HT) transporters in addition to dopamine (DA) transporters and resolved [125I]RTI-55 binding to 5-HT transporters into two distinct components. In the present study, we characterized [125I]RTI-55 binding to membranes prepared from whole rat brain minus caudate. The first series of experiments established that [125I]RTI-55 labels both DA and 5-HT transporters and that 50 nM paroxetine and either 1000 nM 1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)homopiperazine (LR1111) or 500 nM (RTI-120) could be used to block [125I]RTI-55 binding to the 5-HT and DA transporters, thereby generating selective assay conditions for the DA and 5-HT transporters, respectively. Selective lesioning of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons with intracerebroventricular 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine selectively decreased [125I]RTI-55 binding to DA and 5-HT transporters, respectively, thereby confirming the selectivity of the assay conditions. The ligand-selectivity pattern of the whole brain minus caudate 5-HT transporter correlated significantly with that of the caudate 5-HT transporter, although there were some striking differences for selected test agents. Additional experiments resolved [125I]RTI-55 binding to the 5-HT transporter into two components. A ligand-selectivity analysis of the two components failed to identify a highly selective test agent. In summary, the major findings of the present study are that [125I]RTI-55 labels both DA and 5-HT transporters in membranes prepared from whole brain minus caudate, that 50 nM paroxetine and either 1000 nM LR1111 or 500 nM RTI-120 can be used as a blocking agent to generate selective assay conditions for the DA and 5-HT transporters, respectively, and that [125

  20. PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION: KNOWLEDGE OF THE MOTHER A SIGNIFICANT ASSOCIATE OF CHILD’S NOURISHMENT STATUS, A STUDY AMONG 1-6 YEAR CHILDREN AND THEIR MOTHERS IN URBAN SLUMS OF OLD HUBLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children are the precious possession of the family, community and the country. Nearly 200 million (30%, are malnourished in the world and over 2/3rd of malnourished are in Asia. Every 3rd underfed child in the world lives in India. India is home to 40% of world’s malnourished children. According to global hunger index India ranks 117th of 119 countries in malnutrition. OBJECTIVE: 1. To find the prevalence of PEM among 1-6 year children. 2. To assess the knowledge of the mothers regarding adequate nutrition and its association to undernourishment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study among 150 children was undertaken for a period of 1 month from June to July 2014 at urban slums of old Hubli. Knowledge of mother was assessed by questionnaire, scores were assigned to responses and clinical examination of child along with anthropometry was carried out. RESULTS: Obtained by WHO Anthro Plus software through Z-scores, which showed 24.6% were moderately and 13.4% severely undernourished by weight and 22% were moderately and 25.4% severely stunted. Birth weight of child had significant (P<0.05 association with undernourishment. Knowledge scores regarding nutrition among mothers was good among 35.3%, moderate in 38.7% and poor in 26%, its correlation to undernourishment was significant (p<0.001. Pearson’s correlation, showed a positive linear relationship between knowledge and nourishment and Linear Regression model established knowledge as a significant variable having independent and direct influence on nutritional status of child (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Parent’s literacy, knowledge and child’s birth weight has a direct impact on child’s nutritional status. Education and awareness is the key to progress.

  1. Association between metformin use and transformation of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to multiple myeloma in U.S. veterans with diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Hsin; Luo, Suhong; O’Brian, Katiuscia K.; Thomas, Theodore S.; Colditz, Graham A.; Carlsson, Nils P.; Carson, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is one of the most common hematologic malignancies in the United States and is consistently preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Methods A retrospective cohort of patients in the U.S. Veterans Health Administration database diagnosed with MGUS between 1, October, 1999 and 31, December, 2009 and diabetes mellitus prior to their MGUS diagnosis was identified and followed through 6, August, 2013. Patient-level clinical data were reviewed to verify diagnoses and to abstract data on size of baseline M-protein and type of MGUS, i.e., immunoglobulin (Ig) subtype or light-chain, when available. Metformin users were defined as patients that were prescribed metformin for at least 4 years, with no single break between consecutive prescriptions ≥6 months. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models were used to analyze the association between metformin use and the progression of MGUS to MM. Findings The analytic cohort consisted of 2,003 MGUS patients with a median follow-up time of 69 months. Within the analytic cohort, 463 metformin users (23·1%) were identified. Among the metformin users, 13 patients progressed to MM, while 74 patients progressed to MM among the non-metformin users. Metformin use was associated with a reduced risk of transformation to MM (Hazard ratio, HR: 0·47; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0·25–0·87). Interpretation For diabetics diagnosed with MGUS, metformin use for 4 years or longer was associated with a reduced risk of transformation of MGUS to MM. Prospective studies are required to determine whether this association is causal and whether these results can be extrapolated to non-diabetics. PMID:26034780

  2. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  3. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. [CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO{sub 2} removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO{sub 2} removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20{degree}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ({del}T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO{sub 2} removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, {del}T = 20--22{degree}F, and 70% SO{sub 2} removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO{sub 2} emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  4. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. (CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO[sub 2] removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO[sub 2] removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20[degree]F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ([del]T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO[sub 2] removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, [del]T = 20--22[degree]F, and 70% SO[sub 2] removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO[sub 2] emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  5. Contaminant analysis automation demonstration proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; Heubach, J.G.

    1993-10-01

    The nation-wide and global need for environmental restoration and waste remediation (ER&WR) presents significant challenges to the analytical chemistry laboratory. The expansion of ER&WR programs forces an increase in the volume of samples processed and the demand for analysis data. To handle this expanding volume, productivity must be increased. However. The need for significantly increased productivity, faces contaminant analysis process which is costly in time, labor, equipment, and safety protection. Laboratory automation offers a cost effective approach to meeting current and future contaminant analytical laboratory needs. The proposed demonstration will present a proof-of-concept automated laboratory conducting varied sample preparations. This automated process also highlights a graphical user interface that provides supervisory, control and monitoring of the automated process. The demonstration provides affirming answers to the following questions about laboratory automation: Can preparation of contaminants be successfully automated?; Can a full-scale working proof-of-concept automated laboratory be developed that is capable of preparing contaminant and hazardous chemical samples?; Can the automated processes be seamlessly integrated and controlled?; Can the automated laboratory be customized through readily convertible design? and Can automated sample preparation concepts be extended to the other phases of the sample analysis process? To fully reap the benefits of automation, four human factors areas should be studied and the outputs used to increase the efficiency of laboratory automation. These areas include: (1) laboratory configuration, (2) procedures, (3) receptacles and fixtures, and (4) human-computer interface for the full automated system and complex laboratory information management systems.

  6. Energy 2007. Research, development, demonstration; Energi 07. Forskning, udvikling, demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byriel, I.P.; Justesen, Helle; Beck, A.; Borup Jensen, J.; Rosenfeldt Jakobsen, Kl; Jacobsen, Steen Hartvig (eds.)

    2007-08-10

    Danish energy research is in an exciting and challenging situation. Rising oil prices, unstable energy supply, climate policy responsibilities and globalization have brought development of new environmentally friendly and more efficient energy technologies into focus. Promising international markets for newly developed energy technologies are emerging, and at the same time well established Danish positions of strength are challenged by new strong actors on the global market. The Danish government has set to work on its vision of an appreciable strengthening of public energy research funding through the recent law on the energy technological development and demonstration programme EUDP and the realization of globalization funds. The interaction between basic and applied research must be kept intact. In this report the various Danish energy research programmes administered by Energinet.dk, Danish Energy Authority, Danish Energy Association, Danish Council for Strategic Research's Programme Commission on Energy and Environment and Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, coordinate their annual reports for the first time. The aim of Energy 2007 is to give the reader an idea of how the energy research programmes collaborate on solving the major energy technology challenges - also in an international context. (BA)

  7. The oxidation capacity of Mn3O4 nanoparticles is significantly enhanced by anchoring them onto reduced graphene oxide to facilitate regeneration of surface-associated Mn(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lin; Wang, Zhongyuan; Hou, Yan; Wang, Zepeng; Gao, Guandao; Chen, Wei; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2016-10-15

    Metal oxides are often anchored to graphene materials to achieve greater contaminant removal efficiency. To date, the enhanced performance has mainly been attributed to the role of graphene materials as a conductor for electron transfer. Herein, we report a new mechanism via which graphene materials enhance oxidation of organic contaminants by metal oxides. Specifically, Mn3O4-rGO nanocomposites (Mn3O4 nanoparticles anchored to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets) enhanced oxidation of 1-naphthylamine (used here as a reaction probe) compared to bare Mn3O4. Spectroscopic analyses (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) show that the rGO component of Mn3O4-rGO was further reduced during the oxidation of 1-naphthylamine, although rGO reduction was not the result of direct interaction with 1-naphthylamine. We postulate that rGO improved the oxidation efficiency of anchored Mn3O4 by re-oxidizing Mn(II) formed from the reaction between Mn3O4 and 1-naphthylamine, thereby regenerating the surface-associated oxidant Mn(III). The proposed role of rGO was verified by separate experiments demonstrating its ability to oxidize dissolved Mn(II) to Mn(III), which subsequently can oxidize 1-naphthylamine. The role of dissolved oxygen in re-oxidizing Mn(II) was ruled out by anoxic (N2-purged) control experiments showing similar results as O2-sparged tests. Opposite pH effects on the oxidation efficiency of Mn3O4-rGO versus bare Mn3O4 were also observed, corroborating the proposed mechanism because higher pH facilitates oxidation of surface-associated Mn(II) even though it lowers the oxidation potential of Mn3O4. Overall, these findings may guide the development of novel metal oxide-graphene nanocomposites for contaminant removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  9. Genesis of oH-associated CO2 and its significance in petroleum geology%油伴生CO2气的成因及其石油地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲希玉; 刘立; 杨会东; 刘娜; 张立东; 王卫学

    2011-01-01

    以松辽盆地南部油伴生CO2气为研究对象,通过组分分析及碳、氧及氮同位素分析,结合中国已有伴生CO2气的含量及同位素数据,研究油伴生CO2气的成因及其意义.结果表明:中国油伴生气中CO2的含量为0~99.53%,大部分在5%以下;油伴生CO2气的δ13 CcO2值为-15.91‰+6.49‰,集中分布于-13‰~ -4‰,以无机成因气为主;松辽盆地南部油伴生CO2气的含量为1.43% ~54.22%,δ13CcO2值为-5.32‰~ -6.76‰,为幔源-岩浆成因;幔源-岩浆成因油伴生CO2气与气藏中的CO2气成因一致,注入时间一般晚于油气大规模充注时间,CO2充注驱油普遍存在;在幔源-岩浆CO2与油气混合成藏地区(如松辽盆地南部)寻找幔源-岩浆CO2充注驱油成因的次生油气藏将是一个新的勘探思路.%Taking the oil-associated CO, samples from southern Songliao Basin as the research object, the genesis and significance of the oil-associated CO2 were studied through component analysis, carbon, oxygen and helium isotopic analysis and combining with the existent oil-associated CO2 content and isotopic data in China. The results show that the CO2 content of oil-associated gas in China is 0-99. 53% , most of which is less than 5%. Carbon stable isotopic value for CO2 ranges from -15. 91‰ to 6.49‰, which mainly distributes in the section of -13‰ to -4‰, indicates that most of CO2 has an inorganic origin. The content and the carbon stable isotopic value for the oil-associated CO2 in southern Songliao Basin range from 1.43‰ to 54.22‰ and -5. 23‰ to -6.76‰, respectively, suggesting a mantle-magmatic origin. As the oil-associated CO2 and CO2 in gas reservoir had the same origin, and the injected-time for oil-associated CO2 was later than the large scale oil and gas generation. The C02 flooding was common in geologic history. In the mixed-reservoir contained mantle-magmatic CO2 and oil, such as the southern Songliao Basin, secondary oil and gas

  10. Significance Testing Without Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ICES REPORT 12-34 August 2012 Significance testing without truth by William Perkins, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward The Institute for Computational...testing without truth , ICES REPORT 12-34, The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, August 2012...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance testing without truth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  11. A thought-provoking demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, E. Roger; Holton, Brian; Horton, George K.

    1998-01-01

    We present and discuss a physics demonstration, similar to, but distinct from, the ballistic-pendulum demonstration, one that illustrates all three conservation laws of mechanics (for energy, momentum, and angular momentum) simultaneously.

  12. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  13. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka;

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  14. Significance of bifid epiglottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Cathy A; Ledbetter, Joel C

    2005-05-01

    Bifid epiglottis is a rare anomaly, which is heterogeneous and is often associated with other anomalies, particularly polydactyly. It has been reported in 40% of patients with Pallister-Hall syndrome and rarely in other syndromes. We report two brothers with bifid epiglottis who also have features suggestive of Bardet-Biedl syndrome. We also review the features seen in 22 patients reported in the literature with bifid epiglottis. No patient had bifid epiglottis as an isolated anomaly. Other malformations include clefts, micropenis, renal abnormalities, anal malformations, hypospadias, hypothalamic hamartomas, hypopituitarism, heart defects, and Hirschprung disease. Bifid epiglottis may be an under-recognized feature of Bardet-Biedl syndrome and should be considered in these patients, particularly if there are airway symptoms. Many of the anomalies associated with bifid epiglottis have potentially serious consequences and thus, a thorough evaluation of the patient with bifid epiglottis is warranted.

  15. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  16. Minimally invasive colorectal resection is associated with significantly elevated levels of plasma matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) during the first month after surgery which may promote the growth of residual metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha Kumara, H M C; Gaita, David J; Miyagaki, Hiromichi; Yan, Xiaohong; Herath, Sonali A C; Cekic, Vesna; Whelan, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    MMP-3, a member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family, is involved in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix in tissue remodeling and may also play a role in cancer progression and metastasis. Minimally invasive colorectal resection (MICR) may increase plasma MMP-3 levels directly via surgical trauma or indirectly due to surgery-associated elevations in TNF-α and IL1 which are regulators of MMP-3. This study's purpose was to evaluate plasma MMP-3 levels during the first month after MICR for colorectal cancer. Patients enrolled in an IRB approved data/plasma bank who underwent elective MICR for CRC. Blood plasma samples had been collected preoperatively, on postoperative day (POD) 1, 3 and at varying postoperative time points and were stored at -80 °C. The late samples (POD 7-41) were bundled into 7 day time blocks and considered as single time points. MMP-3 levels were analyzed in duplicate via ELISA and the results reported as mean ± SD. The paired t test was used for analysis (significance, p MICR met the inclusion criteria. The mean PreOp MMP-3 level was 14.9 ± 7.8 ng/ml (n = 73). Significantly elevated mean plasma levels were noted on POD 1 (21.4 ± 14.7 ng/ml, n = 73, p MICR for CRC. The early postoperative increase in MMP-3 levels may be due to the surgery-related acute inflammatory response; the elevation noted during weeks 2-3 may be related to wound healing. Increased MMP-3 levels may promote metastases or the growth of residual cancer.

  17. Oedema in the Lumbar Subcutaneous Fat, on Routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging, of Patients with No History of Cardiac, Renal or Hepatic Disease, Is Significantly Associated with Obesity and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WM West

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the association between oedema in the subcutaneous fat of the lumbar region during routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and patients’ age, gender and body mass index (BMI. Methods: One hundred and forty-nine consecutive examinations of 95 females and 54 males, 18 years and older, scanned at 1.5T between October 1, 2010, and December 31, 2010, were reviewed. Presence and extent of oedema were determined. Oedema was sized on the anatomical segments. Data were analysed using tests for means, odd’s ratio (OR, Chi-squared test, McNemar’s test, linear and backward stepwise multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Patients with oedema had significantly higher BMI (30.3 kg/m2 vs 24.9 kg/m2, p < 0.001, and were older (49.9 years vs 43.9 years, p = 0.01 than those without oedema. The OR for oedema in obese vs non-obese patients was 8.6. The Chi-squared and McNemar tests were significant, p = 0 and p < 0.001, respectively. Body mass index and age predicted oedema on backward stepwise regression and, on ANOVA, at 23.6% and 4.7%, respectively. Males were marginally less likely to have oedema (p = 0.056 and had marginally less oedema (p = 0.056 than females. Conclusion: Body mass index and age, but not gender, predict oedema. Body mass index predicts oedema five times as much as age.

  18. Point mutations in firefly luciferase C-domain demonstrate its significance in green color of bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestova, Yulia; Koksharov, Mikhail I; Ugarova, Natalia N

    2014-09-01

    Firefly luciferase is a two-domain enzyme that catalyzes the bioluminescent reaction of firefly luciferin oxidation. Color of the emitted light depends on the structure of the enzyme, yet the exact color-tuning mechanism remains unknown by now, and the role of the C-domain in it is rarely discussed, because a very few color-shifting mutations in the C-domain were described. Recently we reported a strong red-shifting mutation E457K in the C-domain; the bioluminescence spectra of this enzyme were independent of temperature or pH. In the present study we investigated the role of the residue E457 in the enzyme using the Luciola mingrelica luciferase with a thermostabilized N-domain as a parent enzyme for site-directed mutagenesis. We obtained a set of mutants and studied their catalytic properties, thermal stability and bioluminescence spectra. Experimental spectra were represented as a sum of two components (bioluminescence spectra of putative "red" and "green" emitters); λmax of these components were constant for all the mutants, but the ratio of these emitters was defined by temperature and mutations in the C-domain. We suggest that each emitter is stabilized by a specific conformation of the active site; thus, enzymes with two forms of the active site coexist in the reactive media. The rigid structure of the C-domain is crucial for maintaining the conformation corresponding to the "green" emitter. We presume that the emitters are the keto- and enol forms of oxyluciferin.

  19. ‘‘Cooling by Heating’’- Demonstrating the Significance of the Longitudinal Specific Heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papini, Jon J.; Dyre, J. C.; Christensen, Tage Emil

    2012-01-01

    is generally considerably larger than in solids. This paper presents analytical solutions of the relevant coupled thermoviscoelastic equations. In general, there is a difference between the isobaric specific heat cp measured at constant isotropic pressure and the longitudinal specific heat cl pertaining...... between these two specific heats. For a typical glass-forming liquid, when the temperature at the surface is increased by 1 K, a lowering of the temperature at the sphere center of the order of 5 mK is expected if the experiment is performed at the glass transition. The cooling-by-heating effect......Heating a solid sphere at its surface induces mechanical stresses inside the sphere. If a finite amount of heat is supplied, the stresses gradually disappear as temperature becomes homogeneous throughout the sphere. We show that before this happens, there is a temporary lowering of pressure...

  20. Demonstration of Uncued Optical Surveillance of LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, P.; Ackermann, M.; McGraw, J.

    2014-09-01

    J.T. McGraw and Associates, LLC, in collaboration with the University of New Mexico (UNM), has built and is operating two proof-of-concept wide-field imaging systems to test novel techniques for uncued surveillance of LEO. The imaging systems are built from off-the-shelf optics and detectors resulting in a 350mm aperture and a 6 square degree field of view. For streak detection, field of view is of critical importance because the maximum exposure time on the object is limited by its crossing time and measurements of apparent angular motion are better constrained with longer streaks. The current match of the detector to the optical system is optimized for detection of objects at altitudes above 450km, which for a circular orbit, corresponds to apparent motions of approximately 1 deg./sec. Using our GPU-accelerated detection scheme, the proof-of-concept systems have detected objects fainter than V=12.3, which approximately corresponds to a 24 cm object at 1000 km altitude at better than 6 sigma significance, from sites near and within Albuquerque, NM. This work demonstrates scalable optical systems designed for near real time detection of fast moving objects, which can be then handed off to other instruments capable of tracking and characterizing them. The two proof-of-concept systems, separated by ~30km, work together by taking simultaneous images of the same orbital volume to constrain the orbits of detected objects using parallax measurements. These detections are followed-up by photometric observations taken at UNM to independently assess the objects and the quality of the derived orbits. We believe this demonstrates the potential of small telescope arrays for detecting and cataloguing heretofore unknown LEO objects.

  1. ICU呼吸机相关性肺炎患者痰液真菌阳性的临床研究%Clinical significance of positive sputum culture of fungi in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占大钱; 陈娣; 胡伟林; 陈正平; 李永胜

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical significance of positive sputum culture of fungi in comprehensive in‐tensive care unit (ICU) patients clinically diagnosed as ventilator‐associated pneumonia (VAP) so as to provide guidance for reasonable use of antibiotics .METHODS A total of 142 patients who were clinically diagnosed as VAP and treated in the ICU from Apr 2012 to Apr 2014 were recruited as the study objects and were divided into the positive fungi group with 77 cases and the negative fungi group with 65 cases according to the results of spu‐tum culture .The duration of ventilation and the mortality rate were observed and compared between the two groups of patients ,and the statistical analysis was performed with the use of SPSS 13 .0 software .RESULTS To‐tally 394 strains of pathogens have been cultured from the 142 patients ,of which 32 .0% (126 strains ) were fun‐gi .Of the 142 patients clinically diagnosed as VAP ,77 were tested positive for the fungi ,accounting for 54 .2% . The incidence of the fungal infections was associated with the age and respiratory system disease (P<0 .05) .The mechanical ventilation duration of the positive fungi group was (363 ± 85)hour ,the negative fungi group (300 ± 67)hours ;the mortality rate of the positive fungi group was 39 .0% ,the negative fungi group 43 .1% ,and there was no significant difference between the two groups .CONCLUSION The positive rate of sputum culture of fungi is high in the patents with VAP ,which is associated with the age and respiratory system disease .%目的:研究综合重症监护病房(ICU )中临床诊断为呼吸机相关性肺炎(VAP)患者痰液培养真菌阳性在V A P患者中的临床意义,为合理使用抗菌药物提供参考依据。方法选择2012年4月-2014年4月IC U临床诊断为呼吸机相关性肺炎的142例患者为研究对象,按痰培养结果分为真菌阳性组77例和真菌阴性组65例,比较两组患者的通气时间及

  2. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  3. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration project will advance optical communications technology, expanding industry’s capability to produce competitive,...

  4. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  5. A Significant Step Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  6. Pre- and/or Intra-Operative Prescription of Diuretics, but Not Renin-Angiotensin-System Inhibitors, Is Significantly Associated with Acute Kidney Injury after Non-Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Tagawa

    Full Text Available Pre- and/or intra-operative use of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB constitutes a potentially modifiable risk factor for postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI. It has been studied whether use of these drugs predicts AKI after cardiac surgery. The objective of this study was to examine whether administration of these agents was independently associated with AKI after non-cardiac surgery.This was a retrospective observational study. Inclusion criteria were adult patients (age ≥ 18 who underwent non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia from 2007 to 2009 at Kyoto Katsura Hospital. Exclusion criteria were urological surgery, missing creatinine values, and preoperative dialysis. The exposures of interest were pre- and/or intra-operative use of diuretics or ACE-I/ARB. Outcome variables were postoperative AKI as defined by the AKI Network (increase in creatinine ≥ 0.3 mg/dL or 150% within 48 hours, or urine output 6 hours. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for potential confounders. Propensity scores (PS for receiving diuretics or ACE-I/ARB therapy were estimated and PS adjustment, PS matching, and inverse probability weighting were performed.There were 137 AKI cases (5.0% among 2,725 subjects. After statistical adjustment for patient and surgical characteristics, odds (95% CI of postoperative AKI were 2.07 (1.10-3.89 (p = 0.02 and 0.89 (0.56-1.42 (p = 0.63 in users of diuretics and ACE-I/ARB, respectively, compared with non-users. PS adjustment, PS matching, and inverse probability weighting yielded similar results. The effect size of diuretics was significantly greater in the patients with lower propensity for diuretic use (p for interaction < 0.1.Prescription of diuretics, but not ACE-I/ARB, was independently associated with postoperative AKI after non-cardiac surgery, especially in patients with low propensity for diuretic use. It might

  7. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  8. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  9. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  10. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  11. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  12. Demonstrative and non-demonstrative reasoning by analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Ippoliti, Emiliano

    2008-01-01

    The paper analizes a set of issues related to analogy and analogical reasoning, namely: 1) The problem of analogy and its duplicity; 2) The role of analogy in demonstrative reasoning; 3) The role of analogy in non-demonstrative reasoning; 4) The limits of analogy; 5) The convergence, particularly in multiple analogical reasoning, of these two apparently distinct aspects and its methodological and philosophical consequences. The paper, using example from number theory, argues for an heuristc c...

  13. Pre- and/or Intra-Operative Prescription of Diuretics, but Not Renin-Angiotensin-System Inhibitors, Is Significantly Associated with Acute Kidney Injury after Non-Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Miho; Ogata, Ai; Hamano, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Pre- and/or intra-operative use of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) constitutes a potentially modifiable risk factor for postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). It has been studied whether use of these drugs predicts AKI after cardiac surgery. The objective of this study was to examine whether administration of these agents was independently associated with AKI after non-cardiac surgery. This was a retrospective observational study. Inclusion criteria were adult patients (age ≥ 18) who underwent non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia from 2007 to 2009 at Kyoto Katsura Hospital. Exclusion criteria were urological surgery, missing creatinine values, and preoperative dialysis. The exposures of interest were pre- and/or intra-operative use of diuretics or ACE-I/ARB. Outcome variables were postoperative AKI as defined by the AKI Network (increase in creatinine ≥ 0.3 mg/dL or 150% within 48 hours, or urine output 6 hours). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for potential confounders. Propensity scores (PS) for receiving diuretics or ACE-I/ARB therapy were estimated and PS adjustment, PS matching, and inverse probability weighting were performed. There were 137 AKI cases (5.0%) among 2,725 subjects. After statistical adjustment for patient and surgical characteristics, odds (95% CI) of postoperative AKI were 2.07 (1.10-3.89) (p = 0.02) and 0.89 (0.56-1.42) (p = 0.63) in users of diuretics and ACE-I/ARB, respectively, compared with non-users. PS adjustment, PS matching, and inverse probability weighting yielded similar results. The effect size of diuretics was significantly greater in the patients with lower propensity for diuretic use (p for interaction cardiac surgery, especially in patients with low propensity for diuretic use. It might be reasonable to withhold preoperative diuretics in these patients.

  14. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  15. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner {trademark}/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist{trademark}/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals.

  16. CBCT研究上颌窦形态及其与上颌后牙的关系%Use of cone-beam computed tomographyto demonstrate morphology of maxillary sinus and association of-maxillary sinus with maxillary posterior teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晟楠; 高承志; 杨咪咪; 刘文菲

    2016-01-01

    目的:应用CBCT研究人群中上颌窦的一般形态差异,为上颌后牙种植术及拔除术提供解剖依据。方法:选取临床403例CBCT影像,测量并统计上颌窦底距牙槽嵴顶的最小距离,上颌窦间隔,上颌窦底黏膜增厚,以及牙根突入窦腔的例数;结果:窦底与牙槽嵴顶最小间距为8.3 mm,左右侧差异有统计学意义;上颌窦间隔出现几率为98.6%,黏膜增厚与牙根突入几率分别为31%与47%,其中牙根尖病变相关的窦底黏膜增厚为56.3%,男女及左右对比均无差异。结论:上颌窦形态差异较大,上颌窦慢性炎症与上颌后牙根尖病变密切相关。%Objective To study the morphological variations of maxillary sinus and to provide anatomical basis for maxillary posterior teeth implantation and extraction usingcone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan-ning. Methods CBCT images from 403 patients were reviewed. The minimal distance from sinus floor to alveolar ridge wasmeasured and the number of patients with clinical features such as having sinus septum , mucosal thicken-ing and posterior teeth roots extend into maxillary sinus were counted. Results The mean value of the minimal dis-tance from maxillary sinus floor to alveolar ridge was about 8.3 mm, there was no significant statistical difference between sex, but there was a significant statisticalsignificant difference between the left sides and the right sides. Occurrences of sinus septum, mucosal thickening and roots into sinus were 98.6%, 31% (in which 56.3% of mu-cosal thickening were related to apical periodontitis) and 47%. there was no significantstatisticaldifference between the two sides in males females. Conclusions The morphological variations of maxillary sinus are significant. Chron-ic inflammation in maxillary sinuis is closely related to the position of maxillary posterior teeth roots and periapical lesions.

  17. Crafting a Gauss Gun Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Matthew E.; Blodgett, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    A Gauss Gun launches a ferromagnetic projectile using a pulsed electromagnet. This demonstration provides a nice counterpoint to the popular Thompson's jumping ring demonstration, which launches a nonferromagnetic ring via repulsion of an induced current. The pulsed current must be short enough in duration so that the projectile is not retarded by lingering current in the launch solenoid, but also large enough to provide a suitably impressive velocity. This project involved an iterative design process, as we worked through balancing all the different design criteria. We recommend it as a very nice electronics design project which will produce a very portable and enjoyable demonstration. AAPT sponsor Earl Blodgett.

  18. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  19. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  20. Status of the MAJORANA Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Greenn, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Schmitt, C; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Timkin, V; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V

    2014-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  1. Demonstration of Cauchy: Understanding Algebraic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study we present some considerations about the End of Course Work undergraduate Full Degree in Mathematics / UFMT, drafted in 2011, and by taking title "A story about Cauchy and Euler's theorem on polyhedra" that gave birth to our research project Master of Education, begun in 2012, on the approaches of Euler's theorem on polyhedra in mathematics textbooks. At work in 2011 presented some considerations about the history of Euler's theorem for polyhedra which focus the demonstration presented by Cauchy (1789-1857, who tries to generalize it, relying on assumptions not observable in Euclidean geometry. Therefore, we seek the accessible literature on the history of mathematics; relate some aspects of the demonstration Cauchy with historical events on the development of mathematics in the nineteenth century, which allowed the acceptance of such a demonstration by mathematicians of his time.Keywords: History of Mathematics. Euler's Theorem on Polyhedra. Demonstration of Cauchy.

  2. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Detwiler, Jason A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Timkin, V.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-09

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  3. Teacher Training: The Demonstration Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan C.

    1977-01-01

    A teacher training technique is discussed involving a demonstration class given by a local teacher and observed by prospective teachers. After the class a discussion is held analyzing lesson content and teaching techniques. (CHK)

  4. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  5. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  6. Orcc's Compa-Backend demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Yaset; Casseau, Emmanuel; Martin, Kevin; Bomel, Pierre; Diguet, Jean-Philippe; Yviquel, Hervé; Raulet, Mickael; Raffin, Erwan; Morin, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the implementation of a video decoding application starting from its dataflow and CAL representations. Our objective is to demonstrate the ability of the Open RVC-CAL Compiler (Orcc) to generate code for embedded systems. For the demonstration, the video application will be an MPEG-4 Part2 decoder. The targeted architecture is a multi-core heterogeneous system deployed onto the Zynq platform from Xilinx.

  7. Posterior communicating artery cistern and associated arachnoid membrane:the microsurgical anatomy and clinal significance%后交通动脉池及相关蛛网膜的显微解剖研究及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海民; 漆松涛; 樊俊; 黄广龙; 黄理金; 冯文峰; 李伟光; 陆云涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the microsurgical anatomic features and clinical significances of the posterior communicating artery cistern (PComA cisterns) and associated arachnoid membranes. Methods 10 cases (20 sides )of formalin-fixed cadaveric head specimens were microdissected to observe structures of PComA cistern and related arachnoid membranes under the operating microscope. Results The frequency rate of PComA cistern was about 60% (12 sides from all of specimens).The anterior wall of the cistern was the posterior communicating membranes. The carotid cistern directly communicated with the PComA cistern in the absence of the posterior communicating membranes. The posterior wall of the cistern was diencephalic and mesencephalic leaves of liliequist membranes. The medial wall was the carotid membranes and the lateral wall of diencephalic and mesencephalic leaves of liliequist membranes. The anterolateral wall was the lateral carotid membranes or the medial temporal lobe, and the posterlaeral wall the arachnoid trabeculaes arising from mesencephalic leaves of liliequist membranes which attached to the oculomotor nerve and posterior communicating artery. The superior lateral wall was incrual membranes, and the bottom wall the arachnoid membranes of base skull and diencephalic leaves of liliequist membranes. The features of different membranes were distinct. Conclusions This study identifies the features of the PComA cistern and associated arachnoid membrane, which is a valuable reference for clinic application.%目的 对后交通动脉池(PComA池)及相关蛛网膜的显微解剖特点进行描述并探讨其临床意义.方法 在手术显微镜下,对10例(20侧)福尔马林固定的尸头标本进行显微解剖,观察PComA池及相关蛛网膜的膜显微特点.结果 PComA池出现率60%(12侧).组成PComA池前壁为后交通膜,若此膜缺失,则与与颈内动脉池(ICA池)相通;后壁为liliequist膜间脑叶和中脑叶;内侧壁为颈内动脉内侧

  8. Expression and its significance of embryonic stem cell-associated factor Nanog in human gliomas%胚胎干细胞关键因子Nanog在人胶质瘤中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雨霁; 邴鲁军; 刘尚明; 郝爱军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression of embryonic stem cell-associated factor Nanog in human gliomas and its significance. Methods Forty cases of human gliomas were examined. The expression of Nanog was analysed by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Double immunofluorescence staining was used to investigate the coexpression of Nanog and markers of cancer stem cells or embryonic stem cell pluripotency-related gene Oct4. Results We found a positive correlation between the expression levels of Nanog and tumour malignancy. Immunohistochemistry showed that Nanogexpressed in both the nuclei and the cytoplasm of glioma cells. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that more than 50% of Nanog-positive cells coexpressed the putative CSC markers CD133 and Nestin. More than 95% Nanog positive cells also expressed embryonic stem cell pluripotency-related gene Oct4. Conclusion The result suggests that Nanog is mainly expressed in cancer stem cells in gliomas and positively correlated with the malignancy of gliomas. Nanog may play an important role in the progress of gliomas.%目的 探讨胚胎干细胞关键因子Nanog在人胶质瘤中的表达及意义.方法 通过免疫荧光双标技术,分析40例胶质瘤组织内胚胎干细胞关键因子Nanog与肿瘤干细胞相关基因Nestin、CD133及胚胎干细胞全能性相关基因Oct4的共表达情况,并通过RT-PCR、Western blotting技术分析胶质瘤组织内Nanog与脑胶质瘤恶性程度之间的关系.结果 Nanog在胶质瘤组织中的表达随着胶质瘤病理级别增高而升高,而且超过50%的Nanog阳性细胞同时表达Nestin和CD133.95%以上的Nanog阳性细胞都同时表达胚胎干细胞全能性相关基因Oct4.结论 胶质瘤组织中Nanog多表达在肿瘤干细胞中,与胶质瘤的恶性程度呈正相关,在胶质瘤的发生、发展过程中起着重要作用,为研究胶质瘤的起源及胶质瘤的诊断和预后判断提供帮助.

  9. Expression of yes-associated protein 1 in prostate cancer and its clinicopathological significance%Yap1蛋白在前列腺癌中的表达及其临床病理学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓勇; 徐月敏; 乔勇; 俞建军; 陈杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨Yap1蛋白在前列腺癌中的表达及临床病理学意义.方法 应用免疫组织化学方法检测Yap1在35例前列腺癌组织和16例良性前列腺增生组织中的表达,用平均吸光度值(积分吸光度/面积,IA/area)代表阳性细胞的表达水平;并探讨Yap1与前列腺癌临床病理参数之间的关系.结果 Yap1在良性前列腺增生组的表达水平(IA/area =0.1867 ±0.0753)明显高于前列腺癌组(IA/area=0.0782 ±0.0614),两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01,F=16.942);Yap1蛋白主要表达在细胞质.Yap1蛋白表达程度与前列腺癌的Gleason评分无明显相关(P>0.05),但Yapl在Gleason 7分组(IA/area =0.0548±0.0441)的表达强度高于Gleason 9分组(IA/area=0.1296±0.0957) (P <0.05).结论 前列腺癌中Yap1蛋白低表达可能与前列腺的发生、发展有关.%Objective To study the expression of the yes-associated protein 1 (Yap1) in prostate cancer and its clinicopathological significance.Methods We detected the expression of the Yap1 protein in 35 prostate cancer and 16 benign prostate hyperplasia specimens by immunohistochemistry,with mean IA (IA/area) value representing expression level of positive cells.The correlation between the expression level of Yap1 and the clinicopathological parameters was analyzed.Results The Yap1 protein was expressed predominantly in the cytoplasm of cells.Yapl expression was significantly lower in prostate cancer group (IA/area =0.0782 ±0.0614) than in benign prostatic hyperplasia group (IA/area =0.1867 ± 0.0753),(P <0.01,F =16.942).The expression of Yapl in prostate cancer was not correlated with the Gleason score of prostate cancer (P > 0.05 ),however,the expression of Yapl in low pathological grading ( Gleason 7,IA/area =0.0548 ± 0.0441 ) was higher than that in high pathological grading ( Gleason 9,IA/area =0.1296 ± 0.0957),P < 0.05.Conclusion Yapl expression might be involved in prostate cancer development.

  10. Prevailing of ischemia cardiopathy, demonstrated by gammagraphy in less than 40 years old persons and its association with risk factors; Prevalencia de cardiopatia isquemica, demostrada por gammagrafia en menores de 40 anos y su asociacion con factores de riesgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano G, M.A.; Castillo M, L.; Orea T, A. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Departamento de Cardioiogia del Insitituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran. Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The Coronary Arterial Illness (EAC) is the first cause of death of those Mexicans. Among their numerous risk factors it highlights the age with more bias starting from the 45 years. The objective of this investigation was to determine the prevailing of ischemic cardiopathy (Cl) and heart attack to the myocardium (IAM) in fellows smaller than 40 years and to identify risk factors. The study of myocardial perfusion (EPM) it is a non invasive study and of great sensibility and specificity that it allows to detect obstructive coronary lesions. The used method was retrospective-traverse Study in 125 patients smaller than 40 years. Files of patients to who EPM had been practiced with Technetium 99m-SESTAMlBI, protocol of one day, were revised, where its were analyzed the short and long axis (vertical and horizontal). General data, somatometry, emotional profile analysis, lipids and glucose profiles were gathered. Results. The population conformed it 53% women and 47% men with average of 31.9 year-old age of corporal mass index (IMC) 25.1 kg/cm{sup 2}. 46% of abnormal studies was obtained, of which 35% was compatible with ischemic cardiopathy (Cl) and 11% with heart attack to the myocardium (IAM). The characteristics of these were: age 31.6{+-}6 Vs 32.6{+-}5.9 years; IMC 25.4{+-}7.0 Vs 24.4{+-}3.34 kg/cm{sup 2}; stature 161.6{+-}9.8 Vs 165.5{+-}9.7cm; TAS 139.1{+-}29.2 Vs. 115{+-}13.4 mm Hg, TAD 84.5{+-}17.4 Vs. 75{+-}9.4 mm Hg; civil state married 65.5% (p=0.005) Vs single 57%; bigger depression 32% Vs anxiety 28%, in the group of patients with Cl and IAM, respectively. In the IAM population it was found an additional IRC 21% (p=0.030), HAS 21% (p=0.025) and drug addiction 21% (p=0.002). The rest of the results didn't show significant differences. Conclusion: Only 6.5% of the patients that went to EPM-{sup 99m}Tc-SESTAMIBl in a 6 year-old lapse, were smaller than 40 years. 71% of them was referred by prechordal pain in who almost the half it was evidenced Cl or IAM

  11. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Buuck, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y.-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); and others

    2015-10-28

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, modular, HPGe detector array with a mass of 44-kg (29 kg {sup 76}Ge and 15 kg {sup nat}Ge) to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double beta decay searches will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is envisioned to demonstrate a path forward to achieve a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value of 2039 keV. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR follows a modular implementation to be easily scalable to the next generation experiment. First, the prototype module was assembled; it has been continuously taking data from July 2014 to June 2015. Second, Module 1 with more than half of the total enriched detectors and some natural detectors has been assembled and it is being commissioned. Finally, the assembly of Module 2, which will complete MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, is already in progress.

  12. Status of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Baldenegro-Barrera, C X; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2015-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, modular, HPGe detector array with a mass of 44-kg (29 kg 76Ge and 15 kg natGe) to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76. The next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double beta decay searches will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is envisioned to demonstrate a path forward to achieve a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value of 2039 keV. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR follows a modular implementation to be easily scalable to the next generation experiment. First, the prototype module was assembled; it has been continuously taking data from July 2014 to June 2015. Second, Module 1 with more than half of the total enriched detectors and some natural detectors has been assembled and it is being commissioned. Finally, the assembly of Module 2, which will complete MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, ...

  13. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United St