WorldWideScience

Sample records for demonstrated promising activity

  1. New quinoline derivatives demonstrate a promising antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Roberta Reis; da Silva, José Marcio Fernandes; Carlos, Bianca Cecheto; da Fonseca, Camila Campos; de Souza, Laila Salomé Araújo; Lopes, Fernanda Valério; de Paula Dias, Rafael Mafra; Moreira, Paulo Otávio Lourenço; Abramo, Clarice; Viana, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro; de Pila Varotti, Fernando; da Silva, Adilson David; Scopel, Kézia Katiani Gorza

    2015-06-01

    Malaria continues to be an important public health problem in the world. Nowadays, the widespread parasite resistance to many drugs used in antimalarial therapy has made the effective treatment of cases and control of the disease a constant challenge. Therefore, the discovery of new molecules with good antimalarial activity and tolerance to human use can be really important in the further treatment of the disease. In this study we have investigated the antiplasmodial activity of 10 synthetic compounds derived from quinoline, five of them combined to sulfonamide and five to the hydrazine or hydrazide group. The compounds were evaluated according to their cytotoxicity against HepG2 and HeLa cell lines, their antimalarial activity against CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains and, finally, their schizonticide blood action in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65. The compounds exhibited no cytotoxic action in HepG2 and HeLa cell lines when tested up to a concentration of 100 μg/mL. In addition, the hydrazine or hydrazide derivative compounds were less cytotoxic against cell lines and more active against CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant P. falciparum strains, showing high SI (>1000 when SI was calculated using the CC50 from the 3D7 strain as reference). When tested in vivo, the hydrazine derivative 1f compound showed activity against the development of blood parasites similar to that observed with CQ, the reference drug. Interestingly, the 1f compound demonstrated the best LipE value (4.84) among all those tested in vivo. Considering the in vitro and in vivo activities of the compounds studied here and the LipE values, we believe the 1f compound to be the most promising molecule for further studies in antimalarial chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol inhibits MRCKα kinase and demonstrates promising anti prostate cancer activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowe Henry I C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high occurrence of prostate cancer worldwide and one of the major sources of the discovery of new lead molecules being medicinal plants, this research undertook to investigate the possible anti-cancer activity of two natural cycloartanes; cycloartane-3,24,25-diol (extracted in our lab from Tillandsia recurvata and cycloartane-3,24,25-triol (purchased. The inhibition of MRCKα kinase has emerged as a potential solution to restoring the tight regulation of normal cellular growth, the loss of which leads to cancer cell formation. Methods Kinase inhibition was investigated using competition binding (to the ATP sites assays which have been previously established and authenticated and cell proliferation was measured using the WST-1 assay. Results Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol demonstrated strong selectivity towards the MRCKα kinase with a Kd50 of 0.26 μM from a total of 451 kinases investigated. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol reduced the viability of PC-3 and DU145 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.226 ± 0.28 μM and 1.67 ± 0.18 μM respectively. Conclusions These results will prove useful in drug discovery as Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol has shown potential for development as an anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer.

  3. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol inhibits MRCKα kinase and demonstrates promising anti prostate cancer activity in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the high occurrence of prostate cancer worldwide and one of the major sources of the discovery of new lead molecules being medicinal plants, this research undertook to investigate the possible anti-cancer activity of two natural cycloartanes; cycloartane-3,24,25-diol (extracted in our lab from Tillandsia recurvata) and cycloartane-3,24,25-triol (purchased). The inhibition of MRCKα kinase has emerged as a potential solution to restoring the tight regulation of normal cellular growth, the loss of which leads to cancer cell formation. Methods Kinase inhibition was investigated using competition binding (to the ATP sites) assays which have been previously established and authenticated and cell proliferation was measured using the WST-1 assay. Results Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol demonstrated strong selectivity towards the MRCKα kinase with a Kd50 of 0.26 μM from a total of 451 kinases investigated. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol reduced the viability of PC-3 and DU145 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.226 ± 0.28 μM and 1.67 ± 0.18 μM respectively. Conclusions These results will prove useful in drug discovery as Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol has shown potential for development as an anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer. PMID:23151005

  4. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol inhibits MRCKα kinase and demonstrates promising anti prostate cancer activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Henry I C; Watson, Charah T; Badal, Simone; Toyang, Ngeh J; Bryant, Joseph

    2012-11-14

    Given the high occurrence of prostate cancer worldwide and one of the major sources of the discovery of new lead molecules being medicinal plants, this research undertook to investigate the possible anti-cancer activity of two natural cycloartanes; cycloartane-3,24,25-diol (extracted in our lab from Tillandsia recurvata) and cycloartane-3,24,25-triol (purchased). The inhibition of MRCKα kinase has emerged as a potential solution to restoring the tight regulation of normal cellular growth, the loss of which leads to cancer cell formation. Kinase inhibition was investigated using competition binding (to the ATP sites) assays which have been previously established and authenticated and cell proliferation was measured using the WST-1 assay. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol demonstrated strong selectivity towards the MRCKα kinase with a Kd50 of 0.26 μM from a total of 451 kinases investigated. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol reduced the viability of PC-3 and DU145 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.226 ± 0.28 μM and 1.67 ± 0.18 μM respectively. These results will prove useful in drug discovery as Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol has shown potential for development as an anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer.

  5. Linking School and Work. Promising Practices from a National Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Harvey

    This book describes experimental demonstration programs in the United States on different ways to link school and work more meaningfully for disadvantaged teenagers. The programs are sponsored by Youthwork, Incorporated, a public-private partnership concerned with youth unemployment and the transition from school to work. The book provides…

  6. Guidance manual for conducting technology demonstration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, Robert L.; Morris, Michael I.; Singh, Suman P.N.

    1991-12-01

    This demonstration guidance manual has been prepared to assist Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), staff in conducting demonstrations. It is prepared in checklist style to facilitate its use and assumes that Energy Systems personnel have project management responsibility. In addition to a detailed step-by-step listing of procedural considerations, a general checklist, logic flow diagram, and several examples of necessary plans are included to assist the user in developing an understanding of the many complex activities required to manage technology demonstrations. Demonstrations are pilot-scale applications of often innovative technologies to determine the commercial viability of the technologies to perform their designed function. Demonstrations are generally conducted on well-defined problems for which existing technologies or processes are less than satisfactory in terms of effectiveness, cost, and/or regulatory compliance. Critically important issues in demonstration management include, but are not limited to, such factors as communications with line and matrix management and with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems staff responsible for management oversight, budgetary and schedule requirements, regulatory compliance, and safety.

  7. Guidance manual for conducting technology demonstration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Morris, M.I.; Singh, S.P.N.

    1991-12-01

    This demonstration guidance manual has been prepared to assist Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), staff in conducting demonstrations. It is prepared in checklist style to facilitate its use and assumes that Energy Systems personnel have project management responsibility. In addition to a detailed step-by-step listing of procedural considerations, a general checklist, logic flow diagram, and several examples of necessary plans are included to assist the user in developing an understanding of the many complex activities required to manage technology demonstrations. Demonstrations are pilot-scale applications of often innovative technologies to determine the commercial viability of the technologies to perform their designed function. Demonstrations are generally conducted on well-defined problems for which existing technologies or processes are less than satisfactory in terms of effectiveness, cost, and/or regulatory compliance. Critically important issues in demonstration management include, but are not limited to, such factors as communications with line and matrix management and with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems staff responsible for management oversight, budgetary and schedule requirements, regulatory compliance, and safety

  8. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  9. Evaluating promising intervention to stimulate physical activity in the population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemrijse, C.J.; Ooms, L.; Veenhof, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity involves major health risks in the Western community. In order to encourage people to adopt an active and healthy lifestyle, the Dutch government has introduced ‘The National Action Plan for Sports and Exercise (NASB)’. One of the goals of this action plan is the

  10. Sub-Area. 2.5 Demonstration of Promising Energy Storage Technologies Project Type. Flywheel Energy Storage Demonstration Revision: V1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-30

    In this program, Amber Kinetics designed, built, and tested a sub-­scale 5 kWh engineering prototype flywheel system. Applying lessons learned from the engineering prototype, Amber Kinetics then designed, built and tested full-­size, commercial-­scale 25 kWh flywheel systems. The systems underwent basic functional qualification testing before being installed, sequentially, at the company’s outdoor test site in Alameda, CA for full-­speed field-testing. The primary considerations in testing the prototype units were to demonstrate the functionality of the system, verify the frequencies of resonant modes, and quantify spinning losses and motor/generator efficiency.

  11. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 3-Alkylpyridine Marine Alkaloid Analogs with Promising Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mirtes Marques Neves Gonçalves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer continues to be one of the most important health problems worldwide, and the identification of novel drugs and treatments to address this disease is urgent. During recent years, marine organisms have proven to be a promising source of new compounds with action against tumoral cell lines. Here, we describe the synthesis and anticancer activity of eight new 3-alkylpyridine alkaloid (3-APA analogs in four steps and with good yields. The key step for the synthesis of these compounds is a Williamson etherification under phase-transfer conditions. We investigated the influence of the length of the alkyl chain attached to position 3 of the pyridine ring on the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Biological assays demonstrated that compounds with an alkyl chain of ten carbon atoms (4c and 5c were the most active against two tumoral cell lines: RKO-AS-45-1 and HeLa. Micronucleus and TUNEL assays showed that both compounds are mutagenic and induce apoptosis. In addition, Compound 5c altered the cellular actin cytoskeleton in RKO-AS-45-1 cells. The results suggest that Compounds 4c and 5c may be novel prototype anticancer agents.

  12. Bioactive compounds fractionated from endophyte Streptomyces SUK 08 with promising ex-vivo antimalarial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraziah Mohamad Zin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine ex vivo antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of endophytic Streptomyces SUK 08 as well as the main core structure fractionated from its crude extract. Methods: The activities of SUK 08 crude extract were evaluated by using the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase assay and synchronization test against rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, instead of human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The cytotoxicity of the crude extract was determined by MTT assay. The crude extract was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometry. Results: The ethyl acetate crude extract showed very promising antimalarial activity with IC50 of 1.25 mg/mL. The synchronization tests showed that ethyl acetate extraction could inhibit all stages of the Plasmodium life cycle, but it was most effective at the Plasmodium ring stage. On the basis of a MTT assay on Chang Liver cells, ethyl acetate and ethanol demonstrated IC50 values of >1.0 mg/mL. The IC50 of parasitemia at 5% and 30% for this extract was lower than chloroquine. Thin-layer chromatography, with 1: 9 ratio of ethyl acetate: hexane, was used to isolate several distinct compounds. Based on gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometry analysis, three core structures were identified as cyclohexane, butyl propyl ester, and 2,3-heptanedione. Structurally, these compounds were similar to currently available antimalarial drugs. Conclusions: The results suggest that compounds isolated from Streptomyces SUK 08 are viable antimalarial drug candidates that require further investigations. Keywords: Butyl–propyl–ester, Cyclohexane, 2,3-Heptanedione, Endophyte, Streptomyces, Antimalarial

  13. The Importance of Engaging Pupils Actively in Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomela, Liisa; Juuti, Kalle; Ahtee, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrating is a traditional method in teaching science that can raise interest and encourage pupils to think about a topic. While demonstrating, the teacher can focus the pupils' attention on the relevant facts and introduce scientific principles and concepts. Through discussion and actively making observations and inferences, rather than…

  14. Antiprotozoal Activity of α,β-Unsaturated δ-Lactones: Promising ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parasite resistance and side effects of drugs used to treat protozoal diseases have led to the search for new therapies, both natural and synthetic. Studies have shown that various α,β-unsaturated δ-lactones displayed high antiprotozoal activity and thus are promising compounds for new drug discovery and ...

  15. An Activity for Demonstrating the Concept of a Neural Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, David S.

    2012-01-01

    College students in two sections of a general psychology course participated in a demonstration of a simple neural circuit. The activity was based on a neural circuit that Jeffress proposed for localizing sounds. Students in one section responded to a questionnaire prior to participating in the activity, while students in the other section…

  16. 1. Extraction and Demonstration of Uterotonic Activity from the Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    to demonstrate uterotonic activities using strips of pregnant rat uterus. ... on increase, parallel to this is the demand of services of Traditional ... for the protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an ... B. Processing and extraction of the roots. Preliminary .... these physiological interactions is in process. In conclusion ...

  17. Central Limit Theorem: New SOCR Applet and Demonstration Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D.; Christou, Nicolas; Sanchez, Juana

    2011-01-01

    Modern approaches for information technology based blended education utilize a variety of novel instructional, computational and network resources. Such attempts employ technology to deliver integrated, dynamically linked, interactive content and multifaceted learning environments, which may facilitate student comprehension and information retention. In this manuscript, we describe one such innovative effort of using technological tools for improving student motivation and learning of the theory, practice and usability of the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) in probability and statistics courses. Our approach is based on harnessing the computational libraries developed by the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR) to design a new interactive Java applet and a corresponding demonstration activity that illustrate the meaning and the power of the CLT. The CLT applet and activity have clear common goals; to provide graphical representation of the CLT, to improve student intuition, and to empirically validate and establish the limits of the CLT. The SOCR CLT activity consists of four experiments that demonstrate the assumptions, meaning and implications of the CLT and ties these to specific hands-on simulations. We include a number of examples illustrating the theory and applications of the CLT. Both the SOCR CLT applet and activity are freely available online to the community to test, validate and extend (Applet: http://www.socr.ucla.edu/htmls/SOCR_Experiments.html and Activity: http://wiki.stat.ucla.edu/socr/index.php/SOCR_EduMaterials_Activities_GeneralCentralLimitTheorem). PMID:21833159

  18. Sertraline demonstrates fungicidal activity in vitro for Coccidioides immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Paul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial morbidity in endemic areas. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is an AIDS defining condition and treatment often requires lifelong antifungal therapy. Sertraline, a widely used serotonin-reuptake inhibitor anti-depressant, has demonstrated activity against Candida and Cryptococcus sp. both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate if sertraline has activity against Coccidioides, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of sertraline for four clinical isolates of C. immitis were determined. Sertraline was observed to have an MIC range of 4–8 µg/ml and MFC also of 4–8 µg/ml for Coccidioides. These MIC and MFC results for C. immitis are similar to those reported for Cryptococcus sp. suggesting sertraline may potentially have utility for the treatment of coccidioidomycosis.

  19. Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid: Pentacyclic Terpenoids with Promising Anti-Inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Dharambir; Sharma, Ajay; Tuli, Hardeep S; Punia, Sandeep; Sharma, Anil K

    2016-01-01

    Plant derived products are not only served as dietary components but also used to treat and prevent the inflammatory associated diseases like cancer. Among the natural products pentacyclic terpenoids including ursolic acid and oleanolic acid are considered as the promising anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents. The current review extensively discusses the anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential of these pentacyclic moieties along with their proposed mechanisms of action. Furthermore, the relevant patents have also been listed to present the health benefits of these promising therapeutic agents to pin down the inflammatory diseases. Expert opinion: Pentacyclic terpenoids are known to negatively down-regulate a variety of extracellular and intracellular molecular targets associated with disease progression. The major anti-inflammatory effects of these molecules have been found to be mediated via inactivation of NFkB, STAT3/6, Akt/mTOR pathways. A number of patents on UA & OA based moieties have been reported between 2010 and 2016. Still there have been only a few compounds which meet the need of sufficient hydro solubility and bioavailability along with higher anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, it is essential to develop novel derivatives of terpenpoids which may not only overcome the solubility issues but also may improve their therapeutic effects. In addition, scientific community may utilize nanotechnology based drug delivery systems so as to increase the bio-availability, selectivity and dosages related problems.

  20. PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR (PPAR) AGONISTS AS PROMISING NEW MEDICATIONS FOR DRUG ADDICTION: PRECLINICAL EVIDENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foll, Bernard Le; Ciano, Patricia Di; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Goldberg, Steven R.; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the growing literature on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in addiction. There are two subtypes of PPAR receptors that have been studied in addiction: PPAR-α and PPAR-γ. The role of each PPAR subtype in common models of addictive behavior, mainly pre-clinical models, is summarized. In particular, studies are reviewed that investigated the effects of PPAR-α agonists on relapse, sensitization, conditioned place preference, withdrawal and drug intake, and effects of PPAR-γ agonists on relapse, withdrawal and drug intake. Finally, studies that investigated the effects of PPAR agonists on neural pathways of addiction are reviewed. Taken together this preclinical data indicates that PPAR agonists are promising new medications for drug addiction treatment. PMID:23614675

  1. Last results of MADRAS, a space active optics demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hourtoule, Claire; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Devilliers, Christophe; Liotard, Arnaud; Lopez, Céline; Chazallet, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    The goal of the MADRAS project (Mirror Active, Deformable and Regulated for Applications in Space) is to highlight the interest of Active Optics for the next generation of space telescope and instrumentation. Wave-front errors in future space telescopes will mainly come from thermal dilatation and zero gravity, inducing large lightweight primary mirrors deformation. To compensate for these effects, a 24 actuators, 100 mm diameter deformable mirror has been designed to be inserted in a pupil relay. Within the project, such a system has been optimized, integrated and experimentally characterized. The system is designed considering wave-front errors expected in 3m-class primary mirrors, and taking into account space constraints such as compactness, low weight, low power consumption and mechanical strength. Finite Element Analysis allowed an optimization of the system in order to reach a precision of correction better than 10 nm rms. A dedicated test-bed has been designed to fully characterize the integrated mirror performance in representative conditions. The test set up is made of three main parts: a telescope aberrations generator, a correction loop with the MADRAS mirror and a Shack-Hartman wave-front sensor, and PSF imaging. In addition, Fizeau interferometry monitors the optical surface shape. We have developed and characterized an active optics system with a limited number of actuators and a design fitting space requirements. All the conducted tests tend to demonstrate the efficiency of such a system for a real-time, in situ wave-front. It would allow a significant improvement for future space telescopes optical performance while relaxing the specifications on the others components.

  2. Recent activities of SOFC research development and demonstration in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokawa, Harumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tokyo City Univ. (Japan). Advanced Research Labs.

    2010-07-01

    Currently Japanese efforts in developing the SOFC systems have two major targets; one is small SOFC cogeneration systems for residential houses or small business sites, the other being the SOFC-GT hybrid systems with an aim at larger stationary applications. The former activity exhibits impressively rapid progress in system development and demonstration in actual residential environment. On the other hand, the development of hybrid systems is not so rapid but successfully has continued to test the operation of the hybrid system in a 200 kW class. The common requirement for both applications is high durability such as 40,000-100,000 of life. To achieve a long life simultaneously with reasonably low price and high efficiency the NEDO project is going on to promote the cooperation among the stack developers, national institute and universities. To achieve well organized cooperation, it is highly required to create mutual reliance between industry and academic organizations. After several years' experience, progress has been made in maturing cooperation and in leading to many new insights into physicochemical understanding of degradation phenomena. Some of them will be reported. (orig.)

  3. Screening of phytochemicals against protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a promising target for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2015-02-01

    Drug resistance and drug-associated toxicity are the primary causes for withdrawal of many drugs, although patient recovery is satisfactory in many instances. Interestingly, the use of phytochemicals in the treatment of cancer as an alternative to synthetic drugs comes with a host of advantages; minimum side effects, good human absorption and low toxicity to normal cells. Protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) has been established as a promising target in many diseases including various cancers. Strong evidences suggest its role in metastasis also. There are no natural compounds known to inhibit its activity, so we aimed to identify phytochemicals with antagonist activity against PAR1. We screened phytochemicals from Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/ ) against PAR1 using virtual screening workflow of Schrödinger software. It analyzes pharmaceutically relevant properties using Qikprop and calculates binding energy using Glide at three accuracy levels (high-throughput virtual screening, standard precision and extra precision). Our study led to the identification of phytochemicals, which showed interaction with at least one experimentally determined active site residue of PAR1, showed no violations to Lipinski's rule of five along with predicted high human absorption. Furthermore, structural interaction fingerprint analysis indicated that the residues H255, D256, E260, S344, V257, L258, L262, Y337 and S344 may play an important role in the hydrogen bond interactions of the phytochemicals screened. Of these residues, H255 and L258 residues were experimentally proved to be important for antagonist binding. The residues Y183, L237, L258, L262, F271, L332, L333, Y337, L340, A349, Y350, A352, and Y353 showed maximum hydrophobic interactions with the phytochemicals screened. The results of this work suggest that phytochemicals Reissantins D, 24,25-dihydro-27-desoxywithaferin A, Isoguaiacin

  4. Cooking with Active Oxygen and Solid Alkali: A Promising Alternative Approach for Lignocellulosic Biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yetao; Zeng, Xianhai; Luque, Rafael; Tang, Xing; Sun, Yong; Lei, Tingzhou; Liu, Shijie; Lin, Lu

    2017-10-23

    Lignocellulosic biomass, a matrix of biopolymers including cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, has gathered increasing attention in recent years for the production of chemicals, fuels, and materials through biorefinery processes owing to its renewability and availability. The fractionation of lignocellulose is considered to be the fundamental step to establish an economical and sustainable lignocellulosic biorefinery. In this Minireview, we summarize a newly developed oxygen delignification for lignocellulose fractionation called cooking with active oxygen and solid alkali (CAOSA), which can fractionate lignocellulose into its constituents and maintain its processable form. In the CAOSA approach, environmentally friendly chemicals are applied instead of undesirable chemicals such as strong alkalis and sulfides. Notably, the alkali recovery for this process promises to be relatively simple and does not require causticizing or sintering. These features make the CAOSA process an alternative for both lignocellulose fractionation and biomass pretreatment. The advantages and challenges of CAOSA are also discussed to provide a comprehensive perspective with respect to existing strategies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Three dimensional investigation of oceanic active faults. A demonstration survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    In order to upgrade probability of activity and action potential evaluation of oceanic active faults which have some important effects on nuclear facilities, trench type oceanic active fault was investigated three dimensionally. Contents of the investigation were high precision sea bottom topographic survey and sea bottom back scattering wave image data observation by using a sea bottom topography acoustic imaginator. And, by high resolution earthquake wave survey, high precision survey of an active fault under sea bottom was conducted to detect oceanic active faults three-dimensionally. Furthermore, the generally issued data were summarized to promote to construct a data base for evaluating the active faults. (G.K.)

  6. Three dimensional investigation of oceanic active faults. A demonstration survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio

    1998-01-01

    In order to upgrade probability of activity and action potential evaluation of oceanic active faults which have some important effects on nuclear facilities, trench type oceanic active fault was investigated three dimensionally. Contents of the investigation were high precision sea bottom topographic survey and sea bottom back scattering wave image data observation by using a sea bottom topography acoustic imaginator. And, by high resolution earthquake wave survey, high precision survey of an active fault under sea bottom was conducted to detect oceanic active faults three-dimensionally. Furthermore, the generally issued data were summarized to promote to construct a data base for evaluating the active faults. (G.K.)

  7. Three dimensional investigation of oceanic active faults. A demonstration survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Ikehara, Ken; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio [Geological Survey of Japan, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Oceanic active faults were classified into trench and in-land types, and a bottom survey was conducted on an aim of estimation on activity of a trench type oceanic active faults. For both sides of an oceanic active fault found at high precision sonic investigations in 1996 fiscal year, it was attempted from a record remained in sediments how a fault changed by a fault motion and how long time it acted. And, construction of a data base for evaluation of the active faults was promoted by generalizing the issued publications. As a result, it was found that a method to estimate a fault activity using turbidite in success at shallow sea could not easily be received at deep sea, and that as sedimentation method in deep sea changed largely by topography and so on, the turbidite did not play always a rule of key layer. (G.K.)

  8. Adult Basic Learning in an Activity Center: A Demonstration Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metropolitan Adult Education Program, San Jose, CA.

    Escuela Amistad, an activity center in San Jose, California, is now operating at capacity, five months after its origin. Average daily attendance has been 125 adult students, 18-65, most of whom are females of Mexican-American background. Activities and services provided by the center are: instruction in English as a second language, home…

  9. ACTIVE SOIL DEPRESSURIZATION (ASD) DEMONSTRATION IN A LARGE BUILDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the feasibility of implementing radon resistant construction techniques -- especially active soil depressurization (ASD) -- in new large buildings in Florida. Indoor radon concentrations and radon entry were monitored in a finished bui...

  10. An Experiential Learning Activity Demonstrating Normal and Phobic Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Will H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for an undergraduate abnormal psychology course that used student-generated data to illustrate normal versus clinically significant anxiety responses related to specific phobias. Students (N = 37) viewed 14 images of low- or high-anxiety valence and rated their subjective response to each. Discussion in a…

  11. A promising oral fucoidan-based antithrombotic nanosystem: development, activity and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L. C. R. P.; Todaro, V.; do Carmo, F. A.; Frattani, F. S.; de Sousa, V. P.; Rodrigues, C. R.; Sathler, P. C.; Cabral, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    Fucoidan-loaded nanoparticles emerge as great candidates for oral anticoagulant therapy, due to increases in the bioavailability and circulation time of this natural anticoagulant. Crosslinks between chitosan chains are performed using glutaraldehyde to confer higher gastric pH resistance to nanoparticle matrices. In this work, chitosan-fucoidan nanoparticles, without (NpCF) and with glutaraldehyde crosslink (NpCF 1% and NpCF 2%), were prepared to evaluate their anticoagulant, antithrombotic and hemorrhagic profiles. Nanoparticles were characterized by average diameter (AD), polydispersity index, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fucoidan in vitro release. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities were determined by in vitro and in vivo models, respectively. Hemorrhagic profile was in vivo evaluated by tail bleeding assay. Preparations showed nanometric and homogeneous ADs. Zeta potentials of NpCF and NpCF 1% were stable over the gastrointestinal pH range, which was confirmed by low fucoidan release in gastric and enteric media. In pH 7.4, NpCF and NpCF 1% demonstrated fucoidan release of 65.5% and 60.6%, respectively, within the first 24 h. In comparison to fucoidan, NpCF and NpCF 1% showed increased in vitro anticoagulant activity. A significant difference in the oral antithrombotic profile of NpCF 1% was found in comparison to fucoidan. Bleeding profile of NpCF and NpCF 1% showed no differences to the control group, indicating the safety of these systems. Surprisingly, the oral antithrombotic profile of commercially available fucoidan, from Fucus vesiculosus, has not been previously determined, which reveals new possibilities. In this work, significant advances were observed in the anticoagulant and antithrombotic profiles of fucoidan through the preparation of NpCF 1%.

  12. Fuzzy promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Kappel, Klemens; Eadie, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    as narrative material to communicate self-identity. Finally, (c) we propose that brands deliver fuzzy experiential promises through effectively motivating consumers to adopt and play a social role implicitly suggested and facilitated by the brand. A promise is an inherently ethical concept and the article...... concludes with an in-depth discussion of fuzzy brand promises as two-way ethical commitments that put requirements on both brands and consumers....

  13. Medicinal plants with promising antileishmanial activity in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soosaraei

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The most Iranian plants used as anti-leishmanial activity were Artemisia species, Allium sativum, Achilleamille folium, Peganum harmala and Thymus vulgaris. The present systematic and meta-analysis review provide valuable information about natural products with anti-Leishmania activity, which would be examined in the future experimental and clinical trials and herbal combination therapy.

  14. Activated Flake Graphite Coated with Pyrolysis Carbon as Promising Anode for Lithium Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jun; Zou, Guoqiang; Zhang, Yan; Song, Weixin; Hou, Hongshuai; Huang, Zhaodong; Liao, Hanxiao; Li, Simin; Ji, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    A facile route to improve the lithium-storage properties of flake graphite (FG) is proposed through coating pyrolysis carbon from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) assisted by KOH activation. The interplanar distance between the graphene sheets of activated PVDF/FG is enlarged, effectively suppressing the electrode deformation during lithium (de)-intercalation. More edge and porous structures of PVDF/FG arising from KOH activation on graphite flakes contribute to improved electron and ion transport, leading to great improvement in its rate and cycling performances. The initial specific capacity of the activated PVDF/FG is 476.6 mAh g −1 at 50 mA g −1 and when the current increases to 1000 mA g −1 , the value still retains 142.6 mAh g −1 .

  15. Haemotoxic snake venoms : their functional activity, impact on snakebite victims and pharmaceutical promise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagboom, Julien; Kool, Jeroen; Harrison, Robert A.; Casewell, Nicholas R.

    2017-01-01

    Snake venoms are mixtures of numerous proteinacious components that exert diverse functional activities on a variety of physiological targets. Because the toxic constituents found in venom vary from species to species, snakebite victims can present with a variety of life-threatening pathologies

  16. Phase I trial with BMS-275183, a novel oral taxane with promising antitumor activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broker, LE; de Vos, FYFL; van Groeningen, CJ; Kuenen, BC; Gall, HE; Woo, MH; Voi, M; Gietema, JA; deVries, EGE; Giaccone, G

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: BMS-275183 is an orally administered C-4 methyl carbonate analogue of paclitaxel. We did a dose-escalating phase I study to investigate its safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and possible antitumor activity. Experimental Design: A cycle consisted of four weekly doses of BMS-275183. The

  17. Medicinal plants with promising antileishmanial activity in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Soosaraei; Mahdi Fakhar; Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi; Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi; Elham Sadat Banimostafavi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate medicinal plants with anti-Leishmania activity which used in Iran. Methods: Data were systematically gathered from five English databases including Ebsco, Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus, four Persian databases including Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex and the Scientific Information Database (SID) from 1999 to April 2015. Information obtained included plant ...

  18. Medicinal plants with promising antileishmanial activity in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soosaraei, Masoud; Fakhar, Mahdi; Hosseini Teshnizi, Saeed; Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Hajar; Banimostafavi, Elham Sadat

    2017-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate medicinal plants with anti- Leishmania activity which used in Iran. Data were systematically gathered from five English databases including Ebsco, Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus, four Persian databases including Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex and the Scientific Information Database (SID) from 1999 to April 2015. Information obtained included plant family, extraction method, concentrations of extracts, animal models and parasite strains. A total of 68 articles including 188 experiments (140 in vitro and 48 in vivo) between 1999 and 2015, met our eligibility criteria. Thoroughly, 98 types of plants were examined against three genera of Leishmania spp. For the heterogeneity study conducted, it was showed that there was a great deal of variation among studies. Based on random effect, meta-analysis pooled mean of IC50 was obtained 456.64 (95% CI: 396.15, 517.12). The most Iranian plants used as anti-leishmanial activity were Artemisia species , Allium sativum , Achilleamille folium , Peganum harmala and Thymus vulgaris . The present systematic and meta-analysis review provide valuable information about natural products with anti- Leishmania activity, which would be examined in the future experimental and clinical trials and herbal combination therapy.

  19. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4): A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwibasira Rudinga, Gamariel; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Kong, Yi

    2018-02-14

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs), including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  20. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4: A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamariel Rwibasira Rudinga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs, including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  1. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi; Dong, Ngan Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Thuy; Le, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is sweetened black tea that is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulose membrane. It is considered a health drink in many countries because it is a rich source of vitamins and may have other health benefits. It has previously been reported that adding lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) strains to kombucha can enhance its biological functions, but in that study only lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were tested. There are many other natural sources of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, we examined the effects of lactic acid bacteria from various fermented Vietnamese food sources (pickled cabbage, kefir and kombucha) on kombucha's three main biological functions: glucuronic acid production, antibacterial activity and antioxidant ability. Glucuronic acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar-well diffusion method and antioxidant ability was evaluated by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. Four strains of food-borne pathogenic bacteria were used in our antibacterial experiments: Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Our findings showed that lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from kefir are superior to those from other sources for improving glucuronic acid production and enhancing the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of kombucha. This study illustrates the potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir as biosupplements for enhancing the bioactivities of kombucha.

  2. The promise of mHealth: daily activity monitoring and outcome assessments by wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobkin, Bruce H; Dorsch, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Mobile health tools that enable clinicians and researchers to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of everyday activities of patients and trial participants have long been needed to improve daily care, design more clinically meaningful randomized trials of interventions, and establish cost-effective, evidence-based practices. Inexpensive, unobtrusive wireless sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure-sensitive textiles, combined with Internet-based communications and machine-learning algorithms trained to recognize upper- and lower-extremity movements, have begun to fulfill this need. Continuous data from ankle triaxial accelerometers, for example, can be transmitted from the home and community via WiFi or a smartphone to a remote data analysis server. Reports can include the walking speed and duration of every bout of ambulation, spatiotemporal symmetries between the legs, and the type, duration, and energy used during exercise. For daily care, this readily accessible flow of real-world information allows clinicians to monitor the amount and quality of exercise for risk factor management and compliance in the practice of skills. Feedback may motivate better self-management as well as serve home-based rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring patients with chronic diseases and after hospitalization or the start of new medications for a decline in daily activity may help detect medical complications before rehospitalization becomes necessary. For clinical trials, repeated laboratory-quality assessments of key activities in the community, rather than by clinic testing, self-report, and ordinal scales, may reduce the cost and burden of travel, improve recruitment and retention, and capture more reliable, valid, and responsive ratio-scaled outcome measures that are not mere surrogates for changes in daily impairment, disability, and functioning.

  3. Promises of formal and informal musical activities in advancing neurocognitive development throughout childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Saarikivi, Katri; Huotilainen, Minna

    2015-03-01

    Adult musicians show superior neural sound discrimination when compared to nonmusicians. However, it is unclear whether these group differences reflect the effects of experience or preexisting neural enhancement in individuals who seek out musical training. Tracking how brain function matures over time in musically trained and nontrained children can shed light on this issue. Here, we review our recent longitudinal event-related potential (ERP) studies that examine how formal musical training and less formal musical activities influence the maturation of brain responses related to sound discrimination and auditory attention. These studies found that musically trained school-aged children and preschool-aged children attending a musical playschool show more rapid maturation of neural sound discrimination than their control peers. Importantly, we found no evidence for pretraining group differences. In a related cross-sectional study, we found ERP and behavioral evidence for improved executive functions and control over auditory novelty processing in musically trained school-aged children and adolescents. Taken together, these studies provide evidence for the causal role of formal musical training and less formal musical activities in shaping the development of important neural auditory skills and suggest transfer effects with domain-general implications. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity in Ethanolic Extract from Promising Accessions of Curcuma aeruginosa RoxB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waras Nurcholis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the free radical scavenging activity in ethanolic extracts from 20 accessions of Curcuma aeruginosa. The radical scavenging activity of the extract accessions was investigated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. IC50 values for DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 89.81 to 505.65 µg mL-1. Based on IC50 values, twenty accessions of C. aeruginosa can be divided into three groups: strong (two accessions; moderate (seventeen accessions; and low (one accession of DPPH scavenger. Sukoharjo (SH and Muara Bungo (MB showed promising accessions for antioxidant potential, thus these accessions important to selection for future breeding program in pharmaceutical products.

  5. Novel molecular, cytotoxical, and immunological study on promising and selective anticancer activity of Mung bean sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh Rand R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of mung bean sprouts (MBS and the underlying mechanisms against human cervical and hepatocarcinoma cancer cells were explored. Methods MBS cytotoxicity and MBS-induced anticancer cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-β from cancer cells, and immunological cytokines, IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-10 from peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were assessed by MTS and ELISA assays. Apoptotic cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The expression level of apoptotic genes (Bax, BCL-2, Capsases 7–9 and cell cycle regulatory genes (cyclin D, E, and A and tumor suppressor proteins (p27, p21, and p53 was assessed by real-time qPCR in the cancer cells treated with extract IC50. Results The cytotoxicity on normal human cells was significantly different from HeLa and HepG2 cells, 163.97 ± 5.73, 13.3 ± 0.89, and 14.04 ± 1.5 mg/ml, respectively. The selectivity index (SI was 12.44 ± 0.83 for HeLa and 11.94 ± 1.2 for HepG2 cells. Increased levels of TNF-α and IFN-β were observed in the treated HeLa and HepG2 culture supernatants when compared with untreated cells. MBS extract was shown to be an immunopolarizing agent by inducing IFNγ and inhibiting IL-4 production by PBMC; this leads to triggering of CMI and cellular cytotoxicity. The extract induced apoptosis, in a dose and time dependent manner, in treated HeLa and HepG2, but not in untreated, cells (P Conclusion MBS extract was shown to be a potent anticancer agent granting new prospects of anticancer therapy using natural products.

  6. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  7. H2Oh!: Classroom demonstrations and activities for improving student learning of water concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Hilton, A.; Neupauer, R. M.; Burian, S. J.; Lauer, J. W.; Mathisen, P. P.; Mays, D. C.; Olson, M. S.; Pomeroy, C. A.; Ruddell, B. L.; Sciortino, A.

    2012-12-01

    Research has shown that the use of demonstrations and hands-on activities in the classroom enhances student learning. Students learn more and enjoy classes more when visual and active learning are incorporated into the lecture. Most college-aged students prefer visual modes of learning, while most instruction is conducted in a lecture, or auditory, format. The use of classroom demonstrations provides opportunities for incorporating visual and active learning into the classroom environment. However, while most instructors acknowledge the benefits of these teaching methods, they typically do not have the time and resources to develop and test such activities and to develop plans to incorporate them into their lectures. Members of the Excellence in Water Resources Education Task Committee of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute (EWRI) of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) have produced a publication that contains a collection of activities aimed to foster excellence in water resources and hydrology education and improve student learning of principles. The book contains forty-five demonstrations and activities that can be used in water-related classes with topics in fluid mechanics, hydraulics, surface water hydrology, groundwater hydrology, and water quality. We present examples of these activities, including topics such as conservation of momentum, buoyancy, Bernoulli's principle, drag force, pipe flow, watershed delineation, reservoir networks, head distribution in aquifers, and molecular diffusion in a porous medium. Unlike full laboratory exercises, these brief demonstrations and activities (most of which take less than fifteen minutes) can be easily incorporated into classroom lectures. For each demonstration, guidance for preparing and conducting the activity, along with a brief overview of the principles that are demonstrated, is provided. The target audience of the activities is undergraduate students, although the activities also may be

  8. Crovirin, a snake venom cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP with promising activity against Trypanosomes and Leishmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila M Adade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neglected human diseases caused by trypanosomatids are currently treated with toxic therapy with limited efficacy. In search for novel anti-trypanosomatid agents, we showed previously that the Crotalus viridis viridis (Cvv snake venom was active against infective forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Here, we describe the purification of crovirin, a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP from Cvv venom with promising activity against trypanosomes and Leishmania.Crude venom extract was loaded onto a reverse phase analytical (C8 column using a high performance liquid chromatographer. A linear gradient of water/acetonitrile with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid was used. The peak containing the isolated protein (confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry was collected and its protein content was measured. T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes, L. amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes and T. brucei rhodesiense procyclic and bloodstream trypomastigotes were challenged with crovirin, whose toxicity was tested against LLC-MK2 cells, peritoneal macrophages and isolated murine extensor digitorum longus muscle. We purified a single protein from Cvv venom corresponding, according to Nano-LC MS/MS sequencing, to a CRISP of 24,893.64 Da, henceforth referred to as crovirin. Human infective trypanosomatid forms, including intracellular amastigotes, were sensitive to crovirin, with low IC50 or LD50 values (1.10-2.38 µg/ml. A considerably higher concentration (20 µg/ml of crovirin was required to elicit only limited toxicity on mammalian cells.This is the first report of CRISP anti-protozoal activity, and suggests that other members of this family might have potential as drugs or drug leads for the development of novel agents against trypanosomatid-borne neglected diseases.

  9. Electro-Active Polymers (EAPs: A Promising Route to Design Bio-Organic/Bioinspired Platforms with on Demand Functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Guarino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Through recent discoveries and new knowledge among correlations between molecular biology and materials science, it is a growing interest to design new biomaterials able to interact—i.e., to influence, to guide or to detect—with cells and their surrounding microenvironments, in order to better control biological phenomena. In this context, electro-active polymers (EAPs are showing great promise as biomaterials acting as an interface between electronics and biology. This is ascribable to the highly tunability of chemical/physical properties which confer them different conductive properties for various applicative uses (i.e., molecular targeting, biosensors, biocompatible scaffolds. This review article is divided into three parts: the first one is an overview on EAPs to introduce basic conductivity mechanisms and their classification. The second one is focused on the description of most common processes used to manipulate EAPs in the form of two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D materials. The last part addresses their use in current applications in different biomedical research areas including tissue engineering, biosensors and molecular delivery.

  10. Polyether ionophores: broad-spectrum and promising biologically active molecules for the control of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Ii, Dion A; Meujo, Damaris Af; Hamann, Mark T

    2009-02-01

    As multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens continue to emerge, there is a substantial amount of pressure to identify new drug candidates. Carboxyl polyethers, also referred to as polyether antibiotics, are a unique class of compounds with outstanding potency against a variety of critical infectious disease targets including protozoa, bacteria and viruses. The characteristics of these molecules that are of key interest are their selectivity and high potency against several MDR etiological agents. Although many studies have been published about carboxyl polyether antibiotics, there are no recent reviews of this class of drugs. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an overview of the spectrum of activity of polyether antibiotics, their mechanism of action, toxicity and potential as drug candidates to combat drug-resistant infectious diseases. Polyether ionophores show a high degree of promise for the potential control of drug-resistant bacterial and parasitic infections. Despite the long history of use of this class of drugs, very limited medicinal chemistry and drug optimization studies have been reported, thus leaving the door open to these opportunities in the future. Scifinder and PubMed were the main search engines used to locate articles relevant to the topic presented in the present review. Keywords used in our search were specific names of each of the 88 compounds presented in the review as well as more general terms such as polyethers, ionophores, carboxylic polyethers and polyether antibiotics.

  11. Activated Charge-Reversal Polymeric Nano-System: The Promising Strategy in Drug Delivery for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Hu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Various polymeric nanoparticles (NPs with optimal size, tumor-targeting functionalization, or microenvironment sensitive characteristics have been designed to solve several limitations of conventional chemotherapy. Nano-sized polymeric drug carrier systems have remarkably great advantages in drug delivery and cancer therapy, which are still plagued with severe deficiencies, especially insufficient cellular uptake. Recently, surface charge of medical NPs has been demonstrated to play an important role in cellular uptake. NPs with positive charge show higher affinity to anionic cell membranes such that with more efficient cellular internalization, but otherwise cause severe aggregation and fast clearance in circulation. Thus, surface charge-reversal NPs, specifically activated at the tumor site, have shown to elegantly resolve the enhanced cellular uptake in cancer cells vs. non-specific protein adsorption dilemma. Herein, this review mainly focuses on the effect of tumor-site activated surface charge reversal NPs on tumor treatment, including the activated mechanisms and various applications in suppressing cancer cells, killing cancer stem cell and overcoming multidrug resistance, with the emphasis on recent research in these fields. With the comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the activated surface charge reversal NPs, this approach might arouse great interest of scientific research on enhanced efficient polymeric nano-carriers in cancer therapy.

  12. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, H.M.; Brdar, R.D.

    1996-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports the commercialization of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems. This overview briefly describes the supporting RD&D activities and the IGCC projects selected for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program.

  13. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Recommendations for communication activities and public participation in the Early Site Permit Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-27

    On October 24, 1992, President Bush signed into law the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The bill is a sweeping, comprehensive overhaul of the Nation`s energy laws, the first in more than a decade. Among other provisions, the National Energy Policy Act reforms the licensing process for new nuclear power plants by adopting a new approach developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989, and upheld in court in 1992. The NRC 10 CFR Part 52 rule is a three-step process that guarantees public participation at each step. The steps are: early site permit approval; standard design certifications; and, combined construction/operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. Licensing reform increases an organization`s ability to respond to future baseload electricity generation needs with less financial risk for ratepayers and the organization. Costly delays can be avoided because design, safety and siting issues will be resolved before a company starts to build a plant. Specifically, early site permit approval allows for site suitability and acceptability issues to be addressed prior to an organization`s commitment to build a plant. Responsibility for site-specific activities, including communications and public participation, rests with those organizations selected to try out early site approval. This plan has been prepared to assist those companies (referred to as sponsoring organizations) in planning their communications and public involvement programs. It provides research findings, information and recommendations to be used by organizations as a resource and starting point in developing their own plans.

  14. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Recommendations for communication activities and public participation in the Early Site Permit Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    On October 24, 1992, President Bush signed into law the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The bill is a sweeping, comprehensive overhaul of the Nation's energy laws, the first in more than a decade. Among other provisions, the National Energy Policy Act reforms the licensing process for new nuclear power plants by adopting a new approach developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989, and upheld in court in 1992. The NRC 10 CFR Part 52 rule is a three-step process that guarantees public participation at each step. The steps are: early site permit approval; standard design certifications; and, combined construction/operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. Licensing reform increases an organization's ability to respond to future baseload electricity generation needs with less financial risk for ratepayers and the organization. Costly delays can be avoided because design, safety and siting issues will be resolved before a company starts to build a plant. Specifically, early site permit approval allows for site suitability and acceptability issues to be addressed prior to an organization's commitment to build a plant. Responsibility for site-specific activities, including communications and public participation, rests with those organizations selected to try out early site approval. This plan has been prepared to assist those companies (referred to as sponsoring organizations) in planning their communications and public involvement programs. It provides research findings, information and recommendations to be used by organizations as a resource and starting point in developing their own plans

  15. Data analysis on work activities in dismantling of Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio; Sukegawa, Takenori; Yanagihara, Satoshi

    1998-03-01

    The safe dismantling of a retired nuclear power plant was demonstrated by completion of dismantling activities for the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR), March, 1996, which had been conducted since 1986. This project was a flag ship project for dismantling of nuclear power plants in Japan, aiming at demonstrating an applicability of developed dismantling techniques in actual dismantling work, developing database on work activities as well as dismantling of components and structures. Various data on dismantling activities were therefore systematically collected and these were accumulated on computer files to build the decommissioning database; dismantling activities were characterized by analyzing the data. The data analysis resulted in producing general forms such as unit activity factors, for example, manpower need per unit weight of component to be dismantled, and simple arithmetic forms for forecasting of project management data to be applied to planning another dismantling project through the evaluation for general use of the analyzed data. The results of data analysis could be usefully applied to planning of future decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan. This report describes the data collection and analysis on the JPDR dismantling activities. (author)

  16. Active Learning in PhysicsTechnology and Research-based Techniques Emphasizing Interactive Lecture Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Ronald

    2010-10-01

    Physics education research has shown that learning environments that engage students and allow them to take an active part in their learning can lead to large conceptual gains compared to traditional instruction. Examples of successful curricula and methods include Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, RealTime Physics, Workshop Physics, Scale-Up, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). An active learning environment is often difficult to achieve in lecture sessions. This presentation will demonstrate the use of sequences of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) that use real experiments often involving real-time data collection and display combined with student interaction to create an active learning environment in large or small lecture classes. Interactive lecture demonstrations will be done in the area of mechanics using real-time motion probes and the Visualizer. A video tape of students involved in interactive lecture demonstrations will be shown. The results of a number of research studies at various institutions (including international) to measure the effectiveness of ILDs and guided inquiry conceptual laboratories will be presented.

  17. An Anesthetic Drug Demonstration and an Introductory Antioxidant Activity Experiment with "Eugene, the Sleepy Fish"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena, Homar; Chen, Peishan

    2016-01-01

    Students are introduced to spectrophotometry in comparing the antioxidant activity of pure eugenol and oil of cloves from a commercial source using a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extraction of the essential oil from dried cloves is demonstrated to facilitate discussions on green chemistry. The anesthetic properties…

  18. Histochemical demonstration of creatine kinase activity using polyvinyl alcohol and auxiliary enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Marx, F.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    Creatine kinase activity (EC 2.7.3.2.) has been demonstrated in myocardium and skeletal muscle from rats by a method based on the incubation of cryostat sections with a polyvinyl alcohol-containing medium and the use of auxiliary enzymes. Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were spread

  19. [Ecological demonstration activity and eco-civilization construction mode: review and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hui-ping; He, Xuan; He, Jia; Niu, Dong-jie; Bao, Cun-kuan

    2013-04-01

    Ecological civilization is to normalize human development behaviors to harmonize the relationships between social and ecological development and eco-environment protection. In this paper, a comparative analysis was made on the ecological demonstration activities of ecological demonstration areas led by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, exemplar cities of national environmental protection, and ecological provinces, cities, and counties. It was considered that all the ecological demonstration activities had the problems of lacking pertinence of construction goals, disordered construction subjects, inefficient construction processes, and lacking continuous incentive mechanisms of assessment. In the meantime, through the analysis of the connotations of eco-civilization, the relationships between eco-civilization and eco-demonstration constructions were approached, and the eco-civilization construction mode was put forward in terms of construction goal, construction subject, and construction processes and assessment. The construction mode included the construction goal based on regional characteristics; the synergistic cooperation of construction subjects, the expanding ways of public participation, and the establishment of evaluation system for comprehensively measuring the 'actions and results'.

  20. Active vibration control testing of the SPICES program: final demonstration article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, James P.; Jacobs, Jack H.

    1996-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) Program is a partnership program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The mission of the program is to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products employing active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. The two year program came to fruition in 1995 through the fabrication of the final smart components and testing of an active plate combined with two trapezoidal rails, forming an active mount. Testing of the SPICES combined active mount took place at McDonnell Douglas facilities in St. Louis, MO, in October-December 1995. Approximately 15 dB reduction in overall response of a motor mounted on the active structure was achieved. Further details and results of the SPICES combined active mount demonstration testing are outlined. Results of numerous damping and control strategies that were developed and employed in the testing are presented, as well as aspects of the design and fabrication of the SPICES active mount components.

  1. Three dimensional investigation on the oceanic active fault. A demonstration survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Okamoto, Yukinobu; Ikehara, Ken; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio; Arai, Kosaku [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    In order to upgrade activity and likelihood ratio on active potential evaluation of the water active fault with possibility of severe effect on nuclear facilities, by generally applying the conventional procedures to some areas and carrying out a demonstration survey, a qualitative upgrading on survey to be conducted by the executives was planned. In 1998 fiscal year, among the water active faults classified to the trench and the inland types, three dimensional survey on the inland type water active fault. The survey was carried out at the most southern part of aftershock area in the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake, which is understood to be a place changing shallow geological structure (propagation of fault) from an old report using the sonic survey. As a result, a geological structure thought to be an active fault at a foot of two ridge topographies was found. Each fault was thought to be a reverse fault tilt to its opposite direction and an active fault cutting to its sea bottom. (G.K.)

  2. Three dimensional investigation on the oceanic active fault. A demonstration survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Okamoto, Yukinobu; Ikehara, Ken; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio; Arai, Kosaku

    2000-01-01

    In order to upgrade activity and likelihood ratio on active potential evaluation of the water active fault with possibility of severe effect on nuclear facilities, by generally applying the conventional procedures to some areas and carrying out a demonstration survey, a qualitative upgrading on survey to be conducted by the executives was planned. In 1998 fiscal year, among the water active faults classified to the trench and the inland types, three dimensional survey on the inland type water active fault. The survey was carried out at the most southern part of aftershock area in the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake, which is understood to be a place changing shallow geological structure (propagation of fault) from an old report using the sonic survey. As a result, a geological structure thought to be an active fault at a foot of two ridge topographies was found. Each fault was thought to be a reverse fault tilt to its opposite direction and an active fault cutting to its sea bottom. (G.K.)

  3. PA activity by using nuclear power plant safety demonstration and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Mitsuo; Kamimae, Rie

    1999-01-01

    INS/NUPEC presents one of Public acceptance (PA) methods for nuclear power in Japan, 'PA activity by using Nuclear Power Plant Safety Demonstration and Analysis', by using one of videos which is explained and analyzed accident events (Loss of Coolant Accident). Safety regulations of The National Government are strictly implemented in licensing at each of basic design and detailed design. To support safety regulation activities conducted by the National Government, INS/NLTPEC continuously implement Safety demonstration and analysis. With safety demonstration and analysis, made by assuming some abnormal conditions, what impacts could be produced by the assumed conditions are forecast based on specific design data on a given nuclear power plants. When analysis results compared with relevant decision criteria, the safety of nuclear power plants is confirmed. The decision criteria are designed to help judge if or not safety design of nuclear power plants is properly made. The decision criteria are set in the safety examination guidelines by taking sufficient safety allowance based on the latest technical knowledge obtained from a wide range of tests and safety studies. Safety demonstration and analysis is made by taking the procedure which are summarized in this presentation. In Japan, various PA (Public Acceptance) pamphlets and videos on nuclear energy have been published. But many of them focused on such topics as necessity or importance of nuclear energy, basic principles of nuclear power generation, etc., and a few described safety evaluation particularly of abnormal and accident events in accordance with the regulatory requirements. In this background, INS/NUPEC has been making efforts to prepare PA pamphlets and videos to explain the safety of nuclear power plants, to be simple and concrete enough, using various analytical computations for abnormal and accident events. In results, PA activity of INS/NUPEC is evaluated highly by the people

  4. Personalized citizen assistance for social participation (APIC): A promising intervention for increasing mobility, accomplishment of social activities and frequency of leisure activities in older adults having disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Levert, Marie-Josée; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; Tourigny, André; Couturier, Yves; Carbonneau, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Social participation, a determinant of health in older adults, requires innovative interventions. The personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) involves weekly three-hour personalised stimulation sessions targeting significant social and leisure activities difficult to accomplish. Recently adapted for older adults, the APIC's impact on this population is unknown. This study explored the impact of APIC on older adults with disabilities. A mixed-method design including a pre-experimental component was used with 16 participants (11 women) aged 66-91 (79.4±8.7) with disabilities, living at home. They completed functional autonomy, social participation, leisure and quality of life questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. APIC increased older adults' functional autonomy (p=0.02), accomplishment (pleisure practice (pleisure activities, and difficulties in their social environment diminished (p=0.03). Their attitude toward leisure (p=0.04) as well as their health (p<0.01) and psychological (p=0.03) quality of life improved. Older adults thought APIC helped them resume, maintain, explore and experiment with significant social activities. It also increased their psychological and physical well-being, feeling of control, connectedness, self-esteem and motivation to accomplish activities. Finally, APIC can compensate for an unavailable and crumbling social network. APIC is a promising intervention that leads to new opportunities for older adults to increase community integration and enhance the social component of their lives. It can also optimise how the needs of older adults are met, including utilisation of personal and environmental resources. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lactobacillus plantarum with broad antifungal activity: A promising approach to increase safety and shelf-life of cereal-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Pasquale; Arena, Mattia Pia; Fiocco, Daniela; Capozzi, Vittorio; Drider, Djamel; Spano, Giuseppe

    2017-04-17

    Cereal-based fermented products are worldwide diffused staple food resources and cereal-based beverages represent a promising innovative field in the food market. Contamination and development of spoilage filamentous fungi can result in loss of cereal-based food products and it is a critical safety concern due to their potential ability to produce mycotoxins. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) have been proposed as green strategy for the control of the moulds in the food industry due to their ability to produce antifungal metabolites. In this work, eighty-eight Lactobacillus plantarum strains were screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Cladosporium spp. The overlayed method was used for a preliminary discrimination of the strains as no, mild and strong inhibitors. L. plantarum isolates that displayed broad antifungal spectrum activity were further screened based on the antifungal properties of their cell-free supernatant (CFS). CFSs from L. plantarum UFG 108 and L. plantarum UFG 121, in reason of their antifungal potential, were characterized and analyzed by HPLC. Results indicated that lactic acid was produced at high concentration during the growth phase, suggesting that this metabolic aptitude, associated with the low pH, contributed to explain the highlighted antifungal phenotype. Production of phenyllactic acid was also observed. Finally, a new oat-based beverage was obtained by fermentation with the strongest antifungal strain L. plantarum UFG 121. This product was submitted or not to a thermal stabilization and artificially contaminated with F. culmorum. Samples containing L. plantarum UFG 121 showed the best biopreservative effects, since that no differences were observed in terms of some qualitative features between not or contaminated samples with F. culmorum. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the suitability of LAB

  6. Development of active CFRP/metal laminates and their demonstrations in complicated forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, H.; Nakata, T.; Tanaka, T.; Imori, M.; Haga, O.

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes development of high performance CFRP/metal active laminates and demonstrations of them in complicated forms. Various types of the laminates were made by hot-pressing of an aluminum, aluminum alloys, a stainless steel and a titanium for the metal layer as a high CTE material, a unidirectional CFRP prepreg as a low CTE/electric resistance heating material, a unidirectional KFRP prepreg as a low CTE/insulating material. The aluminum and its alloy type laminates have almost the same and the highest room temperature curvatures and they linearly change with increasing temperature up to their fabrication temperature. The curvature of the stainless steel type jumps from one to another around its fabrication temperature, whereas the titanium type causes a double curvature and its change becomes complicated. The output force of the stainless steel type attains the highest of the three under the same thickness. The aluminum type successfully increased its output force by increasing its thickness and using its alloys. The electric resistance of the CFRP layer can be used to monitor the temperature, that is, the curvature of the active laminate because the curvature is a function of temperature. The aluminum type active laminate was made into complicated forms, that is, a hatch, a stack, a coil and a lift types, and their actuation performances were successfully demonstrated.

  7. Demonstration of physical phenomenas and scavenging activity from d-psicose and methionine maillard reaction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Tiyas Suminar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction has been well understood as a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids to generate the Maillard reaction products (MRPs. This study is aimed to demonstrate the browning intensity, color development, spectra measurements, scavenging activity, and the correlation between browning intensity and scavenging activity of the MRPs generated from D-Psicose and Methionine (Psi-Met at 50℃. The browning intensity of MRPs was investigated based on the absorbance using spectrophotometer at 420 nm, the color development was observed using digital colorimeter to gained L*a*b* value then calculated as browning index, the spectra development was analyzed using spectrophotometer at 190 - 750 nm, and the scavenging activity was determined with ABTS method using spectrophotometer at 734 nm. The browning intensity, color development, and scavenging activity were improved along with the increase in heating process. Based on spectra analysis, MRPs from Psi-Met was initially detected at 21 h and Psi at 24 h of heating treatment, which indicating that Psi-Met have faster and better reaction than Psi during heating process. Positive non-linear and significant correlation between browning intensity and scavenging activity were assigned. This finding may provide beneficial information of D-psicose and MRPs to the next scientific research and to the food industries which applies MRPs in their products.

  8. Cooperation of imipramine blue and tyrosine kinase blockade demonstrates activity against chronic myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Kamilla M.E.; Berhan, Samuel; Liu, Suhu; Silvestri, Giovannino; Holyoake, Tessa L.; Frank, David A.; Aggarwal, Bharat; Bonner, Michael Y.; Perrotti, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), including nilotinib, has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However current unmet clinical needs include combating activation of additional survival signaling pathways in persistent leukemia stem cells after long-term TKI therapy. A ubiquitous signaling alteration in cancer, including CML, is activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling, which may potentiate stem cell activity and mediate resistance to both conventional chemotherapy and targeted inhibitors. We have developed a novel nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, imipramine blue (IB) that targets ROS generation. ROS levels are known to be elevated in CML with respect to normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and not corrected by TKI. We demonstrate that IB has additive benefit with nilotinib in inhibiting proliferation, viability, and clonogenic function of TKI-insensitive quiescent CD34+ CML chronic phase (CP) cells while normal CD34+ cells retained their clonogenic capacity in response to this combination therapy in vitro. Mechanistically, the pro-apoptotic activity of IB likely resides in part through its dual ability to block NF-κB and re-activate the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Combining BCR-ABL1 kinase inhibition with NADPH oxidase blockade may be beneficial in eradication of CML and worthy of further investigation. PMID:27438151

  9. Pit disassembly and conversion demonstration environmental assessment and research and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    A significant portion of the surplus plutonium is in the form of pits, a nuclear weapons component. Pits are composed of plutonium which is sealed in a metallic shell. These pits would need to be safely disassembled and permanently converted to an unclassified form that would be suitable for long-term disposition and international inspection. To determine the feasibility of an integrated pit disassembly and conversion system, a Pit Disassembly and Conversion Demonstration is proposed to take place at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This demonstration would be done in existing buildings and facilities, and would involve the disassembly of up to 250 pits and conversion of the recovered plutonium to plutonium metal ingots and plutonium dioxide. This demonstration also includes the conversion of up to 80 kilograms of clean plutonium metal to plutonium dioxide because, as part of the disposition process, some surplus plutonium metal may be converted to plutonium dioxide in the same facility as the surplus pits. The equipment to be used for the proposed demonstration addressed in this EA would use some parts of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) capability, other existing equipment/capacities, plus new equipment that was developed at other sites. In addition, small-scale R and D activities are currently underway as part of the overall surplus plutonium disposition program. These R and D activities are related to pit disassembly and conversion, MOX fuel fabrication, and immobilization (in glass and ceramic forms). They are described in Section 7.0. On May 16, 1997, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) notified potentially affected states and tribes that this EA would be prepared in accordance with NEPA. This EA has been prepared to provide sufficient information for DOE to determine whether a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is warranted or whether an EIS must be prepared

  10. Direct demonstration of the lectin activity of gp90MEL, a lymphocyte homing receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Considerable evidence implicates gp90MEL as a lymphocyte homing receptor mediating lymphocyte attachment to high endothelial venules of lymph nodes in mouse. The protein appears to function as a calcium- dependent, lectin-like receptor as inferred primarily by the ability of specific carbohydrates to block its function and by the presence of a calcium-type lectin domain in its primary sequence. An ELISA assay is described which provides the first demonstration that the isolated protein has lectin activity and allows a further definition of its carbohydrate specificity. In addition to the monosaccharides mannose-6- phosphate and fructose-1-phosphate, ligand activity is shown for the sulfated glycolipid, sulfatide, and for two sulfated fucose-containing polysaccharides (fucoidin and egg jelly coat) from nonmammalian sources. PMID:2202735

  11. The impact of initiation: Early onset marijuana smokers demonstrate altered Stroop performance and brain activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sagar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (MJ use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n = 24 and late onset (age 16 or later; n = 26, and 34 healthy control participants (HCs. All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth.

  12. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Salman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  13. Demonstration of in vitro antibacterial activity of the popular cosmetics items used by the Dhaka locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzia Akon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the antibacterial activity of cosmetic products commonly used by the community of Dhaka metropolis. Methods: A total of 10 categories of cosmetic samples (with a subtotal of 30 brands were subjected to microbiological analysis through conventional culture and biochemical tests. Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial trait in the tested samples which was further confirmed by the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Results: All samples were found to be populated with bacteria and fungi up to 105 CFU/ g and 103 CFU/g, respectively. Growth of Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. was recorded as well. Conversely, 7 out of 30 items were found to exhibit the in vitro antibacterial activity against an array of laboratory test bacterial species including Staphylococcus spp., E. coli, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella spp. and Listeria spp. Consequently, all the samples showed antibacterial activity below the concentration of 0.46 mg/mL as found in the minimum inhibitory concentration test. Conclusions: Overall, the presence of huge microbial population in cosmetic products is not acceptable from the point microbiological contamination level. The antibacterial trait of these items, in contrary, may draw an overall public health impact.

  14. Post-Spaceflight (STS-135 Mouse Splenocytes Demonstrate Altered Activation Properties and Surface Molecule Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-An Hwang

    Full Text Available Alterations in immune function have been documented during or post-spaceflight and in ground based models of microgravity. Identification of immune parameters that are dysregulated during spaceflight is an important step in mitigating crew health risks during deep space missions. The in vitro analysis of leukocyte activity post-spaceflight in both human and animal species is primarily focused on lymphocytic function. This report completes a broader spectrum analysis of mouse lymphocyte and monocyte changes post 13 days orbital flight (mission STS-135. Analysis includes an examination in surface markers for cell activation, and antigen presentation and co-stimulatory molecules. Cytokine production was measured after stimulation with T-cell mitogen or TLR-2, TLR-4, or TLR-5 agonists. Splenocyte surface marker analysis immediate post-spaceflight and after in vitro culture demonstrated unique changes in phenotypic populations between the flight mice and matched treatment ground controls. Post-spaceflight splenocytes (flight splenocytes had lower expression intensity of CD4+CD25+ and CD8+CD25+ cells, lower percentage of CD11c+MHC II+ cells, and higher percentage of CD11c+MHC I+ populations compared to ground controls. The flight splenocytes demonstrated an increase in phagocytic activity. Stimulation with ConA led to decrease in CD4+ population but increased CD4+CD25+ cells compared to ground controls. Culturing with TLR agonists led to a decrease in CD11c+ population in splenocytes isolated from flight mice compared to ground controls. Consequently, flight splenocytes with or without TLR-agonist stimulation showed a decrease in CD11c+MHC I+, CD11c+MHC II+, and CD11c+CD86+ cells compared to ground controls. Production of IFN-γ was decreased and IL-2 was increased from ConA stimulated flight splenocytes. This study demonstrated that expression of surface molecules can be affected by conditions of spaceflight and impaired responsiveness persists under

  15. Dance and Hometown Associations are Promising Strategies to Improve Physical Activity Participation Among US Nigerian Transnational Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Lamberts, Kelechi; Tshiswaka, Daudet Ilunga; Onyenekwu, Ifeyinwa; Schwingel, Andiara; Iwelunmor, Juliet

    2018-04-01

    Lack of physical activity participation has been identified as a determinant for negative health outcomes across various ethnicities worldwide and within the USA. We investigated the perceptions of the prospects of promoting dancing within hometown associations as a form for improving physical activity participation for Nigerian Transnational Immigrants (NTIs) in the USA: a migrant cohort subset of individuals who maintain cross-border ties with their indigenous communities of origin. Using PEN-3 cultural model, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 transnational African migrants (11 males and 13 females) living in Chicago to explore culturally sensitive strategies to promote physical activity participation among our target population. The findings revealed positive perceptions related to dancing that might help to promote physical activity (PA) among NTI, existential or unique perceptions related to Nigerian parties that may also play a role with PA promotion, and negative perception in the form of limited discussions about PA in Nigerian hometown associations in the USA. Results from this study highlight the need for further investigation on culturally sensitive strategies to improve physical activity and participation in diverse Black immigrant populations, specifically in the form of cultural dance and activities such as parties in which this population frequently participate in. Furthermore, hometown associations may also serve as a platform for the implementation of PA programs due to its large reach to a rather covert group.

  16. Static and Dynamic Studies of Electro-Active Polymer Actuators and Integration in a Demonstrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Poncet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the haptic effect is used and developed for many applications—particularly in the automotive industry, where the mechanical feedback induced by a haptic system enables the user to receive information while their attention is kept on the road and on driving. This article presents the development of a vibrotactile button based on printed piezoelectric polymer actuation. Firstly, the characterization of the electro-active polymer used as the actuator and the development of a model able to predict the electromechanical behavior of this device are summarized. Then, the design of circular membranes and their dynamic characterization are presented. Finally, this work is concluded with the construction of a fully functional demonstrator, integrating haptic buttons leading to a clear haptic sensation for the user.

  17. An investigation of the influence of reconceptualization of demonstrative experimental activities of optics in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Lúcio Prados Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analyze the influence that the use of demonstrative experiments can bring to the learning of optics. It is assumed that the development of experimental activities, when reconceptualized according to Hodson proposal, tends to contribute to the generation of cognitive conflicts when compared to traditional didactic experience. Justifications are given for an analysis of changes under a Piagetian bias, reconciled with Hodson proposal. The methodology used to structure the topics presentations was quasi-experimental, contrasting an experimental group with a control group. The measuring of the effectiveness of the suggested working method was made from a quantitative analysis, which identified some of the topics discussed had better results in learning, being more tied to the experiments carried out.

  18. The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) dismantling activities. Management of JPDR dismantling waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Masayoshi; Nakata, Susumu; Ito, Shinichi

    1996-01-01

    The management of wastes, both radioactive and non-radioactive, is one of the most important issues for a safe and reasonable dismantling operation of nuclear power plants. A large amount of radioactive wastes is arising from a reactor dismantling operation in a relatively short period time, ranging in a wide variety from very low level to relatively high level. Moreover non-radioactive waste is also in a huge amount. The dismantling operation of Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) resulted in 24,440 tons of dismantling wastes, of which about 15% was radioactive and 85% non-radioactive. These wastes were managed successfully implementing a well developed management plan for JPDR dismantling waste. Research and development works for handling of JPDR dismantling wastes were performed, including fixation of loose contamination on surface, volume reduction and waste containers for on-site transportation and interim storage. The JPDR dismantling wastes generated were classified and categorized depending on their materials, characteristics and activity level. Approximately 2,100 tons of radioactive wastes were stored in the interim storage facilities on site using developed containers, and 1,670 tons of radioactive concrete waste were used for a safe demonstration test of a simple near-surface disposal for very low level waste. Other dismantling wastes such as steel and concrete which were categorized as non-radioactive were recycled and reused as useful resources. This paper describes the management of the JPDR dismantling wastes. (author)

  19. 5-2-1-0 Activity and Nutrition Challenge for Elementary Students: New, Evidence-Based, Promising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Cynthia Miller

    2018-01-01

    Obesity prevention in youth is a health priority, and teaching healthy habits toward this end is one of a school nurse's many responsibilities. A school nurse developed and implemented a school-wide, 2-week-long Activity and Nutrition Challenge (ANC) using the evidence-based 5-2-1-0 initiative to prevent and fight childhood obesity. Despite…

  20. Serum Calprotectin in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Promising Diagnostic Marker, How Far Is It Related to Activity and Sonographic Findings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.E. Mansour

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Calprotectin was found to have high association with laboratory and ultrasonography markers of inflammation in RA patients, so it is recommended for use as a marker of inflammatory activity in RA patients especially for the follow-up of patients on biological therapy to assess its efficacy.

  1. Project EROS development of a new reactor concept with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides for reducing the amount and hazard of nuclear waste. Demonstration of promising P and T technology at small scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, Miloslav J.

    2005-01-01

    There have been new tendencies of significant decreasing of amount and potential danger of nuclear waste getting up in the world of nuclear power during the last decade. The development of a convenient for those purposes technology has been in fact a rehabilitation of the so called nuclear transmutation technologies well known since the beginning of the first nuclear era, however, having been evaluated in those times as technologically and therefore even economically demanding to a non-acceptable level. Therefore, an attempt to develop new modifications of those technologies under different conditions at the end of the first nuclear era has been supposed to be promising and acceptable for an efficient closing of nuclear fuel cycle. These new modified transmutation technologies should make it possible to return a fuel component contained in nuclear fuel burned up in conventional nuclear reactors back to nuclear fuel cycle and to turn a significant part of long-lived nuclear waste (heavy metals from the transuranium region) to useful energy without rests and by an irreversible way. This could be, besides other positive features, a way, which according to our contemporary knowledge could exclude or at least minimize a non-desirable misusing of those nuclear materials. A series of national projects started at the end of 80s and beginning of 90s of the last century. For all of them, at least two should be mentioned: The Japanese project OMEGA and the ADTT project of LANL, USA. There has been such a project, which follows namely the tendencies established by Charles Bowman in LANL, started also in the Czech Republic in the middle of 90s. The project, latter on called SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron fluX), has focused on the development of a burner for spent fuel from PWRs having been operated in this and some other central European countries. The principle feature of the adopted transmuter concept has been, since the very beginning of the project, the

  2. Pharmacological activation of tumor suppressor, wild-type p53 as a promising strategy to fight cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Sznarkowska

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A powerful tumor suppressor – p53 protein is a transcription factor which plays a critical role in eliciting cellular responses to a variety of stress signals, including DNA damage, hypoxia and aberrant proliferative signals, such as oncogene activation. Since its discovery thirty one years ago, p53 has been connected to tumorigenesis as it accumulates in the transformed tumor cells. Cellular stress induces stabilization of p53 and promotes, depending on the stress level, cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in the irreversibly damaged cells. The p53 protein is found inactive in more than 50�0of human tumors either by enhanced proteasomal degradation or due to the inactivating point mutations in its gene. Numerous data indicate that low molecular weight compounds, identified by molecular modeling or in the functional, cell-based assays, efficiently activate non-mutated p53 in cancer cells which in consequence leads to their elimination due to p53-dependent apoptosis. In this work we describe the structure and cellular function of p53 as well as the latest discoveries on the compounds with high anti-tumor activities aiming at reactivation of the tumor suppressor function of p53.

  3. The Ciclovia and Cicloruta Programs: Promising Interventions to Promote Physical Activity and Social Capital in Bogotá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Olga L.; Stauber, Christine; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared participants from the Ciclovia (streets temporarily closed to motorized vehicles and open for pedestrians) and Cicloruta (bicycle paths) programs in Bogotá, Colombia, to assess associations of program participation with physical activity, safety, social capital, and equity. Methods. We conducted 2 cross-sectional studies in October 2009 with intercept surveys: one among 1000 Ciclovia participants and the other among 1000 Cicloruta participants. Results. Most Ciclovia participants met the physical activity recommendation in leisure time (59.5%), and most Cicloruta participants met it by cycling for transportation (70.5%). Ciclovia participants reported a higher perception of safety (51.2% regarding traffic and 42.4% about crime) and social capital (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.4, 2.8) than did Cicloruta users. Most Cicloruta users reported living in low socioeconomic status categories (53.1%), had lower educational attainment (27%), and did not own cars (82.9%). Most Ciclovia participants reported living in middle socioeconomic status categories (64%), had low-to-middle educational attainment (51.1%), and did not own cars (66.1%). Conclusions. The Ciclovia and Cicloruta programs have the potential to equitably promote physical activity and provide a mobility alternative in complex urban settings such as Bogotá. PMID:23237179

  4. Turning Waste into Value: Nanosized Natural Plant Materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir with Promising Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharoon Griffin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous plants are known to exhibit considerable biological activities in the fields of medicine and agriculture, yet access to their active ingredients is often complicated, cumbersome and expensive. As a consequence, many plants harbouring potential drugs or green phyto-protectants go largely unnoticed, especially in poorer countries which, at the same time, are in desperate need of antimicrobial agents. As in the case of plants such as the Jericho tomato, Solanum incanum, and the common African tree Pterocarpus erinaceus, nanosizing of original plant materials may provide an interesting alternative to extensive extraction and isolation procedures. Indeed, it is straightforward to obtain considerable amounts of such common, often weed-like plants, and to mill the dried material to more or less uniform particles of microscopic and nanoscopic size. These particles exhibit activity against Steinernema feltiae or Escherichia coli, which is comparable to the ones seen for processed extracts of the same, respective plants. As S. feltiae is used as a model nematode indicative of possible phyto-protective uses in the agricultural arena, these findings also showcase the potential of nanosizing of crude “waste” plant materials for specific practical applications, especially—but not exclusively—in developing countries lacking a more sophisticated industrial infrastructure.

  5. Demonstration of sulfur solubility determinations in high waste loading, low-activity waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-25

    A method recommended by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for sulfate solubility determinations in simulated low-activity waste glasses was demonstrated using three compositions from a recent Hanford high waste loading glass study. Sodium and sulfate concentrations in the glasses increased after each re-melting step. Visual observations of the glasses during the re-melting process reflected the changes in composition. The measured compositions showed that the glasses met the targeted values. The amount of SO3 retained in the glasses after washing was relatively high, ranging from 1.6 to 2.6 weight percent (wt %). Measured SnO2 concentrations were notably low in all of the study glasses. The composition of the wash solutions should be measured in future work to determine whether SnO2 is present with the excess sulfate washed from the glass. Increases in batch size and the amount of sodium sulfate added did not have a measureable impact on the amount of sulfate retained in the glass, although this was tested for only a single glass composition. A batch size of 250 g and a sodium sulfate addition targeting 7 wt %, as recommended by PNNL, will be used in future experiments.

  6. Sustainable bio kerosene: Process routes and industrial demonstration activities in aviation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonti, David; Prussi, Matteo; Buffi, Marco; Tacconi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Routes to aviation biofuels are examined, focusing on drop-in biofuels, capable of high blend levels with fossil kerosene. • Industrial demonstration activities are reported. • Used cooking oil is considered as alternative sustainable biomass feedstock for paraffinic fuel production. - Abstract: Alternative fuels are expected to play a major role in EU in the coming years due European Directives on the promotion of renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in transports. However, while in road transports a variety of possible renewable fuels (mainly biofuels, but also electricity) can be considered, in aviation only high quality paraffinic biofuels can be adopted. This means that biomass must be converted through advanced processes into pure hydrocarbon fuels, fully compatible with the existing systems. The aviation sector is responsible for the 2% of the world anthropogenic CO 2 emissions and the 10% of the fuel consumption: airlines’ costs for fuel reach 30% of operating costs. In addition, the aviation traffic is expected to double within 15 years from 2012, while fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions should double in 25 years. Thus, more than 2 billion people and 40 Mt of good/cargo will have to be moved every year. In this context, the EU Flightpath set a target of 2 Mt per year for aviation alternative fuel by 2020 (i.e. 4% of annual fuel consumption). New processes towards bio-hydrocarbons are being developed, demonstrated and soon industrialized. The present work explores the possible routes from biomass feedstock to sustainable paraffinic fuels, either through bio or thermo-chemical processes, as well as discusses those more mature, focusing on industrial demonstration initiatives. In fact, while the number of possible options towards paraffinic biofuel production is very large, and covers both thermochemical and biochemical routes, as well as hybrid one, only two pathways are today ready for testing a significant

  7. Al or Si decorated graphene-oxide: A promising material for capture and activation of ethylene and acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Dinparast, Leila

    2018-06-01

    In this work, quantum chemical calculations are performed to compare adsorption behavior of ethylene and acetylene molecules over Al- or Si-decorated graphene oxide (Al/Si-GO). The corresponding adsorption energies, geometrical parameters and net charge-transfer values are calculated using the dispersion-corrected DFT calculations. The obtained large adsorption energies of the Al and Si atoms over GO suggest that both Al-GO and Si-GO are stable enough to be used as a stable substrate to capture and activate ethylene or acetylene. The results show that the adsorption of C2H4 or C2H2 on Al-GO is more favorable than over Si-GO surface, mainly due to the orbital interactions between the adsorbate and surface. Also, the DFT calculations reveal that the interaction of C2H2 with both surfaces is stronger than that of C2H4. Our findings are applicable for future theoretical and experimental studies about the interaction of hydrocarbons with light metal decorated graphene-based materials as well as heterogeneous catalysis.

  8. Liposomal solubilization of new 3-hydroxy-quinolinone derivatives with promising anticancer activity: a screening method to identify maximum incorporation capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Cagno, Massimiliano; Styskala, Jakub; Hlaváč, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Four new 3-hydroxy-quinolinone derivatives with promising anticancer activity could be solubilized using liposomes as vehicle to an extent that allows their in vitro and in vivo testing without use of toxic solvent(s). A screening method to identify the maximum incorporation capacity of hydrophobic......, resulting in a 200-500-fold increase in apparent solubility. Drug-to-lipid ratios in the range of 2-5 µg/mg were obtained. Interestingly, the four quinolinone derivatives have shown different association tendencies with liposomes, probably due to the physicochemical properties of the different group bonded...

  9. Rapid Biosynthesis of AgNPs Using Soil Bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii With Promising Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Jagathambal, Matheswaran; Gusev, Alexander; Torres, Juan Antonio Lopez; Kolesnikov, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2017-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are applied in various fields from electronics to biomedical applications as a result of their high surface-to-volume ratio. Even though different approaches are available for synthesis of AgNPs, a nontoxic method for the synthesis has not yet been developed. Thus, this study focused on developing an easy and ecofriendly approach to synthesize AgNPs using Azotobacter vinelandii culture extracts. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were further characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectrum, particle size distribution (PSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV absorption noticed at 435 nm showed formation of AgNPs. The XRD pattern showed a face-centered cubic structure with broad peaks of 28.2°, 32.6°, 46.6°, 55.2°, 57.9°, and 67.8°. The FTIR confirmed the involvement of various functional groups in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The PSD and TEM analyses showed spherical, well-distributed nanoparticles with an average size of 20-70 nm. The elemental studies confirmed the existence of pure AgNPs. The bacterial extract containing extracellular enzyme nitrate reductase converted silver nitrate into AgNPs. AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Streptomyces fradiae (National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM) 2419), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2127), Escherichia coli (NCIM 2065), and Serratia marcescens (NCIM 2919). In addition, biosynthesized AgNPs were found to possess strong antioxidant activity. Thus, the results of this study revealed that biosynthesized AgNPs could serve as a lead in the development of nanomedicine.

  10. Demonstrating the unit hydrograph and flow routing processes involving active student participation - a university lecture experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Karsten; Burgholzer, Reinhard; Klotz, Daniel; Wesemann, Johannes; Herrnegger, Mathew

    2018-05-01

    The unit hydrograph (UH) has been one of the most widely employed hydrological modelling techniques to predict rainfall-runoff behaviour of hydrological catchments, and is still used to this day. Its concept is based on the idea that a unit of effective precipitation per time unit (e.g. mm h-1) will always lead to a specific catchment response in runoff. Given its relevance, the UH is an important topic that is addressed in most (engineering) hydrology courses at all academic levels. While the principles of the UH seem to be simple and easy to understand, teaching experiences in the past suggest strong difficulties in students' perception of the UH theory and application. In order to facilitate a deeper understanding of the theory and application of the UH for students, we developed a simple and cheap lecture theatre experiment which involved active student participation. The seating of the students in the lecture theatre represented the hydrological catchment in its size and form. A set of plastic balls, prepared with a piece of magnetic strip to be tacked to any white/black board, each represented a unit amount of effective precipitation. The balls are evenly distributed over the lecture theatre and routed by some given rules down the catchment to the catchment outlet, where the resulting hydrograph is monitored and illustrated at the black/white board. The experiment allowed an illustration of the underlying principles of the UH, including stationarity, linearity, and superposition of the generated runoff and subsequent routing. In addition, some variations of the experimental setup extended the UH concept to demonstrate the impact of elevation, different runoff regimes, and non-uniform precipitation events on the resulting hydrograph. In summary, our own experience in the classroom, a first set of student exams, as well as student feedback and formal evaluation suggest that the integration of such an experiment deepened the learning experience by active

  11. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  12. Code Team Training: Demonstrating Adherence to AHA Guidelines During Pediatric Code Blue Activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Claire; Shoemaker, Jamie; Keller-Smith, Rachel; Edmunds, Katherine; Davis, Andrew; Tegtmeyer, Ken

    2017-10-16

    Pediatric code blue activations are infrequent events with a high mortality rate despite the best effort of code teams. The best method for training these code teams is debatable; however, it is clear that training is needed to assure adherence to American Heart Association (AHA) Resuscitation Guidelines and to prevent the decay that invariably occurs after Pediatric Advanced Life Support training. The objectives of this project were to train a multidisciplinary, multidepartmental code team and to measure this team's adherence to AHA guidelines during code simulation. Multidisciplinary code team training sessions were held using high-fidelity, in situ simulation. Sessions were held several times per month. Each session was filmed and reviewed for adherence to 5 AHA guidelines: chest compression rate, ventilation rate, chest compression fraction, use of a backboard, and use of a team leader. After the first study period, modifications were made to the code team including implementation of just-in-time training and alteration of the compression team. Thirty-eight sessions were completed, with 31 eligible for video analysis. During the first study period, 1 session adhered to all AHA guidelines. During the second study period, after alteration of the code team and implementation of just-in-time training, no sessions adhered to all AHA guidelines; however, there was an improvement in percentage of sessions adhering to ventilation rate and chest compression rate and an improvement in median ventilation rate. We present a method for training a large code team drawn from multiple hospital departments and a method of assessing code team performance. Despite subjective improvement in code team positioning, communication, and role completion and some improvement in ventilation rate and chest compression rate, we failed to consistently demonstrate improvement in adherence to all guidelines.

  13. A preliminary demonstration of "virtual warehousing" and cross-docking technique with active RFID combined with asset tracking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The University of Denvers Intermodal Transportation Institute and System Planning : Corporations GlobalTrak system have successfully demonstrated the integration of GPS : tracking and active RFID monitoring of simulated cargo of pallet and cart...

  14. Elicited vs. voluntary promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismayilov, H.; Potters, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We set up an experiment with pre-play communication to study the impact of promise elicitation by trustors from trustees on trust and trustworthiness. When given the opportunity a majority of trustors solicits a promise from the trustee. This drives up the promise making rate by trustees to almost

  15. The management of high-level radioactive waste. A survey of demonstration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The following aspects can be only indirectly demonstrated since they involve long periods of time. They have reached the degree of demonstration described below. Prediction of the physical stability of mined cavities at ambient temperatures is well understood from mining experience in salt and hard rocks such as granite. For soft rocks, the stability will depend upon the characteristics of the backfill and structural materials which can be included in predictive models. Normal and abnormal mechanisms for migration of radionuclides from repositories have been generally identified. Which of these mechanisms are relevant for the future evolution of a repository system depends on the repository site. Techniques for closure and sealing of repositories have been demonstrated, but validation of their long-term performance is lacking. The ability to construct mathematical models that predict repository and environmental behaviour over long periods of the future is now conceptually demonstrated. Some of these models are very sophisticated, but confidence is growing in their predictions. The reliability of results has been demonstrated, in some cases, by intercomparison of different modelling techniques; however, in many instances the models need validation. Generic data in support of models may, in many respects, be adequate. More data, and therefore R and D efforts concentrating on specific sites, are required to assist in the validation of some aspects of model predictions against the real world. This is an aspect of demonstration that continues to be necessary and is being pursued

  16. Simultaneous demonstration of gelatinolytic activity, morphology, and immunohistochemical reaction using zymography film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanomata, Naoki; Hasebe, Takahiro; Moriya, Takuya; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2013-12-01

    In situ zymography has been used to assess gelatinolytic activity, which is mainly due to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in cancer tissues. MMPs play an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Film in situ zymography (FIZ) enables the in situ evaluation of gelatinolytic activity with high reproducibility. In this article, we report a study of FIZ, in a case of breast cancer with an invasive carcinoma component showing clear gelatinolytic activity, and in a non-invasive carcinoma component showing little gelatinolytic activity. Immunohistochemistry on FIZ was also performed. The simultaneous detection of gelatinolytic activity and immunohistochemical reaction was established in a single film. Immunohistochemistry on FIZ may have good potential for the investigation of cancer microenvironment.

  17. Studies on the oxidizing system in Holt's medium for histochemical demonstration of esterase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Blecher, S R

    1978-01-01

    Esterase activity in guinea-pig thyroid and mouse epididymis epithelial cells has been studied using 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as substrate. The pattern of esterase activity in the thyroid of the guinea-pig is constant, irrespective of whether ferri-ferrocyanide (FFC) or certain copper compounds...... cells contain an esterase activity which is not inhibited by conventional SH blocking agents, nor by high concentrations of FFC. From these results it appears that the mode of action of FFC in Holt's medium is as follows. At low concentrations FFC appears to act primarily as a catalytic agent...... in oxidation of indoxyl to indigoid. At high concentration FFC acts as an inhibitor of guinea-pig thyroid esterase, by oxidation of SH groups in the active centre. The esterase of mouse epididymis cell type EH 1 is not subject to this inhibition by FFC, presumably because it does not contain accessible SH...

  18. A demonstration of on-line plant corrosion monitoring using thin layer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, J.; Webb, J.W.; Wilkins, N.J.M.; Lawrence, P.F.; UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Materials Development Div.)

    1981-12-01

    The corrosion of a 1 inch water pipe in an evaporative cooling system has been monitored over three periods of plant operation using thin layer activation (TLA). The corrosion rate was followed at a sensitivity of about 1 μm and clearly reflected changes in plant operation. Examination of the test section after removal, both by autoradiography and metallography revealed the extent of corrosion and pitting over the active area. (author)

  19. Polyoxygenated Cyclohexenoids with Promising α-Glycosidase Inhibitory Activity Produced by Phomopsis sp. YE3250, an Endophytic Fungus Derived from Paeonia delavayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Jiang, Bo-Guang; Li, Xiao-Nian; Wang, Ya-Ting; Liu, Si-Si; Zheng, Kai-Xuan; He, Jian; Wu, Shao-Hua

    2018-02-07

    Seven new polyoxygenated cyclohexenoids, namely, phomopoxides A-G (1-7), were isolated from the fermentation broth extract of an endophytic fungal strain Phomopsis sp. YE3250 from the medicinal plant Paeonia delavayi Franch. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic interpretation. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis and chemical derivative approach. All isolated compounds showed weak cytotoxic activities toward three human tumor cell lines (Hela, MCF-7, and NCI-H460) and weak antifungal activities against five pathogenic fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Pyricularia oryzae, Fusarium avenaceum, and Hormodendrum compactum). In addition, compounds 1-7 showed a promising α-glycosidase inhibitory activity with IC 50 values of 1.47, 1.55, 1.83, 2.76, 2.88, 3.16, and 2.94 mM, respectively, as compared with a positive control of acarbose (IC 50 = 1.22 mM).

  20. The Lytic SA Phage Demonstrate Bactericidal Activity against Mastitis Causing Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Ameer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the major causative agent of mastitis among dairy animals as it causes intramammary gland infection. Due to antibiotic resistance and contamination of antibiotics in the milk of diseased animals; alternative therapeutic agents are required to cure mastitis. Lytic bacteriophages and their gene products can be potential therapeutic agents against bacteria as they are host specific and less harmful than antibiotics. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from milk samples of the infected animals and identified biochemically. SA phage was isolated from sewage water showing lytic activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The highest lytic activity of bacteriophages was observed at 37°C and pH 7, and the most suitable storage condition was at 4°C. SA phage efficiently reduced bacterial growth in the bacterial reduction assay. The characterization and bacterial growth reduction activity of the bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus signifies their underlying potential of phage therapy against mastitis.

  1. The effect of science demonstrations as a community service activity on pre-service science teachers' teaching practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel, Derya Kaltakci

    2016-03-01

    In the scope of this study, pre-service science teachers (PSST) developed and carried out science demonstrations with everyday materials for elementary school students as a community service activity. 17 PSST enrolled in the community services practices course at Kocaeli University comprised the sample of the present study. Community service practices aim to develop consciousness of social responsibility and professional skills, as well as to gain awareness of social and community problems and find solutions for pre-service teachers. With this aim, each PSST developed five science demonstration activities and their brochures during a semester. At the end of the semester, a total of 85 demonstrations were carried out at public elementary schools, which are especially located in socioeconomically poor districts of Kocaeli, Turkey. In the present case study, the effect of developing and carrying out science demonstrations for elementary school students on six of the PSST' teaching practices on density and buoyancy concept was investigated. 30-minute interviews conducted with each PSST, videos recorded during their demonstration performances, brochures they prepared for their demonstration activities, and reflection papers were used as data collection tools of the study. The results showed that community service practices with science demonstrations had positive effects on PSST' science content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge.

  2. Histochemical demonstration of activity of acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase in bovine incisor tooth germs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Salling, E; Moe, D

    1983-01-01

    . After initiation of enamel formation, a change in localization and intensity of the colored reaction product was observed in the ameloblasts. The activity appeared stronger and was restricted to a narrow zone just apical to the nucleus. It is proposed that the acid hydrolases in the tooth forming cells...

  3. Of Heart & Kidneys: Hands-On Activities for Demonstrating Organ Function & Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in teaching organ development and disease is deconstructing a complex choreography of molecular and cellular changes over time into a linear stepwise process for students. As an entry toward learning developmental concepts, I propose two inexpensive hands-on activities to help facilitate learning of (1) how to identify defects in…

  4. Recovery of autonomic nervous activity after myocardial infarction demonstrated by short-term measurements of SDNN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been demonstrated to be a risk factor after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the present study serial measurement of SDNN (standard deviation of the mean of qualified NN-interval) in short intervals was used to assess HRV changes after AMI, and det......OBJECTIVE: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been demonstrated to be a risk factor after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the present study serial measurement of SDNN (standard deviation of the mean of qualified NN-interval) in short intervals was used to assess HRV changes after AMI......, and determine the role of these as independent risk factors compared to clinical, arrhythmic, ischemic and anamnestic variables. Measurements from a normal healthy middle-aged male population were used as reference (n = 63). METHODS: SDNN from a five-minute period during day and night-time, respectively......, was examined in 103 patients 1 week (n = 54), 1 month (n = 72) and 12-16 months (n = 54) after infarction. RESULTS: Day SDNN did not change during one-and-a-half years after AMI, and was significantly reduced compared with healthy males. Night SDNN, low after 1 week, with recovery 1 month after AMI...

  5. Demonstration of intuitive thinking in conditions of competitive activity depending on athletes' psychophysiological state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One investigated application of intuitive thinking, depending on the physiological status of skilled fighters in their competitive activity. In research members of the team of Ukraine in Greco-Roman wrestling participated. 29 effective throws were analysed reverse a capture from position orchestra. One analyzed the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in athletes of different weight categories and the distribution coefficients of correlation of psychophysiological functions of athletes directly in competition during championships of Ukraine, World and Europe. One found that expression of intuitive thinking is associated with weight category of skilled fighters. It is shown that the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in terms of competitive activity is related to physiological state, and, above all qualified wrestlers' neurodynamic functions.

  6. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant-Based Outdoor Air Preconditioning Systems, Final Report: Phase 3; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the performance of two active desiccant cooling systems that were installed as pilot systems in two locations-a college dormitory and a research laboratory-during the fall of 1999. The laboratory system was assembled in the field from commercially available Trane air-handling modules combined with a standard total energy recovery module and a customized active desiccant wheel, both produced by SEMCO. The dormitory system was a factory-built, integrated system produced by SEMCO that included both active desiccant and sensible-only recovery wheels, a direct-fired gas regeneration section, and a pre-piped Trane heat pump condensing section. Both systems were equipped with direct digital control systems, complete with full instrumentation and remote monitoring capabilities. This report includes detailed descriptions of these two systems, installation details, samples of actual performance, and estimations of the energy savings realized. These pi lot sites represent a continuation of previous active desiccant product development research (Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000). Both systems performed as anticipated, were reliable, and required minimal maintenance. The dehumidification/total-energy-recovery hybrid approach was particularly effective in all respects. System performance showed remarkable improvement in latent load handling capability and operating efficiency compared with the original conventional cooling system and with the conventional system that remained in another, identical wing of the facility. The dehumidification capacity of the pilot systems was very high, the cost of operation was very low, and the system was cost-effective, offering a simple payback for these retrofit installations of approximately 5 to 6 years. Most important, the dormitory system resolved numerous indoor air quality problems in the dormitory by providing effective humidity control and increased, continuous ventilation air

  7. In vitro demonstration of anti-lipogenic activity in serum from obese rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.B.S.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Studies with parabiosed rats provide evidence for a humoral factor, originating in obese animals, that specifically inhibits adipose lipogenesis. A bioassay was developed that allows serum from obese rats to be tested for this factor in vitro. Adipocytes are isolated from epididymal fat of 250g Sprague-Dawley rats. The cells are preincubated at 37 0 C for 1 or 12 hrs, in TC199 media containing 1.1 mg/ml glucose, 0.1 M Hepes and 2% serum. Following preincubation, the cells are washed 3 times and resuspended in serum-free media. Aliquots of cells are tested for metabolic activity in a subsequent 2 hour radiolabelled incubation in serum-free media with the addition of 0.5 μCi/ml U- 14 C-glucose. Basal, insulin (100 μU/ml) and norepinephrine (0.1 μg/ml) stimulated rates of glucose oxidation and conversion to triglyceride fatty acids are measured. Using serum from ad libitum fed rats as control, preincubation with serum from obese rats (20 days at 2 x normal intake) depressed basal and insulin stimulated glucose oxidation, and basal fatty acid synthesis. Serum from obese parabiotic rats and parabiotic partners of obese rats depressed basal fatty acid synthesis. This assay allows us to test serum for anti-lipogenic activity and may be used to identify the factor responsible for this activity in obese animals

  8. Active vibration-based SHM system: demonstration on an operating Vestas V27 wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    2016-01-01

    with the system and a 3.5 month monitoring campaign was conducted while the turbine was operating normally. During the campaign, a defect – a trailing edge opening – was artificially introduced into the blade and its size was gradually increased from the original 15 cm to 45 cm. Using an unsupervised learning......This study presents a system that is able to detect defects like cracks, leading/trailing edge opening or delamination of at least 15 cm size, remotely, without stopping the wind turbine. The system is vibration-based: mechanical energy is artificially introduced by means of an electromechanical......-to-noise ratio. At the same time, the corresponding wavelength is short enough to deliver required damage detection resolution and long enough to be able to propagate the entire blade length. The paper demonstrates the system on a 225 kW Vesta s V27 wind turbine. One blade of the wind turbine was equipped...

  9. Cover Your Cough! A Short and Simple Activity to Demonstrate the Antimicrobial Effect of Desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cook Easterwood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many undergraduate microbiology laboratory manuals include exercises demonstrating the antimicrobial effects of physical agents, such as UV light and heat, and chemical agents, such as disinfectants and antibiotics (3, 4. There is, however, a lack of exercises examining the effects of desiccation on bacterial growth and survival. This particular form of antimicrobial control is especially relevant today with an increased emphasis on coughing and sneezing into one’s sleeve or a tissue, where microbes will not contaminate hands and will eventually desiccate and die (2. Desiccation can have bacteriostatic or bactericidal effects depending on the species, the material on which the organism has desiccated, and the length of time. The absence of water can damage many cellular components, including enzymes, nucleic acids, and cell membranes (1. However, many prokaryotes have some degree of resistance to desiccation, with Escherichia coli surviving around 24 hours and Bacillus species surviving upwards of 300 years, though these numbers can vary due to a number of confounding factors (5. Some of these factors include the method by which desiccation occurred, whether desiccation occurred in a natural or laboratory situation, and the species itself (5. To address the effects of desiccation on bacterial growth and survival, a short, simple exercise was developed. By inoculating various materials with bacterial cultures and allowing them to air-dry for 24 hours, students can visualize the effects of desiccation by analyzing the growth, or lack thereof, when organisms are transferred to nutrient agar plates. This exercise has been used in a health professions microbiology course as well as a microbiology course for biology and biochemistry majors. It is short enough to be conducted during a standard lecture period or during a longer laboratory period in conjunction with other experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of physical agents on microbial

  10. The Flavin Reductase MsuE Is a Novel Nitroreductase that Can Efficiently Activate Two Promising Next-Generation Prodrugs for Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Laura K.; Storey, Mathew A. [School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Williams, Elsie M. [School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Victoria University Centre for Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Patterson, Adam V.; Smaill, Jeff B. [Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, University of Auckland, Grafton, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Copp, Janine N.; Ackerley, David F., E-mail: david.ackerley@vuw.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Victoria University Centre for Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2013-08-08

    Bacterial nitroreductase enzymes that can efficiently catalyse the oxygen-independent reduction of prodrugs originally developed to target tumour hypoxia offer great potential for expanding the therapeutic range of these molecules to aerobic tumour regions, via the emerging cancer strategy of gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT). Two promising hypoxia prodrugs for GDEPT are the dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and the nitrochloromethylbenzindoline prodrug nitro-CBI-DEI. We describe here use of a nitro-quenched fluorogenic probe to identify MsuE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a novel nitroreductase candidate for GDEPT. In SOS and bacteria-delivered enzyme prodrug cytotoxicity assays MsuE was less effective at activating CB1954 (a first-generation GDEPT prodrug) than the “gold standard” nitroreductases NfsA and NfsB from Escherichia coli. However, MsuE exhibited comparable levels of activity with PR-104A and nitro-CBI-DEI, and is the first nitroreductase outside of the NfsA and NfsB enzyme families to do so. These in vitro findings suggest that MsuE is worthy of further evaluation in in vivo models of GDEPT.

  11. Enhancement of antitumor activity of gammaretrovirus carrying IL-12 gene through genetic modification of envelope targeting HER2 receptor: a promising strategy for bladder cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y-S; Shiau, A-L; Chen, Y-F; Tsai, H-T; Tzai, T-S; Wu, C-L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an HER2-targeted, envelope-modified Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based gammaretroviral vector carrying interleukin (IL)-12 gene for bladder cancer therapy. It displayed a chimeric envelope protein containing a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody to the HER2 receptor and carried the mouse IL-12 gene. The fragment of anti-erbB2scFv was constructed into the proline-rich region of the viral envelope of the packaging vector lacking a transmembrane subunit of the carboxyl terminal region of surface subunit. As compared with envelope-unmodified gammaretroviruses, envelope-modified ones had extended viral tropism to human HER2-expressing bladder cancer cell lines, induced apoptosis, and affected cell cycle progression despite lower viral titers. Moreover, animal studies showed that envelope-modified gammaretroviruses carrying IL-12 gene exerted higher antitumor activity in terms of retarding tumor growth and prolonging the survival of tumor-bearing mice than unmodified ones, which were associated with enhanced tumor cell apoptosis as well as increased intratumoral levels of IL-12, interferon-gamma, IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha proteins. Therefore, the antitumor activity of gammaretroviruses carrying the IL-12 gene was enhanced through genetic modification of the envelope targeting HER2 receptor, which may be a promising strategy for bladder cancer therapy.

  12. The Flavin Reductase MsuE Is a Novel Nitroreductase that Can Efficiently Activate Two Promising Next-Generation Prodrugs for Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Laura K.; Storey, Mathew A.; Williams, Elsie M.; Patterson, Adam V.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Copp, Janine N.; Ackerley, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial nitroreductase enzymes that can efficiently catalyse the oxygen-independent reduction of prodrugs originally developed to target tumour hypoxia offer great potential for expanding the therapeutic range of these molecules to aerobic tumour regions, via the emerging cancer strategy of gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT). Two promising hypoxia prodrugs for GDEPT are the dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and the nitrochloromethylbenzindoline prodrug nitro-CBI-DEI. We describe here use of a nitro-quenched fluorogenic probe to identify MsuE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a novel nitroreductase candidate for GDEPT. In SOS and bacteria-delivered enzyme prodrug cytotoxicity assays MsuE was less effective at activating CB1954 (a first-generation GDEPT prodrug) than the “gold standard” nitroreductases NfsA and NfsB from Escherichia coli. However, MsuE exhibited comparable levels of activity with PR-104A and nitro-CBI-DEI, and is the first nitroreductase outside of the NfsA and NfsB enzyme families to do so. These in vitro findings suggest that MsuE is worthy of further evaluation in in vivo models of GDEPT

  13. Establishing an ISO 10001-based promise in inpatients care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ashiqur Rahman; Karapetrovic, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore ISO 10001:2007 in planning, designing and developing a customer satisfaction promise (CSP) intended for inpatients care. Through meetings and interviews with research participants, who included a program manager, unit managers and registered nurses, information about potential promises and their implementation was obtained and analyzed. A number of promises were drafted and one was finally selected to be developed as a CSP. Applying the standard required adaptation and novel interpretation. Additionally, ISO 10002:2004 (Clause 7) was used to design the feedback handling activities. A promise initially chosen for development turned out to be difficult to implement, experience that helped in selecting and developing the final promise. Research participants found the ISO 10001-based method useful and comprehensible. This paper presents a specific health care example of how to adapt a standard's guideline in establishing customer promises. The authors show how a promise can be used in alleviating an existing issue (i.e. communication between carers and patients). The learning can be beneficial in various health care settings. To the knowledge, this paper shows the first example of applying ISO 10001:2007 in a health care case. A few activities suggested by the standard are further detailed, and a new activity is introduced. The integrated use of ISO 10001:2007 and 10002:2004 is presented and how one can be "augmented" by the other is demonstrated.

  14. Keeping the Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissemore, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Since its launch in September 2015, Heads Up America has collected information on nearly 125 promise programs across the country, many of which were instituted long before President Barack Obama announced the America's College Promise (ACP) plan in 2015. At least 27 new free community college programs have launched in states, communities, and at…

  15. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography demonstrates no effect of active acromegaly on left ventricular strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volschan, I C M; Kasuki, L; Silva, C M S; Alcantara, M L; Saraiva, R M; Xavier, S S; Gadelha, M R

    2017-06-01

    Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) allows for the study of myocardial strain (ε), a marker of early and subclinical ventricular systolic dysfunction. Cardiac disease may be present in patients with acromegaly; however, STE has never been used to evaluate these patients. To evaluate left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain in patients with active acromegaly with normal LV systolic function. Cross-sectional clinical study. Patients with active acromegaly with no detectable heart disease and a control group were matched for age, gender, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus underwent STE. Global LV longitudinal ε (GLS), left ventricular mass index (LVMi), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were obtained via two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography using STE. Thirty-seven patients with active acromegaly (mean age 45.6 ± 13.8; 48.6% were males) and 48 controls were included. The mean GLS was not significantly different between the acromegaly group and the control group (in %, -20.1 ± 3.1 vs. -19.4 ± 2.2, p = 0.256). Mean LVMi was increased in the acromegaly group (in g/m 2 , 101.6 ± 27.1 vs. 73.2 ± 18.6, p Acromegaly patients, despite presenting with a higher LVMi when analyzed by 2D echocardiography, did not present with impairment in the strain when compared to a control group; this finding indicates a low chance of evolution to systolic dysfunction and agrees with recent studies that show a lower frequency of cardiac disease in these patients.

  16. Antiproliferative activity of Eremanthus crotonoides extracts and centratherin demonstrated in brain tumor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas F. R. Lobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eremanthus is recognized by the predominance of sesquiterpene lactones from the furanoheliangolide type, a class of substances extensively tested against cancer cell lines. Thus, the species E. crotonoides (DC. Sch. Bip., Asteraceae, obtained on "restinga" vegetation was evaluated against U251 and U87-MG glioma cell lines using the MTT colorimetric assay. Dichloromethane fraction was cytotoxic to both glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. We then conducted UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the dichloromethane fraction, which allowed the identification of the sesquiterpene lactones centratherin and goyazensolide. The isolation of centratherin was performed using chromatographic techniques and the identification of this substance was confirmed according to NMR data. Cytotoxic activity of centratherin alone was also evaluated against both U251 and U87-MG cells, which showed IC50 values comparable with those obtained for the commercial anticancer drug doxorubicin. All the tested samples showed cytotoxic activity against glioblastoma multiforme cells which suggests that E. crotonoides extracts may be important sources of antiproliferative substances and that the centratherin may serve as prototype for developing new antiglioblastoma drugs.

  17. Rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors demonstrate antiviral activity against African swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Astghik; Galindo, Inmaculada; Nañez, Almudena; Arabyan, Erik; Karalyan, Zaven; Chistov, Alexey A; Streshnev, Philipp P; Korshun, Vladimir A; Alonso, Covadonga; Zakaryan, Hovakim

    2018-01-01

    Rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors (RAFIs) are a family of nucleoside derivatives that inhibit the infectivity of several enveloped viruses by interacting with virion envelope lipids and inhibiting fusion between viral and cellular membranes. Here we tested the antiviral activity of two RAFIs, 5-(Perylen-3-ylethynyl)-arabino-uridine (aUY11) and 5-(Perylen-3-ylethynyl)uracil-1-acetic acid (cm1UY11) against African swine fever virus (ASFV), for which no effective vaccine is available. Both compounds displayed a potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effect on ASFV infection in Vero cells. The major antiviral effect was observed when aUY11 and cm1UY11 were added at early stages of infection and maintained during the complete viral cycle. Furthermore, virucidal assay revealed a significant extracellular anti-ASFV activity for both compounds. We also found decrease in the synthesis of early and late viral proteins in Vero cells treated with cm1UY11. Finally, the inhibitory effect of aUY11 and cm1UY11 on ASFV infection in porcine alveolar macrophages was confirmed. Overall, our study has identified novel anti-ASFV compounds with potential for future therapeutic developments.

  18. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  19. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    OpenAIRE

    D?az-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; G?mez-Caravaca, Ana Mar?a; Fern?ndez-Guti?rrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds ...

  20. Using Wavelet Entropy to Demonstrate how Mindfulness Practice Increases Coordination between Irregular Cerebral and Cardiac Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sik, Hin Hung; Gao, Junling; Fan, Jicong; Wu, Bonnie Wai Yan; Leung, Hang Kin; Hung, Yeung Sam

    2017-05-10

    In both the East and West, traditional teachings say that the mind and heart are somehow closely correlated, especially during spiritual practice. One difficulty in proving this objectively is that the natures of brain and heart activities are quite different. In this paper, we propose a methodology that uses wavelet entropy to measure the chaotic levels of both electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) data and show how this may be used to explore the potential coordination between the mind and heart under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) was used to identify the brain regions in which the EEG wavelet entropy was the most affected by the experimental conditions. As an illustration, the EEG and ECG were recorded under two different conditions (normal rest and mindful breathing) at the beginning of an 8-week standard Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training course (pretest) and after the course (posttest). Using the proposed method, the results consistently showed that the wavelet entropy of the brain EEG decreased during the MBSR mindful breathing state as compared to that during the closed-eye resting state. Similarly, a lower wavelet entropy of heartrate was found during MBSR mindful breathing. However, no difference in wavelet entropy during MBSR mindful breathing was found between the pretest and posttest. No correlation was observed between the entropy of brain waves and the entropy of heartrate during normal rest in all participants, whereas a significant correlation was observed during MBSR mindful breathing. Additionally, the most well-correlated brain regions were located in the central areas of the brain. This study provides a methodology for the establishment of evidence that mindfulness practice (i.e., mindful breathing) may increase the coordination between mind and heart activities.

  1. Demonstration of helicase activity in the nonstructural protein, NSs, of the negative-sense RNA virus, groundnut bud necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Lokesh; Abraham, Ambily; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Rana, Vipin Singh; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar; Savithri, Handanahal Subbarao

    2015-04-01

    The nonstructural protein NSs, encoded by the S RNA of groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) has earlier been shown to possess nucleic-acid-stimulated NTPase and 5' α phosphatase activity. ATP hydrolysis is an essential function of a true helicase. Therefore, NSs was tested for DNA helicase activity. The results demonstrated that GBNV NSs possesses bidirectional DNA helicase activity. An alanine mutation in the Walker A motif (K189A rNSs) decreased DNA helicase activity substantially, whereas a mutation in the Walker B motif resulted in a marginal decrease in this activity. The parallel loss of the helicase and ATPase activity in the K189A mutant confirms that NSs acts as a non-canonical DNA helicase. Furthermore, both the wild-type and K189A NSs could function as RNA silencing suppressors, demonstrating that the suppressor activity of NSs is independent of its helicase or ATPase activity. This is the first report of a true helicase from a negative-sense RNA virus.

  2. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J. Krager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3 and γ-tocotrienol (GT3 have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR. However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source.

  3. Requirements and feasibility study of flight demonstration of Active Controls Technology (ACT) on the NASA 515 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of the NASA 515 airplane as a flight demonstration vehicle, and to develop plans, schedules, and budget costs for fly-by-wire/active controls technology flight validation in the NASA 515 airplane. The preliminary design and planning were accomplished for two phases of flight validation.

  4. An Active Learning Mammalian Skeletal Muscle Lab Demonstrating Contractile and Kinetic Properties of Fast- and Slow-Twitch Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, S. I.; Arber, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The fact that humans possess fast and slow-twitch muscle in the ratio of approximately 50% has profound implications for designing exercise training strategies for power and endurance activities. With the growth of exercise and sport science courses, we have seen the need to develop an undergraduate student laboratory that demonstrates the basic…

  5. Chitosan-propolis nanoparticle formulation demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teik Hwa Ong

    Full Text Available Propolis obtained from bee hives is a natural substance with antimicrobial properties. It is limited by its insolubility in aqueous solutions; hence ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Malaysian propolis were prepared. Both the extracts displayed antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against Enterococcus faecalis, a common bacterium associated with hospital-acquired infections. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of propolis revealed the presence of flavonoids like kaempferol and pinocembrin. This study investigated the role of propolis developed into nanoparticles with chitosan for its antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against E. faecalis. Bacteria that grow in a slimy layer of biofilm are resistant to penetration by antibacterial agents. The use of nanoparticles in medicine has received attention recently due to better bioavailability, enhanced penetrative capacity and improved efficacy. A chitosan-propolis nanoformulation was chosen based on ideal physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency and the rate of release of the active ingredients. This formulation inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation and reduced the number of bacteria in the biofilm by ~90% at 200 μg/ml concentration. When tested on pre-formed biofilms, the formulation reduced bacterial number in the biofilm by ~40% and ~75% at 200 and 300 μg/ml, respectively. The formulation not only reduced bacterial numbers, but also physically disrupted the biofilm structure as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Treatment of biofilms with chitosan-propolis nanoparticles altered the expression of biofilm-associated genes in E. faecalis. The results of this study revealed that chitosan-propolis nanoformulation can be deemed as a potential anti-biofilm agent in resisting infections involving biofilm formation like chronic wounds and surgical site infections.

  6. Microbiological analysis of common preservatives used in food items and demonstration of their in vitro anti-bacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohora Sultana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the microorganisms contaminating the common preservatives used in food as well as to detect their in vitro anti-bacterial traits. Methods: A total of 9 preservatives were subjected to conventional cultural and biochemical methods for microbial enumeration. Anti-bacterial activities were demonstrated through the agar well diffusion method. Results: All samples were found to be contaminated with bacteria up to 105 CFU/g and with the fungal flora within a range of 1 01-1 02 CFU/g. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were demonstrated in most of the samples. Sodium sulfite and citric acid possessed the strongest anti-bacterial trait against all of the test bacteria. Acetic acid exhibited activity against 6 out of 8 test bacteria while vinegar exhibited the activity against 4 bacteria. Activity of salt was demonstrated only against Listeria spp. and Bacillus spp., while activity of sugar and honey was found only against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively. Conclusions: According to the current investigation, sodium sulfite and citric acid samples were found to be satisfactory preservatives both in terms of microbiological criteria and their antibacterial traits.

  7. Demonstration of innovative partitioning processes for minor actinide recycling from high active waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Geist, A.; Malmbeck, R.; Taylor, R.

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of the minor actinides (MA) using the Partitioning and Transmutation strategy (P and T) could contribute significantly to reducing the volume of high level waste in a geological repository and to decreasing the waste's longterm hazards originating from the long half-life of the actinides. Several extraction processes have been developed worldwide for the separation and recovery of MA from highly active raffinates (HAR, e.g. the PUREX raffinate). A multi-cycle separation strategy has been developed within the framework of European collaborative projects. The multi-cycle processes, on the one hand, make use of different extractants for every single process. Within the recent FP7 European research project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation), the development of new innovative separation processes with a reduced number of cycles was envisaged. In the so-called 'innovative SANEX' concept, the trivalent actinides and lanthanides are co-extracted from the PUREX raffinate by a DIAMEX like process (e.g. TODGA). Then, the loaded solvent is subjected to several stripping steps. The first one concerns selectively stripping the actinides(III) with selective water-soluble ligands (SO3-Ph-BTB), followed by the subsequent stripping of trivalent lanthanides. A more challenging route studied also within our laboratories is the direct actinide(III) separation from a PUREX-type raffinate using a mixture of CyMe 4 BTBP and TODGA as extractants, the so-called One cycle SANEX process. A new approach, which was also studied within the ACSEPT project, is the GANEX (Grouped ActiNide EXtraction) concept addressing the simultaneous partitioning of all transuranium (TRU) elements for their homogeneous recycling in advanced generation IV reactor systems. Bulk uranium is removed in the GANEX 1st cycle, e.g. using a monoamide extractant and the GANEX 2nd cycle then separates the TRU. A solvent composed of TODGA + DMDOHEMA in kerosene has been shown to

  8. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  9. The promise of cyborg intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael F; Brown, Alexander A

    2017-03-01

    Yu et al. (2016) demonstrated that algorithms designed to find efficient routes in standard mazes can be integrated with the natural processes controlling rat navigation and spatial choices, and they pointed out the promise of such "cyborg intelligence" for biorobotic applications. Here, we briefly describe Yu et al.'s work, explore its relevance to the study of comparative cognition, and indicate how work involving cyborg intelligence would benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration between behavioral scientists and engineers.

  10. Novel bacterial metabolite merochlorin A demonstrates in vitro activity against multi-drug resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Sakoulas

    Full Text Available We evaluated the in vitro activity of a merochlorin A, a novel compound with a unique carbon skeleton, against a spectrum of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens and against previously characterized clinical and laboratory Staphylococcus aureus isolates with resistance to numerous antibiotics.Merochlorin A was isolated and purified from a marine-derived actinomycete strain CNH189. Susceptibility testing for merochlorin A was performed against previously characterized human pathogens using broth microdilution and agar dilution methods. Cytotoxicity was assayed in tissue culture assays at 24 and 72 hours against human HeLa and mouse sarcoma L929 cell lines.The structure of as new antibiotic, merochlorin A, was assigned by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. Merochlorin A demonstrated in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Clostridium dificile, but not against Gram negative bacteria. In S. aureus, susceptibility was not affected by ribosomal mutations conferring linezolid resistance, mutations in dlt or mprF conferring resistance to daptomycin, accessory gene regulator knockout mutations, or the development of the vancomycin-intermediate resistant phenotype. Merochlorin A demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity against MRSA. Activity was lost in the presence of 20% serum.The unique meroterpenoid, merochlorin A demonstrated excellent in vitro activity against S. aureus and C. dificile and did not show cross-resistance to contemporary antibiotics against Gram positive organisms. The activity was, however, markedly reduced in 20% human serum. Future directions for this compound may include evaluation for topical use, coating biomedical devices, or the pursuit of chemically modified derivatives of this compound that retain activity in the presence of serum.

  11. Demonstration of the TRUEX process for the treatment of actual high activity tank waste at the INEEL using centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Todd, T.A.; Olson, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), formerly reprocessed spent nuclear fuel to recover fissionable uranium. The radioactive raffinates from the solvent extraction uranium recovery processes were converted to granular solids (calcine) in a high temperature fluidized bed. A secondary liquid waste stream was generated during the course of reprocessing, primarily from equipment decontamination between campaigns and solvent wash activities. This acidic tank waste cannot be directly calcined due to the high sodium content and has historically been blended with reprocessing raffinates or non-radioactive aluminum nitrate prior to calcination. Fuel reprocessing activities are no longer being performed at the ICPP, thereby eliminating the option of waste blending to deplete the waste inventory. Currently, approximately 5.7 million liters of high-activity waste are temporarily stored at the ICPP in large underground stainless-steel tanks. The United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare filed a Notice of Noncompliance in 1992 contending some of the underground waste storage tanks do not meet secondary containment. As part of a 1995 agreement between the State of Idaho, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Navy, the waste must be removed from the tanks by 2012. Treatment of the tank waste inventories by partitioning the radionuclides and immobilizing the resulting high-activity and low-activity waste streams is currently under evaluation. A recent peer review identified the most promising radionuclide separation technologies for evaluation. The Transuranic Extraction-(TRUEX) process was identified as a primary candidate for separation of the actinides from ICPP tank waste

  12. Activities of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme (formerly RS10) in Russia: promising results from a sub-national project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyunkina, Ekaterina S; Kliavin, Vladimir E; Gritsenko, Elena A; Petruhin, Alexandr B; Zambon, Francesco; He, Huan; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-12-01

    In Russia, the high Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) rate has been attributed to two well-known risk factors - the low rates of seatbelt and child restraints use and speeding. Despite the importance of understanding both speeding and seatbelt use patterns for the purpose of direct interventions or monitoring road safety situation, no study has assessed the current status of speeding among all vehicles and seatbelt wearing rates among all vehicle occupants in Russia. We are aware that alcohol is a known risk factor for RTI in the country however the work focused on seat belts and speed. This research was conducted as part of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme and focuses on observed speeding and seatbelt use in two Russian regions: Lipetskaya and Ivanovskaya Oblast. Data was collected through observational surveys on selected roads in the two interventions sites (Lipetskaya and Ivanovskaya Oblast) between October 2010 and March 2013. The percentage of seatbelt use by drivers and passengers and the percentage of speeding vehicles by speed limit and road types were calculated. Observational studies on speeding show signs that drivers are speeding less from the first survey held in July 2011 in Lipetskaya Oblast and March 2012 in Ivanovksya Oblast. Overall the observational studies showed a consistent reduction in the proportion of vehicles exceeding the speed limit: from 54.7% (2012) to 40.1% (2013) in Ivanovskaya Oblast and from 47.0% (2011) to 26.1% (2013) in Lipetskaya Oblast. Observational studies on seatbelt use demonstrate an increase in seatbelt wearing rates from the first survey held in October 2010 in Lipetskaya Oblast and April 2011 in Ivanovskaya Oblast. The overall prevalence of seatbelt use increased from 52.4% (2010) to 73.5% (2013) amongst all occupants in Lipetskaya Oblast and from 47.5% (2011) to 88.8% (2013) in Ivanovskaya Oblast. Preliminary results show some promising signs that speeding and seatbelt use are moving in the right

  13. Activation of substantia gelatinosa by midbrain reticular stimulation demonstrated with 2-deoxyglucose in the rat spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales-Lima, F.

    1986-01-01

    The autoradiographic ( 14 C)2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) method was used to map the descending effects of midbrain reticular stimulation on the rat cervical spinal cord. The stimulation evoked consistently a defensive 'freezing' reaction as well as a large and highly localized increase in 2-DG uptake in the substantia gelatinosa (SG)(Rexed laminae 2-3). No stimulus-induced changes in 2-DG uptake were produced in the other regions of the spinal cord. The findings represent the first anatomical demonstration of the activating effects of the spinal cord. The findings represent the first anatomical demonstration of the activating effects of midbrain reticular stimulation on the spinal cord. They also support the concept of an integrative role for the SG in descending reticular mechanisms at the spinal cord level. (author)

  14. Activation of substantia gelatinosa by midbrain reticular stimulation demonstrated with 2-deoxyglucose in the rat spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales-Lima, F

    1986-04-24

    The autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) method was used to map the descending effects of midbrain reticular stimulation on the rat cervical spinal cord. The stimulation evoked consistently a defensive 'freezing' reaction as well as a large and highly localized increase in 2-DG uptake in the substantia gelatinosa (SG)(Rexed laminae 2-3). No stimulus-induced changes in 2-DG uptake were produced in the other regions of the spinal cord. The findings represent the first anatomical demonstration of the activating effects of the spinal cord. The findings represent the first anatomical demonstration of the activating effects of midbrain reticular stimulation on the spinal cord. They also support the concept of an integrative role for the SG in descending reticular mechanisms at the spinal cord level. 12 refs.

  15. Passive Reactive Berm to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges: Field Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges Field Demonstration E nv ir on m en ta l L ab or at or y Michelle Wynter, Steven L. Larson, W.A...efficiency of 37 to 100 percent can be achieved through the process of hydroxyapatite dissolution and hydroxypyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2...al. 2006; Tardy et al. 2003; USEPA 2001a). Application of soluble or solid phase phosphate (such as hydroxyapatite , HAP) amendments have been shown

  16. Promising More Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.

  17. Demonstration of a multiscale modeling technique: prediction of the stress–strain response of light activated shape memory polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beblo, Richard V; Weiland, Lisa Mauck

    2010-01-01

    Presented is a multiscale modeling method applied to light activated shape memory polymers (LASMPs). LASMPs are a new class of shape memory polymer (SMPs) being developed for adaptive structures applications where a thermal stimulus is undesirable. LASMP developmental emphasis is placed on optical manipulation of Young's modulus. A multiscale modeling approach is employed to anticipate the soft and hard state moduli solely on the basis of a proposed molecular formulation. Employing such a model shows promise for expediting down-selection of favorable formulations for synthesis and testing, and subsequently accelerating LASMP development. An empirical adaptation of the model is also presented which has applications in system design once a formulation has been identified. The approach employs rotational isomeric state theory to build a molecular scale model of the polymer chain yielding a list of distances between the predicted crosslink locations, or r-values. The r-values are then fitted with Johnson probability density functions and used with Boltzmann statistical mechanics to predict stress as a function of the strain of the phantom polymer network. Empirical adaptation for design adds junction constraint theory to the modeling process. Junction constraint theory includes the effects of neighboring chain interactions. Empirical fitting results in numerically accurate Young's modulus predictions. The system is modular in nature and thus lends itself well to being adapted to other polymer systems and development applications

  18. Complete unconscious control: Using (in)action primes to demonstrate completely unconscious activation of inhibitory control mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores

    2018-01-01

    Although robust evidence indicates that action initiation can occur unconsciously and unintentionally, the literature on action inhibition suggests that inhibition requires both conscious thought and intentionality. In prior research demonstrating automatic inhibition in response to unconsciously processed stimuli, the unconscious stimuli had previously been consciously associated with an inhibitory response within the context of the experiment, and participants had consciously formed a goal to activate inhibition processes when presented with the stimuli (because task instructions required participants to engage in inhibition when the stimuli occurred). Therefore, prior work suggests that some amount of conscious thought and intentionality are required for inhibitory control. In the present research, we recorded event-related potentials during two go/no-go experiments in which participants were subliminally primed with general action/inaction concepts that had never been consciously associated with task-specific responses. We provide the first demonstration that inhibitory control processes can be modulated completely unconsciously and unintentionally. PMID:23747649

  19. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 receptor activation in vitro and in vivo by pro-tussive agents: GRC 17536 as a promising anti-tussive therapeutic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Mukhopadhyay

    Full Text Available Cough is a protective reflex action that helps clear the respiratory tract which is continuously exposed to airborne environmental irritants. However, chronic cough presents itself as a disease in its own right and despite its global occurrence; the molecular mechanisms responsible for cough are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential ankyrin1 (TRPA1 is robustly expressed in the neuronal as well as non-neuronal cells of the respiratory tract and is a sensor of a wide range of environmental irritants. It is fast getting acceptance as a key biological sensor of a variety of pro-tussive agents often implicated in miscellaneous chronic cough conditions. In the present study, we demonstrate in vitro direct functional activation of TRPA1 receptor by citric acid which is routinely used to evoke cough in preclinical and clinical studies. We also show for the first time that a potent and selective TRPA1 antagonist GRC 17536 inhibits citric acid induced cellular Ca(+2 influx in TRPA1 expressing cells and the citric acid induced cough response in guinea pigs. Hence our data provides a mechanistic link between TRPA1 receptor activation in vitro and cough response induced in vivo by citric acid. Furthermore, we also show evidence for TRPA1 activation in vitro by the TLR4, TLR7 and TLR8 ligands which are implicated in bacterial/respiratory virus pathogenesis often resulting in chronic cough. In conclusion, this study highlights the potential utility of TRPA1 antagonist such as GRC 17536 in the treatment of miscellaneous chronic cough conditions arising due to diverse causes but commonly driven via TRPA1.

  20. Methods for demonstration of enzyme activity in muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interface in demineralized tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Vilmann, H

    1981-01-01

    A method for demonstration of activity for ATPase and various oxidative enzymes (succinic dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic dehydrogenase) in muscle/bone sections of fixed and demineralized tissue has been developed. It was found that it is possible to preserve...... considerable amounts of the above mentioned enzymes in the muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interfaces. The best results were obtained after 20 min fixation, and 2-3 weeks of storage in MgNa2EDTA containing media. As the same technique previously has been used to describe patterns of resorption and deposition...

  1. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chalencon

    Full Text Available Competitive swimming as a physical activity results in changes to the activity level of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. However, the precise relationship between ANS activity, fatigue and sports performance remains contentious. To address this problem and build a model to support a consistent relationship, data were gathered from national and regional swimmers during two 30 consecutive-week training periods. Nocturnal ANS activity was measured weekly and quantified through wavelet transform analysis of the recorded heart rate variability. Performance was then measured through a subsequent morning 400 meters freestyle time-trial. A model was proposed where indices of fatigue were computed using Banister's two antagonistic component model of fatigue and adaptation applied to both the ANS activity and the performance. This demonstrated that a logarithmic relationship existed between performance and ANS activity for each subject. There was a high degree of model fit between the measured and calculated performance (R(2=0.84±0.14,p<0.01 and the measured and calculated High Frequency (HF power of the ANS activity (R(2=0.79±0.07, p<0.01. During the taper periods, improvements in measured performance and measured HF were strongly related. In the model, variations in performance were related to significant reductions in the level of 'Negative Influences' rather than increases in 'Positive Influences'. Furthermore, the delay needed to return to the initial performance level was highly correlated to the delay required to return to the initial HF power level (p<0.01. The delay required to reach peak performance was highly correlated to the delay required to reach the maximal level of HF power (p=0.02. Building the ANS/performance identity of a subject, including the time to peak HF, may help predict the maximal performance that could be obtained at a given time.

  2. A novel human model of the neurodegenerative disease GM1 gangliosidosis using induced pluripotent stem cells demonstrates inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mi-Young; Kwak, Jae Eun; Seol, Binna; Lee, Da Yong; Jeon, Hyejin; Cho, Yee Sook

    2015-09-01

    GM1 gangliosidosis (GM1) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the lysosomal β-galactosidase (β-gal) gene. Insufficient β-gal activity leads to abnormal accumulation of GM1 gangliosides in tissues, particularly in the central nervous system, resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Here, we report an in vitro human GM1 model, based on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Neural progenitor cells differentiated from GM1 patient-derived iPSCs (GM1-NPCs) recapitulated the biochemical and molecular phenotypes of GM1, including defective β-gal activity and increased lysosomes. Importantly, the characterization of GM1-NPCs established that GM1 is significantly associated with the activation of inflammasomes, which play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Specific inflammasome inhibitors potently alleviated the disease-related phenotypes of GM1-NPCs in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate that GM1-NPCs are a valuable in vitro human GM1 model and suggest that inflammasome activation is a novel target pathway for GM1 drug development. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Periowave demonstrates bactericidal activity against periopathogens and leads to improved clinical outcomes in the treatment of adult periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Cale N.; Andersen, Roger; Loebel, Nicolas G.

    2009-02-01

    Periodontitis affects half of the U.S. population over 50, and is the leading cause of tooth loss after 35. It is believed to be caused by growth of complex bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface below the gumline. Photodynamic therapy, a technology used commonly in antitumor applications, has more recently been shown to exhibit antimicrobial efficacy. We have demonstrated eradication of the periopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in vitro using PeriowaveTM; a commercial photodisinfection system. In addition, several clinical studies have now demonstrated the efficacy of this treatment. A pilot study in the U.S. showed that 68% of patients treated with PeriowaveTM adjunctively to scaling and root planing (SRP) showed clinical attachment level increase of >1 mm, as opposed to 30% with SRP alone. In a subsequent larger study, a second PeriowaveTM treatment 6 weeks after initial treatment led to pocket depth improvements of >1.5 mm in 89% of patients. Finally, in the most recent multicenter, randomized, examiner-blinded study conducted on 121 subjects in Canada, PeriowaveTM treatment produced highly significant gains in attachment level (0.88 mm vs. 0.57 mm; p=0.003) and pocket depth (0.87 mm vs. 0.63 mm; p=0.01) as compared to SRP alone. In summary, PeriowaveTM demonstrated strong bactericidal activity against known periopathogens, and treatment of periodontitis using this system produced significantly better clinical outcomes than SRP alone. This, along with the absence of any adverse events in patients treated to date demonstrates that PDT is a safe and effective treatment for adult chronic periodontitis.

  4. Leptospira interrogans activation of peripheral blood monocyte glycolipoprotein demonstrated in whole blood by the release of IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dorigatti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipoprotein (GLP from pathogenic serovars of Leptospira has been implicated in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis by its presence in tissues of experimental animals with leptospirosis, the inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase pump activity, and induced production of cytokines. The aims of the present study were to investigate the induction of IL-6 by GLP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and to demonstrate monocyte stimulation at the cellular level in whole blood from healthy volunteers. PBMC were stimulated with increasing concentrations (5 to 2500 ng/ml of GLP extracted from the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, lipopolysaccharide (positive control or medium (negative control, and supernatants were collected after 6, 20/24, and 48 h, and kept at -80ºC until use. Whole blood was diluted 1:1 in RPMI medium and cultivated for 6 h, with medium, GLP and lipopolysaccharide as described above. Monensin was added after the first hour of culture. Supernatant cytokine levels from PBMC were measured by ELISA and intracellular IL-6 was detected in monocytes in whole blood cultures by flow-cytometry. Monocytes were identified in whole blood on the basis of forward versus side scatter parameters and positive reactions with CD45 and CD14 antibodies. GLP ( > or = 50 ng/ml-induced IL-6 levels in supernatants were detected after 6-h incubation, reaching a peak after 20/24 h. The percentage of monocytes staining for IL-6 increased with increasing GLP concentration. Thus, our findings show a GLP-induced cellular activation by demonstrating the ability of GLP to induce IL-6 and the occurrence of monocyte activation in whole blood at the cellular level.

  5. Bovine CCL28 Mediates Chemotaxis via CCR10 and Demonstrates Direct Antimicrobial Activity against Mastitis Causing Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyler B Pallister

    Full Text Available In addition to the well characterized function of chemokines in mediating the homing and accumulation of leukocytes to tissues, some chemokines also exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. Little is known of the potential role of chemokines in bovine mammary gland health and disease. The chemokine CCL28 has previously been shown to play a key role in the homing and accumulation of IgA antibody secreting cells to the lactating murine mammary gland. CCL28 has also been shown to act as an antimicrobial peptide with activity demonstrated against a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and protozoans. Here we describe the cloning and function of bovine CCL28 and document the concentration of this chemokine in bovine milk. Bovine CCL28 was shown to mediate cellular chemotaxis via the CCR10 chemokine receptor and exhibited antimicrobial activity against a variety of bovine mastitis causing organisms. The concentration of bovine CCL28 in milk was found to be highly correlated with the lactation cycle. Highest concentrations of CCL28 were observed soon after parturition, with levels decreasing over time. These results suggest a potential role for CCL28 in the prevention/resolution of bovine mastitis.

  6. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015, testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.

  7. Promising change, delivering continuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Sungusia, Eliezeri; Mabele, Mathew Bukhi

    2017-01-01

    REDD+ is an ambition to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in the Global South. This ambition has generated unprecedented commitment of political support and financial funds for the forest-development sector. Many academics and people-centered advocacy organizations...... have conceptualized REDD+ as an example of ‘‘green grabbing” and have voiced fears of a potential global rush for land and trees. In this paper we argue that, in practice and up until now, REDD+ resembles longstanding dynamics of the development and conservation industry, where the promise of change...... becomes a discursive commodity that is constantly reproduced and used to generate value and appropriate financial resources. We thus argue for a re-conceptualization of REDD+ as a conservation fad within the broader political economy of development and conservation. We derive this argument from a study...

  8. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high. The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  9. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-05-11

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  10. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  11. PsB multiprotein complex of Dictyostelium discoideum. Demonstration of cellulose binding activity and order of protein subunit assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V; Alexander, S

    1996-06-14

    The differentiated spores of Dictyostelium are surrounded by an extracellular matrix, the spore coat, which protects them from environmental factors allowing them to remain viable for extended periods of time. This presumably is a major evolutionary advantage. This unique extracellular matrix is composed of cellulose and glycoproteins. Previous work has shown that some of these spore coat glycoproteins exist as a preassembled multiprotein complex (the PsB multiprotein complex) which is stored in the prespore vesicles (Watson, N., McGuire, V., and Alexander, S (1994) J. Cell Sci. 107, 2567-2579). Later in development, the complex is synchronously secreted from the prespore vesicles and incorporated into the spore coat. We now have shown that the PsB complex has a specific in vitro cellulose binding activity. The analysis of mutants lacking individual subunits of the PsB complex revealed the relative order of assembly of the subunit proteins and demonstrated that the protein subunits must be assembled for cellulose binding activity. These results provide a biochemical explanation for the localization of this multiprotein complex in the spore coat.

  12. Demonstration on endurance of ion exchange membrane immersed in high-concentration tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Katsumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water was demonstrated. • Degradation of Nafion backbone structure by tritium beta was similar to that by gamma rays and electron beams at an equivalent dose. • Degradation directly by radiation was dominant at room temperature compared with that by reactions with radicals produced from water radiolysis. -- Abstract: The Nafion{sup ®} ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated at room temperature for up to 2 years under the Broader Approach Activities. The curves of percent elongation at break vs. dose and tensile strength vs. dose for the Nafion membranes immersed in tritiated water were well consistent with those for Nafion membranes irradiated to an equivalent dose with gamma rays and electron beams. This shows that the degradation of Nafion backbone structure by tritium beta is similar to that by gamma rays and electron beams. The results of ferric Fenton test indicated that the degradation directly by radiation was dominant at room temperature compared with that by reactions with radicals produced from water radiolysis. The curve of ion exchange capacity vs. dose for the Nafion membranes immersed in tritiated water was also well consistent with that for Nafion membranes irradiated to an equivalent dose with gamma rays and electron beams. These results showed irradiation tests with gamma rays and electron beams were alternative for predicting degradation of ion exchange membrane by tritium beta.

  13. Methylmercury intoxication and histochemical demonstration of NADPH-diaphorase activity in the striate cortex of adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Oliveira

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of methylmercury (MeHg on histochemical demonstration of the NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d activity in the striate cortex were studied in 4 adult cats. Two animals were used as control. The contaminated animals received 50 ml milk containing 0.42 µg MeHg and 100 g fish containing 0.03 µg MeHg daily for 2 months. The level of MeHg in area 17 of intoxicated animals was 3.2 µg/g wet weight brain tissue. Two cats were perfused 24 h after the last dose (group 1 and the other animals were perfused 6 months later (group 2. After microtomy, sections were processed for NADPHd histochemistry procedures using the malic enzyme method. Dendritic branch counts were performed from camera lucida drawings for control and intoxicated animals (N = 80. Average, standard deviation and Student t-test were calculated for each data group. The concentrations of mercury (Hg in milk, fish and brain tissue were measured by acid digestion of samples, followed by reduction of total Hg in the digested sample to metallic Hg using stannous chloride followed by atomic fluorescence analysis. Only group 2 revealed a reduction of the neuropil enzyme activity and morphometric analysis showed a reduction in dendritic field area and in the number of distal dendrite branches of the NADPHd neurons in the white matter (P<0.05. These results suggest that NADPHd neurons in the white matter are more vulnerable to the long-term effects of MeHg than NADPHd neurons in the gray matter.

  14. Mice lacking melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 demonstrate increased heart rate associated with altered autonomic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrand, Annika; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Larsdotter, Sara; Mahlapuu, Margit; Andersén, Harriet; Tornell, Jan; Ohlsson, Claes; Snaith, Mike; Morgan, David G A

    2004-10-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) plays an important role in energy balance. The current studies were carried out on a new line of mice lacking the rodent MCH receptor (MCHR1(-/-) mice). These mice confirmed the previously reported lean phenotype characterized by increased energy expenditure and modestly increased caloric intake. Because MCH is expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area, which also has an important role in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, heart rate and blood pressure were measured by a telemetric method to investigate whether the increased energy expenditure in these mice might be due to altered autonomic nervous system activity. Male MCHR1(-/-) mice demonstrated a significantly increased heart rate [24-h period: wild type 495 +/- 4 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 561 +/- 8 beats/min (P dark phase: wild type 506 +/- 8 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 582 +/- 9 beats/min (P light phase: wild type 484 +/- 13 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 539 +/- 9 beats/min (P vs. MCHR1(-/-) 113 +/- 0.4 mmHg (P > 0.05)]. Locomotor activity and core body temperature were higher in the MCHR1(-/-) mice during the dark phase only and thus temporally dissociated from heart rate differences. On fasting, wild-type animals rapidly downregulated body temperature and heart rate. MCHR1(-/-) mice displayed a distinct delay in the onset of this downregulation. To investigate the mechanism underlying these differences, autonomic blockade experiments were carried out. Administration of the adrenergic antagonist metoprolol completely reversed the tachycardia seen in MCHR1(-/-) mice, suggesting an increased sympathetic tone.

  15. Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Gérard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulié, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires the development of larger aperture telescopes. The optical properties of a three-mirror modified-Rumsey design provide significant advantages when compared to other telescope designs: (i) at any wavelength, the design has a flat field and is anastigmatic; (ii) the system is extremely compact, i.e., it is almost four times shorter than a Schmidt. Compared to the equally compact flat-field Ritchey-Chrétien with a doublet-lens corrector, as developed for the Sloan digital sky survey - and which requires the polishing of six optical surfaces - the proposed modified-Rumsey design requires only a two-surface polishing and provides a better imaging quality. All the mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. Starting from the classical Rumsey design, it is shown that the use of all eight available free parameters allows the simultaneous aspherization of the primary and tertiary mirrors by active optics methods from a single deformable substrate. The continuity conditions between the primary and the tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by an intermediate narrow ring of constant thickness that is not optically used. After the polishing of a double vase form in a spherical shape, the primary-tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by in situ stressing. The tulip-form secondary is hyperbolized by stress polishing. Other active optics alternatives are possible for a space telescope. The modified-Rumsey design is of interest for developing large space- and ground-based survey telescopes in UV, visible, or IR ranges, such as currently demonstrated with the construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° field of view. Double-pass optical tests show diffraction-limited images.

  16. MFTF-progress and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1980-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) has been in construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 3 years, and most of the major subsystems are nearing completion. Recently, the scope of this project was expanded to meet new objectives, principally to reach plasma conditions corresponding to energy break-even. To fulfill this promise, the single-cell minimum-B mirror configuration will be replaced with a tandem mirror configuration (MFTF-B). The facility must accordingly be expanded to accomodate the new geometry. This paper briefly discusses the status of the major MFTF subsystems and describes how most of the technological objectives of MFTF will be demonstrated before we install the additional systems necessary to make the tandem. It also summarizes the major features of the expanded facility

  17. HOW E-LEARNING DEMONSTRATES THE FORMATION OF STUDENTS' COGNITIVE ACTIVITY IN THE TEACHING OF QUANTUM PHYSICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor V. Korsun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to prove the advisability of using the e-learning of quantum physics in the Moodle environment to help students achieve better success in this difficult subject area. The possibilities of Moodle in a distance learning environment have been analysed. E-learning tool of quantum physics in the Moodle environment has been described, and its educational opportunities have been determined. The need for material models and thought models for teaching of quantum physics has been proven. Modeling method and thought experiments explain phenomena of physics help to better understand real experiments and the essence of physics theories. The method of creation of computer models using Easy Gif Animator has been discussed. The requirements for material models have been identified, and an example of material model of Large Hadron Collider has been demonstrated. Results showed that e-learning of quantum physics increases the level of students' cognitive activity. This technique can be used for teaching other sections of physics and other natural sciences.

  18. Let Them Eat Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Thomas

    1972-01-01

    Article suggests books and films, as well as newspapers, which senior high-school students who will be voting in 1972 for the first time can study to broaden their understanding of the political parties and the electoral process. School and class activities relevant to the presidential election are also detailed. (PD)

  19. Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O'Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994

  20. Base Catalytic Approach: A Promising Technique for the Activation of Biochar for Equilibrium Sorption Studies of Copper, Cu(II Ions in Single Solute System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Bee Abdul Hamid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feasibility of catalytically pretreated biochar derived from the dried exocarp or fruit peel of mangostene with Group I alkali metal hydroxide (KOH. The pretreated char was activated in the presence of carbon dioxide gas flow at high temperature to upgrade its physiochemical properties for the removal of copper, Cu(II cations in single solute system. The effect of three independent variables, including temperature, agitation time and concentration, on sorption performance were carried out. Reaction kinetics parameters were determined by using linear regression analysis of the pseudo first, pseudo second, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. The regression co-efficient, R2 values were best for the pseudo second order kinetic model for all the concentration ranges under investigation. This implied that Cu(II cations were adsorbed mainly by chemical interactions with the surface active sites of the activated biochar. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used to interpret the equilibrium data at different temperature. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The surface area of the activated sample was 367.10 m2/g, whereas before base activation, it was only 1.22 m2/g. The results elucidated that the base pretreatment was efficient enough to yield porous carbon with an enlarged surface area, which can successfully eliminate Cu(II cations from waste water.

  1. The promising opportunity of dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Civil engineering, mechanics and waste conditioning companies are thriving around the market of nuclear facilities dismantlement which is promised to a huge development in the coming decade. This paper presents a map of the opportunities of the dismantlement market throughout Europe (research and power reactors, fuel fabrication plants, spent fuel reprocessing plants) and a cost estimation of a given dismantling work with respect to the different steps of the work. In France a small core of about twenty companies is involved in nuclear dismantlement but the French market is also looking towards foreign specialists of this activity. The British market is also targeted by the French companies but for all the actors the technological or commercial advance gained today will be determining for the future markets. (J.S.)

  2. Significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of N, W co-doped TiO2 nanomaterials for promising environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thind, Sapanbir S; Wu Guosheng; Tian Min; Chen Aicheng

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a mesoporous N, W co-doped TiO 2 photocatalyst was synthesized via a one-step solution combustion method, which utilized urea as the nitrogen source and sodium tungstate as the tungsten source. The photocatalytic activity of the N, W co-doped TiO 2 photocatalyst was significantly enhanced by a facile UV pretreatment approach and was evaluated by measuring the rate of photodegradation of Rhodamine B under both UV and visible (λ > 420) light. Following the UV pretreatment, the UV photocatalytic activity of the N, W co-doped TiO 2 was doubled. In terms of visible light activity, the UV pretreatment resulted in an extraordinary >12 fold improvement. In order to gain insight into this substantial enhancement, the N, W co-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were studied using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N 2 physisorption, UV–vis absorbance spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy prior to and following the UV pretreatment. Our experimental results have revealed that this significant augmentation of photocatalytic activity may be attributed to several synergetic factors, including increase of the specific surface area, reduction of the band gap energy and the removal of carbon impurities. (paper)

  3. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2004-03-15

    This report summarizes the investigation of two active desiccant module (ADM) pilot site installations initiated in 2001. Both pilot installations were retrofits at existing facilities served by conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that had encountered frequent humidity control, indoor air quality (IAQ), and other operational problems. Each installation involved combining a SEMCO, Inc., ADM (as described in Fischer and Sand 2002) with a standard packaged rooftop unit built by the Trane Company. A direct digital control (DDC) system integral to the ADM performed the dual function of controlling the ADM/rooftop combination and facilitating data collection, trending, and remote performance monitoring. The first installation involved providing preconditioned outdoor air to replace air exhausted from the large kitchen hood and bathrooms of a Hooters restaurant located in Rome, Georgia. This facility had previously added an additional rooftop unit in an attempt to achieve occupant comfort without success. The second involved conditioning the outdoor air delivered to each room of a wing of the Mountain Creek Inn at the Callaway Gardens resort. This hotel, designed in the ''motor lodge'' format with each room opening to the outdoors, is located in southwest Georgia. Controlling the space humidity always presented a serious challenge. Uncomfortable conditions and musty odors had caused many guests to request to move to other areas within the resort. This is the first field demonstration performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory where significant energy savings, operating cost savings, and dramatically improved indoor environmental conditions can all be claimed as the results of a retrofit desiccant equipment field installation. The ADM/rooftop combination installed at the restaurant resulted in a reduction of about 34% in the electricity used by the building's air-conditioning system. This represents a reduction of

  4. Reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposite as a promising visible-light-active photocatalyst for the conversion of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lling-Lling; Ong, Wee-Jun; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-11-01

    Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into hydrocarbon fuels such as methane is an attractive strategy for simultaneously harvesting solar energy and capturing this major greenhouse gas. Incessant research interest has been devoted to preparing graphene-based semiconductor nanocomposites as photocatalysts for a variety of applications. In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-TiO2 hybrid nanocrystals were fabricated through a novel and simple solvothermal synthetic route. Anatase TiO2 particles with an average diameter of 12 nm were uniformly dispersed on the rGO sheet. Slow hydrolysis reaction was successfully attained through the use of ethylene glycol and acetic acid mixed solvents coupled with an additional cooling step. The prepared rGO-TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited superior photocatalytic activity (0.135 μmol gcat -1 h-1) in the reduction of CO2 over graphite oxide and pure anatase. The intimate contact between TiO2 and rGO was proposed to accelerate the transfer of photogenerated electrons on TiO2 to rGO, leading to an effective charge anti-recombination and thus enhancing the photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, our photocatalysts were found to be active even under the irradiation of low-power energy-saving light bulbs, which renders the entire process economically and practically feasible.

  5. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  8. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a comparative study of demonstrative forms in three K wa languages, ... relative distance from the deictic centre, such as English this and that, here and there. ... Mostly, the referents of demonstratives are 'activated' or at least.

  9. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  10. Promises and Challenges in Continuous Tracking Utilizing Amino Acids in Skin Secretions for Active Multi-Factor Biometric Authentication for Cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Juliana; Privman, Vladimir; Halámek, Jan

    2017-07-05

    We consider a new concept of biometric-based cybersecurity systems for active authentication by continuous tracking, which utilizes biochemical processing of metabolites present in skin secretions. Skin secretions contain a large number of metabolites and small molecules that can be targeted for analysis. Here we argue that amino acids found in sweat can be exploited for the establishment of an amino acid profile capable of identifying an individual user of a mobile or wearable device. Individual and combinations of amino acids processed by biocatalytic cascades yield physical (optical or electronic) signals, providing a time-series of several outputs that, in their entirety, should suffice to authenticate a specific user based on standard statistical criteria. Initial results, motivated by biometrics, indicate that single amino acid levels can provide analog signals that vary according to the individual donor, albeit with limited resolution versus noise. However, some such assays offer digital separation (into well-defined ranges of values) according to groups such as age, biological sex, race, and physiological state of the individual. Multi-input biocatalytic cascades that handle several amino acid signals to yield a single digital-type output, as well as continuous-tracking time-series data rather than a single-instance sample, should enable active authentication at the level of an individual. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Promising pesticide results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Virotec Global Solutions has announced what it believes is the first successful destruction of intractable organochlorine pesticide contamination in industrial wastewater. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, otherwise known as DDT, is one of the most intractable and persistent chemical compounds known to man. In February remediation specialist Virotec reported it had been successful in reducing DDT contaminant levels. In addition to destroying DDT in wastewater, Virotec showed its ViroFlow Technology can reduce levels of two DDT metabolites (or breakdown products), DDD and DDE, along with an organo-phosphate insecticide called chlorpyrifos. Virotec was commissioned by a large pesticide and fertiliser company to find a way of using its ViroFlow suite of products to reliably reduce high levels of pesticides and heavy metals from wastewater and stormwater at an industrial site. “Along with our strategic partner Green Shadows Commercial from Tasmania, we were able to successfully reduce DDT from 108 parts per billion to under two parts per billion in industrial wastewater using a combination of ozofractionation and ElectroBind reagent,” said business development manager Gisela Barros. “In addition, we were successful in demonstrating similar reductions in Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) from 15.2 parts per billion to under 0.5 parts per billion, and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) from one part per billion to under accurate to around 0.5 parts per billion.” The level of detection for pesticides was 0.5 parts per billion (ppb). In addition, ViroFlow reduced chlorpyrifos from 7,972 ppb to 6.4 ppb, arsenic (a key ingredient in pesticide composition) from 0.13 parts per million (ppm) to 0.002 ppm, and zinc from 0.35 ppm to less than 0.005 ppm. “The significance of these findings cannot be overstated,” Barros said. “DDT and its metabolites are among the most persistent and toxic contaminants to be found in soil and groundwater and

  12. Oxidized template-synthesized mesoporous carbon with pH-dependent adsorption activity: A promising adsorbent for removal of hydrophilic ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Cao, Wugang; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.; Qu, Xiaolei; Fu, Heyun; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2018-05-01

    Aiming to remove ionic liquid pollutants from water, an ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 (OMC) was prepared and modified by oxidation with nitric acid. A commercial microporous activated carbon adsorbent, Filtrasorb-300 (AC), was used as benchmark. Boehm titration showed that oxidized OMC had a substantially higher oxygen content than oxidized AC. Adsorption of the hydrophilic imidazolium-based ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) on OMC and AC was well-described by the Freundlich isotherm model. Surface oxidation markedly enhanced [Bmim]Cl adsorption by both OMC and AC. Nevertheless, [Bmim]Cl adsorption was much higher on oxidized OMC than on oxidized AC. Increasing pH had negligible influence on [Bmim]Cl adsorption on pristine OMC, but enhanced adsorption on oxidized OMC. Regeneration tests showed stable performance of oxidized OMC over five adsorption-desorption cycles. Thus, oxidized OMC can be a highly effective adsorbent for the removal of hydrophilic ionic liquids from water.

  13. Biochemical and molecular characterization of a serine keratinase from Brevibacillus brevis US575 with promising keratin-biodegradation and hide-dehairing activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Zaraî Jaouadi

    Full Text Available Dehairing is one of the highly polluting operations in the leather industry. The conventional lime-sulfide process used for dehairing produces large amounts of sulfide, which poses serious toxicity and disposal problems. This operation also involves hair destruction, a process that leads to increased chemical oxygen demand (COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD, and total suspended solid (TSS loads in the effluent. With these concerns in mind, enzyme-assisted dehairing has often been proposed as an alternative method. The main enzyme preparations so far used involved keratinases. The present paper reports on the purification of an extracellular keratinase (KERUS newly isolated from Brevibacillus brevis strain US575. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 29121.11 Da. The sequence of the 27 N-terminal residues of KERUS showed high homology with those of Bacillus keratinases. Optimal activity was achieved at pH 8 and 40°C. Its thermoactivity and thermostability were upgraded in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+. The enzyme was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF and diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP, which suggests that it belongs to the serine protease family. KERUS displayed higher levels of hydrolysis, substrate specificity, and catalytic efficiency than NUE 12 MG and KOROPON® MK EG keratinases. The enzyme also exhibited powerful keratinolytic activity that made it able to accomplish the entire feather-biodegradation process on its own. The kerUS gene encoding KERUS was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The biochemical properties of the extracellular purified recombinant enzyme (rKERUS were similar to those of native KERUS. Overall, the findings provide strong support for the potential candidacy of this enzyme as an effective and eco-friendly alternative to the conventional

  14. Promising biocidal activity of thymol loaded chitosan silver nanoparticles (T-C@AgNPs) as anti-infective agents against perilous pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukumar, H M; Umesha, S; Kumar, H N Naveen

    2017-09-01

    The advent of biodegradable polymer-encapsulated drug nanoparticles has made an exciting area of drug delivery research. The present study investigated novel and simple route for synthesis of thymol loaded chitosan silver nanoparticles (T-C@AgNPs) using chitosan and thymol as reducing, capping agent respectively to understand the therapeutic efficacy. The UV-vis spectroscopy, DLS, FT-IR, SEM, EDS, XRD used for characterization and radical scavenging activity, anti-microbial and biocompatibility was taken to ascertain an efficacy of novel T-C@AgNPs. The T-C@AgNPs intense peak at 490nm indicates the formation of nanoparticles and had average particle size of 28.94nm with spherical shape, monodisperse state in water, also exhibited excellent biocompatibility of cubic shaped pure silver element containing T-C@AgNPs. The antibacterial activity was studied for gram positive and gram negative food-borne pathogens and effective inhibition at 100μgmL -1 to S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus (10.08, 10.00, 11.23mm) and S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa and S. flexneri (9.28, 9.33, 12.03mm) compared to antibiotic Streptomycin. This study revealed the efficacy against multiple food-borne pathogens and therapeutic efficacy of T-C@AgNPs offers a valuable contribution in the area of nanotechnology. This proved to be a first-class novel antimicrobial material for the first time in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming As A Supplementary Treatment For Hanford's Low Activity Waste And Secondary Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  16. Review of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: promising novel imaging technique to resolve neuronal network activity and identify cellular biomarkers of psychiatric disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2014-09-22

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has recently emerged as a new powerful quantitative imaging technique well suited to noninvasively explore a transparent specimen with a nanometric axial sensitivity. In this review, we expose the recent developments of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM). Quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM) represents an important and efficient quantitative phase method to explore cell structure and dynamics. In a second part, the most relevant QPM applications in the field of cell biology are summarized. A particular emphasis is placed on the original biological information, which can be derived from the quantitative phase signal. In a third part, recent applications obtained, with QP-DHM in the field of cellular neuroscience, namely the possibility to optically resolve neuronal network activity and spine dynamics, are presented. Furthermore, potential applications of QPM related to psychiatry through the identification of new and original cell biomarkers that, when combined with a range of other biomarkers, could significantly contribute to the determination of high risk developmental trajectories for psychiatric disorders, are discussed.

  17. Study of Education Satellite Communication Demonstration. Third Quarterly Progress Report. Report of Activities and Accomplishments January 11, 1975 to April 10, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syracuse Univ. Research Corp., NY. Educational Policy Research Center.

    A report on the Education Satellite Communication Demonstration (ESCD) describes activities of the evaluators during the first quarter of 1975, including staff trips and site visits and activities of various staff members. A calendar of future events in satellites, telecommunications, and education is included, with revision on dates and new…

  18. First results on DEPFET Active Pixel Sensors fabricated in a CMOS foundry—a promising approach for new detector development and scientific instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschauer, S.; Majewski, P.; Lutz, G.; Soltau, H.; Holl, P.; Hartmann, R.; Schlosser, D.; Paschen, U.; Weyers, S.; Dreiner, S.; Klusmann, M.; Hauser, J.; Kalok, D.; Bechteler, A.; Heinzinger, K.; Porro, M.; Titze, B.; Strüder, L.

    2017-11-01

    DEPFET Active Pixel Sensors (APS) have been introduced as focal plane detectors for X-ray astronomy already in 1996. Fabricated on high resistivity, fully depleted silicon and back-illuminated they can provide high quantum efficiency and low noise operation even at very high read rates. In 2009 a new type of DEPFET APS, the DSSC (DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression) was developed, which is dedicated to high-speed X-ray imaging at the European X-ray free electron laser facility (EuXFEL) in Hamburg. In order to resolve the enormous contrasts occurring in Free Electron Laser (FEL) experiments, this new DSSC-DEPFET sensor has the capability of nonlinear amplification, that is, high gain for low intensities in order to obtain single-photon detection capability, and reduced gain for high intensities to achieve high dynamic range for several thousand photons per pixel and frame. We call this property "signal compression". Starting in 2015, we have been fabricating DEPFET sensors in an industrial scale CMOS foundry maintaining the outstanding proven DEPFET properties and adding new capabilities due to the industrial-scale CMOS process. We will highlight these additional features and describe the progress achieved so far. In a first attempt on double-sided polished 725 μm thick 200 mm high resistivity float zone silicon wafers all relevant device related properties have been measured, such as leakage current, depletion voltage, transistor characteristics, noise and energy resolution for X-rays and the nonlinear response. The smaller feature size provided by the new technology allows for an advanced design and significant improvements in device performance. A brief summary of the present status will be given as well as an outlook on next steps and future perspectives.

  19. Community-based physical activity intervention using principles of social marketing: a demonstration project in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subitha, L; Soudarssanane, M Bala; Murugesan, R

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to study the development and implementation of promotion of physical activity in a rural community by applying the principles of social marketing and to determine participation behaviour in a physical activity programme in a community setting. The intervention targeted 485 people, 20-49 years of age, residents of Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam villages, Tamil Nadu. This community-based participatory research was based on the principles of 'social marketing'. Health education by one-to-one counselling, written materials and community events were used to popularize moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on 4 days/week). We formed 30 walking groups under four coordinators, in a home-based setting with professional supervision and guidance. A log of physical activity sessions for the 10-week intervention period was maintained in the form of group attendance record. Village leaders, self-help groups and youth clubs were involved in promoting physical activity. Of the 485 subjects, 265 people (54.6%) engaged in brisk walking >4 days a week, while 156 subjects (32.2%) performed walking on 1-4 days per week during the intervention. The drop-out rate was 13.2% (64 subjects). Age, occupation and educational status were important determinants of participation and adherence to the physical activity programme. Application of social marketing techniques in an intervention to promote physical activity was successful in a rural Indian community. Studying the determinants of adoption of a physical activity programme and addressing the barriers to behaviour change are essential for designing relevant policies and effective programmes. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  20. Demonstration of In Situ Treatment with Reactive Amendments for Contaminated Sediments in Active DoD Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Anthony Thurman, Larry Hsu, Lesley Doyle, and Patty Masino of Code 106; and Robert Miller, John Bartlett, and other members of the Dive Team; Puget...biological activity ( burrows , voids, or actual animals) were viewed in the images and the maximum biological mixing depth was determined (Germano and...underlying sediment by the burrowing activities of resident infauna and other mixing processes (Germano and Associates 2014a). Visual evidence of

  1. Observing Exoplanets with High-dispersion Coronagraphy. II. Demonstration of an Active Single-mode Fiber Injection Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawet, D.; Ruane, G.; Xuan, W.; Echeverri, D.; Klimovich, N.; Randolph, M.; Fucik, J.; Wang, J.; Dekany, R.; Delorme, J.-R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wallace, J. K.; Vasisht, G.; Mennesson, B.; Choquet, E.; Serabyn, E., E-mail: dmawet@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    High-dispersion coronagraphy (HDC) optimally combines high-contrast imaging techniques such as adaptive optics/wavefront control plus coronagraphy to high spectral resolution spectroscopy. HDC is a critical pathway toward fully characterizing exoplanet atmospheres across a broad range of masses from giant gaseous planets down to Earth-like planets. In addition to determining the molecular composition of exoplanet atmospheres, HDC also enables Doppler mapping of atmosphere inhomogeneities (temperature, clouds, wind), as well as precise measurements of exoplanet rotational velocities. Here, we demonstrate an innovative concept for injecting the directly imaged planet light into a single-mode fiber, linking a high-contrast adaptively corrected coronagraph to a high-resolution spectrograph (diffraction-limited or not). Our laboratory demonstration includes three key milestones: close-to-theoretical injection efficiency, accurate pointing and tracking, and on-fiber coherent modulation and speckle nulling of spurious starlight signal coupling into the fiber. Using the extreme modal selectivity of single-mode fibers, we also demonstrated speckle suppression gains that outperform conventional image-based speckle nulling by at least two orders of magnitude.

  2. Objective measurements of activity patterns in people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes demonstrate a sedentary lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, S L; Fleischer, J; Hoeyem, P; Laugesen, E; Poulsen, P L; Christiansen, J S; Ejskjær, N; Hansen, T K

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate physical activity in people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes using objective measures. We analysed data from a study aimed at assessing carotid femoral pulse wave velocity in which a piezoelectric accelerometer was worn by 100 people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes and by 100 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Differences in physical activity patterns were investigated. Compared with the control group, the people with Type 2 diabetes spent significantly more time engaged in sedentary or lower level activities during the day, with a mean (sd) time of 926 (44) vs 898 (70) min, P sedentary lifestyle compared with well-matched controls. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  3. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transpot project-demonstration act system definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Crumb, C. B.; Flora, C. C.; Macdonald, K. A. B.; Smith, R. D.; Sassi, A. P.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The 1985 ACT airplane is the Final Active Controls Technology (ACT) Airplane with the addition of three-axis fly by wire. Thus it retains all the efficiency features of the full ACT system plus the weight and cost savings accruing from deletion of the mechanical control system. The control system implements the full IAAC spectrum of active controls except flutter-mode control, judged essentially nonbeneficial, and incorporates new control surfaces called flaperons to make the most of wing-load alleviation. This redundant electronic system is conservatively designed to preserve the extreme reliability required of crucial short-period pitch augmentation, which provides more than half of the fuel savings.

  4. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.

  5. New insights into selective PDE4D inhibitors: 3-(Cyclopentyloxy)-4-methoxybenzaldehyde O-(2-(2,6-dimethylmorpholino)-2-oxoethyl) oxime (GEBR-7b) structural development and promising activities to restore memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brullo, Chiara; Ricciarelli, Roberta; Prickaerts, Jos; Arancio, Ottavio; Massa, Matteo; Rotolo, Chiara; Romussi, Alessia; Rebosio, Claudia; Marengo, Barbara; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; van Hagen, Britt T J; van Goethem, Nick P; D'Ursi, Pasqualina; Orro, Alessandro; Milanesi, Luciano; Guariento, Sara; Cichero, Elena; Fossa, Paola; Fedele, Ernesto; Bruno, Olga

    2016-11-29

    Phosphodiesterase type 4D (PDE4D) has been indicated as a promising target for treating neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). By preventing cAMP hydrolysis, PDE4 inhibitors (PDE4Is) increase the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. Pharmacological and behavioral studies on our hit GEBR-7b demonstrated that selective PDE4DIs could improve memory without causing emesis and sedation. The hit development led to new molecule series, herein reported, characterized by a catechol structure bonded to five member heterocycles. Molecular modeling studies highlighted the pivotal role of a polar alkyl chain in conferring selective enzyme interaction. Compound 8a showed PDE4D3 selective inhibition and was able to increase intracellular cAMP levels in neuronal cells, as well as in the hippocampus of freely moving rats. Furthermore, 8a was able to readily cross the blood-brain barrier and enhanced memory performance in mice without causing any emetic-like behavior. These data support the view that PDE4D is an adequate molecular target to restore memory deficits in different neuropathologies, including AD, and also indicate compound 8a as a promising candidate for further preclinical development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Promising carbons for supercapacitors derived from fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 (China)

    2011-06-24

    Activated carbons with promising performance in capacitors are produced from fungi via a hydrothermal assistant pyrolysis approach. This study introduces a facile strategy to discover carbonaceous materials and triggers interest in exploring fungi for material science applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) dismantling activities. Dismantling of the reactor enclosure and the auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiki, Yoshihiro; Kubo, Takashi.

    1996-01-01

    As the final stage of the JPDR decommissioning program, after the major components were removed from each building of JPDR, the dismantling activities proceeded to the decontamination of contaminated concrete surface and the final radiation survey of buildings. These activities were conducted to verify the developed techniques and the detailed procedures for decontamination, and to allow unrestricted use of the JPDR buildings. Following the decontamination of buildings, the dismantling of each building was started. Before dismantling the buildings, the radiation control designations were changed. The buildings that contaminated embedded pipes were changed from first-class radiation controlled areas to second-class radiation controlled areas. On the other hand, the buildings that had no contaminated pipes were changed to uncontrolled areas. A first-class radiation controlled area allows the use of unsealed sources ; thus, radioactive contamination may exist. A second-class radiation controlled area is one where only sealed sources are allowed. Significant quantities of data and experience were obtained during these activities. The practical procedures for decontamination, the final survey of radioactivity, and the dismantling work of buildings were described in this report. (author)

  8. Mice heterozygous for the Mdr2 gene demonstrate decreased PEMT activity and diminished steatohepatitis on the MCD diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igolnikov, Alexander C; Green, Richard M

    2006-03-01

    The administration of a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet to mice serves as an animal model of NASH. The multidrug resistant 2 (Mdr2) P-glycoprotein encodes for the canalicular phospholipid transporter, and Mdr2 (+/-) mice secrete 40% less phosphatidylcholine than wild-type mice. We have hypothesized that phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase (PEMT) up-regulation is a consequence of MCD diet administration, and is important for the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis in this model. However, the effect of decreased phosphatidylcholine secretion and modulation of PEMT on the development of diet-induced steatohepatitis in Mdr2 (+/-) mice has not been explored. Thus, the purpose of the study is to examine the effects of the MCD diet on Mdr2 (+/-) mice. Mdr2 (+/-) and Mdr2 (+/+) mice were treated with an MCD or control diet for up to 30 days, and the severity of steatohepatitis, PEMT activity and hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) levels were measured. Serum ALT levels, hepatic inflammation, and PEMT activity were significantly lower, and hepatic SAM:SAH ratios were significantly higher in Mdr2 (+/-) mice at 7 and 30 days on the MCD diet. Mdr2 (+/-) mice have diminished susceptibility to MCD diet-induced NASH, which is associated with a relative decrease in PEMT activity and increased SAM:SAH ratios.

  9. Influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution in healthy participants and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Duprez, Joan; Naudet, Florian; Argaud, Soizic; Dondaine, Thibaut; Drapier, Sophie; Robert, Gabriel Hadrien; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-08-15

    The influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes is not clearly defined in the literature, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Some studies have shown no effect of reward, while others have demonstrated a beneficial influence. In addition, although the basal ganglia are known to play a critical role in the association between motivation and cognition, the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes in Parkinson's disease (PD) has received little attention. In this context, we assessed the influence of promised rewards on both impulse activation and suppression in 36 healthy participants and 36 patients with PD, using a rewarded Simon task. Analysis of performances revealed that promised rewards worsened the overall congruence effect, but only in healthy participants. Although the incentive context did not modulate the congruence effect in patients, by using the activation-suppression model, we were able to show that promised rewards did influence impulse suppression in patients-but not in healthy participants. Suppressing inappropriate response activation in an incentive context appears to be harder in medically treated Parkinson's disease. This indicates that incentive motivation can modulate at least one cognitive process involved in cognitive action control in patients with medically treated PD. The activation-suppression model provides essential additional information concerning the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes in a pathological population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing habitat risk from human activities to inform coastal and marine spatial planning: a demonstration in Belize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkema, Katie K; Wood, Spencer A; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Verutes, Gregory; Rosenthal, Amy; Bernhardt, Joanna R; Clarke, Chantalle; Rosado, Samir; Canto, Maritza; McField, Melanie; De Zegher, Joann

    2014-01-01

    Integrated coastal and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on marine environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform the design of the country’s first Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan. Based on extensive stakeholder engagement, review of existing legislation and data collected from diverse sources, we map the current distribution of coastal and ocean activities and develop three scenarios for zoning these activities in the future. We then estimate ecosystem risk under the current and three future scenarios. Current levels of risk vary spatially among the nine coastal planning regions in Belize. Empirical tests of the model are strong—three-quarters of the measured data for coral reef health lie within the 95% confidence interval of interpolated model data and 79% of the predicted mangrove occurrences are associated with observed responses. The future scenario that harmonizes conservation and development goals results in a 20% reduction in the area of high-risk habitat compared to the current scenario, while increasing the extent of several ocean uses. Our results are a component of the ICZM Plan for Belize that will undergo review by the national legislature in 2015. This application of our model to marine spatial planning in Belize illustrates an approach that can be used broadly by coastal and ocean planners to assess risk to habitats under current and future management scenarios. (letter)

  11. Political Reputations and Campaign Promises

    OpenAIRE

    Aragones, Enriqueta; Palfrey, Thomas R.; Postlewaite, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    We analyze conditions under which candidates' reputations may affect voters' beliefs over what policy will be implemented by the winning candidate of an election. We develop a model of repeated elections with complete information in which candidates are purely ideological. We analyze an equilibrium in which voters' strategies involve a credible threat to punish candidates who renege on their campaign promises and in which all campaign promises are believed by voters and honored by candidates....

  12. Novel anti-Sialyl-Tn monoclonal antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates demonstrate tumor specificity and anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Jillian M; Galvao da Silva, Ana Paula; Eavarone, David A; Ghaderi, Darius; Zhang, Mai; Brady, Dane; Wicks, Joan; DeSander, Julie; Behrens, Jeff; Rueda, Bo R

    Targeted therapeutics that can differentiate between normal and malignant tumor cells represent the ideal standard for the development of a successful anti-cancer strategy. The Sialyl-Thomsen-nouveau antigen (STn or Sialyl-Tn, also known as CD175s) is rarely seen in normal adult tissues, but it is abundantly expressed in many types of human epithelial cancers. We have identified novel antibodies that specifically target with high affinity the STn glycan independent of its carrier protein, affording the potential to recognize a wider array of cancer-specific sialylated proteins. A panel of murine monoclonal anti-STn therapeutic antibodies were generated and their binding specificity and efficacy were characterized in vitro and in in vivo murine cancer models. A subset of these antibodies were conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) to generate antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). These ADCs demonstrated in vitro efficacy in STn-expressing cell lines and significant tumor growth inhibition in STn-expressing tumor xenograft cancer models with no evidence of overt toxicity.

  13. Cortical activation in profoundly deaf patients during cochlear implant stimulation demonstrated by H2(15)O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, H.; Lamprecht, A.; Kuehn, A.R.; Roden, W.; Vosteen, K.H.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are used to provide sensations of sound to profoundly deaf patients. The performance of the CI is assessed mainly by the subjective reports of patients. The aim of this study was to look for objective cortical responses to the stimulation of the CI. Two postlingually and two prelingually deaf patients were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) using 15 O-labeled water (H 2 15 O) to determine the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Instead of quantifying rCBF in absolute terms, it was estimated by referring the regional tissue concentration of H 2 15 O to the mean whole brain concentration. CI stimulation encoded from white noise and sequential words led to an increased rCBF in the primary and secondary (Wernicke) auditory cortex. Relative elevations of up to 33% were observed bilaterally, although they were higher contralateral to the CI. These results were obtained not only in the postlingually deaf patients but also in two patients who had never been able to hear. Thus, it could be demonstrated that PET measurements of cerebral H 2 15 O distribution yield objective responses of the central auditory system during electrical stimulation by CIs in profoundly deaf patients

  14. Neural basis of moral elevation demonstrated through inter-subject synchronization of cortical activity during free-viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë A Englander

    Full Text Available Most research investigating the neural basis of social emotions has examined emotions that give rise to negative evaluations of others (e.g. anger, disgust. Emotions triggered by the virtues and excellences of others have been largely ignored. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of two "other-praising" emotions--Moral Elevation (a response to witnessing acts of moral beauty, and Admiration (which we restricted to admiration for physical skill.Ten participants viewed the same nine video clips. Three clips elicited moral elevation, three elicited admiration, and three were emotionally neutral. We then performed pair-wise voxel-by-voxel correlations of the BOLD signal between individuals for each video clip and a separate resting-state run. We observed a high degree of inter-subject synchronization, regardless of stimulus type, across several brain regions during free-viewing of videos. Videos in the elevation condition evoked significant inter-subject synchronization in brain regions previously implicated in self-referential and interoceptive processes, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and insula. The degree of synchronization was highly variable over the course of the videos, with the strongest synchrony occurring during portions of the videos that were independently rated as most emotionally arousing. Synchrony in these same brain regions was not consistently observed during the admiration videos, and was absent for the neutral videos.Results suggest that the neural systems supporting moral elevation are remarkably consistent across subjects viewing the same emotional content. We demonstrate that model-free techniques such as inter-subject synchronization may be a useful tool for studying complex, context dependent emotions such as self-transcendent emotion.

  15. Leptin and Physical Activity in Adult Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: Failure to Demonstrate a Simple Linear Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stengel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High physical activity (PA in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN is hypothesized to be, at least in part, a consequence of hypoleptinemia. However, most studies on the association of leptin and PA in AN were performed in adolescents or young adults, and PA was generally measured with subjective tools. We aimed to explore the association of leptin and PA in adults with AN using an objective technique to quantify PA. Using a cross-sectional, observational design, we analyzed body fat (bioelectrical impedance, PA (accelerometry, SenseWear™ armband and plasma leptin (ELISA in 61 women with AN (median age: 25 years, range: 18–52 years; median BMI: 14.8 ± 2.0 kg/m2 at the start of hospitalization. Results indicated a mean step count per day of 12,841 ± 6408 (range: 3956–37,750. Leptin was closely associated with BMI and body fat (ρ = 0.508 and ρ = 0.669, p < 0.001, but not with steps (ρ = 0.015, p = 0.908. Moreover, no significant association was observed between BMI and steps (ρ = 0.189, p = 0.146. In conclusion, there was no simple, linear association of leptin and PA, highlighting the need for more complex and non-linear models to analyze the association of leptin and PA in adults with AN in future studies.

  16. Preclinical demonstration of synergistic Active Nutrients/Drug (AND combination as a potential treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Volta

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a poor prognosis disease lacking adequate therapy. We have previously shown that ascorbic acid administration is toxic to MPM cells. Here we evaluated a new combined therapy consisting of ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine mixture (called AND, for Active Nutrients/Drug. In vitro effects of AND therapy on various MPM cell lines revealed a synergistic cytotoxic mechanism. In vivo experiments on a xenograft mouse model for MPM, obtained by REN cells injection in immunocompromised mice, showed that AND strongly reduced the size of primary tumor as well as the number and size of metastases, and prevented abdominal hemorrhage. Kaplan Meier curves and the log-rank test indicated a marked increase in the survival of AND-treated animals. Histochemical analysis of dissected tumors showed that AND induced a shift from cell proliferation to apoptosis in cancer cells. Lysates of tumors from AND-treated mice, analyzed with an antibody array, revealed decreased TIMP-1 and -2 expressions and no effects on angiogenesis regulating factors. Multiplex analysis for signaling protein phosphorylation exhibited inactivation of cell proliferation pathways. The complex of data showed that the AND treatment is synergistic in vitro on MPM cells, and blocks in vivo tumor progression and metastasization in REN-based xenografts. Hence, the AND combination is proposed as a new treatment for MPM.

  17. Grouping annotations on the subcellular layered interactome demonstrates enhanced autophagy activity in a recurrent experimental autoimmune uveitis T cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Jia

    Full Text Available Human uveitis is a type of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that often shows relapse-remitting courses affecting multiple biological processes. As a cytoplasmic process, autophagy has been seen as an adaptive response to cell death and survival, yet the link between autophagy and T cell-mediated autoimmunity is not certain. In this study, based on the differentially expressed genes (GSE19652 between the recurrent versus monophasic T cell lines, whose adoptive transfer to susceptible animals may result in respective recurrent or monophasic uveitis, we proposed grouping annotations on a subcellular layered interactome framework to analyze the specific bioprocesses that are linked to the recurrence of T cell autoimmunity. That is, the subcellular layered interactome was established by the Cytoscape and Cerebral plugin based on differential expression, global interactome, and subcellular localization information. Then, the layered interactomes were grouping annotated by the ClueGO plugin based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. The analysis showed that significant bioprocesses with autophagy were orchestrated in the cytoplasmic layered interactome and that mTOR may have a regulatory role in it. Furthermore, by setting up recurrent and monophasic uveitis in Lewis rats, we confirmed by transmission electron microscopy that, in comparison to the monophasic disease, recurrent uveitis in vivo showed significantly increased autophagy activity and extended lymphocyte infiltration to the affected retina. In summary, our framework methodology is a useful tool to disclose specific bioprocesses and molecular targets that can be attributed to a certain disease. Our results indicated that targeted inhibition of autophagy pathways may perturb the recurrence of uveitis.

  18. Mastering JavaScript promises

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Muzzamil

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all the software and web engineers wanting to apply the promises paradigm to their next project and get the best outcome from it. This book also acts as a reference for the engineers who are already using promises in their projects and want to improve their current knowledge to reach the next level. To get the most benefit from this book, you should know basic programming concepts, have a familiarity with JavaScript, and a good understanding of HTML.

  19. Pyrene conjugation and spectroscopic analysis of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose compounds successfully demonstrated a local dielectric difference associated with in vivo anti-prion activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Teruya

    Full Text Available Our previous study on prion-infected rodents revealed that hydroxypropyl methylcellulose compounds (HPMCs with different molecular weights but similar composition and degree of substitution have different levels of long-lasting anti-prion activity. In this study, we searched these HPMCs for a parameter specifically associated with in vivo anti-prion activity by analyzing in vitro chemical properties and in vivo tissue distributions. Infrared spectroscopic and thermal analyses revealed no differences among HPMCs, whereas pyrene conjugation and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the fluorescence intensity ratio of peak III/peak I correlated with anti-prion activity. This correlation was more clearly demonstrated in the anti-prion activity of the 1-year pre-infection treatment than that of the immediate post-infection treatment. In addition, the intensity ratio of peak III/peak I negatively correlated with the macrophage uptake level of HPMCs in our previous study. However, the in vivo distribution pattern was apparently not associated with anti-prion activity and was different in the representative tissues. These findings suggest that pyrene conjugation and spectroscopic analysis are powerful methods to successfully demonstrate local dielectric differences in HPMCs and provide a feasible parameter denoting the long-lasting anti-prion activity of HPMCs in vivo.

  20. Service Users perspectives in PROMISE and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Since its inception in 2013, PROMISE (PROactive Management of Integrated Services and Environments) has been supporting service users and staff at the Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust (CPFT) on a journey to reduce reliance on force. The author's own personal experiences led to the founding of PROMISE and illustrates how individual experiences can influence a patient to lead change. Coproduction is actively embedded in PROMISE. Patients have been meaningfully involved because they are innovators and problem solvers who bring an alternative viewpoint by the very nature of their condition. A patient is more than just a person who needs to be 'fixed' they are individuals with untapped skills and added insight. There have been 2 separate Patient Advisory Groups (PAGs) since the project was first established. The first Patient Advisory Group was recruited to work with the PROMISE researchers on a study which used a participatory qualitative approach. Drawing on their lived experience and different perspectives the PAG was instrumental in shaping the qualitative study, including the research questions. Their active involvement helped to ensure that that the study was sensitively designed, methodologically robust and ethically sound. The 2 nd PAG was formed in 2016 to give the project an overall steer. Patients in this group contributed to the work on the 'No' Audit and reviewed several CPFT policies such as the Seclusion and Segregation policy which has impacted on frontline practice. They also made a significant contribution to the study design for a funding application that was submitted by the PROMISE team to the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Both PAGs were supported by funding from East of England Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC EoE) and were influential in different ways. An evaluation of the 2 nd PAG which was conducted in June 2017 showed very high satisfaction levels. The free text

  1. Perpendicular recording: the promise and the problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Roger; Sonobe, Yoshiaki; Jin Zhen; Wilson, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Perpendicular recording has long been advocated as a means of achieving the highest areal densities. In particular, in the context of the 'superparamagnetic limit', perpendicular recording with a soft underlayer promises several key advantages. These advantages include a higher coercivity, thicker media that should permit smaller diameter grains and higher signal-to-noise ratio. Also, the sharper edge-writing will facilitate recording at very high track densities (lower bit aspect ratio). Recent demonstrations of the technology have shown densities comparable with the highest densities reported for longitudinal recording. This paper further examines the promise that perpendicular recording will deliver an increase in areal density two to eight times higher than that achievable with longitudinal recording. There are a number of outstanding issues but the key challenge is to create a low-noise medium with a coercivity that is high and is much larger than the remanent magnetization

  2. Nuclear energy: obstacles and promises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear energy has distinctive merits (sustainable resources, low costs, no greenhouse gases) but its development must overcome serious hurdles (fear of accidents, radio-phobia, waste management). The large unit size of present-day reactors is compatible only with large electrical grids, and involves a high capital cost. Taking into account these different factors, the paper outlines how nuclear energy may contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases, and which are the most promising developments. (author)

  3. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Demonstration of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) activity in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis using a novel assay for citrullination of fibrinogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Senolt, Ladislav; Nielsen, Michael Friberg

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Members of the peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) family catalyse the posttranslational conversion of peptidylarginine to peptidylcitrulline. Citrullination of proteins is well described in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and hypercitrullination of proteins may be related to inflammation...... in general. PAD activity has been demonstrated in various cell lysates, but so far not in synovial fluid. We aimed to develop an assay for detection of PAD activity, if any, in synovial fluid from RA patients. METHODS: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using human fibrinogen as the immobilized substrate...... for citrullination and anti-citrullinated fibrinogen antibody as the detecting agent were used for measurement of PAD activity in synovial fluid samples from five RA patients. The concentrations of PAD2 and calcium were also determined. RESULTS: Approximately 150 times lower levels of recombinant human PAD2 (rhPAD2...

  5. Simultaneous production of l-lactic acid with high optical activity and a soil amendment with food waste that demonstrates plant growth promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitpreechavanich, Vichien; Hayami, Arisa; Talek, Anfal; Chin, Clament Fui Seung; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    A unique method to produce highly optically-active l-lactic acid and soil amendments that promote plant growth from food waste was proposed. Three Bacillus strains Bacillus subtilis KBKU21, B. subtilis N3-9 and Bacillus coagulans T27, were used. Strain KBKU21 accumulated 36.9 g/L l-lactic acid with 95.7% optical activity and 98.2% l-lactic acid selectivity when fermented at 43°C for 84 h in a model kitchen refuse (MKR) medium. Residual precipitate fraction (anaerobically-fermented MKR (AFM) compost) analysis revealed 4.60%, 0.70% and 0.75% of nitrogen (as N), phosphorous (as P2O5), and potassium (as K2O), respectively. Additionally, the carbon to nitrogen ratio decreased from 13.3 to 10.6. AFM compost with KBKU21 promoted plant growth parameters, including leaf length, plant height and fresh weight of Brassica rapa (Komatsuna), than that by chemical fertilizers or commercial compost. The concept provides an incentive for the complete recycling of food waste, contributing towards a sustainable production system. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The C-terminal region of the non-structural protein 2B from Hepatitis A Virus demonstrates lipid-specific viroporin-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ashutosh; Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Kamalika; Nain, Anshu; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-10-01

    Viroporins are virally encoded, membrane-active proteins, which enhance viral replication and assist in egress of viruses from host cells. The 2B proteins in the picornaviridae family are known to have viroporin-like properties, and play critical roles during virus replication. The 2B protein of Hepatitis A Virus (2B), an unusual picornavirus, is somewhat dissimilar from its analogues in several respects. HAV 2B is approximately 2.5 times the length of other 2B proteins, and does not disrupt calcium homeostasis or glycoprotein trafficking. Additionally, its membrane penetrating properties are not yet clearly established. Here we show that the membrane interacting activity of HAV 2B is localized in its C-terminal region, which contains an alpha-helical hairpin motif. We show that this region is capable of forming small pores in membranes and demonstrates lipid specific activity, which partially rationalizes the intracellular localization of full-length 2B. Using a combination of biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we also show that HAV 2B demonstrates a marked propensity to dimerize in a crowded environment, and probably interacts with membranes in a multimeric form, a hallmark of other picornavirus viroporins. In sum, our study clearly establishes HAV 2B as a bona fide viroporin in the picornaviridae family.

  7. Chitin fulfilling a biomaterials promise

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of Chitin underscores the important factors for standardizing chitin processing and characterization. It captures the essential interplay between chitin's assets and limitations as a biomaterial, placing the past promises of chitin in perspective, addressing its present realities and offering insight into what is required to realize chitin's destiny (including its derivative, chitosan) as a biomaterial of the twenty-first century. This book is an ideal guide for both industrialists and researchers with a vested interest in commercializing chitin.An upd

  8. Inhibitors of bacterial N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) and demonstration of in vitro antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillner, Danuta; Armoush, Nicola; Holz, Richard C; Becker, Daniel P

    2009-11-15

    The dapE-encoded N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) is a critical bacterial enzyme for the construction of the bacterial cell wall. A screen biased toward compounds containing zinc-binding groups (ZBG's) including thiols, carboxylic acids, boronic acids, phosphonates and hydroxamates has delivered a number of micromolar inhibitors of DapE from Haemophilus influenzae, including the low micromolar inhibitor L-captopril (IC(50)=3.3 microM, K(i)=1.8 microM). In vitro antimicrobial activity was demonstrated for L-captopril against Escherichia coli.

  9. Implementation of the k0-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k0-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho; Ho, Manh Dung

    2006-03-01

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k o -NAA procedure.The k o -standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k o -NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k o -IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used

  10. Implementation of the k{sub 0}-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k{sub 0}-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Manh Dung [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2006-03-15

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k{sub o}-NAA procedure.The k{sub o}-standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k{sub o}-NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k{sub o}-IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used.

  11. New small molecule inhibitors of UPR activation demonstrate that PERK, but not IRE1α signaling is essential for promoting adaptation and survival to hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocari, Dan; Vellanki, Ravi N.; Sit, Brandon; Uehling, David; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in response to hypoxia-induced stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and consists of three distinct signaling arms. Here we explore the potential of targeting two of these arms with new potent small-molecule inhibitors designed against IRE1α and PERK. Methods: We utilized shRNAs and small-molecule inhibitors of IRE1α (4μ8c) and PERK (GSK-compound 39). XBP1 splicing and DNAJB9 mRNA was measured by qPCR and was used to monitor IRE1α activity. PERK activity was monitored by immunoblotting eIF2α phosphorylation and qPCR of DDIT3 mRNA. Hypoxia tolerance was measured using proliferation and clonogenic cell survival assays of cells exposed to mild or severe hypoxia in the presence of the inhibitors. Results: Using knockdown experiments we show that PERK is essential for survival of KP4 cells while knockdown of IRE1α dramatically decreases the proliferation and survival of HCT116 during hypoxia. Further, we show that in response to both hypoxia and other ER stress-inducing agents both 4μ8c and the PERK inhibitor are selective and potent inhibitors of IRE1α and PERK activation, respectively. However, despite potent inhibition of IRE1α activation, 4μ8c had no effect on cell proliferation or clonogenic survival of cells exposed to hypoxia. This was in contrast to the inactivation of PERK signaling with the PERK inhibitor, which reduced tolerance to hypoxia and other ER stress inducing agents. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that IRE1α but not its splicing activity is important for hypoxic cell survival. The PERK signaling arm is uniquely important for promoting adaptation and survival during hypoxia-induced ER stress and should be the focus of future therapeutic efforts

  12. High molecular weight FGF2 isoforms demonstrate canonical receptor-mediated activity and support human embryonic stem cell self-renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006, and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011. A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18 kDa low molecular weight (LMW isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW isoforms (Arese et al., 1999; Arnaud et al., 1999. As they are not generally secreted, high molecular weight (HMW FGF2 isoforms have predominantly been investigated intracellularly; only a very limited number of studies have investigated their activity as extracellular factors. Here we report over-expression, isolation, and biological activity of all recombinant human FGF2 isoforms. We show that HMW FGF2 isoforms can support self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs in vitro. Exogenous supplementation with HMW FGF2 isoforms also activates the canonical FGFR/MAPK pathway and induces mitogenic activity in a manner similar to that of the 18 kDa FGF2 isoform. Though all HMW isoforms, when supplemented exogenously, are able to recapitulate LMW FGF2 activity to some degree, it appears that certain isoforms tend to do so more poorly, demonstrating a lesser functional response by several measures. A better understanding of isoform-specific FGF2 effects will lead to a better understanding of developmental and pathological FGF2 signaling.

  13. Probing vibrational activities, electronic properties, molecular docking and Hirshfeld surfaces analysis of 4-chlorophenyl ({[(1E)-3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-1-phenylpropylidene]amino}oxy)methanone: A promising anti-Candida agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasheela, K.; Al-Wahaibi, Lamya H.; Periandy, S.; Hassan, Hanan M.; Sebastian, S.; Xavier, S.; Daniel, Joseph C.; El-Emam, Ali A.; Attia, Mohamed I.

    2018-05-01

    The promising anti-Candida agent, 4-chlorophenyl ({[1E-3(1H-imidazole-1-yl)-1-phenylpropylidene}oxy)methanone (4-CPIPM) was comprehensively characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, as well as 1H and 13C spectroscopic techniques. The theoretical calculations in the current study utilized Gaussian 09 W software with DFT approach of the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. The experimental X-ray diffraction data of the 4-CPIPM molecule were compared with the optimized structure and showed well agreement. Intermolecular electronic interactions and their stabilization energies have been analyzed by natural bond orbital method. Potential energy distribution confirmed the normal fundamental mode of vibration with the aid of MOLVIB software. The chemical shift values of the 1H and 13C spectra of the title compound were computed using gauge independent atomic orbital and the results were compared with the experimental values. The time-dependent density function theory method was used to predict the electronic, absorption wavelength and frontier molecular orbital energies. The HOMO-LUMO plots proved the charge transfer in the molecular system of the title compound through conjugated paths. The molecular electrostatic potential analysis provided the electrophilic and nucleophilic reactive sites in the title molecule which have been analyzed using Hirshfeld surface and two dimensions fingerprint plots. Non covalent interactions were also studied using reduced density gradient analysis and color filled electron density diagram. Molecular docking studies of the ligand-protein interactions along with their binding energies were carried out aiming to explain the potent anti-Candida activity of the title molecule.

  14. Innovative technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-04-01

    The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr +6 ; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB

  15. Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibitors in Combination with Erlotinib Demonstrate Enhanced Anti-Tumor Activity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A Howe

    Full Text Available Blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activity has been a primary therapeutic target for non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC. As patients with wild-type EGFR have demonstrated only modest benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, there is a need for additional therapeutic approaches in patients with wild-type EGFR. As a key component of downstream integrin signalling and known receptor cross-talk with EGFR, we hypothesized that targeting focal adhesion kinase (FAK activity, which has also been shown to correlate with aggressive stage in NSCLC, would lead to enhanced activity of EGFR TKIs. As such, EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cells (A549, H1299, H1975 were treated with the EGFR TKI erlotinib and FAK inhibitors (PF-573,228 or PF-562,271 both as single agents and in combination. We determined cell viability, apoptosis and 3-dimensional growth in vitro and assessed tumor growth in vivo. Treatment of EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cells with FAK inhibitor alone effectively inhibited cell viability in all cell lines tested; however, its use in combination with the EGFR TKI erlotinib was more effective at reducing cell viability than either treatment alone when tested in both 2- and 3-dimensional assays in vitro, with enhanced benefit seen in A549 cells. This increased efficacy may be due in part to the observed inhibition of Akt phosphorylation when the drugs were used in combination, where again A549 cells demonstrated the most inhibition following treatment with the drug combination. Combining erlotinib with FAK inhibitor was also potent in vivo as evidenced by reduced tumor growth in the A549 mouse xenograft model. We further ascertained that the enhanced sensitivity was irrespective of the LKB1 mutational status. In summary, we demonstrate the effectiveness of combining erlotinib and FAK inhibitors for use in known EGFR wild-type, EGFR TKI resistant cells, with the potential that a subset of cell types, which includes A549, could be

  16. Identification of an imidazopyridine scaffold to generate potent and selective TYK2 inhibitors that demonstrate activity in an in vivo psoriasis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Van Abbema, Anne; Balazs, Mercedesz; Barrett, Kathy; Berezhkovsky, Leo; Blair, Wade S; Chang, Christine; Delarosa, Donnie; DeVoss, Jason; Driscoll, Jim; Eigenbrot, Charles; Goodacre, Simon; Ghilardi, Nico; MacLeod, Calum; Johnson, Adam; Bir Kohli, Pawan; Lai, Yingjie; Lin, Zhonghua; Mantik, Priscilla; Menghrajani, Kapil; Nguyen, Hieu; Peng, Ivan; Sambrone, Amy; Shia, Steven; Smith, Jan; Sohn, Sue; Tsui, Vickie; Ultsch, Mark; Williams, Karen; Wu, Lawren C; Yang, Wenqian; Zhang, Birong; Magnuson, Steven

    2017-09-15

    Herein we report identification of an imidazopyridine class of potent and selective TYK2 inhibitors, exemplified by prototype 6, through constraint of the rotatable amide bond connecting the pyridine and aryl rings of compound 1. Further optimization led to generation of compound 30 that potently inhibits the TYK2 enzyme and the IL-23 pathway in cells, exhibits selectivity against cellular JAK2 activity, and has good pharmacokinetic properties. In mice, compound 30 demonstrated dose-dependent reduction of IL-17 production in a PK/PD model as well as in an imiquimod-induced psoriasis model. In this efficacy model, the IL-17 decrease was accompanied by a reduction of ear thickness indicating the potential of TYK2 inhibition as a therapeutic approach for psoriasis patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  18. Experimental demonstration of line-width modulation in plasmonic lithography using a solid immersion lens-based active nano-gap control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won-Sup; Kim, Taeseob; Choi, Guk-Jong; Lim, Geon; Joe, Hang-Eun; Gang, Myeong-Gu; Min, Byung-Kwon; Park, No-Cheol; Moon, Hyungbae; Kim, Do-Hyung; Park, Young-Pil

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic lithography has been used in nanofabrication because of its utility beyond the diffraction limit. The resolution of plasmonic lithography depends on the nano-gap between the nanoaperture and the photoresist surface—changing the gap distance can modulate the line-width of the pattern. In this letter, we demonstrate solid-immersion lens based active non-contact plasmonic lithography, applying a range of gap conditions to modulate the line-width of the pattern. Using a solid-immersion lens-based near-field control system, the nano-gap between the exit surface of the nanoaperture and the media can be actively modulated and maintained to within a few nanometers. The line-widths of the recorded patterns using 15- and 5-nm gaps were 47 and 19.5 nm, respectively, which matched closely the calculated full-width at half-maximum. From these results, we conclude that changing the nano-gap within a solid-immersion lens-based plasmonic head results in varying line-width patterns

  19. The Promise of Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive Psychology has demonstrated its usefulness in studying and contributing to individual well being. The next big challenge for this new field is to help improving the social and cultural conditions in which people live. Three specific goals are discussed: A more complete understanding of human nature; forging a more sustainable and more fair social contract; and a rediscovery of the joys of existence. If Positive Psychology will be able to support these goals, it will become an important contributor to the evolution of human consciousness and the evolution of culture.

  20. Yessotoxin, a Promising Therapeutic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yessotoxin (YTX is a polyether compound produced by dinoflagellates and accumulated in filter feeding shellfish. No records about human intoxications induced by this compound have been published, however it is considered a toxin. Modifications in second messenger levels, protein levels, immune cells, cytoskeleton or activation of different cellular death types have been published as consequence of YTX exposure. This review summarizes the main intracellular pathways modulated by YTX and their pharmacological and therapeutic implications.

  1. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1992-04-01

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  2. Nanomedicine delivers promising treatments for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; O'Mary, Hannah; Cui, Zhengrong

    2015-01-01

    An increased understanding in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, reveals that the diseased tissue and the increased presence of macrophages and other overexpressed molecules within the tissue can be exploited to enhance the delivery of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine can passively accumulate into chronic inflammatory tissues via the enhanced permeability and retention phenomenon, or be surface conjugated with a ligand to actively bind to receptors overexpressed by cells within chronic inflammatory tissues, leading to increased efficacy and reduced systemic side-effects. This review highlights the research conducted over the past decade on using nanomedicine for potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes some of the major findings and promising opportunities on using nanomedicine to treat this prevalent and chronic disease.

  3. Demonstration of variation in chondrocyte activity in different zones of articular cartilage: an assessment of the value of in-situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marles, P J; Hoyland, J A; Parkinson, R; Freemont, A J

    1991-04-01

    Several methods have been described for investigating chondrocyte metabolism in vitro. In this study, in-situ hybridization (ISH) using an oligonucleotide probe (i.e. a poly-d(T) probe) to detect total messenger RNA (mRNA) in cartilage explants has been compared with radiosulphate and radioleucine uptake studies in an attempt to assess the value of ISH in investigating chondrocyte metabolism. The relative results of the three parameters indicate qualitative similarities in cells in the intermediate, deep and calcified zones but differences in the superficial zone. The relative levels of mRNA and leucine and sulphate uptake in the midzone areas could be construed as indicating that the bulk of cellular activity was directed towards the synthesis of proteoglycans. A similar relation between the three parameters, but at a lower level, was seen in chondrocytes in the calcified zone demonstrating that these cells are viable and biosynthetic. Both quantitative and qualitative differences between the three methods were observed in the superficial chondrocytes regarding the amount of mRNA compared to sulphate and leucine uptake. The results suggest that ISH can detect differences in the amount of mRNA present in chondrocytes in differing zones of cartilage and, like the radioleucine and radiosulphate studies, particularly emphasizes their functional heterogeneity.

  4. Functional impairments in patients with borderline personality disorders demonstrated by neurospect HMPAO Tc99 in basal conditions and under frontal activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Cristian; Mena G, Ismael; Correa, Maria del Pilar

    2000-01-01

    We study a sample of 18 patients in basal conditions and 31 patients with diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV Criteria) during cortical activation by means of the Wisconsin card sorting test and assessing function/cerebral blood flow by means of HMPAO Tc 99m NeuroSPECT. The results of changes of cerebral blood flow are shown statistically in a parametric image expressing standard deviations above or below the means of a normative data base for the corresponding age of the patient. We consider only as having significance levels below 2 standard deviations of the normal means . Over this parametric map we project a matrix of Brodmann areas developed by our group in order to precisely localize the areas of abnormality observed. We express our results as percentages of the areas of Brodmann that demonstrates hypoperfusion and we compare the results in a population studied in basal conditions (n=18) and (n=31) during activation by means of the Wisconsin card sorting test. In our results we highlight, in order of importance areas of paradoxical hypoperfusion in conditions of activation versus basal measurements in anterior cyngulate gyrus (Area 24) in both hemispheres. This is followed in importance by Subgenual area (Area 25), area 40 and area 32 in the left hemisphere, and area 28 in the right hemisphere, then followed by area 28 and area 36 in the left hemisphere, area M* and area 44 in both hemispheres, and areas 32, 9 and 46 of Brodmann in the right hemisphere. We concluded that there is a dysfunctional correlation of frontal function in borderline personality disorder. Particularly noticeable is the lack of motivation when there are changes in plans and conduct, lack of pleasure and loss of the meaning of a task during the cortical stimulation. In particular, the Brodmann areas 24, 25 and 32, linked to motivation show a wider involvement when they are exposed to changes in planning and in coping strategies, as it happens during the Wisconsin Test

  5. Studying the effectiveness of activated carbon R95 respirators in reducing the inhalation of combustion by-products in Hanoi, Vietnam: a demonstration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wertheim Heiman FL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban air pollution is an increasing health problem, particularly in Asia, where the combustion of fossil fuels has increased rapidly as a result of industrialization and socio-economic development. The adverse health impacts of urban air pollution are well established, but less is known about effective intervention strategies. In this demonstration study we set out to establish methods to assess whether wearing an R95 activated carbon respirator could reduce intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in street workers in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods In this demonstration study we performed a cross-over study in which non-smoking participants that worked at least 4 hours per day on the street in Hanoi were randomly allocated to specific respirator wearing sequences for a duration of 2 weeks. Urines were collected after each period, i.e. twice per week, at the end of the working day to measure hydroxy PAHs (OH-PAH using gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. The primary endpoint was the urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP. Results Forty-four participants (54.5% male, median age 40 years were enrolled with the majority being motorbike taxi drivers (38.6% or street vendors (34.1%. The baseline creatinine corrected urinary level for 1-OHP was much higher than other international comparisons: 1020 ng/g creatinine (IQR: 604–1551. Wearing a R95 mask had no significant effect on 1-OHP levels: estimated multiplicative effect 1.0 (95% CI: 0.92-1.09 or other OH-PAHs, except 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OHN: 0.86 (95% CI: 0.11-0.96. Conclusions High levels of urine OH-PAHs were found in Hanoi street workers. No effect was seen on urine OH-PAH levels by wearing R95 particulate respirators in an area of high urban air pollution, except for 1-OHN. A lack of effect may be de to gaseous phase PAHs that were not filtered efficiently by the respirator. The high levels of urinary OH-PAHs found, urges for effective

  6. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  7. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  8. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  9. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  10. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations

  11. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID's success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories' Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque's and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ''dry'' soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater

  12. Fusion-power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  13. Fusion power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  14. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, EEM; Akkerman, [No Value; Koulman, A; Kamermans, P; Reith, H; Barbosa, MJ; Sipkema, D; Wijffels, RH

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals,

  15. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, E.E.M.; Akkerman, I.; Koulman, A.; Kamermans, P.; Reith, H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Sipkema, D.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals,

  16. Tennessee Promise: A Response to Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlepage, Ben; Clark, Teresa; Wilson, Randal; Stout, Logan

    2018-01-01

    Community colleges in Tennessee, either directly or indirectly, experienced unprecedented change as a result of Tennessee Promise. The present study explored how student support service administrators at three community colleges responded to organizational change as a result of the Tennessee Promise legislation. Investigators selected community…

  17. Gene editing as a promising approach for respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yichun; Liu, Yang; Su, Zhenlei; Ma, Yana; Ren, Chonghua; Zhao, Runzhen; Ji, Hong-Long

    2018-03-01

    Respiratory diseases, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world, are dysfunctions of the nasopharynx, the trachea, the bronchus, the lung and the pleural cavity. Symptoms of chronic respiratory diseases, such as cough, sneezing and difficulty breathing, may seriously affect the productivity, sleep quality and physical and mental well-being of patients, and patients with acute respiratory diseases may have difficulty breathing, anoxia and even life-threatening respiratory failure. Respiratory diseases are generally heterogeneous, with multifaceted causes including smoking, ageing, air pollution, infection and gene mutations. Clinically, a single pulmonary disease can exhibit more than one phenotype or coexist with multiple organ disorders. To correct abnormal function or repair injured respiratory tissues, one of the most promising techniques is to correct mutated genes by gene editing, as some gene mutations have been clearly demonstrated to be associated with genetic or heterogeneous respiratory diseases. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) systems are three innovative gene editing technologies developed recently. In this short review, we have summarised the structure and operating principles of the ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 systems and their preclinical and clinical applications in respiratory diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Preetha; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Newman, Robert A; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from dietary spice turmeric, possesses diverse pharmacologic effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities. Phase I clinical trials have shown that curcumin is safe even at high doses (12 g/day) in humans but exhibit poor bioavailability. Major reasons contributing to the low plasma and tissue levels of curcumin appear to be due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. To improve the bioavailability of curcumin, numerous approaches have been undertaken. These approaches involve, first, the use of adjuvant like piperine that interferes with glucuronidation; second, the use of liposomal curcumin; third, curcumin nanoparticles; fourth, the use of curcumin phospholipid complex; and fifth, the use of structural analogues of curcumin (e.g., EF-24). The latter has been reported to have a rapid absorption with a peak plasma half-life. Despite the lower bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy of curcumin against various human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, arthritis, neurological diseases and Crohn's disease, has been documented. Enhanced bioavailability of curcumin in the near future is likely to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of therapeutic agents for treatment of human disease.

  19. Study of Education Satellite Communication Demonstration. Second Quarterly Progress Report. Report of Activities and Accomplishments, October 11, 1974 to January 10, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syracuse Univ. Research Corp., NY. Educational Policy Research Center.

    A second quarterly report describes activities of the Syracuse Educational Policy Research Center's two-year analysis of educational satellites and telecommunications. Visits to Rocky Mountain, Appalachian and Alaskan sites are described. Activities of other nations are reviewed and summarized. Preliminary staff work and analysis for the final…

  20. Congestion Service Facilities Location Problem with Promise of Response Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many services, promise of specific response time is advertised as a commitment by the service providers for the customer satisfaction. Congestion on service facilities could delay the delivery of the services and hurts the overall satisfaction. In this paper, congestion service facilities location problem with promise of response time is studied, and a mixed integer nonlinear programming model is presented with budget constrained. The facilities are modeled as M/M/c queues. The decision variables of the model are the locations of the service facilities and the number of servers at each facility. The objective function is to maximize the demands served within specific response time promised by the service provider. To solve this problem, we propose an algorithm that combines greedy and genetic algorithms. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, a lot of computational experiments are tested. And the results demonstrate that response time has a significant impact on location decision.

  1. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  2. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hall, H. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is

  3. Programme and activities on nuclear desalination in Morocco. Pre-project study on demonstration plant for seawater desalination using nuclear heating reactor in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, M.

    1998-01-01

    The first part of this paper gives the general information on the pre-project study of a demonstration plant for seawater desalination using a heating reactor being assessed jointly by Morocco and China. The progress of the pre-project study is elaborated in the second part. (author)

  4. A quantitative histochemical procedure for the demonstration of purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity in rat and human liver using Tetranitro BT and xanthine oxidase as auxiliary enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Bosch, K. S.; van Gulik, T.

    1993-01-01

    A quantitative histochemical procedure was developed for the demonstration of purine nucleoside phosphorylase in rat liver using unfixed cryostat sections and the auxiliary enzyme xanthine oxidase. The optimum incubation medium contained 18% (w/v) poly(vinyl alcohol), 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH

  5. Inhibition of Plasmepsin V activity demonstrates its essential role in protein export, PfEMP1 display, and survival of malaria parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleebs, Brad E; Lopaticki, Sash; Marapana, Danushka S

    2014-01-01

    , Plasmepsin V (PMV). The PMV gene is refractory to deletion, suggesting it is essential, but definitive proof is lacking. Here, we generated a PEXEL-mimetic inhibitor that potently blocks the activity of PMV isolated from P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Assessment of PMV activity in P. falciparum revealed...... surface, and cytoadherence. The inhibitor killed parasites at the trophozoite stage and knockdown of PMV enhanced sensitivity to the inhibitor, while overexpression of PMV increased resistance. This provides the first direct evidence that PMV activity is essential for protein export in Plasmodium spp....... and for parasite survival in human erythrocytes and validates PMV as an antimalarial drug target....

  6. High-performance thin-layer chromatographic methods in the evaluation of the antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Myrmecodia platytyrea as a promising opportunity in diabetes treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Morton, D W; Adam, A; Mizaton, H H; Zakaria, H

    2017-12-29

    The steady increase of diabetes is becoming a major burden on health care systems. As diabetic complications arise from oxidative stress, an antioxidant therapy along with anti-diabetic drugs is recommended. Myrmecodia or ant plant is highly valued as a traditional medicine in West Papua. It is used as an alternative treatment for diabetes, as the substances produced by ants can reduce blood sugar levels. The aim of this study was to develop and establish high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC)-bioautographic methods to measure the antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects in different extracts from Myrmecodia platytyrea and to compare them with sterol content. Antioxidant activity in methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts were measured with a direct HPTLC-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) assay, while hypoglycemic effects were assessed using a newly developed α-amylase inhibitory activity assay. Stigmasterol is observed, after derivatization with anisaldehyde, as purple colored zones under visible light at hRF values of 0.66. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the ethanol extract which is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids, while the DCM extract did not show antioxidant activity, but had significant α-amylase inhibitory activity. The highest α-amylase inhibitory activity was observed in the EA and DCM extracts and was related to their stigmasterol content. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  8. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at 6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment

  9. CDK4/6 dual inhibitor abemaciclib demonstrates compelling preclinical activity against esophageal adenocarcinoma: a novel therapeutic option for a deadly disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovec, Juliann E; Zaidi, Ali H; Omstead, Ashten N; Matsui, Daisuke; Biedka, Mark J; Cox, Erin J; Campbell, Patrick T; Biederman, Robert W W; Kelly, Ronan J; Jobe, Blair A

    2017-11-21

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a deadly disease with limited therapeutic options. In the present study, we determined the preclinical efficacy of CDK4/6 inhibitor abemaciclib for treatment of EAC. In vitro , apoptosis, proliferation, and pathway regulation were evaluated in OE19, OE33, and FLO1 EAC cell lines. In vivo , esophagojejunostomy was performed on rats to induce EAC. At 36 weeks post-surgery, MRI and endoscopic biopsy established baseline tumor volume and molecular correlates, respectively. Next, the study animals were randomized to 26mg/kg intraperitoneal abemaciclib treatment or vehicle control for 28 days. Pre and post treatment MRIs, histopathology, and qRT-PCR were utilized to determine response. Our results demonstrated treatment with abemaciclib lead to increased apoptosis, and decreased proliferation in OE19 (p=0.185), OE33 (p=0.048), and FLO1 (p=0.043) with anticipated downstream molecular inhibition. In vivo , 78.9% of treatment animals demonstrated >20% tumor volume decrease (placebo 0%). Mean tumor volume changed in the treatment arm by -65.5% (placebo +133.5%) (p<0.01), and prevalence changed by -37.5% (placebo +16.7%) (p<0.01). Pre vs post treatment qRT-PCR demonstrated significant inhibition of all downstream molecular correlates. Overall our findings suggest potent antitumor efficacy of abemaciclib against EAC with evident molecular pathway inhibition and reasonable safety, establishing the rationale for future clinical development.

  10. Acetyl aspartic acid, a novel active ingredient, demonstrates potential to improve signs of skin ageing: from consumer need to clinical proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    The megatrend of population ageing is leading to a growing demand for "anti-ageing" treatments, especially to prevent or treat skin ageing. Facing an increasing offer, consumers are choosing more and more skin care products supported by a scientific rationale, active ingredients and clinical proof of efficacy. Considering consumer expectations, this research led to the discovery of acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A), a novel active ingredient to improve sagging skin and loss of skin firmness. This supplement is featuring seven manuscripts aiming at presenting the research and investigations from consumer insights, discovery of A-A-A, its in vitro activity confirmation, safety assessment, formulation and its dermal absorption to the clinical proof of efficacy, investigated through two pilots' double bind randomized and placebo controlled studies on photo-aged skin. This extensive research enabled us to discover A-A-A, as an active ingredient with potential to repair sign of skin ageing and supported by clinical proof of efficacy. This active ingredient will be soon launched in a commercial innovative skin care range, delivering desirable anti-wrinkle and skin lifting benefits. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Three-dimensional cell organization leads to almost immediate HRE activity as demonstrated by molecular imaging of MG-63 spheroids using two-photon excitation microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indovina, Paola; Collini, Maddalena; Chirico, Giuseppe; Santini, Maria Teresa

    2007-02-20

    Hypoxia through HRE (hypoxia-responsive element) activity in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells grown in monolayer and as very small, three-dimensional tumor spheroids was investigated using molecular imaging techniques. MG-63 cells were stably transfected with a vector constructed with multiple copies of the HRE sequence of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence. During hypoxia when HIF-1alpha (hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha) is stabilized, the binding of HIF-1 to the HRE sequences of the vector allows the transcription of EGFP and the appearance of fluorescence. Transfected monolayer cells were characterized by flow cytometric analysis in response to various hypoxic conditions and HIF-1alpha expression in these cells was assessed by Western blotting. Two-photon excitation (TPE) microscopy was then used to examine both MG-63-transfected monolayer cells and spheroids at 2 and 5 days of growth in normoxic conditions. Monolayer cells reveal almost no fluorescence, whereas even very small spheroids (HRE activation. This activation of the HRE sequences, which control a wide variety of genes, suggests that monolayer cells and spheroids of the MG-63 cell line have different genes activated and thus diverse functional activities.

  12. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  13. Financial Technology: The Promise of Blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Demary, Markus; Demary, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Digitization affects all sectors of the economy. A new and possibly disruptive digital technology is the blockchain, a decentralized ledger, which seems to offer great promise for many financial and business applications.

  14. An amphipathic undecapeptide with all D-amino acids shows promising activity against colistin-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii and a dual mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddo, Alberto; Thomsen, Thomas Thyge; Kjelstrup, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    . In this study, we investigated the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 BP100 analogs (four known and 14 new) against the MDR A. baumannii strain ATCC BAA-1605, as well as against a number of other clinically relevant human pathogens. Selected peptides were further evaluated against strains of A. baumannii...

  15. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  16. Bioactive Polyphenols from the Methanol Extract of Cnicus arvensis (L. Roth Demonstrated Antinociceptive and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cnicus arvensis is used by many ethnic groups for inflammation, pain, and other ailments. In this study, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, alkaloid, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, and saponin groups were identified using standard chromogenic method. In high-performance liquid chromatography, vanillic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract. Antinociceptive test by acetic acid induced writhing inhibition resulted 43.17 and 95.08% inhibition for 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, comparing with standard diclofenac Na with 74.86% inhibition for 25 mg/kg body weight. In formalin induced paw licking test for antinociceptive activity, the extract inhibited 69.87 and 75.55% licking for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with the inhibition (68.56% of diclofenac Na for 10 mg/kg body weight at first phase. At late phase, the extract showed 73.12 and 87.46% licking comparing with licking inhibition (71.69% by diclofenac Na at the same dose. In open field test for CNS depressant activity, the extract showed depression of locomotor activity for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with diazepam for 10 mg/kg body weight. All results were statistically significant (P<0.01. The identified polyphenols are reputed for antinociceptive and CNS depressant activity. The present findings support the use of this plant in pain.

  17. N-cinnamoylated aminoquinolines as promising antileishmanial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Costa, S; Costa-Gouveia, J; Pérez, B; Silva, T; Teixeira, C; Gomes, P; Gomes, M S

    2013-10-01

    A series of cinnamic acid conjugates of primaquine and chloroquine were evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial activities. Although primaquine derivatives had modest activity, chloroquine conjugates exhibited potent activity against both promastigotes (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 2.6 to 21.8 μM) and intramacrophagic amastigotes (IC50 = 1.2 to 9.3 μM) of Leishmania infantum. Both the high activity of these chloroquine analogues and their mild-to-low toxicity toward host cells make them promising leads for the discovery of new antileishmanial agents.

  18. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  19. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  20. Demonstration exercise 'Cavtat 09'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trut, D.

    2009-01-01

    The demonstration exercise is to show a terrorist attack in urban area resulting in a certain number of injured people. On 7th April 2009 a terrorist group HAL 9000 is in Cavtat and set up an explosive devices with chemical reagents in several spots with intention to activate them and cause great number of victims. On the same day, in area of the Cavtat Croatia Hotel, which is hosting the world CBMTS Congress, Cavtat Police Station notice several masked persons, in escapement. Hotel personnel alerted the County 112 Center about noticed devices placed by chlorine dioxide tanks, for water conditioning. Intervention police came to block entrance to this area and evacuate hotel's guests and congress members. An explosion and fire occurs from where the position of water-conditioning plant and chlorine dioxide tank. The 112 Center alarms fire-fighters for fight fire and decontamination action and HAZMAT Civil Support Team from Georgia (participated the congress). In the meantime, guests have been instructed not to leave their rooms and to hermetically close doors and windows with available material to keep away potential toxic fume. Decision makers form the County Protection and Rescue Headquarters monitors the situation till the end of alert for the population in the area of Cavtat.(author)

  1. D-sorbose inhibits disaccharidase activity and demonstrates suppressive action on postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Tsuneyuki; Murata-Takenoshita, Yoko; Yamazaki, Yuko; Shimura, Fumio; Nakamura, Sadako

    2014-11-01

    In an attempt to develop D-sorbose as a new sweetener that could help in preventing lifestyle-related diseases, we investigated the inhibitory effect of D-sorbose on disaccharidase activity, using the brush border membrane vesicles of rat small intestines. The inhibitory effect was compared with that of L-sorbose and other rare sugars, and the small intestinal disaccharidases in rats was compared with that of humans as well. In humans and the small intestines of rats, d-sorbose strongly inhibited sucrase activity and weakly inhibited maltase activity. Inhibition by D-sorbose of sucrase activity was similar to that of L-arabinose, and the K(i) of D-sorbose was 7.5 mM. Inhibition by D-sorbose was very strong in comparison with that of L-sorbose (K(i), 60.8 mM), whereas inhibition of d-tagatose was between that of D-sorbose and L-sorbose. The inhibitory mode of D-sorbose for sucrose and maltase was uncompetitive, and that of L-sorbose was competitive. To determine a suppressive effect on postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin via inhibition of sucrase activity, sucrose solution with or without D-sorbose was administered to rats. Increments in the blood levels of glucose and insulin were suppressed significantly after administration of sucrose solution with D-sorbose to rats, in comparison to administration of sucrose solution without D-sorbose. In contrast, the suppressive effect of L-sorbose on postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin was very weak. These results suggest that D-sorbose may have an inhibitory effect on disaccharidase activity and could be used as a sweetener to suppress the postprandial elevation of blood levels of glucose and insulin. The use of D-sorbose as a sweetener may contribute to the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ISSUES AND FEASIBILITY DEMONSTRATION OF CLIC SUPPORTING SYSTEM CHAIN ACTIVE PRE-ALIGNMENT USING A MULTI-MODULE TEST SETUP (MOCK-UP)

    CERN Document Server

    Sosin, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    The implementation study of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) is under way at CERN with a focus on the challenging issues. The pre-alignment precision and accuracy requirements are part of these technical challenges: the permissible transverse position errors of the linac components are typically 14 micrometers over sliding windows of 200m. To validate the proposed methods and strategies, the Large Scale Metrology section at CERN has performed campaigns of measurements on the CLIC Two Beam Test Modules, focusing inter alia on the alignment performance of the CLIC “snake”- girders configuration and the Main Beam Quadrupoles supporting structures. This paper describes the activities and results of tests which were performed on the test mock-up for the qualification of the CLIC supporting system chain for active pre-alignment. The lessons learnt (“know how”), the issues encountered in the girder position determination as well as the behaviour of the mechanical components are presented.

  3. Tenofovir alafenamide demonstrates broad cross-genotype activity against wild-type HBV clinical isolates and maintains susceptibility to drug-resistant HBV isolates in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Miller, Michael D; Kitrinos, Kathryn M

    2017-03-01

    Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel prodrug of tenofovir (TFV). This study evaluated the antiviral activity of TAF against wild-type genotype A-H HBV clinical isolates as well as adefovir-resistant, lamivudine-resistant, and entecavir-resistant HBV isolates. Full length HBV genomes or the polymerase/reverse transcriptase (pol/RT) region from treatment-naïve patients infected with HBV genotypes A-H were amplified and cloned into an expression vector under the control of a CMV promoter. In addition, 11 drug resistant HBV constructs were created by site-directed mutagenesis of a full length genotype D construct. Activity of TAF was measured by transfection of each construct into HepG2 cells and assessment of HBV DNA levels following treatment across a range of TAF concentrations. TAF activity in vitro was similar against wild-type genotype A-H HBV clinical isolates. All lamivudine- and entecavir-resistant isolates and 4/5 adefovir-resistant isolates were found to be sensitive to inhibition by TAF in vitro as compared to the wild-type isolate. The adefovir-resistant isolate rtA181V + rtN236T exhibited low-level reduced susceptibility to TAF. TAF is similarly active in vitro against wild-type genotype A-H HBV clinical isolates. The TAF sensitivity results for all drug-resistant isolates are consistent with what has been observed with the parent drug TFV. The in vitro cell-based HBV phenotyping assay results support the use of TAF in treatment of HBV infected subjects with diverse HBV genotypes, in both treatment-naive and treatment-experienced HBV infected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening of antifungal azole drugs and agrochemicals with an adapted alamarBlue-based assay demonstrates antibacterial activity of croconazole against Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Nicole; Röltgen, Katharina; Witschel, Matthias; Pluschke, Gerd

    2012-12-01

    An alamarBlue-based growth inhibition assay has been adapted for the thermosensitive and slow-growing pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. The standardized test procedure enables medium-throughput screening of preselected compound libraries. Testing of a set of 48 azoles with known antifungal activity led to the identification of an imidazole antifungal displaying an inhibitory dose (ID) of 9 μM for M. ulcerans.

  5. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  6. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  7. Luminescence properties of Eu2+ - activated alkaline-earth silicon-oxynitride MSi2O2-deltaN2+2/3delta (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) : A promising class of novel LED conversion phosphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.Q.; Delsing, A.C.A.; With, de G.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The luminescence properties of Eu2+-activated alk.-earth Si-oxynitrides were studied. In the BaO-SiO2-Si3N4 system, a new BaSi2O2N2 compd. was obtained having the monoclinic structure with lattice parameters a 14.070(4), b 7.276(2), c 13.181(3) .ANG., b 107.74(6)°. All MSi2O2-dN2+2/3d:Eu2+ (M = Ca,

  8. Impact of the Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects of Human Activity on the Ecosystem: Demonstration through the Use of Ecological Footprint Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram GAALICHE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show that the impact of human activities on the ecosystem, measured by the Ecological Footprint, depends on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the population. Indeed, we confirmed our hypothesis by an empirical analysis on Tunisia, where it was revealed that the increase in its Ecological Footprint, is attributed mainly to massive consumption of goods, bad land management by building horizontal, and to a lesser extent, to the presence of polluting employments. The results suggest the adoption of targeted policies, according to the specific characteristics of population.

  9. Demonstrating the use of high-volume electronic medical claims data to monitor local and regional influenza activity in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Viboud

    Full Text Available Fine-grained influenza surveillance data are lacking in the US, hampering our ability to monitor disease spread at a local scale. Here we evaluate the performances of high-volume electronic medical claims data to assess local and regional influenza activity.We used electronic medical claims data compiled by IMS Health in 480 US locations to create weekly regional influenza-like-illness (ILI time series during 2003-2010. IMS Health captured 62% of US outpatient visits in 2009. We studied the performances of IMS-ILI indicators against reference influenza surveillance datasets, including CDC-ILI outpatient and laboratory-confirmed influenza data. We estimated correlation in weekly incidences, peak timing and seasonal intensity across datasets, stratified by 10 regions and four age groups (<5, 5-29, 30-59, and 60+ years. To test IMS-Health performances at the city level, we compared IMS-ILI indicators to syndromic surveillance data for New York City. We also used control data on laboratory-confirmed Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV activity to test the specificity of IMS-ILI for influenza surveillance.Regional IMS-ILI indicators were highly synchronous with CDC's reference influenza surveillance data (Pearson correlation coefficients rho≥0.89; range across regions, 0.80-0.97, P<0.001. Seasonal intensity estimates were weakly correlated across datasets in all age data (rho≤0.52, moderately correlated among adults (rho≥0.64 and uncorrelated among school-age children. IMS-ILI indicators were more correlated with reference influenza data than control RSV indicators (rho = 0.93 with influenza v. rho = 0.33 with RSV, P<0.05. City-level IMS-ILI indicators were highly consistent with reference syndromic data (rho≥0.86.Medical claims-based ILI indicators accurately capture weekly fluctuations in influenza activity in all US regions during inter-pandemic and pandemic seasons, and can be broken down by age groups and fine geographical areas

  10. Serum C-reactive Protein Levels Demonstrate Predictive Value for Radiographic and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Outcomes in Patients with Active Ankylosing Spondylitis Treated with Golimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jürgen; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Hermann, Kay-Geert A; Xu, Stephen; Hsu, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) associates with radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) untreated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists. We assessed correlations between serum CRP and radiographic progression/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected inflammation after 2 years of anti-TNF therapy. Patients with active AS receiving golimumab (GOL)/placebo through Week 16 (early escape) or Week 24 (crossover by design), followed by GOL through 4 years, had sera/images obtained through Week 208. Lateral spinal radiographs and spinal MRI were scored with the modified Stoke AS Spine Score (mSASSS) and the AS spine MRI activity (ASspiMRI-a) score, respectively. ANOVA assessed differences based on CRP levels and mSASSS progression. The relationships between CRP levels and mSASSS/ASspiMRI-a were assessed by Spearman correlation and logistic regression. Of the randomized GO-RAISE patients, 299 (84.0%) had pre- and posttreatment spinal radiographs. Larger proportions of patients with Week 104 CRP ≥ 0.5 mg/dl (n = 47) versus formation risk. Elevated CRP after 2 years of anti-TNF treatment correlated with greater radiographic progression risk at 4 years. Elevated CRP at baseline or Week 14/Week 24 of anti-TNF treatment weakly predicted subsequent radiographic progression and modestly predicted residual spinal inflammation in patients with AS treated with anti-TNF. Findings are useful regarding new treatment options in patients treated with anti-TNF. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00265083.

  11. Do promises matter? An exploration of the role of promises in psychological contract breach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Samantha D; Zweig, David

    2009-09-01

    Promises are positioned centrally in the study of psychological contract breach and are argued to distinguish psychological contracts from related constructs, such as employee expectations. However, because the effects of promises and delivered inducements are confounded in most research, the role of promises in perceptions of, and reactions to, breach remains unclear. If promises are not an important determinant of employee perceptions, emotions, and behavioral intentions, this would suggest that the psychological contract breach construct might lack utility. To assess the unique role of promises, the authors manipulated promises and delivered inducements separately in hypothetical scenarios in Studies 1 (558 undergraduates) and 2 (441 employees), and they measured them separately (longitudinally) in Study 3 (383 employees). The authors' results indicate that breach perceptions do not represent a discrepancy between what employees believe they were promised and were given. In fact, breach perceptions can exist in the absence of promises. Further, promises play a negligible role in predicting feelings of violation and behavioral intentions. Contrary to the extant literature, the authors' findings suggest that promises may matter little; employees are concerned primarily with what the organization delivers.

  12. Active vibration-based structural health monitoring system for wind turbine blade: Demonstration on an operating Vestas V27 wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    2017-01-01

    enough to be able to propagate the entire blade length. This article demonstrates the system on a Vestas V27 wind turbine. One blade of the wind turbine was equipped with the system, and a 3.5-month monitoring campaign was conducted while the turbine was operating normally. During the campaign, a defect......—a trailing-edge opening—was artificially introduced into the blade and its size was gradually increased from the original 15 to 45 cm. Using a semi-supervised learning algorithm, the system was able to detect even the smallest amount of damage while the wind turbine was operating under different weather......This study presents a structural health monitoring system that is able to detect structural defects of wind turbine blade such as cracks, leading/trailing-edge opening, or delamination. It is shown that even small defects of at least 15 cm size can be detected remotely without stopping the wind...

  13. SOFC - Manufacture of stacks for test and demonstration related activities, stack and system tests and identification of end user requirements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Joachim; Primdahl, S.; Boegh Elmose, H.; Weineisen, H.; Richter, A.

    2008-11-15

    The aim of the project was to solve the technical challenges in relation to stack functionality in connection with operation of multi stack assemblies under realistic operating conditions. It was the intention to make a targeted effort with the aim of developing a high performance stack technology suitable for both small and large units. An important part of the project was the testing of stack assemblies up to 10 kW power range with relevant fuel and realistic operation condition in the test facility at HC OErstedvaerket. The manufacturing of stacks in the project was as planned a number of stacks (70 kW) for use in demonstration projects both for single stacks and for multi stack assemblies. The start up of the work on the SOFC test facility at HC OErstedsvaerket (HCV) was delayed due to a late delivery of the unit from the PSO 6385 project. A number of unforeseen events during the project have meant that the SOFC test facility at HCV has not until now been ready for performing tests. The experience gained from the operation of a 20 kW Alpha unit in a co-operation between TOFC and Waertsilae now provides an important contribution to the future multi stack assemblies. The work on identification of end user requirements has resulted in a number of different development priorities for the m-CHP and the Distributed Generation market segments. (au)

  14. Tumour compartment transcriptomics demonstrates the activation of inflammatory and odontogenic programmes in human adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma and identifies the MAPK/ERK pathway as a novel therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, John R; Carreno, Gabriela; Gonzalez-Meljem, Jose Mario; Haston, Scott; Guiho, Romain; Cooper, Julie E; Manshaei, Saba; Jani, Nital; Hölsken, Annett; Pettorini, Benedetta; Beynon, Robert J; Simpson, Deborah M; Fraser, Helen C; Hong, Ying; Hallang, Shirleen; Stone, Thomas J; Virasami, Alex; Donson, Andrew M; Jones, David; Aquilina, Kristian; Spoudeas, Helen; Joshi, Abhijit R; Grundy, Richard; Storer, Lisa C D; Korbonits, Márta; Hilton, David A; Tossell, Kyoko; Thavaraj, Selvam; Ungless, Mark A; Gil, Jesus; Buslei, Rolf; Hankinson, Todd; Hargrave, Darren; Goding, Colin; Andoniadou, Cynthia L; Brogan, Paul; Jacques, Thomas S; Williams, Hywel J; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro

    2018-05-01

    Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas (ACPs) are clinically challenging tumours, the majority of which have activating mutations in CTNNB1. They are histologically complex, showing cystic and solid components, the latter comprised of different morphological cell types (e.g. β-catenin-accumulating cluster cells and palisading epithelium), surrounded by a florid glial reaction with immune cells. Here, we have carried out RNA sequencing on 18 ACP samples and integrated these data with an existing ACP transcriptomic dataset. No studies so far have examined the patterns of gene expression within the different cellular compartments of the tumour. To achieve this goal, we have combined laser capture microdissection with computational analyses to reveal groups of genes that are associated with either epithelial tumour cells (clusters and palisading epithelium), glial tissue or immune infiltrate. We use these human ACP molecular signatures and RNA-Seq data from two ACP mouse models to reveal that cell clusters are molecularly analogous to the enamel knot, a critical signalling centre controlling normal tooth morphogenesis. Supporting this finding, we show that human cluster cells express high levels of several members of the FGF, TGFB and BMP families of secreted factors, which signal to neighbouring cells as evidenced by immunostaining against the phosphorylated proteins pERK1/2, pSMAD3 and pSMAD1/5/9 in both human and mouse ACP. We reveal that inhibiting the MAPK/ERK pathway with trametinib, a clinically approved MEK inhibitor, results in reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in explant cultures of human and mouse ACP. Finally, we analyse a prominent molecular signature in the glial reactive tissue to characterise the inflammatory microenvironment and uncover the activation of inflammasomes in human ACP. We validate these results by immunostaining against immune cell markers, cytokine ELISA and proteome analysis in both solid tumour and cystic fluid from ACP

  15. The path to fulfilling the promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, J. [Canadian Nuclear Association, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    'Full text:'Countries work together to develop effective governance and regulation. Canada has made big investments in these areas and it carries a premium for us. The rapid build-out of nuclear technology around the Pacific Rim holds vast promise for our populations in better climate, better air, affordable and reliable electricity, and longer lives. The biggest risk is not another accident: rather, it is the risk of failing to fulfill that promise to our people. Every country that wants the benefits of nuclear must also want to be sure that those benefits are realized and sustained by good governance and regulation. Canada has the people, laws, organizations, public institutions, and relationships that can help our partners fulfill the whole and lasting promise of nuclear technology. (author)

  16. Attempt to demonstrate an in vivo effect of mianserin hydrochloride on erythrocyte Na+-K+-ATPase activity and cyclic AMP concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, G. S.; Buckley, D. E.; Boardman, L. J.; Smith, A. H. W.; Moody, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    1 There is evidence that erythrocyte Na+-K+-ATPase activity and erythrocyte cyclic AMP change on recovery from a depressive illness. Mianserin is a recently introduced antidepressant but its mode of action is unknown. The present study was therefore designed to investigate in vivo the effect of mianserin on erythrocyte Na+-K+-ATPase and cyclic AMP. 2 Biochemical estimations were made on blood from depressed patients before beginning either mianserin or matched placebo treatment, after 1 week, and again after 2 weeks' treatment. 3 Neither the erythrocyte Na+-K+-ATPase, nor the erythrocyte cyclic AMP concentration, changed significantly in either the mianserin- or the placebo-treated group. 4 The study sheds no light on the possible mechanism of action of mianserin. PMID:203308

  17. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  18. [Absorbable coronary stents. New promising technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbel, Raimund; Böse, Dirk; Haude, Michael; Kordish, Igor; Churzidze, Sofia; Malyar, Nasser; Konorza, Thomas; Sack, Stefan

    2007-06-01

    Coronary stent implantation started in Germany 20 years ago. In the beginning, the progress was very slow and accelerated 10 years later. Meanwhile, coronary stent implantation is a standard procedure in interventional cardiology. From the beginning of permanent stent implantation, research started to provide temporary stenting of coronary arteries, first with catheter-based systems, later with stent-alone technology. Stents were produced from polymers or metal. The first polymer stent implantation failed except the Igaki-Tamai stent in Japan. Newly developed absorbable polymer stents seem to be very promising, as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated. Temporary metal stents were developed based on iron and magnesium. Currently, the iron stent is tested in peripheral arteries. The absorbable magnesium stent (Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) was tested in peripheral arteries below the knee and meanwhile in the multicenter international PROGRESS-AMS (Clinical Performance and Angiographic Results of Coronary Stenting with Absorbable Metal Stents) study. The first magnesium stent implantation was performed on July 30, 2004 after extended experimental testing in Essen. The magnesium stent behaved like a bare-metal stent with low recoil of 5-7%. The stent struts were absorbed when tested with IVUS. Stent struts were not visible by fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). That means, that the magnesium stent is invisible and therefore CT and MRI can be used for imaging of interventions. Only using micro-CT the stent struts were visible. The absorption process could be demonstrated in a patient 18 days after implantation due to suspected acute coronary syndrome, which was excluded. IVUS showed a nice open lumen. Stent struts were no longer visible, but replaced by tissue indicating the previous stent location. Coronary angiography after 4 months showed an ischemia-driven target lesion

  19. Promising Compilation to ARMv8 POP

    OpenAIRE

    Podkopaev, Anton; Lahav, Ori; Vafeiadis, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    We prove the correctness of compilation of relaxed memory accesses and release-acquire fences from the "promising" semantics of [Kang et al. POPL'17] to the ARMv8 POP machine of [Flur et al. POPL'16]. The proof is highly non-trivial because both the ARMv8 POP and the promising semantics provide some extremely weak consistency guarantees for normal memory accesses; however, they do so in rather different ways. Our proof of compilation correctness to ARMv8 POP strengthens the results of the Kan...

  20. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

    2012-04-30

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRI’s coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERC’s TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200–500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRI’s patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERC’s TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

  1. Promise-based management: the essence of execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sull, Donald N; Spinosa, Charles

    2007-04-01

    Critical initiatives stall for a variety of reasons--employee disengagement, a lack of coordination between functions, complex organizational structures that obscure accountability, and so on. To overcome such obstacles, managers must fundamentally rethink how work gets done. Most of the challenges stem from broken or poorly crafted commitments. That's because every company is, at its heart, a dynamic network of promises made between employees and colleagues, customers, outsourcing partners, or other stakeholders. Executives can overcome many problems in the short-term and foster productive, reliable workforces for the long-term by practicing what the authors call "promise-based management," which involves cultivating and coordinating commitments in a systematic way. Good promises share five qualities: They are public, active, voluntary, explicit, and mission based. To develop and execute an effective promise, the "provider" and the "customer" in the deal should go through three phases of conversation. The first, achieving a meeting of minds, entails exploring the fundamental questions of coordinated effort: What do you mean? Do you understand what I mean? What should I do? What will you do? Who else should we talk to? In the next phase, making it happen, the provider executes on the promise. In the final phase, closing the loop, the customer publicly declares that the provider has either delivered the goods or failed to do so. Leaders must weave and manage their webs of promises with great care-encouraging iterative conversation and making sure commitments are fulfilled reliably. If they do, they can enhance coordination and cooperation among colleagues, build the organizational agility required to seize new business opportunities, and tap employees' entrepreneurial energies.

  2. Concentrating Solar Power Gen3 Demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vidal, Judith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wagner, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolb, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Andraka, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kruizenga, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Today's power-tower concentrating solar power (CSP) technology exists in large part as a result of Department of Energy (DOE) and utility industry funding of demonstration systems in the 1980s and 1990s. Today's most advanced towers are integrated with molten-salt thermal energy storage, delivering thermal energy at 565 degrees C for integration with conventional steam-Rankine cycles. The supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle has been identified as a likely successor to the steam-Rankine power cycle due to its potential for high efficiency when operating at elevated temperatures of 700 degrees C or greater. Over the course of the SunShot Initiative, DOE has supported a number of technology pathways that can operate efficiently at these temperatures and that hold promise to be reliable and cost effective. Three pathways - molten salt, particle, and gaseous - were selected for further investigation based on a two-day workshop held in August of 2016. The information contained in this roadmap identifies research and development challenges and lays out recommended research activities for each of the three pathways. DOE foresees that by successfully addressing the challenges identified in this roadmap, one or more technology pathways will be positioned for demonstration and subsequent commercialization within the next ten years. Based on current knowledge of the three power tower technologies, all three have the potential to achieve the SunShot goal of 6 cents/kilowatt-hour. Further development, modeling, and testing are now required to bring one or more of the technologies to a stage where integrated system tests and pilot demonstrations are feasible.

  3. Breaking sitting with light activities vs structured exercise: a randomised crossover study demonstrating benefits for glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, Bernard M F M; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; van Kan, Linh; Stienen, Nathalie; Winkens, Bjorn; Koster, Annemarie; Savelberg, Hans H C M

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to examine the effects of breaking sitting with standing and light-intensity walking vs an energy-matched bout of structured exercise on 24 h glucose levels and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. In a randomised crossover study, 19 patients with type 2 diabetes (13 men/6 women, 63 ± 9 years old) who were not using insulin each followed three regimens under free-living conditions, each lasting 4 days: (1) Sitting: 4415 steps/day with 14 h sitting/day; (2) Exercise: 4823 steps/day with 1.1 h/day of sitting replaced by moderate- to vigorous-intensity cycling (at an intensity of 5.9 metabolic equivalents [METs]); and (3) Sit Less: 17,502 steps/day with 4.7 h/day of sitting replaced by standing and light-intensity walking (an additional 2.5 h and 2.2 h, respectively, compared with the hours spent doing these activities in the Sitting regimen). Blocked randomisation was performed using a block size of six regimen orders using sealed, non-translucent envelopes. Individuals who assessed the outcomes were blinded to group assignment. Meals were standardised during each intervention. Physical activity and glucose levels were assessed for 24 h/day by accelerometry (activPAL) and a glucose monitor (iPro2), respectively. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for 24 h glucose (primary outcome) and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) were assessed on days 4 and 5, respectively. The iAUC for 24 h glucose (mean ± SEM) was significantly lower during the Sit Less intervention than in Sitting (1263 ± 189 min × mmol/l vs 1974 ± 324 min × mmol/l; p = 0.002), and was similar between Sit Less and Exercise (Exercise: 1383 ± 194 min × mmol/l; p = 0.499). Exercise failed to improve HOMA2-IR compared with Sitting (2.06 ± 0.28 vs 2.16 ± 0.26; p = 0.177). In contrast, Sit Less (1.89 ± 0.26) significantly reduced HOMA2-IR compared with Exercise (p = 0.015) as well as Sitting (p = 0.001). Breaking

  4. Telepsychiatry in the developing world: Whither promised joy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telepsychiatry, the use of information and communication technologies to provide psychiatric services from a distance, has matured as a mode of service delivery and has expanded its reach since its inception. Telepsychiatry promotes equality of access to high-quality specialized care for underserved users. It enables, empowers and brings about high levels of satisfaction among users. Telepsychiatry can deliver a broad array of clinical services and support several other nonclinical activities. Accumulated evidence demonstrates that clinical outcomes of telepsychiatric interventions are comparable to conventional treatment among patients of all ages, ethnicities, cultures, and diagnostic groups across diverse clinical settings. However, negative attitudes, concerns about the quality of the evidence, doubts about cost-effectiveness, technological vagaries, uncertainty regarding the doctor–patient alliance, and a number of legal, ethical and regulatory hurdles continue to hinder the widespread implementation of telepsychiatric services. A particularly disappointing aspect has been the lack of development of telepsychiatric services in developing countries, where they are required the most because of the large mental-health gap in care with the more traditional forms of services. Problems of costs, lack of infrastructure and connectivity, shortage of trained personnel, sociocultural differences, limited data on effectiveness, and lack of institutional support are the principal challenges to the wider adoption of telepsychiatry in these resource-constrained countries. It is evident that much more effort by all stakeholders, innovative solutions, and hybrid models of care are required before telepsychiatry is able to fulfil its true potential and bring about the promised change in mental health outcomes in the developing world.

  5. Green and social bonds - A promising tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Dominique; Barochez, Aurelie de; Cozic, Aela

    2013-11-01

    Issues of green bonds, socially responsible bonds and climate bonds are on the rise. Novethic estimates that some Euro 5 billion in such bonds has been issued since the start of 2013 by development banks, the main issuers of this type of debt. The figure is equal to over half of their total issues since 2007. Including local authorities, corporations and banks, a total Euro 8 billion of these bonds has been issued thus far in 2013. Given the size of the bond market, which the OECD estimated at Euro 95,000 billion in 2011, green and social bonds are still something of a niche but have strong growth potential. A number of large issues, from Euro 500 million to Euro 1 billion, were announced at the end of the year. Unlike conventional bonds, green and social bonds are not intended to finance all the activities of the issuer or refinance its debt. They serve instead to finance specific projects, such as producing renewable energy or adapting to climate change, the risk of which is shouldered by the issuer. This makes them an innovative instrument, used to earmark investments in projects with a direct environmental or social benefit rather than simply on the basis of the issuer's sustainable development policy. With financing being sought for the ecological transition, green and social bonds are promising instruments, sketching out at global level the shape of tools adapted to the financing of a green economy. On the strength of these advantages, the interest of responsible investors - the main target of green and social bond issuers - is growing fast. Judging by issuer press releases and the most commonly used currencies, the main subscribers today are US investors, among them CalSTRS and fund managers like Calvert Investment Management and Trillium Asset Management. European asset owners are also starting to focus on green and social bonds. A Novethic survey shows that 13% of them have already subscribed to such an issue or plan to do so. The present study

  6. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105 And AN-103) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol; Herman, Connie; Crawford, Charles; Bannochie, Christopher; Burket, Paul; Daniel, Gene; Cozzi, Alex; Nash, Charles; Miller, Donald; Missimer, David

    2014-01-10

    One of the immobilization technologies under consideration as a Supplemental Treatment for Hanford’s Low Activity Waste (LAW) is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The FBSR technology forms a mineral waste form at moderate processing temperatures thus retaining and atomically bonding the halides, sulfates, and technetium in the mineral phases (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite). Additions of kaolin clay are used instead of glass formers and the minerals formed by the FBSR technology offers (1) atomic bonding of the radionuclides and constituents of concern (COC) comparable to glass, (2) short and long term durability comparable to glass, (3) disposal volumes comparable to glass, and (4) higher Na2O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings than glass. The higher FBSR Na{sub 2}O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings contribute to the low disposal volumes but also provide for more rapid processing of the LAW. Recent FBSR processing and testing of Hanford radioactive LAW (Tank SX-105 and AN-103) waste is reported and compared to previous radioactive and non-radioactive LAW processing and testing.

  7. Natural Flavonoids as Promising Analgesic Candidates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Gui, Xuan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Baokang

    2016-11-01

    Due to the chemical structural diversity and various analgesic mechanisms, an increasing number of studies indicated that some flavonoids from medicinal plants could be promising candidates for new natural analgesic drugs, which attract high interests of advanced users and academic researchers. The aim of this systematic review is to report flavonoids and its derivatives as new analgesic candidates based on the pharmacological evidences. Sixty-four papers were found concerning the potential analgesic activity of 46 flavonoids. In this case, the evidence for analgesic activity of flavonoids and total flavonoids was investigated. Meanwhile, the corresponding analgesic mechanism of flavonoids was discussed by generalizing and analyzing the current publications. Based on this review, the conclusion can be drawn that some flavonoids are promising candidates for painful conditions and deserve particular attention in further research and development. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. The Promise of Zoomable User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bederson, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with…

  9. Seaweed: Promising plant of the millennium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Pereira, N.

    Seaweeds, one of the important marine living resources could be termed as the futuristically promising plants. These plants have been a source of food, feed and medicine in the orient as well as in the west, since ancient times. Although, seaweeds...

  10. Complexity of Propositional Proofs Under a Promise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dershowitz, N.; Tzameret, Iddo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-29 ISSN 1529-3785 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : theory * promise problems * propositional proof complexity * random 3CNF * resolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.391, year: 2010 http://dl.acm.org/ citation .cfm?doid=1740582.1740586

  11. Complexity of Propositional Proofs Under a Promise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dershowitz, N.; Tzameret, Iddo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-29 ISSN 1529-3785 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : theory * promise problems * propositional proof complexity * random 3CNF * resolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.391, year: 2010 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1740582.1740586

  12. 76 FR 13152 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... comprehensive education reforms that are linked to improved educational outcomes for children and youth in... parents or family members who report talking with their child about the importance of college and career... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RIN 1855-ZA07 Promise Neighborhoods Program Catalog of Federal Domestic...

  13. The Anti-sigma Factor RsiV Is a Bacterial Receptor for Lysozyme: Co-crystal Structure Determination and Demonstration That Binding of Lysozyme to RsiV Is Required for σV Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Hastie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available σ factors provide RNA polymerase with promoter specificity in bacteria. Some σ factors require activation in order to interact with RNA polymerase and transcribe target genes. The Extra-Cytoplasmic Function (ECF σ factor, σV, is encoded by several Gram-positive bacteria and is specifically activated by lysozyme. This activation requires the proteolytic destruction of the anti-σ factor RsiV via a process of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP. In many cases proteases that cleave at site-1 are thought to directly sense a signal and initiate the RIP process. We previously suggested binding of lysozyme to RsiV initiated the proteolytic destruction of RsiV and activation of σV. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the RsiV-lysozyme complex at 2.3 Å which revealed that RsiV and lysozyme make extensive contacts. We constructed RsiV mutants with altered abilities to bind lysozyme. We find that mutants that are unable to bind lysozyme block site-1 cleavage of RsiV and σV activation in response to lysozyme. Taken together these data demonstrate that RsiV is a receptor for lysozyme and binding of RsiV to lysozyme is required for σV activation. In addition, the co-structure revealed that RsiV binds to the lysozyme active site pocket. We provide evidence that in addition to acting as a sensor for the presence of lysozyme, RsiV also inhibits lysozyme activity. Thus we have demonstrated that RsiV is a protein with multiple functions. RsiV inhibits σV activity in the absence of lysozyme, RsiV binds lysozyme triggering σV activation and RsiV inhibits the enzymatic activity of lysozyme.

  14. A Demonstration and a Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Randy

    1978-01-01

    Describes an activity using interchangeable, preset tool holders to provide a demonstration for parents or students attending a school's open house session that produces a small souvenir (an aluminum mini-chalice) for them. A procedure sheet for the school's individual lathe and specification diagrams for making the cup are provided. (TA)

  15. Image is more than a uniform: the promise of assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wocial, Lucia D; Sego, Kelly; Rager, Carrie; Laubersheimer, Shellee; Everett, Linda Q

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning of the phrase "image of the nurse" in the context of the desired brand experience of assurance. A brand is a promise that lives in the minds of consumers. Nurses play a key role in delivering on the brand promise of a hospital. Using focus groups, the authors applied a deductive approach to generate data. Discussion transcripts were analyzed by establishing codes and identifying themes. The most frequent comment from participants was that for nurses to communicate assurance, they must 1st be clean, well groomed, and understated in overall appearance. Nurse behaviors that reassure patients include being present with patients, helping patients know what to expect, and demonstrating a consistent team approach. Overall appearance and behaviors define the image of nurses and contribute significantly to the brand of assurance.

  16. Planning a demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, R.C.; Wilkinson, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Operating nuclear power plants are increasingly recognizing the need to upgrade existing plant instrumentation and control systems to address the obsolescence of existing equipment and components. This paper reports that operating problems have provided the initial incentive for upgrading I and C systems. However, obsolescence is not the whole story. Each I and C upgrade offers the promise of improved operating performance by reducing down-time during plant outages and by implementing new features that are possible with computer-based technology. I and C upgrades using modern technology have the potential for: higher system reliability and plant availability; reductions in the number of single failure points; use of fault tolerant and self-diagnosis capabilities; improved control system stability and response time; improved accuracy of performance indictors and control signals; and a measurable reduction in operating and maintenance costs

  17. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  18. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  19. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  20. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Hunter, V.L.; Young, J.K.; Lini, D.C.; Goldberg, C.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  1. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.; Gruebel, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner trademark/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist trademark/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals

  2. Obese individuals with more components of the metabolic syndrome and/or prediabetes demonstrate decreased activation of reward-related brain centers in response to food cues in both the fed and fasting states: a preliminary fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, O M; Mantzoros, C S

    2017-03-01

    It remains unknown whether obese individuals with more components of the metabolic syndrome and/or prediabetes demonstrate altered activation of brain centers in response to food cues. We examined obese individuals with prediabetes (n=26) vs obese individuals without prediabetes (n=11) using fMRI. We also performed regression analyses on the basis of the number of MetS components per subject. Obese individuals with prediabetes have decreased activation of the reward-related putamen in the fasting state and decreased activation of the salience- and reward-related insula after eating. Obese individuals with more components of MetS demonstrate decreased activation of the putamen while fasting. All these activations remain significant when corrected for BMI, waist circumference (WC), HbA1c and gender. Decreased activation in the reward-related central nervous system areas among the obese is more pronounced in subjects with prediabetes and MetS. Prospective studies are needed to quantify their contributions to the development of prediabetes/MetS and to study whether they may predispose to the exacerbation of obesity and the development of comorbidities over time.

  3. The promises and prospects of worldwide wireless power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Voorhies, K.L.; Smith, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The promise of worldwide wireless power transfer began with the pioneering work of Nikola Tesla about 100 years ago. His principal approach is summarized. The viability of such a system must still be demonstrated and many questions remain. Potentially, a wireless system can transfer power more efficiently and flexibly, especially to and from remote regions. This paper includes principle elements of worldwide wireless power transfer: the source: an oscillator/transmitter, the path: the cavity bounded by the earth and the ionosphere, and the receiver: a means of extracting power from the path. The system transfers and stores energy via the resonance modes of the cavity. The key challenges facing demonstration of technical feasibility are in finding an efficient means of coupling power into and out of the earth-ionosphere cavity, and in devising a feasible receiver that is both small and efficient. Along with demonstrating technical feasibility, new research must consider safety, environmental impact, susceptibility to weather, and effects on weather

  4. The deepwater Gulf of Mexico : promises delivered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary review of deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) oil production was presented for the years 1989 to 1998. Trends and prospects in deepwater GOM production and leasing were assessed. Promises and forecasts made in the early 1990s were compared with what actually happened since then. Forecasts in the early 1990s promised deeper, faster and cheaper developments in the deepwater Gulf. Results of the comparison showed that the prognosticators were correct on all three counts. Regarding the future of the Gulf, one can be justified in being optimistic in so far as more experience, robust economics, more and cheaper rigs can be taken as reliable indicators of optimism. In contrast, there are certain negatives to consider, such as low commodity prices, budget constraints, lease expirations, technical challenges and increased competition. . 12 figs

  5. Promising Products for Printing and Publishing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Činčikaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article surveys printing and publishing market and its strong and weak aspects. The concept of a new product is described as well as its lifetime and the necessity of its introduction to the market. The enterprise X operating on the market is analyzed, its strong and weak characteristics are presented. The segmentation of the company consumers is performed. On the basis of the performed analysis the potential promising company products are defined.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Melanoma Vaccines: Mixed Past, Promising Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozao-Choy, Junko; Lee, Delphine J.; Faries, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Cancer vaccines were one of the earliest forms of immunotherapy to be investigated. Past attempts to vaccinate against cancer, including melanoma, have mixed results, revealing the complexity of what was thought to be a simple concept. However, several recent successes and the combination of improved knowledge of tumor immunology and the advent of new immunomodulators make vaccination a promising strategy for the future. PMID:25245965

  7. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings....... This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses......, and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...

  8. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  9. Biodenitrification demonstration test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benear, A.K.; Murray, S.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Leslie, J.W.; Patton, J.B.; Menako, C.R.

    1987-08-01

    A two-column biodenitrification (BDN) facility was constructed at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in 1985 and 1986 to test the feasibility of biological treatment for industrial nitrate-bearing waste water generated at FMPC. This demonstration facility comprises one-half of the proposed four-column production facility. A demonstration test was conducted over a four month period in 1987. The results indicate the proposed BDN production facility can process FMPC industrial wastewater in a continuous manner while maintaining an effluent that will consistently meet the proposed NPDES limits for combined nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N). The proposed NPDES limits are 62 kg/day average and 124 kg/day maximum. These limits were proportioned to determine that the two-column demonstration facility should meet the limits of 31 kg/day average and 62 kg/day maximum

  10. Distributed picture compilation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard; Anderson, John; Leal, Jeff; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Watson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    A physical demonstration of distributed surveillance and tracking is described. The demonstration environment is an outdoor car park overlooked by a system of four rooftop cameras. The cameras extract moving objects from the scene, and these objects are tracked in a decentralized way, over a real communication network, using the information form of the standard Kalman filter. Each node therefore has timely access to the complete global picture and because there is no single point of failure in the system, it is robust. The demonstration system and its main components are described here, with an emphasis on some of the lessons we have learned as a result of applying a corpus of distributed data fusion theory and algorithms in practice. Initial results are presented and future plans to scale up the network are also outlined.

  11. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J; Kaut, W [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the fourth PV-Contractors' Meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, held at Brussels on 21 and 22 November 1989, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the Energy Demonstration Program since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986, describing progress with their projects. Summaries of the discussions held at the meeting, which included contractors whose projects were submitted in 1987, are also presented. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping, and warning systems. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  13. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  14. Photovoltaic demonstration projects 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow (William) and Partners, Swindon (UK); Kaut, W [eds.

    1989-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the third Photovoltaic Contractors' Meeting organised by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported by the Energy Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984 and 1985, describing progress with their projects. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of houses, villages, recreation centres, water desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping and warning systems. (author).

  15. Promising new developments in cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, K; Winograd, B; Canetta, R

    1999-01-01

    attractive target for intervention in several aspects of tumor progression. Local production of MMPs with subsequent degradation of the extracellular matrix is implicated in supporting tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis. The development of orally active, nontoxic MMP inhibitors is critical since these compounds will likely require chronic administration in conjunction with other therapies. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are appealing targets for therapy since they are thought to be responsible for a significant number of cancers. Mutations in the Ras oncogene occur with great frequency in a number of human cancers including lung, pancreas, and colon cancer. Clinical development of potent and selective inhibitors of farnesyltransferase, the Ras-processing enzyme, is ongoing. These compounds uncouple Ras activity, affect tumor growth, and have demonstrated significant antitumor activity against experimental models of human cancer. The exciting compounds and novel therapeutic approaches currently under investigation by Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute offer great potential as effective cancer chemotherapy agents for the near future.

  16. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  17. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are

  18. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  19. Astronomy LITE Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2006-12-01

    Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments) is a materials, software, and curriculum development project. It focuses on light, optics, color and visual perception. According to two recent surveys of college astronomy faculty members, these are among the topics most often included in the large introductory astronomy courses. The project has aimed largely at the design and implementation of hands-on experiences for students. However, it has also included the development of lecture demonstrations that employ novel light sources and materials. In this presentation, we will show some of our new lecture demonstrations concerning geometrical and physical optics, fluorescence, phosphorescence and polarization. We have developed over 200 Flash and Java applets that can be used either by teachers in lecture settings or by students at home. They are all posted on the web at http://lite.bu.edu. For either purpose they can be downloaded directly to the user's computer or run off line. In lecture demonstrations, some of these applets can be used to control the light emitted by video projectors to produce physical effects in materials (e.g. fluorescence). Other applets can be used, for example, to demonstrate that the human percept of color does not have a simple relationship with the physical frequency of the stimulating source of light. Project LITE is supported by Grant #DUE-0125992 from the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education.

  20. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  1. Fuel cells show promise as vehicle power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel-cell-powered vehicles appear to offer great promise for energy-saving, high-efficiency transportation. Fuel cells are both highly efficient (50% thermal efficiency has been demonstrated by some) and non-polluting (water being the main by-product). Dramatic improvements in performance have occurred recently due to aerospace and utility RandD efforts. The primary vehicle considered at workshops of laboratory and industrial investigators was a fuel cell/battery hybrid, in which fuel cells are paralleled by batteries. Fuel cells are used for cruising power and battery recharge, while batteries supply transient power for acceleration and starting

  2. Energy 2007. Research, development, demonstration; Energi 07. Forskning, udvikling, demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byriel, I.P.; Justesen, Helle; Beck, A.; Borup Jensen, J.; Rosenfeldt Jakobsen, Kl; Jacobsen, Steen Hartvig (eds.)

    2007-08-10

    Danish energy research is in an exciting and challenging situation. Rising oil prices, unstable energy supply, climate policy responsibilities and globalization have brought development of new environmentally friendly and more efficient energy technologies into focus. Promising international markets for newly developed energy technologies are emerging, and at the same time well established Danish positions of strength are challenged by new strong actors on the global market. The Danish government has set to work on its vision of an appreciable strengthening of public energy research funding through the recent law on the energy technological development and demonstration programme EUDP and the realization of globalization funds. The interaction between basic and applied research must be kept intact. In this report the various Danish energy research programmes administered by Energinet.dk, Danish Energy Authority, Danish Energy Association, Danish Council for Strategic Research's Programme Commission on Energy and Environment and Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, coordinate their annual reports for the first time. The aim of Energy 2007 is to give the reader an idea of how the energy research programmes collaborate on solving the major energy technology challenges - also in an international context. (BA)

  3. Interactions between 4-aminoquinoline and heme: Promising mechanism against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Curty Lechuga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The current drugs used to treat this disease have limited efficacy and produce severe side effects. Quinolines, nitrogen heterocycle compounds that form complexes with heme, have a broad spectrum of antiprotozoal activity and are a promising class of new compounds for Chagas disease chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the activity of a series of 4-arylaminoquinoline-3-carbonitrile derivatives against all forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. Compound 1g showed promising activity against epimastigote forms when combined with hemin (IC50<1 μM, with better performance than benznidazole, the reference drug. This compound also inhibited the viability of trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The potency of 1g in combination with heme was enhanced against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes, suggesting a similar mechanism of action that occurs in Plasmodium spp. The addition of hemin to the culture medium increased trypanocidal activity of analog 1g without changing the cytotoxicity of the host cell, reaching an IC50 of 11.7 μM for trypomastigotes. The mechanism of action was demonstrated by the interaction of compound 1g with hemin in solution and prevention of heme peroxidation. Compound 1g and heme treatment induced alterations of the mitochondrion-kinetoplast complex in epimastigotes and trypomastigotes and also, accumulation of electron-dense deposits in amastigotes as visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The trypanocidal activity of 4-aminoquinolines and the elucidation of the mechanism involving interaction with heme is a neglected field of research, given the parasite's lack of heme biosynthetic pathway and the importance of this cofactor for parasite survival and growth. The results of this study can improve and guide rational drug development and combination treatment strategies.

  4. Interactions between 4-aminoquinoline and heme: Promising mechanism against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Guilherme Curty; Borges, Júlio Cesar; Calvet, Claudia Magalhães; de Araújo, Humberto Pinheiro; Zuma, Aline Araujo; do Nascimento, Samara Braga; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Bernardino, Alice Maria Rolim; Pereira, Mirian Claudia de Souza; Bourguignon, Saulo Cabral

    2016-12-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The current drugs used to treat this disease have limited efficacy and produce severe side effects. Quinolines, nitrogen heterocycle compounds that form complexes with heme, have a broad spectrum of antiprotozoal activity and are a promising class of new compounds for Chagas disease chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the activity of a series of 4-arylaminoquinoline-3-carbonitrile derivatives against all forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. Compound 1g showed promising activity against epimastigote forms when combined with hemin (IC50<1 μM), with better performance than benznidazole, the reference drug. This compound also inhibited the viability of trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The potency of 1g in combination with heme was enhanced against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes, suggesting a similar mechanism of action that occurs in Plasmodium spp. The addition of hemin to the culture medium increased trypanocidal activity of analog 1g without changing the cytotoxicity of the host cell, reaching an IC50 of 11.7 μM for trypomastigotes. The mechanism of action was demonstrated by the interaction of compound 1g with hemin in solution and prevention of heme peroxidation. Compound 1g and heme treatment induced alterations of the mitochondrion-kinetoplast complex in epimastigotes and trypomastigotes and also, accumulation of electron-dense deposits in amastigotes as visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The trypanocidal activity of 4-aminoquinolines and the elucidation of the mechanism involving interaction with heme is a neglected field of research, given the parasite's lack of heme biosynthetic pathway and the importance of this cofactor for parasite survival and growth. The results of this study can improve and guide rational drug development and combination treatment strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  5. Remote monitoring demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  6. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  7. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaut, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow Gilbert Associates Ltd., Swindon (GB)

    1992-12-31

    This publication, comprising the proceedings of the fifth contractor`s meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the energy demonstration programme since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1987 and 1988, describing progress within their projects. Projects accepted from earlier calls for proposals and not yet completed were reviewed by a rapporteur and are discussed in the summary section. The results of the performance monitoring of all projects and the lessons drawn from the practical experience of the projects are also presented in the summaries and conclusions. Contractors whose projects were submitted in 1989 were also present at the meeting and contributed to the reported discussions. This proceeding is divided into four sessions (General, Housing, technical presentations, other applications) and 24 papers are offered.

  8. AVNG system demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  9. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  10. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  11. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R G [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  12. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  13. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  14. Does environmental archaeology need an ethical promise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix; Andersen, Per; Price, Neil

    2016-01-01

    formalized ethical codes or promises that not only guide the dissemination of data but oblige scientists to relate to fundamentally political issues. This article couples a survey of the recent environmental ethics literature with two case studies of how past natural hazards have affected vulnerable...... societies in Europe?s prehistory. We ask whether cases of past calamities and their societal effects should play a greater role in public debates and whether archaeologists working with past environmental hazards should be more outspoken in their ethical considerations. We offer no firm answers, but suggest...... that archaeologists engage with debates in human?environment relations at this interface between politics, public affairs and science....

  15. Salt decontamination demonstration test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, E.B.; Heng, C.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Salt Decontamination Demonstration confirmed that the precipitation process could be used for large-scale decontamination of radioactive waste sale solution. Although a number of refinements are necessary to safely process the long-term requirement of 5 million gallons of waste salt solution per year, there were no observations to suggest that any fundamentals of the process require re-evaluation. Major accomplishments were: (1) 518,000 gallons of decontaminated filtrate were produced from 427,000 gallons of waste salt solution from tank 24H. The demonstration goal was to produce a minimum of 200,000 gallons of decontaminated salt solution; (2) cesium activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 43,000 below the cesium activity in the tank 24 solution. This decontamination factor (DF) exceeded the demonstration goal of a DF greater than 10,000; (3) average strontium-90 activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 26 to less than 10 3 d/m/ml versus a goal of less than 10 4 d/m/ml; and (4) the concentrated precipitate was washed to a final sodium ion concentration of 0.15 M, well below the 0.225 M upper limit for DWPF feed. These accomplishments were achieved on schedule and without incident. Total radiation exposure to personnel was less than 350 mrem and resulted primarily from sampling precipitate slurry inside tank 48. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  16. Status and promise of fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy

    2001-09-01

    The niche or early entry market penetration by ONSI and its phosphoric acid fuel cell technology has proven that fuel cells are reliable and suitable for premium power and other opportunity fuel niche market applications. Now, new fuel cell technologies - solid oxide fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and polymer electrolyte fuel cells - are being developed for near-term distributed generation shortly after 2003. Some of the evolving fuel cell systems are incorporating gas turbines in hybrid configurations. The combination of the gas turbine with the fuel cell promises to lower system costs and increase efficiency to enhance market penetration. Market estimates indicate that significant early entry markets exist to sustain the initially high cost of some distributed generation technologies. However, distributed generation technologies must have low introductory first cost, low installation cost, and high system reliability to be viable options in competitive commercial and industrial markets. In the long-term, solid state fuel cell technology with stack costs under $100/kilowatt (kW) promises deeper and wider market penetration in a range of applications including a residential, auxillary power, and the mature distributed generation markets. The solid state energy conversion alliance (SECA) with its vision for fuel cells in 2010 was recently formed to commercialize solid state fuel cells and realize the full potential of the fuel cell technology. Ultimately, the SECA concept could lead to megawatt-size fuel-cell systems for commercial and industrial applications and Vision 21 fuel cell turbine hybrid energy plants in 2015. (orig.)

  17. Promises in intelligent plant control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The control system is the brain of a power plant. The traditional goal of control systems has been productivity. However, in nuclear power plants the potential for disaster requires safety to be the dominant concern, and the worldwide political climate demands trustworthiness for nuclear power plants. To keep nuclear generation as a viable option for power in the future, trust is the essential critical goal which encompasses all others. In most of today's nuclear plants the control system is a hybrid of analog, digital, and human components that focuses on productivity and operates under the protective umbrella of an independent engineered safety system. Operation of the plant is complex, and frequent challenges to the safety system occur which impact on their trustworthiness. Advances in nuclear reactor design, computer sciences, and control theory, and in related technological areas such as electronics and communications as well as in data storage, retrieval, display, and analysis have opened a promise for control systems with more acceptable human brain-like capabilities to pursue the required goals. This paper elaborates on the promise of futuristic nuclear power plants with intelligent control systems and addresses design requirements and implementation approaches

  18. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented

  19. Demonstration of HITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.D.; Woodall, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A model reactor for HITEX successfully demonstrated the concept of high-temperature isotopic exchange in a closed loop simulating the conditions for fusion fuel cleanup. The catalyst of platinum on alumina pellets provided a surface area large enough to operate the reactor at 400 degrees celsius with flow rates up to 2 L/min. A 15-L tank containing a mixture of 4% CD 4 in H 2 was depleted in deuterium within 75 minutes down to 100 ppm HD above the natural concentration of HD in the make-up hydrogen stream. The application to tritium removal from tritiated impurities in a hydrogen stream will work as well or better

  20. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System

  1. Surface modification of promising cerium oxide nanoparticles for nanomedicine applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-11-14

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) or nanoceria have emerged as a potential nanomedicine for the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. CNPs have a natural tendency to aggregate or agglomerate in their bare state, which leads to sedimentation in a biological environment. Since the natural biological environment is essentially aqueous, nanoparticle surface modification using suitable biocompatible hydrophilic chemical moieties is highly desirable to create effective aqueous dispersions. In this report, (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl)triethoxysilane was used as a functional, biocompatible organosilane to modify the surface of CNPs to produce promising nanoparticles which open substantial therapeutic avenues. The surface modified nanoparticles were produced in situ via an ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using complimentary characterization techniques. The interaction between the functional moiety and the nanoparticle was studied using powerful cross polarization/magic angle sample spinning solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The surface-modified nanoparticles were extremely small and demonstrated a significant improvement in aqueous dispersibility. Moreover, the existence of a strong ionic coordination between the functional moiety and the surface of the nanoparticle was realised, indicating that the surface modified nanoceria are stable and that the nanoparticles should demonstrate an enhanced circulation time in a biological environment. The surface modification approach should be promising for the production of CNPs for nanomedicine applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  3. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  4. Industrial demonstration trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelee, M.; Fabre, C.; Villepoix, R. de; Fra, J.; Le Foulgoc, L.; Morel, Y.; Querite, P.; Roques, R.

    1975-01-01

    Prototypes of the plant components, meeting the specifications set by the process and built by industrial firms in collaboration with the supervisor and the C.E.A., are subjected to trial runs on the UF 6 test bench of the Pierrelatte testing zone. These items of equipment (diffuser, compressor, exchanger) are placed in an industrial operation context very similar to that of an enrichment plant. Their performance is measured within a broad region around the working point and their reliability observed over periods up to several tens of thousands of hours. Between 1969 and 1973 six industrial demonstration test benches have been built, marking the stages in the technical preparation of the 1973 file on the basis of which the decision of building was taken by Eurodif [fr

  5. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  6. TPA device for demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The TPA (torus plasma for amature) is a small race-trac type device made by the technical service division to demonstrate basic properties of plasma such as electron temperature, conductivity, effect of helical field for toroidal drift, and shape of plasma in mirror and cusp magnetic field in linear section. The plasmas are produced by RF discharge (-500W) and/or DC discharge (-30 mA) within glass discharge tube. Where major radius is 50 cm, length of linear section is 50 cm, toroidal magnetic field is 200 gauss. The device has been designed to be compact with only 100 V power source (-3.2 KW for the case without helical field) and to be full automatic sequence of operation. (author)

  7. Dynamic wall demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsui, L.; Mayhew, W.

    1990-12-01

    The dynamic wall concept is a ventilation strategy that can be applied to a single family dwelling. With suitable construction, outside air can be admitted through the exterior walls of the house to the interior space to function as ventilation air. The construction and performance monitoring of a demonstration house built to test the dynamic wall concept in Sherwood Park, Alberta, is described. The project had the objectives of demonstrating and assessing the construction methods; determining the cost-effectiveness of the concept in Alberta; analyzing the operation of the dynamic wall system; and determining how other components and systems in the house interact with the dynamic wall. The exterior wall construction consisted of vinyl siding, spun-bonded polyolefin-backed (SBPO) rigid fiberglass sheathing, 38 mm by 89 mm framing, fiberglass batt insulation and 12.7 mm drywall. The mechanical system was designed to operate in the dynamic (negative pressure) mode, however flexibility was provided to allow operation in the static (balanced pressure) mode to permit monitoring of the walls as if they were in a conventional house. The house was monitored by an extensive computerized monitoring system. Dynamic wall operation was dependent on pressure and temperature differentials between indoor and outdoor as well as wind speed and direction. The degree of heat gain was found to be ca 74% of the indoor-outdoor temperature differential. Temperature of incoming dynamic air was significantly affected by solar radiation and measurement of indoor air pollutants found no significant levels. 4 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Cyanobacteria: Promising biocatalysts for sustainable chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoot, Cory J; Ungerer, Justin; Wangikar, Pramod P; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2018-04-06

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes showing great promise as biocatalysts for the direct conversion of CO 2 into fuels, chemicals, and other value-added products. Introduction of just a few heterologous genes can endow cyanobacteria with the ability to transform specific central metabolites into many end products. Recent engineering efforts have centered around harnessing the potential of these microbial biofactories for sustainable production of chemicals conventionally produced from fossil fuels. Here, we present an overview of the unique chemistry that cyanobacteria have been co-opted to perform. We highlight key lessons learned from these engineering efforts and discuss advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Analysis of promising sustainable renovation concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    This report focuses on analyses of the most promising existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical concepts, for single-family houses. As a basis for the analyses a detailed building stock analysis was carried out. Furthermore, as a basis a general working...... method for proposals on package solutions for sustainable renovation was described. The method consists of four steps, going from investigation of the house to proposal for sustainable renovation, detailed planning and commissioning after renovation. It could be used by teams of consultants...... of the building envelope and the electricity required to run the system. Positive impact on the indoor environment can be expected. Thermal comfort will be improved by insulation and air-tightness measures that will increase surface temperatures and reduce draught from e.g. badly insulated windows. A ventilation...

  10. Biomolecular simulations on petascale: promises and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Pratul K; Alam, Sadaf R

    2006-01-01

    Proteins work as highly efficient machines at the molecular level and are responsible for a variety of processes in all living cells. There is wide interest in understanding these machines for implications in biochemical/biotechnology industries as well as in health related fields. Over the last century, investigations of proteins based on a variety of experimental techniques have provided a wealth of information. More recently, theoretical and computational modeling using large scale simulations is providing novel insights into the functioning of these machines. The next generation supercomputers with petascale computing power, hold great promises as well as challenges for the biomolecular simulation scientists. We briefly discuss the progress being made in this area

  11. Halopentacenes: Promising Candidates for Organic Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong-He, Du; Zhao-Yu, Ren; Ji-Ming, Zheng; Ping, Guo

    2009-01-01

    We introduce polar substituents such as F, Cl, Br into pentacene to enhance the dissolubility in common organic solvents while retaining the high charge-carrier mobilities of pentacene. Geometric structures, dipole moments, frontier molecule orbits, ionization potentials and electron affinities, as well as reorganization energies of those molecules, and of pentacene for comparison, are successively calculated by density functional theory. The results indicate that halopentacenes have rather small reorganization energies (< 0.2 eV), and when the substituents are in position 2 or positions 2 and 9, they are polarity molecules. Thus we conjecture that they can easily be dissolved in common organic solvents, and are promising candidates for organic semiconductors. (condensed matter: electronicstructure, electrical, magnetic, and opticalproperties)

  12. Underexploited tropical plants with promising economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The apparent advantages of staple plants over the minor tropical plants often result only from the disproportionate research attention they have been given. A world-wide inquiry resulted in a list of 400 promising but neglected species. The 36 most important species are described in compact monographs and concern cereals (Echinochloa turnerana, grain amaranths, quinua and Zosterea mazina), roots and tubers (Arrachacha, cocoyams and taro), vegetables (chaya, hearts of palms, wax gourd, winged bean), fruits (durian, mangosteen, naranjilla, pejibaye, pummelo, soursop, uvilla), oilseeds (babassu palm, buffalo gourd, Caryocar species, Hessenia polycarpa and jojoba), forage (Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum Cassia sturtii, saltbushes and tamarugo) and other crops (buriti palm, Calathea lutea, candelilla, guar, guayule, Paspalum vaginatum, ramie and Spirulina).

  13. Control of Gene Expression in Leptospira spp. by Transcription Activator-Like Effectors Demonstrates a Potential Role for LigA and LigB in Leptospira interrogans Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christopher J; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that affects ∼1 million people annually, with a mortality rate of >10%. Currently, there is an absence of effective genetic manipulation tools for targeted mutagenesis in pathogenic leptospires. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a recently described group of repressors that modify transcriptional activity in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells by directly binding to a targeted sequence within the host genome. To determine the applicability of TALEs within Leptospira spp., two TALE constructs were designed. First, a constitutively expressed TALE gene specific for the lacO-like region upstream of bgaL was trans inserted in the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa (the TALEβgal strain). Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) analysis and enzymatic assays demonstrated that BgaL was not expressed in the TALEβgal strain. Second, to study the role of LigA and LigB in pathogenesis, a constitutively expressed TALE gene with specificity for the homologous promoter regions of ligA and ligB was cis inserted into the pathogen Leptospira interrogans (TALElig). LigA and LigB expression was studied by using three independent clones: TALElig1, TALElig2, and TALElig3. Immunoblot analysis of osmotically induced TALElig clones demonstrated 2- to 9-fold reductions in the expression levels of LigA and LigB, with the highest reductions being noted for TALElig1 and TALElig2, which were avirulent in vivo and nonrecoverable from animal tissues. This study reconfirms galactosidase activity in the saprophyte and suggests a role for LigA and LigB in pathogenesis. Collectively, this study demonstrates that TALEs are effective at reducing the expression of targeted genes within saprophytic and pathogenic strains of Leptospira spp., providing an additional genetic manipulation tool for this genus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. The buried waste integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    There are numerous locations throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex where wastes have been buried in the ground or stored for future disposal. Much of this buried waste is contaminated with hazardous and radioactive materials. An extensive research program has been initiated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop and demonstrate advanced remediation techniques for DOE Complex buried waste. The purpose of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), is to develop a scientifically sound and deployable remediation system consisting of advanced technologies which address the buried waste characteristics of the DOE Complex. This comprehensive remediation system win include technologies for the entire remediation cycle (cradle-to-grave). Technologies developed and demonstrated within the BWID will be transferred to the DOE Complex sites with buried waste, to private industry, and to universities. Multidirectional technology transfer is encouraged by the BWID. Identification and evaluation of plausible technological solutions are an ongoing activity of the BWID. A number of technologies are currently under development throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, and universities. Technology integration mechanisms have been established by BWID to facilitate collaborative research and demonstration of applicable remedial technologies for buried waste. Successful completion of the BWID will result in the development of a proven and deployable system at the INEL and other DOE Complex buried waste sites, thereby supporting the DOE Complex's environmental restoration objectives

  15. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Ouzzani, Mourad; Aboulnaga, Ashraf; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  16. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  17. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  18. Performance Demonstration Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste characterization program, each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). The PDP serves as a quality control check against expected results and provides information about the quality of data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed by an independent organization to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. There are three elements within the PDP: analysis of simulated headspace gases, analysis of solids for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents, and analysis for transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Because the analysis for TRU radionuclides using NDA techniques involves both the counting of drums and standard waste boxes, four PDP plans are required to describe the activities of the three PDP elements. In accordance with these PDP plans, the reviewing and approving authority for PDP results and for the overall program is the CBFO PDP Appointee. The CBFO PDP Appointee is responsible for ensuring the implementation of each of these plans by concurring with the designation of the Program Coordinator and by providing technical oversight and coordination for the program. The Program Coordinator will designate the PDP Manager, who will coordinate the three elements of the PDP. The purpose of this management plan is to identify how the requirements applicable to the PDP are implemented during the management and coordination of PDP activities. The other participants in the program (organizations that perform site implementation and activities under CBFO contracts or interoffice work orders) are not covered under this management plan. Those activities are governed by the organization's quality assurance (QA) program and procedures or as otherwise directed by CBFO.

  19. Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurisicchio, Luigi; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP) is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost) are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost

  20. Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program is a government and industry co-funded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes. One goal of the program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a variety of energy efficient, environmentally superior coal-based technologies. Demonstration projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising coal technologies that have proceeded beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This report is a post-project assessment of the DOE CCT Demonstration Program, the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project. A major objective of the CCT Program is to provide the technical data necessary for the private sector to proceed confidently with the commercial replication of the demonstrated technologies. An essential element of meeting this goal is the dissemination of results from the demonstration projects. This post-project assessment (PPA) report is an independent DOE appraisal of the successes that the completed project had in achieving its objectives and aiding in the commercialization of the demonstrated technology. The report also provides an assessment of the expected technical, environmental, and economic performance of the commercial version of the technology, as well as an analysis of the commercial market.

  1. The promise of Lean in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, John S; Berry, Leonard L

    2013-01-01

    An urgent need in American health care is improving quality and efficiency while controlling costs. One promising management approach implemented by some leading health care institutions is Lean, a quality improvement philosophy and set of principles originated by the Toyota Motor Company. Health care cases reveal that Lean is as applicable in complex knowledge work as it is in assembly-line manufacturing. When well executed, Lean transforms how an organization works and creates an insatiable quest for improvement. In this article, we define Lean and present 6 principles that constitute the essential dynamic of Lean management: attitude of continuous improvement, value creation, unity of purpose, respect for front-line workers, visual tracking, and flexible regimentation. Health care case studies illustrate each principle. The goal of this article is to provide a template for health care leaders to use in considering the implementation of the Lean management system or in assessing the current state of implementation in their organizations. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hyperthermia: Clinical promise and current challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Local-regional hyperthermia (HT) when used in conjunction with radiation therapy (XRT), has been shown in numerous clinical trials to result in considerable improvement in response rates and local tumor control rates when compared with treatment by XRT alone. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the biological basis for hyperthermia induced cytotoxicity and radiosensitization, additional research remains in establishing the optimal treatment schedules for the clinical utilization of HT-XRT. The number of HT treatments; the sequencing of HT and XRT; the frequency of administration of HT; and the ideal temperature-time parameters all remain to be better defined for the clinical setting. The role of tumor blood flow on the thermal distributions also warrants further investigation. In addition, considerable effort is needed to improve hyperthermia equipment in order to provide more uniform therapeutic temperature distributions (temperatures ≥42.5%C). Better heating equipment is particularly needed for the treatment of deep seeted tumors. Pertinent clinical literature will be presented summarizing the clinical promise of hyperthermia and the above mentioned clinical challenges

  3. Uterine transplantation: a promising surrogate to surrogacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Michael; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Bulletti, Carlo; Frydman, Rene; Fanchin, Renato

    2011-03-01

    Infertility due to the inability of the uterus to carry a pregnancy ranks among the most unresolved issues in reproductive medicine. It affects millions of women worldwide who have congenital or acquired uterine affections, often requiring hysterectomy, and potentially represents a considerable fraction of the general infertile population. Patients suffering from severe uterine infertility are currently compelled to go through gestational surrogacy or adoption; both approaches, unfortunately, deprive them of the maternal experience of pregnancy and birth. Uterine transplantation represents an outstanding, yet complex, perspective to alleviating definitive uterine infertility. In the past decades, a number of scientific experiments conducted both in animals and women, focusing on uterine transplantation, have led to promising results. Collectively, these findings undoubtedly constitute a sound basis to clinically apply uterine transplantation in the near future. This paper is, however, an overview not only of the extent and limitations of accumulated scientific knowledge on uterine transplantation, but also its ethical implications, in an effort to define the actual place of such an approach among the therapeutic arsenal for alleviating infertility. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Medical big data: promise and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Ho Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  5. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed. PMID:29487851

  6. Artificial Intelligence in Surgery: Promises and Perils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Daniel A; Rosman, Guy; Rus, Daniela; Meireles, Ozanan R

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize major topics in artificial intelligence (AI), including their applications and limitations in surgery. This paper reviews the key capabilities of AI to help surgeons understand and critically evaluate new AI applications and to contribute to new developments. AI is composed of various subfields that each provide potential solutions to clinical problems. Each of the core subfields of AI reviewed in this piece has also been used in other industries such as the autonomous car, social networks, and deep learning computers. A review of AI papers across computer science, statistics, and medical sources was conducted to identify key concepts and techniques within AI that are driving innovation across industries, including surgery. Limitations and challenges of working with AI were also reviewed. Four main subfields of AI were defined: (1) machine learning, (2) artificial neural networks, (3) natural language processing, and (4) computer vision. Their current and future applications to surgical practice were introduced, including big data analytics and clinical decision support systems. The implications of AI for surgeons and the role of surgeons in advancing the technology to optimize clinical effectiveness were discussed. Surgeons are well positioned to help integrate AI into modern practice. Surgeons should partner with data scientists to capture data across phases of care and to provide clinical context, for AI has the potential to revolutionize the way surgery is taught and practiced with the promise of a future optimized for the highest quality patient care.

  7. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  8. Medical big data: promise and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-03-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  9. Commercialization of IGCC technology looks promising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a major focus of the latest round of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program was three large-scale, high-efficiency electricity generating projects which will rely on coal gasification rather than burning the coal directly. The three projects are: Toms Creek integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) demonstration project. The aim of the project is to demonstrate improved coal-to-power efficiencies in an integrated gasification combined-cycle process. According to the DOE, the Toms Creek project will show that significant reductions in SO 2 and NO x emissions can be accomplished through the use of IGCC technology. On completion of the project, 107 MW of electric capacity will be added to the grid. Pinon Pine IGCC power project. The project's aim is to demonstrate that IGCC plants can be constructed at significantly lower capital costs, and with higher thermal efficiencies, than conventional power generation technologies. It will also demonstrate the effectiveness of hot gas cleanup for low-sulfur western coals. Wasbash River coal gasification repowering project

  10. Flavonoids: promising natural compounds against viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Arabyan, Erik; Oo, Adrian; Zandi, Keivan

    2017-09-01

    Flavonoids are widely distributed as secondary metabolites produced by plants and play important roles in plant physiology, having a variety of potential biological benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Different flavonoids have been investigated for their potential antiviral activities and several of them exhibited significant antiviral properties in in vitro and even in vivo studies. This review summarizes the evidence for antiviral activity of different flavonoids, highlighting, where investigated, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action on viruses. We also present future perspectives on therapeutic applications of flavonoids against viral infections.

  11. Stem Cell Therapy: A Promising Therapeutic Method for Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liansheng; Xu, Weilin; Li, Tao; Chen, Jingyin; Shao, Anwen; Yan, Feng; Chen, Gao

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one type of the most devastating cerebrovascular diseases worldwide, which causes high morbidity and mortality. However, efficient treatment is still lacking. Stem cell therapy has shown good neuroprotective and neurorestorative effect in ICH and is a promising treatment. In this study, our aim was to review the therapeutic effects, strategies, related mechanisms and safety issues of various types of stem cell for ICH treatment. Numerous studies had demonstrated the therapeutic effects of diverse stem cell types in ICH. The potential mechanisms include tissue repair and replacement, neurotrophy, promotion of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis, immunoregulation and anti-inflammation and so forth. The microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS) can also influence the effects of stem cell therapy. The detailed therapeutic strategies for ICH treatment such as cell type, the number of cells, time window, and the routes of medication delivery, varied greatly among different studies and had not been determined. Moreover, the safety issues of stem cell therapy for ICH should not be ignored. Stem cell therapy showed good therapeutic effect in ICH, making it a promising treatment. However, safety should be carefully evaluated, and more clinical trials are required before stem cell therapy can be extensively applied to clinical use.

  12. Outsourcing and Libraries--Threat or Promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missingham, Roxanne

    1994-01-01

    Outsourcing has been proposed as a method for improving effectiveness and productivity in Australian public library service. Developments, drawbacks, and potentials are discussed, and differences between contracting out whole services as opposed to selected activities are examined. (AEF)

  13. The promise of innovation: Nuclear energy horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourogov, V.

    2003-01-01

    The 21st century promises the most open, competitive, and globalized markets in human history, as well as the most rapid pace of technological change ever. For nuclear energy, as any other, that presents challenges. Though the atom now supplies a good share of world electricity, its share of total energy is relatively small, anywhere from four to six per cent depending on how it is calculated. And, while energy is most needed in the developing world, four of every five nuclear plants are in industrialized countries. Critical problems that need to be overcome are well known - high capital costs for new plants, and concerns over proliferation risks and safety, (including safety of waste disposal) stand high among them. The IAEA and other programmes are confronting these problems through ambitious initiatives involving both industrialized and developing countries. They include the collaborative efforts known as the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) and the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). They use ideas, results and the best experiences from today's research and development tools and advanced types of nuclear energy systems to meet tomorrow's challenges. Though the market often decides the fate of new initiatives, the market is not always right for the common good. Governments, and the people that influence them, play an indispensable role in shaping progress in energy fields for rich and poor countries alike. They shoulder the main responsibilities for fundamental science, basic research, and long-term investments. For energy in particular, government investment and support will prove instrumental in the pace of innovation toward long-term options that are ready to replace limited fossil fuel supplies, and respond to the growing premium put on clean energy alternatives. Yet governments cannot go it alone. The challenges are too diverse and complex, and public concerns - about proliferation or safety - go beyond

  14. The epigenetic promise for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Leander; Herman, James G; Otto, Gaëtan; Bigley, Joseph W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2012-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in men and a leading cause of death. Improvements in disease management would have a significant impact and could be facilitated by the development of biomarkers, whether for diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive purposes. The blood-based prostate biomarker PSA has been part of clinical practice for over two decades, although it is surrounded by controversy. While debates of usefulness are ongoing, alternatives should be explored. Particularly with recent recommendations against routine PSA-testing, the time is ripe to explore promising biomarkers to yield a more efficient and accurate screening for detection and management of prostate cancer. Epigenetic changes, more specifically DNA methylation, are amongst the most common alterations in human cancer. These changes are associated with transcriptional silencing of genes, leading to an altered cellular biology. One gene in particular, GSTP1, has been widely studied in prostate cancer. Therefore a meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the role of this and other genes and the potential contribution to prostate cancer management and screening refinement. More than 30 independent, peer reviewed studies have reported a consistently high sensitivity and specificity of GSTP1 hypermethylation in prostatectomy or biopsy tissue. The meta-analysis combined and compared these results. GSTP1 methylation detection can serve an important role in prostate cancer managment. The meta-analysis clearly confirmed a link between tissue DNA hypermethylation of this and other genes and prostate cancer. Detection of DNA methylation in genes, including GSTP1, could serve an important role in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Cavalheiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  16. Enantioselectivity of mass spectrometry: challenges and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Hanan; El-Aneed, Anas

    2013-01-01

    With the fast growing market of pure enantiomer drugs and bioactive molecules, new chiral-selective analytical tools have been instigated including the use of mass spectrometry (MS). Even though MS is one of the best analytical tools that has efficiently been used in several pharmaceutical and biological applications, traditionally MS is considered as a "chiral-blind" technique. This limitation is due to the MS inability to differentiate between two enantiomers of a chiral molecule based merely on their masses. Several approaches have been explored to assess the potential role of MS in chiral analysis. The first approach depends on the use of MS-hyphenated techniques utilizing fast and sensitive chiral separation tools such as liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to MS detector. More recently, several alternative separation techniques have been evaluated such as supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC); the latter being a hybrid technique that combines the efficiency of CE with the selectivity of LC. The second approach is based on using the MS instrument solely for the chiral recognition. This method depends on the behavioral differences between enantiomers towards a foreign molecule and the ability of MS to monitor such differences. These behavioral differences can be divided into three types: (i) differences in the enantiomeric affinity for association with the chiral selector, (ii) differences of the enantiomeric exchange rate with a foreign reagent, and (iii) differences in the complex MS dissociation behaviors of the enantiomers. Most recently, ion mobility spectrometry was introduced to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate chiral compounds. This article provides an overview of MS role in chiral analysis by discussing MS based methodologies and presenting the challenges and promises associated with each approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Design, challenge, and promise of stimuli-responsive nanoantibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Julius A.; Kwon, Young Jik

    2016-10-01

    Over the past few years, there have been calls for novel antimicrobials to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria. While some promising new discoveries have met this call, it is not nearly enough. The major problem is that although these new promising antimicrobials serve as a short-term solution, they lack the potential to provide a long-term solution. The conventional method of creating new antibiotics relies heavily on the discovery of an antimicrobial compound from another microbe. This paradigm of development is flawed due to the fact that microbes can easily transfer a resistant mechanism if faced with an environmental pressure. Furthermore, there has been some evidence to indicate that the environment of the microbe can provide a hint as to their virulence. Because of this, the use of materials with antimicrobial properties has been garnering interest. Nanoantibiotics, (nAbts), provide a new way to circumvent the current paradigm of antimicrobial discovery and presents a novel mechanism of attack not found in microbes yet; which may lead to a longer-term solution against drug-resistance formation. This allows for environment-specific activation and efficacy of the nAbts but may also open up and create new design methods for various applications. These nAbts provide promise, but there is still ample work to be done in their development. This review looks at possible ways of improving and optimizing nAbts by making them stimuli-responsive, then consider the challenges ahead, and industrial applications.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Nanocellulose: a promising nanomaterial for advanced electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenshuai; Yu, Haipeng; Lee, Sang-Young; Wei, Tong; Li, Jian; Fan, Zhuangjun

    2018-04-23

    Nanocellulose has emerged as a sustainable and promising nanomaterial owing to its unique structures, superb properties, and natural abundance. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the current research activities that center on the development of nanocellulose for advanced electrochemical energy storage. We begin with a brief introduction of the structural features of cellulose nanofibers within the cell walls of cellulose resources. We then focus on a variety of processes that have been explored to fabricate nanocellulose with various structures and surface chemical properties. Next, we highlight a number of energy storage systems that utilize nanocellulose-derived materials, including supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, and sodium-ion batteries. In this section, the main focus is on the integration of nanocellulose with other active materials, developing films/aerogel as flexible substrates, and the pyrolyzation of nanocellulose to carbon materials and their functionalization by activation, heteroatom-doping, and hybridization with other active materials. Finally, we present our perspectives on several issues that need further exploration in this active research field in the future.

  19. I Never Promised You a Rose Garden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Solon; Cabaleiro, Goretti

    This paper analyzes the interplay between the rent dissipation and revenue effects by focusing on the degree to which the licensed technology represents a licensor’s core activity. We argue that if companies are anticipating the future loss in their market share (Rent Dissipation Effect) that lic...

  20. Immunotherapy and immunochemotherapy in visceral leishmaniasis: promising treatments for this neglected disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mendes Roatt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has several clinical forms: self-healing or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; mucosal leishmaniasis; and visceral leishmaniasis, which is fatal if left untreated. The epidemiology and clinical features of VL vary greatly due to the interaction of multiple factors including parasite strains, vectors, host genetics, and the environment. HIV infection, augments the severity of VL increasing the risk of developing active disease by 100 to 2320 times. An effective vaccine for humans is not yet available. Resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in many regions, and the costs associated with drug identification and development, make commercial production for leishmaniasis, unattractive. The toxicity of currently drugs, their long treatment course, and limited efficacy are significant concerns. For cutaneous disease, many studies have shown promising results with immunotherapy/immunochemotherapy, aimed to modulate and activate the immune response to obtain a therapeutic cure. Nowadays, the focus of many groups centers on treating canine VL by using vaccines and immunomodulators with or without chemotherapy. In human disease, the use of cytokines like Interferon-γ associated with pentavalent antimonials demonstrated promising results in patients that did not respond to conventional treatment. In mice, immunomodulation based on monoclonal antibodies to remove endogenous immunosuppressive cytokines (interleukin-10 or block their receptors, antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells, or biological products like Pam3Cys (TLR ligand has already been shown as a prospective treatment of the disease. This review addresses VL treatment, particularly immunotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy as an alternative to conventional drug treatment in experimental models, canine VL, and human disease.

  1. Solar energy demonstration zones in the Dalmatian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrastnik, B. [Energy Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Frankovic, B. [University of Rijeka (Croatia). Faculty of Engineering

    2001-11-01

    The energy consumption in the Dalmatian region was estimated for residential and public sector, tourism, commercial sector and industry. The national energy program for the use of solar energy, SUNEN, assessed solar energy potential in Croatia. Energy from fossil fuels and electricity consumption in the region, which is mostly used in households for preparing hot water and space heating, could be economically substituted by renewable energy. The situation is most promising for the islands of the Adriatic, where solar thermal collectors, PV modules and wind generators could substitute conventional energy sources in satisfying the present thermal and electric demand. The Dalmatian Islands, characterised by a small density of energy consumption, are proposed as unique candidates in Europe for renewable zones, which could demonstrate the full potential of the renewable energy option. As a practical demonstration, the island of Lastovo and the planned tourist village and yacht marina in the Bay of Jurjeva Luka are proposed as a first solar demonstration project on the islands. Technical, economic, legal and institutional barriers, as well as shortages of financing the project identification process produced hereto an adverse environment for solar applications in Croatia. This paper is an initiative for eliminating the barriers and intensify the solar energy use in Croatia providing the clean environment and activation of indigenous energy resources in the region. (author)

  2. Aerospace Communications Security Technologies Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, James H.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2003-01-01

    In light of the events of September 11, 2001, NASA senior management requested an investigation of technologies and concepts to enhance aviation security. The investigation was to focus on near-term technologies that could be demonstrated within 90 days and implemented in less than 2 years. In response to this request, an internal NASA Glenn Research Center Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Aviation Security Tiger Team was assembled. The 2-year plan developed by the team included an investigation of multiple aviation security concepts, multiple aircraft platforms, and extensively leveraged datalink communications technologies. It incorporated industry partners from NASA's Graphical Weather-in-the-Cockpit research, which is within NASA's Aviation Safety Program. Two concepts from the plan were selected for demonstration: remote "black box," and cockpit/cabin surveillance. The remote "black box" concept involves real-time downlinking of aircraft parameters for remote monitoring and archiving of aircraft data, which would assure access to the data following the loss or inaccessibility of an aircraft. The cockpit/cabin surveillance concept involves remote audio and/or visual surveillance of cockpit and cabin activity, which would allow immediate response to any security breach and would serve as a possible deterrent to such breaches. The datalink selected for the demonstrations was VDL Mode 2 (VHF digital link), the first digital datalink for air-ground communications designed for aircraft use. VDL Mode 2 is beginning to be implemented through the deployment of ground stations and aircraft avionics installations, with the goal of being operational in 2 years. The first demonstration was performed December 3, 2001, onboard the LearJet 25 at Glenn. NASA worked with Honeywell, Inc., for the broadcast VDL Mode 2 datalink capability and with actual Boeing 757 aircraft data. This demonstration used a cockpitmounted camera for video surveillance and a coupling to

  3. The promises and challenges of future reactor system developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Chang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    improved economy when compared to currently the existing plants. The APR 1400 has been developed since 1991 and it is expected that its first commercial operation will be in 2012. In the short term by 2011, the APR-1400 design will be improved from the viewpoints of safety, economics and performance. We are also developing a small integral reactor SMART, which is a promising advanced small and medium-size power category of nuclear reactors. It is an integral type reactor with a sensible mixture of new innovative design features and proven technologies aimed at achieving a highly enhanced safety and improved economics. SMART is purposed for dual applications such as for seawater desalination and electricity generation. Since the SMART technology is technically sound and has sufficient economics, the SMART desalination plant has good prospects of being deployed as a nuclear desalination plant. We are also actively participating in the GEN IV collaboration (GIF: GEN IV International Forum) for a VHTR and a SFR technology development. Through close collaboration with GIF, a proliferation-resistant SFR technology will be developed based on KALIMAER for an effective uranium utilization and waste minimization. Also a high temperature reactor is currently under development to demonstrate a nuclear based hydrogen production technology. Korea is really looking ahead by developing new generation of advanced nuclear reactor systems for a sustainable development, economical benefits, a clean environment and public confidence. In this paper, Korean nuclear reactor technology development program is described together with lessons learned from self-reliance in nuclear reactor technology. In addition, this paper presents the status of the next generation reactor system development program and the future reactor system development program for addressing these challenges

  4. The promise--and peril--of integrated cost systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R; Kaplan, R S

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in managerial accounting have helped executives get the information they need to make good strategic decisions. But today's enterprise resource planning systems promise even greater benefits--the chance to integrate activity-based costing, operational-control, and financial reporting systems. But managers need to approach integration very thoughtfully, or they could end up with a system that drives decision making in the wrong direction. Operational-control and ABC systems have fundamentally different purposes. Their requirements for accuracy, timeliness, and aggregation are so different that no single, fully integrated approach can be adequate for both purposes. If an integrated system used real-time cost data instead of standard rates in its ABC subsystem, for example, the result would be dangerously distorted messages about individual product profitability--and that's precisely the problem ABC systems were originally designed to address. Proper linkage and feedback between the two systems is possible, however. Through activity-based budgeting, the ABC system is linked directly to operations control: managers can determine the supply and practical capacity of resources in forthcoming periods. Linking operational control to ABC is also possible. The activity-based portion of an operational control system collects information that, while it mustn't be fed directly into the activity-based strategic cost system, can be extremely useful once it's been properly analyzed. Finally, ABC and operational control can be linked to financial reporting to generate cost of goods sold and inventory valuations--but again, with precautions.

  5. Cannabis and endocannabinoid modulators: Therapeutic promises and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Igor; Cahn, B. Rael

    2008-01-01

    The discovery that botanical cannabinoids such as delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol exert some of their effect through binding specific cannabinoid receptor sites has led to the discovery of an endocannabinoid signaling system, which in turn has spurred research into the mechanisms of action and addiction potential of cannabis on the one hand, while opening the possibility of developing novel therapeutic agents on the other. This paper reviews current understanding of CB1, CB2, and other possible cannabinoid receptors, their arachidonic acid derived ligands (e.g. anandamide; 2 arachidonoyl glycerol), and their possible physiological roles. CB1 is heavily represented in the central nervous system, but is found in other tissues as well; CB2 tends to be localized to immune cells. Activation of the endocannabinoid system can result in enhanced or dampened activity in various neural circuits depending on their own state of activation. This suggests that one function of the endocannabinoid system may be to maintain steady state. The therapeutic action of botanical cannabis or of synthetic molecules that are agonists, antagonists, or which may otherwise modify endocannabinoid metabolism and activity indicates they may have promise as neuroprotectants, and may be of value in the treatment of certain types of pain, epilepsy, spasticity, eating disorders, inflammation, and possibly blood pressure control. PMID:18806886

  6. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, C M; Freitas, R M; Luz, N N N; Bezerra, M Z B; Trevisan, M T S

    2011-08-01

    A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL), Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL), Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL), Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL) and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL). The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL) should be present.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM. Feitosa

    Full Text Available A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL, Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL, Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL, Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL. The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL should be present.

  8. Promising Properties and System Demonstration of an Environmentally Benign Yellow Smoke Formulation for Hand-Held Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-18

    Yellow 33 (colored smoke dye), sucrose (fuel), potassium chlorate (oxidizer), stearic acid ( lubr icant , process ing aid) , and hydromagnes i te (Mg5(CO3...flight test. ■ EXPERIMENTAL SECTION Materials. Potassium chlorate (MIL-P-150D, grade B, Class 7) and sugar (MIL-AA-20135D, Type 1, Style C) were...consisting of 33.0 wt % potassium nitrate, 24.5 wt % silicon, 20.8 wt % black iron oxide, 12.3 wt % aluminum, 3.8 wt % charcoal, and 5.6 wt % nitrocellulose

  9. The NPT regime: Progress and promises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanapala, Jayantha

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Thesis. The 'NPT regime' has arrived at a fateful crossroads. Though extended indefinitely in 1995, its future is my no means secure. The future 'progress' of this treaty will depend upon whether the 'promises' of its States parties are fully implemented and, eventually, upon the treaty's success in achieving fully universal membership. Challenges The treaty faces many short-term and longer-term challenges: Short term - The first Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2005 Review Conference will meet next year. NNWS will want to see some evidence of progress on nuclear disarmament (Art. VI), along the lines prescribed in the 13 'practical steps' agreed at the last Review Conference. Yet progress has been set back by: uncertainties over the future of the ABM Treaty; the failure of START II and the CTBT to enter into force; the lack of a FISMAT treaty and a treaty establishing a NWFZ in Central Asia; continued qualitative improvements in nuclear weapons; hints that nuclear testing may one day resume; the persistence of doctrines of first-use, pre-emptive use, and use against states that use CBW. Other compliance-related questions will arise over safeguards (e.g. the inability of the IAEA to conduct inspections in the DPRK; signs of a breakdown of the norm of full-scope IAEA safeguards, e.g. in South Asia). There are also concerns over the implementation of non-proliferation commitments (e.g. persisting allegations about nuclear weapon programmes in existing NNWS). The terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, D.C. on 11 September should also serve as a reminder of the new terrorist dangers relating to the possible use of weapons of mass destruction and unorthodox delivery systems. Longer term - Selectivity in the enforcement of NPT norms; unilateralism; IAEA funding uncertainties and shortfalls; difficulties in reaching universal membership (India, Pakistan, and Israel); continuing compliance problems with respect to both non-proliferation and

  10. Prosecuting the Leaders: Promises, Politics and Practicalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cryer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Given recent developments in relation to the prosecution of international crimes,  it might be thought that one of the last bastions of sovereignty has been breached, and international criminal law has not only entrenched itself in international law. Indeed further to this, it has assumed a supranational position that stands entirely above States, promising justice for all and as a trump card over depredations committed in the name of State sovereignty. After all, Charles Taylor from Liberia is standing trial before the Special Court for Sierra Leone, Slobodan Milošević only escaped judgment by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former

  11. The traditional medicine Spilanthes acmella, and the alkylamides spilanthol and undeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, demonstrate in vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelman, Kevin; Depoix, Delphine; McCray, Megan; Mouray, Elisabeth; Grellier, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Spilanthes spp. are used as traditional herbal medicines in Africa and India to treat malaria. Yet, to date, there is no data on active constituents or most effective extraction methods for this indication. The isolated alkylamides, spilanthol and undeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, found in S. acmella Murr., were shown to have IC50s of 16.5 μg/mL and 41.4 μg/mL on Plasmodium falciparum strain PFB and IC50s of 5.8 μg/mL and 16.3 μg/mL for the chloroquine resistant P. falciparum K1 strain, respectively. Further investigations revealed that at relatively low concentrations, spilanthol and the water extract of S. acmella reduced the parasitemia 59% and 53% in mice infected with P. yoelii yoelii 17XNL at 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively. Unexpectedly, the 95% ethanol extract of S. acmella was less effective (36% reduction in parasitemia) at 50 mg/kg. These results provide the first evidence supporting S. acmella against malaria and demonstrating active constituents in S. acmella against P. falciparum. PMID:22692989

  12. The N-terminal-truncated recombinant fibrin(ogen)olytic serine protease improves its functional property, demonstrates in vivo anticoagulant and plasma defibrinogenation activity as well as pre-clinical safety in rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Bandana; Gogoi, Debananda; Tripathy, Debabrata; Kurkalang, Sillarine; Ramani, Sheetal; Chatterjee, Anupam; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2018-05-01

    An N-terminal truncated fibrino(geno)lytic serine protease gene encoding a ~42kDa protein from Bacillus cereus strain AB01 was produced by error prone PCR, cloned into pET19b vector, and expressed in E5 coli BL21 DE3 cells. The deletion of 24 amino acid residues from N-terminal of wild-type Bacifrinase improves the catalytic activity of [Bacifrinase (ΔN24)]. The anticoagulant potency of [Bacifrinase (ΔN24)] was comparable to Nattokinase and Warfarin and results showed that its anticoagulant action is contributed by progressive defibrinogenation and antiplatelet activities. Nonetheless, at the tested concentration of 2.0μM [Bacifrinase (ΔN24)] did not show in vitro cytotoxicity or chromosomal aberrations on human embryonic kidney cells-293 (HEK-293) and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) cells. [Bacifrinase (ΔN24)], at a dose of 2mg/kg, did not show toxicity, adverse pharmacological effects, tissue necrosis or hemorrhagic effect after 72h of its administration in Swiss albino mice. However, at the tested doses of 0.125 to 0.5mg/kg, it demonstrated significant in anticoagulant effect as well as defibrinogenation after 6h of administration in mice. We propose that [Bacifrinase (ΔN24)] may serve as prototype for the development of potent drug to prevent hyperfibrinogenemia related disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Promise of a College Scholarship Transforms a District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Gary W.; Ash, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Promise programs are place-based scholarships, generally tied to a city or school district, offering near-universal access to all living in the "place." While Promise programs share some characteristics with other scholarship programs, they're unique because they seek to change communities and schools. Underlying such promise programs is…

  14. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  15. Targeting aerobic glycolysis: 3-bromopyruvate as a promising anticancer drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaci, Simone; Desideri, Enrico; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-02-01

    The Warburg effect refers to the phenomenon whereby cancer cells avidly take up glucose and produce lactic acid under aerobic conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor reliance on glycolysis remains not completely clear, its inhibition opens feasible therapeutic windows for cancer treatment. Indeed, several small molecules have emerged by combinatorial studies exhibiting promising anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo, as a single agent or in combination with other therapeutic modalities. Therefore, besides reviewing the alterations of glycolysis that occur with malignant transformation, this manuscript aims at recapitulating the most effective pharmacological therapeutics of its targeting. In particular, we describe the principal mechanisms of action and the main targets of 3-bromopyruvate, an alkylating agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors. Moreover, we discuss the chemo-potentiating strategies that would make unparalleled the putative therapeutic efficacy of its use in clinical settings.

  16. The promise of 'sporting bodies' in phenomenological thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne; Høffding, Simon

    2017-01-01

    phenomenology to empirically investigate the domain of sport and exercise, phenomenologists employ empirical data to substantiate their claims concerning foundational conditions of our being-in-the-world. In this article, we suggest a way to enhance the collaboration between the two fields by pointing out......For decades, qualitative researchers have used phenomenological thinking to advance reflections on particular kinds of lifeworlds. As emphasised by Allen-Collinson phenomenology offers a continuing promise of ‘bringing the body back in’ to theories on sport and physical activity. Turning...... and giving examples of the resource of ‘the factual variation.’ Coined by Shaun Gallagher and developed from the Husserlian eidetic variation, the factual variation uses exceptional cases, normally from pathology, to shed new light on foundational phenomenological concepts. Drawing on our research of sports...

  17. Programmed death-1 & its ligands: promising targets for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimali, Rajeev K; Janik, John E; Abu-Eid, Rasha; Mkrtichyan, Mikayel; Khleif, Samir N

    2015-01-01

    Novel strategies for cancer treatment involving blockade of immune inhibitors have shown significant progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor immune evasion. The preclinical findings and clinical responses associated with programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand pathway blockade seem promising, making these targets highly sought for cancer immunotherapy. In fact, the anti-PD-1 antibodies, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, were recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of unresectable and metastatic melanoma resistant to anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody (ipilimumab) and BRAF inhibitor. Here, we discuss strategies of combining PD-1/PD-ligand interaction inhibitors with other immune checkpoint modulators and standard-of-care therapy to break immune tolerance and induce a potent antitumor activity, which is currently a research area of key scientific pursuit.

  18. Newly Emerging Immune Checkpoints: Promises for Future Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Torphy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy has been a great breakthrough, with immune checkpoint inhibitors leading the way. Despite the clinical effectiveness of certain immune checkpoint inhibitors, the overall response rate remains low, and the effectiveness of immunotherapies for many tumors has been disappointing. There is substantial interest in looking for additional immune checkpoint molecules that may act as therapeutic targets for cancer. Recent advances during the last decade have identified several novel immune checkpoint targets, including lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA, programmed death-1 homolog (PD-1H, T-cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domain (TIM-3/carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1, and the poliovirus receptor (PVR-like receptors. The investigations into these molecules have generated promising results in preclinical studies. Herein, we will summarize our current progress and understanding of these newly-characterized immune checkpoints and their potential application in cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Scale-up of high specific activity {sup 186g}Re production using graphite-encased thick {sup 186}W targets and demonstration of an efficient target recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkin, Ethan R.; Gagnon, Katherine; Dorman, Eric [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; and others

    2017-07-01

    Production of high specific activity {sup 186g}Re is of interest for development of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. Previous studies have shown that high specific activity {sup 186g}Re can be obtained by cyclotron irradiation of enriched {sup 186}W via the {sup 186}W(d,2n){sup 186g}Re reaction, but most irradiations were conducted at low beam currents and for short durations. In this investigation, enriched {sup 186}W metal targets were irradiated at high incident deuteron beam currents to demonstrate production rates and contaminants produced when using thick targets. Full-stopping thick targets, as determined using SRIM, were prepared by uniaxial pressing of powdered natural abundance W metal or 96.86% enriched {sup 186}W metal encased between two layers of graphite flakes for target material stabilization. An assessment of structural integrity was made on each target preparation. To assess the performance of graphite-encased thick {sup 186}W metal targets, along with the impact of encasing on the separation chemistry, targets were first irradiated using a 22 MeV deuteron beam for 10 min at 10, 20, and 27 μA, with an estimated nominal deuteron energy of 18.7 MeV on the {sup 186}W target material (after energy degradation correction from top graphite layer). Gamma-ray spectrometry was performed post EOB on all targets to assess production yields and radionuclidic byproducts. The investigation also evaluated a method to recover and recycle enriched target material from a column isolation procedure. Material composition analyses of target materials, pass-through/wash solutions and recycling process isolates were conducted with SEM, FTIR, XRD, EDS and ICP-MS spectrometry. To demonstrate scaled-up production, a graphite-encased {sup 186}W target made from recycled {sup 186}W was irradiated for ∝2 h with 18.7 MeV deuterons at a beam current of 27 μA to provide 0.90 GBq (24.3 mCi) of {sup 186g}Re, decay-corrected to the end of bombardment. ICP-MS analysis of the

  20. Amorphous Alloy: Promising Precursor to Form Nanoflowerpot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous copper is fabricated by dealloying the amorphous Ti2Cu alloy in 0.03 M HF electrolyte. The pore and ligament sizes of the nanoporous copper can be readily tailored by controlling the dealloying time. The as-prepared nanoporous copper provides fine and uniform nanoflowerpots to grow highly dispersed Au nanoflowers. The blooming Au nanoflowers in the nanoporous copper flowerpots exhibit both high catalytic activity and stability towards the oxidation of glucose, indicating that the amorphous alloys are ideal precursors to form nanoflowerpot which can grow functional nanoflowers.

  1. Insafing: New Promising Form of Intellectual Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury P. Dus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores a new form of intellectual communication built in accordance with an in-advance-prepared sense scheme. This type of communication utilizes the elements of Activity Organizing Games called Insafing. The article suggests a retrospective review of the scientific researches, particularly, the researches of the Russian scientific schools that served as the basis for Insafing technology development. Furthermore, the scientific and methodological fundamentals of Insafing based on the Theory of Dynamic Information Systems (TDIS and the methods of cognitive engineering are discussed. The article also provides an example of Insafing application to tourism industry development in an urban area.

  2. Lactoferrin and prematurity: a promising milk protein?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Sizonenko, Stéphane V

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is the major whey protein in milk, with multiple beneficial health effects including direct antimicrobial activities, anti-inflammatory effects, and iron homeostasis. Oral Lf supplementation in human preterm infants has been shown to reduce the incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. In preclinical models of antenatal stress and perinatal brain injury, bovine Lf protected the developing brain from neuronal loss, improved connectivity, increased neurotrophic factors, and decreased inflammation. It also supported brain development and cognition. Further, Lf can prevent preterm delivery by reducing proinflammatory factors and inhibiting premature cervix maturation. We review here the latest research on Lf in the field of neonatology.

  3. Promising oncolytic agents for metastatic breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody JJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available James J Cody,1 Douglas R Hurst2 1ImQuest BioSciences, Frederick, MD, 2Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: New therapies for metastatic breast cancer patients are urgently needed. The long-term survival rates remain unacceptably low for patients with recurrent disease or disseminated metastases. In addition, existing therapies often cause a variety of debilitating side effects that severely impact quality of life. Oncolytic viruses constitute a developing therapeutic modality in which interest continues to build due to their ability to spare normal tissue while selectively destroying tumor cells. A number of different viruses have been used to develop oncolytic agents for breast cancer, including herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, vaccinia virus, measles virus, reovirus, and others. In general, clinical trials for several cancers have demonstrated excellent safety records and evidence of efficacy. However, the impressive tumor responses often observed in preclinical studies have yet to be realized in the clinic. In order for the promise of oncolytic virotherapy to be fully realized for breast cancer patients, effectiveness must be demonstrated in metastatic disease. This review provides a summary of oncolytic virotherapy strategies being developed to target metastatic breast cancer. Keywords: oncolytic virus, virotherapy, breast cancer, metastasis 

  4. Challenging demonstrations in the physics classroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text: We consider the role of classroom demonstrations in improving students understanding of physics lectures and suggest criteria to decide whether a given demonstration will be pedagogically useful. In the light of these considerations, we performed two series of related experiments before groups of high-school students. We shall perform one of them with active participation from the audience. We shall also show some challenging demonstrations performed in the final stages of the Israeli Physics Olympiad for high-school students

  5. Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loe, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD) were to investigate, design a software architecture and demonstrate a capability to display intelligence data from multiple disciplines...

  6. Modelling of potentially promising SARS protease inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plewczynski, Dariusz; Hoffmann, Marcin; Grotthuss, Marcin von; Knizewski, Lukasz; Rychewski, Leszek; Eitner, Krystian; Ginalski, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    In many cases, at the beginning of a high throughput screening experiment some information about active molecules is already available. Active compounds (such as substrate analogues, natural products and inhibitors of related proteins) are often identified in low throughput validation studies on a biochemical target. Sometimes the additional structural information is also available from crystallographic studies on protein and ligand complexes. In addition, the structural or sequence similarity of various protein targets yields a novel possibility for drug discovery. Co-crystallized compounds from homologous proteins can be used to design leads for a new target without co-crystallized ligands. In this paper we evaluate how far such an approach can be used in a real drug campaign, with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus providing an example. Our method is able to construct small molecules as plausible inhibitors solely on the basis of the set of ligands from crystallized complexes of a protein target, and other proteins from its structurally homologous family. The accuracy and sensitivity of the method are estimated here by the subsequent use of an electronic high throughput screening flexible docking algorithm. The best performing ligands are then used for a very restrictive similarity search for potential inhibitors of the SARS protease within the million compounds from the Ligand.Info small molecule meta-database. The selected molecules can be passed on for further experimental validation

  7. India: Past achievements and future promises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethna, H.N.

    1972-01-01

    Generation of nuclear power has been one of the major objectives of the atomic energy programme in India. One of the early tasks was to establish a firm technological base for the various activities involved in the development of atomic energy. A national research centre then called the Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay and now renamed as Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) was created at Trombay near Bombay, and a wide range of R and D activities were initiated, ranging from basic studies in nuclear and solid state physics to investigations in metallurgy, engineering, health physics and nuclear medicine. Viewed especially against the Indian background, the Centre's contributions have been substantial. In addition to building up expertise to take up work in connection with the development, design, and construction of power reactors, it was essential to introduce the manufacturing know how-into industry for the fabrication of all the sophisticated components for these reactors. It was also necessary to establish processes for the fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuel and the production of fuel materials and other special materials such as zircaloy and heavy water. Endeavour to be self-sufficient in all aspects of nuclear technology is particularly important for a developing country, so that introduction of a fairly large nuclear power programme does not result in too unfavourable a balance of payment situation

  8. Evaluation of silymarin as a promising radioprotector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Manish; Chawla, Raman [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India); Arora, Rajesh [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India); Trakia Univ., Stara Zagora (BG). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] (and others)

    2010-05-15

    Silymarin, a purified extract of seeds of Silybum marianum L. and well known for its hepatoprotective abilities, has been evaluated for inherent utility as a radioprotective agent. A fraction (INM-7035) was authenticated by characterizing the percentage composition of silybin A and B (39.9% and 57.4%). Free radical scavenging activities of INM-7035 against superoxide radicals (>68%), hydroxyl radicals (>33.75%), DPPH (67.2%), and ABTS (32.4%) were also evaluated. The fraction chelated (>30%) ferrous ions, thereby able to restrict amplification. INM-7035 exhibited >50% peroxyl radical scavenging activity in the lipid phase along with dose-dependent (R{sup 2} = 0.990) reducing power in the aqueous phase. Radiation-induced free radical flux can lead to disruption of biomolecules like membrane lipids. INM-7035 completely inhibited lipid peroxidative stress in case of membranes against supralethal radiation stress in the liposomal system. The ability of INM-7035 to modulate the levels of NF-{kappa}B, indicated its inherent potential as a radioprotective bioactive constituent. (orig.)

  9. Modelling of potentially promising SARS protease inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plewczynski, Dariusz [Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, ICM, Warsaw University, Pawinskiego 5a Street, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland); Hoffmann, Marcin [BioInfoBank Institute, Limanowskiego 24A/16, 60-744 Poznan (Poland); Grotthuss, Marcin von [BioInfoBank Institute, Limanowskiego 24A/16, 60-744 Poznan (Poland); Knizewski, Lukasz [Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, ICM, Warsaw University, Pawinskiego 5a Street, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland); Rychewski, Leszek [BioInfoBank Institute, Limanowskiego 24A/16, 60-744 Poznan (Poland); Eitner, Krystian [BioInfoBank Institute, Limanowskiego 24A/16, 60-744 Poznan (Poland); Ginalski, Krzysztof [Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, ICM, Warsaw University, Pawinskiego 5a Street, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-07-18

    In many cases, at the beginning of a high throughput screening experiment some information about active molecules is already available. Active compounds (such as substrate analogues, natural products and inhibitors of related proteins) are often identified in low throughput validation studies on a biochemical target. Sometimes the additional structural information is also available from crystallographic studies on protein and ligand complexes. In addition, the structural or sequence similarity of various protein targets yields a novel possibility for drug discovery. Co-crystallized compounds from homologous proteins can be used to design leads for a new target without co-crystallized ligands. In this paper we evaluate how far such an approach can be used in a real drug campaign, with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus providing an example. Our method is able to construct small molecules as plausible inhibitors solely on the basis of the set of ligands from crystallized complexes of a protein target, and other proteins from its structurally homologous family. The accuracy and sensitivity of the method are estimated here by the subsequent use of an electronic high throughput screening flexible docking algorithm. The best performing ligands are then used for a very restrictive similarity search for potential inhibitors of the SARS protease within the million compounds from the Ligand.Info small molecule meta-database. The selected molecules can be passed on for further experimental validation.

  10. Geoffroea decorticans for Biofuels: A Promising Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Santibáñez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chañar (Geoffroea decorticans fruit is evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel and biomass pellets production with reference to some relevant properties. The fatty acid profile of this oil (83% unsaturated acids is found to be comparable to similar seed oils which have been attempted for biodiesel production. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel obtained from this oil exhibits high quality properties. Chañar biodiesel quality meets all other biodiesel international standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Moreover, the husk that surrounds the kernel showed a high potential for usage as densified solid fuels. The results demonstrate that chañar husks pellets have a higher calorific value when compared with other biomass pellets, typically, approximately 21 MJ kg−1 with 1.8% of ashes (which is equivalent to that obtained from the combustion of pellets produced from forest wastes. This study indicates that chañar can be used as a multipurpose energy crop in semiarid regions for biodiesel and densified solid fuels (pellets production.

  11. Major savings promised by new dipper technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ednie, H.

    2005-10-01

    A Canadian rope shovel dipper prototype was tested at the Suncor oil sands operations in May 2005. The 3 cubic yard JPi 2005 series dipper was designed by JPi, a geo-industry engineering consultant firm. The new design minimizes shovel dipper wear and resistance while digging at a rock face. This simple concept could offer major savings for mine operators. The main feature of the shovel dipper is its shape. Rather than having a straight-lined profile, the lip to latch keeper is curved to match the range of motions of the machine itself. This provides optimum penetration angles with minimum resistance when digging, thereby increasing productivity while eliminating heel wear. The dipper was originally designed to dig softer materials, but can actually be used to dig or scoop any material from blasted hard rock to the softest oil sand. The dipper is also more open at the door than at the lip allowing the oil sand to naturally flow out of the dipper upon release. The prototype was demonstrated to an industry-wide audience in May 2005 on a recently rebuilt 1949 Dominion 500 shovel. Preliminary results indicate that the design is meeting the expectations of the designer. However, more tests are scheduled and JPi will continue to seek collaborations and partnerships with mining operations to produce and test a 75 cubic yard version of the dipper for use with modern shovels. 2 figs.

  12. Enhancing crop innate immunity: new promising trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Yao eHuang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants are constantly exposed to potentially pathogenic microbes present in their surrounding environment. Due to the activation of the pattern-triggered immunity (PTI response that largely relies on accurate detection of pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, plants are resistant to the majority of potential pathogens. However, adapted pathogens may avoid recognition or repress plant PTI and resulting diseases significantly affect crop yield worldwide. PTI provides protection against a wide range of pathogens. Reinforcement of PTI through genetic engineering may thus generate crops with broad-spectrum field resistance. In this review, new approaches based on fundamental discoveries in PTI to improve crop immunity are discussed. Notably, we highlight recent studies describing the interfamily transfer of PRRs or key regulators of PTI signalling.

  13. BNL 703 MHz SRF cryomodule demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Dalesio, L.; Dottavio, T.; Gassner, D.; Hahn, H.; Hoff, L.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lambiase, R.; Lederle, D.; Litvinenko, V.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present the preliminary results of the testing of the 703 MHz SRF cryomodule designed for use in the ampere class ERL under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The preliminary cavity tests, carried out at Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, demonstrated cavity performance of 20 MV/m with a Qo of 1 x 10 10 , results we expect to reproduce in the horizontal configuration. This test of the entire string assembly will allow us to evaluate all of the additional cryomodule components not previously tested in the VTA and will prepare us for our next milestone test which will be delivery of electrons from our injector through the cryomodule to the beam dump. This will also be the first demonstration of an accelerating cavity designed for use in an ampere class ERL, a key development which holds great promise for future machines

  14. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  15. Volatile aldehydes are promising broad-spectrum postharvest insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, D G; Rangel, S; Kubo, I

    2000-09-01

    A variety of naturally occurring aldehydes common in plants have been evaluated for their insecticidal activity and for phytotoxicity to postharvest fruits, vegetables, and grains. Twenty-nine compounds were initially screened for their activity against aphids on fava bean leaf disks. Application under reduced pressure (partial vacuum) for the first quarter of fumigation increased insecticidal activity severalfold. The 11 best aldehydes were assayed against aphids placed under the third leaf of whole heads of iceberg lettuce using the same two-tier reduced-pressure regime, which caused no additional detriment to the commodity over fumigation at atmospheric pressure. Phytotoxicity to naked and wrapped iceburg lettuce, green and red table grapes, lemon, grapefruit, orange, broccoli, avocado, cabbage, pinto bean, and rice at doses that killed 100% of aphids was recorded for three promising fumigants: propanal, (E)-2-pentenal, and 2-methyl-(E)-2-butenal. These three compounds have excellent potential as affordable postharvest insect control agents, killing 100% of the aphids with little or no detectable harm to a majority of the commodities tested. Preliminary assays indicate that similar doses are also effective against mealybugs, thrips, and whitefly.

  16. Stem cell therapy in spinal cord injury: Hollow promise or promising science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Goel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI remains one of the most physically, psychologically and socially debilitating conditions worldwide. While rehabilitation measures may help limit disability to some extent, there is no effective primary treatment yet available. The efficacy of stem cells as a primary therapeutic option in spinal cord injury is currently an area under much scrutiny and debate. Several laboratory and some primary clinical studies into the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells or embryonic stem cell-derived oligodentrocyte precursor cells have shown some promising results in terms of remyelination and regeneration of damaged spinal nerve tracts. More recently,laboratory and early clinical experiments into the use of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells, a type of glial cell derived from olfactory bulb and mucosa have provided some phenomenal preliminary evidence as to their neuroregenerative and neural bridging capacity. This report compares and evaluates some current research into selected forms of embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell therapy as well as olfactory ensheathing cell therapy in SCI, and also highlights some legal and ethical issues surrounding their use. While early results shows promise, more rigorous large scaleclinical trials are needed to shed light on the safety, efficacy and long term viability of stem cell and cellular transplant techniques in SCI.

  17. Traveling Old Roads Deeper into the Woods Leaves Promises to Keep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1990-01-01

    Questions activities of the Holmes Group, noting that, if the activities do not result in the exemplification of excellence in teaching and teacher education, the group's claim to leadership is questionable. The criticism claims that the group discourages more fundamental and promising changes in teacher education than it advocates. (SM)

  18. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARNE GERMANO DE ALMEIDA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulphate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernise petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  19. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  20. Lean in healthcare: the unfilled promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnor, Zoe J; Holweg, Matthias; Waring, Justin

    2012-02-01

    In an effort to improve operational efficiency, healthcare services around the world have adopted process improvement methodologies from the manufacturing sector, such as Lean Production. In this paper we report on four multi-level case studies of the implementation of Lean in the English NHS. Our results show that this generally involves the application of specific Lean 'tools', such as 'kaizen blitz' and 'rapid improvement events', which tend to produce small-scale and localised productivity gains. Although this suggests that Lean might not currently deliver the efficiency improvements desired in policy, the evolution of Lean in the manufacturing sector also reveals this initial focus on the 'tool level'. In moving to a more system-wide approach, however, we identify significant contextual differences between healthcare and manufacturing that result in two critical breaches of the assumptions behind Lean. First, the customer and commissioner in the private sector are the one and the same, which is essential in determining 'customer value' that drives process improvement activities. Second, healthcare is predominantly designed to be capacity-led, and hence there is limited ability to influence demand or make full use of freed-up resources. What is different about this research is that these breaches can be regarded as not being primarily 'professional' in origin but actually more 'organisational' and 'managerial' and, if not addressed could severely constrain Lean's impact on healthcare productivity at the systems level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethnography in community psychology: promises and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrew D; Todd, Nathan R; Kral, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Community psychology recognizes the need for research methods that illuminate context, culture, diversity, and process. One such method, ethnography, has crossed into multiple disciplines from anthropology, and indeed, community psychologists are becoming community ethnographers. Ethnographic work stands at the intersection of bridging universal questions with the particularities of people and groups bounded in time, geographic location, and social location. Ethnography is thus historical and deeply contextual, enabling a rich, in-depth understanding of communities that is aligned with the values and goals of community psychology. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the potential of ethnography for community psychology and to encourage its use within the field as a method to capture culture and context, to document process, and to reveal how social change and action occur within and through communities. We discuss the method of ethnography, draw connections to community psychology values and goals, and identify tensions from our experiences doing ethnography. Overall, we assert that ethnography is a method that resonates with community psychology and present this paper as a resource for those interested in using this method in their research or community activism.

  2. Talent, history, and the fulfillment of promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, G H; Pavalko, E K; Hastings, T J

    1991-08-01

    Life course studies are a flourishing enterprise across the social sciences and humanities, particularly since the 1960s, but the historical roots of this work extend back at least to the turn of the century (Elder 1985; Sorensen et al. 1986). The new era is distinguished by a rapidly growing number of longitudinal samples as well as by innovative techniques for collecting and analyzing life histories. Most distinctive of the new work is its consciousness of the interplay between lives and times. To understand life trajectories one must consider the social changes underway. The events, continuities, and transformations of a changing world shape the pathways of aging. This research explores the long-term consequences of one era of social change in particular (World War II and the preceding decade of hard times) for the life experiences and career achievements of men who lived through that period. Using the data archives of the oldest longitudinal study still active in the United States (Terman 1925), we assess the career achievements of the men (born 1904-1917) in relation to cohort membership, social origins, and wartime mobilization. Through different opportunities, resources, and support, the life stage of these men in the 1930s and 40s shaped the distinctive impact of historical circumstances on their accomplishments. All of the men are members of the Stanford-Terman study, which began in 1922 with more than 800 males and has continued across 11 additional data waves up to 1986.

  3. Digital radiography is promising in industrial testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Fabbro, F.

    2015-01-01

    Digital radiography has recently entered the industrial world as a tool for non-destructive testing. There are 3 types of digital radiography: computed radiography (CR), direct radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT). In computed radiography, traditional silver-halide films are replaced by photostimulable phosphor imaging plates that are activated through laser scanning and digitized. Direct radiography uses a flat panel detector (FPD) composed of X-ray detectors that performs an immediate digital conversion of the image that can be read by a computer. DR is a perfect tool for industrial testing but the fragility of the FPD panels reduces its uses. Computed tomography is based on the principle of DR to get data corresponding to successive cross-section images of the object. These data are processed by a software to get a 3-dimensional image of the object. CT was first developed for medical use but requires some improvement to become more accurate, faster, particularly for big objects. In recent years DR has enjoyed the highest growth rate in digital radiography. (A.C.)

  4. Gulf team delivers on DP drillship promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatern, R von

    2001-06-01

    The technological achievements of the project by Amoco and BP to complete a deepwater subsea well in the Gulf of Mexico from a dynamically positioned (DP) vessel are described. In 2000, the dual activity drillship, Discoverer Enterprise (owned by Transocean Sedco Forex), completed the Nile well in the Viosca Knoll area and then the King Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 85. Stringent safety and environmental protection criteria imposed by Amoco and BP drove the design of the Dril-Quip subsea wellhead to ensure that the wellhead profile and connector coped with the worst case scenario. BP also specified a disconnect system that would secure the well in less than a minute. The SenTREE 7 and Commander telemetry systems developed by Schlumberger, the components of the work string and test work with the Nile well to ensure BP conditions were met and that the perforation and surge procedure proceeded successfully are explained. The time reduction achieved by using large DP drillships and future BP plans are outlined.

  5. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G.; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F.; Luna, Juliana M.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries. PMID:27843439

  6. Resistant starch: promise for improving human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized.

  7. Cookery demonstrations in GOAL supported clinics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stunting are high, and various micronutrient deficiencies, including those of ... the household are the underlying causes seen in GOAL- assisted areas. ... feeding. Thus, the nutrition cookery demonstration activity has come to play an important role in mother and child health activities in GOAL-supported clinics and GOAL's.

  8. Cinnamon, a promising prospect towards Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Saeideh; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Khan, Fazlullah; Ziaee, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Over the last decades, an exponential increase of efforts concerning the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been practiced. Phytochemicals preparations have a millenary background to combat various pathological conditions. Various cinnamon species and their biologically active ingredients have renewed the interest towards the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate AD through the inhibition of tau protein aggregation and prevention of the formation and accumulation of amyloid-β peptides into the neurotoxic oligomeric inclusions, both of which are considered to be the AD trademarks. In this review, we presented comprehensive data on the interactions of a number of cinnamon polyphenols (PPs) with oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory signaling pathways in the brain. In addition, we discussed the potential association between AD and diabetes mellitus (DM), vis-à-vis the effluence of cinnamon PPs. Further, an upcoming prospect of AD epigenetic pathophysiological conditions and cinnamon has been sighted. Data was retrieved from the scientific databases such as PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine, Scopus and Google Scholar without any time limitation. The extract of cinnamon efficiently inhibits tau accumulations, Aβ aggregation and toxicity in vivo and in vitro models. Indeed, cinnamon possesses neuroprotective effects interfering multiple oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory pathways. Besides, cinnamon modulates endothelial functions and attenuates the vascular cell adhesion molecules. Cinnamon PPs may induce AD epigenetic modifications. Cinnamon and in particular, cinnamaldehyde seem to be effective and safe approaches for treatment and prevention of AD onset and/or progression. However, further molecular and translational research studies as well as prolonged clinical trials are required to establish the therapeutic safety and efficacy in different cinnamon spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Online Video Conferencing: A Promising Innovation in Interprofessional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Mary V; Bennett, Darcy N

    2016-01-01

    This pilot project demonstrated using online video conferencing with students from eight disciplines for providing care of a rural elder with multiple chronic conditions. Eighty-three students participated in 12 video case conferences, each led by a nurse-practitioner student. All students were given information on care of elders and the core competencies for interprofessional practice. Nurse-practitioner students were given information and practice on running a team meeting. A survey evaluated the activity in terms of interprofessional competency attainment in four domains (IPEC) by using data aggregated from 14 Likert scale questions. Participants (n=81, 98% response) rated the value of this activity highly (>60% strongly agreed and >25% agreed) across all four competency domains. Differences between disciplines were not found. Open-ended questions confirmed that the students valued the activity but also conveyed a desire for more in-person interprofessional activities to be included in their education.

  10. Polyphenols as Promising Drugs against Main Breast Cancer Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Losada-Echeberría

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common neoplasms worldwide, and in spite of clinical and pharmacological advances, it is still a clinical problem, causing morbidity and mortality. On the one hand, breast cancer shares with other neoplasms some molecular signatures such as an imbalanced redox state, cell cycle alterations, increased proliferation and an inflammatory status. On the other hand, breast cancer shows differential molecular subtypes that determine its prognosis and treatment. These are characterized mainly by hormone receptors especially estrogen receptors (ERs and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. Tumors with none of these receptors are classified as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC and are associated with a worse prognosis. The success of treatments partially depends on their specificity and the adequate molecular classification of tumors. New advances in anticancer drug discovery using natural compounds have been made in the last few decades, and polyphenols have emerged as promising molecules. They may act on various molecular targets because of their promiscuous behavior, presenting several physiological effects, some of which confer antitumor activity. This review analyzes the accumulated evidence of the antitumor effects of plant polyphenols on breast cancer, with special attention to their activity on ERs and HER2 targets and also covering different aspects such as redox balance, uncontrolled proliferation and chronic inflammation.

  11. Plants’ Natural Products as Alternative Promising Anti-Candida Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sameh; Alnajdy, Dina; El-Keblawy, Ali A.; Mosa, Kareem A.; Khoder, Ghalia; Noreddin, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Candida is a serious life-threatening pathogen, particularly with immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in a broad range of immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are common in hospitalized patients and elderly people. The difficulty to eradicate Candida infections is owing to its unique switch between yeast and hyphae forms and more likely to biofilm formations that render resistance to antifungal therapy. Plants are known sources of natural medicines. Several plants show significant anti-Candida activities and some of them have lower minimum inhibitory concentration, making them promising candidates for anti-Candida therapy. However, none of these plant products is marketed for anti-Candida therapy because of lack of sufficient information about their efficacy, toxicity, and kinetics. This review revises major plants that have been tested for anti-Candida activities with recommendations for further use of some of these plants for more investigation and in vivo testing including the use of nanostructure lipid system. PMID:28989245

  12. A promising hybrid approach to SPECT attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, N.H.; Faber, T.L.; Corbett, J.R.; Stokely, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    Most methods for attenuation compensation in SPECT either rely on the assumption of uniform attenuation, or use slow iteration to achieve accuracy. However, hybrid methods that combine iteration with simple multiplicative correction can accommodate nonuniform attenuation, and such methods converge faster than other iterative techniques. The authors evaluated two such methods, which differ in use of a damping factor to control convergence. Both uniform and nonuniform attenuation were modeled, using simulated and phantom data for a rotating gamma camera. For simulations done with 360 0 data and the correct attenuation map, activity levels were reconstructed to within 5% of the correct values after one iteration. Using 180 0 data, reconstructed levels in regions representing lesion and background were within 5% of the correct values in three iterations; however, further iterations were needed to eliminate the characteristic streak artifacts. The damping factor had little effect on 360 0 reconstruction, but was needed for convergence with 180 0 data. For both cold- and hot-lesion models, image contrast was better from the hybrid methods than from the simpler geometric-mean corrector. Results from the hybrid methods were comparable to those obtained using the conjugate-gradient iterative method, but required 50-100% less reconstruction time. The relative speed of the hybrid methods, and their accuracy in reconstructing photon activity in the presence of nonuniform attenuation, make them promising tools for quantitative SPECT reconstruction

  13. Polyphenols as Promising Drugs against Main Breast Cancer Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz-López, María; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common neoplasms worldwide, and in spite of clinical and pharmacological advances, it is still a clinical problem, causing morbidity and mortality. On the one hand, breast cancer shares with other neoplasms some molecular signatures such as an imbalanced redox state, cell cycle alterations, increased proliferation and an inflammatory status. On the other hand, breast cancer shows differential molecular subtypes that determine its prognosis and treatment. These are characterized mainly by hormone receptors especially estrogen receptors (ERs) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Tumors with none of these receptors are classified as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and are associated with a worse prognosis. The success of treatments partially depends on their specificity and the adequate molecular classification of tumors. New advances in anticancer drug discovery using natural compounds have been made in the last few decades, and polyphenols have emerged as promising molecules. They may act on various molecular targets because of their promiscuous behavior, presenting several physiological effects, some of which confer antitumor activity. This review analyzes the accumulated evidence of the antitumor effects of plant polyphenols on breast cancer, with special attention to their activity on ERs and HER2 targets and also covering different aspects such as redox balance, uncontrolled proliferation and chronic inflammation. PMID:29112149

  14. Thermoascus aurantiacus is a promising source of enzymes for biomass deconstruction under thermophilic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClendon Shara D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermophilic fungi have attracted increased interest for their ability to secrete enzymes that deconstruct biomass at high temperatures. However, development of thermophilic fungi as enzyme producers for biomass deconstruction has not been thoroughly investigated. Comparing the enzymatic activities of thermophilic fungal strains that grow on targeted biomass feedstocks has the potential to identify promising candidates for strain development. Thielavia terrestris and Thermoascus aurantiacus were chosen for characterization based on literature precedents. Results Thermoascus aurantiacus and Thielavia terrestris were cultivated on various biomass substrates and culture supernatants assayed for glycoside hydrolase activities. Supernatants from both cultures possessed comparable glycoside hydrolase activities when incubated with artificial biomass substrates. In contrast, saccharifications of ionic liquid pretreated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum revealed that T. aurantiacus enzymes released more glucose than T. terrestris enzymes over a range of protein mass loadings and temperatures. Temperature-dependent saccharifications demonstrated that the T. aurantiacus proteins retained higher levels of activity compared to a commercial enzyme mixture sold by Novozymes, Cellic CTec2, at elevated temperatures. Enzymes secreted by T. aurantiacus released glucose at similar protein loadings to CTec2 on dilute acid, ammonia fiber expansion, or ionic liquid pretreated switchgrass. Proteomic analysis of the T. aurantiacus culture supernatant revealed dominant glycoside hydrolases from families 5, 7, 10, and 61, proteins that are key enzymes in commercial cocktails. Conclusions T. aurantiacus produces a complement of secreted proteins capable of higher levels of saccharification of pretreated switchgrass than T. terrestris enzymes. The T. aurantiacus enzymatic cocktail performs at the same level as commercially available enzymatic cocktail for

  15. Thermoascus aurantiacus is a promising source of enzymes for biomass deconstruction under thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClendon, Shara D; Batth, Tanveer; Petzold, Christopher J; Adams, Paul D; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2012-07-28

    Thermophilic fungi have attracted increased interest for their ability to secrete enzymes that deconstruct biomass at high temperatures. However, development of thermophilic fungi as enzyme producers for biomass deconstruction has not been thoroughly investigated. Comparing the enzymatic activities of thermophilic fungal strains that grow on targeted biomass feedstocks has the potential to identify promising candidates for strain development. Thielavia terrestris and Thermoascus aurantiacus were chosen for characterization based on literature precedents. Thermoascus aurantiacus and Thielavia terrestris were cultivated on various biomass substrates and culture supernatants assayed for glycoside hydrolase activities. Supernatants from both cultures possessed comparable glycoside hydrolase activities when incubated with artificial biomass substrates. In contrast, saccharifications of ionic liquid pretreated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) revealed that T. aurantiacus enzymes released more glucose than T. terrestris enzymes over a range of protein mass loadings and temperatures. Temperature-dependent saccharifications demonstrated that the T. aurantiacus proteins retained higher levels of activity compared to a commercial enzyme mixture sold by Novozymes, Cellic CTec2, at elevated temperatures. Enzymes secreted by T. aurantiacus released glucose at similar protein loadings to CTec2 on dilute acid, ammonia fiber expansion, or ionic liquid pretreated switchgrass. Proteomic analysis of the T. aurantiacus culture supernatant revealed dominant glycoside hydrolases from families 5, 7, 10, and 61, proteins that are key enzymes in commercial cocktails. T. aurantiacus produces a complement of secreted proteins capable of higher levels of saccharification of pretreated switchgrass than T. terrestris enzymes. The T. aurantiacus enzymatic cocktail performs at the same level as commercially available enzymatic cocktail for biomass deconstruction, without strain development or

  16. How to Demonstrate Microgravity in your Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hall, Nancy Rabel

    2013-01-01

    Learn why zero gravity is a misnomer and learn how to demonstrate microgravity to students and the general public. In this session, a short theory segment will explain and reinforce these concepts so that you may explain to others. Session participants will also see simple equipment that demonstrates microgravity during the session and can just as well be done in the classroom or museum exhibit hall. The hands-on demonstration devices range from a leaky water bottle to an electronic drop tower with an on-board camera. The session will also include demonstration techniques for Physics, Forces & Motion, and orbits. This material is useful for middle school forces and motions instruction, high school physics instruction, public demonstrations at conferences & school open houses, travelling museum exhibits, fixed museum exhibits, and independent student projects or experiments. These activities also connect the terrestrial demonstration with planetary & moon motion, comet trajectory, and more.

  17. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  18. Cargo Data Management Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    Delays in receipt and creation of cargo documents are a problem in international trade. The work described demonstrates some of the advantages and capabilities of a computer-based cargo data management system. A demonstration system for data manageme...

  19. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  20. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koersel, A.C. van

    2000-01-01

    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the

  1. Can metabotyping help deliver the promise of personalised nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Clare B; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Michael J; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-02-01

    Over a decade since the completion of the human genome sequence, the promise of personalised nutrition available to all has yet to become a reality. While the definition was originally very gene-focused, in recent years, a model of personalised nutrition has emerged with the incorporation of dietary, phenotypic and genotypic information at various levels. Developing on from the idea of personalised nutrition, the concept of targeted nutrition has evolved which refers to the delivery of tailored dietary advice at a group level rather than at an individual level. Central to this concept is metabotyping or metabolic phenotyping, which is the ability to group similar individuals together based on their metabolic or phenotypic profiles. Applications of the metabotyping concept extend from the nutrition to the medical literature. While there are many examples of the metabotype approach, there is a dearth in the literature with regard to the development of tailored interventions for groups of individuals. This review will first explore the effectiveness of personalised nutrition in motivating behaviour change and secondly, examine potential novel ways for the delivery of personalised advice at a population level through a metabotyping approach. Based on recent findings from our work, we will demonstrate a novel strategy for the delivery of tailored dietary advice at a group level using this concept. In general, there is a strong emerging evidence to support the effectiveness of personalised nutrition; future work should ascertain if targeted nutrition can motivate behaviour change in a similar manner.

  2. Local and global trust based on the concept of promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.; Burgess, M.

    2009-01-01

    We use the notion of a promise to define local trust between agents possessing autonomous decision-making. An agent is trustworthy if it is expected that it will keep a promise. This definition satisfies most commonplace meanings of trust. Reputation is then an estimation of this expectation value

  3. The pragmatics of NPP presidential campaign promises in Ghana's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses election campaign promises under Commissives, an aspect of Speech Act Theory, and Political Discourse Analysis (PDA). It considers the importance of context and looks at the social settings that are connected with promises. It examines the semantics, pragmatics and the structure of campaign ...

  4. Solutions for Failing High Schools: Converging Visions and Promising Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legters, Nettie; Balfanz, Robert; McPartland, James

    Promising solutions to the failings of traditional comprehensive high schools were reviewed to identify basic principles and strategies for improving high schools nationwide. Selected research studies, policy documents, and promising high school programs were reviewed. The review revealed the following principles for helping high schools better…

  5. Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…

  6. Heterocyclic N-oxides - A Promising Class of Agents Against Tuberculosis, Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Fernandes, Guilherme Felipe; Pavan, Aline Renata; Dos Santos, Jean Leandro

    2018-04-17

    Heterocyclic N-oxides have emerged as promising agents against a number of diseases and disorders, especially infectious diseases. This review analyzes the emergence and development of this scaffold in the medicinal chemistry, focusing mainly on the discovery of new heterocyclic N-oxide compounds with potent activity against tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases (i.e. leishmaniasis and Chagas disease). A number of heterocyclic N-oxide are described herein, nevertheless, the following chemical classes deserve to be highlighted due to the large number of reports in the literature about their promising pharmacological effects: furoxan, benzofuroxan, quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide, indolone N-oxide and benzimidazole N-oxide. In order to describe those most promising compounds, we included in this review only those most biologically active heterocyclic N-oxide published since 2000. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Quantum dot lasers: From promise to high-performance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Mi, Z.; Yang, J.; Basu, D.; Saha, D.

    2009-03-01

    Ever since self-organized In(Ga)As/Ga(AI)As quantum dots were realized by molecular beam epitaxy, it became evident that these coherently strained nanostructures could be used as the active media in devices. While the expected advantages stemming from three-dimensional quantum confinement were clearly outlined, these were not borne out by the early experiments. It took a very detailed understanding of the unique carrier dynamics in the quantum dots to exploit their full potential. As a result, we now have lasers with emission wavelengths ranging from 0.7 to 1.54 μm, on GaAs, which demonstrate ultra-low threshold currents, near-zero chip and α-factor and large modulation bandwidth. State-of-the-art performance characteristics of these lasers are briefly reviewed. The growth, fabrication and characteristics of quantum dot lasers on silicon substrates are also described. With the incorporation of multiple quantum dot layers as a dislocation filter, we demonstrate lasers with Jth=900 A/cm 2. The monolithic integration of the lasers with guided wave modulators on silicon is also described. Finally, the properties of spin-polarized lasers with quantum dot active regions are described. Spin injection of electrons is done with a MnAs/GaAs tunnel barrier. Laser operation at 200 K is demonstrated, with the possibility of room temperature operation in the near future.

  8. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology's threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report

  9. IMPLEMENTING AN ISO 10001-BASED PROMISE IN INPATIENTS CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ashiqur Rahman Khan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a Customer Satisfaction Promise (CSP that requires nurses to introduce themselves and explain the care plan to the patients of a hospital unit in Canada. The CSP implementation, maintenance and improvement activities were based on ISO 10001:2007. Qualitative and quantitative performance data were collected from nurses, the unit manager and patients, and improvement suggestions were made. During the implementation, nurses introduced themselves 95% of the time and explained the care plan 86% of the time. When interviewed, some nurses stated that the CSP was a good reinforcement of a practice already expected of them, which made patients happy, satisfied and more comfortable. Data from a small sample of patients was not adequate in clearly indicating the CSP's performance or improvement, but was useful in validating the survey and the feedback form. To our knowledge, applications of ISO 10001:2007 in health care have not been studied. Furthermore, this paper may be the first example of the integrated use of ISO 10001 and ISO 10002 in health care.

  10. Microencapsulation: A promising technique for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M N; Hemant, K S Y; Ram, M; Shivakumar, H G

    2010-07-01

    MICROPARTICLES OFFER VARIOUS SIGNIFICANT ADVANTAGES AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS, INCLUDING: (i) an effective protection of the encapsulated active agent against (e.g. enzymatic) degradation, (ii) the possibility to accurately control the release rate of the incorporated drug over periods of hours to months, (iii) an easy administration (compared to alternative parenteral controlled release dosage forms, such as macro-sized implants), and (iv) Desired, pre-programmed drug release profiles can be provided which match the therapeutic needs of the patient. This article gives an overview on the general aspects and recent advances in drug-loaded microparticles to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. An appropriately designed controlled release drug delivery system can be a foot ahead towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue, and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. The development of oral controlled release systems has been a challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain and localize the system at targeted areas of gastrointestinal tract. Microparticulate drug delivery systems are an interesting and promising option when developing an oral controlled release system. The objective of this paper is to take a closer look at microparticles as drug delivery devices for increasing efficiency of drug delivery, improving the release profile and drug targeting. In order to appreciate the application possibilities of microcapsules in drug delivery, some fundamental aspects are briefly reviewed.

  11. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  12. Albendazole as a promising molecule for tumor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L S E P W; Kviecinski, M R; Ourique, F; Parisotto, E B; Grinevicius, V M A S; Correia, J F G; Wilhelm Filho, D; Pedrosa, R C

    2016-12-01

    This work evaluated the antitumor effects of albendazole (ABZ) and its relationship with modulation of oxidative stress and induction of DNA damage. The present results showed that ABZ causes oxidative cleavage on calf-thymus DNA suggesting that this compound can break DNA. ABZ treatment decreased MCF-7 cell viability (EC 50 =44.9 for 24h) and inhibited MCF-7 colony formation (~67.5% at 5μM). Intracellular ROS levels increased with ABZ treatment (~123%). The antioxidant NAC is able to revert the cytotoxic effects, ROS generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential of MCF-7 cells treated with ABZ. Ehrlich carcinoma growth was inhibited (~32%) and survival time was elongated (~50%) in animals treated with ABZ. Oxidative biomarkers (TBARS and protein carbonyl levels) and activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD and GR) increased, and reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted in animals treated with ABZ, indicating an oxidative stress condition, leading to a DNA damage causing phosphorylation of histone H2A variant, H2AX, and triggering apoptosis signaling, which was confirmed by increasing Bax/Bcl-xL rate, p53 and Bax expression. We propose that ABZ induces oxidative stress promoting DNA fragmentation and triggering apoptosis and inducing cell death, making this drug a promising leader molecule for development of new antitumor drugs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  14. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  15. The promise of e-health--a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Richard C

    2004-01-01

    Canadians value their health care system above any other social programme. Canada's system of health care faces significant financial and population pressures, relating to cost, access, quality, accountability, and the intergration of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The health-system also faces certain unique challenges that include care delivery within a highly decentralised system of financing and accountability, and care delivery to a significant portion of the population sparsely distributed across a land mass of 10 million square kilometres, in areas of extreme climatic conditions. All of these challenges are significant catalysts in the development of technologies that aim to significantly mitigate or eliminate these selfsame challenges. The system is undergoing widespread review, nationally and within each province and territory, where the bulk of care provision is financed and managed. The challenges are being addressed by national, regional and provincial initiatives in the public, private and not-for-profit sectors. The promise of e-health lies in the manner and degree to which it can mitigate or resolve these challenges to the health system and build on advancements in ICTs supporting the development of a health infostructure. Canada is actively developing and implementing technological solutions to deliver health information and health care services across the country. These solutions, while exciting and promising, also present new challenges, particularly in regard to acceptable standards, choice of technologies, overcoming traditional jurisdictional boundaries, up-front investment, and privacy and confidentiality. Many organizations and governments are working to address these challenges. Canada Health Infoway, a not-for-profit corporation, was founded by the first ministers in 2001 to accelerate the establishment of an interoperable, pan-Canadian electronic health record. It works with partners in the federal, provincial and

  16. Centrosome – a promising anti-cancer target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Rivera Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yainyrette Rivera-Rivera, Harold I Saavedra Department of Pharmacology, Ponce Health Sciences University-School of Medicine, Ponce Research Institute, Ponce, Puerto Rico Abstract: The centrosome, an organelle discovered >100 years ago, is the main microtubule-organizing center in mammalian organisms. The centrosome is composed of a pair of centrioles surrounded by the pericentriolar material (PMC and plays a major role in the regulation of cell cycle transitions (G1-S, G2-M, and metaphase-anaphase, ensuring the normality of cell division. Hundreds of proteins found in the centrosome exert a variety of roles, including microtubule dynamics, nucleation, and kinetochore–microtubule attachments that allow correct chromosome alignment and segregation. Errors in these processes lead to structural (shape, size, number, position, and composition, functional (abnormal microtubule nucleation and disorganized spindles, and numerical (centrosome amplification [CA] centrosome aberrations causing aneuploidy and genomic instability. Compelling data demonstrate that centrosomes are implicated in cancer, because there are important oncogenic and tumor suppressor proteins that are localized in this organelle and drive centrosome aberrations. Centrosome defects have been found in pre-neoplasias and tumors from breast, ovaries, prostate, head and neck, lung, liver, and bladder among many others. Several drugs/compounds against centrosomal proteins have shown promising results. Other drugs have higher toxicity with modest or no benefits, and there are more recently developed agents being tested in clinical trials. All of this emerging evidence suggests that targeting centrosome aberrations may be a future avenue for therapeutic intervention in cancer research. Keywords: centrosomes, cell cycle, mitosis, CA, CIN, cancer therapy

  17. Gravitational-wave astronomy: delivering on the promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. F.

    2018-05-01

    Now that LIGO and Virgo have begun to detect gravitational-wave events with regularity, the field of gravitational-wave astronomy is beginning to realize its promise. Binary black holes and, very recently, binary neutron stars have been observed, and we are already learning much from them. The future, with improved sensitivity, more detectors and detectors like LISA in different frequency bands, has even more promise to open a completely hidden side of the Universe to our exploration. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  18. Gravitational-wave astronomy: delivering on the promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B F

    2018-05-28

    Now that LIGO and Virgo have begun to detect gravitational-wave events with regularity, the field of gravitational-wave astronomy is beginning to realize its promise. Binary black holes and, very recently, binary neutron stars have been observed, and we are already learning much from them. The future, with improved sensitivity, more detectors and detectors like LISA in different frequency bands, has even more promise to open a completely hidden side of the Universe to our exploration.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  19. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The airspace operations demonstration (AOD) is intended to show that the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be met. The demonstration will occur in two phases. The initial on-range phase will be carried out in restricted airspace to demonstrate the cooperative collision avoidance (CCA) functional requirements and to provide risk-reduction for the AOD by allowing the test team to rehearse some elements of the demonstration mission. The CCA system to be used in these flights is based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) which is a commercially-available system by which airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and altitude to other aircraft and ground resources over a dedicated radio datalink. The final phase will occur in the national airspace (NAS) and will be the formal demonstration of the remainder of the proposed functional requirements. The general objectives of the AOD are as follows: (1) Demonstrate that the UAS can aviate in the NAS (2) Demonstrate that the UAS can navigate in the NAS (3) Demonstrate that the UAS can communicate with the NAS (4) Demonstrate that the UAS can perform selected collision avoidance functions in the NAS (5) Demonstrate that the UAS can evaluate and avoid weather conflicts in the NAS (6) Demonstrate that the UAS can provide adequate command and control in the NAS In addition to the stated objectives, there are a number of goals for the flight demonstration. The demo can be accomplished successfully without achieving these goals, but these goals are to be used as a guideline for preparing for the mission. The goals are: (1) Mission duration of at least 24 hours (2) Loiter over heavy traffic to evaluate the data block issue identified during the Access 5 Airspace Operations Simulations (3) Document the contingency management process and lessons learned (4) Document the coordination process for Ground Control Stations (GCS) handoff (5) Document lessons learned regarding the process of flying in

  20. Problem-solving versus cognitive restructuring of medically ill seniors with depression (PROMISE-D trial: study protocol and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Louise

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an ageing population in most Western countries, people are living longer but often with one or more chronic physical health problems. Older people in physically poor health are at greater risk of developing clinical depression. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT and Problem Solving Therapy (PST have both been found to be efficacious in treating late-life depression, however patients with “multi-morbidity” (i.e. more than one chronic condition are often excluded from these trials. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of CBT and PST in treating older adults who have one or more chronic physical health conditions and a diagnosable depressive disorder. This study will be the first to explicitly target the treatment of depression in older people in primary care settings presenting with a range of health problems using behavioural interventions. Methods/design The PROMISE-D study is a randomised controlled trial of two evidence-based treatments for late-life major or minor depression for patients who also have at least one co-morbid chronic health problem. Participants will be randomised to two active interventions (PST or CBT or enhanced treatment-as-usual (E-TAU. Primary outcomes will be depression diagnostic status and severity of depression (according to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes will be anxiety severity, quality of life and health care utilisation. Assessments will be conducted by a researcher who remains blind to the patient’s treatment allocation and will be conducted pre and post-treatment and at six and 12 months follow-up. Health care utilisation will be assessed throughout a two year period following entry to the trial. Executive function, rumination and emotion regulation will also be measured to determine the impact of these factors on treatment response in two treatment groups. Discussion Multi-morbidity, the experience of two or

  1. After The Demonstration: What States Sustained After the End of Federal Grants to Improve Children's Health Care Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireys, Henry T; Brach, Cindy; Anglin, Grace; Devers, Kelly J; Burton, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    Introduction Under the CHIPRA Quality Demonstration Grant Program, CMS awarded $100 million through 10 grants that 18 state Medicaid agencies implemented between 2010 and 2015. The program's legislatively-mandated purpose was to evaluate promising ideas for improving the quality of children's health care provided through Medicaid and CHIP. As part of the program's multifaceted evaluation, this study examined the extent to which states sustained key program activities after the demonstration ended. Methods We identified 115 potentially sustainable elements within states' CHIPRA demonstrations and analyzed data from grantee reports and key informant interviews to assess sustainment outcomes and key influential factors. We also assessed sustainment of the projects' intellectual capital. Results 56% of potentially sustainable elements were sustained. Sustainment varied by topic area: Elements related to quality measure reporting and practice facilitation were more likely to be sustained than others, such as parent advisors. Broad contextual factors, the state's Medicaid environment, implementation partners' resources, and characteristics of the demonstration itself all shaped sustainment outcomes. Discussion Assessing sustainment of key elements of states' CHIPRA quality demonstration projects provides insight into the fates of the "promising ideas" that the grant program was designed to examine. As a result of the federal government's investment in this grant program, many demonstration states are in a strong position to extend and spread specific strategies for improving the quality of care for children in Medicaid and CHIP. Our findings provide insights for policymakers and providers working to improve the quality of health care for low income children.

  2. Demonstration of Cauchy: Understanding Algebraic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study we present some considerations about the End of Course Work undergraduate Full Degree in Mathematics / UFMT, drafted in 2011, and by taking title "A story about Cauchy and Euler's theorem on polyhedra" that gave birth to our research project Master of Education, begun in 2012, on the approaches of Euler's theorem on polyhedra in mathematics textbooks. At work in 2011 presented some considerations about the history of Euler's theorem for polyhedra which focus the demonstration presented by Cauchy (1789-1857, who tries to generalize it, relying on assumptions not observable in Euclidean geometry. Therefore, we seek the accessible literature on the history of mathematics; relate some aspects of the demonstration Cauchy with historical events on the development of mathematics in the nineteenth century, which allowed the acceptance of such a demonstration by mathematicians of his time.Keywords: History of Mathematics. Euler's Theorem on Polyhedra. Demonstration of Cauchy.

  3. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  4. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  5. Self-Synchronization: Splendid Promise or Dangerous Delusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatter, Steven

    2000-01-01

    ... with extraordinary efficiency and precision. Proponents of Network-Centric Warfare build upon the optimism in JV 2010 by offering a war-fighting paradigm that promises "an information superiority enabled concept of operations that generates...

  6. Promise Zone Round 2 Applicant Geography and Goal Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes Promise Zone initiative round II applicant project data from 111 urban, rural, and tribal communities who consented to share their application...

  7. Children's rights, international human rights and the promise of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children's rights, international human rights and the promise of Islamic legal theory. ... Law, Democracy & Development ... law but also religion and ethics, thus offering a multidimensional approach covering the total personality of the child.

  8. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert Calderon

    1998-01-01

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (4) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Conducting bench-scale tests to produce coke and acceptable tar from the process to satisfy Koppers, a prospective stakeholder; Consolidation of the project team players to execute the full size commercial cokemaking reactor demonstration; and Progress made in advancing the design of the full size commercial cokemaking reactor

  9. Promising Potential of Dietary (Poly)Phenolic Compounds in the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tania R; Alves, Marco G; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, Pedro F; Silva, Branca M

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is reaching alarming proportions worldwide, particularly because it is increasingly affecting younger people. This reflects the sedentary lifestyle and inappropriate dietary habits, especially due to the advent of processed foods in modern societies. Thus, unsurprisingly, the first medical recommendation to patients with clinically evident DM is the alteration in their eating behaviour, particularly regarding carbohydrates and total energy intake. Despite individual and cultural preferences, human diet makes available a large amount of phytochemicals with therapeutic potential. Phenolic compounds are the most abundant class of phytochemicals in edible plants, fruits and beverages. These compounds have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that have been associated with specific features of their chemical structure. Among others, such properties make them promising antidiabetic agents and several mechanisms of action have already been proposed. Herein, we discuss the recent findings on the potential of dietary phenolic compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of (pre)diabetes, and associated complications. A broad range of studies supports the innate potential of phenolic compounds to protect against DM-associated deleterious effects. Their antidiabetic activity has been demonstrated by: i) regulation of carbohydrate metabolism; ii) improvement of glucose uptake; iii) protection of pancreatic β-cells; iv) enhancement of insulin action and v) regulation of crucial signalling pathways to cell homeostasis. Dietary phenolic compounds constitute an easy, safe and cost-effective way to combat the worrying scenario of DM. The interesting particularities of phenolic compounds reinforce the implementation of a (poly)phenolic-rich nutritional regime, not only for (pre)diabetic patients, but also for non-diabetic people. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. PPARγ Ligand as a Promising Candidate for Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Activating synthetic ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, such as pioglitazone, are commonly used to treat persons with diabetes mellitus with improvement of insulin resistance. Several reports have clearly demonstrated that PPARγ ligands could inhibit colorectal cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis. Meanwhile, aberrant crypt foci (ACF have come to be established as a biomarker of the risk of CRC in azoxymethane-treated mice and rats. In humans, ACF can be detected using magnifying colonoscopy. Previously, CRC and adenoma were used as a target for chemopreventive agents, but it needs a long time to evaluate, however, ACF can be a surrogate marker of CRC even for a brief period. In this clinical study, we investigated the chemopreventive effect of pioglitazone on the development of human ACF as a surrogate marker of CRC. Twenty-nine patients were divided into two groups, 20 were in the endoscopically normal control group and 9 were in the pioglitazone (15 mg/day group, and ACF and adenoma were examined before and after 1-month treatment. The number of ACF was significantly decreased (5.8±1.1 to 3.3±2.3 after 1 month of pioglitazone treatment, however, there was no significant change in the number of crypts/ACF or in the number and size of adenomas. Pioglitazone may have a clinical application as a cancer-preventive drug. This investigation is just a pilot study, therefore, further clinical studies are needed to show that the PPARγ ligand may be a promising candidate as a chemopreventive agent for colorectal carcinogenesis.

  11. Unary probabilistic and quantum automata on promise problems

    OpenAIRE

    Gainutdinova, Aida; Yakaryilmaz, Abuzer

    2015-01-01

    We continue the systematic investigation of probabilistic and quantum finite automata (PFAs and QFAs) on promise problems by focusing on unary languages. We show that bounded-error QFAs are more powerful than PFAs. But, in contrary to the binary problems, the computational powers of Las-Vegas QFAs and bounded-error PFAs are equivalent to deterministic finite automata (DFAs). Lastly, we present a new family of unary promise problems with two parameters such that when fixing one parameter QFAs ...

  12. Demonstration of quantum advantage in machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristè, Diego; da Silva, Marcus P.; Ryan, Colm A.; Cross, Andrew W.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Smolin, John A.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M.; Johnson, Blake R.

    2017-04-01

    The main promise of quantum computing is to efficiently solve certain problems that are prohibitively expensive for a classical computer. Most problems with a proven quantum advantage involve the repeated use of a black box, or oracle, whose structure encodes the solution. One measure of the algorithmic performance is the query complexity, i.e., the scaling of the number of oracle calls needed to find the solution with a given probability. Few-qubit demonstrations of quantum algorithms, such as Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover, have been implemented across diverse physical systems such as nuclear magnetic resonance, trapped ions, optical systems, and superconducting circuits. However, at the small scale, these problems can already be solved classically with a few oracle queries, limiting the obtained advantage. Here we solve an oracle-based problem, known as learning parity with noise, on a five-qubit superconducting processor. Executing classical and quantum algorithms using the same oracle, we observe a large gap in query count in favor of quantum processing. We find that this gap grows by orders of magnitude as a function of the error rates and the problem size. This result demonstrates that, while complex fault-tolerant architectures will be required for universal quantum computing, a significant quantum advantage already emerges in existing noisy systems.

  13. Recent advances in methane activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuska, M; Kataja, K [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Considerable work has been done in the research and development of methane conversion technologies. Although some promising conversion processes have been demonstrated, further advances in engineering and also in the chemistry are needed before these technologies become commercial. High-temperature processes, e.g. the oxidative coupling of methane, studied thoroughly during the last 15 years, suffer from severe theoretical yield limits and poor economics. In the long term, the most promising approaches seem to be the organometallic and, especially, the biomimetic activation of methane. (author) (22 refs.)

  14. Recent advances in methane activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuska, M.; Kataja, K. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Considerable work has been done in the research and development of methane conversion technologies. Although some promising conversion processes have been demonstrated, further advances in engineering and also in the chemistry are needed before these technologies become commercial. High-temperature processes, e.g. the oxidative coupling of methane, studied thoroughly during the last 15 years, suffer from severe theoretical yield limits and poor economics. In the long term, the most promising approaches seem to be the organometallic and, especially, the biomimetic activation of methane. (author) (22 refs.)

  15. Antimicrobial Peptides: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy in Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Ramya; Goud, Nerella S; Saraswati, A Prasanth; Alvala, Ravi; Alvala, Mallika

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has posed a serious threat to global public health and it requires immediate action, preferably long term. Current drug therapies have failed to curb this menace due to the ability of microbes to circumvent the mechanisms through which the drugs act. From the drug discovery point of view, the majority of drugs currently employed for antimicrobial therapy are small molecules. Recent trends reveal a surge in the use of peptides as drug candidates as they offer remarkable advantages over small molecules. Newer synthetic strategies like organometalic complexes, Peptide-polymer conjugates, solid phase, liquid phase and recombinant DNA technology encouraging the use of peptides as therapeutic agents with a host of chemical functions, and tailored for specific applications. In the last decade, many peptide based drugs have been successfully approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This success can be attributed to their high specificity, selectivity and efficacy, high penetrability into the tissues, less immunogenicity and less tissue accumulation. Considering the enormity of AMR, the use of Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) can be a viable alternative to current therapeutics strategies. AMPs are naturally abundant allowing synthetic chemists to develop semi-synthetics peptide molecules. AMPs have a broad spectrum of activity towards microbes and they possess the ability to bypass the resistance induction mechanisms of microbes. The present review focuses on the potential applications of AMPs against various microbial disorders and their future prospects. Several resistance mechanisms and their strategies have also been discussed to highlight the importance in the current scenario. Breakthroughs in AMP designing, peptide synthesis and biotechnology have shown promise in tackling this challenge and has revived the interest of using AMPs as an important weapon in fighting AMR. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  16. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  17. Anti-chemokine small molecule drugs: a promising future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Amanda E I; Power, Christine A; Schwarz, Matthias K

    2010-03-01

    Chemokines have principally been associated with inflammation due to their role in the control of leukocyte migration, but just over a decade ago chemokine receptors were also identified as playing a pivotal role in the entry of the HIV virus into cells. Chemokines activate seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors, making them extremely attractive therapeutic targets for the pharmaceutical industry. Although there are now a large number of molecules targeting chemokines and chemokine receptors including neutralizing antibodies in clinical trials for inflammatory diseases, the results to date have not always been positive, which has been disappointing for the field. These failures have often been attributed to redundancy in the chemokine system. However, other difficulties have been encountered in drug discovery processes targeting the chemokine system, and these will be addressed in this review. In this review, the reader will get an insight into the hurdles that have to be overcome, learn about some of the pitfalls that may explain the lack of success, and get a glimpse of the outlook for the future. In 2007, the FDA approved maraviroc, an inhibitor of CCR5 for the prevention of HIV infection, the first triumph for a small-molecule drug acting on the chemokine system. The time to market, 11 years from discovery of CCR5, was fast by industry standards. A second small-molecule drug, a CXCR4 antagonist for hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, was approved by the FDA at the end of 2008. The results of a Phase III trial with a CCR9 inhibitor for Crohn's disease are also promising. This could herald the first success for a chemokine receptor antagonist as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic and confirms the importance of chemokine receptors as a target class for anti-inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  18. Auditory demonstrations simulating Mayan architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2005-09-01

    Fascination with the ancient temples and ball court at Chichen Itza provide rich opportunities for science education. Children of all ages are delighted to learn that the sound of handclaps scattered from long temple staircases are transformed into bird chirps. Their engagement in such seemingly magical phenomena provides magic moments for teaching acoustical principals, including the picket-fence effect (PFE). PFE transforms impulsive sounds scattered from spatially periodic structures into tonal sounds. PFE is demonstrated with a computer possessing a sound card and a simple sound editing program. The inverse relationship between tonal frequency and the time interval between periodic impulses is easily demonstrated. The number of impulses needed to produce an audible tone is easily demonstrated and compared with the number of steps on the staircase. Transformation of audible tones into downward-gliding chirps is simulated by monotonically increasing the time between impulses. The Great Ball Court also provides opportunities for acoustical demonstration. Observers clapping their hands while standing between the long, tall, and parallel walls of the playing field marvel at the profound flutter echo heard for about 1.5 s. The flutter echo sonogram demonstrates the speed of sound and frequency-selective atmospheric attenuation.

  19. Demonstration of reliability centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwan, C.A.; Morgan, T.A.

    1991-04-01

    Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) is an approach to preventive maintenance planning and evaluation that has been used successfully by other industries, most notably the airlines and military. Now EPRI is demonstrating RCM in the commercial nuclear power industry. Just completed are large-scale, two-year demonstrations at Rochester Gas ampersand Electric (Ginna Nuclear Power Station) and Southern California Edison (San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station). Both demonstrations were begun in the spring of 1988. At each plant, RCM was performed on 12 to 21 major systems. Both demonstrations determined that RCM is an appropriate means to optimize a PM program and improve nuclear plant preventive maintenance on a large scale. Such favorable results had been suggested by three earlier EPRI pilot studies at Florida Power ampersand Light, Duke Power, and Southern California Edison. EPRI selected the Ginna and San Onofre sites because, together, they represent a broad range of utility and plant size, plant organization, plant age, and histories of availability and reliability. Significant steps in each demonstration included: selecting and prioritizing plant systems for RCM evaluation; performing the RCM evaluation steps on selected systems; evaluating the RCM recommendations by a multi-disciplinary task force; implementing the RCM recommendations; establishing a system to track and verify the RCM benefits; and establishing procedures to update the RCM bases and recommendations with time (a living program). 7 refs., 1 tab

  20. Field demonstration of an active reservoir pressure management through fluid injection and displaced fluid extractions at the Rock Springs Uplift, a priority geologic CO2 storage site for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This report provides the results from the project entitled Field Demonstration of Reservoir Pressure Management through Fluid Injection and Displaced Fluid Extraction at the Rock Springs Uplift, a Priority Geologic CO2 Storage Site for Wyoming (DE-FE0026159 for both original performance period (September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016) and no-cost extension (September 1, 2016 to January 6, 2017)).

  1. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  2. Savannah River Plant incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive waste. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. The process has been relocated and upgraded by the Savannah River Plant to accept low-level beta-gamma combustibles. During a two-year demonstration, the facility will incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (< 1 mR/h at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes. This demonstration will begin in early 1984

  3. Demonstration of safety for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.C.; Ramspott, L.D.; Sprecher, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a nuclear waste management system that will accept high-level radioactive waste, transport it, store it, and ultimately emplace it in a deep geologic repository. The key activity now is determining whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada is suitable as a site for the repository. If so, the crucial technological advance will be the demonstration that disposal of nuclear waste will be safe for thousands of years after closure. This paper assesses the impact of regulatory developments, legal developments, and scientific developments on such a demonstration

  4. Environmental management technology demonstration and commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Energy ampersand Environmental Research Center (EERC), a contract-supported organization focused on technology research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD ampersand C), is entering its second year of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to facilitate the development, demonstration, and commercialization of innovative environmental management (EM) technologies in support of the activities of DOE's Office of Environmental Science and Technology (EM-50) under DOE's EM Program. This paper reviews the concept and approach of the program under the METC-EERC EM Cooperative Agreement and profiles the role the program is playing in the commercialization of five EM technologies

  5. Habitable Worlds: Delivering on the Promises of Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, Lev B.; Mead, Chris; Belinson, Zack; Buxner, Sanlyn; Semken, Steven; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2018-01-01

    Critical thinking and scientific reasoning are central to higher education in the United States, but many courses (in-person and online) teach students information about science much more than they teach the actual process of science and its associated knowledge and skills. In the online arena specifically, the tools available for course construction exacerbate this problem by making it difficult to build the types of active learning activities that research shows to be the most effective. Here, we present a report on Habitable Worlds, offered by Arizona State University for 12 semesters over the past 6 years. This is a unique online course that uses an array of novel technologies to deliver an active, inquiry-driven learning experience. Learning outcomes and quantitative data from more than 3000 students demonstrate the success of our approach but also identify several remaining challenges. The design and development of this course offers valuable lessons for instructional designers and educators who are interested in fully capitalizing on the capabilities of 21st-century technology to achieve educational goals.

  6. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  7. Some Field Demonstrations in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Some Field Demonstrations in India. 2x150kVAR STATCOM at M/s Hindusthan Latex, Trivandrum. 250kVAR, 800V dc, 2-level STATCOM (Installed at Peekey Steels, Calicut). 250kVAR,800V dc, UPQC at CDAC, Trivandrum. REFERENCE: Website www. cdac.gov.in.

  8. Flexible-Rotor Balancing Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes method for balancing high-speed rotors at relatively low speeds and discusses demonstration of method on laboratory test rig. Method ensures rotor brought up to speeds well over 20,000 r/min smoothly, without excessive vibration amplitude at critical speeds or at operating speed.

  9. NDT performance demonstration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The experience obtained from the in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) of Spanish nuclear power plants and the participation in several international programs, such as PISC, has shown the need for a performance demonstration, not only for the ultrasonic inspection techniques of RPV, but also for other ISI non-destructive techniques as in the case of eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing. Section XI of the ASME Code, which is applied in Spain for ISI, has incorporated recently the Appendix VIII for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques. As a direct consequence of this, a Spanish project for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques has been launched recently, which includes the manufacturing of full-scale mock-ups of nozzle to vessel welds, reactor vessel welds, wrought austenitic piping welds and ferritic piping welds of PWR and BWR nuclear power plants from different suppliers. This considerable technical effort will let the different Spanish organizations which are part of the project to participate and colaborate with similar international projects and in particular with a European initiative for performance demonstration. (Author)

  10. SunJammer Technology Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sunjammer Project is a NASA funded contract to L?Garde Inc. to fly a solar sail demonstration for a period of approximately one year. L?Garde is also partnered...

  11. E/Z MAS demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boor, M.G.; Hurford, J.M.; Landry, R.P.; Martinez, B.J.; Solem, A.M.; Whiteson, R.; Zardecki, A.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed E/Z MAS, a new generation nuclear material accountability application based on the latest technology and designed for facilities required to track nuclear materials with a simple-to-use interface. E/Z MAS is based on years of experience spent developing nuclear material accounting systems. E/Z MAS uses a modern relational database with a web server and enables users on a classified local area network to interact with the database with web browsers. The E/Z MAS Demonstration poster session demonstrates the E/Z MAS functions required by an operational nuclear facility to track material as it enters and leaves a facility and to account for the material as it moves through a process. The generation of internal facility reports and external reports for the Russian Federal system will be demonstrated. Bar-code readers will be used to demonstrate the ability of EZ MAS to automate certain functions, such as physical inventories at facilities

  12. US GCFR demonstration plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, P.S.; Snyder, H.J.

    1980-05-01

    A general description of the US GCFR demonstration plant conceptual design is given to provide a context for more detailed papers to follow. The parameters selected for use in the design are presented and the basis for parameter selection is discussed. Nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) and balance of plant (BOP) component arrangements and systems are briefly discussed

  13. Satellite Demonstration: The Videodisc Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propp, George; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper describes a satellite demonstration of video disc materials. It is explained that a panel of deaf individuals in Washington, D.C. and another in Nebraska came into direct two-way communication for the first time, and video disc materials were broadcast via the satellite.…

  14. DOE's annealing prototype demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.; Nakos, J.; Rochau, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the challenges U.S. utilities face in addressing technical issues associated with the aging of nuclear power plants is the long-term effect of plant operation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). As a nuclear plant operates, its RPV is exposed to neutrons. For certain plants, this neutron exposure can cause embrittlement of some of the RPV welds which can shorten the useful life of the RPV. This RPV embrittlement issue has the potential to affect the continued operation of a number of operating U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. However, RPV material properties affected by long-term irradiation are recoverable through a thermal annealing treatment of the RPV. Although a dozen Russian-designed RPVs and several U.S. military vessels have been successfully annealed, U.S. utilities have stated that a successful annealing demonstration of a U.S. RPV is a prerequisite for annealing a licensed U.S. nuclear power plant. In May 1995, the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories awarded two cost-shared contracts to evaluate the feasibility of annealing U.S. licensed plants by conducting an anneal of an installed RPV using two different heating technologies. The contracts were awarded to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) and MPR Associates (MPR). The ASME team completed its annealing prototype demonstration in July 1996, using an indirect gas furnace at the uncompleted Public Service of Indiana's Marble Hill nuclear power plant. The MPR team's annealing prototype demonstration was scheduled to be completed in early 1997, using a direct heat electrical furnace at the uncompleted Consumers Power Company's nuclear power plant at Midland, Michigan. This paper describes the Department's annealing prototype demonstration goals and objectives; the tasks, deliverables, and results to date for each annealing prototype demonstration; and the remaining annealing technology challenges

  15. Current statuses of international cooperation activities, and research and development activities, based on IEA's Implementing Agreement for a Program on Research and Demonstration of Advanced Motor Fuels; EIA jidoshayo senshin nenryo jisshi kyotei ni motozuku kokusai kyoryoku katsudo oyobi kenkyu kaihatsu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Described herein are current statuses of international cooperation activities, and R and D activities, based on IEA's Implementing Agreement for a Program on Research and Demonstration of Advanced Motor Fuels. This agreement is aimed at efficient implementation of researches, demonstration tests and information exchanges for advanced motor fuels by promoting international cooperation. It raises future environment-compatible diesel fuels and new fuels for new engines as the major R and D themes, which cover information exchanges for engines/vehicles of heavy- duty vehicles, motor fuel information services, toxicity assessments of bio-diesel fuels, feasibility studies on possibility of dimethyl ether as diesel fuel, surveys on barriers in alternative fuel markets, surveys on biodegradable lubricant oils, and effects of new heavy-duty vehicle techniques on the environments. Some of the results reported in FY 1997 are those for comparison between current motor fuels and dimethyl ether in toxicity, analysis of the failure mode effects of dimethyl ether tank in vehicles, and surveys on barriers in alternative fuel markets. (NEDO)

  16. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankivsky, Olena; Reid, Colleen; Cormier, Renee; Varcoe, Colleen; Clark, Natalie; Benoit, Cecilia; Brotman, Shari

    2010-02-11

    Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning and significance of social

  17. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Natalie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning

  18. Periostin: a promising target of therapeutical intervention for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Weihong

    2011-06-01

    RNA-Periostin LNCap cells growed slowly in vitro and in vivo. The tissues of xenografts as PCa were verificated by HE staining. Additionally, the weak positive Periostin expressed tumor cells could be seen in the tissues of 6 xenografts from the group of down-regulated Periostin LNCap cells which had a significant decrease of the amount of Periostin compared to the other two group. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that sliencing Periostin could inhibit migration of LNCap cells in vitro. Conclusions Our data indicates that Periostin as an up-regulated protein in PCa may be a promising target of therapeutical intervention for PCa in future.

  19. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States); Irwin, Mark [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  20. Biosurfactants: promising bioactive molecules for oral-related health applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikh, Mohamed; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2016-09-01

    Biosurfactants are naturally produced molecules that demonstrate potentially useful properties such as the ability to reduce surface tensions between different phases. Besides having similar properties to their artificial chemical counterparts, they are regarded as environmental friendly, biodegradable and less toxic, which make them desirable candidates for downstream applications. The structure-activity-related properties of the biosurfactants which are directly correlated with potency of the biosurfactants as antimicrobial agents, the ability of the biosurfactants to alter surface energies and their ability to increase bioavailability are particularly what attract researchers to exploit their potential use in the oral-related health applications. Current research into biosurfactant indicates significant future potential for use in cosmetic and therapeutic oral hygiene product formulations and related medical device treatments. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.