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Sample records for demonstrated high specificity

  1. Hematoxylin and eosin stain shows a high sensitivity but sub-optimal specificity in demonstrating iron pigment in liver biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwahaibi, Nasar Yousuf; Alkhatri, Azza Sarhan; Kumar, Johanes Selva

    2015-01-01

    Perls' stain is routinely used to demonstrate iron in liver biopsies. We tested the hypothesis that it may be unnecessary in cases, where no iron or another similar pigment was seen on the routine hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained section. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of H and E stain in demonstrating iron in liver biopsies as well as to determine the possibility of replacing Perls' stain with H and E stain. Two hundred pairs of slides of liver biopsies were taken from the archival files of the Department of Pathology from 2006 to 2011. Perls' and H and E slides were independently reviewed for the presence of iron. Hundred and one cases showed the presence of iron using H and E stain. 84 of 86 cases showed positive iron using both Perls' and H and E stains. Seventeen cases were positive using H and E stain but negative with Perls'. Only two cases did not show the presence of iron using H and E stain. Ninety-seven cases were negative using both Perls' and H and E stains. H and E stain showed a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive valve, and negative predictive value of 97.67%, 85.08%, 90.5%, 83.16%, and 97.98%, respectively. We demonstrate that the H and E stain is a sensitive method to detect iron pigment in liver biopsies, particularly when present in large quantities. A negative H and E stain might obviate the need for extra Perls' staining, thus saving costs and shortening report turn-around times.

  2. Radioimmunological demonstration of DNA specific antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, P [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung

    1976-01-01

    Using /sup 125/I chemically labelled denatured (d) and native (n) DNA, specifically binding antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of Lupus erythemathodes patients by means of the Farr technique. (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ was used to separate the immunologically bound /sup 125/I-d-DNA. For /sup 125/I-n-DNA the use of a secondary antiserum for the precipitation of the primary immune complex is advantageous. The influence of antigen concentration upon the binding rate was studied. Titre determinations can be made with the proposed method.

  3. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®): a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoser, Mark J; Mansukoski, Hannu K; Morrical, Scott W; Eboigbodin, Kevin E

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA). SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO) into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  4. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®: a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hoser

    Full Text Available Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA. SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  5. Subsurface barrier demonstration test strategy and performance specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    This document was developed to help specify a major demonstration test project of subsurface barrier systems supporting the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The document focuses discussion on requirements applicable to demonstration of three subsurface barrier concepts: (1) Injected Material, (2) Cryogenic, and (3) Desiccant. Detailed requirements are provided for initial qualification of a technology proposal followed by the pre-demonstration and demonstration test requirements and specifications. Each requirement and specification is accompanied by a discussion of the rationale for it. The document also includes information on the Hanford Site tank farms and related data; the related and currently active technology development projects within the DOE's EM-50 Program; and the overall demonstration test strategy. Procurement activities and other preparations for actual demonstration testing are on hold until a decision is made regarding further development of subsurface barriers. Accordingly, this document is being issued for information only

  6. Demonstration of specific dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Masafumi; Nakao, Haruyoshi; Arao, Masayo; Sato, Bunzo; Noma, Keizo; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Kishimoto, Susumu; Mori, Shintaro; Uozumi, Toru

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenoma membranes were characterized using [ 3 H]spiperone as the radioligand. The specific [ 3 H]spiperone binding sites on prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenoma membranes were recognized as a dopamine receptor, based upon the data showing high affinity binding, saturability, specificity, temperature dependence, and reversibility. All of 14 PRL-secreting adenomas had high affinity dopamine receptors, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.85±0.11 nmol/l (mean±SEM) and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 428±48.6 fmol/mg protein. Among 14 growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas examined, 8 (57%) had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.90±0.47 nmol/l and a Bmax of 131±36.9 fmol/mg protein. Furthermore, 15 of 24 (58%) nonsecreting pituitary adenomas also had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.86±0.37 nmol/l and a Bmax of 162±26.0 fmol/mg protein. These results indicate that some GH-secreting adenomas as well as some nonsecreting pituitary adenomas contain dopamine receptors. But their affinity and number of binding sites are significantly lower (P<0.05) and fewer (P<0.001) respectively, than those in PRL-secreting adenomas. (author)

  7. Demonstration of specific dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Masafumi; Nakao, Haruyoshi; Arao, Masayo; Sato, Bunzo; Noma, Keizo; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Kishimoto, Susumu; Mori, Shintaro; Uozumi, Toru

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenoma membranes were characterized using (/sup 3/H)spiperone as the radioligand. The specific (/sup 3/H)spiperone binding sites on prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenoma membranes were recognized as a dopamine receptor, based upon the data showing high affinity binding, saturability, specificity, temperature dependence, and reversibility. All of 14 PRL-secreting adenomas had high affinity dopamine receptors, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.85 +- 0.11 nmol/l (mean+-SEM) and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 428 +- 48.6 fmol/mg protein. Among 14 growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas examined, 8 (57%) had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.90 +- 0.47 nmol/l and a Bmax of 131 +- 36.9 fmol/mg protein. Furthermore, 15 of 24 (58%) nonsecreting pituitary adenomas also had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.86 +- 0.37 nmol/l and a Bmax of 162 +- 26.0 fmol/mg protein. These results indicate that some GH-secreting adenomas as well as some nonsecreting pituitary adenomas contain dopamine receptors. But their affinity and number of binding sites are significantly lower (P<0.05) and fewer (P<0.001) respectively, than those in PRL-secreting adenomas.

  8. Scale-up of high specific activity {sup 186g}Re production using graphite-encased thick {sup 186}W targets and demonstration of an efficient target recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkin, Ethan R.; Gagnon, Katherine; Dorman, Eric [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; and others

    2017-07-01

    Production of high specific activity {sup 186g}Re is of interest for development of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. Previous studies have shown that high specific activity {sup 186g}Re can be obtained by cyclotron irradiation of enriched {sup 186}W via the {sup 186}W(d,2n){sup 186g}Re reaction, but most irradiations were conducted at low beam currents and for short durations. In this investigation, enriched {sup 186}W metal targets were irradiated at high incident deuteron beam currents to demonstrate production rates and contaminants produced when using thick targets. Full-stopping thick targets, as determined using SRIM, were prepared by uniaxial pressing of powdered natural abundance W metal or 96.86% enriched {sup 186}W metal encased between two layers of graphite flakes for target material stabilization. An assessment of structural integrity was made on each target preparation. To assess the performance of graphite-encased thick {sup 186}W metal targets, along with the impact of encasing on the separation chemistry, targets were first irradiated using a 22 MeV deuteron beam for 10 min at 10, 20, and 27 μA, with an estimated nominal deuteron energy of 18.7 MeV on the {sup 186}W target material (after energy degradation correction from top graphite layer). Gamma-ray spectrometry was performed post EOB on all targets to assess production yields and radionuclidic byproducts. The investigation also evaluated a method to recover and recycle enriched target material from a column isolation procedure. Material composition analyses of target materials, pass-through/wash solutions and recycling process isolates were conducted with SEM, FTIR, XRD, EDS and ICP-MS spectrometry. To demonstrate scaled-up production, a graphite-encased {sup 186}W target made from recycled {sup 186}W was irradiated for ∝2 h with 18.7 MeV deuterons at a beam current of 27 μA to provide 0.90 GBq (24.3 mCi) of {sup 186g}Re, decay-corrected to the end of bombardment. ICP-MS analysis of the

  9. A cheap, simple high throughput method for screening native Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitors using a recombinant Escherichia coli, its validation and demonstration of Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract effectivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Natalie; Peretz, Avi; Gerchman, Yoram

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most frequent and persistent bacterial infection worldwide, and a risk factor for active gastritis, peptic ulcers, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Although combined antibiotics treatment is effective cases of antibiotic resistance are reported at an alarming rate. The H. pylori urease enzyme is essential for the bacteria establishment in the gastric mucosa, resulting urease inhibitors being sought after as effective and specific anti- H. pylori treatment. To-date, screening assays are based mostly on the analog plant urease enzyme but difference in properties of the plant and bacterial enzymes hamper these efforts. We have developed a screening assay based on recombinant Escherichia coli expressing native H. pylori urease, and validated this assay using thiourea and a methanolic extract of Pistacia atlantica. The assay demonstrated the thiourea and the extract to be potent urease inhibitors, with the extract having strong bacteriostatic activity against clinical isolates of H. pylori, including such with antibiotic resistance. The extract was also found to be neutral toward common probiotic bacteria, supporting its specificity and compatibility with digestive system desired microflora and suggesting it could be a good source for anti-H. pylori compounds. The assay has proven to be cheap, simple and native alternative to the plant enzyme based assay and could allow for high throughput screening for new urease inhibitors and could expedite screening and development of novel, better H. pylori remedies helping us to combat this infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Patients with hepatic breast cancer metastases demonstrate highly specific profiles of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 after SIRT treatment as compared to other primary and secondary liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubnitschaja, Olga; Yeghiazaryan, Kristina; Stricker, Helena; Trog, Daniela; Schild, Hans H.; Berliner, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Patients with primary and metastatic liver malignancies represent a highly heterogeneous patient pool characterised by some of the shortest life expectancies amongst oncology patients. Investigation and better understanding of liver malignancies is an emerging field which requires high-quality multidisciplinary research and collaboration. A study of 158 patients with primary hepatic carcinomas and secondary liver metastases, altogether 15 cancer types of different origin, who underwent selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with Yttrium 90 or transarterial chemoembolisation, was undertaken in an effort to detect distinguishing features with respect to activity profiles of both blood matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9). Noteworthy, stratification of all hepatic cancer groups with respect to MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities revealed characteristic patterns specifically in patients with hepatic breast cancer metastases who had undergone SIRT. In contrast to all other groups, these patients demonstrated well-consolidated profiles of both MMPs, reflecting a common feature, namely an immediate and durable increase of their activity after the SIRT treatment. Although the total number of patients in the breast cancer group is relatively small (15 patients), since increased activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 are well known prognostic factors for poor outcomes of oncologic patients, the significance and clear group-specificity (from 15 ones investigated here) of this previously unanticipated finding requires particular attention and further investigations. Particularly important is to determine, whether this increase of the metalloproteinase activity was provoked by SIRT, as well as whether special selection criteria are required for patients with breast cancer metastases to the liver who are being considered for SIRT. It is recommended that a more focused, multidisciplinary and large-scaled investigations of the possible adverse effects of SIRT in patients with advanced

  11. Molecular IgV(H) analysis demonstrates highly somatic mutated B cells in synovialitis of osteoarthritis: a degenerative disease is associated with a specific, not locally generated immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, V; Hensel, F; Kim, H J; Souto Carneiro, M M; Starostik, P; Ristow, G; König, A; Vollmers, H P; Müller-Hermelink, H K

    1999-11-01

    In osteoarthritis (OA), the synovial tissue exhibits a nonfollicular inflammatory infiltration with a characteristic arrangement of lymphocytes and plasma cells. These arrangements are either small perivascular aggregates with plasma cells surrounding the lymphocytes or small groups of plasma cells, located in the vicinity of small blood vessels. These patterns suggest that B lymphocytes directly differentiate into plasma cells. To understand the B-cell response in OA, we analyzed the V(H) genes from B cells of synovial tissue of nine OA patients (average age, 71.5+/-10.5 years; six female and three male). V(H) gene repertoires were determined from RNA prepared from tissue cryosections and from DNA of single isolated B lymphocytes and plasma cells. The inflammatory infiltrate was analyzed immunohistochemically by detecting CD20, Ki-M4 (follicular dendritic cells), CD4, IgG, IgM, IgA, Ki-67, and by simultaneous demonstration of the plasma-cell-specific antigen CD138 (syndecan-1) and factor VIII. The molecular data demonstrate B cells with a high number of somatic mutations (average, 16.5 to 19.8), and high ratios of replacement to silent mutations in the small lymphocytic/plasmacellular aggregates of OA. In the tissue cryosections, the values of the sigmaR/sigmaS at the complementarity determining regions were 5.3 and 2.0 in the framework regions. For both the isolated B lymphocytes and plasma cells, the value of this ratio in the complementarity determining regions was 3.5. In the framework regions, the values of this ratio were 2.0 for the isolated B cells and 1.8 for the plasma cells. B lymphocytes and plasma cells exhibited a distribution not described thus far. Two patterns of B-cell distribution could be observed: (a) Centrally located CD20+ B and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were surrounded directly by IgG (predominantly) or IgA and IgM plasma cells. No proliferating Ki-67-positive cells and no follicular dendritic cells (germinal centers) could be detected in

  12. A survey of 17α-ethinylestradiol and mestranol residues in Hawkesbury River, Australia, using a highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrates the levels of potential biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraipong, Chatchaporn; Allan, Robin D; Li, Chunhua; Kennedy, Ivan R; Wong, Victor; Lee, Nanju Alice

    2017-10-01

    This study reports on the potential status of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and mestranol (MeEE2) residues in aquatic environments in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, based on the analysis by a specific ELISA we developed. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the EE2 hapten with a linker attached at the C3-position to direct the antibody binding towards the ring D of EE2/MeEE2. Using this approach, an ELISA highly specific to EE2 and MeEE2 was successfully developed, showing less than 3.1% cross-reactivity (% CR) with other major steroidal sex hormones and their derivatives. The assay performed with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.04 ± 0.01µg/L for both EE2 and MeEE2, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.05 ± 0.01ng/L when it was coupled with the SM2-Biobeads solid phase extraction. Prior to conducting the survey study, it was validated against the gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) method, which showed high correlation with R 2 of 0.934. Fresh surface water samples collected at different sites along Hawkesbury River in New South Wales (NSW) were analyzed for the EE2/ MeEE2 residues using the developed ELISA. The EE2/MeEE2 levels were found to range between 4.1 and 8.3ng/L in Emigrant Creek, NSW, where the primary activity was macadamia plantation, and higher levels between 15 and 29ng/L in South Creek, NSW, Greater Western Sydney at sites upstream and downstream of the municipal sewage treatment plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources: a nominal 300 Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28 Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt (kW) discharge power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300 to 500 Volts (V) to the thruster. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall effect thruster. The performance of the unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97%. The unit was also tested with a 12.5kW Hall effect thruster to verify compatibility and output filter specifications. With space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power devices, this would provide a design solution to address the need for high power electric propulsion systems.

  14. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined

  15. Demonstration of specific binding sites for 3H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol on human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitabchi, A.E.; Wimalasena, J.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated specific binding sites for 3 H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol ( 3 H-d alpha T) in membranes of rat adrenal cells. As tocopherol deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility of red blood cells to hemolysis, we investigated tocopherol binding sites in human RBCs. Erythrocytes were found to have specific binding sites for 3 H-d alpha T that exhibited saturability and time and cell-concentration dependence as well as reversibility of binding. Kinetic studies of binding demonstrated two binding sites--one with high affinity (Ka of 2.6 x 10(7) M-1), low capacity (7,600 sites per cell) and the other with low affinity (1.2 x 10(6) M-1), high capacity (150,000 sites per cell). In order to localize the binding sites further, RBCs were fractionated and greater than 90% of the tocopherol binding was located in the membranes. Similar to the findings in intact RBCs, the membranes exhibited two binding sites with a respective Ka of 3.3 x 10(7) M-1 and 1.5 x 10(6) M-1. Specificity data for binding demonstrated 10% binding for RRR-gamma-tocopherol, but not other tocopherol analog exhibited competition for 3 H-d alpha T binding sites. Instability data suggested a protein nature for these binding sites. Preliminary studies on Triton X-100 solubilized fractions resolved the binding sites to a major component with an Mr of 65,000 and a minor component with an Mr of 125,000. We conclude that human erythrocyte membranes contain specific binding sites for RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These sites may be of physiologic significance in the function of tocopherol on the red blood cell membrane

  16. Ultra-high density peptide arrays demonstrate unique patient-specific IgE and IgG4 epitope patterns for peanut allergens that persist over multiple years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, A.; Hansen, Christian Skjødt; Eiwegger, T.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians are seeing a growing number of cashew nut allergic patients. One of the peculiarities of this allergy is that a minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause severe allergic reactions, suggesting high potency of the allergen comparable to other tree nuts and peanuts.The double blind...

  17. Rapid discovery of peptide capture candidates with demonstrated specificity for structurally similar toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkes, Deborah A.; Hurley, Margaret M.; Coppock, Matthew B.; Farrell, Mikella E.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2016-05-01

    Peptides have emerged as viable alternatives to antibodies for molecular-based sensing due to their similarity in recognition ability despite their relative structural simplicity. Various methods for peptide capture reagent discovery exist, including phage display, yeast display, and bacterial display. One of the primary advantages of peptide discovery by bacterial display technology is the speed to candidate peptide capture agent, due to both rapid growth of bacteria and direct utilization of the sorted cells displaying each individual peptide for the subsequent round of biopanning. We have previously isolated peptide affinity reagents towards protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis using a commercially available automated magnetic sorting platform with improved enrichment as compared to manual magnetic sorting. In this work, we focus on adapting our automated biopanning method to a more challenging sort, to demonstrate the specificity possible with peptide capture agents. This was achieved using non-toxic, recombinant variants of ricin and abrin, RiVax and abrax, respectively, which are structurally similar Type II ribosomal inactivating proteins with significant sequence homology. After only two rounds of biopanning, enrichment of peptide capture candidates binding abrax but not RiVax was achieved as demonstrated by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) studies. Further sorting optimization included negative sorting against RiVax, proper selection of autoMACS programs for specific sorting rounds, and using freshly made buffer and freshly thawed protein target for each round of biopanning for continued enrichment over all four rounds. Most of the resulting candidates from biopanning for abrax binding peptides were able to bind abrax but not RiVax, demonstrating that short peptide sequences can be highly specific even at this early discovery stage.

  18. 40 CFR 53.51 - Demonstration of compliance with design specifications and manufacturing and test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 § 53.51 Demonstration of... standard specification 8625F, Type II, Class I (reference 4 in appendix A of this subpart) in the same way... specifications and manufacturing and test requirements. 53.51 Section 53.51 Protection of Environment...

  19. Hardware demonstration of high-speed networks for satellite applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, Jonathon W.; Lee, David S.

    2008-09-01

    This report documents the implementation results of a hardware demonstration utilizing the Serial RapidIO{trademark} and SpaceWire protocols that was funded by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL's) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) office. This demonstration was one of the activities in the Modeling and Design of High-Speed Networks for Satellite Applications LDRD. This effort has demonstrated the transport of application layer packets across both RapidIO and SpaceWire networks to a common downlink destination using small topologies comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf and custom devices. The RapidFET and NEX-SRIO debug and verification tools were instrumental in the successful implementation of the RapidIO hardware demonstration. The SpaceWire hardware demonstration successfully demonstrated the transfer and routing of application data packets between multiple nodes and also was able reprogram remote nodes using configuration bitfiles transmitted over the network, a key feature proposed in node-based architectures (NBAs). Although a much larger network (at least 18 to 27 nodes) would be required to fully verify the design for use in a real-world application, this demonstration has shown that both RapidIO and SpaceWire are capable of routing application packets across a network to a common downlink node, illustrating their potential use in real-world NBAs.

  20. Demonstration of deterministic and high fidelity squeezing of quantum information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshikawa, J-I.; Hayashi, T-; Akiyama, T.

    2007-01-01

    , and an ancillary squeezed vacuum state, thus direct interaction between a strong pump and the quantum state is circumvented. We demonstrate three different squeezing levels for a coherent state input. This scheme is highly suitable for the fault-tolerant squeezing transformation in a continuous variable quantum...... computer....

  1. Quantified safety objectives in high technology: Meaning and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.F.; Gilby, E.; Chicken, J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview and trends-analysis is given of the types of quantified criteria and objectives which are presently applied or envisaged and discussed in Europe in the nuclear application, more specifically Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), and in non-nuclear applications, more specifically in the chemical and petrochemical process industry. Some comparative deductions are made. Attention is paid to the similarities or discrepancies between such criteria and objectives and to problems associated with the demonstration that they are implemented. The role of cost-effectiveness of Risk deduction is briefly discussed and mention made of a search made into combining the technical, economic and socio-political factors playing a role in Risk acceptance

  2. The demonstration of the auditory ossicles by high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.A.S.; Boulay, G.H. du; Phelps, P.D.; Pullicino, P.

    1979-01-01

    The high resolution CT scanning system introduced by EMI in 1978 has added a new dimension to computerised tomography in otology. The apparatus used for this study was an EMI CT 5005 body scanner adapted for head and neck scanning and incorporating a high resolution facility. The latter has proved most advantageous in areas of relatively high differential absorption, so that its application to the demonstration of abnormalities in the petrous temporal bone, and in particular middle ear disease, has been very rewarding. Traumatic ossicular disruptions may now be demonstrated and the high contrast of CT often shows them better than conventional hypocycloidal tomography. The stapes is also better visualised and congenital abnormalities of its superstructure have been recorded. These studies have been achieved with a very acceptable level of radiation to the eye, lens and cornea and the technique is clearly a rival to conventional pluridirectional tomography in the assessment of the petrous temporal bone. With further design improvements high resolution CT could completely replace existing techniques. (orig.) [de

  3. Demonstration of a specific C3a receptor on guinea pig platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Y.; Hugli, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Guinea pig platelets reportedly contain receptors specific for the anaphylatoxin C3a based on both ligand-binding studies and functional responses. A portion of the human 125I-C3a that binds to guinea pig platelets is competitively displaced by excess unlabeled C3a; however, the majority of ligand uptake was nonspecific. Uptake of 125I-C3a by guinea pig platelets is maximal in 1 min, and stimulation of guinea pig platelets by thrombin, ADP, or the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 showed little influence on binding of the ligand. Scatchard analysis indicated that approximately 1200 binding sites for C3a exist per cell with an estimated Kd of 8 x 10(-10) M. Human C3a des Arg also binds to guinea pig platelets, but Scatchard analysis indicated that no specific binding occurred. Because the ligand-binding studies were complicated by high levels of nonspecific uptake, we attempted to chemically cross-link the C3a molecule to a specific component on the platelet surface. Cross-linkage of 125I-C3a to guinea pig platelets with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate revealed radioactive complexes at 105,000 and 115,000 m.w. on SDS-PAGE gels by autoradiographic analysis. In the presence of excess unlabeled C3a, complex formation was inhibited. No cross-linkage could be demonstrated between the inactive 125I-C3a des Arg and the putative C3a-R on guinea pig platelets. Human C3a, but not C3a des Arg induces serotonin release and aggregation of the guinea pig platelets. Human C3a was unable to induce either serotonin release or promote aggregation of human platelets. Uptake of human 125I-C3a by human platelets was not saturable, and Scatchard analysis was inconclusive. Attempts to cross-link 125I-C3a to components on the surface of human platelets also failed to reveal a ligand-receptor complex. Therefore, we conclude that guinea pig platelets have specific surface receptors to C3a and that human platelets appear devoid of receptors to the anaphylatoxin

  4. 76 FR 24831 - Site-Specific Analyses for Demonstrating Compliance With Subpart C Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ...-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to conduct site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance... public health and safety, these amendments would enhance the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste... would be to enhance the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The NRC is also proposing...

  5. Specific experiments carried out in Germany in order to demonstrate the safety of existing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutzik, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    Specific experiments are carried out in Germany in order to demonstrate the safety of existing NPPs. HDR research program includes operational loads testing (pressure test, pressure and temperature test, thermal shock, fatigue); extreme loads (earthquake, aircraft crash, external explosion); internal emergency loads (blowdown, hydrogen combustion, fire, thermal shock, water hammer, condensation loads)

  6. Site-Specific Analyses for Demonstrating Compliance with 10 CFR 61 Performance Objectives - 12179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, C.J.; Esh, D.W.; Yadav, P.; Carrera, A.G. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend its regulations at 10 CFR Part 61 to require low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to conduct site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives in Subpart C. The amendments would require licensees to conduct site-specific analyses for protection of the public and inadvertent intruders as well as analyses for long-lived waste. The amendments would ensure protection of public health and safety, while providing flexibility to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives, for current and potential future waste streams. NRC staff intends to submit proposed rule language and associated regulatory basis to the Commission for its approval in early 2012. The NRC staff also intends to develop associated guidance to accompany any proposed amendments. The guidance is intended to supplement existing low-level radioactive waste guidance on issues pertinent to conducting site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. The guidance will facilitate implementation of the proposed amendments by licensees and assist competent regulatory authorities in reviewing the site-specific analyses. Specifically, the guidance provides staff recommendations on general considerations for the site-specific analyses, modeling issues for assessments to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives including the performance assessment, intruder assessment, stability assessment, and analyses for long-lived waste. This paper describes the technical basis for changes to the rule language and the proposed guidance associated with implementation of the rule language. The NRC staff, per Commission direction, intends to propose amendments to 10 CFR Part 61 to require licensees to conduct site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance with performance objectives for the protection of public health and the environment. The amendments would require a

  7. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  8. R and D toward highly repetitive laser fusion demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Nakahiro; Matsukado, Koji; Watari, Takeshi; Sekine, Takashi; Takeuchi, Yasuki; Kawashima, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Hamamatsu Photonics conducts research on a unique continuous neutron generation method by integrating and utilizing elemental technologies such as laser, target, and measurement for laser nuclear fusion research. In addition, in collaboration with the Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Toyota Motor Corporation, and others, it is conducting research on laser fusion. As a high power laser of element technology, it constructed an ultrahigh intensity laser system by combining glass slab laser KURE-I and ultrahigh intensity femtosecond laser MATSU-I equipped with titanium sapphire transmitter, and achieved a peak output of 20 TW, It plans to further increase this to 100 TW. As other element technologies, it is also considering nuclear fusion fuel - target technology and light - high energy particle measurement technology. Regarding the demonstration of continuous generation of laser fusion neutrons, it performed 100 times of continuous laser beam irradiation at 1 Hz, and actually measured the number of neutrons generated. It measured 4.5x10 4 pieces of neutrons on average (maximum 10 5 ) with a frequency of 98%. Since 100% of neutron generation should occur in principle, in the future it will be necessary to enhancing laser collecting intensity and to improve solid particle number density in order to put this process into practical use as a neutron source. (A.O.)

  9. High Flux Isotope Reactor technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This report gives technical specifications for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) on the following: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  10. Photomask specifications for high energy physics detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pindo, M

    2002-01-01

    Planar technologies used for radiation detector fabrication imply an extensive use of photomasks whose characteristics are critical in determining final detector performance. Compatibly with their manufacturing process, photomasks must satisfy the application-specific requirements dictated both by wafer manufacturers and detector final users. The design and realization of microstrip and pixel detectors, widely used in high energy physics experiments, ask for intensive scientific effort, advanced technology and important economical investments. Photomask specification definition is one of the fundamental steps to optimize detector fabrication processes and fulfill experimental requirements at the most appropriate cost.

  11. Optical Verification Laboratory Demonstration System for High Security Identification Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Bahram

    1997-01-01

    Document fraud including unauthorized duplication of identification cards and credit cards is a serious problem facing the government, banks, businesses, and consumers. In addition, counterfeit products such as computer chips, and compact discs, are arriving on our shores in great numbers. With the rapid advances in computers, CCD technology, image processing hardware and software, printers, scanners, and copiers, it is becoming increasingly easy to reproduce pictures, logos, symbols, paper currency, or patterns. These problems have stimulated an interest in research, development and publications in security technology. Some ID cards, credit cards and passports currently use holograms as a security measure to thwart copying. The holograms are inspected by the human eye. In theory, the hologram cannot be reproduced by an unauthorized person using commercially-available optical components; in practice, however, technology has advanced to the point where the holographic image can be acquired from a credit card-photographed or captured with by a CCD camera-and a new hologram synthesized using commercially-available optical components or hologram-producing equipment. Therefore, a pattern that can be read by a conventional light source and a CCD camera can be reproduced. An optical security and anti-copying device that provides significant security improvements over existing security technology was demonstrated. The system can be applied for security verification of credit cards, passports, and other IDs so that they cannot easily be reproduced. We have used a new scheme of complex phase/amplitude patterns that cannot be seen and cannot be copied by an intensity-sensitive detector such as a CCD camera. A random phase mask is bonded to a primary identification pattern which could also be phase encoded. The pattern could be a fingerprint, a picture of a face, or a signature. The proposed optical processing device is designed to identify both the random phase mask and the

  12. An emergency management demonstrator using the high level architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the issues of simulation interoperability within the emergency management training context. A prototype implementation in Java of a subset of the High Level Architecture (HLA) is described. The use of Web Browsers to provide graphical user interfaces to HLA is also investigated. (au)

  13. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide 32 Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of 32 Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of 32 Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms

  14. Specific insulin binding in bovine chromaffin cells; demonstration of preferential binding to adrenalin-storing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serck-Hanssen, G.; Soevik, O.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin binding was studied in subpopulations of bovine chromaffin cells enriched in adrenalin-producing cells (A-cells) or noradrenalin-producing cells (NA-cells). Binding of 125 I-insulin was carried out at 15 0 C for 3 hrs in the absence or presence of excess unlabeled hormone. Four fractions of cells were obtained by centrifugation on a stepwise bovine serum albumin gradient. The four fractions were all shown to bind insulin in a specific manner and the highest binding was measured in the cell layers of higher densities, containing mainly A-cells. The difference in binding of insulin to the four subpopulations of chromaffin cells seemed to be related to differences in numbers of receptors as opposed to receptor affinities. The authors conclude that bovine chromaffin cells possess high affinity binding sites for insulin and that these binding sites are mainly confined to A-cells. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  15. Prototype high voltage bushing: Configuration to its operational demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Sejal, E-mail: sshah@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sharma, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Parmar, D.; Tyagi, H.; Joshi, K.; Shishangiya, H.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Chakraborty, A. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-12-15

    High Voltage Bushing (HVB) is the key component of Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) system of ITER as it provides access to high voltage electrical, hydraulic, gas and diagnostic feedlines to the beam source with isolation from grounded vessel. HVB also provides primary vacuum confinement for the DNB system. Being Safety Important Class (SIC) component of ITER, it involves several configurational, technological and operational challenges. To ensure its operational performance & reliability, particularly electrostatic behavior, half scale down Prototype High Voltage Bushing (PHVB) is designed considering same design criteria of DNB HVB. Design optimization has been carried out followed by finite element (FE) analysis to obtain DNB HVB equivalent electric stress on different parts of PHVB, taking into account all design, manufacturing & space constraints. PHVB was tested up to 60 kV without breakdown, which validates its design for the envisaged operation of 50 kV DC. This paper presents the design of PHVB, FEA validation, manufacturing constraints, experimental layout with interfacing auxiliary systems and operational results related to functional performance.

  16. Demonstration test for transporting vitrified high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, C.; Kato, Y.; Kato, O.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the integrity of the cask against a 0.3-m free-drop test and to confirm the drop-test analytical method. 1. Test cask; The cask used in the drop test is characterized structurally as follows. (1) The Cask body is covered with a neutron absorber covered with a thin steel plate. Fins are attached between the cask body and thin steel plate. (2) The impact energy was absorbed mainly by the inelastic deformation of the neutron absorber and thin steel plate. 2. Test methods; Electric heaters were put into the package to reproduce the real cask conditions. Strains and accelerations due to the drop were measured at the drop by the strain gauges and accelerometers attached on the cask. 3. Analysis; We use the DYNA-3D and NIKE-2D codes to analyze the drop test. A half symmetrical model was applied to overall analysis to calculate the strains and accelerations at the cask body. The maximum acceleration value obtained by the overall analysis and basket model were used to statistically calculate the strains at the basket. 4. Results; The cask integrity was comfirmed through the strains and the results of He leak test. (author)

  17. MRI contrast demonstration of antigen-specific targeting with an iron-based ferritin construct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Edward G., E-mail: edward_walsh@brown.edu [Brown University, Department of Neuroscience (United States); Mills, David R. [Rhode Island Hospital/Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine (United States); Lim, Sierin; Sana, Barindra [Nanyang Technological University, Division of Bioengineering (Singapore); Brilliant, Kate E. [Rhode Island Hospital/Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine (United States); Park, William K. C. [Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (United States)

    2013-01-15

    A genetically modified ferritin has been examined for its properties as a tumor-selective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The engineered ferritin described herein was derived from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (AfFtn-AA), which stores a significantly greater quantity of iron than wild-type ferritins. Relaxivity measurements were taken at 3 Tesla of ferritin particles uniformly distributed in an agarose gel to assess relaxivities r{sub 1} and r{sub 2}. The r{sub 1} and r{sub 2} values of the uniformly distributed modified ferritin were significantly higher (r{sub 1} = 1,290 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1} and r{sub 2} = 5,740 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1}) than values observed for wild-type ferritin (e.g., horse spleen, r{sub 1} = 0.674 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1}, r{sub 2} = 95.54 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1}). The modified iron-enriched ferritin (14.5 nm diameter) was conjugated with a monoclonal antibody (10 nm length) against rat Necl-5, a cell surface glycoprotein overexpressed by many epithelial cancers. In vitro studies showed strong reactivity of the assembled nanoconjugate to transformed Necl-5 positive rat prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, MRI demonstrated a significant T{sub 2} contrast with negligible T{sub 1} effect when bound to cells. These findings highlight the utility of the modified ferritin construct as a novel MRI contrast agent that can be manipulated to target antigen-specific tissues.

  18. Bioindicator demonstrates high persistence of sulfentrazone in dry soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Coradello Lourenço

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane crop areas, the application of preemergence herbicides with long residual effect in the soil has been frequently necessary. The herbicide persistence in the soil must be high especially because of applications during the dry season of the year, after sugarcane harvest. This study aimed at estimating the sulfentrazone persistence and dissipation in dry soil using bioindicator. Five experiments were carried out, divided into two phases. In the first phase, three dose-response curves were adjusted to select the best bioindicator to be adopted in the second phase. Niger was adopted due to its lower sensibility to sulfentrazone. In the second phase, a new dose-response curve was carried out, with six doses of sulfentrazone, in order to standardize the bioindicator sensibility to sulfentrazone. At the end, another experiment with six periods of sulfentrazone persistence in dry clay soil was developed. Persistence periods were: 182, 154, 125, 98 and 30 days. The bioindicator was seeded at the application day in treated plots and control. In this experiment, the sulfentrazone dose applied was 800 g ha-1. Niger was considered a good species to estimate the sulfentrazone persistence in dry soil. The sulfentrazone phytotoxic activity was identified up to 182 days after application, and its average dissipation rate was 2.15 g ha-1 day-1, with half-life higher than 182 days.

  19. Wp specific methylation of highly proliferated LCLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Shim, Sung-Mi; Nam, Hye-Young; Kim, Joon-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee; Lee, Suman

    2007-01-01

    The epigenetic regulation of viral genes may be important for the life cycle of EBV. We determined the methylation status of three viral promoters (Wp, Cp, Qp) from EBV B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by pyrosequencing. Our pyrosequencing data showed that the CpG region of Wp was methylated, but the others were not. Interestingly, Wp methylation was increased with proliferation of LCLs. Wp methylation was as high as 74.9% in late-passage LCLs, but 25.6% in early-passage LCLs. From two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, Wp specific hypermethylation was also found (>80%). Interestingly, the expression of EBNA2 gene which located directly next to Wp was associated with its methylation. Our data suggested that Wp specific methylation may be important for the indicator of the proliferation status of LCLs, and the epigenetic viral gene regulation of EBNA2 gene by Wp should be further defined possibly with other biological processes

  20. N-tritioacetoxyphthalimide: A new high specific activity tritioacetylating reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saljoughian, M.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Than, Chit

    1996-01-01

    The authors' aim was to develop a nonvolatile, stable, and facile tritioacetylating reagent and to demonstrate its use on simple peptides. Accordingly, the authors made the synthesis of high specific activity N-(tritioacetoxy) derivatives of succinimide, phthalimide, and naphthalimide a major focus. As the preferred approach, N-(tritioacetoxy)phthalimide was prepared by radical dehalogenation of N-(iodoacetoxy)phthalimide using high specific activity tributyltin tritide. This tritiated acetylation reagent was characterized by 3 H and 1 H NMR spectroscopy and by radio-HPLC. Efficacy of the reagent was investigated by tritioacetylation of several peptides at their N-terminal amino group. 26 refs., 1 fig

  1. Four High-Visibility Enforcement Demonstration Waves in Connecticut and New York Reduce Hand-Held Phone Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The National Highway Traffic : Safety Administration initiated : distracted driving demonstration : programs in two communities : to test whether a high-visibility : enforcement (HVE) model could : reduce two specific instances : of distracted drivin...

  2. Preliminary engineering specifications for a test demonstration multilayer protective barrier cover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Gilbert, T.W.; Adams, M.R.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents preliminary engineering specifications for a test protective barrier cover system and support radiohydrology facility to be constructed at the Hanford Protective Barrier Test Facility (PBTF). Construction of this test barrier and related radiohydrology facility is part of a continuing effort to provide construction experience and performance evaluation of alternative barrier designs used for long-term isolation of disposed radioactive waste materials. Design specifications given in this report are tentative, based on interim engineering and computer simulation design efforts. Final definitive design specifications and engineering prints will be produced in FY 1986. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  3. Novel anti-Sialyl-Tn monoclonal antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates demonstrate tumor specificity and anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Jillian M; Galvao da Silva, Ana Paula; Eavarone, David A; Ghaderi, Darius; Zhang, Mai; Brady, Dane; Wicks, Joan; DeSander, Julie; Behrens, Jeff; Rueda, Bo R

    Targeted therapeutics that can differentiate between normal and malignant tumor cells represent the ideal standard for the development of a successful anti-cancer strategy. The Sialyl-Thomsen-nouveau antigen (STn or Sialyl-Tn, also known as CD175s) is rarely seen in normal adult tissues, but it is abundantly expressed in many types of human epithelial cancers. We have identified novel antibodies that specifically target with high affinity the STn glycan independent of its carrier protein, affording the potential to recognize a wider array of cancer-specific sialylated proteins. A panel of murine monoclonal anti-STn therapeutic antibodies were generated and their binding specificity and efficacy were characterized in vitro and in in vivo murine cancer models. A subset of these antibodies were conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) to generate antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). These ADCs demonstrated in vitro efficacy in STn-expressing cell lines and significant tumor growth inhibition in STn-expressing tumor xenograft cancer models with no evidence of overt toxicity.

  4. Technical specification: Mixed-oxide pellets for the light-water reactor irradiation demonstration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, B.S.

    1997-06-01

    This technical specification is a Level 2 Document as defined in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light-Water Reactor Mixed-oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan. It is patterned after the pellet specification that was prepared by Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited, for use by Los Alamos National Laboratory in fabrication of the test fuel for the Parallex Project, adjusted as necessary to reflect the differences between the Canadian uranium-deuterium reactor and light-water reactor fuels. This specification and the associated engineering drawing are to be utilized only for preparation of test fuel as outlined in the accompanying Request for Quotation and for additional testing as directed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory or the Department of Energy

  5. Demonstration using field collections that Argentina fall armyworm populations exhibit strain-specific host plant preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere of corn (maize), cotton, sorghum, and a variety of agricultural grasses and vegetable crops. Studies in the United States, the Caribbean, and Brazil demonstrated the existence of two subpopulations ...

  6. To Demonstrate the Specificity of an Enzymatic Method for Plasma Paracetamol Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to introduce biochemistry students to the specificity of an analytical method which uses an enzyme to quantitate its substrate. Includes the use of toxicity charts together with the concept of the biological half-life of a drug. (TW)

  7. Mechanisms maintaining enhancement of allografts. I. Demonstration of a specific suppressor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    DA rats treated with hyperimmune anti-PVG serum and grafted with (DA X PVG)F1 heart grafts in which graft survival was prolonged for greater than 75 d were used to examine the cellular mechanisms that maintain the state of specific unresponsiveness found in these animals. The capacity of lymphocytes from these animals to effect or inhibit graft rejection on adoptive transfer to irradiated heart-grafted hosts was tested. Spleen cell populations and the T cell subpopulation separated from spleen cells in vitro failed to restore rejection of PVG heart grafts in irradiated DA recipients but restored third party Lew graft rejection. Whole spleen cells had the capacity to suppress the ability of normal DA LNC to cause graft rejection, but T cells from spleen only delayed the restoration of rejection. LNC and recirculating T cells from rats with enhanced grafts adoptively restored PVG rejection, however. These studies show that the state of specific unresponsiveness that follows the induction of passive enhancement is dependent in part upon active suppression, which is induced or mediated by T lymphocytes. The recirculating pool of lymphocytes in these animals is not depleted of specific alloreactive cells with the capacity to initiate and effect rejection. Thus, these animals responsiveness is not like that found in transplantation tolerance induced in neonatal rats, but is, in part, due to a suppressor response that can inhibit normal alloreactive cells capacity to initiate and effect rejection

  8. Specification of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor Multi-Physics Coupling Demonstration Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemon, E. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grudzinski, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, C. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Thomas, J. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yu, Y. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This document specifies the multi-physics nuclear reactor demonstration problem using the SHARP software package developed by NEAMS. The SHARP toolset simulates the key coupled physics phenomena inside a nuclear reactor. The PROTEUS neutronics code models the neutron transport within the system, the Nek5000 computational fluid dynamics code models the fluid flow and heat transfer, and the DIABLO structural mechanics code models structural and mechanical deformation. The three codes are coupled to the MOAB mesh framework which allows feedback from neutronics, fluid mechanics, and mechanical deformation in a compatible format.

  9. Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. The meaning of a demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The ''demonstration'' of the safe management of high level radioactive waste is a prerequisite for the further development of nuclear energy. It is therefore essential to be clear about both the meaning of the term ''demonstration'' and the practical means to satisfy this request. In the complex sequence of operations necessary to the safe management of high level waste, short term activities can be directly demonstrated. For longer term activities, such as the long term isolation of radioactive waste in deep undergroung structures, demonstration must be indirect. The ''demonstration'' of deep underground disposal for high level radioactive waste involves two steps: one direct, to prove that the system could be built, operated and closed safely and at acceptable costs, and one indirect, to make a convincing evaluation of the system's performance and long term safety on the basis of predictive analyses confirmed by a body of varied technical and scienfic data, much of it deriving from experimental work. The assessment of the evidence collected from current operations, existing experience in related fields and specific research and development activities, calls for specialized scientific expertise. Uncertainties in far future situations and probabilistic events can be taken into account in a scientific assessment. Competent national authorithies will have to satisfy themselves that the proposed waste management solutions can meet long term safety objectives. An element of judgement will always be needed in determining the acceptability of a waste disposal concept. However, the level of confidence in our ability to predict the performance of waste management systems will increase as supporting evidence is collected from current research and development activities and as our predictive techniques improve

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to molluskan hemocyanin from Concholepas concholepas demonstrate common and specific epitopes among subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Harold; Moltedo, Bruno; De Ioannes, Pablo; Faunes, Fernando; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2002-10-01

    We studied the reactivity of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the hemocyanin from the Chilean marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas (CCH). This protein has been successfully used as a carrier to produce antibodies to haptens and peptides. All MAbs (13) belonging to IgG subclass exhibit dissociation constants (K(d)) from 1 x 10(-7) M to 1 x 10(-9) M. MAbs were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) using CCH treated with different procedures, including dissociation into CCH-A and CCH-B subunits, Western blot, enzymatic digestion, chemical deglycosylation, and thermal denaturation. MAbs were classified into three categories, according to subunit specificity by ELISA. The epitope distribution shows that CCH subunits display common epitopes (group I, 5 MAbs, 1H5, 2A8, 3A5, 3B3, and 3E3), as well as specific epitopes for CCH-A subunits (group II, 3 MAbs, 1B8, 4D8, and 8E5) and for CCH-B subunits (group III, 5 MAbs, 1A4, 1E4, 2H10, 3B7, and 7B4). The results can be summarized as follows: (1). six antibodies react with thermal denatured CCH, suggesting that they recognize linear epitopes, whereas seven recognize conformational epitopes; (2). oxidation of carbohydrate moieties does not affect the binding of the MAbs; (3). enzymatic digestion of CCH decreases the reactivity of all antibodies irrespective of the protease used (elastase or trypsin); (4). bringing together the above data, in addition to epitopic complementarity analysis, we identified 12 different epitopes on the CCH molecule recognized by these MAbs. The anti-CCH MAbs presented here can be useful tools to understand the subunit organization of the CCH and its complex structure, which can explain its immunogenic and immunostimulating properties in mammals.

  11. Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. A CT demonstration of a high-density lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Kazuhiro; Muramoto, Masato; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Yagishita, Saburo

    1987-08-01

    CT scan studies of the Tolosa-Hunt syndrome have seldom been reported; positive abnormal findings are especially rare. A 36-year-old man suffered from steady, boring pain behind the left eye for one year. On admission he complained of diplopia on the right lateral gaze and hypesthesea of the first and second divisions of the left trigeminal nerve. A CT scan demonstrated a slightly high-density lesion, which was homogeneously enhanced, in the left cavernous portion and the superior orbital fissure. Carotid angiograms demonstrated no abnormal finding, and the cavernous sinus venography revealed no filling of the left cavernous sinus. A left front-temporal craniotomy was performed for the purpose of biopsy. A histological examination revealed non-specific focal granulomatous pachymeningitis. He responded dramatically to systemic steroid therapy, and he became pain-free by the fourth post-operative day. This diagnosis of the Tolosa-Hunt syndrome was confirmed both clinically and etiologically; however, the CT scan after the treatment demonstrated no definitive change in the lesion. The CT scan is useful for the diagnosis of this syndrome. Considering the stage of the illness, it is possible that the high-resolution CT scan can demonstrate this lesion with an advanced technique. The clinical diagnosis is almost easy, and surgical exploration is not always necessary if there is a prompt remission upon systemic steroid therapy. However, this syndrome should be differentiated from the other causes by appropriate examinations. Some cases similar to ours, especially suspected tumors, need surgical exploration because these angiographic findings are not specific.

  12. Learning to selectively attend from context-specific attentional histories: A demonstration and some constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Matthew J C

    2016-03-01

    Multiple lines of evidence from the attention and performance literature show that attention filtering can be controlled by higher level voluntary processes and lower-level cue-driven processes (for recent reviews see Bugg, 2012; Bugg & Crump, 2012; Egner, 2008). The experiments were designed to test a general hypothesis that cue-driven control learns from context-specific histories of prior acts of selective attention. Several web-based flanker studies were conducted via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Attention filtering demands were induced by a secondary one-back memory task after each trial prompting recall of the last target or distractor letter. Blocking recall demands produced larger flanker effects for the distractor than target recall conditions. Mixing recall demands and associating them with particular stimulus-cues (location, colour, letter, and font) sometimes showed rapid, contextual control of flanker interference, and sometimes did not. The results show that subtle methodological parameters can influence whether or not contextual control is observed. More generally, the results show that contextual control phenomena can be influenced by other sources of control, including other cue-driven sources competing for control. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A multicenter study demonstrating discordant results from electronic prostate-specific antigen biochemical failure calculation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Scott G.; Pickles, Tom; Kestin, Larry; Potters, Louis; Fearn, Paul; Smith, Ryan; Pratt, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the interobserver variation of four electronic biochemical failure (bF) calculators using three bF definitions. Methods and Materials: The data of 1200 men were analyzed using the electronic bF calculators of four institutions. Three bF definitions were examined for their concordance of bF identification across the centers: the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition (ACD), the lowest prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level to date plus 2 ng/mL (L2), and a threshold of 3 ng/mL (T3). Results: Unanimous agreement regarding bF status using the ACD, L2, and T3 definitions occurred in 87.3%, 96.4%, and 92.7% of cases, respectively. Using the ACD, 63% of the variation was from one institution, which allowed the bF status to be reversed if a PSA decline was seen after bF (PSA 'bounce'). A total of 270 men had an ACD bF time variation of >2 months across the calculators, and the 5-year freedom from bF rate was 49.8-60.9%. The L2 definition had a 20.5% rate of calculated bF times; which varied by >2 months (median, 6.4; range, 2.1-75.6) and a corresponding 5-year freedom from bF rate of 55.9-61.0%. The T3 definition had a 2.0% range in the 5-year freedom from bF. Fifteen definition interpretation variations were identified. Conclusion: Reported bF results vary not only because of bF definition differences, but because of variations in how those definitions are written into computer-based calculators, with multiple interpretations most prevalent for the ACD. An algorithm to avoid misinterpretations is proposed for the L2 definition. A verification system to guarantee consistent electronic bF results requires development

  14. Myxozoan infections of caecilians demonstrate broad host specificity and indicate a link with human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Wilkinson, Mark; Gower, David J; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Holzer, Astrid S; Okamura, Beth

    2016-05-01

    Myxozoans are parasitic cnidarians that infect a wide variety of hosts. Vertebrates typically serve as intermediate hosts whereas definitive hosts are invertebrates, including annelids and bryozoans. Myxozoans are known to exploit species in two of the three extant amphibian orders (Anura: frogs and toads; Caudata: newts and salamanders). Here we use museum collections to determine, to our knowledge for the first time, whether myxozoans also exploit the third amphibian order (Gymnophiona: caecilians). Caecilians are a poorly known group of limbless amphibians, the ecologies of which range from aquatic to fully terrestrial. We examined 12 caecilian species in seven families (148 individuals total) characterised by a diversity of ecologies and life histories. Using morphological and molecular surveys, we discovered the presence of the myxozoan Cystodiscus axonis in two South American species (one of seven examined families) of aquatic caecilians - Typhlonectes natans and Typhlonectes compressicauda. All infected caecilians had been maintained in captivity in the United Kingdom prior to their preservation. Cystodiscus axonis is known from several Australian frog species and its presence in caecilians indicates a capacity for infecting highly divergent amphibian hosts. This first known report of myxozoan infections in caecilians provides evidence of a broad geographic and host range. However, the source of these infections remains unknown and could be related to exposure in South America, the U.K. or to conditions in captivity. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Procurement specification high vacuum test chamber and pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The specification establishes requirements for a high-vacuum test chamber, associated vacuum pumps, valves, controls, and instrumentation that shall be designed and fabricated for use as a test chamber for testing a closed loop Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Ground Demonstration System (GDS). The vacuum system shall include all instrumentation required for pressure measurement and control of the vacuum pumping system. A general outline of the BIPS-GDS in the vacuum chamber and the preliminary piping and instrumentation interface to the vacuum chamber are shown

  16. Immobilization of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass: Pilot scale demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a pilot scale facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility. The IDMS has successfully demonstrated, on an engineering scale (one-fifth), that simulated high level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge can be chemically treated with formic acid to adjust both its chemical and physical properties, and then blended with simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product and borosilicate glass frit to produce a melter feed which can be processed into a durable glass product. The simulated sludge, PHA and frit were blended, based on a product composition program, to optimize the loading of the waste glass as well as to minimize those components which can cause melter processing and/or glass durability problems. During all the IDMS demonstrations completed thus far, the melter feed and the resulting glass that has been produced met all the required specifications, which is very encouraging to future DWPF operations. The IDMS operations also demonstrated that the volatile components of the melter feed (e.g., mercury, nitrogen and carbon, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine, fluorine and sulfur) did not adversely affect the melter performance or the glass product

  17. Japanese HTTR program for demonstration of high temperature applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, T.; Hada, K.; Shiozawa, S.

    1997-01-01

    Construction works of the HTTR started in March 1991 in order to establish and upgrade the HTGR technology basis, to carry out innovative basic researches on high temperature engineering and to demonstrate high temperature heat utilization and application of nuclear heat. This report describes the demonstration program of high temperature heat utilization and application. (author). 2 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Curved sensors for compact high-resolution wide-field designs: prototype demonstration and optical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambion, Bertrand; Gaschet, Christophe; Behaghel, Thibault; Vandeneynde, Aurélie; Caplet, Stéphane; Gétin, Stéphane; Henry, David; Hugot, Emmanuel; Jahn, Wilfried; Lombardo, Simona; Ferrari, Marc

    2018-02-01

    Over the recent years, a huge interest has grown for curved electronics, particularly for opto-electronics systems. Curved sensors help the correction of off-axis aberrations, such as Petzval Field Curvature, astigmatism, and bring significant optical and size benefits for imaging systems. In this paper, we first describe advantages of curved sensor and associated packaging process applied on a 1/1.8'' format 1.3Mpx global shutter CMOS sensor (Teledyne EV76C560) into its standard ceramic package with a spherical radius of curvature Rc=65mm and 55mm. The mechanical limits of the die are discussed (Finite Element Modelling and experimental), and electro-optical performances are investigated. Then, based on the monocentric optical architecture, we proposed a new design, compact and with a high resolution, developed specifically for a curved image sensor including optical optimization, tolerances, assembly and optical tests. Finally, a functional prototype is presented through a benchmark approach and compared to an existing standard optical system with same performances and a x2.5 reduction of length. The finality of this work was a functional prototype demonstration on the CEA-LETI during Photonics West 2018 conference. All these experiments and optical results demonstrate the feasibility and high performances of systems with curved sensors.

  19. A highly specific test for periodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansmann, Gerrit, E-mail: gansmann@uni-bonn.de [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14–16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Complex Systems, University of Bonn, Brühler Straße 7, 53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series.

  20. A highly specific test for periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansmann, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series

  1. Demonstration-Scale High-Cell-Density Fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Cang; Zhu, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Pichia pastoris has been one of the most successful heterologous overexpression systems in generating proteins for large-scale production through high-cell-density fermentation. However, optimizing conditions of the large-scale high-cell-density fermentation for biochemistry and industrialization is usually a laborious and time-consuming process. Furthermore, it is often difficult to produce authentic proteins in large quantities, which is a major obstacle for functional and structural features analysis and industrial application. For these reasons, we have developed a protocol for efficient demonstration-scale high-cell-density fermentation of P. pastoris, which employs a new methanol-feeding strategy-biomass-stat strategy and a strategy of increased air pressure instead of pure oxygen supplement. The protocol included three typical stages of glycerol batch fermentation (initial culture phase), glycerol fed-batch fermentation (biomass accumulation phase), and methanol fed-batch fermentation (induction phase), which allows direct online-monitoring of fermentation conditions, including broth pH, temperature, DO, anti-foam generation, and feeding of glycerol and methanol. Using this protocol, production of the recombinant β-xylosidase of Lentinula edodes origin in 1000-L scale fermentation can be up to ~900 mg/L or 9.4 mg/g cells (dry cell weight, intracellular expression), with the specific production rate and average specific production of 0.1 mg/g/h and 0.081 mg/g/h, respectively. The methodology described in this protocol can be easily transferred to other systems, and eligible to scale up for a large number of proteins used in either the scientific studies or commercial purposes.

  2. Demonstration of carbohydrate-specific immunoglobulin G4 antibodies in sera of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    From a group of 92 patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, and selected on grounds of high IgG4 titers against Lol p I, sera were tested for IgG4 antibodies against the glycosylated grass pollen allergen Lol p XI. In 72 of 92 cases IgG4 antibodies were demonstrated. The N-glycan of Lol p XI

  3. Specifics of marketing strategy in the segment of high fashion

    OpenAIRE

    Butigan, Ružica; Grilec Kaurić, Alica; Ujević, Darko

    2013-01-01

    The success of high fashion designers is not only in a specificity of the products but also in specific and very well executed marketing strategy. Emphasis is placed on the design of very specific marketing program and marketing strategies that must concider all the characteristics of the high fashion market. Therefore, a scientific research problem is defined as follows: although the market of high fashion at first glance does not imply a completely different marketing approach than other fa...

  4. High-Lift Propeller Noise Prediction for a Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Jones, William T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several years, the use of electric propulsion technologies within aircraft design has received increased attention. The characteristics of electric propulsion systems open up new areas of the aircraft design space, such as the use of distributed electric propulsion (DEP). In this approach, electric motors are placed in many different locations to achieve increased efficiency through integration of the propulsion system with the airframe. Under a project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR), NASA is designing a flight demonstrator aircraft that employs many "high-lift propellers" distributed upstream of the wing leading edge and two cruise propellers (one at each wingtip). As the high-lift propellers are operational at low flight speeds (take-off/approach flight conditions), the impact of the DEP configuration on the aircraft noise signature is also an important design consideration. This paper describes efforts toward the development of a mulit-fidelity aerodynamic and acoustic methodology for DEP high-lift propeller aeroacoustic modeling. Specifically, the PAS, OVERFLOW 2, and FUN3D codes are used to predict the aerodynamic performance of a baseline high-lift propeller blade set. Blade surface pressure results from the aerodynamic predictions are then used with PSU-WOPWOP and the F1A module of the NASA second generation Aircraft NOise Prediction Program to predict the isolated high-lift propeller noise source. Comparisons of predictions indicate that general trends related to angle of attack effects at the blade passage frequency are captured well with the various codes. Results for higher harmonics of the blade passage frequency appear consistent for the CFD based methods. Conversely, evidence of the need for a study of the effects of increased azimuthal grid resolution on the PAS based results is indicated and will be pursued in future work. Overall, the results indicate that the computational

  5. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    lifetime and the potential for an all transparent display. And because carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and organics are used, CN-VFET and CN-VOLET devices are compatible with flexible displays. This dissertation describes the first ever demonstration of CN-VFETs and CN-VOLETs and relates their performance to the specific properties of the CNTs and the new device architecture. In the work that followed, the CN-VFET was systematically optimized overcoming the problems revealed in the demonstration devices. The large undesired hysteresis was decreased by 96%, the on/off ratio was improved three orders of magnitude and the operating voltages were reduced to state of the art values. Additionally, the current output per device area of the CN-VFET was demonstrated to be greater than any other low resolution patterned organic transistor by a factor of 3.9. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the CNTs induce a reorientation of the high mobility plane in small molecule organics like pentacene to coincide with the vertical direction, giving additional explanation for the large currents observed in the CN-VFET. The ability to drive high currents and potentially inexpensive fabrication may provide the solution for the AMOLED backplane problem.

  6. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively

  7. What leadership behaviors were demonstrated by the principal in a high poverty, high achieving elementary school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hayet J. Woods

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Examined through the lens of leadership, were the behaviors of a principal as perceived by stakeholders. The following themes emerged: (1 Educating the Whole Child, with the subthemes: (a providing basic needs; (b academic interventions based on achievement data; (c an emphasis on reading; (d extended academic time; and (e relationships; and (2 Synergy of Expectations, with the subthemes: (a consistent student expectations; (b increased staff accountability; and (c community involvement. The researchers found that the principal by demonstrating behaviors as a change agent, a creator of vision, and a provider of necessary support and strategies, rather than adopting numerous programs, the school personnel were able to increase and sustain academic achievement of the students of poverty as well as their peers. Implications for principal practices, along with leadership preparatory programs are significant.

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY - HIGH VOLTAGE ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high energy electron beam irradiation technology is a low temperature method for destroying complex mixtures of hazardous organic chemicals in solutions containing solids. The system consists of a computer-automated, portable electron beam accelerator and a delivery system. T...

  9. Analogue demonstration of a high temperature superconducting sigma-delta modulator with 27 GHz sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, M.G.; Hunt, B.D.; Miller, D.L.; Talvacchio, J.; Young, R.M. [Northrop Grumman Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15235-5098 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    We have successfully fabricated and tested a high temperature superconducting (HTS) sigma-delta modulator for analogue-to-digital conversion. This is the first demonstration of a GHz sampling A-to-D in HTS. The 15-junction single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuit, fabricated using an epitaxial multilayer HTS process with YBCO/Co-YBCO/YBCO edge junctions, was internally clocked at 27 GHz and used to convert a 5.01 MHz signal. The modulator demonstrated a spur-free dynamic range of more than 75 dB. Two-tone measurements with 5.01 MHz and 5.51 MHz signals demonstrated third-order intermodulation products to be lower than -59 dBc. Demonstration of a functional HTS modulator represents a significant milestone in the development of high dynamic range ADCs suitable for such applications as surveillance radar. (author)

  10. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR

  11. The management of high-level radioactive waste. A survey of demonstration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The following aspects can be only indirectly demonstrated since they involve long periods of time. They have reached the degree of demonstration described below. Prediction of the physical stability of mined cavities at ambient temperatures is well understood from mining experience in salt and hard rocks such as granite. For soft rocks, the stability will depend upon the characteristics of the backfill and structural materials which can be included in predictive models. Normal and abnormal mechanisms for migration of radionuclides from repositories have been generally identified. Which of these mechanisms are relevant for the future evolution of a repository system depends on the repository site. Techniques for closure and sealing of repositories have been demonstrated, but validation of their long-term performance is lacking. The ability to construct mathematical models that predict repository and environmental behaviour over long periods of the future is now conceptually demonstrated. Some of these models are very sophisticated, but confidence is growing in their predictions. The reliability of results has been demonstrated, in some cases, by intercomparison of different modelling techniques; however, in many instances the models need validation. Generic data in support of models may, in many respects, be adequate. More data, and therefore R and D efforts concentrating on specific sites, are required to assist in the validation of some aspects of model predictions against the real world. This is an aspect of demonstration that continues to be necessary and is being pursued

  12. Lipidomic Adaptations in White and Brown Adipose Tissue in Response to Exercise Demonstrate Molecular Species-Specific Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis J. May

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise improves whole-body metabolic health through adaptations to various tissues, including adipose tissue, but the effects of exercise training on the lipidome of white adipose tissue (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT are unknown. Here, we utilize MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics to determine the molecular signatures of exercise-induced adaptations to subcutaneous WAT (scWAT and BAT. Three weeks of exercise training decrease specific molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA, phosphatidylcholines (PC, phosphatidylethanolamines (PE, and phosphatidylserines (PS in scWAT and increase specific molecular species of PC and PE in BAT. Exercise also decreases most triacylglycerols (TAGs in scWAT and BAT. In summary, exercise-induced changes to the scWAT and BAT lipidome are highly specific to certain molecular lipid species, indicating that changes in tissue lipid content reflect selective remodeling in scWAT and BAT of both phospholipids and glycerol lipids in response to exercise training, thus providing a comprehensive resource for future studies of lipid metabolism pathways.

  13. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weger, Hans; Kodanda, Raja Tilek Meruva; Mazumdar, Anindra; Srivastava, Rajiv Ph.D.; Ebadian, M.A. Ph.D.

    2003-01-01

    Four hand-held tools were tested for failed high-level waste melter decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The forces felt by the tools during operation were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer since they will be operated by a remote manipulator. The efficiency of the tools was also recorded. Melter D and D consists of three parts: (1) glass fracturing: removing from the furnace the melted glass that can not be poured out through normal means, (2) glass cleaning: removing the thin layer of glass that has formed over the surface of the refractory material, and (3) K-3 refractory breakup: removing the K-3 refractory material. Surrogate glass, from a formula provided by the Savannah River Site, was melted in a furnace and poured into steel containers. K-3 refractory material, the same material used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, was utilized for the demonstrations. Four K-3 blocks were heated at 1150 C for two weeks with a glass layer on top to simulate the hardened glass layer on the refractory surface in the melter. Tools chosen for the demonstrations were commonly used D and D tools, which have not been tested specifically for the different aspects of melter D and D. A jackhammer and a needle gun were tested for glass fracturing; a needle gun and a rotary grinder with a diamond face wheel (diamond grinder) were tested for glass cleaning; and a jackhammer, diamond grinder, and a circular saw with a diamond blade were tested for refractory breakup. The needle gun was not capable of removing or fracturing the surrogate glass. The diamond grinder only had a removal rate of 3.0 x 10-4 kg/s for K-3 refractory breakup and needed to be held firmly against the material. However, the diamond grinder was effective for glass cleaning, with a removal rate of 3.9 cm2/s. The jackhammer was successful in fracturing glass and breaking up the K-3 refractory block. The jackhammer had a glass-fracturing rate of 0.40 kg/s. The jackhammer split the K-3 refractory

  14. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  15. A perspective on demonstrating compliance with standards for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Smith, E.D.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    A perspective which the authors have developed on the problem of demonstrating that geologic repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes will comply with system performance standards is discussed. Their viewpoint arises from a concern that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed environmental standard for high-level waste disposal appears to require demonstrations of compliance which are incompatible with scientific knowledge; i.e., the standard does not take into account the likely importance of unquantifiable and unresolvable uncertainty in repository performance-assessment models. A general approach to demonstrations of compliance is proposed which is thought to be compatible with the kinds of technical information that will be available for judging long-term repository performance. The authors' approach emphasizes the importance of investigating alternative conceptual models and lines of reasoning in evaluating repository performance and the importance of subjective scientific judgment in the decision-making process. (Auth.)

  16. Experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2015-10-21

    Quantum coherence and entanglement, which are essential resources for quantum information, are often degraded and lost due to decoherence. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction. By unitarily switching the initial qubit encoding to another, which is insensitive to particular forms of decoherence, we have demonstrated that it is possible to avoid the effect of decoherence completely. In particular, we demonstrate high-fidelity distribution of photonic polarization entanglement over quantum channels with two types of decoherence, amplitude damping and polarization-mode dispersion, via qubit transduction between polarization qubits and dual-rail qubits. These results represent a significant breakthrough in quantum communication over decoherence channels as the protocol is input-state independent, requires no ancillary photons and symmetries, and has near-unity success probability.

  17. Perspective on demonstrations of compliance for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Smith, E.D.; O'Kelly, G.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses a perspective which we have developed on the problem of demonstrating compliance of high-level waste repositories with system performance standards. Our viewpoint arises from two primary concerns - first, that the US Environmental Protection Agency's proposed environmental standard for high-level waste disposal appears to require demonstrations of compliance which are incompatible with scientific knowledge, and, second, that the federal agencies involved in the licensing process may not appreciate fully the extent of unquantifiable and uresolvable uncertainty in repository performance-assessment models. We propose a general approach to demonstrations of compliance which we feel is compatible with the kinds of technical information that will be available for judging repository performance. Our approach emphasizes the importance of investigation alternative conceptual models and lines of reasoning in evaluating repository performance and the importance of subjective scientific judgment in the desision-making process. 24 references, 1 figure

  18. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm

    2012-01-01

    -speed regimes very good correlation with reference measurements was found. Furthermore different staring directions were tested and taking a simple geometrical correction into account very good correlation was again found. These measurements all demonstrate the high accuracy of the lidar and indicate a possible...

  19. A Simple Demonstration of the High-Temperature Electrical Conductivity of Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverina, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We usually think of glass as a good electrical insulator; this, however, is not always the case. There are several ways to show that glass becomes conducting at high temperatures, but the following approach, devised by Brown University demonstration manager Gerald Zani, may be one of the simplest to perform.

  20. Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented

  1. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  2. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol

  3. Development and characterization of high-efficiency, high-specific impulse xenon Hall thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard Robert

    This dissertation presents research aimed at extending the efficient operation of 1600 s specific impulse Hall thruster technology to the 2000--3000 s range. While recent studies of commercially developed Hall thrusters demonstrated greater than 4000 s specific impulse, maximum efficiency occurred at less than 3000 s. It was hypothesized that the efficiency maximum resulted as a consequence of modern magnetic field designs, optimized for 1600 s, which were unsuitable at high-specific impulse. Motivated by the industry efforts and mission studies, the aim of this research was to develop and characterize xenon Hall thrusters capable of both high-specific impulse and high-efficiency operation. The research divided into development and characterization phases. During the development phase, the laboratory-model NASA-173M Hall thrusters were designed with plasma lens magnetic field topographies and their performance and plasma characteristics were evaluated. Experiments with the NASA-173M version 1 (v1) validated the plasma lens design by showing how changing the magnetic field topography at high-specific impulse improved efficiency. Experiments with the NASA-173M version 2 (v2) showed there was a minimum current density and optimum magnetic field topography at which efficiency monotonically increased with voltage. Between 300--1000 V, total specific impulse and total efficiency of the NASA-173Mv2 operating at 10 mg/s ranged from 1600--3400 s and 51--61%, respectively. Comparison of the thrusters showed that efficiency can be optimized for specific impulse by varying the plasma lens design. During the characterization phase, additional plasma properties of the NASA-173Mv2 were measured and a performance model was derived accounting for a multiply-charged, partially-ionized plasma. Results from the model based on experimental data showed how efficient operation at high-specific impulse was enabled through regulation of the electron current with the magnetic field. The

  4. Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, I.; Trebes, J.E.; Brase, J.M.; Yorkey, T.J.; Levesque, R.; Szoke, H.; Anderson, E.H.; Jacobsen, C.

    1992-01-01

    Tomographic x-ray holography may make possible the imaging of biological objects at high resolution in three dimensions. We performed a demonstration experiment with soft x-rays to explore the feasibility of this technique. Coherent 3.2-nm undulator radiation was used to record Fourier transform holograms of a microfabricated test object from various illumination angles. The holograms were numerically reconstructed according to the principles of diffraction tomography, yielding images of the object that are well resolved in three dimensions

  5. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    count rate of Bob’s detectors. In this detector-limited regime , it is advantageous to increase M to encode as much information as possible in each...High- rate field demonstration of large-alphabet quantum key distribution Catherine Lee,1, 2 Darius Bunandar,1 Zheshen Zhang,1 Gregory R. Steinbrecher...October 12, 2016) 2 Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables secure symmetric key exchange for information-theoretically secure com- munication via one-time

  6. A demonstration experiment of steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Pitch, M.; Nichols, R.T.

    1990-08-01

    A steam blowdown test was performed at the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility to test the steam supply system and burst diaphragm arrangement that will be used in subsequent Surtsey Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments. Following successful completion of the steam blowdown test, the HIPS-10S (High-Pressure Melt Streaming) experiment was conducted to demonstrate that the technology to perform steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments has been successfully developed. In addition, the HIPS-10S experiment was used to assess techniques and instrumentation design to create the proper timing of events in HPME experiments. This document discusses the results of this test

  7. Post Irradiation Examination Plan for High-Burnup Demonstration Project Sister Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Rose [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This test plan describes the experimental work to be implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) to characterize high burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in conjunction with the High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project and serves to coordinate and integrate the multi-year experimental program to collect and develop data regarding the continued storage and eventual transport of HBU (i.e., >45 GWd/MTU) SNF. The work scope involves the development, performance, technical integration, and oversight of measurements and collection of relevant data, guided by analyses and demonstration of need.

  8. Human face recognition ability is specific and highly heritable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura; Chabris, Christopher F; Chatterjee, Garga; Williams, Mark; Loken, Eric; Nakayama, Ken; Duchaine, Bradley

    2010-03-16

    Compared with notable successes in the genetics of basic sensory transduction, progress on the genetics of higher level perception and cognition has been limited. We propose that investigating specific cognitive abilities with well-defined neural substrates, such as face recognition, may yield additional insights. In a twin study of face recognition, we found that the correlation of scores between monozygotic twins (0.70) was more than double the dizygotic twin correlation (0.29), evidence for a high genetic contribution to face recognition ability. Low correlations between face recognition scores and visual and verbal recognition scores indicate that both face recognition ability itself and its genetic basis are largely attributable to face-specific mechanisms. The present results therefore identify an unusual phenomenon: a highly specific cognitive ability that is highly heritable. Our results establish a clear genetic basis for face recognition, opening this intensively studied and socially advantageous cognitive trait to genetic investigation.

  9. Demonstration of a High Open-Circuit Voltage GaN Betavoltaic Microbattery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Zai-Jun; San Hai-Sheng; Chen Xu-Yuan; Liu Bo; Feng Zhi-Hong

    2011-01-01

    A high open-circuit voltage betavoltaic microbattery based on a GaN p-i-n diode is demonstrated. Under the irradiation of a 4×4 mm 2 planar solid 63 Ni source with an activity of 2 mCi, the open-circuit voltage V oc of the fabricated single 2×2mm 2 cell reaches as high as 1.62 V, the short-circuit current density J sc is measured to be 16nA/cm 2 . The microbattery has a fill factor of 55%, and the energy conversion efficiency of beta radiation into electricity reaches to 1.13%. The results suggest that GaN is a highly promising potential candidate for long-life betavoltaic microbatteries used as power supplies for microelectromechanical system devices. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Demonstration of cathode emittance dominated high bunch charge beams in a DC gun-based photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliford, Colwyn, E-mail: cg248@cornell.edu; Bartnik, Adam, E-mail: acb20@cornell.edu; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Cultrera, Luca [CLASSE, Cornell University, 161 Synchrotron Drive Ithaca, New York 14853-8001 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    We present the results of transverse emittance and longitudinal current profile measurements of high bunch charge (≥100 pC) beams produced in the DC gun-based Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector. In particular, we show that the cathode thermal and core beam emittances dominate the final 95% and core emittances measured at 9–9.5 MeV. Additionally, we demonstrate excellent agreement between optimized 3D space charge simulations and measurement, and show that the quality of the transverse laser distribution limits the optimal simulated and measured emittances. These results, previously thought achievable only with RF guns, demonstrate that DC gun based photoinjectors are capable of delivering beams with sufficient single bunch charge and beam quality suitable for many current and next generation accelerator projects such as Energy Recovery Linacs and Free Electron Lasers.

  11. Synergy of Two Highly Specific Biomolecular Recognition Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlersen, Maria; Christensen, Niels Johan; Sørensen, Kasper K

    2018-01-01

    Two highly specific biomolecular recognition events, nucleic acid duplex hybridization and DNA-peptide recognition in the minor groove, were coalesced in a miniature ensemble for the first time by covalently attaching a natural AT-hook peptide motif to nucleic acid duplexes via a 2'-amino......-LNA scaffold. A combination of molecular dynamics simulations and ultraviolet thermal denaturation studies revealed high sequence-specific affinity of the peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs) when binding to complementary DNA strands, leveraging the bioinformation encrypted in the minor groove of DNA...

  12. Experimental demonstration of a compact epithermal neutron source based on a high power laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfayzi, S. R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Raspino, D.; Ansell, S.; Wilson, L. A.; Armstrong, C.; Butler, N. M. H.; Clarke, R. J.; Higginson, A.; Kelleher, J.; Murphy, C. D.; Notley, M.; Rusby, D. R.; Schooneveld, E.; Borghesi, M.; McKenna, P.; Rhodes, N. J.; Neely, D.; Brenner, C. M.; Kar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Epithermal neutrons from pulsed-spallation sources have revolutionised neutron science allowing scientists to acquire new insight into the structure and properties of matter. Here, we demonstrate that laser driven fast (˜MeV) neutrons can be efficiently moderated to epithermal energies with intrinsically short burst durations. In a proof-of-principle experiment using a 100 TW laser, a significant epithermal neutron flux of the order of 105 n/sr/pulse in the energy range of 0.5-300 eV was measured, produced by a compact moderator deployed downstream of the laser-driven fast neutron source. The moderator used in the campaign was specifically designed, by the help of MCNPX simulations, for an efficient and directional moderation of the fast neutron spectrum produced by a laser driven source.

  13. Higs-instrument: design and demonstration of a high performance gas concentration imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlaan, A. L.; Klop, W. A.; Visser, H.; van Brug, H.; Human, J.

    2017-09-01

    Climate change and environmental conditions are high on the political agenda of international governments. Laws and regulations are being setup all around the world to improve the air quality and to reduce the impact. The growth of a number of trace gasses, including CO2, Methane and NOx are especially interesting due to their environmental impact. The regulations made are being based on both models and measurements of the trend of those trace gases over the years. Now the regulations are in place also enforcement and therewith measurements become more and more important. Instruments enabling high spectral and spatial resolution as well as high accurate measurements of trace gases are required to deliver the necessary inputs. Nowadays those measurements are usually performed by space based spectrometers. The requirement for high spectral resolution and measurement accuracy significantly increases the size of the instruments. As a result the instrument and satellite becomes very expensive to develop and to launch. Specialized instruments with a small volume and the required performance will offer significant advantages in both cost and performance. Huib's Innovative Gas Sensor (HIGS, named after its inventor Huib Visser), currently being developed at TNO is an instrument that achieves exactly that. Designed to measure only a single gas concentration, opposed to deriving it from a spectrum, it achieves high performance within a small design volume. The instrument enables instantaneous imaging of the gas distribution of the selected gas. An instrument demonstrator has been developed for NO2 detection. Laboratory measurements proved the measurement technique to be successful. An on-sky measurement campaign is in preparation. This paper addresses both the instrument design as well as the demonstrated performances.

  14. In-Space Demonstration of High Performance Green Propulsion and its Impact on Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Anflo, Kjell; Crowe, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the pre-launch activities and the results from the in-space demonstration of a novel propulsion system on the PRISMA main satellite, using a “Green” monopropellant. This propellant is a storable ADN-based monopropellant blend (i.e. LMP-103S). The basic mission for the High Performance Green Propulsion System (HPGP) has been successfully completed and all primary objectives of TRL 7 have been met. The HPGP technology is now flight proven and ready for implementation on fu...

  15. Demonstrating multibit magnetic memory in the Fe8 high-spin molecule by muon spin rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Oren; Keren, Amit; Maegawa, Satoru; Ueda, Miki; Amato, Alex; Baines, Chris

    2005-09-01

    We develop a method to detect the quantum nature of high-spin molecules using muon spin rotation and a three-step field cycle ending always with the same field. We use this method to demonstrate that the Fe8 molecule can remember six (possibly eight) different histories (bits). A wide range of fields can be used to write a particular bit, and the information is stored in discrete states. Therefore, Fe8 can be used as a model compound for multibit magnetic memory. Our experiment also paves the way for magnetic quantum tunneling detection in films.

  16. Highly specific expression of luciferase gene in lungs of naive nude mice directed by prostate-specific antigen promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongwei; Li Jinzhong; Helm, Gregory A.; Pan Dongfeng

    2005-01-01

    PSA promoter has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy in prostate cancer models. Characterization of foreign gene overexpression in normal animals elicited by PSA promoter should help evaluate therapy safety. Here we constructed an adenovirus vector (AdPSA-Luc), containing firefly luciferase gene under the control of the 5837 bp long prostate-specific antigen promoter. A charge coupled device video camera was used to non-invasively image expression of firefly luciferase in nude mice on days 3, 7, 11 after injection of 2 x 10 9 PFU of AdPSA-Luc virus via tail vein. The result showed highly specific expression of the luciferase gene in lungs of mice from day 7. The finding indicates the potential limitations of the suicide gene therapy of prostate cancer based on selectivity of PSA promoter. By contrary, it has encouraging implications for further development of vectors via PSA promoter to enable gene therapy for pulmonary diseases

  17. High Specificity of Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR Analysis for MGMT Promoter Hypermethylation Detection in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Parrella

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal brain tissue from 28 individuals and 50 glioma samples were analyzed by real-time Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR (QMSP. Data from this analysis were compared with results obtained on the same samples by MSP. QMSP analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference in both methylation level (P=.000009 Mann Whitney Test and frequencies (P=.0000007, Z-test in tumour samples as compared with normal brain tissues. Although QMSP and MSP showed similar sensitivity, the specificity of QMSP analysis was significantly higher (93%; CI95%: 84%–100% as compared with MSP (64%; 95%CI: 46%–82%. Our results suggest that QMSP analysis may represent a powerful tool to identify glioma patients that will benefit from alkylating agents chemotherapy.

  18. Is it possible to demonstrate compliance with the regulations for high-level-waste repositories?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    The regulations that currently govern repositories for spent fuel and high-level waste require demonstrations that are sometimes described as impossible to make. To make them will require an understanding of the current and the future phenomena at repository sites; it will also require credible estimates of the probabilities that the phenomena will occur in the distant future. Experts in many fields emdash earth sciences, statistics, numerical modeling, and the law emdash have questioned whether any amount of data collection can allow modelers to meet these requirements with enough confidence to satisfy the regulators. In recent years some performance assessments have begun to shed light on this question because they use results of actual site investigations. Although these studies do not settle the question definitively, a review of a recent total-system assessment suggests that compliance may be possible to demonstrate. The review also suggests, however, that the demonstration can be only at the ''reasonable'' levels of assurance mentioned, but not defined, in the regulations

  19. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1991-01-01

    This report is the so-called Synthesis report 1985-1989 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the ASSE salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt-deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos S.A (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated and after some delays in the licensing procedure, the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 32 refs; 76 figs., 11 tabs

  20. Experimental demonstration of producing high resolution zone plates by spatial-frequency multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.B.; Howells, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    In an earlier publication, the possibility of producing high resolution zone plates for x-ray applications by spatial-frequency multiplication was analyzed theoretically. The theory predicted that for a daughter zone plate generated from the interference of mth and nth diffraction orders of a parent zone plate, its primary focal spot size and focal length are one (m + n)th of their counterparts of the parent zone plate, respectively. It was also shown that a zone plate with the outermost zone width of as small as 13.8 nm might be produced by this technique. In this paper, we report an experiment which we carried out with laser light (λ = 4166A) for demonstrating this technique. In addition, an outlook for producing high resolution zone plates for x-ray application is briefly discussed

  1. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1991-01-01

    This publication is the interim report 1988-89 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 20 refs.; 92 figs.; 14 tabs

  2. Demonstration of a transient high gain nickel-like xenon ion x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Peixiang; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Maki

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a high gain nickel-like xenon ion x-ray laser using a picosecond-laser-irradiated gas puff target. The elongated x-ray laser plasma column was produced by irradiating the gas puff target with line-focused double picosecond laser pulses with a total energy of 18 J in a travelling-wave excitation scheme. Strong lasing at 9.98 nm was observed, and a high gain coefficient of 17.4 cm -1 was measured on the transient collisionally excited 4d-4p, J=0-1 transition for nickel-like xenon ion with target lengths up to 0.45 cm. A weak nickel-like lasing line at a shorter wavelength of 9.64 nm was also observed with a gain coefficient of 5.9 cm -1 . (author)

  3. Intense neutron source: high-voltage power supply specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the need for and sets forth the electrical, mechanical and safety specifications for a high-voltage power supply to be used with the intense neutron source. It contains sufficient information for a supplier to bid on such a power supply

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…

  5. CD1b-mycolic acid tetramers demonstrate T-cell fine specificity for mycobacterial lipid tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rhijn, Ildiko; Iwany, Sarah K; Fodran, Peter; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Gapin, Laurent; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Moody, D Branch

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesizes a thick cell wall comprised of mycolic acids (MA), which are foreign antigens for human T cells. T-cell clones from multiple donors were used to determine the fine specificity of MA recognition by human αβ T cells. Most CD1-presented lipid antigens contain

  6. Comparative analysis of species-based specificity in Sr 90 and Cs 137 accumulation demonstrated by ligneous plant forest communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinovich, B.S.; Vlasov, V.K.; Sak, M.M.; Golushko, R.M.; Afmogenov, A.M.; Kirykhin, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The authors provided field-proven study of Sr 90 and Cs 137 absorption activity demonstrated by Pinus silvestris L.; Piceae abies (L.) Roth.; Quercus rubra L.; Acer platanoides L.; Betula pendula Roth.; Tilia cordata Mill, under identical habitat conditions. The above plants were examined after 5-year growth period on radionuclide-contaminated soil. To a great extent, such parameters as radionuclide accumulation in experimental plants and accumulation activity were determined by the plants' bio-ecological properties. (Authors)

  7. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.

    1990-04-01

    The HAW-project plants the testwise emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters containing Cs-137 and Sr-90 at the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine for a testing period of approximately five years. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in geological salt formations. During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated, the measuring equipment installed, and two preceedings inactive electrical tests taken into operation. Furthermore, the components of a system for transportation and emplacement of highly radioactive canisters was fabricated, installed, and preliminarily tested. After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of the 30 radioactive canisters is now envisaged for early 1991. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed and will be tested. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  8. A High-Resolution Terrestrial Modeling System (TMS): A Demonstration in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Q.; Dai, Y.; Zheng, X.; Ye, A.; Ji, D.; Chen, Z.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes a terrestrial modeling system (TMS) developed at Beijing Normal University. The TMS is designed to be driven by multi-sensor meteorological and land surface observations, including those from satellites and land based observing stations. The purposes of the TMS are (1) to provide a land surface parameterization scheme fully capable of being coupled with the Earth system models; (2) to provide a standalone platform for retrospective historical simulation and for forecasting of future land surface processes at different space and time scales; and (3) to provide a platform for studying human-Earth system interactions and for understanding climate change impacts. This system is built on capabilities among several groups at BNU, including the Common Land Model (CoLM) system, high-resolution atmospheric forcing data sets, high resolution land surface characteristics data sets, data assimilation and uncertainty analysis platforms, ensemble prediction platform, and high-performance computing facilities. This presentation intends to describe the system design and demonstrate the capabilities of TMS with results from a China-wide application.

  9. The innovation of cryo-SEM freeze-fracturing methodology demonstrated on high pressure frozen biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubanova, Kamila; Nebesarova, Jana; Ruzicka, Filip; Krzyzanek, Vladislav

    2018-04-22

    In this study we present an innovative method for the preparation of fully hydrated samples of microbial biofilms of cultures Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and high-pressure freezing (HPF) rank among cutting edge techniques in the electron microscopy of hydrated samples such as biofilms. However, the combination of these techniques is not always easily applicable. Therefore, we present a method of combining high-pressure freezing using EM PACT2 (Leica Microsystems), which fixes hydrated samples on small sapphire discs, with a high resolution SEM equipped with the widely used cryo-preparation system ALTO 2500 (Gatan). Using a holder developed in house, a freeze-fracturing technique was applied to image and investigate microbial cultures cultivated on the sapphire discs. In our experiments, we focused on the ultrastructure of the extracellular matrix produced during cultivation and the relationships among microbial cells in the biofilm. The main goal of our investigations was the detailed visualization of areas of the biofilm where the microbial cells adhere to the substrate/surface. We show the feasibility of this technique, which is clearly demonstrated in experiments with various freeze-etching times. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  11. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A. L.; Betzler, Benjamin R.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Carbajo, Juan; Greenwood, Michael Scott; Hale, Richard Edward; Harrison, Thomas J.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Robb, Kevin R.; Terrell, Jerry W.

    2015-01-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  12. Delusions of expertise: the high standard of proof needed to demonstrate skills at horserace handicapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Matthew; Rockloff, Matthew J; Blaszcynski, Alex; Allcock, Clive; Windross, Allen

    2015-03-01

    Gamblers who participate in skill-oriented games (such as poker and sports-betting) are motivated to win over the long-term, and some monitor their betting outcomes to evaluate their performance and proficiency. In this study of Australian off-track horserace betting, we investigated which levels of sustained returns would be required to establish evidence of skill/expertise. We modelled a random strategy to simulate 'naïve' play, in which equal bets were placed on randomly selected horses using a representative sample of 211 weekend races. Results from a Monte Carlo simulation yielded a distribution of return-on-investments for varying number of bets (N), showing surprising volatility, even after a large number of repeated bets. After adjusting for the house advantage, a gambler would have to place over 10,000 bets in individual races with net returns exceeding 9 % to be reasonably considered an expert punter (α = .05). Moreover, a record of fewer bets would require even greater returns for demonstrating expertise. As such, validated expertise is likely to be rare among race bettors. We argue that the counter-intuitively high threshold for demonstrating expertise by tracking historical performance is likely to exacerbate known cognitive biases in self-evaluation of expertise.

  13. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, P.

    1986-01-01

    Tritiated methyl iodide of high specific activity is synthetized by Fischer-Tropsch reaction of tritium with carbon monoxide, tritiated methanol obtained is reacted with hydriodic acid. It is used for the synthesis of S-adenosyl L-methionine 3 H-methyl and of diazepam 3 H-methyl derivatives. Synthesis of 3-PPP 3 H: (hydroxy-3 phenyl)-3N-n propyl [ 3 H-2.3] piperidine [ 3 H-2.3] with a specific activity of 4.25 T Bq/mM (115 Ci/mM) and of baclofene 3 H with a specific activity of 0.925 TBq (25 Ci/mM) are also described [fr

  14. International Interlaboratory Digital PCR Study Demonstrating High Reproducibility for the Measurement of a Rare Sequence Variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whale, Alexandra S; Devonshire, Alison S; Karlin-Neumann, George; Regan, Jack; Javier, Leanne; Cowen, Simon; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Ana; Jones, Gerwyn M; Redshaw, Nicholas; Beck, Julia; Berger, Andreas W; Combaret, Valérie; Dahl Kjersgaard, Nina; Davis, Lisa; Fina, Frederic; Forshew, Tim; Fredslund Andersen, Rikke; Galbiati, Silvia; González Hernández, Álvaro; Haynes, Charles A; Janku, Filip; Lacave, Roger; Lee, Justin; Mistry, Vilas; Pender, Alexandra; Pradines, Anne; Proudhon, Charlotte; Saal, Lao H; Stieglitz, Elliot; Ulrich, Bryan; Foy, Carole A; Parkes, Helen; Tzonev, Svilen; Huggett, Jim F

    2017-02-07

    This study tested the claim that digital PCR (dPCR) can offer highly reproducible quantitative measurements in disparate laboratories. Twenty-one laboratories measured four blinded samples containing different quantities of a KRAS fragment encoding G12D, an important genetic marker for guiding therapy of certain cancers. This marker is challenging to quantify reproducibly using quantitative PCR (qPCR) or next generation sequencing (NGS) due to the presence of competing wild type sequences and the need for calibration. Using dPCR, 18 laboratories were able to quantify the G12D marker within 12% of each other in all samples. Three laboratories appeared to measure consistently outlying results; however, proper application of a follow-up analysis recommendation rectified their data. Our findings show that dPCR has demonstrable reproducibility across a large number of laboratories without calibration. This could enable the reproducible application of molecular stratification to guide therapy and, potentially, for molecular diagnostics.

  15. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  16. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes

  17. Specificity of "Live High-Train Low" altitude training on exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2018-01-01

    The novel hypothesis that "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) does not improve sport-specific exercise performance (e.g., time trial) is discussed. Indeed, many studies demonstrate improved performance after LHTL but unfortunately control groups are often lacking, leaving open the possibility of training...

  18. Immunotherapy with a HER2-Targeting Listeria Induces HER2-Specific Immunity and Demonstrates Potential Therapeutic Effects in a Phase I Trial in Canine Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Nicola J; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S; Engiles, Julie B; Gray, Falon; Laughlin, Danielle; Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Wallecha, Anu; Huebner, Margie; Paterson, Yvonne

    2016-09-01

    Recombinant Listeria vaccines induce tumor-specific T-cell responses that eliminate established tumors and prevent metastatic disease in murine cancer models. We used dogs with HER2/neu(+) appendicular osteosarcoma, a well-recognized spontaneous model for pediatric osteosarcoma, to determine whether a highly attenuated, recombinant Listeria monocytogenes expressing a chimeric human HER2/neu fusion protein (ADXS31-164) could safely induce HER2/neu-specific immunity and prevent metastatic disease. Eighteen dogs that underwent limb amputation or salvage surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in a phase I dose escalation clinical trial and received either 2 × 10(8), 5 × 10(8), 1 × 10(9), or 3.3 × 10(9) CFU of ADXS31-164 intravenously every 3 weeks for 3 administrations. Only low-grade, transient toxicities were observed. ADXS31-164 broke peripheral tolerance and induced antigen-specific IFNγ responses against the intracellular domain of HER2/neu in 15 of 18 dogs within 6 months of treatment. Furthermore, ADXS31-164 reduced the incidence of metastatic disease and significantly increased duration of survival time and 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates when compared with a historical control group with HER2/neu(+) appendicular osteosarcoma treated with amputation and chemotherapy alone. These findings demonstrate that ADXS31-164 administered in the setting of minimal residual disease can induce HER2/neu-specific immunity and may reduce the incidence of metastatic disease and prolong overall survival in a clinically relevant, spontaneous, large animal model of cancer. These findings, therefore, have important translational relevance for children with osteosarcoma and adults with other HER2/neu(+) cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4380-90. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Specific Abilities May Increment Psychometric g for High Ability Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    tend to sort themselves into jobs that are commensurate with their ability level ( McCormick , DeNisi, & Staw, 1979; McCormick , Jeanneret, & Mecham...of Genetic Psychology, 153, 229-230. Specific abilities, g, & high ability populations 14 McCormick , E. J., DeNisi, A. S., & Shaw, J. B... McCormick , E. J., Jeanneret, P. R., & Mecham, R. C. (1972). A study of job characteristics and job dimensions as based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire

  20. Accelerator Production and Separations for High Specific Activity Rhenium-186

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten and osmium targets were evaluated for the production of high specific activity rhenium-186. Rhenium-186 has potential applications in radiotherapy for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including targeting with monoclonal antibodies and peptides. Methods were evaluated using tungsten metal, tungsten dioxide, tungsten disulfide and osmium disulfide. Separation of the rhenium-186 produced and recycling of the enriched tungsten-186 and osmium-189 enriched targets were developed.

  1. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Technology Development and Demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Pointer, William David [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics, and fully passive safety. This roadmap describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. This roadmap also provides an integrated overview of the current status of the broad set of technologies necessary to design, evaluate, license, construct, operate, and maintain FHRs. First-generation FHRs will not require any technology breakthroughs, but do require significant concept development, system integration, and technology maturation. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, this roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant, the lack of an approved licensing framework, the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials, and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

  2. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  3. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied. The terminal waste form processes considered were: borosilicate glass, low-alkali glass, marbles-in-lead matrix, and crystallinolecular potential and molecular dynamics calculations of the effect are yet to be completed. Cous oxide was also investigated. The reaction is first order in nitrite ion, second order in hydrogen ion, and between zero and first order in hydroxylamine monosulfonate, depending on the concentration

  4. Demonstration of sulfur solubility determinations in high waste loading, low-activity waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-25

    A method recommended by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for sulfate solubility determinations in simulated low-activity waste glasses was demonstrated using three compositions from a recent Hanford high waste loading glass study. Sodium and sulfate concentrations in the glasses increased after each re-melting step. Visual observations of the glasses during the re-melting process reflected the changes in composition. The measured compositions showed that the glasses met the targeted values. The amount of SO3 retained in the glasses after washing was relatively high, ranging from 1.6 to 2.6 weight percent (wt %). Measured SnO2 concentrations were notably low in all of the study glasses. The composition of the wash solutions should be measured in future work to determine whether SnO2 is present with the excess sulfate washed from the glass. Increases in batch size and the amount of sodium sulfate added did not have a measureable impact on the amount of sulfate retained in the glass, although this was tested for only a single glass composition. A batch size of 250 g and a sodium sulfate addition targeting 7 wt %, as recommended by PNNL, will be used in future experiments.

  5. High-fidelity hybrid simulation of allergic emergencies demonstrates improved preparedness for office emergencies in pediatric allergy clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L; Jones, Stacie M; Porter, Nicholas; White, Marjorie L; Gephardt, Grace; Hill, Travis; Cantrell, Mary; Nick, Todd G; Melguizo, Maria; Smith, Chris; Boateng, Beatrice A; Perry, Tamara T; Scurlock, Amy M; Thompson, Tonya M

    2013-01-01

    Simulation models that used high-fidelity mannequins have shown promise in medical education, particularly for cases in which the event is uncommon. Allergy physicians encounter emergencies in their offices, and these can be the source of much trepidation. To determine if case-based simulations with high-fidelity mannequins are effective in teaching and retention of emergency management team skills. Allergy clinics were invited to Arkansas Children's Hospital Pediatric Understanding and Learning through Simulation Education center for a 1-day workshop to evaluate skills concerning the management of allergic emergencies. A Clinical Emergency Preparedness Team Performance Evaluation was developed to evaluate the competence of teams in several areas: leadership and/or role clarity, closed-loop communication, team support, situational awareness, and scenario-specific skills. Four cases, which focus on common allergic emergencies, were simulated by using high-fidelity mannequins and standardized patients. Teams were evaluated by multiple reviewers by using video recording and standardized scoring. Ten to 12 months after initial training, an unannounced in situ case was performed to determine retention of the skills training. Clinics showed significant improvements for role clarity, teamwork, situational awareness, and scenario-specific skills during the 1-day workshop (all P clinics (all P ≤ .004). Clinical Emergency Preparedness Team Performance Evaluation scores demonstrated improved team management skills with simulation training in office emergencies. Significant recall of team emergency management skills was demonstrated months after the initial training. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental and analytical study for demonstration program on shielding of casks for high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Hattorl, S.; Ozaki, S.; Tamaki, H.; Kadotani, H.; Ishizuka, T.; Ishikawa, S.

    1993-01-01

    The following remarks were obtained from the experiment and the DOT 3.5 and the MCNP analyses on the gamma ray and the neutron dose equivalent rates in the cask of interest. 1. The cask has thinner neutron shielding parts around the trunnions. Significant neutrons streaming around the trunnion parts was observed which was also cleared by the MCNP analysis for the 252 Cf source experiment. Accordingly, detailed neutron streaming calculations are required to evaluate the dose levels around the trunnions when loading the vitrified high-level wastes. 2. The room-scattered obstructive neutrons, mainly originating from the neutrons penetrating around the trunnions, at the top and the bottom of the cask are reduced significantly by preparing the water tank at the top and the water layer at the bottom. Therefore, a more accurate experiment is to be carried out in the future shielding experiment especially for neutrons. However, because the water tank and the layer do not exist in the actual high-level wastes transport cask, the experiment without the water tank and layer are not dispensable to demonstrate the transport conditions of the actual cask, too. 3. The gamma-ray and the neutron dose equivalent rate distributions obtained from the DOT 3.5 and the MCNP calculations, respectively, agreed closely with the measured values in the cask areas of interest. Accordingly, the DOT 3.5 code and the MCNP code with the NESX estimator can be employed not only for the shielding analysis of the future experiments, but also for making a safety analysis report of high-level wastes transport casks. (J.P.N.)

  7. First demonstration report on the high temperature materials data Bank of JRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The High Temperature Materials Programme of the Joint Research Centre has among its activities a project which has the objective to develop a computerised data bank containing mechanical property data of alloys for high temperature applications. The pilot phase of this project during the multiannual programme 1980-1983 is restricted to a few alloys and properties. The present scope comprises tensile, creep and fatigue test results with emphasis on 600-1000 0 C test temperature and C-O-H environments for alloys covered by the specifications of the ''Alloy 800'' group. The data bank is now operational. This report is the first presentation of the data bank characteristics, contents and some output illustrations. It contains a descriptive part on the system and its structure and on the characteristics and quantity of the present data, and an illustrative part showing examples of data bank processed output. The selected print-outs are generated by interactive on-line searches and subsequent numerical or graphical processing in the data bank facilities at Petten and Ispra which are linked by EURONET

  8. Demonstration of a performance assessment methodology for high-level radioactive waste disposal in basalt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Davis, P.A.; Shipers, L.R.; Brinster, K.F.; Beyler, W.E.; Updegraff, C.D.; Shepherd, E.R.; Tilton, L.M.; Wahi, K.K.

    1989-06-01

    This document describes a performance assessment methodology developed for a high-level radioactive waste repository mined in deep basalt formations. This methodology is an extension of an earlier one applicable to bedded salt. The differences between the two methodologies arise primarily in the modeling of round-water flow and radionuclide transport. Bedded salt was assumed to be a porous medium, whereas basalt formations contain fractured zones. Therefore, mathematical models and associated computer codes were developed to simulate the aforementioned phenomena in fractured media. The use of the methodology is demonstrated at a hypothetical basalt site by analyzing seven scenarios: (1) thermohydrological effects caused by heat released from the repository, (2) mechanohydrological effects caused by an advancing and receding glacier, (3) normal ground-water flow, (4) pumping of ground water from a confined aquifer, (5) rerouting of a river near the repository, (6) drilling of a borehole through the repository, and (7) formation of a new fault intersecting the repository. The normal ground-water flow was considered the base-case scenario. This scenario was used to perform uncertainty and sensitivity analyses and to demonstrate the existing capabilities for assessing compliance with the ground-water travel time criterion and the containment requirements. Most of the other scenarios were considered perturbations of the base case, and a few were studied in terms of changes with respect to initial conditions. The potential impact of these scenarios on the long-term performance of the disposal system was ascertained through comparison with the base-case scenario or the undisturbed initial conditions. 66 refs., 106 figs., 27 tabs

  9. A unique approach to demonstrating that apical bud temperature specifically determines leaf initiation rate in the dicot Cucumis sativus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savvides, Andreas; Dieleman, Anja; Ieperen, van Wim; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Main conclusion: Leaf initiation rate is largely determined by the apical bud temperature even when apical bud temperature largely deviates from the temperature of other plant organs.We have long known that the rate of leaf initiation (LIR) is highly sensitive to temperature, but previous studies

  10. Demonstration of a Fiber Optic Regression Probe in a High-Temperature Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    empirically anchoring any analysis geared towards lifetime qualification. Erosion rate data over an operating envelope could also be useful in the modeling detailed physical processes. The sensor has been embedded in many regressing media to demonstrate the capabilities in a number of regressing environments. In the present work, sensors were installed in the eroding/regressing throat region of a converging-diverging flow, with the working gas heated to high temperatures by means of a high-pressure arc discharge at steady-state discharge power levels up to 500 kW. The amount of regression observed in each material sample was quantified using a later profilometer, which was compared to the in-situ erosion measurements to demonstrate the efficacy of the measurement technique in very harsh, high-temperature environments.

  11. Highly Specific and Wide Range NO2 Sensor with Color Readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fàbrega, Cristian; Fernández, Luis; Monereo, Oriol; Pons-Balagué, Alba; Xuriguera, Elena; Casals, Olga; Waag, Andreas; Prades, Joan Daniel

    2017-11-22

    We present a simple and inexpensive method to implement a Griess-Saltzman-type reaction that combines the advantages of the liquid phase method (high specificity and fast response time) with the benefits of a solid implementation (easy to handle). We demonstrate that the measurements can be carried out using conventional RGB sensors; circumventing all the limitations around the measurement of the samples with spectrometers. We also present a method to optimize the measurement protocol and target a specific range of NO 2 concentrations. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the concentration of NO 2 from 50 ppb to 300 ppm with high specificity and without modifying the Griess-Saltzman reagent.

  12. Coop-Seq Analysis Demonstrates that Sox2 Evokes Latent Specificities in the DNA Recognition by Pax6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Caizhen; Malik, Vikas; Chang, Yiming Kenny; Veerapandian, Veeramohan; Srivastava, Yogesh; Huang, Yong-Heng; Hou, Linlin; Cojocaru, Vlad; Stormo, Gary D; Jauch, Ralf

    2017-11-24

    Sox2 and Pax6 co-regulate genes in neural lineages and the lens by forming a ternary complex likely facilitated allosterically through DNA. We used the quantitative and scalable cooperativity-by-sequencing (Coop-seq) approach to interrogate Sox2/Pax6 dimerization on a DNA library where five positions of the Pax6 half-site were randomized yielding 1024 cooperativity factors. Consensus positions normally required for the high-affinity DNA binding by Pax6 need to be mutated for effective dimerization with Sox2. Out of the five randomized bases, a 5' thymidine is present in most of the top ranking elements. However, this thymidine maps to a region outside of the Pax half site and is not expected to directly interact with Pax6 in known binding modes suggesting structural reconfigurations. Re-analysis of ChIP-seq data identified several genomic regions where the cooperativity promoting sequence pattern is co-bound by Sox2 and Pax6. A highly conserved Sox2/Pax6 bound site near the Sprouty2 locus was verified to promote cooperative dimerization designating Sprouty2 as a potential target reliant on Sox2/Pax6 cooperativity in several neural cell types. Collectively, the functional interplay of Sox2 and Pax6 demands the relaxation of high-affinity binding sites and is enabled by alternative DNA sequences. We conclude that this binding mode evolved to warrant that a subset of target genes is only regulated in the presence of suitable partner factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Specific inhibition of p97/VCP ATPase and kinetic analysis demonstrate interaction between D1 and D2 ATPase domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tsui-Fen; Bulfer, Stacie L; Weihl, Conrad C; Li, Kelin; Lis, Lev G; Walters, Michael A; Schoenen, Frank J; Lin, Henry J; Deshaies, Raymond J; Arkin, Michelle R

    2014-07-29

    The p97 AAA (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities), also called VCP (valosin-containing protein), is an important therapeutic target for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. p97 forms a hexamer composed of two AAA domains (D1 and D2) that form two stacked rings and an N-terminal domain that binds numerous cofactor proteins. The interplay between the three domains in p97 is complex, and a deeper biochemical understanding is needed in order to design selective p97 inhibitors as therapeutic agents. It is clear that the D2 ATPase domain hydrolyzes ATP in vitro, but whether D1 contributes to ATPase activity is controversial. Here, we use Walker A and B mutants to demonstrate that D1 is capable of hydrolyzing ATP and show for the first time that nucleotide binding in the D2 domain increases the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of D1 ATP hydrolysis 280-fold, by increasing kcat 7-fold and decreasing Km about 40-fold. We further show that an ND1 construct lacking D2 but including the linker between D1 and D2 is catalytically active, resolving a conflict in the literature. Applying enzymatic observations to small-molecule inhibitors, we show that four p97 inhibitors (DBeQ, ML240, ML241, and NMS-873) have differential responses to Walker A and B mutations, to disease-causing IBMPFD mutations, and to the presence of the N domain binding cofactor protein p47. These differential effects provide the first evidence that p97 cofactors and disease mutations can alter p97 inhibitor potency and suggest the possibility of developing context-dependent inhibitors of p97. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  15. A demonstration test of 4-group partitioning process with real high-level liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Y.; Yamaguchi, I.; Fujiwara, T.; Koizumi, H.; Tachimori, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The demonstration test of 4-Group Partitioning Process with concentrated real high-level liquid waste (HLLW) was carried out in the Partitioning Test Facility installed in a hot cell. More than 99.998% of Am and Cm were extracted from the HLLW with the organic solvent containing 0.5 M DIDPA - 0.1 M TBP, and more than 99.98% of Am and Cm were back-extracted with 4 M nitric acid. Np and Pu were extracted simultaneously, and more than 99.93% of Np and more than 99.98% of Pu were back-extracted with oxalic acid. In the denitration step for the separation of Tc and platinum group metals, more than 90% of Rh and more than 97% of Pd were precipitated. About half of Ru were remained in the de-nitrated solution, but the remaining Ru were quantitatively precipitated by neutralization of the de-nitrated solution to pH 6.7. In the adsorption step, both Sr and Cs were separated effectively. Decontamination factors for Cs and Sr were more than 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 4} respectively in all effluent samples. (authors)

  16. Acridinium esters as high-specific-activity labels in immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, I.; Beheshti, I.; McCapra, F.; Campbell, A.K.; Woodhead, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A chemiluminescent acridinium ester has been synthesized that reacts spontaneously with proteins to yield stable, immunoreactive derivatives of high specific activity. The compound has been used to prepare chemiluminescent monoclonal antibodies to human alpha 1-fetoprotein having average incorporation ratios as great as 2.8 mol of label per mole of antibody, which corresponds to a detection limit of approximately 8 X 10(-19) mol. These antibodies have been used in the preliminary development of a two-site immunochemiluminometric assay for human alpha 1-fetoprotein, which requires only a 30-min incubation and a quantification time of 5 s per sample

  17. Production of N-13 labeled compounds with high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Sasaki, Motoji; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Haradahira, Terushi; Inoue, Osamu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Nitrogen-13 was produced by irradiating ultra pure water saturated with a pure gas (N2, O2, He, H2) with 18 MeV protons. Ion species generated by irradiation were analyzed with radio ion chromatography systems. An automated equipment was developed to synthesize anhydrous (13N)NH3 as a synthetic precursor and (13N)p-nitrophenyl carbamate ((13N)NPC) as a model compound, using the (13N)NH3. The radiochemical yield and specific activity of (13N)NPC was high enough to carry out the receptor study with PET. (author)

  18. A highly sensitive and specific assay for vertebrate collagenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodek, J.; Hurum, S.; Feng, J.

    1981-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific assay for vertebrate collagenase has been developed using a [ 14 C]-labeled collagen substrate and a combination of SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and fluorography to identify and quantitate the digestion products. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to permit the detection and quantitation of collagenase activity in 0.1 μl of gingival sulcal fluid, and in samples of cell culture medium without prior concentration. The assay has also been used to detect the presence of inhibitors of collagenolytic enzymes in various cell culture fluids. (author)

  19. Specific features of modern multifunctional high-rise building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhina, Lyubov; Samosudova, Natal'ja

    2018-03-01

    The article analyzes the main reasons for the development of high-rise building construction the most important of which-is a limitation of the urban areas and, consequently, the high price of land reserved for construction. New engineering and compositional solutions for the creation of new types of buildings are considered - complex technical designs of a large number of storeys completely meet the new requirements for safety and comfort. Some peculiarities of designing high-rise buildings and searching for optimal architectural and planning solutions are revealed since, with external architectural simplicity, high-rise buildings have complex structural and technological and space-planning solutions. We consider the specific features of a high-rise housing in various countries around the world, including Russia, such as the layout of the multi-storey residential buildings, depending on the climatic characteristics of the regions, assessment of the geological risk of the construction site, the choice of parameters and functional purpose of the sections of the territory of high-rise construction, location of the town-planning object for substantiating the overall dimensions of the building, assessment of changes aeration and engineering and hydrological conditions of the site. A special place in the article on the problems of improvement of the territory, the device of courtyards, landscaping, the device of playing and sports grounds. The main conclusion in the article is the following problem - when developing high-rise housing construction, the development of high-rise housing, and an increase in the population density in the territory of large cities of Russia, necessary to create a comfortable and safe level of residents living and not a decrease, but an improvement in the quality of the urban environment.

  20. Analysis of Canis mitochondrial DNA demonstrates high concordance between the control region and ATPase genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Bradley N

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic studies of wild Canis species have relied heavily on the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR to infer species relationships and evolutionary lineages. Previous analyses of the CR provided evidence for a North American evolved eastern wolf (C. lycaon, that is more closely related to red wolves (C. rufus and coyotes (C. latrans than grey wolves (C. lupus. Eastern wolf origins, however, continue to be questioned. Therefore, we analyzed mtDNA from 89 wolves and coyotes across North America and Eurasia at 347 base pairs (bp of the CR and 1067 bp that included the ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes. Phylogenies and divergence estimates were used to clarify the evolutionary history of eastern wolves, and regional comparisons of nonsynonomous to synonomous substitutions (dN/dS at the ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes were used to elucidate the potential role of selection in shaping mtDNA geographic distribution. Results We found high concordance across analyses between the mtDNA regions studied. Both had a high percentage of variable sites (CR = 14.6%; ATP = 9.7% and both phylogenies clustered eastern wolf haplotypes monophyletically within a North American evolved lineage apart from coyotes. Divergence estimates suggest the putative red wolf sequence is more closely related to coyotes (DxyCR = 0.01982 ± 0.00494 SD; DxyATP = 0.00332 ± 0.00097 SD than the eastern wolf sequences (DxyCR = 0.03047 ± 0.00664 SD; DxyATP = 0.00931 ± 0.00205 SD. Neutrality tests on both genes were indicative of the population expansion of coyotes across eastern North America, and dN/dS ratios suggest a possible role for purifying selection in the evolution of North American lineages. dN/dS ratios were higher in European evolved lineages from northern climates compared to North American evolved lineages from temperate regions, but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions These results demonstrate high concordance between coding

  1. Biomarkers specific to densely-ionising (high LET) radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Okladnikova, N.; Hande, P.; Burak, L.; Geard, C.R.; Azizova, T.

    2001-01-01

    There have been several suggestions of biomarkers that are specific to high LET radiation. Such a biomarker could significantly increase the power of epidemiological studies of individuals exposed to densely-ionising radiations such as alpha particles (e.g. radon, plutonium workers, individuals exposed to depleted uranium) or neutrons (e.g. radiation workers, airline personnel). We discuss here a potentially powerful high LET biomarker (the H value) which is the ratio of induced inter-chromosomal aberrations to intra-arm aberrations. Both theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that this ratio should differ by a factor of about three between high LET radiation and any other likely clastogen, and will yield more discrimination than the previously suggested F value (ratio of inter-chromosomal aberrations to intra-chromosomal inter-arm aberrations). Evidence of the long-term stability of such chromosomal biomarkers has also been generated. Because these stable intra-arm and inter-chromosomal aberrations are (1) frequent and (2) measurable at long times after exposure, this H value appears to be a practical biomarker of high LET exposure, and several in vitro studies have confirmed the approach for unstable aberrations. The approach is currently being tested in a population of Russian radiation workers exposed several decades ago to high- or low LET radiation. (author)

  2. Stimulus-dependent deliberation process leading to a specific motor action demonstrated via a multi-channel EEG analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja eHenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether a deliberative process, leading to a motor action, is detectable in high density EEG recordings. Subjects were required to press one of two buttons. In a simple motor task the subject knew which button to press, whilst in a color-word Stroop task subjects had to press the right button with the right index finger when meaning and color coincided, or the left button with the left index finger when meaning and color were disparate.EEG recordings obtained during the simple motor task showed a sequence of positive (P and negative (N cortical potentials (P1-N1-P2 which are assumed to be related to the processing of the movement.The sequence of cortical potentials was similar in EEG recordings of subjects having to deliberate over how to respond, but the above sequence (P1-N1-P2 was preceded by slowly increasing negativity (N0, with N0 being assumed to represent the end of the deliberation process.Our data suggest the existence of neurophysiological correlates of deliberative processes.

  3. Phenotype of CNTNAP1: a study of patients demonstrating a specific severe congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy with survival beyond infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, K J; Stals, K; Caswell, R; Wakeling, M; Clayton-Smith, J; Donaldson, A; Foulds, N; Norman, A; Splitt, M; Urankar, K; Vijayakumar, K; Majumdar, A; Study, Ddd; Ellard, S; Smithson, S F

    2018-06-01

    CHN is genetically heterogeneous and its genetic basis is difficult to determine on features alone. CNTNAP1 encodes CASPR, integral in the paranodal junction high molecular mass complex. Nineteen individuals with biallelic variants have been described in association with severe congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy, respiratory compromise, profound intellectual disability and death within the first year. We report 7 additional patients ascertained through exome sequencing. We identified 9 novel CNTNAP1 variants in 6 families: three missense variants, four nonsense variants, one frameshift variant and one splice site variant. Significant polyhydramnios occurred in 6/7 pregnancies. Severe respiratory compromise was seen in 6/7 (tracheostomy in 5). A complex neurological phenotype was seen in all patients who had marked brain hypomyelination/demyelination and profound developmental delay. Additional neurological findings included cranial nerve compromise: orobulbar dysfunction in 5/7, facial nerve weakness in 4/7 and vocal cord paresis in 5/7. Dystonia occurred in 2/7 patients and limb contractures in 5/7. All had severe gastroesophageal reflux, and a gastrostomy was required in 5/7. In contrast to most previous reports, only one patient died in the first year of life. Protein modelling was performed for all detected CNTNAP1 variants. We propose a genotype-phenotype correlation, whereby hypomorphic missense variants partially ameliorate the phenotype, prolonging survival. This study suggests that biallelic variants in CNTNAP1 cause a distinct recognisable syndrome, which is not caused by other genes associated with CHN. Neonates presenting with this phenotype will benefit from early genetic definition to inform clinical management and enable essential genetic counselling for their families.

  4. High Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology Scale-up and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Ben [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Turk, Brian [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Denton, David [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Gasification is a technology for clean energy conversion of diverse feedstocks into a wide variety of useful products such as chemicals, fertilizers, fuels, electric power, and hydrogen. Existing technologies can be employed to clean the syngas from gasification processes to meet the demands of such applications, but they are expensive to build and operate and consume a significant fraction of overall parasitic energy requirements, thus lowering overall process efficiency. RTI International has developed a warm syngas desulfurization process (WDP) utilizing a transport-bed reactor design and a proprietary attrition-resistant, high-capacity solid sorbent with excellent performance replicated at lab, bench, and pilot scales. Results indicated that WDP technology can improve both efficiency and cost of gasification plants. The WDP technology achieved ~99.9% removal of total sulfur (as either H2S or COS) from coal-derived syngas at temperatures as high as 600°C and over a wide range of pressures (20-80 bar, pressure independent performance) and sulfur concentrations. Based on the success of these tests, RTI negotiated a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy for precommercial testing of this technology at Tampa Electric Company’s Polk Power Station IGCC facility in Tampa, Florida. The project scope also included a sweet water-gas-shift process for hydrogen enrichment and an activated amine process for 90+% total carbon capture. Because the activated amine process provides some additional non-selective sulfur removal, the integration of these processes was expected to reduce overall sulfur in the syngas to sub-ppmv concentrations, suitable for most syngas applications. The overall objective of this project was to mitigate the technical risks associated with the scale up and integration of the WDP and carbon dioxide capture technologies, enabling subsequent commercial-scale demonstration. The warm syngas cleanup pre-commercial test unit

  5. Demonstration of a high speed hybrid electrical and optical sensing system for next generation launcher applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; O'Dowd, John A.; Honniball, Arthur; Bessler, Vivian; Farnan, Martin; O'Connor, Peter; Melicher, Milos; Gleeson, Danny

    2017-09-01

    The Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP) supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) has a goal of developing various launch vehicle system concepts and identifying the technologies required for the design of Europe's Next-Generation Launcher (NGL) while maintaining competitiveness on the commercial market. Avionics fiber optic sensing technology was investigated as part of the FLPP programme. Here we demonstrate and evaluate a high speed hybrid electrical/optical data acquisition system based on commercial off the shelf (COTS) technology capable of acquiring data from traditional electrical sensors and optical Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. The proposed system consists of the KAM-500 data acquisition system developed by Curtis-Wright and the I4 tunable laser based fiber optic sensor interrogator developed by FAZ Technology. The key objective was to demonstrate the capability of the hybrid system to acquire data from traditional electrical sensors used in launcher applications e.g. strain, temperature and pressure in combination with optical FBG sensors, as well as data delivery to spacecraft avionics systems. The KAM-500 was configured as the main acquisition unit (MAU) and provided a 1 kHz sampling clock to the I4 interrogator that was configured as the secondary acquisition unit (SAU) to synchronize the data acquisition sample rate between both systems. The SAU acquired data from an array of optical FBG sensors, while the MAU data acquisition system acquired data from the electrical sensors. Data acquired from the optical sensors was processed by the FAZ I4 interrogation system and then encapsulated into UDP/IP packets and transferred to the KAM-500. The KAM-500 encapsulated the optical sensor data together with the data acquired from electrical sensors and transmitted the data over MIL-STD-1553 and Ethernet data interface. The temperature measurements resulted in the optical and electrical sensors performing on a par with each other, with all

  6. Sequence-Based Discovery Demonstrates That Fixed Light Chain Human Transgenic Rats Produce a Diverse Repertoire of Antigen-Specific Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Harris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We created a novel transgenic rat that expresses human antibodies comprising a diverse repertoire of heavy chains with a single common rearranged kappa light chain (IgKV3-15-JK1. This fixed light chain animal, called OmniFlic, presents a unique system for human therapeutic antibody discovery and a model to study heavy chain repertoire diversity in the context of a constant light chain. The purpose of this study was to analyze heavy chain variable gene usage, clonotype diversity, and to describe the sequence characteristics of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs isolated from immunized OmniFlic animals. Using next-generation sequencing antibody repertoire analysis, we measured heavy chain variable gene usage and the diversity of clonotypes present in the lymph node germinal centers of 75 OmniFlic rats immunized with 9 different protein antigens. Furthermore, we expressed 2,560 unique heavy chain sequences sampled from a diverse set of clonotypes as fixed light chain antibody proteins and measured their binding to antigen by ELISA. Finally, we measured patterns and overall levels of somatic hypermutation in the full B-cell repertoire and in the 2,560 mAbs tested for binding. The results demonstrate that OmniFlic animals produce an abundance of antigen-specific antibodies with heavy chain clonotype diversity that is similar to what has been described with unrestricted light chain use in mammals. In addition, we show that sequence-based discovery is a highly effective and efficient way to identify a large number of diverse monoclonal antibodies to a protein target of interest.

  7. Starvation, Together with the SOS Response, Mediates High Biofilm-Specific Tolerance to the Fluoroquinolone Ofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Steve P.; Lebeaux, David; DeFrancesco, Alicia S.; Valomon, Amandine; Soubigou, Guillaume; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    High levels of antibiotic tolerance are a hallmark of bacterial biofilms. In contrast to well-characterized inherited antibiotic resistance, molecular mechanisms leading to reversible and transient antibiotic tolerance displayed by biofilm bacteria are still poorly understood. The physiological heterogeneity of biofilms influences the formation of transient specialized subpopulations that may be more tolerant to antibiotics. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis to identify biofilm-specific tolerant mutants normally exhibited by subpopulations located in specialized niches of heterogeneous biofilms. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism, we demonstrated, through identification of amino acid auxotroph mutants, that starved biofilms exhibited significantly greater tolerance towards fluoroquinolone ofloxacin than their planktonic counterparts. We demonstrated that the biofilm-associated tolerance to ofloxacin was fully dependent on a functional SOS response upon starvation to both amino acids and carbon source and partially dependent on the stringent response upon leucine starvation. However, the biofilm-specific ofloxacin increased tolerance did not involve any of the SOS-induced toxin–antitoxin systems previously associated with formation of highly tolerant persisters. We further demonstrated that ofloxacin tolerance was induced as a function of biofilm age, which was dependent on the SOS response. Our results therefore show that the SOS stress response induced in heterogeneous and nutrient-deprived biofilm microenvironments is a molecular mechanism leading to biofilm-specific high tolerance to the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin. PMID:23300476

  8. High Sensitivity and High Detection Specificity of Gold-Nanoparticle-Grafted Nanostructured Silicon Mass Spectrometry for Glucose Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Chia-Wen; Yang, Zhi-Jie

    2015-10-14

    Desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) is a high-performance matrix-free mass spectrometry (MS) analysis method that involves using silicon nanostructures as a matrix for MS desorption/ionization. In this study, gold nanoparticles grafted onto a nanostructured silicon (AuNPs-nSi) surface were demonstrated as a DIOS-MS analysis approach with high sensitivity and high detection specificity for glucose detection. A glucose sample deposited on the AuNPs-nSi surface was directly catalyzed to negatively charged gluconic acid molecules on a single AuNPs-nSi chip for MS analysis. The AuNPs-nSi surface was fabricated using two electroless deposition steps and one electroless etching step. The effects of the electroless fabrication parameters on the glucose detection efficiency were evaluated. Practical application of AuNPs-nSi MS glucose analysis in urine samples was also demonstrated in this study.

  9. Demonstration of the frequency modulation of optical signals with a high frequency deviation parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamray, A V; Kozlov, A S; Il'ichev, I V; Petrov, M P

    2008-01-01

    A new type of an integrated optical modulator for the frequency coding of optical signals is developed and fabricated. The modulator operation is based on the original technology of the electric control of a Bragg grating. The frequency modulation of an optical signal with the frequency deviation of 25 GHz is demonstrated experimentally. The modular was used to transfer the ASCII code through an optical fibre. (optical communication)

  10. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; and others

    2014-07-15

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  11. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Villette, B.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; Michel, P.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Sorce, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Nikroo, A.; Giraldez, E.

    2014-07-01

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  12. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, F.; Villette, B.; Michel, P.; Petrasso, R.; Stoeckl, C.; Giraldez, E.; Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.

    2014-01-01

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results

  13. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Tassin, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Depierreux, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Gauthier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Masson-Laborde, P. E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Monteil, M. C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Seytor, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Villette, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Lasinski, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, H. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doeppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinkel, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wallace, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu-Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glebov, V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Sorce, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-07-25

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  14. Highly specific detection of genetic modification events using an enzyme-linked probe hybridization chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M Z; Zhang, X F; Chen, X M; Chen, X; Wu, S; Xu, L L

    2015-08-10

    The enzyme-linked probe hybridization chip utilizes a method based on ligase-hybridizing probe chip technology, with the principle of using thio-primers for protection against enzyme digestion, and using lambda DNA exonuclease to cut multiple PCR products obtained from the sample being tested into single-strand chains for hybridization. The 5'-end amino-labeled probe was fixed onto the aldehyde chip, and hybridized with the single-stranded PCR product, followed by addition of a fluorescent-modified probe that was then enzymatically linked with the adjacent, substrate-bound probe in order to achieve highly specific, parallel, and high-throughput detection. Specificity and sensitivity testing demonstrated that enzyme-linked probe hybridization technology could be applied to the specific detection of eight genetic modification events at the same time, with a sensitivity reaching 0.1% and the achievement of accurate, efficient, and stable results.

  15. Complementing approaches to demonstrate chlorinated solvent biodegradation in a complex pollution plume: mass balance, PCR and compound-specific stable isotope analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Courbet Christelle; Rivière Agnès; Jeannottat Simon; Rinaldi Sandro; Hunkeler Daniel; Bendjoudi Hocine; De Marsily Ghislain

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the use of different complementing methods (mass balance polymerase chain reaction assays and compound specific stable isotope analysis) to demonstrate the existence and effectiveness of biodegradation of chlorinated solvents in an alluvial aquifer. The solvent contaminated site is an old chemical factory located in an alluvial plain in France. As most of the chlorinated contaminants currently found in the groundwater at this site were produced by local industries at vario...

  16. Holistic face representation is highly orientation-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Gideon; Levakov, Gidon; Avidan, Galia

    2017-09-29

    It has long been argued that face processing requires disproportionate reliance on holistic processing (HP), relative to that required for nonface object recognition. Nevertheless, whether the holistic nature of face perception is achieved via a unique internal representation or by the employment of an automated attention mechanism is still debated. Previous studies had used the face inversion effect (FIE), a unique face-processing marker, or the face composite task, a gold standard paradigm measuring holistic processing, to examine the validity of these two different hypotheses, with some studies combining the two paradigms. However, the results of such studies remain inconclusive, particularly pertaining to the issue of the two proposed HP mechanisms-an internal representation as opposed to an automated attention mechanism. Here, using the complete composite paradigm design, we aimed to examine whether face rotation yields a nonlinear or a linear drop in HP, thus supporting an account that face processing is based either on an orientation-dependent internal representation or on automated attention. Our results reveal that even a relatively small perturbation in face orientation (30 deg away from upright) already causes a sharp decline in HP. These findings support the face internal representation hypothesis and the notion that the holistic processing of faces is highly orientation-specific.

  17. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  18. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li2S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO3 additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. A proposed high-power UV industrial demonstration laser at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.V.; Bisognano, J.J.; Bohn, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Laser Processing Consortium, a collaboration of industries, universities, and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) in Newport News, Virginia, has proposed building a demonstration industrial processing laser for surface treatment and micro-machining. The laser is a free-electron laser (FEL) with average power output exceeding 1 kW in the ultraviolet (UV). The design calls for a novel driver accelerator that recovers most of the energy of the exhaust electron beam to produce laser light with good wall-plug efficiency. The laser and accelerator design use technologies that are scalable to much higher power. The authors describe the critical design issues in the laser such as the stability, power handling, and losses of the optical resonator, and the quality, power, and reliability of the electron beam. They also describe the calculated laser performance. Finally progress to date on accelerator development and resonator modeling will be reported

  20. A proposed high-power UV industrial demonstration laser at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.V.; Bisognano, J.J.; Bohn, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Laser Processing Consortium, a collaboration of industries, universities, and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) in Newport News, Virginia, has proposed building a demonstration industrial processing laser for surface treatment and micro-machining. The laser is a free-electron laser (FEL) with average power output exceeding 1 kW in the ultraviolet (UV). The design calls for a novel driver accelerator that recovers most of the energy of the exhaust electron beam to produce laser light with good wall-plug efficiency. The laser and accelerator design use technologies that are scalable to much higher power. The authors will describe the critical design issues in the laser such as the stability, power handling, and losses of the optical resonator, and the quality, power, and reliability of the electron beam. They will also describe the calculated laser performance. Finally progress to date on accelerator development and resonator modeling will be reported

  1. An investigation of the influence of reconceptualization of demonstrative experimental activities of optics in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Lúcio Prados Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analyze the influence that the use of demonstrative experiments can bring to the learning of optics. It is assumed that the development of experimental activities, when reconceptualized according to Hodson proposal, tends to contribute to the generation of cognitive conflicts when compared to traditional didactic experience. Justifications are given for an analysis of changes under a Piagetian bias, reconciled with Hodson proposal. The methodology used to structure the topics presentations was quasi-experimental, contrasting an experimental group with a control group. The measuring of the effectiveness of the suggested working method was made from a quantitative analysis, which identified some of the topics discussed had better results in learning, being more tied to the experiments carried out.

  2. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  3. A Useful Demonstration of Calculus in a Physics High School Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gustavo; Schulte, Jurgen; Stockton, Geoffrey; Wheeler, David

    2018-01-01

    The real power of calculus is revealed when it is applied to actual physical problems. In this paper, we present a calculus inspired physics experiment suitable for high school and undergraduate programs. A model for the theory of the terminal velocity of a falling body subject to a resistive force is developed and its validity tested in an…

  4. The SOURCE Demonstration Project: Helping Disadvantaged High School Students Enroll in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Johannes; Berman, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    The primary research question for this project was whether a streamlined, relatively inexpensive, counseling-based program that assists low-income high school students with the college and financial application processes can significantly increase college enrollment rates. The intervention was designed to test the hypothesis that lack of…

  5. Preconceptual design study for solidifying high-level waste: West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, O.F.

    1981-04-01

    This report presents a preconceptual design study for processing radioactive high-level liquid waste presently stored in underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York, and for incorporating the radionculides in that waste into a solid. The high-level liquid waste accumulated from the operation of a chemical reprocessing plant by the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. from 1966 to 1972. The high-level liquid waste consists of approximately 560,000 gallons of alkaline waste from Purex process operations and 12,000 gallons of acidic (nitric acid) waste from one campaign of processing thoria fuels by a modified Thorex process (during this campaign thorium was left in the waste). The alkaline waste contains approximately 30 million curies and the acidic waste contains approximately 2.5 million curies. The reference process described in this report is concerned only with chemically processing the high-level liquid waste to remove radionuclides from the alkaline supernate and converting the radionuclide-containing nonsalt components in the waste into a borosilicate glass

  6. Preconceptual design study for solidifying high-level waste: West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This Appendix contains the preconceptual design drawings prepared by Vitro Engineering Corporation for Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The following types of drawings are included in this Appendix: process flow diagrams; process and instrumentation diagrams; hydraulic diagrams; equipment arrangement drawings; service gallery drawings; electric power one-line diagram; equipment line lists; and outline specifications. The basic purpose of these drawings was to determine the feasibility of installing the reference solidification process in existing cells at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center. Most of the process and vitrification equipment will be installed in the former Chemical Processing Cell, while the salt solidification equipment will be housed in the former Scrap Removal Room. The design utilized a remote maintenance and operation concept

  7. Demonstration Of 3D Effects With High Gain And Efficiency In A UV FEL Oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Stephen; Biallas, George; Blackburn, Keith; Boyce, James; Bullard, Donald; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Douglas, David; Ellingsworth, Forrest; Evtushenko, Pavel; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Gould, Christopher; Gubeli, Joseph; Hardy, David; Jordan, Kevin; Klopf, John; Kortze, James; Legg, Robert; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Sexton, Daniel; Shinn, Michelle; Tennant, Christopher; Walker, Richard; Watson, Anne; Williams, Gwyn; Wilson, Frederick; Zhang, Shukui

    2011-01-01

    We report on the performance of a high gain UV FEL oscillator operating on an energy recovery linac at Jefferson Lab. The high brightness of the electron beam leads to both gain and efficiency that cannot be reconciled with a one-dimensional model. Three-dimensional simulations do predict the performance with reasonable precision. Gain in excess of 100% per pass and an efficiency close to 1/2NW, where NW is the number of wiggler periods, is seen. The laser mirror tuning curves currently permit operation in the wavelength range of 438 to 362 nm. Another mirror set allows operation at longer wavelengths in the red with even higher gain and efficiency.

  8. Demonstration of high performance negative central magnetic shear discharges on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.; Burrell, K.H.; Lao, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    Reliable operation of discharges with negative central magnetic shear has led to significant increases in plasma performance and reactivity in both low confinement, L-mode, and high confinement, H-mode, regimes in the DIII-D tokamak. Using neutral beam injection early in the initial current ramp, a large range of negative shear discharges have been produced with durations lasting up to 3.2 s. The total non- inductive current (beam plus bootstrap) ranges from 50% to 80% in these discharges. In the region of shear reversal, significant peaking of the toroidal rotation [f φ ∼ 30-60 kHz] and ion temperature [T i (0) ∼ 15-22 keV] profiles are observed. In high power discharges with an L-mode edge, peaked density profiles are also observed. Confinement enhancement factors up to H ≡ τ E /τ ITER-89P ∼ 2.5 with an L-mode edge, and H ∼ 3.3 in an Edge Localized Mode (ELM)-free H-mode, are obtained. Transport analysis shows both ion thermal diffusivity and particle diffusivity to be near or below standard neoclassical values in the core. Large pressure peaking in L- mode leads to high disruptivity with Β N ≡ Β T /(I/aB) ≤ 2.3, while broader pressure profiles in H- mode gives low disruptivity with Β N ≤ 4.2

  9. Demonstration of high efficiency intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Kanou, Jirou; Yamasaki, Satoru; Hosoi, Kei; Miyazawa, Takashi; Yamada, Masaharu; Komada, Norikazu

    2006-01-01

    The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been jointly developing intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The operation temperatures between 600 and 800 o C were set as the target, which enable SOFC to use less expensive metallic separators for cell-stacking and to carry out internal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. The electrolyte-supported planar-type cells were fabricated using highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based electrolyte, La(Sr)Ga(Mg,Co)O 3-δ , Ni-(CeO 2 ) 1-x (SmO 1.5 ) x cermet anode, and Sm(Sr)CoO 3-δ cathode. The 1 kW-class power generation modules were fabricated using a seal-less stack of the cells and metallic separators. The 1 kW-class prototype power generation system with the module was developed with the high performance cell, which showed the thermally self-sustainability. The system included an SOFC module, a dc-ac inverter, a desulfurizer, and a heat recovery unit. It provided stable ac power output of 1 kW with the electrical efficiency of 45% LHV based on ac output by using city gas as a fuel, which was considered to be excellent for such a small power generation system. And the hot water of 90 o C was obtained using high temperature off-gas from SOFC

  10. Demonstration of high efficiency intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Toru [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan)]. E-mail: inagaki@rdd.kepco.co.jp; Nishiwaki, Futoshi [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Kanou, Jirou [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Yamasaki, Satoru [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Hosoi, Kei [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Miyazawa, Takashi [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Yamada, Masaharu [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Komada, Norikazu [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been jointly developing intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The operation temperatures between 600 and 800 {sup o}C were set as the target, which enable SOFC to use less expensive metallic separators for cell-stacking and to carry out internal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. The electrolyte-supported planar-type cells were fabricated using highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based electrolyte, La(Sr)Ga(Mg,Co)O{sub 3-{delta}}, Ni-(CeO{sub 2}){sub 1-x}(SmO{sub 1.5}) {sub x} cermet anode, and Sm(Sr)CoO{sub 3-{delta}} cathode. The 1 kW-class power generation modules were fabricated using a seal-less stack of the cells and metallic separators. The 1 kW-class prototype power generation system with the module was developed with the high performance cell, which showed the thermally self-sustainability. The system included an SOFC module, a dc-ac inverter, a desulfurizer, and a heat recovery unit. It provided stable ac power output of 1 kW with the electrical efficiency of 45% LHV based on ac output by using city gas as a fuel, which was considered to be excellent for such a small power generation system. And the hot water of 90 {sup o}C was obtained using high temperature off-gas from SOFC.

  11. Performance demonstration of a high-power space-reactor heat-pipe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrigan, M.A.; Martinez, E.H.; Keddy, E.S.; Runyan, J.; Kemme, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Performance of a 15.9-mm diam, 2-m long, artery heat pipe has been demonstrated at power levels to 22.6 kW and temperatures to 1500 0 K. The heat pipe employed lithium as a working fluid with distribution wicks and arteries fabricated from 400 mesh Mo-41 wt % Re screen. Molybdenum alloy (TZM) was used for the container. Peak axial power density attained in the testing was 19 kW/cm 2 at 1465 0 K. The corresponding radial flux density in the evaporator region of the heat pipe was 150 W/cm 2 . The extrapolated limit for the heat pipe at its 1500 0 K design point is 30 kW, corresponding to an axial flux density of 25 kW/cm 2 . Sonic and capillary limits for the design were investigated in the 1100 to 1500 0 K temperature range. Excellent agreement of measured and predicted temperature and power levels was observed

  12. Thorough specification of the neurophysiologic processes underlying behavior and of their manifestation in EEG - demonstration with the go/no-go task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaf, Goded; Pratt, Hillel

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate the principles of a systematic modeling approach of the neurophysiologic processes underlying a behavioral function. The modeling is based upon a flexible simulation tool, which enables parametric specification of the underlying neurophysiologic characteristics. While the impact of selecting specific parameters is of interest, in this work we focus on the insights, which emerge from rather accepted assumptions regarding neuronal representation. We show that harnessing of even such simple assumptions enables the derivation of significant insights regarding the nature of the neurophysiologic processes underlying behavior. We demonstrate our approach in some detail by modeling the behavioral go/no-go task. We further demonstrate the practical significance of this simplified modeling approach in interpreting experimental data - the manifestation of these processes in the EEG and ERP literature of normal and abnormal (ADHD) function, as well as with comprehensive relevant ERP data analysis. In-fact we show that from the model-based spatiotemporal segregation of the processes, it is possible to derive simple and yet effective and theory-based EEG markers differentiating normal and ADHD subjects. We summarize by claiming that the neurophysiologic processes modeled for the go/no-go task are part of a limited set of neurophysiologic processes which underlie, in a variety of combinations, any behavioral function with measurable operational definition. Such neurophysiologic processes could be sampled directly from EEG on the basis of model-based spatiotemporal segregation.

  13. Demonstration of Millimeter Wave 5G Setup Employing High-Gain Vivaldi Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Tariq Sethi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 4 × 4 slot-coupled Vivaldi antenna (SCVA array unit cell, which offers wide bandwidth and high gain (~23 dBi at the millimeter wave (mmW frequencies of 28 GHz and 38 GHz. A single SCVA element is first presented, which has a bandwidth of 25–40 GHz with an average gain of ~13 dBi at the frequencies of interest. This antenna element is then used to design a 1 × 4 linear SCVA array matched to a 50 Ω impedance via a modified Wilkinson power divider (WPD. Next, the 1 × 4 linear array is used to construct a 4 × 4 antenna array unit cell. The proposed 4 × 4 antenna array unit cell is fabricated, and the characteristics of its elements (i.e., the single SCVA, 1 × 4 linear array, and WPD are thoroughly investigated. Further, the 4 × 4 array is tested for signal reception of various digital modulation formats at lab environment using high-speed digital signal oscilloscope. In particular, a 2.5 Gbps data rate is successfully transmitted achieving receiver sensitivity of −50 dBm at 2 × 10−3 bit error rate (BER for 32 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM with a system baud rate of 500 MHz. The wide bandwidth and high gain along with the excellent performance of the proposed 4 × 4 antenna array unit cell makes it an excellent candidate for future 5G wireless communication applications.

  14. Product Stewardship in Uranium: A Way for the Industry to Demonstrate its High Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Product stewardship is an means for communicating the high performance on health, safety and environment of the nuclear fuel cycle including uranium mining. • It has been effective with other products and is appropriate for uranium. • Can be a vehicle for addressing public concerns across the industry. • Due to uranium’s unique characteristics it has the potential to be a best practice example of product stewardship. • Work is underway in the international arena to progress uranium product stewardship and it represent a unique opportunity to provide whole of industry benefits

  15. A useful demonstration of calculus in a physics high school laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gustavo; Schulte, Jurgen; Stockton, Geoffrey; Wheeler, David

    2018-01-01

    The real power of calculus is revealed when it is applied to actual physical problems. In this paper, we present a calculus inspired physics experiment suitable for high school and undergraduate programs. A model for the theory of the terminal velocity of a falling body subject to a resistive force is developed and its validity tested in an experiment of a falling magnet in a column of self-induced eddy currents. The presented method combines multiple physics concepts such as 1D kinematics, classical mechanics, electromagnetism and non-trivial mathematics. It offers the opportunity for lateral as well as project-based learning.

  16. Demonstration of high temperature thermoelectric waste heat recovery from exhaust gases of a combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Weidenkaff, Anke; Populoh, Sascha; Brunko, Oliver; Veziridis, Angelika; Bach, Christian; Cabalzar, Urs [Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    The energy efficiency of passenger cars becomes increasingly important due to a growing awareness in terms of climate change and shortages of resources associated with rising fuel prices. In addition to the efforts towards the optimization of the engine's internal efficiency, waste heat recovery is the main objective. In this respect, thermoelectric (TE) devices seem to be suited as heat recuperation systems. Thermoelectric generators allow for direct transformation of thermal into electrical energy. In order to thoroughly investigate this type of recovery system a TE demonstrator was mounted on the muffler of a VW Touran and tested. The waste heat of the exhaust gas was converted into electricity with a conversion rate of {proportional_to}. 3.5%. The limiting factor was the low thermal stability of the commercial modules used in this pre-study to elaborate reference values. Thermoelectric modules based on sustainable and temperature-stable materials are being developed to improve the measured values. A thermoelectric test generator with perovskite-type oxide modules was constructed confirm the function and stability at elevated temperatures. Despite all the advantages of this material class, the TE performance is still to be improved. A quantitative measure of a material's TE performance is the temperature-independent Figure of Merit ZT. ZT increases with decreasing thermal and increasing electrical conductivity. An approach to thermal conductivity reduction is nanostructuring of the material. The Ultrasonic Spray Combustion (USC) technique allows to produce powders with a grain size on the nanoscale and was tested in this study. (orig.)

  17. HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.; Stippler, R.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in an one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. The project is funded by the BMFT and the CEC and carrier out in close co-operation with the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN)

  18. The HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.

    1988-04-01

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in a one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  19. High plastic concrete temperature specifications for paving mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents a study performed for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) regarding : concrete roadway construction in hot weather. The main objective in this project is to develop improved : specifications and procedures with resp...

  20. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.; Mueller-Lyda, I.

    1990-04-01

    To satisfy the test objectives thirty highly radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./DG)

  1. Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstration 370 kW High Efficiency Microturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-14

    The C370 Program was awarded in October 2010 with the ambitious goal of designing and testing the most electrically efficient recuperated microturbine engine at a rated power of less than 500 kW. The aggressive targets for electrical efficiency, emission regulatory compliance, and the estimated price point make the system state-of-the-art for microturbine engine systems. These goals will be met by designing a two stage microturbine engine identified as the low pressure spool and high pressure spool that are based on derivative hardware of Capstone’s current commercially available engines. The development and testing of the engine occurred in two phases. Phase I focused on developing a higher power and more efficient engine, that would become the low pressure spool which is based on Capstone’s C200 (200kW) engine architecture. Phase II integrated the low pressure spool created in Phase I with the high pressure spool, which is based on Capstone’s C65 (65 kW) commercially available engine. Integration of the engines, based on preliminary research, would allow the dual spool engine to provide electrical power in excess of 370 kW, with electrical efficiency approaching 42%. If both of these targets were met coupled with the overall CHP target of 85% total combined heating and electrical efficiency California Air Resources Board (CARB) level emissions, and a price target of $600 per kW, the system would represent a step change in the currently available commercial generation technology. Phase I of the C370 program required the development of the C370 low pressure spool. The goal was to increase the C200 engine power by a minimum of 25% — 250 kW — and efficiency from 32% to 37%. These increases in the C200 engine output were imperative to meet the power requirements of the engine when both spools were integrated. An additional benefit of designing and testing the C370 low pressure spool was the possibility of developing a stand-alone product for possible

  2. Demonstration of innovative partitioning processes for minor actinide recycling from high active waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Geist, A.; Malmbeck, R.; Taylor, R.

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of the minor actinides (MA) using the Partitioning and Transmutation strategy (P and T) could contribute significantly to reducing the volume of high level waste in a geological repository and to decreasing the waste's longterm hazards originating from the long half-life of the actinides. Several extraction processes have been developed worldwide for the separation and recovery of MA from highly active raffinates (HAR, e.g. the PUREX raffinate). A multi-cycle separation strategy has been developed within the framework of European collaborative projects. The multi-cycle processes, on the one hand, make use of different extractants for every single process. Within the recent FP7 European research project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation), the development of new innovative separation processes with a reduced number of cycles was envisaged. In the so-called 'innovative SANEX' concept, the trivalent actinides and lanthanides are co-extracted from the PUREX raffinate by a DIAMEX like process (e.g. TODGA). Then, the loaded solvent is subjected to several stripping steps. The first one concerns selectively stripping the actinides(III) with selective water-soluble ligands (SO3-Ph-BTB), followed by the subsequent stripping of trivalent lanthanides. A more challenging route studied also within our laboratories is the direct actinide(III) separation from a PUREX-type raffinate using a mixture of CyMe 4 BTBP and TODGA as extractants, the so-called One cycle SANEX process. A new approach, which was also studied within the ACSEPT project, is the GANEX (Grouped ActiNide EXtraction) concept addressing the simultaneous partitioning of all transuranium (TRU) elements for their homogeneous recycling in advanced generation IV reactor systems. Bulk uranium is removed in the GANEX 1st cycle, e.g. using a monoamide extractant and the GANEX 2nd cycle then separates the TRU. A solvent composed of TODGA + DMDOHEMA in kerosene has been shown to

  3. Demonstration of nuclide migration phenomena in rock on high level irradiation waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo; Okuyama, Yasuko; Takahashi, Manabu

    1997-01-01

    We have studied on main three theme. From study of material movement in rock-groundwater system in the area of high concentration of irradiative elements, the results proved that minerals with Fe 3+ and clay mineral were very important as mineral held nuclide, the existence of pyrite suggested uranium nuclei enrichment and the latter reduced circumstances, and nuclei movement and accumulation could be estimated from oxidation-reduction potential, kinds of dissolved ions and activity ratio. By study of evaluation of permeability in deep rock fissure system, each measurement method of transmissivity in the Transient Pulse method, the Oscillation test and the Flow Pump method was established. The effect of principle stress, confining pressure, pore water pressure and axial pressure on transmissivity could be determined in the limited level of stress. By study of nuclide migration phenomena and change of rock depend on fissure system, the relation between the degree of change and fissure system was investigated and alternation mineral was identified and it's formation conditions estimated. (S.Y.)

  4. Demonstration of high coupling efficiency to Al capsule in rugby hohlraum on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Y.; Smalyuk, V.; Amendt, P.; Bennett, D.; Chen, H.; Dewald, E.; Goyon, C.; Graziani, F.; Johnson, S.; Khan, S.; Landen, O.; Nikroo, A.; Pino, J.; Ralph, J.; Seugling, R.; Strozzi, D.; Tipton, R.; Tommasini, R.; Wang, M.; Loomis, E.; Merritt, E.; Montgomery, D.

    2017-10-01

    A new design of the double-shell approach predicts a high coupling efficiency from the hohlraum to the capsule, with 700 kJ in the capsule instead of 200kJ in the conventional low-Z single-shell scheme, improving prospects of double-shell performance. A recent experiment on NIF has evaluated a first step toward this goal of energy coupling using 0.7x subscale Al capsule, Au rugby hohlraum and 1MJ drive. A shell velocity of 150 μm/ns was measured, DANTE peak temperature of 255 eV was measured, and shell kinetic energy of 36 kJ was inferred using a rocket model, all close to predictions and consistent with 330kJ of total energy coupled to the capsule. Data analysis and more results from subsequent experiments will be presented. In the next step, an additional 2x increase of total coupled energy up to 700 kJ is projected for full-scale 2-MJ drive in U Rugby hohlraum. This work was performed under DOE contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Improved method to demonstrate the structural integrity of high density fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderks, M.; Ungoreit, H.; Kremer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Reracking of existing fuel pools to the maximum extent is desirable from an economical point of view. This goal can be achieved by minimizing the gaps between the spent fuel storage racks. Since the rack design is aimed at enabling consolidated fuel rod storage, additional requirements arise with respect to the design and the structural analysis. The loads resulting from seismic events are decisive for the structural analysis and require a specially detailed and in-depth analysis for high seismic loads. The verification of structural integrity and functionality is performed in two phases. In the first phase the motional behavior of single racks, rows of racks and, where required, of all racks in the pool is simulated by excitation with displacement time histories under consideration of the fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The displacements from these simulations are evaluated, while the loads are utilized as input data for the structural analysis of the racks and the pool floor. The structural analyses for the racks comprise substantially stress analyses for base material and welds as well as stability analyses for the support channels and the rack outside walls. The analyses are performed in accordance with the specified codes and standards

  6. Constrained dansyl derivatives reveal bacterial specificity of highly conserved thymidylate synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Sanuele; Tondi, Donatella; Ferrari, Stefania; Venturelli, Alberto; Ghelli, Stefano; Costi, Maria Paola

    2008-03-25

    The elucidation of the structural/functional specificities of highly conserved enzymes remains a challenging area of investigation, and enzymes involved in cellular replication are important targets for functional studies and drug discovery. Thymidylate synthase (TS, ThyA) governs the synthesis of thymidylate for use in DNA synthesis. The present study focused on Lactobacillus casei TS (LcTS) and Escherichia coli TS (EcTS), which exhibit 50 % sequence identity and strong folding similarity. We have successfully designed and validated a chemical model in which linear, but not constrained, dansyl derivatives specifically complement the LcTS active site. Conversely, chemically constrained dansyl derivatives showed up to 1000-fold improved affinity for EcTS relative to the inhibitory activity of linear derivatives. This study demonstrates that the accurate design of small ligands can uncover functional features of highly conserved enzymes.

  7. Preparation of [35S]sulfobromophthalein of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurisu, H.; Nilprabhassorn, P.; Wolkoff, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Study of the hepatocyte transport mechanism of organic anions such as bilirubin and sulfobromophthalein has been limited by the relatively low specific activities of these ligands. [ 3 H]Bilirubin and [ 35 S]sulfobromophthalein have been available with specific activities of only approximately 100 mCi/mmol. We now report a relatively simple procedure to prepare [ 35 S]sulfobromophthalein at a specific activity of approximately 3000 mCi/mmol. This compound is radiochemically pure and serves as a tracer for authentic sulfobromophthalein as judged by chromatography, hepatocyte uptake, metabolism, and biliary excretion. Use of this material as a photoaffinity probe and as a transported ligand may permit dissection and understanding of its transport mechanism

  8. High specific energy Lithium Sulfur cell for space application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaniego Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Airbus DS has been testing and characterizing prototype Li-S cells manufactured by OXIS Energy Ltd. since 2014, demonstrating the potential and fast evolution of the cells performance. This paper presents the last test results on a set of different batches provided by OXIS and performed at Airbus DS premises in the frame of an ESA Innovation Triangle Initiative (ITI.

  9. TEA HF laser with a high specific radiation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchikin, A. V.; Andreev, M. V.; Losev, V. F.; Panchenko, Yu. N.

    2017-01-01

    Results of experimental studies of the chemical HF laser with a non-chain reaction are presented. The possibility of the total laser efficiency of 5 % is shown when a traditional C-to-C pumping circuit with the charging voltage of 20-24 kV is used. It is experimentally shown that the specific radiation output energy of 21 J/l is reached at the specific pump energy of 350 J/l in SF6/H2 = 14/1 mixture at the total pressure of 0.27 bar.

  10. Sintering of uranium oxide of high specific surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel, Alain; Francois, Bernard; Delmas, Roger; Caillat, Roger

    1959-01-01

    The extent to which a uranium oxide powder deriving from ammonium uranate or uranium peroxide lends itself to the sintering process depends largely on its specific surface area. When this is greater than 5 m 2 / g there is an optimum temperature for sintering in hydrogen. This temperature becomes less as the specific area of the powder is greater. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 249, p. 1045-1047, sitting of 21 September 1959 [fr

  11. Preparation of tritiated thymidine of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan'kova, E.K.; Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    Optimum conditions for the reaction are determined; and conditions for reaction component separation on resins of Dowex-1x8 and APA-8p (HCOO - , elution with ammonium formate) are optimized. It is established that the transition from thymine preparations with the specific activity of 0.15 and 1.5 TBq/mmol to the preparation with the specific activity of 3.25 TBq/mmol brings about the reduction in the desoxyribosylation reaction rate and the decrease in the thymidine yield from 85-90 to 65% [ru

  12. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

  13. Overview of ERA Integrated Technology Demonstration (ITD) 51A Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) Integration for Hybrid Wing Body (HWB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; James, Kevin D.; Bonet, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft Project (ERA) was a ve year project broken into two phases. In phase II, high N+2 Technical Readiness Level demonstrations were grouped into Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITD). This paper describes the work done on ITD-51A: the Vehicle Systems Integration, Engine Airframe Integration Demonstration. Refinement of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft from the possible candidates developed in ERA Phase I was continued. Scaled powered, and unpowered wind- tunnel testing, with and without acoustics, in the NASA LARC 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Tunnel, the NASA ARC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and the 40- by 80-foot test section of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) in conjunction with very closely coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics was used to demonstrate the fuel burn and acoustic milestone targets of the ERA Project.

  14. Coaxial plasma thrusters for high specific impulse propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Kurt F.; Gerwin, Richard A.; Barnes, Cris W.; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Moses, Ronald, Jr.; Scarberry, Richard; Wurden, Glen

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental basis for coaxial plasma thruster performance is presented and the steady-state, ideal MHD properties of a coaxial thruster using an annular magnetic nozzle are discussed. Formulas for power usage, thrust, mass flow rate, and specific impulse are acquired and employed to assess thruster performance. The performance estimates are compared with the observed properties of an unoptimized coaxial plasma gun. These comparisons support the hypothesis that ideal MHD has an important role in coaxial plasma thruster dynamics.

  15. Human face recognition ability is specific and highly heritable

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura; Chabris, Christopher F.; Chatterjee, Garga; Williams, Mark; Loken, Eric; Nakayama, Ken; Duchaine, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Compared with notable successes in the genetics of basic sensory transduction, progress on the genetics of higher level perception and cognition has been limited. We propose that investigating specific cognitive abilities with well-defined neural substrates, such as face recognition, may yield additional insights. In a twin study of face recognition, we found that the correlation of scores between monozygotic twins (0.70) was more than double the dizygotic twin correlation (0.29), evidence fo...

  16. Small-scale demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and solidification using actual SRP waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okeson, J.K.; Galloway, R.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Woolsey, G.B.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    A small-scale demonstration of the high-level radioactive waste solidification process by vitrification in borosilicate glass is being conducted using 5-6 liter batches of actual waste. Equipment performance and processing characteristics of the various unit operations in the process are reported and, where appropriate, are compared to large-scale results obtained with synthetic waste

  17. Small-scale integrated demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and vitrification using actual SRP waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Woolsey, G.B.; Galloway, R.M.; Baumgarten, P.M.; Eibling, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments have been made to demonstrate the feasibility of immobilizing SRP high-level waste in borosilicate glass. Results to date are encouraging. Equipment performance and processing characteristics for solidifying small batches of actual SRP waste have agreed well with previous experience with small- and large-scale tests synthetic waste, and with theoretical predictions

  18. High resolution diffraction imaging of mercuric iodide: Demonstration of the necessity for alternate crystal processing techniques for highly purified material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, B.; Berg, L. van den; Laor, U.

    1995-01-01

    The overall crystalline lattice uniformity in recently available, highly purified mercuric iodide single crystals has been shown to be impacted by crystal handling techniques that were previously satisfactory. High resolution diffraction imaging of the surface regularity of crystals of various levels of purity and growth orientation shows: (1) that the newer materials have a generally lower level of precipitates, (2) that the incidence of these precipitates is now closely correlated with growth direction, and (3) that the deformation resistance and resulting sensitivity to crystal handling procedures are also closely correlated with these factors in this soft material. As a result, gentler cutting and polishing procedures have been developed and are shown to be effective in preserving overall lattice regularity in the new material. The polishing required to remove residual surface scratches affect the lattice orientation of the softer, precipitate-free regions, while not affecting those regions with detectable levels of precipitates. These results correlate closely with the electrical properties of devices made from these crystals. Mercuric iodide single crystals have proved to be particularly useful for x and γ ray detectors because their room temperature operation allow for simple, efficient, and compact instrumentation

  19. Observing Exoplanets with High-dispersion Coronagraphy. II. Demonstration of an Active Single-mode Fiber Injection Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawet, D.; Ruane, G.; Xuan, W.; Echeverri, D.; Klimovich, N.; Randolph, M.; Fucik, J.; Wang, J.; Dekany, R.; Delorme, J.-R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wallace, J. K.; Vasisht, G.; Mennesson, B.; Choquet, E.; Serabyn, E., E-mail: dmawet@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    High-dispersion coronagraphy (HDC) optimally combines high-contrast imaging techniques such as adaptive optics/wavefront control plus coronagraphy to high spectral resolution spectroscopy. HDC is a critical pathway toward fully characterizing exoplanet atmospheres across a broad range of masses from giant gaseous planets down to Earth-like planets. In addition to determining the molecular composition of exoplanet atmospheres, HDC also enables Doppler mapping of atmosphere inhomogeneities (temperature, clouds, wind), as well as precise measurements of exoplanet rotational velocities. Here, we demonstrate an innovative concept for injecting the directly imaged planet light into a single-mode fiber, linking a high-contrast adaptively corrected coronagraph to a high-resolution spectrograph (diffraction-limited or not). Our laboratory demonstration includes three key milestones: close-to-theoretical injection efficiency, accurate pointing and tracking, and on-fiber coherent modulation and speckle nulling of spurious starlight signal coupling into the fiber. Using the extreme modal selectivity of single-mode fibers, we also demonstrated speckle suppression gains that outperform conventional image-based speckle nulling by at least two orders of magnitude.

  20. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR in colorectal carcinoma correlates with high but not low level gene amplification, as demonstrated by CISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Chris; Broomfield, Amy; Bean, Elaine; Whitehead, Martin; Yip, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    To assess and compare immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with gene amplification as demonstrated by chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH), in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Sections from 100 consecutive colorectal cancer resection specimens were stained for EGFR using immunohistochemistry and CISH. Immunohistochemical assessment was independently performed at two laboratories, using the same antibody and protocols. With immunohistochemistry, strong circumferential membrane staining (3+ staining) was demonstrated in only 5% of cases, and this was only focal in three of five cases. At one laboratory, weak or incomplete staining (1+ or 2+) was observed in five further cases (5%), which had been negative at the other laboratory. CISH demonstrated high level gene amplification (>10 copies/nucleus) in the same five cases which had demonstrated 3+ staining with immunohistochemistry, and in those cases where the staining was focal, the amplification was demonstrated in the same foci of the tumour. Five further cases (5%) had low level amplification (5-10 copies per nucleus); these cases did not exhibit significant positive staining with immunohistochemistry. All the cases which demonstrated gene amplification (high or low level) arose in the distal colon. There was no correlation between gene amplification status and a variety of other variables, including stage at diagnosis, mucinous differentiation, neuroendocrine differentiation, or loss of expression of mismatch repair proteins. Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR is variable between laboratories, even using standardised protocols. 3+ staining is predictive of high level gene amplification, but correlates very poorly with low level amplification, which may still be clinically significant. In some cases gene amplification was only focal, offering a potential explanation for poor response to targeted therapy in patients with EGFR positive tumours.

  2. Production of high-specific activity radionuclides using SM high-flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karelin, Ye.A.; Toporov, Yu.G.; Filimonov, V.T.; Vakhetov, F.Z.; Tarasov, V.A.; Kuznetsov, R.A.; Lebedev, V.M.; Andreev, O.I.; Melnik, M.I.; Gavrilov, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    The development of High Specific Activity (HSA) radionuclides production technologies is one of the directions of RIAR activity, and the high flux research reactor SM, having neutron flux density up to 2.10 15 cm -2 s 1 in a wide range of neutron spectra hardness, plays the principal role in this development. The use of a high-flux reactor for radionuclide production provides the following advantages: production of radionuclides with extremely high specific activity, decreasing of impurities content in irradiated targets (both radioactive and non-radioactive), cost-effective use of expensive isotopically enriched target materials. The production technologies of P-33, Gd-153, W-188, Ni-63, Fe-55,59, Sn-113,117m,119m, Sr- 89, applied in industry, nuclear medicine, research, etc, were developed by RIAR during the last 5-10 years. The research work included the development of calculation procedures for radionuclide reactor accumulation forecast, experimental determination of neutron cross-sections, the development of irradiated materials reprocessing procedures, isolation and purification of radionuclides. The principal results are reviewed in the paper. (authors)

  3. Experimental demonstration of OpenFlow-enabled media ecosystem architecture for high-end applications over metro and core networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntofon, Okung-Dike; Channegowda, Mayur P; Efstathiou, Nikolaos; Rashidi Fard, Mehdi; Nejabati, Reza; Hunter, David K; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2013-02-25

    In this paper, a novel Software-Defined Networking (SDN) architecture is proposed for high-end Ultra High Definition (UHD) media applications. UHD media applications require huge amounts of bandwidth that can only be met with high-capacity optical networks. In addition, there are requirements for control frameworks capable of delivering effective application performance with efficient network utilization. A novel SDN-based Controller that tightly integrates application-awareness with network control and management is proposed for such applications. An OpenFlow-enabled test-bed demonstrator is reported with performance evaluations of advanced online and offline media- and network-aware schedulers.

  4. Demonstration of Enhanced Radiation Drive in Hohlraums Made from a Mixture of High-Z Wall Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schein, Jochen; Jones, Ogden; Rosen, Mordecai; Dewald, Eduard; Glenzer, Siegfried; Gunther, Janelle; Hammel, Bruce; Landen, Otto; Suter, Laurence; Wallace, Russell

    2007-01-01

    We present results from experiments, numerical simulations and analytic modeling, demonstrating enhanced hohlraum performance. Care in the fabrication and handling of hohlraums with walls consisting of high-Z mixtures (cocktails) has led to our demonstration, for the first time, of a significant increase in radiation temperature compared to a pure Au hohlraum that is in agreement with predictions and is ascribable to reduced wall losses. The data suggest that a National Ignition Facility ignition hohlraum made of a U:Au:Dy cocktail should have ∼17% reduction in wall losses compared to a similar gold hohlraum

  5. Demonstration of the serum antibody to Epstein-Barr virus specific DNA polymerased (EBV-DP) from patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, R.S.; Li, J.S.; Grill, S.; Nutter, L.M.; Cheng, Y.C.

    1986-03-05

    Raji cells, an EBV genome carrying and nonproducer cell line, treated with tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and n-butyrate could induce a special DNA polymerase which has properties that are similar to the EBV-DP induced by TPA in P/sub 3/HR-I cells, an EBV producer cell line. Since EBV was found to have a strong association with NPC, and antibodies against EBV proteins or enzymes were found in high levels in sera from these patients, the possible presence of serum antibody against EBV-DP was examined. The serum titer of antibody to EBV-DP was found to have 190 +/- 84 units/ml serum (mean +/- S.D.) in 48 sera from patients with NPC. The titer in 52 healthy donors was 31.4 +/- 28 unit/ml serum (p < 0.01). The antibody was found to be associated with the IgG but not the IgA fraction. The antibody titers against EBV-DP were not correlated with the titer against EBV-DNase or VCA-IgA. Whether the antibody observed is against an EBV-DP core protein or its stimulating protein, as demonstrated by this laboratory previously, is still being investigated. This study demonstrated the high frequency and high titer of antibody against EBV-DP in serum from patients with NPC, and suggested the potential of utilizing this antibody titer to compliment other methods for the early diagnosis or prognosis of NPC.

  6. Surprisingly high substrate specificities observed in complex biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Kragelund, Caroline

    The behavior of microorganisms in natural ecosystems (e.g. biofilms) differs significantly from laboratory studies. In nature microorganisms experience alternating periods of surplus nutrients, nutrient-limitation, and starvation. Literature data suggests that to survive and compete successfully......, microorganisms can regulate their metabolism expressing wide range of uptake and catabolic systems. However, ecophysiological studies of natural biofilms indicate that bacteria are very specialized in their choice of substrate, so even minor changes in substrate composition can affect the community composition...... by selection for different specialized species. We hypothesized that bacteria growing in natural environment express strongly conserved substrate specificity which is independent on short-term (few hours) variations in growth conditions. In this study, biofilm from Aalborg wastewater treatment plant was used...

  7. Fabrication of high specificity hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles assisted by Eudragit for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiaodong; Chen, Lijue; Velleman, Leonora; Li, Chengpeng; Zhu, Haijin; He, Canzhong; Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Duan, Wei; Kong, Lingxue

    2015-05-01

    Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) are one of the most promising carriers for effective drug delivery due to their large surface area, high volume for drug loading and excellent biocompatibility. However, the non-ionic surfactant templated HMSNs often have a broad size distribution and a defective mesoporous structure because of the difficulties involved in controlling the formation and organization of micelles for the growth of silica framework. In this paper, a novel "Eudragit assisted" strategy has been developed to fabricate HMSNs by utilising the Eudragit nanoparticles as cores and to assist in the self-assembly of micelle organisation. Highly dispersed mesoporous silica spheres with intact hollow interiors and through pores on the shell were fabricated. The HMSNs have a high surface area (670 m(2)/g), small diameter (120 nm) and uniform pore size (2.5 nm) that facilitated the effective encapsulation of 5-fluorouracil within HMSNs, achieving a high loading capacity of 194.5 mg(5-FU)/g(HMSNs). The HMSNs were non-cytotoxic to colorectal cancer cells SW480 and can be bioconjugated with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) for efficient and specific cell internalization. The high specificity and excellent targeting performance of EGF grafted HMSNs have demonstrated that they can become potential intracellular drug delivery vehicles for colorectal cancers via EGF-EGFR interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application specific integrated circuit for high temperature oil well applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallet, T.; Gakkestad, J.; Forre, G.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the design of an integrated BiCMOS circuit for high temperature applications. The circuit contains Pierce oscillators with automatic gain control, and measurements show that it is operating up to 266{sup o}C. The relative frequency variation up to 200 {sup o}C is less than 60 ppm caused mainly by the crystal element itself. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Disposal demonstration of a high integrity container (HIC) containing an EPICOR-II prefilter from Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Tyacke, M.J.; Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1985-02-01

    A high integrity container (HIC) was developed, tested, and certified for use in disposing of unusual low-level radioactive waste from Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The work was coordinated by EG and G Idaho, Inc. and funded by the US Department of Energy. A disposal demonstration using an HIC containing an EPICOR-II prefilter from TMI-2 was completed at the commercial disposal facility in the State of Washington. A Certification of Compliance was issued by the Department of Social and Health Services of the State of Washington to use the HIC in disposing of up to 50 EPICOR-II prefilters. That Certification of Compliance was issued after rigorous review of the HIC design and test program by the State and by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report describes the processes of loading, transporting, and disposing of the demonstration HIC and briefly describes the design, testing, and approval effort leading up to the demonstration

  10. The C-terminal region of the non-structural protein 2B from Hepatitis A Virus demonstrates lipid-specific viroporin-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ashutosh; Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Kamalika; Nain, Anshu; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-10-01

    Viroporins are virally encoded, membrane-active proteins, which enhance viral replication and assist in egress of viruses from host cells. The 2B proteins in the picornaviridae family are known to have viroporin-like properties, and play critical roles during virus replication. The 2B protein of Hepatitis A Virus (2B), an unusual picornavirus, is somewhat dissimilar from its analogues in several respects. HAV 2B is approximately 2.5 times the length of other 2B proteins, and does not disrupt calcium homeostasis or glycoprotein trafficking. Additionally, its membrane penetrating properties are not yet clearly established. Here we show that the membrane interacting activity of HAV 2B is localized in its C-terminal region, which contains an alpha-helical hairpin motif. We show that this region is capable of forming small pores in membranes and demonstrates lipid specific activity, which partially rationalizes the intracellular localization of full-length 2B. Using a combination of biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we also show that HAV 2B demonstrates a marked propensity to dimerize in a crowded environment, and probably interacts with membranes in a multimeric form, a hallmark of other picornavirus viroporins. In sum, our study clearly establishes HAV 2B as a bona fide viroporin in the picornaviridae family.

  11. Structural basis for the high specificity of a Trypanosoma congolense immunoassay targeting glycosomal aldolase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joar Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal African trypanosomosis (AAT is a neglected tropical disease which imposes a heavy burden on the livestock industry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its causative agents are Trypanosoma parasites, with T. congolense and T. vivax being responsible for the majority of the cases. Recently, we identified a Nanobody (Nb474 that was employed to develop a homologous sandwich ELISA targeting T. congolense fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (TcoALD. Despite the high sequence identity between trypanosomatid aldolases, the Nb474-based immunoassay is highly specific for T. congolense detection. The results presented in this paper yield insights into the molecular principles underlying the assay's high specificity.The structure of the Nb474-TcoALD complex was determined via X-ray crystallography. Together with analytical gel filtration, the structure reveals that a single TcoALD tetramer contains four binding sites for Nb474. Through a comparison with the crystal structures of two other trypanosomatid aldolases, TcoALD residues Ala77 and Leu106 were identified as hot spots for specificity. Via ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR, we demonstrate that mutation of these residues does not abolish TcoALD recognition by Nb474, but does lead to a lack of detection in the Nb474-based homologous sandwich immunoassay.The results show that the high specificity of the Nb474-based immunoassay is not determined by the initial recognition event between Nb474 and TcoALD, but rather by its homologous sandwich design. This (i provides insights into the optimal set-up of the assay, (ii may be of great significance for field applications as it could explain the potential detection escape of certain T. congolense strains, and (iii may be of general interest to those developing similar assays.

  12. High Specific Power Motors in LN2 and LH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has been operated in liquid nitrogen (LN2) with a power density as high as that reported for any motor or generator. The high performance stems from the low resistivity of Cu at LN2 temperature and from the geometry of the windings, the combination of which permits steady-state rms current density up to 7000 A/sq cm, about 10 times that possible in coils cooled by natural convection at room temperature. The Joule heating in the coils is conducted to the end turns for rejection to the LN2 bath. Minimal heat rejection occurs in the motor slots, preserving that region for conductor. In the end turns, the conductor layers are spaced to form a heat-exchanger-like structure that permits nucleate boiling over a large surface area. Although tests were performed in LN2 for convenience, this motor was designed as a prototype for use with liquid hydrogen (LH2) as the coolant. End-cooled coils would perform even better in LH2 because of further increases in copper electrical and thermal conductivities. Thermal analyses comparing LN2 and LH2 cooling are presented verifying that end-cooled coils in LH2 could be either much longer or could operate at higher current density without thermal runaway than in LN2.

  13. High efficiency video coding coding tools and specification

    CERN Document Server

    Wien, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The video coding standard High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) targets at improved compression performance for video resolutions of HD and beyond, providing Ultra HD video at similar compressed bit rates as for HD video encoded with the well-established video coding standard H.264 | AVC. Based on known concepts, new coding structures and improved coding tools have been developed and specified in HEVC. The standard is expected to be taken up easily by established industry as well as new endeavors, answering the needs of todays connected and ever-evolving online world. This book presents the High Efficiency Video Coding standard and explains it in a clear and coherent language. It provides a comprehensive and consistently written description, all of a piece. The book targets at both, newbies to video coding as well as experts in the field. While providing sections with introductory text for the beginner, it suits as a well-arranged reference book for the expert. The book provides a comprehensive reference for th...

  14. High specificity but low sensitivity of mutation-specific antibodies against EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondgaard, Anna-Louise; Høgdall, Estrid; Mellemgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of more sensitive methods including real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry with mutation-specific antibodies might be a promising detection method. We evaluated 210 samples with NSCLC from an unselected Caucasian population. Extracted DNA was analyzed for EGFR mutations by RT-PCR (Therascreen EGFR......, and staining score (multipum of intensity (graded 0-3) and percentages (0-100%) of stained tumor cells) was calculated. Positivity was defined as staining score >0. Specificity of exon19 antibody was 98.8% (95% confidence interval=95.9-99.9%) and of exon21 antibody 97.8% (95% confidence interval=94...... was demonstrated. However, sensitivity was low, especially for exon19 deletions, and thus these antibodies cannot yet be used as screening method for EGFR mutations in NSCLC. Refinement of sensitivity for the mutation-specific antibodies is warranted to improve molecular diagnosis using EGFR immunohistochemistry....

  15. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable controllers is of fundamental importance in embedded system technology. This paper describes an important extension of an existing architectural synthesis system targeting the generation of ASIP reprogrammable architectures. The designer can then generate both style of architecture, hardwired and programmable, using the same synthesis system and can quickly evaluate the trade-offs of hardware decisions.

  16. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros, James H.,; Kelly, Suzanne M.; Pedretti, Kevin; Grant, Ryan; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Levenhagen, Michael J.; DeBonis, David

    2014-08-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  17. Suitability of second pass RO as a substitute for high quality MSF product water in Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, V.; Venkatesh, P.; Balasubramanian, C.; Nagaraj, R.; Yadav, Manoj Kumar; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant at Kalpakkam consists of both Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF) and Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) process to produce desalinated water. It supplies part of highly pure water from MSF to Madras Atomic Power Station for its boiler feed requirements and remaining water is blend with SWRO product water and sent to other common facilities located inside Kalpakkam campus. A critical techno-economic analysis is carried out to find out the suitability of second pass RO to sustain the availability of highly pure water in case of MSF plant shutdown. (author)

  18. Communication and Memory Architecture Design of Application-Specific High-End Multiprocessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the design of communication and memory architectures of massively parallel hardware multiprocessors necessary for the implementation of highly demanding applications. We demonstrated that for the massively parallel hardware multiprocessors the traditionally used flat communication architectures and multi-port memories do not scale well, and the memory and communication network influence on both the throughput and circuit area dominates the processors influence. To resolve the problems and ensure scalability, we proposed to design highly optimized application-specific hierarchical and/or partitioned communication and memory architectures through exploring and exploiting the regularity and hierarchy of the actual data flows of a given application. Furthermore, we proposed some data distribution and related data mapping schemes in the shared (global partitioned memories with the aim to eliminate the memory access conflicts, as well as, to ensure that our communication design strategies will be applicable. We incorporated these architecture synthesis strategies into our quality-driven model-based multi-processor design method and related automated architecture exploration framework. Using this framework, we performed a large series of experiments that demonstrate many various important features of the synthesized memory and communication architectures. They also demonstrate that our method and related framework are able to efficiently synthesize well scalable memory and communication architectures even for the high-end multiprocessors. The gains as high as 12-times in performance and 25-times in area can be obtained when using the hierarchical communication networks instead of the flat networks. However, for the high parallelism levels only the partitioned approach ensures the scalability in performance.

  19. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Highly Water-dispersible Anatase Nanoparticles with Large Specific Surface Area and Their Adsorptive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Xueting; Zhang Dongyun; Zhao Siqin; Asuha Sin

    2016-01-01

    Highly water-dispersible and very small TiO2 nanoparticles (~3 nm anatase) with large specific surface area have been synthesized by hydrolysis and hydrothermal reactions of titanium butoxide and used for the removal of three azo dyes (Congo red, orange II, and methyl orange) with different molecular structure from simulated wastewaters. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in water with large specific surface area up to 417 m2 g−1. Adsorption experiments demonstrated that th...

  20. Highly Specific Detection of Five Exotic Quarantine Plant Viruses using RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseong Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To detect five plant viruses (Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Eggplant mottled dwarf virus, Pelargonium zonate spot virus, and Rice yellow mottle virus for quarantine purposes, we designed 15 RT-PCR primer sets. Primer design was based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene, which is highly conserved within species. All but one primer set successfully amplified the targets, and gradient PCRs indicated that the optimal temperature for the 14 useful primer sets was 51.9°C. Some primer sets worked well regardless of annealing temperature while others required a very specific annealing temperature. A primer specificity test using plant total RNAs and cDNAs of other plant virus-infected samples demonstrated that the designed primer sets were highly specific and generated reproducible results. The newly developed RT-PCR primer sets would be useful for quarantine inspections aimed at preventing the entry of exotic plant viruses into Korea.

  1. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-01-01

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

  2. Unallocated Off-Specification Highly Enriched Uranium: Recommendations for Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, D. N.; Boeke, S. G.; Tousley, D. R.; Bickford, W.; Goergen, C.; Williams, W.; Hassler, M.; Nelson, T.; Keck, R.; Arbital, J.

    2002-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant progress with regard to disposition planning for 174 metric tons (MTU) of surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). Approximately 55 MTU of this 174 MTU are ''offspec'' HEU. (''Off-spec'' signifies that the isotopic or chemical content of the material does not meet the American Society for Testing and Materials standards for commercial nuclear reactor fuel.) Approximately 33 of the 55 MTU have been allocated to off-spec commercial reactor fuel per an Interagency Agreement between DOE and the Tennessee Valley Authority (1). To determine disposition plans for the remaining {approx}22 MTU, the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) co-sponsored this technical study. This paper represents a synopsis of the formal technical report (NNSA/NN-0014). The {approx} 22 MTU of off-spec HEU inventory in this study were divided into two main groupings: one grouping with plutonium (Pu) contamination and one grouping without plutonium. This study identified and evaluated 26 potential paths for the disposition of this HEU using proven decision analysis tools. This selection process resulted in recommended and alternative disposition paths for each group of HEU. The evaluation and selection of these paths considered criteria such as technical maturity, programmatic issues, cost, schedule, and environment, safety and health compliance. The primary recommendations from the analysis are comprised of 7 different disposition paths. The study recommendations will serve as a technical basis for subsequent programmatic decisions as disposition of this HEU moves into the implementation phase.

  3. High expression of testes-specific protease 50 is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50 is normally expressed in testes and abnormally expressed in breast cancer, but whether TSP50 is expressed in colorectal carcinoma (CRC and its clinical significance is unclear. We aimed to detect TSP50 expression in CRC, correlate it with clinicopathological factors, and assess its potential diagnostic and prognostic value. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TSP50 mRNAs and proteins were detected in 7 CRC cell lines and 8 CRC specimens via RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis of TSP50, p53 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA with tissue microarrays composed of 95 CRCs, 20 colorectal adenomas and 20 normal colorectal tissues were carried out and correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and disease-specific survival for CRC patients. There was no significant correlation between the expression levels of TSP50 and p53 (P = 0.751 or CEA (P = 0.663. Abundant expression of TSP50 protein was found in CRCs (68.4% while it was poorly expressed in colorectal adenomas and normal tissues (P<0.0001. Thus, CRCs can be distinguished from them with high specificity (92.5% and positive predictive value (PPV, 95.6%. The survival of CRC patients with high TSP50 expression was significantly shorter than that of the patients with low TSP50 expression (P = 0.010, specifically in patients who had early-stage tumors (stage I and II; P = 0.004. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that high TSP50 expression was a statistically significant independent risk factor (hazard ratio  = 2.205, 95% CI = 1.214-4.004, P = 0.009. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that TSP50 is a potential effective indicator of poor survival for CRC patients, especially for those with early-stage tumors.

  4. An Immunoglobulin G1 Monoclonal Antibody Highly Specific to the Wall of Cryptosporidium Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, C.; Vesey, G.; Slade, M.; Ferrari, B.; Veal, D. A.; Williams, K.

    2000-01-01

    The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water is critically dependent on the quality of immunofluorescent reagents. Experiments were performed to develop a method for producing highly specific antibodies to Cryptosporidium oocysts that can be used for water testing. BALB/c mice were immunized with six different antigen preparations and monitored for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM responses to the surface of Cryptosporidium oocysts. One group of mice received purified oocyst walls, a second group received a soluble protein preparation extracted from the outside of the oocyst wall, and the third group received whole inactivated oocysts. Three additional groups were immunized with sequentially prepared oocyst extracts to provide for a comparison of the immune response. Mice injected with the soluble protein extract demonstrated an IgG response to oocysts surface that was not seen in the whole-oocyst group. Mice injected with whole oocysts showed an IgM response only, while mice injected with purified oocyst walls showed little increase in IgM or IgG levels. Of the additional reported preparations only one, BME (2-mercaptoethanol treated), produced a weak IgM response to the oocyst wall. A mouse from the soluble oocyst extract group yielding a high IgG response was utilized to produce a highly specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody (Cry104) specific to the oocyst surface. Comparative flow cytometric analysis indicated that Cry104 has a higher avidity and specificity to oocysts in water concentrates than other commercially available antibodies. PMID:10973448

  5. Main outcomes from in situ thermo-hydro-mechanical experiments programme to demonstrate feasibility of radioactive high-level waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Armand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of radioactive waste disposal, an underground research laboratory (URL is a facility in which experiments are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing and operating a radioactive waste disposal facility within a geological formation. The Meuse/Haute-Marne URL is a site-specific facility planned to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx claystone. The thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM behaviour of the host rock is significant for the design of the underground nuclear waste disposal facility and for its long-term safety. The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra has begun a research programme aiming to demonstrate the relevancy of the French high-level waste (HLW concept. This paper presents the programme implemented from small-scale (small diameter boreholes to full-scale demonstration experiments to study the THM effects of the thermal transient on the COx claystone and the strategy implemented in this new programme to demonstrate and optimise current disposal facility components for HLW. It shows that the French high-level waste concept is feasible and working in the COx claystone. It also exhibits that, as for other plastic clay or claystone, heating-induced pore pressure increases and that the THM behaviour is anisotropic.

  6. Sensory-specific satiety is intact in rats made obese on a high-fat high-sugar choice diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kevin P

    2017-05-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is the temporary decreased pleasantness of a recently eaten food, which inhibits further eating. Evidence is currently mixed whether SSS is weaker in obese people, and whether such difference precedes or follows from the obese state. Animal models allow testing whether diet-induced obesity causes SSS impairment. Female rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned to an obesogenic high-fat, high-sugar choice diet or chow-only control. Tests of SSS involved pre-feeding a single palatable, distinctively-flavored food (cheese- or cocoa-flavored) prior to free choice between both foods. Rats were tested for short-term SSS (2 h pre-feeding immediately followed by 2 h choice) and long-term SSS (3 day pre-feeding prior to choice on day 4). In both short- and long-term tests rats exhibited SSS by shifting preference towards the food not recently eaten. SSS was not impaired in obese rats. On the contrary, in the long-term tests they showed stronger SSS than controls. This demonstrates that neither the obese state nor a history of excess energy consumption fundamentally causes impaired SSS in rats. The putative impaired SSS in obese people may instead reflect a specific predisposition, properties of the obesogenic diet, or history of restrictive dieting and bingeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Demonstration of a 100-kWth high-temperature solar thermochemical reactor pilot plant for ZnO dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, E.; Villasmil, W.; Meier, A.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermochemical H2O and CO2 splitting is a viable pathway towards sustainable and large-scale production of synthetic fuels. A reactor pilot plant for the solar-driven thermal dissociation of ZnO into metallic Zn has been successfully developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Promising experimental results from the 100-kWth ZnO pilot plant were obtained in 2014 during two prolonged experimental campaigns in a high flux solar simulator at PSI and a 1-MW solar furnace in Odeillo, France. Between March and June the pilot plant was mounted in the solar simulator and in-situ flow-visualization experiments were conducted in order to prevent particle-laden fluid flows near the window from attenuating transparency by blocking incoming radiation. Window flow patterns were successfully characterized, and it was demonstrated that particle transport could be controlled and suppressed completely. These results enabled the successful operation of the reactor between August and October when on-sun experiments were conducted in the solar furnace in order to demonstrate the pilot plant technology and characterize its performance. The reactor was operated for over 97 hours at temperatures as high as 2064 K; over 28 kg of ZnO was dissociated at reaction rates as high as 28 g/min.

  8. Demonstration of radiation pulse shaping with nested-tungsten-wire-array pinches for high-yield inertial confinement fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, M E; Vesey, R A; Sinars, D B; Chittenden, J P; Waisman, E M; Lemke, R W; Lebedev, S V; Bliss, D E; Stygar, W A; Porter, J L; Schroen, D G; Mazarakis, M G; Chandler, G A; Mehlhorn, T A

    2005-10-28

    Nested wire-array pinches are shown to generate soft x-ray radiation pulse shapes required for three-shock isentropic compression and hot-spot ignition of high-yield inertial confinement fusion capsules. We demonstrate a reproducible and tunable foot pulse (first shock) produced by interaction of the outer and inner arrays. A first-step pulse (second shock) is produced by inner array collision with a central CH2 foam target. Stagnation of the inner array at the axis produces the third shock. Capsules optimized for several of these shapes produce 290-900 MJ fusion yields in 1D simulations.

  9. Demonstrating Multi-bit Magnetic Memory in the Fe8 High Spin Molecule by Muon Spin Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Shafir, Oren; Keren, Amit; Maegawa, Satoru; Ueda, Miki; Amato, Alex; Baines, Chris

    2005-01-01

    We developed a method to detect the quantum nature of high spin molecules using muon spin rotation, and a three-step field cycle ending always with the same field. We use this method to demonstrate that the Fe8 molecule can remember 6 (possibly 8) different histories (bits). A wide range of fields can be used to write a particular bit, and the information is stored in discrete states. Therefore, Fe8 can be used as a model compound for Multi-bit Magnetic Memory. Our experiment also paves the w...

  10. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of metagenome sequence from high-temperature archaeal habitats demonstrate linkages between metabolic potential and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Inskeep

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP provide an unparalled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (~40-45 Mbase Sanger sequencing per site was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and/or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G+C content and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.g., sulfide, oxygen, pH. These observations provide an ecological basis for understanding the distribution of indigenous archaeal lineages across high temperature systems of YNP.

  11. Liver-Specific Activation of AMPK Prevents Steatosis on a High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Woods

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK plays a key role in integrating metabolic pathways in response to energy demand. We identified a mutation in the γ1 subunit (γ1D316A that leads to activation of AMPK. We generated mice with this mutation to study the effect of chronic liver-specific activation of AMPK in vivo. Primary hepatocytes isolated from these mice have reduced gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis, but there is no effect on fatty acid oxidation compared to cells from wild-type mice. Liver-specific activation of AMPK decreases lipogenesis in vivo and completely protects against hepatic steatosis when mice are fed a high-fructose diet. Our findings demonstrate that liver-specific activation of AMPK is sufficient to protect against hepatic triglyceride accumulation, a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. These results emphasize the clinical relevance of activating AMPK in the liver to combat NAFLD and potentially other associated complications (e.g., cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. Demonstration of a diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) for quantitative profiling of clouds and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Matthew; Spuler, Scott

    2017-11-27

    We present a demonstration of a diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar. It is capable of performing calibrated retrievals of aerosol and cloud optical properties at a 150 m range resolution with less than 1 minute integration time over an approximate range of 12 km during day and night. This instrument operates at 780 nm, a wavelength that is well established for reliable semiconductor lasers and detectors, and was chosen because it corresponds to the D2 rubidium absorption line. A heated vapor reference cell of isotopic rubidium 87 is used as an effective and reliable aerosol signal blocking filter in the instrument. In principle, the diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar can be made cost competitive with elastic backscatter lidar systems, yet delivers a significant improvement in data quality through direct retrieval of quantitative optical properties of clouds and aerosols.

  13. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Onon

    2010-11-18

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  14. Initial demonstration of the NRC`s capability to conduct a performance assessment for a High-Level Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codell, R.; Eisenberg, N.; Fehringer, D.; Ford, W.; Margulies, T.; McCartin, T.; Park, J.; Randall, J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to better review licensing submittals for a High-Level Waste Repository, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has expanded and improved its capability to conduct performance assessments. This report documents an initial demonstration of this capability. The demonstration made use of the limited data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada to investigate a small set of scenario classes. Models of release and transport of radionuclides from a repository via the groundwater and direct release pathways provided preliminary estimates of releases to the accessible environment for a 10,000 year simulation time. Latin hypercube sampling of input parameters was used to express results as distributions and to investigate model sensitivities. This methodology demonstration should not be interpreted as an estimate of performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. By expanding and developing the NRC staff capability to conduct such analyses, NRC would be better able to conduct an independent technical review of the US Department of Energy (DOE) licensing submittals for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. These activities were divided initially into Phase 1 and Phase 2 activities. Additional phases may follow as part of a program of iterative performance assessment at the NRC. The NRC staff conducted Phase 1 activities primarily in CY 1989 with minimal participation from NRC contractors. The Phase 2 activities were to involve NRC contractors actively and to provide for the transfer of technology. The Phase 2 activities are scheduled to start in CY 1990, to allow Sandia National Laboratories to complete development and transfer of computer codes and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to be in a position to assist in the acquisition of the codes.

  15. Winnowing DNA for rare sequences: highly specific sequence and methylation based enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Thompson

    Full Text Available Rare mutations in cell populations are known to be hallmarks of many diseases and cancers. Similarly, differential DNA methylation patterns arise in rare cell populations with diagnostic potential such as fetal cells circulating in maternal blood. Unfortunately, the frequency of alleles with diagnostic potential, relative to wild-type background sequence, is often well below the frequency of errors in currently available methods for sequence analysis, including very high throughput DNA sequencing. We demonstrate a DNA preparation and purification method that through non-linear electrophoretic separation in media containing oligonucleotide probes, achieves 10,000 fold enrichment of target DNA with single nucleotide specificity, and 100 fold enrichment of unmodified methylated DNA differing from the background by the methylation of a single cytosine residue.

  16. Winnowing DNA for rare sequences: highly specific sequence and methylation based enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jason D; Shibahara, Gosuke; Rajan, Sweta; Pel, Joel; Marziali, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Rare mutations in cell populations are known to be hallmarks of many diseases and cancers. Similarly, differential DNA methylation patterns arise in rare cell populations with diagnostic potential such as fetal cells circulating in maternal blood. Unfortunately, the frequency of alleles with diagnostic potential, relative to wild-type background sequence, is often well below the frequency of errors in currently available methods for sequence analysis, including very high throughput DNA sequencing. We demonstrate a DNA preparation and purification method that through non-linear electrophoretic separation in media containing oligonucleotide probes, achieves 10,000 fold enrichment of target DNA with single nucleotide specificity, and 100 fold enrichment of unmodified methylated DNA differing from the background by the methylation of a single cytosine residue.

  17. Complementing approaches to demonstrate chlorinated solvent biodegradation in a complex pollution plume: Mass balance, PCR and compound-specific stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Christelle; Rivière, Agnès; Jeannottat, Simon; Rinaldi, Sandro; Hunkeler, Daniel; Bendjoudi, Hocine; de Marsily, Ghislain

    2011-11-01

    This work describes the use of different complementing methods (mass balance, polymerase chain reaction assays and compound-specific stable isotope analysis) to demonstrate the existence and effectiveness of biodegradation of chlorinated solvents in an alluvial aquifer. The solvent-contaminated site is an old chemical factory located in an alluvial plain in France. As most of the chlorinated contaminants currently found in the groundwater at this site were produced by local industries at various times in the past, it is not enough to analyze chlorinated solvent concentrations along a flow path to convincingly demonstrate biodegradation. Moreover, only a few data were initially available to characterize the geochemical conditions at this site, which were apparently complex at the source zone due to (i) the presence of a steady oxygen supply to the groundwater by irrigation canal losses and river infiltration and (ii) an alkaline pH higher than 10 due to former underground lime disposal. A demonstration of the existence of biodegradation processes was however required by the regulatory authority within a timeframe that did not allow a full geochemical characterization of such a complex site. Thus a combination of different fast methods was used to obtain a proof of the biodegradation occurrence. First, a mass balance analysis was performed which revealed the existence of a strong natural attenuation process (biodegradation, volatilization or dilution), despite the huge uncertainty on these calculations. Second, a good agreement was found between carbon isotopic measurements and PCR assays (based on 16S RNA gene sequences and functional genes), which clearly indicated reductive dechlorination of different hydrocarbons (Tetrachloroethene—PCE-, Trichloroethene—TCE-, 1,2- cisDichloroethene— cis-1,2-DCE-, 1,2- transDichloroethene— trans-1,2-DCE-, 1,1-Dichloroethene—1,1-DCE-, and Vinyl Chloride—VC) to ethene. According to these carbon isotope measurements

  18. Proof-of-principle demonstration of Nb3Sn superconducting radiofrequency cavities for high Q0 applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, S.; Liepe, M.; Hall, D. L.

    2015-02-01

    Many future particle accelerators require hundreds of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities operating with high duty factor. The large dynamic heat load of the cavities causes the cryogenic plant to make up a significant part of the overall cost of the facility. This contribution can be reduced by replacing standard niobium cavities with ones coated with a low-dissipation superconductor such as Nb3Sn. In this paper, we present results for single cell cavities coated with Nb3Sn at Cornell. Five coatings were carried out, showing that at 4.2 K, high Q0 out to medium fields was reproducible, resulting in an average quench field of 14 MV/m and an average 4.2 K Q0 at quench of 8 × 109. In each case, the peak surface magnetic field at quench was well above Hc1, showing that it is not a limiting field in these cavities. The coating with the best performance had a quench field of 17 MV/m, exceeding gradient requirements for state-of-the-art high duty factor SRF accelerators. It is also shown that—taking into account the thermodynamic efficiency of the cryogenic plant—the 4.2 K Q0 values obtained meet the AC power consumption requirements of state-of-the-art high duty factor accelerators, making this a proof-of-principle demonstration for Nb3Sn cavities in future applications.

  19. Standardized methods for the production of high specific-activity zirconium-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jason P.; Sheh, Yiauchung; Lewis, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium-89 is an attractive metallo-radionuclide for use in immunoPET due to the favorable decay characteristics. Standardized methods for the routine production and isolation of high purity and high specific-activity 89Zr using a small cyclotron are reported. Optimized cyclotron conditions reveal high average yields of 1.52 ± 0.11 mCi/μA·h at a proton beam energy of 15 MeV and current of 15 μA using a solid, commercially available 89Y-foil target (0.1 mm, 100% natural abundance). 89Zr was isolated in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity (>99.99%) as [89Zr]Zr-oxalate by using a solid-phase hydroxamate resin with >99.5% recovery of the radioactivity. The effective specific-activity of 89Zr was found to be in the range 5.28 – 13.43 mCi/μg (470 – 1195 Ci/mmol) of zirconium. New methods for the facile production of [89Zr]Zr-chloride are reported. Radiolabeling studies using the trihydroxamate ligand desferrioxamine B (DFO) gave 100% radiochemical yields in 7 days. Small-animal PET imaging studies have demonstrated that free 89Zr(IV) ions administered as [89Zr]Zr-chloride accumulate in the liver whilst [89Zr]Zr-DFO is excreted rapidly via the kidneys within <20 min. These results have important implication for the analysis of immunoPET imaging of 89Zr-labeled monoclonal antibodies. The detailed methods described can be easily translated to other radiochemistry facilities and will facilitate the use of 89Zr in both basic science and clinical investigations. PMID:19720285

  20. Insulin and GLP-1 infusions demonstrate the onset of adipose-specific insulin resistance in a large fasting mammal: potential glucogenic role for GLP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscarra, Jose A; Rodriguez, Ruben; Vazquez-Medina, Jose Pablo; Lee, Andrew; Tift, Michael S; Tavoni, Stephen K; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2013-08-01

    Prolonged food deprivation increases lipid oxidation and utilization, which may contribute to the onset of the insulin resistance associated with fasting. Because insulin resistance promotes the preservation of glucose and oxidation of fat, it has been suggested to be an adaptive response to food deprivation. However, fasting mammals exhibit hypoinsulinemia, suggesting that the insulin resistance-like conditions they experience may actually result from reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose/capacity to secrete insulin. To determine whether fasting results in insulin resistance or in pancreatic dysfunction, we infused early- and late-fasted seals (naturally adapted to prolonged fasting) with insulin (0.065 U/kg), and a separate group of late-fasted seals with low (10 pM/kg) or high (100 pM/kg) dosages of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) immediately following a glucose bolus (0.5g/kg), and measured the systemic and cellular responses. Because GLP-1 facilitates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, these infusions provide a method to assess pancreatic insulin-secreting capacity. Insulin infusions increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor and Akt in adipose and muscle of early and late fasted seals; however the timing of the signaling response was blunted in adipose of late fasted seals. Despite the dose-dependent increases in insulin and increased glucose clearance (high dose), both GLP-1 dosages produced increases in plasma cortisol and glucagon, which may have contributed to the glucogenic role of GLP-1. Results suggest that fasting induces adipose-specific insulin resistance in elephant seal pups, while maintaining skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, and therefore suggests that the onset of insulin resistance in fasting mammals is an evolved response to cope with prolonged food deprivation.

  1. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King' s College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  2. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  3. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A; Angelis, Georgios I; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C; Reader, Andrew J; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-01

    Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The

  4. Investigation and Demonstration of High Speed Full-Optical Hybrid FSO/Fiber Communication System under Light Sand Storm Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah; Ragheb, Amr; Fathallah, Habib; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to traditional free space optical (FSO) systems, the new generation is aimed to be transparent to optical fiber where protocols, high signal bandwidths, and high data rates over fiber are all maintained. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a high speed outdoor full-optical FSO communication system over 100 m link. We first describe the design of our transmitter, which consists of a comb generator and a flexible multiformat transmitter. Our measurements are performed in arid desert area under a light dust storm. In this environment, we use a 12 subcarrier comb generator, each of which is modulated by a quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signal. We achieved a 1.08 Tbps error free data rate with 3.6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. We place long optical fiber rolls in the transmitter side and the receiver side to mimic real FSO deployments. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of receiver misalignment in outdoor conditions and the effect of background noise. We find that full-optical FSO system is sensitive to the misalignment effect. However, the background noise has negligible effect. Finally, we find that solar heating of the transceiver causes collimator deviation, which requires using a cooling unit or auto tracking system.

  5. Investigation and Demonstration of High Speed Full-Optical Hybrid FSO/Fiber Communication System under Light Sand Storm Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah

    2016-12-19

    In contrast to traditional free space optical (FSO) systems, the new generation is aimed to be transparent to optical fiber where protocols, high signal bandwidths, and high data rates over fiber are all maintained. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a high speed outdoor full-optical FSO communication system over 100 m link. We first describe the design of our transmitter, which consists of a comb generator and a flexible multiformat transmitter. Our measurements are performed in arid desert area under a light dust storm. In this environment, we use a 12 subcarrier comb generator, each of which is modulated by a quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signal. We achieved a 1.08 Tbps error free data rate with 3.6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. We place long optical fiber rolls in the transmitter side and the receiver side to mimic real FSO deployments. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of receiver misalignment in outdoor conditions and the effect of background noise. We find that full-optical FSO system is sensitive to the misalignment effect. However, the background noise has negligible effect. Finally, we find that solar heating of the transceiver causes collimator deviation, which requires using a cooling unit or auto tracking system.

  6. Demonstration of a High-Order Mode Input Coupler for a 220-GHz Confocal Gyrotron Traveling Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaotong; Fu, Wenjie; Yan, Yang

    2018-02-01

    A design of high-order mode input coupler for 220-GHz confocal gyrotron travelling wave tube is proposed, simulated, and demonstrated by experimental tests. This input coupler is designed to excite confocal TE 06 mode from rectangle waveguide TE 10 mode over a broadband frequency range. Simulation results predict that the optimized conversion loss is about 2.72 dB with a mode purity excess of 99%. Considering of the gyrotron interaction theory, an effective bandwidth of 5 GHz is obtained, in which the beam-wave coupling efficiency is higher than half of maximum. The field pattern under low power demonstrates that TE 06 mode is successfully excited in confocal waveguide at 220 GHz. Cold test results from the vector network analyzer perform good agreements with simulation results. Both simulation and experimental results illustrate that the reflection at input port S11 is sensitive to the perpendicular separation of two mirrors. It provides an engineering possibility for estimating the assembly precision.

  7. Pneumatic Performance Study of a High Pressure Ejection Device Based on Real Specific Energy and Specific Enthalpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In high-pressure dynamic thermodynamic processes, the pressure is much higher than the air critical pressure, and the temperature can deviate significantly from the Boyle temperature. In such situations, the thermo-physical properties and pneumatic performance can’t be described accurately by the ideal gas law. This paper proposes an approach to evaluate the pneumatic performance of a high-pressure air catapult launch system, in which esidual functions are used to compensate the thermal physical property uncertainties of caused by real gas effects. Compared with the Nelson-Obert generalized compressibility charts, the precision of the improved virial equation of state is better than Soave-Redlich-Kwong (S-R-K and Peng-Robinson (P-R equations for high pressure air. In this paper, the improved virial equation of state is further used to establish a compressibility factor database which is applied to evaluate real gas effects. The specific residual thermodynamic energy and specific residual enthalpy of the high-pressure air are also derived using the modified corresponding state equation and improved virial equation of state which are truncated to the third virial coefficient. The pneumatic equations are established on the basis of the derived residual functions. The comparison of the numerical results shows that the real gas effects are strong, and the pneumatic performance analysis indicates that the real dynamic thermodynamic process is obviously different from the ideal one.

  8. Analysis of Corrosion Residues Collected from the Aluminum Basket Rails of the High-Burnup Demonstration Cask.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    On September, 2015, an inspection was performed on the TN-32B cask that will be used for the high-burnup demonstration project. During the survey, wooden cribbing that had been placed within the cask eleven years earlier to prevent shifting of the basket during transport was removed, revealing two areas of residue on the aluminum basket rails, where they had contacted the cribbing. The residue appeared to be a corrosion product, and concerns were raised that similar attack could exist at more difficult-to-inspect locations in the canister. Accordingly, when the canister was reopened, samples of the residue were collected for analysis. This report presents the results of that assessment, which determined that the corrosion was due to the presence of the cribbing. The corrosion was associated with fungal material, and fungal activity likely contributed to an aggressive chemical environment. Once the cask has been cleaned, there will be no risk of further corrosion.

  9. Simultaneous measurements of auto-immune and infectious disease specific antibodies using a high throughput multiplexing tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Asati

    Full Text Available Considering importance of ganglioside antibodies as biomarkers in various immune-mediated neuropathies and neurological disorders, we developed a high throughput multiplexing tool for the assessment of gangliosides-specific antibodies based on Biolpex/Luminex platform. In this report, we demonstrate that the ganglioside high throughput multiplexing tool is robust, highly specific and demonstrating ∼100-fold higher concentration sensitivity for IgG detection than ELISA. In addition to the ganglioside-coated array, the high throughput multiplexing tool contains beads coated with influenza hemagglutinins derived from H1N1 A/Brisbane/59/07 and H1N1 A/California/07/09 strains. Influenza beads provided an added advantage of simultaneous detection of ganglioside- and influenza-specific antibodies, a capacity important for the assay of both infectious antigen-specific and autoimmune antibodies following vaccination or disease. Taken together, these results support the potential adoption of the ganglioside high throughput multiplexing tool for measuring ganglioside antibodies in various neuropathic and neurological disorders.

  10. Demonstration on endurance of ion exchange membrane immersed in high-concentration tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Katsumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water was demonstrated. • Degradation of Nafion backbone structure by tritium beta was similar to that by gamma rays and electron beams at an equivalent dose. • Degradation directly by radiation was dominant at room temperature compared with that by reactions with radicals produced from water radiolysis. -- Abstract: The Nafion{sup ®} ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated at room temperature for up to 2 years under the Broader Approach Activities. The curves of percent elongation at break vs. dose and tensile strength vs. dose for the Nafion membranes immersed in tritiated water were well consistent with those for Nafion membranes irradiated to an equivalent dose with gamma rays and electron beams. This shows that the degradation of Nafion backbone structure by tritium beta is similar to that by gamma rays and electron beams. The results of ferric Fenton test indicated that the degradation directly by radiation was dominant at room temperature compared with that by reactions with radicals produced from water radiolysis. The curve of ion exchange capacity vs. dose for the Nafion membranes immersed in tritiated water was also well consistent with that for Nafion membranes irradiated to an equivalent dose with gamma rays and electron beams. These results showed irradiation tests with gamma rays and electron beams were alternative for predicting degradation of ion exchange membrane by tritium beta.

  11. High affinity, ligand specific uptake of complexed copper-67 by brain tissue incubated in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnea, A.; Hartter, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Copper is an essential metal that is highly concentrated in the brain. The blood, the sole source of tissue Cu, contains 16-20 μM Cu, of which >95% is complexed to proteins and 2 was 10 times greater than that of CuAlbumin or Cu(II). Within the range of 0.2-150μM Cu, multiple uptake sites for CuHis were apparent. Increasing the molar ratio of His:Cu had a differential effect on Cu uptake: enhancing uptake at [Cu] 1 μM. Thus, using a His:Cu ratio of 1000, they observed a high affinity process exhibiting saturating and half saturating values of 5 μM and 1.5 μM Cu, respectively; using a His:Cu ratio of 2, they observed a low affinity process exhibiting saturating and half-saturating values of 100 μM and 40 μM Cu, respectively. Both processes required thermic but not metabolic energy, suggestive of facilitated diffusion. Considering the blood brain barrier for proteins, CuHis appears to be the major substrate for Cu uptake by neuronal tissue. They demonstrate the existence of a ligand specific, high affinity (apparent Km about 1.5 μM Cu) uptake process for CuHis in the brain, operative at the physiological concentration range of CuHis and histidine

  12. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by 1H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution.

  13. BL-7010 demonstrates specific binding to gliadin and reduces gluten-associated pathology in a chronic mouse model of gliadin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L McCarville

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder in individuals that carry DQ2 or DQ8 MHC class II haplotypes, triggered by the ingestion of gluten. There is no current treatment other than a gluten-free diet (GFD. We have previously shown that the BL-7010 copolymer poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-styrene sulfonate (P(HEMA-co-SS binds with higher efficiency to gliadin than to other proteins present in the small intestine, ameliorating gliadin-induced pathology in the HLA-HCD4/DQ8 model of gluten sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of two batches of BL-7010 to interact with gliadin, essential vitamins and digestive enzymes not previously tested, and to assess the ability of the copolymer to reduce gluten-associated pathology using the NOD-DQ8 mouse model, which exhibits more significant small intestinal damage when challenged with gluten than HCD4/DQ8 mice. In addition, the safety and systemic exposure of BL-7010 was evaluated in vivo (in rats and in vitro (genetic toxicity studies. In vitro binding data showed that BL-7010 interacted with high affinity with gliadin and that BL-7010 had no interaction with the tested vitamins and digestive enzymes. BL-7010 was effective at preventing gluten-induced decreases in villus-to-crypt ratios, intraepithelial lymphocytosis and alterations in paracellular permeability and putative anion transporter-1 mRNA expression in the small intestine. In rats, BL-7010 was well-tolerated and safe following 14 days of daily repeated administration of 3000 mg/kg. BL-7010 did not exhibit any mutagenic effect in the genetic toxicity studies. Using complementary animal models and chronic gluten exposure the results demonstrate that administration of BL-7010 is effective and safe and that it is able to decrease pathology associated with gliadin sensitization warranting the progression to Phase I trials in humans.

  14. The appearances of oesophageal carcinoma demonstrated on high-resolution, T2-weighted MRI, with histopathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, A.M.; Allum, W.H.; Thompson, J.N.; Wotherspoon, A.C.; Richardson, C.; Brown, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the spectrum of imaging features of oesophageal adenocarcinoma seen using high-resolution T2-weighted (T2W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-nine patients with biopsy-proven oesophageal adenocarcinoma were scanned using an external surface coil. A sagittal T2W sequence was used to localise the tumour and to plan axial images perpendicular to the tumour. Fast spin-echo (FSE) T2W axial sequence parameters were: TR/TE, 3,300-5,000 ms/120-80 ms; field of view (FOV) 225 mm, matrix 176 x 512(reconstructed) mm to 256 x 224 mm, giving an in-plane resolution of between 1.28 x 0.44 mm and 0.88 x 1.00 mm, with 3-mm slice thickness. Thirty-three patients underwent resection and the MR images were compared with the histological whole-mount sections. There were four T1, 12 T2, and 17 T3 tumours. The T2W high-resolution MRI sequences produced detailed images of the oesophageal wall and surrounding structures. Analysis of the imaging appearances for different tumour T stages enabled the development of imaging criteria for local staging of oesophageal cancer using high-resolution MRI. Our study illustrates the spectrum of appearances of oesophageal cancer on T2W high-resolution MRI, and using the criteria established in this study, demonstrates the potential of this technique as an alternative non-invasive method for local staging for oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  15. Psychological balance in high level athletes: gender-based differences and sport-specific patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schaal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. METHODS: Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. RESULTS: A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD being the most prevalent (6%, followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%. Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women; the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%. Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%, but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%. DISCUSSION: This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders.

  16. Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valérie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Methods Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. Results A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). Discussion This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders. PMID:21573222

  17. Psychological balance in high level athletes: gender-based differences and sport-specific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valérie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2011-05-04

    Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders.

  18. Highly tissue specific expression of Sphinx supports its male courtship related role in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Dai, Hongzheng; Chen, Sidi; Zhang, Luoying; Long, Manyuan

    2011-04-26

    Sphinx is a lineage-specific non-coding RNA gene involved in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. The 5' flanking region of the gene is conserved across Drosophila species, with the proximal 300 bp being conserved out to D. virilis and a further 600 bp region being conserved amongst the melanogaster subgroup (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. yakuba, and D. erecta). Using a green fluorescence protein transformation system, we demonstrated that a 253 bp region of the highly conserved segment was sufficient to drive sphinx expression in male accessory gland. GFP signals were also observed in brain, wing hairs and leg bristles. An additional ∼800 bp upstream region was able to enhance expression specifically in proboscis, suggesting the existence of enhancer elements. Using anti-GFP staining, we identified putative sphinx expression signal in the brain antennal lobe and inner antennocerebral tract, suggesting that sphinx might be involved in olfactory neuron mediated regulation of male courtship behavior. Whole genome expression profiling of the sphinx knockout mutation identified significant up-regulated gene categories related to accessory gland protein function and odor perception, suggesting sphinx might be a negative regulator of its target genes.

  19. Highly tissue specific expression of Sphinx supports its male courtship related role in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sphinx is a lineage-specific non-coding RNA gene involved in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. The 5' flanking region of the gene is conserved across Drosophila species, with the proximal 300 bp being conserved out to D. virilis and a further 600 bp region being conserved amongst the melanogaster subgroup (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. yakuba, and D. erecta. Using a green fluorescence protein transformation system, we demonstrated that a 253 bp region of the highly conserved segment was sufficient to drive sphinx expression in male accessory gland. GFP signals were also observed in brain, wing hairs and leg bristles. An additional ∼800 bp upstream region was able to enhance expression specifically in proboscis, suggesting the existence of enhancer elements. Using anti-GFP staining, we identified putative sphinx expression signal in the brain antennal lobe and inner antennocerebral tract, suggesting that sphinx might be involved in olfactory neuron mediated regulation of male courtship behavior. Whole genome expression profiling of the sphinx knockout mutation identified significant up-regulated gene categories related to accessory gland protein function and odor perception, suggesting sphinx might be a negative regulator of its target genes.

  20. Optical interconnects for in-plane high-speed signal distribution at 10 Gb/s: Analysis and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung

    With decreasing transistor size, increasing chip speed, and larger numbers of processors in a system, the performance of a module/system is being limited by the off-chip and off-module bandwidth-distance products. Optical links have moved from fiber-based long distance communications to the cabinet level of 1m--100m, and recently to the backplane-level (10cm--1m). Board-level inter-chip parallel optical interconnects have been demonstrated recently by researchers from Intel, IBM, Fujitsu, NTT and a few research groups in universities. However, the board-level signal/clock distribution function using optical interconnects, the lightwave circuits, the system design, a practically convenient integration scheme committed to the implementation of a system prototype have not been explored or carefully investigated. In this dissertation, the development of a board-level 1 x 4 optical-to-electrical signal distribution at 10Gb/s is presented. In contrast to other prototypes demonstrating board-level parallel optical interconnects that have been drawing much attention for the past decade, the optical link design for the high-speed signal broadcasting is even more complicated and the pitch between receivers could be varying as opposed to fixed-pitch design that has been widely-used in the parallel optical interconnects. New challenges for the board-level high-speed signal broadcasting include, but are not limited to, a new optical link design, a lightwave circuit as a distribution network, and a novel integration scheme that can be a complete radical departure from the traditional assembly method. One of the key building blocks in the lightwave circuit is the distribution network in which a 1 x 4 multimode interference (MMI) splitter is employed. MMI devices operating at high data rates are important in board-level optical interconnects and need to be characterized in the application of board-level signal broadcasting. To determine the speed limitations of MMI devices, the

  1. Demonstration of electron clearing effect by means of a clearing electrode in high-intensity positron ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Y.; Fukuma, H.; Wang, L.; Pivi, M.; Morishige, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Tsukamoto, M.; Tsuchiya, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the beam pipe of high-intensity positron/proton storage rings, undesired electron clouds may be first produced by photoelectrons and the ionization of residual gases; then the clouds increase by the secondary electron emission. In this study, a strip-line clearing electrode has been developed to mitigate the electron-cloud effect in high-intensity positron/proton storage rings. The electrode is composed of a thin tungsten layer with a thickness of 0.1 mm formed on a thin alumina ceramic layer with a thickness of 0.2 mm. The narrow alumina gap between the electrode and the beam pipe decreases the beam impedance and also enhances the heat transfer from the electrode to the beam pipe. A test model has been installed in the KEK B-factory (KEKB) positron ring, along with an electron monitor with a retarding grid. The electron density in a field free region decreased by one order of magnitude was observed on the application of ±500 V to the electrode at a beam current of 1.6 A with 1585 bunches. The reduction in the electron density was more drastic in a vertical magnetic field of 0.77 T, that is, the electron density decreased by several orders by applying +500 V to the electrode at the same beam current. This experiment is the first experiment demonstrating the principle of the clearing electrode that is used to mitigate the electron-cloud effect in a positron ring.

  2. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döppner, T; Callahan, D A; Hurricane, O A; Hinkel, D E; Ma, T; Park, H-S; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Casey, D T; Celliers, P; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Haan, S W; Kritcher, A L; MacPhee, A; Le Pape, S; Pak, A; Patel, P K; Springer, P T; Salmonson, J D; Tommasini, R; Benedetti, L R; Bond, E; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J; Church, J; Dixit, S; Edgell, D; Edwards, M J; Fittinghoff, D N; Frenje, J; Gatu Johnson, M; Grim, G; Hatarik, R; Havre, M; Herrmann, H; Izumi, N; Khan, S F; Kline, J L; Knauer, J; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Merrill, F E; Moody, J; Moore, A S; Nikroo, A; Ralph, J E; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Sayre, D; Schneider, M; Streckert, H; Town, R; Turnbull, D; Volegov, P L; Wan, A; Widmann, K; Wilde, C H; Yeamans, C

    2015-07-31

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a "high-foot" laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shape closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 10^{16} neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel.

  3. Transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system: towards a demonstration device of industrial interest (EUROTRANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, Joachim U.; Ait Abderrahim, Hamid; Caron-Carles, Marylise

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EURopean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) within the ongoing EURATOM 6th Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the assessment of the design and the feasibility of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of accelerator components, fuel development, structural materials, thermal-hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of technological feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS is integrating activities of 51 participants from 16 countries, within the industry (10 participants), the national research centres (20) and 17 universities. 16 universities are collectively represented by ENEN (European Nuclear Education Network). EUROTRANS is the continuation of the three FP5 Clusters FUETRA, BASTRA and TESTRA together with the PDS-XADS Project. It is a five-year project which started in April 2005

  4. ARC: A compact, high-field, fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant with demountable magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorbom, B.N., E-mail: bsorbom@mit.edu; Ball, J.; Palmer, T.R.; Mangiarotti, F.J.; Sierchio, J.M.; Bonoli, P.; Kasten, C.; Sutherland, D.A.; Barnard, H.S.; Haakonsen, C.B.; Goh, J.; Sung, C.; Whyte, D.G.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • ARC reactor designed to have 500 MW fusion power at 3.3 m major radius. • Compact, simplified design allowed by high magnetic fields and jointed magnets. • ARC has innovative plasma physics solutions such as inboardside RF launch. • High temperature superconductors allow high magnetic fields and jointed magnets. • Liquid immersion blanket and jointed magnets greatly simplify tokamak reactor design. - Abstract: The affordable, robust, compact (ARC) reactor is the product of a conceptual design study aimed at reducing the size, cost, and complexity of a combined fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion Pilot power plant. ARC is a ∼200–250 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has rare earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils, which have joints to enable disassembly. This allows the vacuum vessel to be replaced quickly, mitigating first wall survivability concerns, and permits a single device to test many vacuum vessel designs and divertor materials. The design point has a plasma fusion gain of Q{sub p} ≈ 13.6, yet is fully non-inductive, with a modest bootstrap fraction of only ∼63%. Thus ARC offers a high power gain with relatively large external control of the current profile. This highly attractive combination is enabled by the ∼23 T peak field on coil achievable with newly available REBCO superconductor technology. External current drive is provided by two innovative inboard RF launchers using 25 MW of lower hybrid and 13.6 MW of ion cyclotron fast wave power. The resulting efficient current drive provides a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing fluorine lithium beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket is low-risk technology and provides effective neutron moderation and shielding, excellent

  5. High-fat diet-induced brain region-specific phenotypic spectrum of CNS resident microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baufeld, Caroline; Osterloh, Anja; Prokop, Stefan; Miller, Kelly R; Heppner, Frank L

    2016-09-01

    Diets high in fat (HFD) are known to cause an immune response in the periphery as well as the central nervous system. In peripheral adipose tissue, this immune response is primarily mediated by macrophages that are recruited to the tissue. Similarly, reactivity of microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, has been shown to occur in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet. To characterize the nature of the microglial response to diets high in fat in a temporal fashion, we studied the phenotypic spectrum of hypothalamic microglia of mice fed high-fat diet for 3 days and 8 weeks by assessing their tissue reaction and inflammatory signature. While we observed a significant increase in Iba1+ myeloid cells and a reaction of GFAP+ astrocytes in the hypothalamus after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, we found the hypothalamic myeloid cell reaction to be limited to endogenous microglia and not mediated by infiltrating myeloid cells. Moreover, obese humans were found to present with signs of hypothalamic gliosis and exacerbated microglia dystrophy, suggesting a targeted microglia response to diet in humans as well. Notably, the glial reaction occurring in the mouse hypothalamus was not accompanied by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, but rather by an anti-inflammatory reaction. Gene expression analyses of isolated microglia not only confirmed this observation, but also revealed a downregulation of microglia genes important for sensing signals in the microenvironment. Finally, we demonstrate that long-term exposure of microglia to HFD in vivo does not impair the cell's ability to respond to additional stimuli, like lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, our findings support the notion that microglia react to diets high in fat in a region-specific manner in rodents as well as in humans; however, this response changes over time as it is not exclusively pro-inflammatory nor does exposure to HFD prime microglia in the hypothalamus.

  6. Observational demonstration of a high image rejection SIS mixer receiver using a new waveguide filter at 230 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yutaka; Asayama, Shinichiro; Harada, Ryohei; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu

    2017-12-01

    A new sideband separation method was developed for use in millimeter-/submillimeter-band radio receivers using a novel waveguide frequency separation filter (FSF), which consists of two branch line hybrid couplers and two waveguide high-pass filters. The FSF was designed to allow the radio frequency (RF) signal to pass through to an output port when the frequency is higher than a certain value (225 GHz), and to reflect the RF signal back to another output port when the frequency is lower. The FSF is connected to two double sideband superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixers, and an image rejection ratio (IRR) is determined by the FSF characteristics. With this new sideband separation method, we can achieve good and stable IRR without the balancing two SIS mixers such as is necessary for conventional sideband-separating SIS mixers. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we designed and developed an FSF for simultaneous observations of the J = 2-1 rotational transition lines of three CO isotopes (12CO, 13CO, and C18O): the 12CO line is in the upper sideband and the others are in the lower sideband with an intermediate-frequency range of 4-8 GHz at the radio frequency of 220/230 GHz. This FSF was then installed in the receiver system of the 1.85 m radio telescope of Osaka Prefecture University, and was used during the 2014 observation season. The observation results indicate that the IRR of the proposed receiver is 25 dB or higher for the 12CO line, and no significant fluctuation larger than 1 dB in the IRR was observed throughout the season. These results demonstrate the practical utility of the FSF receiver for observations like extensive molecular cloud surveys in specified lines with a fixed frequency setting.

  7. Specific, high affinity receptors for insulin-like growth factor II in the rat kidney glomerulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, J.F.; Pillion, D.J.; Meezan, E.

    1988-01-01

    Rat renal glomeruli were isolated by a technique involving kidney perfusion with a solution containing magnetic iron oxide particles, followed by homogenization, sieving, and concentration over a strong magnet. Isolated glomeruli were treated with 1% Triton X-100 to solubilize plasma membrane components, while insoluble basement membrane components were removed by centrifugation. [ 125 I]Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) binding to this preparation was competitively inhibited by increasing amounts of unlabeled IGF-II, with 50% inhibition at an IGF-II concentration of 1 ng/ml. [ 125 I]IGF-II was covalently cross-linked with disuccinimidyl suberate to its receptor in rat renal glomeruli and a specific high mol wt (255,000) band could be identified on autoradiograms of dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. [ 125 I]IGF-II binding and cross-linking to this band was inhibited by a polyclonal antibody against the type II IGF receptor. These results demonstrate for the first time that the isolated rat renal glomerulus contains a high affinity receptor for IGF-II

  8. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehndiratta, Amit; Rabinov, James D.; Grasruck, Michael; Liao, Eric C.; Crandell, David; Gupta, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm 3 . Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  9. Systems-level computational modeling demonstrates fuel selection switching in high capacity running and low capacity running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Nathan R.

    2018-01-01

    High capacity and low capacity running rats, HCR and LCR respectively, have been bred to represent two extremes of running endurance and have recently demonstrated disparities in fuel usage during transient aerobic exercise. HCR rats can maintain fatty acid (FA) utilization throughout the course of transient aerobic exercise whereas LCR rats rely predominantly on glucose utilization. We hypothesized that the difference between HCR and LCR fuel utilization could be explained by a difference in mitochondrial density. To test this hypothesis and to investigate mechanisms of fuel selection, we used a constraint-based kinetic analysis of whole-body metabolism to analyze transient exercise data from these rats. Our model analysis used a thermodynamically constrained kinetic framework that accounts for glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and mitochondrial FA transport and oxidation. The model can effectively match the observed relative rates of oxidation of glucose versus FA, as a function of ATP demand. In searching for the minimal differences required to explain metabolic function in HCR versus LCR rats, it was determined that the whole-body metabolic phenotype of LCR, compared to the HCR, could be explained by a ~50% reduction in total mitochondrial activity with an additional 5-fold reduction in mitochondrial FA transport activity. Finally, we postulate that over sustained periods of exercise that LCR can partly overcome the initial deficit in FA catabolic activity by upregulating FA transport and/or oxidation processes. PMID:29474500

  10. Demonstration of Parallel Algal Processing: Production of Renewable Diesel Blendstock and a High-Value Chemical Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoshaug, Eric P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mohagheghi, Ali [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagle, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stickel, Jonathan J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dong, Tao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Karp, Eric M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kruger, Jacob S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandner, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Manker, Lorenz [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rorrer, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hyman, Deborah A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Earl D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Co-production of high-value chemicals such as succinic acid from algal sugars is a promising route to enabling conversion of algal lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock. Biomass from the green alga Scenedesmus acutus was acid pretreated and the resulting slurry separated into its solid and liquor components using charged polyamide induced flocculation and vacuum filtration. Over the course of a subsequent 756 hours continuous fermentation of the algal liquor with Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z, we achieved maximum productivity, process conversion yield, and titer of 1.1 g L-1 h-1, 0.7 g g-1 total sugars, and 30.5 g L-1 respectively. Succinic acid was recovered from fermentation media with a yield of 60% at 98.4% purity while lipids were recovered from the flocculated cake at 83% yield with subsequent conversion through deoxygenation and hydroisomerization to a renewable diesel blendstock. This work is a first-of-its-kind demonstration of a novel integrated conversion process for algal biomass to produce fuel and chemical products of sufficient quality to be blend-ready feedstocks for further processing.

  11. Demonstration of high-performance p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors using argon-plasma surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Dae; Kwon, Soo-Hun; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of low-temperature argon (Ar)-plasma surface treatments on the physical and chemical structures of p-type tin oxide thin-films and the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). From the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement, we found that SnO was the dominant phase in the deposited tin oxide thin-film, and the Ar-plasma treatment partially transformed the tin oxide phase from SnO to SnO2 by oxidation. The resistivity of the tin oxide thin-film increased with the plasma-treatment time because of the reduced hole concentration. In addition, the root-mean-square roughness of the tin oxide thin-film decreased as the plasma-treatment time increased. The p-type oxide TFT with an Ar-plasma-treated tin oxide thin-film exhibited excellent electrical performance with a high current on-off ratio (5.2 × 106) and a low off-current (1.2 × 10-12 A), which demonstrates that the low-temperature Ar-plasma treatment is a simple and effective method for improving the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide TFTs.

  12. The capability of high field MRI in demonstrating post-mortem fetal brains at different gestational age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhonghe; Liu Shuwei; Lin Xiangtao; Gen Hequn; Teng Gaojun; Fang Fang; Zang Fengchao; Yu Taifei; Zhao Bin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the capability of high field MRI in demonstrating the post-mortem fetal brains at different gestational age (GA). Methods: One hundred and eight post-mortem fetal brains of 14-40 weeks GA were evaluated by 3.0 T MRI. Eleven brains of 14 to 27 weeks GA with good 3.0 T MRI images were chosen and scanned by 7.0 T MRI. The developing sulci, layered structures of fetal cerebral cortex and basal nuclei were evaluated on MRI of different Tesla (3.0 T and 7.0 T) and their results analyzed. Results: On T 1 WI of 3.0 T MRI, the layered structures of fetal cerebral cortex were present at 14 weeks GA, the sulci were more accurately identified after 16 weeks GA. The basal nuclei were clearly distinguishable after 20 weeks CA, and these structures were better visualized as the GA increased. On T 2 WI of 7.0 T MRI, the sulci, layered structures of fetal cerebral cortex and basal nuclei were shown more clearly at the same GA when compared to 3.0 T, especially the sulci at the early developmental stages. Conclusions: T 1 WI of 3.0 T MRI could show the developing structures of post-mortem fetal brain well, but the T 2 WI of 7.0 T MRI were comparatively better. (authors)

  13. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, Amit [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); University of Oxford, Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Keble College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and All India Institute of Medical Science, Centre for Biomedical Engineering, New Delhi (India); Rabinov, James D. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Interventional Neuroradiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Liao, Eric C. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Center for Regenerative Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Crandell, David [Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm{sup 3}. Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  14. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S. [W.S. Hinton and Associates, Cantonment, FL (United States); Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  15. Highly dynamic and sex-specific expression of microRNAs during early ES cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Ciaudo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem (ES cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst. Cellular differentiation entails loss of pluripotency and gain of lineage-specific characteristics. However, the molecular controls that govern the differentiation process remain poorly understood. We have characterized small RNA expression profiles in differentiating ES cells as a model for early mammalian development. High-throughput 454 pyro-sequencing was performed on 19-30 nt RNAs isolated from undifferentiated male and female ES cells, as well as day 2 and 5 differentiating derivatives. A discrete subset of microRNAs (miRNAs largely dominated the small RNA repertoire, and the dynamics of their accumulation could be readily used to discriminate pluripotency from early differentiation events. Unsupervised partitioning around meloids (PAM analysis revealed that differentiating ES cell miRNAs can be divided into three expression clusters with highly contrasted accumulation patterns. PAM analysis afforded an unprecedented level of definition in the temporal fluctuations of individual members of several miRNA genomic clusters. Notably, this unravelled highly complex post-transcriptional regulations of the key pluripotency miR-290 locus, and helped identify miR-293 as a clear outlier within this cluster. Accordingly, the miR-293 seed sequence and its predicted cellular targets differed drastically from those of the other abundant cluster members, suggesting that previous conclusions drawn from whole miR-290 over-expression need to be reconsidered. Our analysis in ES cells also uncovered a striking male-specific enrichment of the miR-302 family, which share the same seed sequence with most miR-290 family members. Accordingly, a miR-302 representative was strongly enriched in embryonic germ cells derived from primordial germ cells of male but not female mouse embryos. Identifying the chromatin remodelling and E2F-dependent transcription

  16. Standard specification for high efficiency particulate air filters. Revision No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    This specification covers the requirements for four types and four sizes of high efficiency particulate air filters, assembled with or without separators and gaskets. Types include Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant; Hydrogen Fluoride Fume (HF) Resistant; Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant and Chemical Resistant; and Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant, High Temperature and High Humidity

  17. Demonstration of suppressed phonon tunneling losses in phononic bandgap shielded membrane resonators for high-Q optomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaturyan, Yeghishe; Barg, Andreas; Simonsen, Anders; Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Schmid, Silvan; Schliesser, Albert; Polzik, Eugene S

    2014-03-24

    Dielectric membranes with exceptional mechanical and optical properties present one of the most promising platforms in quantum opto-mechanics. The performance of stressed silicon nitride nanomembranes as mechanical resonators notoriously depends on how their frame is clamped to the sample mount, which in practice usually necessitates delicate, and difficult-to-reproduce mounting solutions. Here, we demonstrate that a phononic bandgap shield integrated in the membrane's silicon frame eliminates this dependence, by suppressing dissipation through phonon tunneling. We dry-etch the membrane's frame so that it assumes the form of a cm-sized bridge featuring a 1-dimensional periodic pattern, whose phononic density of states is tailored to exhibit one, or several, full band gaps around the membrane's high-Q modes in the MHz-range. We quantify the effectiveness of this phononic bandgap shield by optical interferometry measuring both the suppressed transmission of vibrations, as well as the influence of frame clamping conditions on the membrane modes. We find suppressions up to 40 dB and, for three different realized phononic structures, consistently observe significant suppression of the dependence of the membrane's modes on sample clamping-if the mode's frequency lies in the bandgap. As a result, we achieve membrane mode quality factors of 5 × 10(6) with samples that are tightly bolted to the 8 K-cold finger of a cryostat. Q × f -products of 6 × 10(12) Hz at 300 K and 14 × 10(12) Hz at 8 K are observed, satisfying one of the main requirements for optical cooling of mechanical vibrations to their quantum ground-state.

  18. Demonstrating the Uneven Importance of Fine-Scale Forest Structure on Snow Distributions using High Resolution Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; van Leeuwen, W.; Biederman, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the amount of snow in forested mountainous environments, as well as how it may change due to warming and forest disturbance, is critical given its importance for water supply and ecosystem health. Forest canopies affect snow accumulation and ablation in ways that are difficult to observe and model. Furthermore, fine-scale forest structure can accentuate or diminish the effects of forest-snow interactions. Despite decades of research demonstrating the importance of fine-scale forest structure (e.g. canopy edges and gaps) on snow, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of where and when forest structure has the largest impact on snowpack mass and energy budgets. Here, we use a hyper-resolution (1 meter spatial resolution) mass and energy balance snow model called the Snow Physics and Laser Mapping (SnowPALM) model along with LIDAR-derived forest structure to determine where spatial variability of fine-scale forest structure has the largest influence on large scale mass and energy budgets. SnowPALM was set up and calibrated at sites representing diverse climates in New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Then, we compared simulations at different model resolutions (i.e. 1, 10, and 100 m) to elucidate the effects of including versus not including information about fine scale canopy structure. These experiments were repeated for different prescribed topographies (i.e. flat, 30% slope north, and south-facing) at each site. Higher resolution simulations had more snow at lower canopy cover, with the opposite being true at high canopy cover. Furthermore, there is considerable scatter, indicating that different canopy arrangements can lead to different amounts of snow, even when the overall canopy coverage is the same. This modeling is contributing to the development of a high resolution machine learning algorithm called the Snow Water Artificial Network (SWANN) model to generate predictions of snow distributions over much larger domains, which has implications

  19. Thermodynamic basis for engineering high-affinity, high-specificity binding-induced DNA clamp nanoswitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idili, Andrea; Plaxco, Kevin W; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Ricci, Francesco

    2013-12-23

    Naturally occurring chemoreceptors almost invariably employ structure-switching mechanisms, an observation that has inspired the use of biomolecular switches in a wide range of artificial technologies in the areas of diagnostics, imaging, and synthetic biology. In one mechanism for generating such behavior, clamp-based switching, binding occurs via the clamplike embrace of two recognition elements onto a single target molecule. In addition to coupling recognition with a large conformational change, this mechanism offers a second advantage: it improves both affinity and specificity simultaneously. To explore the physics of such switches we have dissected here the thermodynamics of a clamp-switch that recognizes a target DNA sequence through both Watson-Crick base pairing and triplex-forming Hoogsteen interactions. When compared to the equivalent linear DNA probe (which relies solely on Watson-Crick interactions), the extra Hoogsteen interactions in the DNA clamp-switch increase the probe's affinity for its target by ∼0.29 ± 0.02 kcal/mol/base. The Hoogsteen interactions of the clamp-switch likewise provide an additional specificity check that increases the discrimination efficiency toward a single-base mismatch by 1.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. This, in turn, leads to a 10-fold improvement in the width of the "specificity window" of this probe relative to that of the equivalent linear probe. Given these attributes, clamp-switches should be of utility not only for sensing applications but also, in the specific field of DNA nanotechnology, for applications calling for a better control over the building of nanostructures and nanomachines.

  20. A centre-triggered magnesium fuelled cathodic arc thruster uses sublimation to deliver a record high specific impulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Patrick R. C.; Bilek, Marcela; McKenzie, David R.

    2016-08-01

    The cathodic arc is a high current, low voltage discharge that operates in vacuum and provides a stream of highly ionised plasma from a solid conducting cathode. The high ion velocities, together with the high ionisation fraction and the quasineutrality of the exhaust stream, make the cathodic arc an attractive plasma source for spacecraft propulsion applications. The specific impulse of the cathodic arc thruster is substantially increased when the emission of neutral species is reduced. Here, we demonstrate a reduction of neutral emission by exploiting sublimation in cathode spots and enhanced ionisation of the plasma in short, high-current pulses. This, combined with the enhanced directionality due to the efficient erosion profiles created by centre-triggering, substantially increases the specific impulse. We present experimentally measured specific impulses and jet power efficiencies for titanium and magnesium fuels. Our Mg fuelled source provides the highest reported specific impulse for a gridless ion thruster and is competitive with all flight rated ion thrusters. We present a model based on cathode sublimation and melting at the cathodic arc spot explaining the outstanding performance of the Mg fuelled source. A further significant advantage of an Mg-fuelled thruster is the abundance of Mg in asteroidal material and in space junk, providing an opportunity for utilising these resources in space.

  1. On the radiochemical purity of elementary 35S with high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovsky, D.S.; Kostadinov, K.N.; Efremova, Yu.N.

    1979-01-01

    Radiochemical composition and chemical changes with increasing storage time of benzene solutions and of solid species of elementary 35 S with high specific activity are studied. The dependence of the stability on the specific activity and the radioactive concentration is shown and some tentative limits are given for permissible storage periods. (author)

  2. Using High-Precision Specific Gravity Measurements to Study Minerals in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandriss, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes ways to incorporate high-precision measurements of the specific gravities of minerals into undergraduate courses in mineralogy and physical geology. Most traditional undergraduate laboratory methods of measuring specific gravity are suitable only for unusually large samples, which severely limits their usefulness for student…

  3. Synthesis of glycolic acid-1-14C of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, T.V.; Viswanathan, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    A simple procedure is described which efficiently converts traces of 14 C labelled cyanide present as a dilute solution into glycolic acid-1- 14 C with more than 85% radiochemical recovery and of high specific activity. (author)

  4. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Yang, Yuan; Cha, Judy J.; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  7. Labeling of autologous monocytes with 99mTc-HMPAO at very high specific radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemert, Formijn J. van; Thurlings, Rogier; Dohmen, Serge E.; Voermans, Carlijn; Tak, Paul P.; Eck-Smit, Berthe L.F. van; Bennink, Roelof J.

    2007-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis of joints involves the accumulation of monocyte-derived macrophages in the affected synovial tissue. This process of cell migration can be portrayed scintigraphically in order to monitor noninvasive effects of therapy on the progress of the disease. Scintigraphic detection of inflammation by means of technetium 99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labeled leukocytes provides a classic example. Present state-of-the-art methods in cell biology allow the isolation of cells like lymphocytes or monocytes, which are less abundant than main blood constituents but, instead, harbor particular functions like specific homing properties. To facilitate scintigraphic imaging of the cell functions involved, the relatively small population of cells must be labeled to radioactive yields as high as possible. We demonstrate that autologous monocytes isolated from 100 ml of peripheral blood can be radiolabeled to a yield of 10 (instead of 1) Bq per cell, allowing scintigraphic analysis of rheumatoid arthritis up to 20 h post injection of patients. The method is based on the instantaneous distribution of lipophilic 99m Tc-HMPAO between the hydrophobic inside of cells and the hydrophilic (aqueous) surrounding of cells, followed by decomposition of the radiopharmaceutical into compounds that are unable to cross the cellular membrane. The procedure provides a method of choice for cell-mediated scintigraphy at low availability of cells with the correct homing properties

  8. Operating Cooperatively (OC sensor for highly specific recognition of nucleic acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan M Cornett

    Full Text Available Molecular Beacon (MB probes have been extensively used for nucleic acid analysis because of their ability to produce fluorescent signal in solution instantly after hybridization. The indirect binding of MB probe to a target analyte offers several advantages, including: improved genotyping accuracy and the possibility to analyse folded nucleic acids. Here we report on a new design for MB-based sensor, called 'Operating Cooperatively' (OC, which takes advantage of indirect binding of MB probe to a target analyte. The sensor consists of two unmodified DNA strands, which hybridize to a universal MB probe and a nucleic acid analyte to form a fluorescent complex. OC sensors were designed to analyze two human SNPs and E. coli 16S rRNA. High specificity of the approach was demonstrated by the detection of true analyte in over 100 times excess amount of single base substituted analytes. Taking into account the flexibility in the design and the simplicity in optimization, we conclude that OC sensors may become versatile and efficient tools for instant DNA and RNA analysis in homogeneous solution.

  9. High-Specificity Targeted Functional Profiling in Microbial Communities with ShortBRED.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kaminski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Profiling microbial community function from metagenomic sequencing data remains a computationally challenging problem. Mapping millions of DNA reads from such samples to reference protein databases requires long run-times, and short read lengths can result in spurious hits to unrelated proteins (loss of specificity. We developed ShortBRED (Short, Better Representative Extract Dataset to address these challenges, facilitating fast, accurate functional profiling of metagenomic samples. ShortBRED consists of two components: (i a method that reduces reference proteins of interest to short, highly representative amino acid sequences ("markers" and (ii a search step that maps reads to these markers to quantify the relative abundance of their associated proteins. After evaluating ShortBRED on synthetic data, we applied it to profile antibiotic resistance protein families in the gut microbiomes of individuals from the United States, China, Malawi, and Venezuela. Our results support antibiotic resistance as a core function in the human gut microbiome, with tetracycline-resistant ribosomal protection proteins and Class A beta-lactamases being the most widely distributed resistance mechanisms worldwide. ShortBRED markers are applicable to other homology-based search tasks, which we demonstrate here by identifying phylogenetic signatures of antibiotic resistance across more than 3,000 microbial isolate genomes. ShortBRED can be applied to profile a wide variety of protein families of interest; the software, source code, and documentation are available for download at http://huttenhower.sph.harvard.edu/shortbred.

  10. HY-Specific Induced Regulatory T Cells Display High Specificity and Efficacy in the Prevention of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Heinrichs, Jessica; Haarberg, Kelley; Semple, Kenrick; Veerapathran, Anandharaman; Liu, Chen; Anasetti, Claudio; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2015-07-15

    Naturally derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) may prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) while preserving graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity. However, clinical application of naturally derived regulatory T cells has been severely hampered by their scarce availability and nonselectivity. To overcome these limitations, we took alternative approaches to generate Ag-specific induced Tregs (iTregs) and tested their efficacy and selectivity in the prevention of GVHD in preclinical models of bone marrow transplantation. We selected HY as a target Ag because it is a naturally processed, ubiquitously expressed minor histocompatibility Ag (miHAg) with a proven role in GVHD and GVL effect. We generated HY-specific iTregs (HY-iTregs) from resting CD4 T cells derived from TCR transgenic mice, in which CD4 cells specifically recognize HY peptide. We found that HY-iTregs were highly effective in preventing GVHD in male (HY(+)) but not female (HY(-)) recipients using MHC II-mismatched, parent→F1, and miHAg-mismatched murine bone marrow transplantation models. Interestingly, the expression of target Ag (HY) on the hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic compartment alone was sufficient for iTregs to prevent GVHD. Furthermore, treatment with HY-iTregs still preserved the GVL effect even against pre-established leukemia. We found that HY-iTregs were more stable in male than in female recipients. Furthermore, HY-iTregs expanded extensively in male but not female recipients, which in turn significantly reduced donor effector T cell expansion, activation, and migration into GVHD target organs, resulting in effective prevention of GVHD. This study demonstrates that iTregs specific for HY miHAgs are highly effective in controlling GVHD in an Ag-dependent manner while sparing the GVL effect. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Cosmogenically-produced isotopes in natural and enriched high-purity germanium detectors for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliss, Thomas; MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR advances toward measurements of the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Detectors employed in the DEMONSTRATOR are subject to cosmogenic spallation during production and processing, resulting in activation of certain long-lived radioisotopes. Activation of these cosmogenic isotopes is mitigated by shielded storage of detectors and through underground operation of the DEMONSTRATOR at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility. In this work, we explore the appearance and reduction of cosmogenic contributions to the DEMONSTRATOR background spectrum. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  12. Device Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-31

    the entire unit is assembled by high temperature brazing using a gold- nickel alloy. Figure 18. Photograph of a typical DPF anode that has been cross... Molybdenum was chosen for the cathode tube material because it has a low sputtering coefficient, and it’s high temperature properties.. The tubes are...Set (Write a"") "* Apply current to raise memory element temperature to promote crystallization "* Crystalline state = low resistance = high current

  13. Preparation of high specific activity labelled triiodothyronine (T3) for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Nagvekar, U.H.; Desai, C.N.; Mani, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    A method standardized for the preparation of high specific activity labelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) is discussed. Iodine-125 labelled T 3 with a specific activity of 3 mCi μg was prepared by iodinating 3,5-diiodothyronine (T 2 ) and purifying it over Sephadex G-25 gel. Radochemical purity and stability evaluations were done by paper chromatography. Specific activity of the labelled T 3 prepared was estimated by the self-displacement method. The use of this high specific activity labelled T 3 in radioimmunoassay increased the sensitivity considerably. The advantage of this procedure is that the specific activity of labelled T 3 formed is independent of reaction yield and labelled T 3 yield. (author)

  14. Aspergillus fumigatus SidA is a highly specific ornithine hydroxylase with bound flavin cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocklett, Samuel W; Sobrado, Pablo

    2010-08-10

    Ferrichrome is a hydroxamate-containing siderophore produced by the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus under iron-limiting conditions. This siderophore contains N(5)-hydroxylated l-ornithines essential for iron binding. A. fumigatus siderophore A (Af SidA) catalyzes the flavin- and NADPH-dependent hydroxylation of l-ornithine in ferrichrome biosynthesis. Af SidA was recombinantly expressed and purified as a soluble tetramer and is the first member of this class of flavin monooxygenases to be isolated with a bound flavin cofactor. The enzyme showed typical saturation kinetics with respect to l-ornithine while substrate inhibition was observed at high concentrations of NADPH and NADH. Increasing amounts of hydrogen peroxide were measured as a function of reduced nicotinamide coenzyme concentration, indicating that inhibition was caused by increased uncoupling. Af SidA is highly specific for its amino acid substrate, only hydroxylating l-ornithine. An 8-fold preference in the catalytic efficiency was determined for NADPH compared to NADH. In the absence of substrate, Af SidA can be reduced by NADPH, and a C4a-(hydro)peroxyflavin intermediate is observed. The decay of this intermediate is accelerated by l-ornithine binding. This intermediate was only stabilized by NADPH and not by NADH, suggesting a role for NADP(+) in the stabilization of intermediates in the reaction of Af SidA. NADP(+) is a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH, demonstrating that Af SidA forms a ternary complex with NADP(+) and l-ornithine during catalysis. The data suggest that Af SidA likely proceeds by a sequential kinetic mechanism.

  15. Continuous assessment of land mapping accuracy at High Resolution from global networks of atmospheric and field observatories -concept and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Martin-lauzer, François-regis

    2017-04-01

    In the context of global climate change and adjustment/resilience policies' design and implementation, there is a need not only i. for environmental monitoring, e.g. through a range of Earth Observations (EO) land "products" but ii. for a precise assessment of uncertainties of the aforesaid information that feed environmental decision-making (to be introduced in the EO metadata) and also iii. for a perfect handing of the thresholds which help translate "environment tolerance limits" to match detected EO changes through ecosystem modelling. Uncertainties' insight means precision and accuracy's knowledge and subsequent ability of setting thresholds for change detection systems. Traditionally, the validation of satellite-derived products has taken the form of intensive field campaigns to sanction the introduction of data processors in Payload Data Ground Segments chains. It is marred by logistical challenges and cost issues, reason why it is complemented by specific surveys at ground-based monitoring sites which can provide near-continuous observations at a high temporal resolution (e.g. RadCalNet). Unfortunately, most of the ground-level monitoring sites, in the number of 100th or 1000th, which are part of wider observation networks (e.g. FLUXNET, NEON, IMAGINES) mainly monitor the state of the atmosphere and the radiation exchange at the surface, which are different to the products derived from EO data. In addition they are "point-based" compared to the EO cover to be obtained from Sentinel-2 or Sentinel-3. Yet, data from these networks, processed by spatial extrapolation models, are well-suited to the bottom-up approach and relevant to the validation of vegetation parameters' consistency (e.g. leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation). Consistency means minimal errors on spatial and temporal gradients of EO products. Test of the procedure for land-cover products' consistency assessment with field measurements delivered by worldwide

  16. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Highly Water-dispersible Anatase Nanoparticles with Large Specific Surface Area and Their Adsorptive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xueting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly water-dispersible and very small TiO2 nanoparticles (~3 nm anatase with large specific surface area have been synthesized by hydrolysis and hydrothermal reactions of titanium butoxide and used for the removal of three azo dyes (Congo red, orange II, and methyl orange with different molecular structure from simulated wastewaters. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in water with large specific surface area up to 417 m2 g−1. Adsorption experiments demonstrated that the water-dispersible TiO2 nanoparticles possess excellent adsorption capacities for Congo red, orange II, and methyl orange, which could be attributed to their good water-dispersibility and large specific surface area.

  17. Specific features of high-cycle and ultra-high-cycle fatigue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáš, Petr; Kunz, Ludvík

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2002), s. 747-753 ISSN 8756-758X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104; GA AV ČR IAA2041002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : ultra high cycle fatigue * fatigue mechanisms * cyclic plastic deformation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2002

  18. Calculation of radiation production of high specific activity isotopes 192Ir and 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Quan; Zhong Wenfa; Xu Xiaolin

    1997-01-01

    The high specific activity isotopes: 192 Ir and 60 Co in the high neutron flux reactor are calculated with the method of reactor physics. The results of calculation are analyzed in two aspects: the production of isotopes and the influence to parameters of the reactor, and hence a better case is proposed as a reference to the production

  19. Standardization on the specification, test and evaluation of high efficiency motors and inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Yong [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Hyun, Chang Soon [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Most of the power systems energy is consumed by electrical motors. This report proposes a method for the standardization on the specification, test and evaluation of the high efficiency motors and related inverters. The results of this report can be referred to the rebate program for promoting the use of high efficiency motors and inverters (author). 26 refs., 102 figs.

  20. Baseline prostatic specific antigen does not predict the outcome of high energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, M. Pilar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Debruyne, Frans M. J.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the prognostic value of baseline prostate specific antigen (PSA) for outcome after high energy transurethral thermotherapy in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected prospectively in 404 consecutive patients treated with high energy

  1. Demonstration of a strategy for product purification by high-gradient magnetic fishing: Recovery of superoxide dismutase from unconditioned whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A.; Hansen, D.B.; Goncalves Gomes, Claudia Sofia

    2005-01-01

    and solids; (iv) elution of the target protein; and (v) recovery of the eluted supports from the HGMF rig. Efficient recovery of SOD was demonstrated at similar to50-fold increased scale (cf. magnetic rack studies) in three separate HGMF experiments, and in the best of these (run 3) an SOD yield of >85...

  2. A 2-stage ovarian cancer screening strategy using the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) identifies early-stage incident cancers and demonstrates high positive predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Karen H; Skates, Steven; Hernandez, Mary A; Bedi, Deepak; Bevers, Therese; Leeds, Leroy; Moore, Richard; Granai, Cornelius; Harris, Steven; Newland, William; Adeyinka, Olasunkanmi; Geffen, Jeremy; Deavers, Michael T; Sun, Charlotte C; Horick, Nora; Fritsche, Herbert; Bast, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    A 2-stage ovarian cancer screening strategy was evaluated that incorporates change of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) levels over time and age to estimate risk of ovarian cancer. Women with high-risk scores were referred for transvaginal ultrasound (TVS). A single-arm, prospective study of postmenopausal women was conducted. Participants underwent an annual CA125 blood test. Based on the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) result, women were triaged to next annual CA125 test (low risk), repeat CA125 test in 3 months (intermediate risk), or TVS and referral to a gynecologic oncologist (high risk). A total of 4051 women participated over 11 years. The average annual rate of referral to a CA125 test in 3 months was 5.8%, and the average annual referral rate to TVS and review by a gynecologic oncologist was 0.9%. Ten women underwent surgery on the basis of TVS, with 4 invasive ovarian cancers (1 with stage IA disease, 2 with stage IC disease, and 1 with stage IIB disease), 2 ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (both stage IA), 1 endometrial cancer (stage I), and 3 benign ovarian tumors, providing a positive predictive value of 40% (95% confidence interval = 12.2%, 73.8%) for detecting invasive ovarian cancer. The specificity was 99.9% (95% confidence interval = 99.7%, 100%). All 4 women with invasive ovarian cancer were enrolled in the study for at least 3 years with low-risk annual CA125 test values prior to rising CA125 levels. ROCA followed by TVS demonstrated excellent specificity and positive predictive value in a population of US women at average risk for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  3. Demonstration of Brachyspira aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 in human colonic biopsies with intestinal spirochaetosis by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Teglbjærg, Peter S.; Lindboe, Christian F.

    2004-01-01

    of these organisms in human intestinal spirochaetosis. Seventeen human colonic biopsies from Norway and Denmark with intestinal spirochaetosis caused by Brachyspira-like organisms different from the type strain of B. aalborgi (lineage 1) were examined. Application of the probe gave a positive signal in two Norwegian...... biopsies, whereas the 15 other biopsies were hybridization-negative. The positive reaction visualized the spirochaetes as a fluorescent, 3-5 mum-high fringe on the surface epithelium, extending into the crypts. The study verified the presence of B. aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 and identified the bacteria...

  4. On area-specific underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground research laboratories (URLs, including “generic URLs” and “site-specific URLs”, are underground facilities in which characterisation, testing, technology development, and/or demonstration activities are carried out in support of the development of geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal. In addition to the generic URL and site-specific URL, a concept of “area-specific URL”, or the third type of URL, is proposed in this paper. It is referred to as the facility that is built at a site within an area that is considered as a potential area for HLW repository or built at a place near the future repository site, and may be regarded as a precursor to the development of a repository at the site. It acts as a “generic URL”, but also acts as a “site-specific URL” to some extent. Considering the current situation in China, the most suitable option is to build an “area-specific URL” in Beishan area, the first priority region for China's high-level waste repository. With this strategy, the goal to build China's URL by 2020 may be achieved, but the time left is limited.

  5. Comparison of Spontaneously Elicited Language Patterns in Specific Language Impairment and High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Megan; Trauner, Doris

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to characterize differences in the use of language in children with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism by analyzing verbal responses on standardized tests. The overall goal was to provide clinicians with additional tools with which to aid in distinguishing the two neurodevelopmental disorders. This study included 16 children with specific language impairment, 28 children with high-functioning autism, and 52 typically developing participants between the ages of six and 14. Groups were matched for age, and specific language impairment and high-functioning autism groups were matched on verbal and performance IQ. Responses from standardized tests were examined for response length, grammatical errors, filler words, perseverations, revisions (repeated attempts to begin or continue a sentence), off-topic attention shifts (lapses in attention to the task), and rambling. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric methods. Specific language impairment responses were longer and contained more filler words than did those of the other two groups, whereas high-functioning autism responses exhibited more grammatical errors, off-topic attention shifts, and rambling. Specific language impairment and high-functioning autism responses showed higher rates of perseveration compared with controls. There were no significant differences in revisions among the three groups. Differences in language patterns of participants with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism may be useful to the clinician in helping to differentiate isolated language impairment from high-functioning autism. The results also support the conclusion that the two conditions are separable, and each exhibits a different pattern of language dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Belgian demonstration programme for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, F.; Demarche, M.

    2006-01-01

    The EIG EURIDICE is responsible for performing large-scale tests, technical demonstrations and experiments so as to assess the feasibility of a final disposal of vitrified radioactive waste in deep clay layers. This programme is part of the Belgian Research and Development programme managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS. The research infrastructure includes the Underground Research Facilities HADES (URF HADES) in the Boom Clay geological formation and surface facilities. The achievements of the demonstration programme are the demonstration of the construction of shafts and galleries at industrial scale, the characterisation of the hydro-mechanical response of the host rock, and the 'OPHELIE mock-up' a large scale hydration test under thermal load of pre-fabricated bentonite blocks. The future works will consist mainly in the realisation of the 'PRACLAY experiments' including a large scale heater test. The results of this test will constitute an important input for the Safety and Feasibility Cases 1 (SFC-1, 2013) and 2 (SFC-2, 2020). (author)

  7. Synthesis of [diene-"1"4C] curcumin at high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filer, Crist N.; Lacy, James M.; Wright, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An efficient method is described to label curcumin with "1"4C at high specific activity. - Highlights: • This paper describes the synthesis of ["1"4C] Curcumin at the highest specific activity and total activity amount yet reported. • The "1"4C label was installed in the diene framework of Curcumin. • This paper also describes the characterization of ["1"4C] Curcumin by HPLC and mass spectrometry.

  8. High-throughput bioscreening system utilizing high-performance affinity magnetic carriers exhibiting minimal non-specific protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Naohiro; Nishio, Kosuke; Hatakeyama, Mamoru; Yasuno, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Tada, Masaru; Nakagawa, Takashi; Sandhu, Adarsh; Abe, Masanori; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    For affinity purification of drug target protein we have developed magnetic carriers, narrow in size distribution (184±9 nm), which exhibit minimal non-specific binding of unwanted proteins. The carriers were highly dispersed in aqueous solutions and highly resistant to organic solvents, which enabled immobilization of various hydrophobic chemicals as probes on the carrier surfaces. Utilizing the carriers we have automated the process of separation and purification of the target proteins that had been done by manual operation previously.

  9. Establishing comparability and compatibility in the purity assessment of high purity zinc as demonstrated by the CCQM-P149 intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen; Kipphardt, Heinrich; Richter, Silke; Bremser, Wolfram; del Rocío Arvizu Torres, María; Manzano, Judith Velina Lara; Buzoianu, Mirella; Hill, Sarah; Petrov, Panayot; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Sargent, Mike; Fisicaro, Paola; Labarraque, Guillaume; Zhou, Tao; Turk, Gregory C.; Winchester, Michael; Miura, Tsutomu; Methven, Brad; Sturgeon, Ralph; Jährling, Reinhard; Rienitz, Olaf; Mariassy, Michal; Hankova, Zuzana; Sobina, Egor; Ivanovich Krylov, Anatoly; Anatolievich Kustikov, Yuri; Vladimirovich Smirnov, Vadim

    2018-04-01

    For the first time, an international comparison was conducted on the determination of the purity of a high purity element. Participants were free to choose any analytical approach appropriate for their institute’s applications and services. The material tested was a high purity zinc, which had earlier been assessed for homogeneity and previously used in CCQM-K72 for the determination of six defined metallic impurities. Either a direct metal assay of the Zn mass fraction was undertaken by EDTA titrimetry, or an indirect approach was used wherein all impurities, or at least the major ones, were determined and their sum subtracted from ideal purity of 100%, or 1 kg kg-1. Impurity assessment techniques included glow discharge mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and carrier gas hot extraction/combustion analysis. Up to 91 elemental impurities covering metals, non-metals and semi-metals/metalloids were quantified. Due to the lack of internal experience or experimental capabilities, some participants contracted external laboratories for specific analytical tasks, mainly for the analysis of non-metals. The reported purity, expressed as zinc mass fraction in the high purity zinc material, showed excellent agreement for all participants, with a relative standard deviation of 0.011%. The calculated reference value, w(Zn)  =  0.999 873 kg kg-1, was assigned an asymmetric combined uncertainty of  +0.000 025 kg kg-1 and  -0.000 028 kg kg-1. Comparability amongst participating metrology institutes is thus demonstrated for the purity determination of high purity metals which have no particular difficulties with their decomposition/dissolution process when solution-based analytical methods are used, or which do not have specific difficulties when direct analysis approaches are used. Nevertheless, further development is required in terms of uncertainty assessment, quantification of non-metals and the determination of purity

  10. On the importance of specific heats as regards efficiency increases for highly dilute IC engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Importance of specific heats towards increasing engine efficiency was quantified. • Decreases of specific heats contribute 3.5–6.3% (abs) to the efficiency. • Dilute engines benefit from decreases of specific heats due to lower temperatures. - Abstract: Engineering and scientific efforts continue with the development of advanced, IC engines using highly dilute mixtures, and relatively high compression ratios. Such engines are known to provide opportunities for low emissions as well as high efficiencies. The main features of these engines include higher compression ratios, lean operation, use of EGR, and shorter burn durations. First, this study reviews the quantitative contributions of each of these features as determined by an engine cycle simulation. Second, this study provides the quantitative contributions to the increased efficiency in terms of fundamental thermodynamic considerations. An automotive engine operated at 2000 rpm was selected for this study. For the conditions examined, the net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% (conventional engine) to 53.9% (high efficiency engine) – for an incremental increase of 16.9% (absolute). The contribution of increases of the ratio of specific heats towards the final thermal efficiency is quantified. This aspect has been well known, but has not been quantified for actual engines. For the various conditions examined, 21–35% of the total efficiency improvement was estimated to be due to the increase of the ratio of specific heats

  11. Demonstrating Enabling Technologies for the High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer of the Next NASA X-ray Astronomy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S.; Chervenak, J.; Chiao, M.; Doriese, R.; Eckart, M.; Finkbeiner, F.; Fowler, J. W.; Hilton, G.; Irwin, K.; Kelley, R. L.; Moseley, S. J.; Porter, F. S.; Reintsema, C.; Sadleir, J.; Smith, S. J.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA/GSFC and NIST-Boulder are collaborating on a program to advance superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter technology toward Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. The technology development for a TES imaging X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer (TES microcalorimeter arrays and time-division multiplexed SQUID readout) is now at TRL 4, as evaluated by both NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) during mission formulation for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We will present the status of the development program. The primary goal of the current project is to advance the core X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) detector-system technologies to a demonstration of TRL 5 in 2014. Additional objectives are to develop and demonstrate two important related technologies to at least TRL 4: position-sensitive TES devices and code-division multiplexing (CDM). These technologies have the potential to expand significantly the range of possible instrument optimizations; together they allow an expanded focal plane and higher per-pixel count rates without greatly increasing mission resources. The project also includes development of a design concept and critical technologies needed for the thermal, electrical, and mechanical integration of the detector and readout components into the focal-plane assembly. A verified design concept for the packaging of the focal-plane components will be needed for the detector system eventually to advance to TRL 6. Thus, the current project is a targeted development and demonstration program designed to make significant progress in advancing the XMS detector system toward TRL 6, establishing its readiness for a range of possible mission implementations.

  12. Identification of chlorinated solvents degradation zones in clay till by high resolution chemical, microbial and compound specific isotope analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Bælum, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    subsampling of the clay till cores. The study demonstrates that an integrated approach combining chemical analysis, molecular microbial tools and compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) was required in order to document biotic and abiotic degradations in the clay till system. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.......The degradation of chlorinated ethenes and ethanes in clay till was investigated at a contaminated site (Vadsby, Denmark) by high resolution sampling of intact cores combined with groundwater sampling. Over decades of contamination, bioactive zones with degradation of trichloroethene (TCE) and 1...

  13. High molecular weight FGF2 isoforms demonstrate canonical receptor-mediated activity and support human embryonic stem cell self-renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006, and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011. A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18 kDa low molecular weight (LMW isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW isoforms (Arese et al., 1999; Arnaud et al., 1999. As they are not generally secreted, high molecular weight (HMW FGF2 isoforms have predominantly been investigated intracellularly; only a very limited number of studies have investigated their activity as extracellular factors. Here we report over-expression, isolation, and biological activity of all recombinant human FGF2 isoforms. We show that HMW FGF2 isoforms can support self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs in vitro. Exogenous supplementation with HMW FGF2 isoforms also activates the canonical FGFR/MAPK pathway and induces mitogenic activity in a manner similar to that of the 18 kDa FGF2 isoform. Though all HMW isoforms, when supplemented exogenously, are able to recapitulate LMW FGF2 activity to some degree, it appears that certain isoforms tend to do so more poorly, demonstrating a lesser functional response by several measures. A better understanding of isoform-specific FGF2 effects will lead to a better understanding of developmental and pathological FGF2 signaling.

  14. SSME Alternate Turbopump Development Program: Design verification specification for high-pressure fuel turbopump

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The design and verification requirements are defined which are appropriate to hardware at the detail, subassembly, component, and engine levels and to correlate these requirements to the development demonstrations which provides verification that design objectives are achieved. The high pressure fuel turbopump requirements verification matrix provides correlation between design requirements and the tests required to verify that the requirement have been met.

  15. Processing of Ni30Pt20Ti50 High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloy Into Thin Rod Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Draper, Susan L.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Leonhardt, Todd

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature shape-memory alloys (HTSMAs) based on nickel-titanium (NiTi) with significant ternary additions of palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), gold (Au), or hafnium (Hf) have been identified as potential high-temperature actuator materials for use up to 500 C. These materials provide an enabling technology for the development of "smart structures" used to control the noise, emissions, or efficiency of gas turbine engines. The demand for these high-temperature versions of conventional shape-memory alloys also has been growing in the automotive, process control, and energy industries. However these materials, including the NiPtTi alloys being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, will never find widespread acceptance unless they can be readily processed into useable forms.

  16. Biophysical modeling of high field diffusion MRI demonstrates micro-structural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove

    2016-01-01

    anhedonia is considered to be a realistic model of depression in studies of animal subjects. Stereological and neuronal tracing techniques have demonstrated persistent remodeling of microstructure in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala of CMS brains. Recent developments in diffusion MRI (d...... microstructure in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, caudate putamen and amygdala regions of CMS rat brains by comparison to brains from normal controls. To validate findings of CMS induced microstructural alteration, histology was performed to determine neurite, nuclear and astrocyte density. d-MRI based...... neurite density and tensor-based mean kurtosis (MKT) were significantly higher, while mean diffusivity (MD), extracellular diffusivity (Deff) and intra-neurite diffusivity(DL) were significantly lower in the amygdala of CMS rat brains. Deff was also significantly lower in the hippocampus and caudate...

  17. Summary of high field diffusion MRI and microscopy data demonstrate microstructural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove

    2016-01-01

    amygdala of the same brain hemispheres is also included with three different stains: DiI and Hoechst stained microscopic images (confocal microscopy) andALDH1L1 antibody based immunohistochemistry.These stains may be used to evaluate neurite density (DiI), nuclear density (Hoechst) and astrocytic density...... (ALDH1L1). This combination of high field diffusion data and high resolution images from microscopy enables comparison of microstructural parameters derived from diffusion MRIto histological microstructure. The data provided here is used in the article (Jespersen, 2016) [1]....

  18. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium labelled [2-3H]-adenosine-5'-triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, D.K.; Morimoto, H.; Trump, E.L.; Williams, P.G.; Wemmer, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure for high level tritium labelling at the C2-H position of adenosine 5'-triphosphate ([2- 3 H]-ATP, 1), based on the tritiodehalogenation reaction of 2-bromoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (2) has been elaborated. This precursor was prepared in a six-step synthesis from guanosine. The tritiodehalogenation of (2) for three hours over palladium oxide in phosphate buffer yielded tritium labelled ATP with high specific activity, in good chemical yield. (author)

  19. Synthesis of [1,2-3H] testosterone of high specific radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jiaxiu; Sun Zhiwei; Shen Decun

    1987-01-01

    [1,2- 3 H] testosterone of specific activity as high as 51 Ci/mmol, and radiochemical purity more than 99% has been prepared. The experimental conditions, such as reaction time, ratio of raw material to catalyst and separation method have been studied. The product was separated by silica-paper TLC (thin-laryer chromatography) at first, then purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The product has good stability with a purity of 95% after one year storage

  20. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  1. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  2. Highly Specific Binding on Antifouling Zwitterionic Polymer-Coated Microbeads as Measured by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Esther; de Bus, Ian; Tijhaar, Edwin J; Smulders, Maarten M J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Zuilhof, Han

    2017-11-08

    Micron- and nano-sized particles are extensively used in various biomedical applications. However, their performance is often drastically hampered by the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules, a process called biofouling, which can cause false-positive and false-negative outcomes in diagnostic tests. Although antifouling coatings have been extensively studied on flat surfaces, their use on micro- and nanoparticles remains largely unexplored, despite the widespread experimental (specifically, clinical) uncertainties that arise because of biofouling. Here, we describe the preparation of magnetic micron-sized beads coated with zwitterionic sulfobetaine polymer brushes that display strong antifouling characteristics. These coated beads can then be equipped with recognition elements of choice, to enable the specific binding of target molecules. First, we present a proof of principle with biotin-functionalized beads that are able to specifically bind fluorescently labeled streptavidin from a complex mixture of serum proteins. Moreover, we show the versatility of the method by demonstrating that it is also possible to functionalize the beads with mannose moieties to specifically bind the carbohydrate-binding protein concanavalin A. Flow cytometry was used to show that thus-modified beads only bind specifically targeted proteins, with minimal/near-zero nonspecific protein adsorption from other proteins that are present. These antifouling zwitterionic polymer-coated beads, therefore, provide a significant advancement for the many bead-based diagnostic and other biosensing applications that require stringent antifouling conditions.

  3. Small-scale integrated demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and vitrification using actual SRP waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolsey, G.B.; Baumgarten, P.K.; Eibling, R.E.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    A small-scale pilot plant for chemical processing and vitrification of actual high-level waste has been constructed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). This fully integrated facility has been constructed in six shielded cells and has eight major unit operations. Equipment performance and processing characteristics of the unit operations are reported

  4. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze, and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-tem...

  5. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers by ...

  6. Use of Neuropsychological Tests to Identify High School Students with Epilepsy Who Later Demonstrate Inadequate Performances in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Carl B.; Clemmons, David

    1984-01-01

    Examined the validity of intellectual, neuropsychological, and emotional adjustment measures administered in high school in predicting vocational adjustment of 39 young adults with epilepsy. Results showed neuropsychological tests were the best predictors of later adjustment. Abilities were more related to final adjustment than variables…

  7. High-field specific heats of A15 V3Si and Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.; Brandt, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    In order to further understand the anomalous behavior of the specific heat of Nb 3 Sn in an 18-T magnetic field discovered by Stewart, Cort, and Webb [Phys. Rev. B 24, 3841 (1981)], we have performed specific-heat measurements on a different sample of Nb 3 Sn at lower fields both in the normal and mixed states, as well as measurement to 19 T on both transforming and nontransforming V 3 Si. The high-field data for V 3 Si indicate that this material behaves quite normally, and that γ/sup trans/ 3 Sn, however, remains anomalous, with both the same ''kink'' in the normal-state field data as observed by Stewart, Cort, and Webb (although at a slightly higher temperature) and unusual mixed-state behavior. The mixed-state specific heat of the V 3 Si samples is as expected, based on earlier work on the mixed-state specific heat of V and Nb

  8. How to calculate clearance of highly protein-bound drugs during continuous venovenous hemofiltration demonstrated with flucloxacillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Brigitte; Ahmed el Gendy, Salwa; Delle Karth, Georg; Locker, Gottfried J; Heinz, Gottfried; Jaeger, Walter; Thalhammer, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Flucloxacillin is an important antimicrobial drug in the treatment of infections with Staphylococcus aureus and therefore is often used in staphylococcal infections. Furthermore, flucloxacillin has a high protein binding rate as for example ceftriaxone or teicoplanin--drugs which have formerly been characterized as not being dialyzable. The pharmacokinetic parameters of 4.0 g flucloxacillin every 8 h were examined in 10 intensive care patients during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) using a polyamide capillary hemofilter. In addition, the difficulty of calculating the hemofiltration clearance of a highly protein-bound drug is described. Flucloxacillin serum levels were significantly lowered (56.9 +/- 24.0%) even though only 15% of the drug was detected in the ultrafiltrate. Elimination half-life, total body clearance and sieving coefficient were 4.9 +/- 0.7 h, 117.2 +/- 79.1 ml/min and 0.21 +/- 0.09, respectively. These discrepancies can be explained by the high protein binding of flucloxacillin, the adsorbing property of polyamide and the equation in order to calculate hemofiltration clearance. The unbound fraction of a 4.0 g flucloxacillin dosage facilitates time above the minimum inhibitory concentration (T > MIC) of 60% only for strains up to a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5 mg/l. Based on the data of this study, we conclude that intensive care patients with staphylococcal infections on CVVH should be treated with 4.0 g flucloxacillin every 8 h which was safe and well tolerated. Moreover, further studies with highly protein-bound drugs are recommended to check the classical 'hemodialysis' equation as the standard equation in calculating the CVVH clearance of highly protein-bound drugs. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Chemical synthesis of high specific-activity [35S]adenosylhomocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, P.H.; Hoffman, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The study of the family of transmethylases, critical to normal cellular function and often altered in cancer, can be facilitated by the availability of a high specific-activity S-adenosylhomocysteine. The authors report the two-step preparation of [ 35 S]adenosylhomocysteine from [ 35 S]methionine at a specific activity of 1420 Ci/mmol in an overall yield of 24% by a procedure involving demethylation of the [ 35 S]methionine to [ 35 S]homocysteine followed by condensation with 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyadenosine. The ease of the reactions, ready availability and low cost of the reagents and high specific-activity and stability of the product make the procedure an attractive one with many uses, and superior to current methodology

  10. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  11. A large, benign prostatic cyst presented with an extremely high serum prostate-specific antigen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Kuang; Pemberton, Richard

    2016-01-08

    We report a case of a patient who presented with an extremely high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent radical prostatectomy for presumed prostate cancer. Surprisingly, the whole mount prostatectomy specimen showed only small volume, organ-confined prostate adenocarcinoma and a large, benign intraprostatic cyst, which was thought to be responsible for the PSA elevation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Do high-growth entrepreneurial firms have a specific system of governance?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wirtz

    2009-01-01

    From a meta-model linking a firm’s corporate governance system to managerial discretion (Charreaux, 2008), this article presents a specific corporate governance model for the high growth entrepreneurial firm. A survey of the empirical literature on the governance of entrepreneurial firms confirms the plausibility of this theoretical framework, especially with respect to the cognitive dimension of corporate governance.

  13. Proteome-wide mapping of the Drosophila acetylome demonstrates a high degree of conservation of lysine acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Wagner, Sebastian A; Horn, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by acetylation and phosphorylation regulates most cellular processes in living organisms. Surprisingly, the evolutionary conservation of phosphorylated serine and threonine residues is only marginally higher than that of unmodified serines and threonines....... With high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 1981 lysine acetylation sites in the proteome of Drosophila melanogaster. We used data sets of experimentally identified acetylation and phosphorylation sites in Drosophila and humans to analyze the evolutionary conservation of these modification sites...... between flies and humans. Site-level conservation analysis revealed that acetylation sites are highly conserved, significantly more so than phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, comparison of lysine conservation in Drosophila and humans with that in nematodes and zebrafish revealed that acetylated lysines...

  14. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    by direct cooling or intra-arterial noradrenaline infusion caused a marked drop in FSP in the exposed fingers, but not in the non-exposed fingers of the same hand. The fact that the non-exposed fingers retained the normal (arm systolic) pressure level is taken to indicate that palmar arch blood pressure......Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients...

  15. Demonstration of the TRUEX process for the treatment of actual high activity tank waste at the INEEL using centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Todd, T.A.; Olson, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), formerly reprocessed spent nuclear fuel to recover fissionable uranium. The radioactive raffinates from the solvent extraction uranium recovery processes were converted to granular solids (calcine) in a high temperature fluidized bed. A secondary liquid waste stream was generated during the course of reprocessing, primarily from equipment decontamination between campaigns and solvent wash activities. This acidic tank waste cannot be directly calcined due to the high sodium content and has historically been blended with reprocessing raffinates or non-radioactive aluminum nitrate prior to calcination. Fuel reprocessing activities are no longer being performed at the ICPP, thereby eliminating the option of waste blending to deplete the waste inventory. Currently, approximately 5.7 million liters of high-activity waste are temporarily stored at the ICPP in large underground stainless-steel tanks. The United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare filed a Notice of Noncompliance in 1992 contending some of the underground waste storage tanks do not meet secondary containment. As part of a 1995 agreement between the State of Idaho, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Navy, the waste must be removed from the tanks by 2012. Treatment of the tank waste inventories by partitioning the radionuclides and immobilizing the resulting high-activity and low-activity waste streams is currently under evaluation. A recent peer review identified the most promising radionuclide separation technologies for evaluation. The Transuranic Extraction-(TRUEX) process was identified as a primary candidate for separation of the actinides from ICPP tank waste

  16. Cell foundry with high product specificity and catalytic activity for 21-deoxycortisol biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuting; Wang, Ying; Yao, Mingdong; Liu, Hong; Zhou, Xiao; Xiao, Wenhai; Yuan, Yingjin

    2017-06-13

    21-deoxycortisol (21-DF) is the key intermediate to manufacture pharmaceutical glucocorticoids. Recently, a Japan patent has realized 21-DF production via biotransformation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) by purified steroid 11β-hydroxylase CYP11B1. Due to the less costs on enzyme isolation, purification and stabilization as well as cofactors supply, whole-cell should be preferentially employed as the biocatalyst over purified enzymes. No reports as so far have demonstrated a whole-cell system to produce 21-DF. Therefore, this study aimed to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst to achieve 21-DF transformation with high catalytic activity and product specificity. In this study, Escherichia coli MG1655(DE3), which exhibited the highest substrate transportation rate among other tested chassises, was employed as the host cell to construct our biocatalyst by co-expressing heterologous CYP11B1 together with bovine adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase. Through screening CYP11B1s (with mutagenesis at N-terminus) from nine sources, Homo sapiens CYP11B1 mutant (G25R/G46R/L52 M) achieved the highest 21-DF transformation rate at 10.6 mg/L/h. Furthermore, an optimal substrate concentration of 2.4 g/L and a corresponding transformation rate of 16.2 mg/L/h were obtained by screening substrate concentrations. To be noted, based on structural analysis of the enzyme-substrate complex, two types of site-directed mutations were designed to adjust the relative position between the catalytic active site heme and the substrate. Accordingly, 1.96-fold enhancement on 21-DF transformation rate (to 47.9 mg/L/h) and 2.78-fold improvement on product/by-product ratio (from 0.36 to 1.36) were achieved by the combined mutagenesis of F381A/L382S/I488L. Eventually, after 38-h biotransformation in shake-flask, the production of 21-DF reached to 1.42 g/L with a yield of 52.7%, which is the highest 21-DF production as known. Heterologous CYP11B1 was manipulated to construct E. coli

  17. High-resolution modeling of the western North American power system demonstrates low-cost and low-carbon futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, James; Johnston, Josiah; Mileva, Ana; Fripp, Matthias; Hoffman, Ian; Petros-Good, Autumn; Blanco, Christian; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Decarbonizing electricity production is central to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Exploiting intermittent renewable energy resources demands power system planning models with high temporal and spatial resolution. We use a mixed-integer linear programming model – SWITCH – to analyze least-cost generation, storage, and transmission capacity expansion for western North America under various policy and cost scenarios. Current renewable portfolio standards are shown to be insufficient to meet emission reduction targets by 2030 without new policy. With stronger carbon policy consistent with a 450 ppm climate stabilization scenario, power sector emissions can be reduced to 54% of 1990 levels by 2030 using different portfolios of existing generation technologies. Under a range of resource cost scenarios, most coal power plants would be replaced by solar, wind, gas, and/or nuclear generation, with intermittent renewable sources providing at least 17% and as much as 29% of total power by 2030. The carbon price to induce these deep carbon emission reductions is high, but, assuming carbon price revenues are reinvested in the power sector, the cost of power is found to increase by at most 20% relative to business-as-usual projections. - Highlights: ► Intermittent generation necessitates high-resolution electric power system models. ► We apply the SWITCH planning model to the western North American grid. ► We explore carbon policy and resource cost scenarios through 2030. ► As the carbon price rises, coal generation is replaced with solar, wind, gas and/or nuclear generation ► A 450 ppm climate stabilization target can be met at a 20% or lower cost increase.

  18. Evaluation of highly conserved hsp65-specific nested PCR primers for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, P; Tiwari, K; Das, A; Kumar, D; Mishra, M N; Desikan, P; Nath, G

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a new nested set of primers designed for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex targeting a highly conserved heat shock protein gene (hsp65). The nested primers were designed using multiple sequence alignment assuming the nucleotide sequence of the M. tuberculosis H37Rv hsp65 genome as base. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium species along with other non-mycobacterial and fungal species were included to evaluate the specificity of M. tuberculosis hsp65 gene-specific primers. The sensitivity of the primers was determined using serial 10-fold dilutions, and was 100% as shown by the bands in the case of M. tuberculosis complex. None of the other non M. tuberculosis complex bacterial and fungal species yielded any band on nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The first round of amplification could amplify 0.3 ng of the template DNA, while nested PCR could detect 0.3 pg. The present hsp65-specific primers have been observed to be sensitive, specific and cost-effective, without requiring interpretation of biochemical tests, real-time PCR, sequencing or high-performance liquid chromatography. These primer sets do not have the drawbacks associated with those protocols that target insertion sequence 6110, 16S rDNA, rpoB, recA and MPT 64.

  19. Design and operating features of the high-level waste vitrification system for the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, D.H.; Beary, M.M.; Barnes, S.M.; Berger, D.N.; Brouns, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Jones, R.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    A liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melter system is the reference process for immobilization of the high-level liquid waste in the US and several foreign countries. This system has been under development for over ten years at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other national laboratories operated for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributed to this research through its Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and used applicable data to design and test melters and related systems using remote handling of simulated radioactive wastes. This report describes the equipment designed in support of the high-level waste vitrification program at West Valley, New York. Pacific Northwest Laboratory worked closely with West Valley Nuclear Services Company to design a liquid-fed ceramic melter, a liquid waste preparation and feed tank and pump, an off-gas treatment scrubber, and an enclosed turntable for positioning the waste canisters. Details of these designs are presented including the rationale for the design features and the alternatives considered

  20. Communication: High pressure specific heat spectroscopy reveals simple relaxation behavior of glass forming molecular liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Lisa Anita; Niss, Kristine; Jakobsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The frequency dependent specific heat has been measured under pressure for the molecular glass forming liquid 5-polyphenyl-4-ether in the viscous regime close to the glass transition. The temperature and pressure dependences of the characteristic time scale associated with the specific heat...... is compared to the equivalent time scale from dielectric spectroscopy performed under identical conditions. It is shown that the ratio between the two time scales is independent of both temperature and pressure. This observation is non-trivial and demonstrates the existence of specially simple molecular...... liquids in which different physical relaxation processes are both as function of temperature and pressure/density governed by the same underlying “inner clock.” Furthermore, the results are discussed in terms of the recent conjecture that van der Waals liquids, like the measuredliquid, comply...

  1. Effective Inhibition of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Function by Highly Specific Llama-Derived Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Wagner, Koen; El Khattabi, Mohamed; Rutten, Lucy; Zimberlin, Cheryl; Dolk, Edward; Verrips, C Theo; Medema, Jan Paul; Spits, Hergen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2015-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) have important but distinct roles in tissue homeostasis and disease, including carcinogenesis and tumor progression. A large number of BMP inhibitors are available to study BMP function; however, as most of these antagonists are promiscuous, evaluating specific effects of individual BMPs is not feasible. Because the oncogenic role of the different BMPs varies for each neoplasm, highly selective BMP inhibitors are required. Here, we describe the generation of three types of llama-derived heavy chain variable domains (VHH) that selectively bind to either BMP4, to BMP2 and 4, or to BMP2, 4, 5, and 6. These generated VHHs have high affinity to their targets and are able to inhibit BMP signaling. Epitope binning and docking modeling have shed light into the basis for their BMP specificity. As opposed to the wide structural reach of natural inhibitors, these small molecules target the grooves and pockets of BMPs involved in receptor binding. In organoid experiments, specific inhibition of BMP4 does not affect the activation of normal stem cells. Furthermore, in vitro inhibition of cancer-derived BMP4 noncanonical signals results in an increase of chemosensitivity in a colorectal cancer cell line. Therefore, because of their high specificity and low off-target effects, these VHHs could represent a therapeutic alternative for BMP4(+) malignancies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Production of high specific activity 27Mg by fast neutron irradiation and recoil-aided leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierczinski, B.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Volkers, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    High specific activity 27 Mg was produced via recoil-aided leaching from alumina in aqueous medium during irradiation with fast neutrons from a nuclear reactor. After irradiation the aqueous medium was passed through an IC-chelate column, the 24 Na formed during irradiation was removed by elution with 0.25 ml . l -1 sodium acetate and subsequently the 27 Mg was eluted with 2 mol . l -1 hydrochloric acid. Irradiation of alumina with a particle size of 3 μm and a specific surface area of 100 m 2 . g -1 in Milli-Q Plus Water yielded 90% of the total 27 Mg activity produced. Under standard conditions activities of about 8 . 10 5 Bq and specific activities of ca. 10 13 Bq . mol -1 were obtained at the end of irradiation. The standard working conditions involved irradiation of 200 mg alumina dispersed in 0.5 ml liquid in a fast neutron flux of 3 . 10 15 m -2 . s -1 for 15 min, a waiting time of 10 min, and a processing time of 15 minutes. Various alumina samples with different particle sizes and specific surfaces were tested, and the 27 Mg yields were fitted to a mathematical function. Since the high leaching yields cannot only be explained by recoil only, other phenomena such as diffusion and leaching aided by the high hydration energy of the Mg 2+ ion are probably involved. (orig.)

  3. Synthesis of high specific activity carbon-11 labeled tracers for neuroreceptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wagner, H.N. Jr; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1989-01-01

    The use of short-lived positron-emitting radiotracers together with positron emission tomography (PET) has allowed scientists to acquire previously inaccessible information regarding problems in physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology in the living human body. In the past five years, successes in the application of PET to the non-invasive determination of the spatial distribution and regional concentration of a variety of neurotransmitter binding sites within the living brain often followed the successful selections and syntheses of appropriately radiolabeled ligands. This presentation concentrates on the synthesis of these high specific activity radiotracers for neuroreceptor PET studies labeled specifically with carbon-11. (author). 15 refs.; 1 fig

  4. Integrated analyses of microRNAs demonstrate their widespread influence on gene expression in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Chad J; Hernandez-Herrera, Anadulce; Jacobsen, Anders; Levine, Douglas A; Mankoo, Parminder; Schultz, Nikolaus; Du, Ying; Zhang, Yiqun; Larsson, Erik; Sheridan, Robert; Xiao, Weimin; Spellman, Paul T; Getz, Gad; Wheeler, David A; Perou, Charles M; Gibbs, Richard A; Sander, Chris; Hayes, D Neil; Gunaratne, Preethi H

    2012-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network recently comprehensively catalogued the molecular aberrations in 487 high-grade serous ovarian cancers, with much remaining to be elucidated regarding the microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, using TCGA ovarian data, we surveyed the miRNAs, in the context of their predicted gene targets. Integration of miRNA and gene patterns yielded evidence that proximal pairs of miRNAs are processed from polycistronic primary transcripts, and that intronic miRNAs and their host gene mRNAs derive from common transcripts. Patterns of miRNA expression revealed multiple tumor subtypes and a set of 34 miRNAs predictive of overall patient survival. In a global analysis, miRNA:mRNA pairs anti-correlated in expression across tumors showed a higher frequency of in silico predicted target sites in the mRNA 3'-untranslated region (with less frequency observed for coding sequence and 5'-untranslated regions). The miR-29 family and predicted target genes were among the most strongly anti-correlated miRNA:mRNA pairs; over-expression of miR-29a in vitro repressed several anti-correlated genes (including DNMT3A and DNMT3B) and substantially decreased ovarian cancer cell viability. This study establishes miRNAs as having a widespread impact on gene expression programs in ovarian cancer, further strengthening our understanding of miRNA biology as it applies to human cancer. As with gene transcripts, miRNAs exhibit high diversity reflecting the genomic heterogeneity within a clinically homogeneous disease population. Putative miRNA:mRNA interactions, as identified using integrative analysis, can be validated. TCGA data are a valuable resource for the identification of novel tumor suppressive miRNAs in ovarian as well as other cancers.

  5. Amorphous carbon nanofibres inducing high specific capacitance of deposited hydrous ruthenium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, V.; Pico, F.; Ibanez, J.; Lillo-Rodenas, M.A.; Linares-Solano, A.; Kimura, M.; Oya, A.; Rojas, R.M.; Amarilla, J.M.; Rojo, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Composites consisting of ruthenium oxide particles deposited on amorphous carbon nanofibres are prepared by a repetitive impregnation procedure. The choice of amorphous carbon nanofibres as support of amorphous ruthenium oxide leads to composites in which the deposited oxide consists of aggregates of extremely small primary particles (1-1.5 nm-size) and showing high porosity (specific surface area of 450 m 2 g -1 ). This special deposition of the oxide seems to favour: (i) high oxide capacitance (1000 Fg -1 ) at high oxide loadings (up to 20 wt%) and (ii) high capacitance retention (ca. 80% from the initial oxide capacitance) at high current densities (200 mA cm -2 ). Amorphous carbon nanofibres are suitable supports for amorphous ruthenium oxide and perhaps for other amorphous oxides acting as active electrode materials.

  6. SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome: 12 new cases demonstrating broader phenotype and high frequency of large gene deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrania, P; Robinson, D O; Bunyan, D J; Salt, A; Martin, A; Crolla, J A; Wyatt, A; Fielder, A; Ainsworth, J; Moore, A; Read, S; Uddin, J; Laws, D; Pascuel-Salcedo, D; Ayuso, C; Allen, L; Collin, J R O; Ragge, N K

    2007-11-01

    Developmental eye anomalies, which include anophthalmia (absent eye) or microphthalmia (small eye) are an important cause of severe visual impairment in infants and young children. Heterozygous mutations in SOX2, a SOX1B-HMG box transcription factor, have been found in up to 10% of individuals with severe microphthalmia or anophthalmia and such mutations could also be associated with a range of non-ocular abnormalities. We performed mutation analysis on a new cohort of 120 patients with congenital eye abnormalities, mainly anophthalmia, microphthalmia and coloboma. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) were used to detect whole gene deletion. We identified four novel intragenic SOX2 mutations (one single base deletion, one single base duplication and two point mutations generating premature translational termination codons) and two further cases with the previously reported c.70del20 mutation. Of 52 patients with severe microphthalmia or anophthalmia analysed by MLPA, 5 were found to be deleted for the whole SOX2 gene and 1 had a partial deletion. In two of these, FISH studies identified sub-microscopic deletions involving a minimum of 328 Kb and 550 Kb. The SOX2 phenotypes include a patient with anophthalmia, oesophageal abnormalities and horseshoe kidney, and a patient with a retinal dystrophy implicating SOX2 in retinal development. Our results provide further evidence that SOX2 haploinsufficiency is a common cause of severe developmental ocular malformations and that background genetic variation determines the varying phenotypes. Given the high incidence of whole gene deletion we recommend that all patients with severe microphthalmia or anophthalmia, including unilateral cases be screened by MLPA and FISH for SOX2 deletions.

  7. High frequency of cytolytic 21-Hydroxylase specific CD8+ T cells in autoimmune Addison’s disease patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoodji, Amina; Chen, Ji-Li; Shepherd, Dawn; Dalin, Frida; Tarlton, Andrea; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Penna-Martinez, Marissa; Meyer, Gesine; Mitchell, Anna L; Gan, Earn H; Bratland, Eirik; Bensing, Sophie; Husebye, Eystein; Pearce, Simon H.; Badenhoop, Klaus; Kämpe, Olle; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the destruction of the adrenal glands in autoimmune Addison’s disease remain unclear. Autoantibodies against steroid 21-hydroxylase, an intracellular key enzyme of the adrenal cortex, are found in over 90% of patients, but these autoantibodies are not thought to mediate the disease. Here we demonstrate highly frequent 21-hydroxylase specific T cells detectable in 20 patients with Addison’s disease. Using overlapping 18aa peptides spanning the full length of 21-hydroxylase, we identified immunodominant CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses in a large proportion of Addison’s patients both ex-vivo and after in-vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes up to 20 years after diagnosis. In a large proportion of patients, CD8+ 21-hydroxylase specific T cells and CD4+ 21-hydroxylase specific T cells were very abundant and detectable in ex-vivo assays. HLA class-I tetramer-guided isolation of 21-hydroxylase specific CD8+ T cells showed their ability to lyse 21-hydroxylase positive target cells, consistent with a potential mechanism for disease pathogenesis. These data indicate strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to 21-hydroxylase often occur in-vivo, and that reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes have substantial proliferative and cytolytic potential. These results have implications for earlier diagnosis of adrenal failure and ultimately a potential target for therapeutic intervention and induction of immunity against adrenal cortex cancer. PMID:25063864

  8. Probing region-specific microstructure of human cortical areas using high angular and spatial resolution diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Manisha; Nauen, David W; Troncoso, Juan C; Mori, Susumu

    2015-01-15

    Regional heterogeneity in cortical cyto- and myeloarchitecture forms the structural basis of mapping of cortical areas in the human brain. In this study, we investigate the potential of diffusion MRI to probe the microstructure of cortical gray matter and its region-specific heterogeneity across cortical areas in the fixed human brain. High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data at an isotropic resolution of 92-μm and 30 diffusion-encoding directions were acquired using a 3D diffusion-weighted gradient-and-spin-echo sequence, from prefrontal (Brodmann area 9), primary motor (area 4), primary somatosensory (area 3b), and primary visual (area 17) cortical specimens (n=3 each) from three human subjects. Further, the diffusion MR findings in these cortical areas were compared with histological silver impregnation of the same specimens, in order to investigate the underlying architectonic features that constitute the microstructural basis of diffusion-driven contrasts in cortical gray matter. Our data reveal distinct and region-specific diffusion MR contrasts across the studied areas, allowing delineation of intracortical bands of tangential fibers in specific layers-layer I, layer VI, and the inner and outer bands of Baillarger. The findings of this work demonstrate unique sensitivity of diffusion MRI to differentiate region-specific cortical microstructure in the human brain, and will be useful for myeloarchitectonic mapping of cortical areas as well as to achieve an understanding of the basis of diffusion NMR contrasts in cortical gray matter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of high quality distillate to meet a fit-for-purpose boiler feedwater specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions Oil and Gas, Calgary, AB (Canada); Neu, D. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies/HPD, Pewaukee, WI (United States); Drone, J.L. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies/HPD, Plainfield, IL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies has significant experience managing boiler water chemistry and is the world's largest manufacturer of evaporation systems. The company has conducted extensive testing and analysis for produced water evaporation distillate from multiple facilities. In order to produce boiler feed water, evaporation of produced water is used at several steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities. There are no official guidelines for the required quality of evaporator distillate to feed a once through steam generator (OTSG) or high pressure industrial watertube boiler (IWT) that will produce injection steam. This paper presented a basis for a fit-for-purpose specification for IWT boilers as well as data on the performance of a Vapor Washer, which produces high quality distilled water that meets fit-for-purpose specifications even during normal variations in feed conditions. Specifically, the paper discussed boiler water requirements for steam injection IWTs; the quality of distillate from a produced water evaporator; the benefits of vapour washing to maintain distillate quality; and suggested boiler chemistry limits for a fit-for-purpose specification. Oxygen, iron, and copper were discussed as being implicated with corrosion and reaction in boilers. Hardness contaminants such as calcium and magnesium were also presented. Suggested limits for boiler water in the fit-for-purpose specification were also presented for silica, total alkalinity, free OH alkalinity, and total dissolved solids in steam. It was concluded that foaming episodes can occur in produced water evaporators due to normal variations, and the distillate can fail to meet the fit-for-purpose specification during foam upsets. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries with High Specific Energy and Improved Safety for Nasa's Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Smart, Marshall; Soler, Jess; Krause, Charlie; Hwang, Constanza; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Materials ( Cathodes, anodes and high voltage and safe electrolyte are required to meet the needs of the future space missions. A. Cathodes: The layered layered composites of of Li2MnO3 and LiMO2 are promising Power capability of the materials, however requires further improvement. Suitable morphology is critical for good performance and high tap (packing) density. Surface coatings help in the interfacial kinetics and stability. B. Electrolytes: Small additions of Flame Retardant Additives improves flammability without affecting performance (Rate and cycle life). 1.0 M in EC+EMC+TPP was shown to have good performance against the high voltage cathode; Performance demonstrated in large capacity prototype MCMB- LiNiCoO2 Cells. Formulations with higher proportions are looking promising. Still requires further validation through abuse tests (e.g., on 18650 cells).

  11. Double demonstration of oncogenic high risk human papilloma virus DNA and HPV-E7 protein in oral cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannone, G; Santoro, A; Carinci, F; Bufo, P; Papagerakis, S M; Rubini, C; Campisi, G; Giovannelli, L; Contaldo, M; Serpico, R; Mazzotta, M; Lo Muzio, L

    2011-01-01

    Oncogenic HPVs are necessarily involved in cervical cancer but their role in oral carcinogenesis is debated. To detect HPV in oral cancer, 38 cases of formalin fixed-paraffin embedded OSCC were studied by both DNA genotyping (MY09/11 L1 consensus primers in combination with GP5-GP6 primer pair followed by sequencing) and immunohistochemistry (monoclonal Abs against capsid protein and HPV-E7 protein, K1H8 DAKO and clone 8C9 INVITROGEN, respectively). HPV-16 tonsil cancer was used as positive control. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in OSCCs was 10.5%. Amplification of DNA samples showed single HPV DNA infection in 3 cases (HPV16; HPV53; HPV70) and double infection in one case of cheek cancer (HPV31/HPV44). The overall HR-HPV prevalence was 7.5%. E-7 antigen was immunohistochemically detected in all HPV-positive cases. HPV+ OSCC cases showed an overall better outcome than HPV negative oral cancers, as evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves. HPVs exert their oncogenic role after DNA integration, gene expression of E5, E6 and E7 loci and p53/pRb host proteins suppression. This study showed that HPV-E7 protein inactivating pRb is expressed in oral cancer cells infected by oncogenic HPV other than classical HR-HPV-16/18. Interestingly HPV-70, considered a low risk virus with no definite collocation in oncogenic type category, gives rise to the expression of HPV-E7 protein and inactivate pRb in oral cancer. HPV-70, as proved in current literature, is able to inactivates also p53 protein, promoting cell immortalization. HPV-53, classified as a possible high risk virus, expresses E7 protein in OSCC, contributing to oral carcinogenesis. We have identified among OSCCs, a subgroup characterized by HPV infection (10.5%). Finally, we have proved the oncogenic potential of some HPV virus types, not well known in literature.

  12. Polyaniline nanofibers with a high specific surface area and an improved pore structure for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hailing; Li, Xingwei; Wang, Gengchao

    2015-10-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) with a high specific surface area and an improved pore structure (HSSA-PANI) has been prepared by using a facile method, treating PANI nanofibers with chloroform (CHCl3), and its structure, morphology and pore structure are investigated. The specific surface area and pore volume of HSSA-PANI are 817.3 m2 g-1 and 0.6 cm3 g-1, and those of PANI are 33.6 m2 g-1 and 0.2 cm3 g-1. As electrode materials, a large specific surface area and pore volume can provide high electroactive regions, accelerate the diffusion of ions, and mitigate the electrochemical degradation of active materials. Compared with PANI, the capacity retention rate of HSSA-PANI is 90% with a growth of current density from 5.0 to 30 A g-1, and that of PANI is 29%. At a current density of 30 A g-1, the specific capacitance of HSSA-PANI still reaches 278.3 F g-1, and that of PANI is 86.7 F g-1. At a current density of 5.0 A g-1, the capacitance retention of HSSA-PANI is 53.1% after 2000 cycles, and that of PANI electrode is only 28.1%.

  13. Development of a highly sensitive and specific immunoassay for enrofloxacin based on heterologous coating haptens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanhui; Zhang, Huiyan; Ni, Hengjia; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2014-04-11

    In the paper, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay (ELISA) for detection of enrofloxacin was described using one new derivative of enrofloxacin as coating hapten, resulting in surprisingly high sensitivity and specificity. Incorporation of aminobutyric acid (AA) in the new derivative of enrofloxacin had decreased the IC50 of the ELISA for enrofloxacin from 1.3 μg L(-1) to as low as 0.07 μg L(-1). The assay showed neglect cross-reactivity for other fluoroquinolones but ofloxacin (8.23%), marbofloxacin (8.97%) and pefloxacin (7.29%). Analysis of enrofloxacin fortified chicken muscle showed average recoveries from 81 to 115%. The high sensitivity and specificity of the assay makes it a suitable screening method for the determination of low levels of enrofloxacin in chicken muscle without clean-up step. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Incorporation of gene-specific variability improves expression analysis using high-density DNA microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitznagel Edward

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of data reproducibility is essential for application of microarray technology to exploration of biological pathways and disease states. Technical variability in data analysis largely depends on signal intensity. Within that context, the reproducibility of individual probe sets has not been hitherto addressed. Results We used an extraordinarily large replicate data set derived from human placental trophoblast to analyze probe-specific contribution to variability of gene expression. We found that signal variability, in addition to being signal-intensity dependant, is probe set-specific. Importantly, we developed a novel method to quantify the contribution of this probe set-specific variability. Furthermore, we devised a formula that incorporates a priori-computed, replicate-based information on probe set- and intensity-specific variability in determination of expression changes even without technical replicates. Conclusion The strategy of incorporating probe set-specific variability is superior to analysis based on arbitrary fold-change thresholds. We recommend its incorporation to any computation of gene expression changes using high-density DNA microarrays. A Java application implementing our T-score is available at http://www.sadovsky.wustl.edu/tscore.html.

  15. Status of JENDL High Energy File. Evaluation method, tools, specification, release procedure, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    The ENDF-6 format file should be kept as a standard distribution file and it is not difficult to convert into some other form for code`s libraries. From this point of view, status of JENDL High Energy File is introduced in this report as well as evaluation strategy, recommended specification, stored nuclides and quantities, a format structure, evaluation methods and tools, and release plan. (author)

  16. Fabrication of mesoporous and high specific surface area lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasetto, L.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Zanonato, P.; Bernardo, P. Di; Colombo, P.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites were produced by means of carbothermal reaction of lanthanum oxide, graphite and multi-walled carbon nanotube mixtures under high vacuum. Residual gas analysis revealed the higher reactivity of lanthanum oxide towards carbon nanotubes compared to graphite. After sintering, the composites revealed a specific surface area increasing with the amount of carbon nanotubes introduced. The meso-porosity of carbon nanotubes was maintained after thermal treatment.

  17. Specification for high voltage cable plug and socket connections for medical X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Under the direction of the Light Engineering Standards Committee, a British Standard Specification has been prepared for three-conductor and four-conductor high-voltage cable plug and socket connections for medical X-ray equipment. The standard deals with the essential dimensions to ensure mechanical interchangeability, the recommended dimensions, the wiring connections to contacts of plug and socket and the marking of contacts of plug and socket. (U.K.)

  18. Method of preparing tritium-labelled thymidine-5'-monophosphates of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, J.; Vesely, J.; Cihak, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of preparing thymidine-5'-monophosphates labelled with tritium of high specific activity based on enzyme synthesis in vitro. Phosphorylation was carried out using the catalytic effect of an enzyme contained in the supernatant fraction prepared from Yoshida ascites carcinoma in rats. The course of the enzyme reaction can be controlled by the concentration of the individual reaction mixture components. The method described allows obtaining thymidine-5'-monophosphate of radiochemical purity better than 95%. (J.B.)

  19. Brachytherapy boost and cancer-specific mortality in favorable high-risk versus other high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Muralidhar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA 20 ng/ml. Material and methods: We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results : EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258, and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270. Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022. Conclusions : Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease.

  20. Non-aqueous nanoporous gold based supercapacitors with high specific energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Ying; Chen, Luyang; Hirata, Akihiko; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report that the supercapacitor performance of polypyrrole (PPy) in non-aqueous electrolytes can be dramatically improved by highly conductive nanoporous gold which acts as both the support of active PPy and the current collector of supercapacitors. The excellent electronic conductivity, rich porous structure and large surface area of the nanoporous electrodes give rise to a high specific capacitance and low internal resistance in non-aqueous electrolytes. Combining with a wide working potential window of ~ 2 V, the non-aqueous PPy-based supercapacitors show an extraordinary energy density and power density.

  1. Purification of charybdotoxine, a specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.; Phillips, M.; Miller, C.

    1986-01-01

    Charybdotoxim is a high-affinity specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channel found in the plasma membranes of many vertebrate cell types. Using Ca 2+ -activated K + channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer membranes as an assay, the authors have purified the toxin from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus by a two-step procedure involving chromatofocusing on SP-Sephadex, followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Charybdotoxin is shown to be a highly basic protein with a mass of 10 kDa. Under the standard assay conditions, the purified toxin inhibits the Ca 2+ -activated K + channel with an apparent dissociation constant of 3.5 nM. The protein is unusually stable, with inhibitory potency being insensitive to boiling or exposure to organic solvents. The toxin's activity is sensitive to chymotrypsin treatment and to acylation of lysine groups. The protein may be radioiodinated without loss of activity

  2. Digital Libraries that Demonstrate High Levels of Mutual Complementarity in Collection-level Metadata Give a Richer Representation of their Content and Improve Subject Access for Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Lawton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Zavalina, O. L. (2013. Complementarity in subject metadata in large-scale digital libraries: A comparative analysis. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 52(1, 77-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2013.848316 Abstract Objective – To determine how well digital library content is represented through free-text and subject headings. Specifically to examine whether a combination of free-text description data and controlled vocabulary is more comprehensive than free-text description data alone in describing digital collections. Design – Qualitative content analysis and complementarity comparison. Setting – Three large scale cultural heritage digital libraries: one in Europe and two in the United States of America. Methods – The researcher retrieved XML files of complete metadata records for two of the digital libraries, while the third library openly exposed its full metadata. The systematic samples obtained for all three libraries enabled qualitative content analysis to uncover how metadata values relate to each other at the collection level. The researcher retrieved 99 collection-level metadata records in total for analysis. The breakdown was 39, 33, and 27 records per digital library. When comparing metadata in the free-text Description metadata element with data in four controlled vocabulary elements, Subject, Geographic Coverage, Temporal Coverage and Object Type, the researcher observed three types of complementarity: one-way, two-way and multiple-complementarity. The author refers to complementarity as “describing a collection’s subject matter with mutually complementary data values in controlled vocabulary and free-text subject metadata elements” (Zavalina, 2013, p. 77. For example, within a Temporal Coverage metadata element the term “19th century” would complement a Description metadata element “1850–1899” in the same record. Main Results – The researcher found a high level of one

  3. Selective radiolabeling of cell surface proteins to a high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.A.; Lau, A.L.; Cunningham, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure was developed for selective radiolabeling of membrane proteins on cells to higher specific activities than possible with available techniques. Cell surface amino groups were derivatized with 125 I-(hydroxyphenyl)propionyl groups via 125 I-sulfosuccinimidyl (hydroxyphenyl)propionate ( 125 II-sulfo-SHPP). This reagent preferentially labeled membrane proteins exposed at the cell surface of erythrocytes as assessed by the degree of radiolabel incorporation into erythrocyte ghost proteins and hemoglobin. Comparison with the lactoperoxidase-[ 125 I]iodide labeling technique revealed that 125 I-sulfo-SHPP labeled cell surface proteins to a much higher specific activity and hemoglobin to a much lower specific activity. Additionally, this reagent was used for selective radiolabeling of membrane proteins on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane by blocking exofacial amino groups with uniodinated sulfo-SHPP, lysing the cells, and then incubating them with 125 I-sulfo-SHPP. Exclusive labeling of either side of the plasma membrane was demonstrated by the labeling of some marker proteins with well-defined spacial orientations on erythroctyes. Transmembrane proteins such as the epidermal growth factor receptor on cultured cells could also be labeled differentially from either side of the plasma membrane

  4. Identification of fluorescent compounds with non-specific binding property via high throughput live cell microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Nath

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compounds exhibiting low non-specific intracellular binding or non-stickiness are concomitant with rapid clearing and in high demand for live-cell imaging assays because they allow for intracellular receptor localization with a high signal/noise ratio. The non-stickiness property is particularly important for imaging intracellular receptors due to the equilibria involved. METHOD: Three mammalian cell lines with diverse genetic backgrounds were used to screen a combinatorial fluorescence library via high throughput live cell microscopy for potential ligands with high in- and out-flux properties. The binding properties of ligands identified from the first screen were subsequently validated on plant root hair. A correlative analysis was then performed between each ligand and its corresponding physiochemical and structural properties. RESULTS: The non-stickiness property of each ligand was quantified as a function of the temporal uptake and retention on a cell-by-cell basis. Our data shows that (i mammalian systems can serve as a pre-screening tool for complex plant species that are not amenable to high-throughput imaging; (ii retention and spatial localization of chemical compounds vary within and between each cell line; and (iii the structural similarities of compounds can infer their non-specific binding properties. CONCLUSION: We have validated a protocol for identifying chemical compounds with non-specific binding properties that is testable across diverse species. Further analysis reveals an overlap between the non-stickiness property and the structural similarity of compounds. The net result is a more robust screening assay for identifying desirable ligands that can be used to monitor intracellular localization. Several new applications of the screening protocol and results are also presented.

  5. Examining the Features of Earth Science Logical Reasoning and Authentic Scientific Inquiry Demonstrated in a High School Earth Science Curriculum: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Yong; Park, Mira

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the inquiry features demonstrated in the inquiry tasks of a high school Earth Science curriculum. One of the most widely used curricula, Holt Earth Science, was chosen for this case study to examine how Earth Science logical reasoning and authentic scientific inquiry were related to one another and how…

  6. Test results of full-scale high temperature superconductors cable models destined for a 36 kV, 2 kA(rms) utility demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daumling, M.; Rasmussen, C.N.; Hansen, F.

    2001-01-01

    Power cable systems using high temperature superconductors (HTS) are nearing technical feasibility. This presentation summarises the advancements and status of a project aimed at demonstrating a 36 kV, 2 kA(rms) AC cable system by installing a 30 m long full-scale functional model in a power...

  7. Preclinical evaluation of somatostatin analogs bearing two macrocyclic chelators for high specific activity labeling with radiometals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, D.; Schmitt, J.S.; Waldherr, C.; Maecke, H.R.; Waser, B.; Reubi, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Radiometallated analogues of the regulatory peptide somatostatin are of interest in the in vivo localization and targeted radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor-overexpressing tumors. An important aspect of their use in vivo is a fast and efficient labeling (complexation) protocol for radiometals along with a high specific activity. We describe in this manuscript synthetic methods for the coupling of two chelators (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid = DOTA) to the bioactive peptide [Tyr 3 ,Thr 8 ]-octreotide (TATE) in order to increase the specific activity (radioactivity in Bq per mole peptide). The full chelator-linker-peptide conjugate was assembled on solid support using standard Fmoc chemistry. Two DOTA-chelators were linked to the peptide using lysine or N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)-glycine (Apg); in addition, pentasarcosine (Sar 5 ) was used as a spacer between the chelators and the peptide to probe its influence on biology and pharmacology. Complexation rates with In 3+ and Y 3+ salts and the corresponding radiometals were high, the bis-DOTA-derivatives showed higher complexation rates and gave higher specific activity than DOTA-TATE. Pharmacological and biological data of the complexed molecules did not show significant differences if compared to the parent peptide [ 111/nat In-DOTA]-TATE except for [( 111/nat In-DOTA) 2 -Apg]-TATE which showed a lower binding affinity and rate of internalization into tumor cells. The biodistribution of [( 111/nat In-DOTA)-Lys( 111/nat In-DOTA)]-TATE in the rat tumor model (AR4-2J) showed a high and specific (as shown by a blocking experiment) tracer uptake in somatostatin receptor-positive tissue but a lower tumor uptake compared to [ 111/nat In-DOTA]-TATE. (orig.)

  8. Biomass-derived nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tailored hierarchical porosity and high specific surface area for high energy and power density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junting; Niu, Jin; Liu, Mengyue; Ji, Jing; Dou, Meiling; Wang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Porous carbon materials with hierarchical structures attract intense interest for the development of high-performance supercapacitors. Herein, we demonstrate a facile and efficient strategy to synthesize nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbons with tailored porous structure combined with high specific surface area (SSA), which involves a pre-carbonization and a subsequent carbonization combined with KOH activation of silkworm cocoon precursors. Through adjusting the mass ratio of the activator (KOH) to pre-carbonized precursor in the activation process, the hierarchically porous carbon prepared at the mass ratio of 2 (referred to as NHPC-2) possesses a high defect density and a high SSA of 3386 m2 g-1 as well as the relatively high volumetric proportion of mesopores and macropores (45.5%). As a result, the energy density and power density of the symmetric supercapacitor based on NHPC-2 electrode are as high as 34.41 Wh kg-1 and 31.25 kW kg-1 in organic-solvent electrolyte, and are further improved to 112.1 Wh kg-1 and 23.91 kW kg-1 in ionic-liquid electrolyte.

  9. Optic Tract Edema: A Highly Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding for the Diagnosis of Craniopharyngiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirunpat, S.; Tanomkiat, W.; Sriprung, H.; Chetpaophan, J. [Prince of Songkla Univ., Hat Yai (Thailand). Dept. of Radiology and Epidemiology Unit

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To clarify the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of optic tract edema in the diagnosis of craniopharyngiomas. Material and Methods: Preoperative magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of 49 patients (between May 1996 and March 2003) who had a diagnosis of parasellar masses were blindly reviewed by two radiologists. The spread of edema surrounding the tumor on the coronal TSE T2-weighted images was analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on the numbers in this series and also pooled numbers from previous known reported series. Results: Edema along the optic tracts was detected in 7 of 1 craniopharyngiomas, giving a sensitivity of 63.6% (95% CI{approx_equal}30.8-89.1) for our series and 66.7% (95% CI{approx_equal}47.2-82.7) for the pooled numbers. The specificity was 00% (95% CI{approx_equal}90.7-100.0) for our series and 93.9% (95% CI{approx_equal}87.1-97.7) for the pooled numbers. None of the 28 pituitary macroadenomas, 4 meningiomas, 2 hypothalamic astrocytomas, 2 germinomas, mixed-germ cell tumor and arachnoid cyst in our study showed edema of the optic pathways. Conclusion: Optic tract edema, commonly seen in craniopharyngiomas, is a useful MR finding for distinguishing craniopharyngiomas from other parasellar tumors with considerable sensitivity and high specificity.

  10. Optic Tract Edema: A Highly Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding for the Diagnosis of Craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirunpat, S.; Tanomkiat, W.; Sriprung, H.; Chetpaophan, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of optic tract edema in the diagnosis of craniopharyngiomas. Material and Methods: Preoperative magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of 49 patients (between May 1996 and March 2003) who had a diagnosis of parasellar masses were blindly reviewed by two radiologists. The spread of edema surrounding the tumor on the coronal TSE T2-weighted images was analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on the numbers in this series and also pooled numbers from previous known reported series. Results: Edema along the optic tracts was detected in 7 of 1 craniopharyngiomas, giving a sensitivity of 63.6% (95% CI≅30.8-89.1) for our series and 66.7% (95% CI≅47.2-82.7) for the pooled numbers. The specificity was 00% (95% CI≅90.7-100.0) for our series and 93.9% (95% CI≅87.1-97.7) for the pooled numbers. None of the 28 pituitary macroadenomas, 4 meningiomas, 2 hypothalamic astrocytomas, 2 germinomas, mixed-germ cell tumor and arachnoid cyst in our study showed edema of the optic pathways. Conclusion: Optic tract edema, commonly seen in craniopharyngiomas, is a useful MR finding for distinguishing craniopharyngiomas from other parasellar tumors with considerable sensitivity and high specificity

  11. High-Throughput Screening to Identify Regulators of Meiosis-Specific Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassir, Yona

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis and gamete formation are processes that are essential for sexual reproduction in all eukaryotic organisms. Multiple intracellular and extracellular signals feed into pathways that converge on transcription factors that induce the expression of meiosis-specific genes. Once triggered the meiosis-specific gene expression program proceeds in a cascade that drives progress through the events of meiosis and gamete formation. Meiosis-specific gene expression is tightly controlled by a balance of positive and negative regulatory factors that respond to a plethora of signaling pathways. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an outstanding model for the dissection of gametogenesis owing to the sophisticated genetic manipulations that can be performed with the cells. It is possible to use a variety selection and screening methods to identify genes and their functions. High-throughput screening technology has been developed to allow an array of all viable yeast gene deletion mutants to be screened for phenotypes and for regulators of gene expression. This chapter describes a protocol that has been used to screen a library of homozygous diploid yeast deletion strains to identify regulators of the meiosis-specific IME1 gene.

  12. Simple and high yielding method for preparing tissue specific extracellular matrix coatings for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeQuach, Jessica A; Mezzano, Valeria; Miglani, Amar; Lange, Stephan; Keller, Gordon M; Sheikh, Farah; Christman, Karen L

    2010-09-27

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a highly complex, tissue-specific network of proteins and polysaccharides, which help regulate many cellular functions. Despite the complex nature of the ECM, in vitro cell-based studies traditionally assess cell behavior on single ECM component substrates, which do not adequately mimic the in vivo extracellular milieu. We present a simple approach for developing naturally derived ECM coatings for cell culture that provide important tissue-specific cues unlike traditional cell culture coatings, thereby enabling the maturation of committed C2C12 skeletal myoblast progenitors and human embryonic stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Here we show that natural muscle-specific coatings can (i) be derived from decellularized, solubilized adult porcine muscle, (ii) contain a complex mixture of ECM components including polysaccharides, (iii) adsorb onto tissue culture plastic and (iv) promote cell maturation of committed muscle progenitor and stem cells. This versatile method can create tissue-specific ECM coatings, which offer a promising platform for cell culture to more closely mimic the mature in vivo ECM microenvironment.

  13. High-field specific heats of A15 V3Si and Nb3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G. R.; Brandt, B. L.

    1984-04-01

    In order to further understand the anomalous behavior of the specific heat of Nb3Sn in an 18-T magnetic field discovered by Stewart, Cort, and Webb [Phys. Rev. B 24, 3841 (1981)], we have performed specific-heat measurements on a different sample of Nb3Sn at lower fields both in the normal and mixed states, as well as measurement to 19 T on both transforming and nontransforming V3Si. The high-field data for V3Si indicate that this material behaves quite normally, and that γtransJunod and Muller [Solid State Commun. 36, 721 (1980)]. Nb3Sn, however, remains anomalous, with both the same "kink" in the normal-state field data as observed by Stewart, Cort, and Webb (although at a slightly higher temperature) and unusual mixed-state behavior. The mixed-state specific heat of the V3Si samples is as expected, based on earlier work on the mixed-state specific heat of V and Nb.

  14. Identification of an epigenetic biomarker panel with high sensitivity and specificity for colorectal cancer and adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Guro E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of cancer-specific DNA methylation patterns in epithelial colorectal cells in human feces provides the prospect of a simple, non-invasive screening test for colorectal cancer and its precursor, the adenoma. This study investigates a panel of epigenetic markers for the detection of colorectal cancer and adenomas. Methods Candidate biomarkers were subjected to quantitative methylation analysis in test sets of tissue samples from colorectal cancers, adenomas, and normal colonic mucosa. All findings were verified in independent clinical validation series. A total of 523 human samples were included in the study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the biomarker panel. Results Promoter hypermethylation of the genes CNRIP1, FBN1, INA, MAL, SNCA, and SPG20 was frequent in both colorectal cancers (65-94% and adenomas (35-91%, whereas normal mucosa samples were rarely (0-5% methylated. The combined sensitivity of at least two positives among the six markers was 94% for colorectal cancers and 93% for adenoma samples, with a specificity of 98%. The resulting areas under the ROC curve were 0.984 for cancers and 0.968 for adenomas versus normal mucosa. Conclusions The novel epigenetic marker panel shows very high sensitivity and specificity for both colorectal cancers and adenomas. Our findings suggest this biomarker panel to be highly suitable for early tumor detection.

  15. Experiences with the hydraulic design of the high specific speed Francis turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrovsky, J; Zouhar, J

    2014-01-01

    The high specific speed Francis turbine is still suitable alternative for refurbishment of older hydro power plants with lower heads and worse cavitation conditions. In the paper the design process of such kind of turbine together with the results comparison of homological model tests performed in hydraulic laboratory of ČKD Blansko Engineering is introduced. The turbine runner was designed using the optimization algorithm and considering the high specific speed hydraulic profile. It means that hydraulic profiles of the spiral case, the distributor and the draft tube were used from a Kaplan turbine. The optimization was done as the automatic cycle and was based on a simplex optimization method as well as on a genetic algorithm. The number of blades is shown as the parameter which changes the resulting specific speed of the turbine between n s =425 to 455 together with the cavitation characteristics. Minimizing of cavitation on the blade surface as well as on the inlet edge of the runner blade was taken into account during the design process. The results of CFD analyses as well as the model tests are mentioned in the paper

  16. Experiences with the hydraulic design of the high specific speed Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrovsky, J.; Zouhar, J.

    2014-03-01

    The high specific speed Francis turbine is still suitable alternative for refurbishment of older hydro power plants with lower heads and worse cavitation conditions. In the paper the design process of such kind of turbine together with the results comparison of homological model tests performed in hydraulic laboratory of ČKD Blansko Engineering is introduced. The turbine runner was designed using the optimization algorithm and considering the high specific speed hydraulic profile. It means that hydraulic profiles of the spiral case, the distributor and the draft tube were used from a Kaplan turbine. The optimization was done as the automatic cycle and was based on a simplex optimization method as well as on a genetic algorithm. The number of blades is shown as the parameter which changes the resulting specific speed of the turbine between ns=425 to 455 together with the cavitation characteristics. Minimizing of cavitation on the blade surface as well as on the inlet edge of the runner blade was taken into account during the design process. The results of CFD analyses as well as the model tests are mentioned in the paper.

  17. Preparation and quantification of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate with high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, F.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis and quantitation of the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate (PAP35S), prepared from inorganic [35S]sulfate and ATP, were studied. An enzymatic transfer method based upon the quantitative transfer of [35S]sulfate from PAP35S to 2-naphthol and 4-methylumbelliferone by the action of phenolsulfotransferase activity from rat brain cytosol was also developed. The 2-naphthyl[35S]sulfate or 35S-methylumbelliferone sulfate formed was isolated by polystyrene bead chromatography. This method allows the detection of between 0.1 pmol and 1 nmol/ml of PAP35S. PAP35S of high specific activity (75 Ci/mmol) was prepared by incubating ATP and carrier-free Na2 35SO4 with a 100,000g supernatant fraction from rat spleen. The product was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The specific activity and purity of PAP35S were estimated by examining the ratios of Km values for PAP35S of the tyrosyl protein sulfotransferase present in microsomes from rat cerebral cortex. The advantage and applications of these methods for the detection of femtomole amounts, and the synthesis of large scale quantities of PAP35S with high specific activity are discussed

  18. Sphagnum mosses harbour highly specific bacterial diversity during their whole lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Christian; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Chebotar, Vladimir; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge about Sphagnum-associated microbial communities, their structure and their origin is important to understand and maintain climate-relevant Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems. We studied bacterial communities of two cosmopolitan Sphagnum species, which are well adapted to different abiotic parameters (Sphagnum magellanicum, which are strongly acidic and ombrotrophic, and Sphagnum fallax, which are weakly acidic and mesotrophic), in three Alpine bogs in Austria by a multifaceted approach. Great differences between bacterial fingerprints of both Sphagna were found independently from the site. This remarkable specificity was confirmed by a cloning and a deep sequencing approach. Besides the common Alphaproteobacteria, we found a discriminative spectrum of bacteria; although Gammaproteobacteria dominated S. magellanicum, S. fallax was mainly colonised by Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes. Using this information for fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses, corresponding colonisation patterns for Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes were detected. Bacterial colonies were found in high abundances inside the dead big hyalocytes, but they were always connected with the living chlorocytes. Using multivariate statistical analysis, the abiotic factors nutrient richness and pH were identified to modulate the composition of Sphagnum-specific bacterial communities. Interestingly, we found that the immense bacterial diversity was transferred via the sporophyte to the gametophyte, which can explain the high specificity of Sphagnum-associated bacteria over long distances. In contrast to higher plants, which acquire their bacteria mainly from the environment, mosses as the phylogenetically oldest land plants maintain their bacterial diversity within the whole lifecycle.

  19. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs.

  20. Effects of variable specific heat on energy transfer in a high-temperature supersonic channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaopeng; Dou, Hua-Shu; Zhu, Zuchao

    2018-05-01

    An energy transfer mechanism in high-temperature supersonic turbulent flow for variable specific heat (VSH) condition through turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), mean kinetic energy (MKE), turbulent internal energy (TIE) and mean internal energy (MIE) is proposed. The similarities of energy budgets between VSH and constant specific heat (CSH) conditions are investigated by introducing a vibrational energy excited degree and considering the effects of fluctuating specific heat. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of temporally evolving high-temperature supersonic turbulent channel flow is conducted at Mach number 3.0 and Reynolds number 4800 combined with a constant dimensional wall temperature 1192.60 K for VSH and CSH conditions to validate the proposed energy transfer mechanism. The differences between the terms in the two kinetic energy budgets for VSH and CSH conditions are small; however, the magnitude of molecular diffusion term for VSH condition is significantly smaller than that for CSH condition. The non-negligible energy transfer is obtained after neglecting several small terms of diffusion, dissipation and compressibility related. The non-negligible energy transfer involving TIE includes three processes, in which energy can be gained from TKE and MIE and lost to MIE. The same non-negligible energy transfer through TKE, MKE and MIE is observed for both the conditions.

  1. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs

  2. The effects of varying resistance-training loads on intermediate- and high-velocity-specific adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Bishop, P; Hunter, G; Fleisig, G

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in velocity-specific adaptations in moderately resistance-trained athletes who trained with either low or high resistances. The study used tests of sport-specific skills across an intermediate- to high-velocity spectrum. Thirty NCAA Division I baseball players were randomly assigned to either a low-resistance (40-60% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) training group or a high-resistance (70-90% 1RM) training group. Both of the training groups intended to maximallv accelerate each repetition during the concentric phase (IMCA). The 10 weeks of training consisted of 4 training sessions a week using basic core exercises. Peak force, velocity, and power were evaluated during set angle and depth jumps as well as weighted jumps using 30 and 50% 1RM. Squat 1RMs were also tested. Although no interactions for any of the jump tests were found, trends supported the hypothesis of velocity-specific training. Percentage gains suggest that the combined use of heavier training loads (70-90% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak force in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. Trends also show that the combined use of lighter training loads (40-60% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak power and peak velocity in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. The high-resistance group improved squats more than the low-resistance group (p training loads and IMCA to increase 1RM strength in the lower bodies of resistance-trained athletes.

  3. High-affinity monoclonal antibodies specific for deoxynucleosides structurally modified by alkylating agents: Applications for immunoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamkiewicz, J.; Ahrens, O.; Rajewsky, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    So far the results of attempts to use monoclonal antibodies for the demonstration of carcinogen-DNA adducts in cells by immunostaining have been promising. Thus the authors have established a standardized procedure for the quantitation of specific alkyl-deoxynucleosides in the nuclear DNA of individual cells by direct immunofluorescence, using tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled monoclonal antibodies and a computer-based image analysis of electronically intensified fluorescence signals. With a fluorescent anti-(O/sup 6/-EtdGuo) monoclonal antibody, the present detection limit for O/sup 6/-Etd-Guo in the nuclei of individual cells previously exposed to an ethylating N-nitroso compound (e.g., N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) is -- 700 O/sup 6/-EtdGuo molecules per diploid genome, i.e., similar to the detection limit for the same ethylation product in a hydrolysate of (O/sup 6/-EtdGuo)-containing DNA analyzed by competitive RIA

  4. Electrically rechargeable zinc/air battery: a high specific energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzer, F; Sauter, J -C; Masanz, G; Mueller, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This contribution describes our research and development efforts towards the demonstration of a light-weight, low-cost 12 V/20 Ah electrically rechargeable Zn/air battery. We successfully developed electrodes having active areas of up to 200 cm{sup 2}. Deep discharge cycles at different currents as well as current-voltage curves are reported for a 10 cell Zn/air battery (serial connection) with a rated capacity of 20 Ah. Based on the discharge cycle at a power of 19 W, and the weight of the battery, a specific energy of more than 90 Wh/kg could be evaluated for the whole system. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  5. Ultrathin film, high specific power InP solar cells on flexible plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, K.-T.; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Wang Hongyu; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrathin-film, single-crystal InP Schottky-type solar cells mounted on flexible plastic substrates. The lightly p-doped InP cell is grown epitaxially on an InP substrate via gas source molecular beam epitaxy. The InP substrate is removed via selective chemical wet-etching after the epitaxial layers are cold-welded to a 25 μm thick Kapton sheet, followed by the deposition of an indium tin oxide top contact that forms the Schottky barrier with InP. The power conversion efficiency under 1 sun is 10.2±1.0%, and its specific power is 2.0±0.2 kW/kg. The ultrathin-film solar cells can tolerate both tensile and compressive stress by bending over a <1 cm radius without damage.

  6. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Deng-Liang; Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan; Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie; Yao, Pei-Sen; Pan, Ru-Jun; Yang, Chaoyong James; Kang, De-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K d 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K d 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy

  7. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng-Liang [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yao, Pei-Sen [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Pan, Ru-Jun [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yang, Chaoyong James, E-mail: cyyang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Kang, De-Zhi, E-mail: kdzy99988@163.com [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  8. Targeted radiotherapy of multicell neuroblastoma spheroids with high specific activity [125I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, Wilson H.Y.; Miller, Gerald G.; McEwan, Alexander J.B.; McQuarrie, Steve A.; Tse, Jeanie; Wu, Jonn; Wiebe, Leonard I.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Iodine-125 induces cell death by a mechanism similar to that of high linear energy transfer (high-LET) radiation. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of high-specific-activity [ 125 I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine ( 125 I-mIBG) in human SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells grown as three-dimensional multicellular spheroids. Materials and Methods: Spheroids were incubated with high-specific-activity 125 I-mIBG (6 mCi/μg, 1000 times that of the conventional specific activity used for autoradiography). Cytotoxicity was assessed by fluorescence viability markers and confocal microscopy for intact spheroids, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and clonogenic assay, and clonogenic assays for dispersed whole spheroids. Distribution of radioactive mIBG was determined by quantitative light-microscope autoradiography of spheroid cryostat sections. Dose estimation was based on temporal knowledge of the retained radioactivity inside spheroids, and of the radiolabel's emission characteristics. Findings were compared with those of spheroids treated under the same conditions with 131 I-mIBG, cold mIBG, and free iodine-125. Results: 125 I-mIBG exerted significant cell killing. Complete spheroids were eradicated when they were treated with 500 μCi of 125 I-mIBG, while those treated with 500 μCi or 1000 μCi of 131 I-mIBG were not. The observed difference in cytotoxicity between treatments with 125 I- and 131 I-mIBG could not be accounted for by the absorbed dose of spheroid alone. The peripheral, proliferating cell layer of the spheroids remained viable at the moderate radioactivity of 100 μCi for both isotopes. Cytotoxicity induced by 125 I-mIBG was quantitatively comparable by the peripheral rim thickness to that of 131 I-mIBG at the dose of 100 μCi. The peripheral rim thickness decreased most significantly in the first 17 hours after initial treatment. There was no statistical decrease in the rim thickness identified afterwards for the second, third, and fourth days of

  9. Detection of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) using highly specific antisera against Gag and Env

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Nicole; Krach, Ulrich; Niebert, Marcus; Toenjes, Ralf R.

    2003-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are considered an obstacle to the safe use of cells, tissues, and organs from pigs in the course of xenotransplantation. Thus, the detection of viral proteins and of a potential PERV infection is of major interest. Recently, we have published the generation of a highly specific antiserum directed against the nucleocapsid (p10) of PERV (Xenotransplantation 7 (2000), 221). Here we present new peptide-antisera specific to the capsid protein (p30) and the surface molecule of PERV class B (SU, gp70(B)) as well as the transmembrane moiety of the envelope protein (TM, p15E) of PERV which showed functionality in several immunological assays, such as immunoblots, immunofluorescence, and immunogold staining. Thus, these antisera can be used as tools for the identification of viral proteins in basic research as well as clinical trials

  10. High frequency of cytolytic 21-hydroxylase-specific CD8+ T cells in autoimmune Addison's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoodji, Amina; Chen, Ji-Li; Shepherd, Dawn; Dalin, Frida; Tarlton, Andrea; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Penna-Martinez, Marissa; Meyer, Gesine; Mitchell, Anna L; Gan, Earn H; Bratland, Eirik; Bensing, Sophie; Husebye, Eystein S; Pearce, Simon H; Badenhoop, Klaus; Kämpe, Olle; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms behind destruction of the adrenal glands in autoimmune Addison's disease remain unclear. Autoantibodies against steroid 21-hydroxylase, an intracellular key enzyme of the adrenal cortex, are found in >90% of patients, but these autoantibodies are not thought to mediate the disease. In this article, we demonstrate highly frequent 21-hydroxylase-specific T cells detectable in 20 patients with Addison's disease. Using overlapping 18-aa peptides spanning the full length of 21-hydroxylase, we identified immunodominant CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses in a large proportion of Addison's patients both ex vivo and after in vitro culture of PBLs ≤20 y after diagnosis. In a large proportion of patients, CD8(+) and CD4(+) 21-hydroxylase-specific T cells were very abundant and detectable in ex vivo assays. HLA class I tetramer-guided isolation of 21-hydroxylase-specific CD8(+) T cells showed their ability to lyse 21-hydroxylase-positive target cells, consistent with a potential mechanism for disease pathogenesis. These data indicate that strong CTL responses to 21-hydroxylase often occur in vivo, and that reactive CTLs have substantial proliferative and cytolytic potential. These results have implications for earlier diagnosis of adrenal failure and ultimately a potential target for therapeutic intervention and induction of immunity against adrenal cortex cancer. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Creating a monomeric endonuclease TALE-I-SceI with high specificity and low genotoxicity in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianfei; Chen, He; Luo, Ling; Lai, Yongrong; Xie, Wei; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    To correct a DNA mutation in the human genome for gene therapy, homology-directed repair (HDR) needs to be specific and have the lowest off-target effects to protect the human genome from deleterious mutations. Zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and CRISPR-CAS9 systems have been engineered and used extensively to recognize and modify specific DNA sequences. Although TALEN and CRISPR/CAS9 could induce high levels of HDR in human cells, their genotoxicity was significantly higher. Here, we report the creation of a monomeric endonuclease that can recognize at least 33 bp by fusing the DNA-recognizing domain of TALEN (TALE) to a re-engineered homing endonuclease I-SceI. After sequentially re-engineering I-SceI to recognize 18 bp of the human β-globin sequence, the re-engineered I-SceI induced HDR in human cells. When the re-engineered I-SceI was fused to TALE (TALE-ISVB2), the chimeric endonuclease induced the same HDR rate at the human β-globin gene locus as that induced by TALEN, but significantly reduced genotoxicity. We further demonstrated that TALE-ISVB2 specifically targeted at the β-globin sequence in human hematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, this monomeric endonuclease has the potential to be used in therapeutic gene targeting in human cells. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Polarity-specific high-level information propagation in neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Nan; Chang, Po-Yen; Hsiao, Pao-Yueh; Lo, Chung-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the connectome of a nervous system provides valuable information about the functions of its subsystems. Although much has been learned about the architectures of neural networks in various organisms by applying analytical tools developed for general networks, two distinct and functionally important properties of neural networks are often overlooked. First, neural networks are endowed with polarity at the circuit level: Information enters a neural network at input neurons, propagates through interneurons, and leaves via output neurons. Second, many functions of nervous systems are implemented by signal propagation through high-level pathways involving multiple and often recurrent connections rather than by the shortest paths between nodes. In the present study, we analyzed two neural networks: the somatic nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and the partial central complex network of Drosophila, in light of these properties. Specifically, we quantified high-level propagation in the vertical and horizontal directions: the former characterizes how signals propagate from specific input nodes to specific output nodes and the latter characterizes how a signal from a specific input node is shared by all output nodes. We found that the two neural networks are characterized by very efficient vertical and horizontal propagation. In comparison, classic small-world networks show a trade-off between vertical and horizontal propagation; increasing the rewiring probability improves the efficiency of horizontal propagation but worsens the efficiency of vertical propagation. Our result provides insights into how the complex functions of natural neural networks may arise from a design that allows them to efficiently transform and combine input signals.

  13. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Lol p 5C, a novel allergen isoform of rye grass pollen demonstrating high IgE reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Mawdsley, D; Schäppi, G; Gruehn, S; de Leon, M; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    1999-12-03

    A novel isoform of a major rye grass pollen allergen Lol p 5 was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The new isoform, Lol p 5C, shares 95% amino acid sequence identity with Lol p 5A. Both isoforms demonstrated shared antigenic activity but different allergenic activities. Recombinant Lol p 5C demonstrated 100% IgE reactivity in 22 rye grass pollen sensitive patients. In comparison, recombinant Lol p 5A showed IgE reactivity in less than 64% of the patients. Therefore, Lol p 5C represents a novel and highly IgE-reactive isoform allergen of rye grass pollen.

  14. Moderate sensitivity and high specificity of emergency department administrative data for transient ischemic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Amy Y X; Quan, Hude; McRae, Andrew; Wagner, Gabrielle O; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B

    2017-09-18

    Validation of administrative data case definitions is key for accurate passive surveillance of disease. Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a condition primarily managed in the emergency department. However, prior validation studies have focused on data after inpatient hospitalization. We aimed to determine the validity of the Canadian 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10-CA) codes for TIA in the national ambulatory administrative database. We performed a diagnostic accuracy study of four ICD-10-CA case definition algorithms for TIA in the emergency department setting. The study population was obtained from two ongoing studies on the diagnosis of TIA and minor stroke versus stroke mimic using serum biomarkers and neuroimaging. Two reference standards were used 1) the emergency department clinical diagnosis determined by chart abstractors and 2) the 90-day final diagnosis, both obtained by stroke neurologists, to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of the ICD-10-CA algorithms for TIA. Among 417 patients, emergency department adjudication showed 163 (39.1%) TIA, 155 (37.2%) ischemic strokes, and 99 (23.7%) stroke mimics. The most restrictive algorithm, defined as a TIA code in the main position had the lowest sensitivity (36.8%), but highest specificity (92.5%) and PPV (76.0%). The most inclusive algorithm, defined as a TIA code in any position with and without query prefix had the highest sensitivity (63.8%), but lowest specificity (81.5%) and PPV (68.9%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were overall lower when using the 90-day diagnosis as reference standard. Emergency department administrative data reflect diagnosis of suspected TIA with high specificity, but underestimate the burden of disease. Future studies are necessary to understand the reasons for the low to moderate sensitivity.

  15. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng-Liang; Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan; Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie; Yao, Pei-Sen; Pan, Ru-Jun; Yang, Chaoyong James; Kang, De-Zhi

    2014-10-31

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher's attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with Kd 56±7.3nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High throughput protease profiling comprehensively defines active site specificity for thrombin and ADAMTS13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, Colin A; Tomberg, Kärt; Van Esbroeck, Alexander; Yee, Andrew; Ginsburg, David

    2018-02-12

    We have combined random 6 amino acid substrate phage display with high throughput sequencing to comprehensively define the active site specificity of the serine protease thrombin and the metalloprotease ADAMTS13. The substrate motif for thrombin was determined by >6,700 cleaved peptides, and was highly concordant with previous studies. In contrast, ADAMTS13 cleaved only 96 peptides (out of >10 7 sequences), with no apparent consensus motif. However, when the hexapeptide library was substituted into the P3-P3' interval of VWF73, an exosite-engaging substrate of ADAMTS13, 1670 unique peptides were cleaved. ADAMTS13 exhibited a general preference for aliphatic amino acids throughout the P3-P3' interval, except at P2 where Arg was tolerated. The cleaved peptides assembled into a motif dominated by P3 Leu, and bulky aliphatic residues at P1 and P1'. Overall, the P3-P2' amino acid sequence of von Willebrand Factor appears optimally evolved for ADAMTS13 recognition. These data confirm the critical role of exosite engagement for substrates to gain access to the active site of ADAMTS13, and define the substrate recognition motif for ADAMTS13. Combining substrate phage display with high throughput sequencing is a powerful approach for comprehensively defining the active site specificity of proteases.

  17. Botulinum neurotoxin B recognizes its protein receptor with high affinity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rongsheng; Rummel, Andreas; Binz, Thomas; Brunger, Axel T

    2006-12-21

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by Clostridium botulinum and cause the neuroparalytic syndrome of botulism. With a lethal dose of 1 ng kg(-1), they pose a biological hazard to humans and a serious potential bioweapon threat. BoNTs bind with high specificity at neuromuscular junctions and they impair exocytosis of synaptic vesicles containing acetylcholine through specific proteolysis of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors), which constitute part of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. The molecular details of the toxin-cell recognition have been elusive. Here we report the structure of a BoNT in complex with its protein receptor: the receptor-binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B (BoNT/B) bound to the luminal domain of synaptotagmin II, determined at 2.15 A resolution. On binding, a helix is induced in the luminal domain which binds to a saddle-shaped crevice on a distal tip of BoNT/B. This crevice is adjacent to the non-overlapping ganglioside-binding site of BoNT/B. Synaptotagmin II interacts with BoNT/B with nanomolar affinity, at both neutral and acidic endosomal pH. Biochemical and neuronal ex vivo studies of structure-based mutations indicate high specificity and affinity of the interaction, and high selectivity of BoNT/B among synaptotagmin I and II isoforms. Synergistic binding of both synaptotagmin and ganglioside imposes geometric restrictions on the initiation of BoNT/B translocation after endocytosis. Our results provide the basis for the rational development of preventive vaccines or inhibitors against these neurotoxins.

  18. Specific, sensitive, high-resolution detection of protein molecules in eukaryotic cells using metal-tagging transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, Cristina; Sanmartín-Conesa, Eva; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Frey, Teryl K.; Seybold, Volker; de Groot, Raoul J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary More than any other methodology, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has contributed to our understanding of the architecture and organization of cells. With current detection limits approaching atomic resolution, it will ultimately become possible to ultrastructurally image intracellular macromolecular assemblies in situ. Presently, however, methods to unambiguously identify proteins within the crowded environment of the cell’s interior are lagging behind. We describe a novel approach, metal-tagging TEM (METTEM) that allows detection of intracellular proteins in mammalian cells with high specificity, exceptional sensitivity and at molecular scale resolution. In live cells treated with gold salts, proteins bearing a small metal-binding tag will form 1-nm gold nanoclusters, readily detectable in electron micrographs. The applicability and strength of METTEM is demonstrated by a study of Rubella virus replicase and capsid proteins, which revealed virus-induced cell structures not seen before. PMID:22579245

  19. The triazine-based porous organic polymer: Novel synthetic strategy for high specific surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kuen

    2017-01-01

    A new type of microporous polymer has been successively synthesized via a simple polycondensation reaction with the 2,4-diaminotriazine moiety and dianhydride monomer. Diaminotriazine moieties in M1 especially can provide effective branching sites, resulting in high surface areas up to 1150 m"2 /g. In addition, the specific pore structure of the polyimide POP in its solid state can be modified by the surface activation method. Therefore, it can be expected that the resulting material will be a promising candidate for gas storage, and with this synthetic strategy, various type of derivatives will also be optimized

  20. Synthesis of high specific active tritiated Leu-enkephalin in the leucine residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, S.; Hasegawa, H.; Shinohara, Y. (Tokyo Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Leu-enkephalin labelled with tritium in the Leu residue has been prepared. Synthesis of the precursor peptide, (4,5-dehydroLeu{sup 5}-)Leu-enkephalin, was carried out by solid phase synthesis using Fmoc amino acid derivatives. The peptide was tritiated catalytically yielding {sup 3}H-Leu-enkephalin with a specific radioactivity of 4.39 TBq/mmol. The distribution of tritium label was investigated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a synchronized accumulating radioisotope detector following acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis, which confirmed that the tritium label was entirely located at the Leu residue. (author).

  1. The triazine-based porous organic polymer: Novel synthetic strategy for high specific surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kuen [Dept. of Chemistry, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A new type of microporous polymer has been successively synthesized via a simple polycondensation reaction with the 2,4-diaminotriazine moiety and dianhydride monomer. Diaminotriazine moieties in M1 especially can provide effective branching sites, resulting in high surface areas up to 1150 m{sup 2} /g. In addition, the specific pore structure of the polyimide POP in its solid state can be modified by the surface activation method. Therefore, it can be expected that the resulting material will be a promising candidate for gas storage, and with this synthetic strategy, various type of derivatives will also be optimized.

  2. Low-temperature specific heat of the β-pyrochlore oxide superconductors under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, T.; Iguchi, D.; Machida, Y.; Izawa, K.; Salce, B.; Flouquet, J.; Ogusu, H.; Yamaura, J.; Hiroi, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of the low-temperature specific heat measurements of the single crystalline β-pyrochlore oxide superconductors AOs 2O 6 (A=K, Rb, and Cs) under high pressure up to 13 GPa. We find that superconducting transition temperature ( Tc) monotonically increases for CsOs 2O 6 and RbOs 2O 6, while the one for KOs 2O 6 decreases by applying the pressure. With further increasing the pressure, Tc is suddenly suppressed at the same lattice volume for all compounds, concomitant with the first-order structural phase transition.

  3. A microbial-mineralization approach for syntheses of iron oxides with a high specific surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagita, Naoki; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2013-04-02

    Of minerals and microbes: A microbial-mineralization-inspired approach was used to facilitate the syntheses of iron oxides with a high specific surface area, such as 253 m(2)g(-1) for maghemite (γ-Fe(2)O(3)) and 148 m(2)g(-1) for hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)). These iron oxides can be applied to electrode material of lithium-ion batteries, adsorbents, and catalysts. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Demonstration of pyropartitioning process by using genuine high-level liquid waste. Reductive-extraction of actinide elements from chlorination product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uozumi, Koichi; Iizuka, Masatoshi; Kurata, Masaki; Ougier, Michel; Malmbeck, Rikard; Winckel, Stefaan van

    2009-01-01

    The pyropartitioning process separates the minor actinide elements (MAs) together with uranium and plutonium from the high-level liquid waste generated at the Purex reprocessing of spent LWR fuel and introduces them to metallic fuel cycle. For the demonstration of this technology, a series experiment using 520g of genuine high-level liquid waste was started and the conversion of actinide elements to their chlorides was already demonstrated by denitration and chlorination. In the present study, a reductive extraction experiment in molten salt/liquid cadmium system to recover actinide elements from the chlorination product of the genuine high-level liquid waste was performed. The results of the experiment are as following; 1) By the addition of the cadmium-lithium alloy reductant, almost all of plutonium and MAs in the initial high-level liquid waste were recovered in the cadmium phase. It means no mass loss during denitration, chlorination, and reductive-extraction. 2) The separation factor values of plutonium, MAs, and rare-earth fission product elements versus uranium agreed with the literature values. Therefore, actinide elements will be separated from fission product elements in the actual system. Hence, the pyropartitioning process was successfully demonstrated. (author)

  5. Ambient pressure dried tetrapropoxysilane-based silica aerogels with high specific surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parale, Vinayak G.; Han, Wooje; Jung, Hae-Noo-Ree; Lee, Kyu-Yeon; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis of tetrapropoxysilane (TPOS)-based silica aerogels with high surface area and large pore volume. The silica aerogels were prepared by a two-step sol-gel process followed by surface modification via a simple ambient pressure drying approach. In order to minimize drying shrinkage and obtain hydrophobic aerogels, the surface of the alcogels was modified using trichloromethylsilane as a silylating agent. The effect of the sol-gel compositional parameters on the polymerization of aerogels prepared by TPOS, one of the precursors belonging to the Si(OR)4 family, was reported for the first time. The oxalic acid and NH4OH concentrations were adjusted to achieve good-quality aerogels with high surface area, low density, and high transparency. Controlling the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of the TPOS precursor turned out to be the most important factor to determine the pore characteristics of the aerogel. Highly transparent aerogels with high specific surface area (938 m2/g) and low density (0.047 g/cm3) could be obtained using an optimized TPOS/MeOH molar ratio with appropriate concentrations of oxalic acid and NH4OH.

  6. A Highly Specific Gold Nanoprobe for Live-Cell Single-Molecule Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Cécile; Si, Satyabrata; Gautier, Jérémie; Soto-Ribeiro, Martinho; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard; Gautreau, Alexis; Giannone, Grégory; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim

    2013-04-01

    Single molecule tracking in live cells is the ultimate tool to study subcellular protein dynamics, but it is often limited by the probe size and photostability. Due to these issues, long-term tracking of proteins in confined and crowded environments, such as intracellular spaces, remains challenging. We have developed a novel optical probe consisting of 5-nm gold nanoparticles functionalized with a small fragment of camelid antibodies that recognize widely used GFPs with a very high affinity, which we call GFP-nanobodies. These small gold nanoparticles can be detected and tracked using photothermal imaging for arbitrarily long periods of time. Surface and intracellular GFP-proteins were effectively labeled even in very crowded environments such as adhesion sites and cytoskeletal structures both in vitro and in live cell cultures. These nanobody-coated gold nanoparticles are probes with unparalleled capabilities; small size, perfect photostability, high specificity, and versatility afforded by combination with the vast existing library of GFP-tagged proteins.

  7. Specific-heat measurement of single metallic, carbon, and ceramic fibers at very high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradere, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Batsale, J.C.; Dilhaire, S.; Pailler, R.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to present a method for measuring the specific heat of single metallic, carbon, and ceramic fibers at very high temperature. The difficulty of the measurement is due to the microscale of the fiber (≅10 μm) and the important range of temperature (700-2700 K). An experimental device, a modelization of the thermal behavior, and an analytic model have been developed. A discussion on the measurement accuracy yields a global uncertainty lower than 10%. The characterization of a tungsten filament with thermal properties identical to those of the bulk allows the validation of the device and the thermal estimation method. Finally, measurements on carbon and ceramic fibers have been done at very high temperature

  8. Non-site-specific allosteric effect of oxygen on human hemoglobin under high oxygen partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Kurisaki, Ikuo; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2014-04-08

    Protein allostery is essential for vital activities. Allosteric regulation of human hemoglobin (HbA) with two quaternary states T and R has been a paradigm of allosteric structural regulation of proteins. It is widely accepted that oxygen molecules (O2) act as a "site-specific" homotropic effector, or the successive O2 binding to the heme brings about the quaternary regulation. However, here we show that the site-specific allosteric effect is not necessarily only a unique mechanism of O2 allostery. Our simulation results revealed that the solution environment of high O2 partial pressure enhances the quaternary change from T to R without binding to the heme, suggesting an additional "non-site-specific" allosteric effect of O2. The latter effect should play a complementary role in the quaternary change by affecting the intersubunit contacts. This analysis must become a milestone in comprehensive understanding of the allosteric regulation of HbA from the molecular point of view.

  9. Specific heat of heavy-fermion CePd2Si2 in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikin, I.; Wang, Y.; Bouquet, F.; Junod, A.; Lejay, P.

    2002-01-01

    We report specific heat measurements on the heavy-fermion compound CePd 2 Si 2 in magnetic fields up to 16 T and in the temperature range 1.4-16 K. A sharp peak in the specific heat signals the antiferromagnetic transition at T N ∼ 9.3 K in zero field. The transition is found to shift to lower temperatures when a magnetic field is applied along the crystallographic a-axis, while a field applied parallel to the tetragonal c-axis does not affect the transition. The magnetic contribution to the specific heat below T N is well described by a sum of a linear electronic term and an antiferromagnetic spin-wave contribution. Just below T N , an additional positive curvature, especially at high fields, arises most probably due to thermal fluctuations. The field dependence of the coefficient of the low-temperature linear term, γ 0 , extracted from the fits shows a maximum at about 6 T, at the point where an anomaly was detected in susceptibility measurements. The relative field dependences of both T N and the magnetic entropy at T N scale as [1-(B/B 0 ) 2 ] for B parallel a, suggesting the disappearance of antiferromagnetism at B 0 ∼42 T. The expected suppression of the antiferromagnetic transition temperature to zero makes the existence of a magnetic quantum critical point possible. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  10. High-throughput analysis of candidate imprinted genes and allele-specific gene expression in the human term placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Taane G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imprinted genes show expression from one parental allele only and are important for development and behaviour. This extreme mode of allelic imbalance has been described for approximately 56 human genes. Imprinting status is often disrupted in cancer and dysmorphic syndromes. More subtle variation of gene expression, that is not parent-of-origin specific, termed 'allele-specific gene expression' (ASE is more common and may give rise to milder phenotypic differences. Using two allele-specific high-throughput technologies alongside bioinformatics predictions, normal term human placenta was screened to find new imprinted genes and to ascertain the extent of ASE in this tissue. Results Twenty-three family trios of placental cDNA, placental genomic DNA (gDNA and gDNA from both parents were tested for 130 candidate genes with the Sequenom MassArray system. Six genes were found differentially expressed but none imprinted. The Illumina ASE BeadArray platform was then used to test 1536 SNPs in 932 genes. The array was enriched for the human orthologues of 124 mouse candidate genes from bioinformatics predictions and 10 human candidate imprinted genes from EST database mining. After quality control pruning, a total of 261 informative SNPs (214 genes remained for analysis. Imprinting with maternal expression was demonstrated for the lymphocyte imprinted gene ZNF331 in human placenta. Two potential differentially methylated regions (DMRs were found in the vicinity of ZNF331. None of the bioinformatically predicted candidates tested showed imprinting except for a skewed allelic expression in a parent-specific manner observed for PHACTR2, a neighbour of the imprinted PLAGL1 gene. ASE was detected for two or more individuals in 39 candidate genes (18%. Conclusions Both Sequenom and Illumina assays were sensitive enough to study imprinting and strong allelic bias. Previous bioinformatics approaches were not predictive of new imprinted genes

  11. Generating Safety-Critical PLC Code From a High-Level Application Software Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of automatic-application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. These benefits include raised abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at Kennedy Space Center recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing the new ground checkout and launch processing system, called the Launch Control System (LCS). Engineers developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. All the computer hardware in the LCS is planned to be commercial off the shelf (COTS), including industrial controllers or PLCs that are connected to the sensors and end items out in the field. Most of the software in LCS is also planned to be COTS, with only small adapter software modules that must be developed in order to interface between the various COTS software products. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language designed to perform tasks and to solve problems in a particular domain, such as ground processing of launch vehicles. The LCS engineers created a DSL for developing test sequences of ground checkout and launch operations of future launch vehicle and spacecraft elements, and they are developing a tabular specification format that uses the DSL keywords and functions familiar to the ground and flight system users. The tabular specification format, or tabular spec, allows most ground and flight system users to document how the application software is intended to function and requires little or no software programming knowledge or experience. A small sample from a prototype tabular spec application is

  12. Specific Localization of High-Voltage Discharge in Vicinity of Two Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, Sergey; Shurupov, Michail; Shneider, Michail; Napartovich, Anatoly; Kochetov, Igor

    2011-10-01

    A subject of paper is the appearance and dynamics of sub-microsecond long filamentary high-voltage discharge generated in atmosphere, and in non-homogeneous gaseous media. Typical discharge parameters are: maximal current 1-3kA, breakdown voltage >100 kV, duration 30-100 ns, gap distance 50-100mm. The effect of discharge specific localization within mixing layer of two gases is particularly discussed. The second discussed idea is the filamentary discharge movement within a region with concentration gradient of different components. For the short-pulse discharge the physical mechanism appears as the following. The first stage of the spark breakdown is the multiple streamers propagation from the high-voltage electrode toward the grounded one. In case of high-power electrical source those streamers occupy a huge volume of the gas, covering all possible paths for the further development. The next phase consists of the real selection of the discharge path among the multiple channels with non-zero conductivity. Experiments and calculations are presented for Air-CO2 and Air-C2H4 pairs. The effects found are supposed to be applied for lightning prediction/protection, and for high-speed mixing acceleration. The work was funded through EOARD-ISTC project #3793p. Some part of this work was supported by RFBR grant #10-08-00952.

  13. Cavitation performance improvement of high specific speed mixed-flow pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T; Sun, Y B; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation performance improvement of large hydraulic machinery such as pump and turbine has been a hot topic for decades. During the design process of the pumps, in order to minimize size, weight and cost centrifugal and mixed-flow pump impellers are required to operate at the highest possible rotational speed. The rotational speed is limited by the phenomenon of cavitation. The hydraulic model of high-speed mixed-flow pump with large flow rate and high pumping head, which was designed based on the traditional method, always involves poor cavitation performance. In this paper, on the basis of the same hydraulic design parameters, two hydraulic models of high-speed mixed-flow pump were designed by using different methods, in order to investigate the cavitation and hydraulic performance of the two models, the method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was adopted for internal flow simulation of the high specific speed mixed-flow pump. Based on the results of numerical simulation, the influences of impeller parameters and three-dimensional configuration on pressure distribution of the blades' suction surfaces were analyzed. The numerical simulation results shows a better pressure distribution and lower pressure drop around the leading edge of the improved model. The research results could provide references to the design and optimization of the anti-cavitation blade.

  14. Chemically ignited thermonuclear reactions: A near-term means for a high specific impulse - High thrust propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1982-01-01

    A proposal for the fissionless ignition of small thermonuclear reactions is made which involves the combination of the magnetic booster target inertial fusion concept with the chemical implosion of metallic shells. The magnetic booster employs a very dense and magnetically confined low yield thermonuclear plasma to trigger an inertially confined high yield plasma. Fissionless ignition permits smaller yields than with fission- or fusion-induced fusion bombs, yields that are appropriate for use in a spacecraft propulsion system. Each bomb would release about 10 to the 18th erg or 100 tons of TNT, and with one explosion per second, an average thrust of 10 to the third tons and a specific impulse of about 3000 seconds can be expected

  15. Human exposure to unconventional natural gas development: A public health demonstration of periodic high exposure to chemical mixtures in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David R; Lewis, Celia; Weinberger, Beth I

    2015-01-01

    Directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing of shale gas and oil bring industrial activity into close proximity to residences, schools, daycare centers and places where people spend their time. Multiple gas production sources can be sited near residences. Health care providers evaluating patient health need to know the chemicals present, the emissions from different sites and the intensity and frequency of the exposures. This research describes a hypothetical case study designed to provide a basic model that demonstrates the direct effect of weather on exposure patterns of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Because emissions from unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) sites are variable, a short term exposure profile is proposed that determines 6-hour assessments of emissions estimates, a time scale needed to assist physicians in the evaluation of individual exposures. The hypothetical case is based on observed conditions in shale gas development in Washington County, Pennsylvania, and on estimated emissions from facilities during gas development and production. An air exposure screening model was applied to determine the ambient concentration of VOCs and PM2.5 at different 6-hour periods of the day and night. Hourly wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover data from Pittsburgh International Airport were used to calculate the expected exposures. Fourteen months of daily observations were modeled. Higher than yearly average source terms were used to predict health impacts at periods when emissions are high. The frequency and intensity of exposures to PM2.5 and VOCs at a residence surrounded by three UNGD facilities was determined. The findings show that peak PM2.5 and VOC exposures occurred 83 times over the course of 14 months of well development. Among the stages of well development, the drilling, flaring and finishing, and gas production stages produced higher intensity exposures than the

  16. Conceptual design of high resolution and reliable density measurement system on helical reactor FFHR-d1 and demonstration on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, T.; Yasuhara, R.; Isobe, M.; Sakamoto, R.; Goto, T.; Kawahata, K.; Sagara, A.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes a conceptual design of the density measurement system on the helical reactor FFHR-d1 based on its quantitative operation scenario. The density measurement is required to meet the reactor design, and to have a high density resolution of the order of 10 17 m -3 with a time resolution of 10 ms and high reliability (no fringe jump). “A dispersion interferometer” is designed and a prototype is tested and installed on LHD, which can realize a demo relevant density plasma. The prototype demonstrates the feasibility on a demo reactor. (author)

  17. Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity at high sensitivity levels (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Zeng, Haishan; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2017-02-01

    Background: Raman spectroscopy is a non-invasive optical technique which can measure molecular vibrational modes within tissue. A large-scale clinical study (n = 518) has demonstrated that real-time Raman spectroscopy could distinguish malignant from benign skin lesions with good diagnostic accuracy; this was validated by a follow-up independent study (n = 127). Objective: Most of the previous diagnostic algorithms have typically been based on analyzing the full band of the Raman spectra, either in the fingerprint or high wavenumber regions. Our objective in this presentation is to explore wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy for skin cancer diagnosis. Methods: A wavenumber selection algorithm was implemented using variably-sized wavenumber windows, which were determined by the correlation coefficient between wavenumbers. Wavenumber windows were chosen based on accumulated frequency from leave-one-out cross-validated stepwise regression or least and shrinkage selection operator (LASSO). The diagnostic algorithms were then generated from the selected wavenumber windows using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component and general discriminant analysis (PC-GDA) and partial least squares (PLS). A total cohort of 645 confirmed lesions from 573 patients encompassing skin cancers, precancers and benign skin lesions were included. Lesion measurements were divided into training cohort (n = 518) and testing cohort (n = 127) according to the measurement time. Result: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) improved from 0.861-0.891 to 0.891-0.911 and the diagnostic specificity for sensitivity levels of 0.99-0.90 increased respectively from 0.17-0.65 to 0.20-0.75 by selecting specific wavenumber windows for analysis. Conclusion: Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity at high sensitivity levels.

  18. IBM Demonstrates a General-Purpose, High-Performance, High-Availability Cloud-Hosted Data Distribution System With Live GOES-16 Weather Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, P. L.; Brown, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    IBM has created a general purpose, data-agnostic solution that provides high performance, low data latency, high availability, scalability, and persistent access to the captured data, regardless of source or type. This capability is hosted on commercially available cloud environments and uses much faster, more efficient, reliable, and secure data transfer protocols than the more typically used FTP. The design incorporates completely redundant data paths at every level, including at the cloud data center level, in order to provide the highest assurance of data availability to the data consumers. IBM has been successful in building and testing a Proof of Concept instance on our IBM Cloud platform to receive and disseminate actual GOES-16 data as it is being downlinked. This solution leverages the inherent benefits of a cloud infrastructure configured and tuned for continuous, stable, high-speed data dissemination to data consumers worldwide at the downlink rate. It also is designed to ingest data from multiple simultaneous sources and disseminate data to multiple consumers. Nearly linear scalability is achieved by adding servers and storage.The IBM Proof of Concept system has been tested with our partners to achieve in excess of 5 Gigabits/second over public internet infrastructure. In tests with live GOES-16 data, the system routinely achieved 2.5 Gigabits/second pass-through to The Weather Company from the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC. Simulated data was also transferred from the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites — North Carolina to The Weather Company, as well. The storage node allocated to our Proof of Concept system as tested was sized at 480 Terabytes of RAID protected disk as a worst case sizing to accommodate the data from four GOES-16 class satellites for 30 days in a circular buffer. This shows that an abundance of performance and capacity headroom exists in the IBM design that can be applied to additional missions.

  19. Fasciola hepatica demonstrates high levels of genetic diversity, a lack of population structure and high gene flow: possible implications for drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Nicola J; Williams, Diana J L; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, the liver fluke, is a trematode parasite of considerable economic importance to the livestock industry and is a re-emerging zoonosis that poses a risk to human health in F. hepatica-endemic areas worldwide. Drug resistance is a substantial threat to the current and future control of F. hepatica, yet little is known about how the biology of the parasite influences the development and spread of resistance. Given that F. hepatica can self-fertilise and therefore inbreed, there is the potential for greater population differentiation and an increased likelihood of recessive alleles, such as drug resistance genes, coming together. This could be compounded by clonal expansion within the snail intermediate host and aggregation of parasites of the same genotype on pasture. Alternatively, widespread movement of animals that typically occurs in the UK could promote high levels of gene flow and prevent population differentiation. We identified clonal parasites with identical multilocus genotypes in 61% of hosts. Despite this, 84% of 1579 adult parasites had unique multilocus genotypes, which supports high levels of genotypic diversity within F. hepatica populations. Our analyses indicate a selfing rate no greater than 2%, suggesting that this diversity is in part due to the propensity for F. hepatica to cross-fertilise. Finally, although we identified high genetic diversity within a given host, there was little evidence for differentiation between populations from different hosts, indicating a single panmictic population. This implies that, once those emerge, anthelmintic resistance genes have the potential to spread rapidly through liver fluke populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. High-throughput sequencing enhanced phage display enables the identification of patient-specific epitope motifs in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anders; Kringelum, Jens Vindahl; Hansen, Christian Skjødt

    2015-01-01

    of the bioinformatic approach was demonstrated by identifying epitopes of a prominent peanut allergen, Ara h 1, in sera from patients with severe peanut allergy. The identified epitopes were confirmed by high-density peptide micro-arrays. The present study demonstrates that high-throughput sequencing can empower phage...

  1. 3D material cytometry (3DMaC): a very high-replicate, high-throughput analytical method using microfabricated, shape-specific, cell-material niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parratt, Kirsten; Jeong, Jenny; Qiu, Peng; Roy, Krishnendu

    2017-08-08

    Studying cell behavior within 3D material niches is key to understanding cell biology in health and diseases, and developing biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications. Current approaches to studying these cell-material niches have low throughput and can only analyze a few replicates per experiment resulting in reduced measurement assurance and analytical power. Here, we report 3D material cytometry (3DMaC), a novel high-throughput method based on microfabricated, shape-specific 3D cell-material niches and imaging cytometry. 3DMaC achieves rapid and highly multiplexed analyses of very high replicate numbers ("n" of 10 4 -10 6 ) of 3D biomaterial constructs. 3DMaC overcomes current limitations of low "n", low-throughput, and "noisy" assays, to provide rapid and simultaneous analyses of potentially hundreds of parameters in 3D biomaterial cultures. The method is demonstrated here for a set of 85 000 events containing twelve distinct cell-biomaterial micro-niches along with robust, customized computational methods for high-throughput analytics with potentially unprecedented statistical power.

  2. Air pollution exposure, cause-specific deaths and hospitalizations in a highly polluted Italian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugno, Michele; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Catelan, Dolores; Grisotto, Laura; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Biggeri, Annibale; Baccini, Michela

    2016-05-01

    The Lombardy region in northern Italy ranks among the most air polluted areas of Europe. Previous studies showed air pollution short-term effects on all-cause mortality. We examine here the effects of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure on deaths and hospitalizations from specific causes, including cardiac, cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases. We considered air pollution, mortality and hospitalization data for a non-opportunistic sample of 18 highly polluted and most densely populated areas of the region in the years 2003-2006. We obtained area-specific effect estimates for PM10 and NO2 from a Poisson regression model on the daily number of total deaths or cause-specific hospitalizations and then combined them in a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis. For cause-specific mortality, we applied a case-crossover analysis. Age- and season-specific analyses were also performed. Effect estimates were expressed as percent variation in mortality or hospitalizations associated with a 10µg/m(3) increase in PM10 or NO2 concentration. Natural mortality was positively associated with both pollutants (0.30%, 90% Credibility Interval [CrI]: -0.31; 0.78 for PM10; 0.70%, 90%CrI: 0.10; 1.27 for NO2). Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher percent variation in association with NO2 (1.12%, 90% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.14; 2.11), while the percent variation for respiratory mortality was highest in association with PM10 (1.64%, 90%CI: 0.35; 2.93). The effect of both pollutants was more evident in the summer season. Air pollution was also associated to hospitalizations, the highest variations being 0.77% (90%CrI: 0.22; 1.43) for PM10 and respiratory diseases, and 1.70% (90%CrI: 0.39; 2.84) for NO2 and cerebrovascular diseases. The effect of PM10 on respiratory hospital admissions appeared to increase with age. For both pollutants, effects on cerebrovascular hospitalizations were more evident in subjects aged less than

  3. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  4. Highly sensitive and specific derivatization strategy to profile and quantitate eicosanoids by UPLC-MS/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ting; Tie, Cai; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Jin-Lan, E-mail: zhjl@imm.ac.cn

    2017-01-15

    Eicosanoids are signaling molecules mainly oxidized from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). They have attracted increasing attention from the scientists attributing to their essential physiological functions. However, their quantification have long been challenged by the low abundance, high structure similarity, poor stability and limited ionization efficiency. In this paper, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) strategy was developed for the comprehensive profiling of more than 60 eicosanoids based on an efficient derivatization reagent 2,4-bis(diethylamino)-6-hydrazino-1,3,5-triazine (T3) and general multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) parameters. Carboxylic acid of eicosanoid was converted to amide in 30 min at 4 °C with derivatization yield larger than 99%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) for derivatized eicosanoids varied from 0.05 to 50 pg depending on their structures. The sensitivities of derivatized eicosanoids were enhanced by 10- to 5000-folds compared to free eicosanoids. Stabilities of T3 modified eicosanoids were also highly improved compared to free eicosanoids. This new method can also be used to quantify eicosanoids in bio-samples using isotopic internal standards with high efficiency and reliability within 19 min. 46 and 50 eicosanoids in rat plasma and heart tissue from control and acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) model rats were respectively profiled and quantitated using this new method. And 24 of 46 and 25 of 50 eicosanoids were found to be significantly changed between control and model groups. The changed eicosanoids related to AMI modeling were further statistically analyzed and interpreted based on eicosanoid metabolism pathway. - Highlights: • Eicosanoids are important signaling molecules. • A highly sensitive and specific derivatization strategy was developed for eicosanoid profiling. • The strategy was employed for

  5. Highly sensitive and specific derivatization strategy to profile and quantitate eicosanoids by UPLC-MS/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ting; Tie, Cai; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2017-01-01

    Eicosanoids are signaling molecules mainly oxidized from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). They have attracted increasing attention from the scientists attributing to their essential physiological functions. However, their quantification have long been challenged by the low abundance, high structure similarity, poor stability and limited ionization efficiency. In this paper, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) strategy was developed for the comprehensive profiling of more than 60 eicosanoids based on an efficient derivatization reagent 2,4-bis(diethylamino)-6-hydrazino-1,3,5-triazine (T3) and general multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) parameters. Carboxylic acid of eicosanoid was converted to amide in 30 min at 4 °C with derivatization yield larger than 99%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) for derivatized eicosanoids varied from 0.05 to 50 pg depending on their structures. The sensitivities of derivatized eicosanoids were enhanced by 10- to 5000-folds compared to free eicosanoids. Stabilities of T3 modified eicosanoids were also highly improved compared to free eicosanoids. This new method can also be used to quantify eicosanoids in bio-samples using isotopic internal standards with high efficiency and reliability within 19 min. 46 and 50 eicosanoids in rat plasma and heart tissue from control and acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) model rats were respectively profiled and quantitated using this new method. And 24 of 46 and 25 of 50 eicosanoids were found to be significantly changed between control and model groups. The changed eicosanoids related to AMI modeling were further statistically analyzed and interpreted based on eicosanoid metabolism pathway. - Highlights: • Eicosanoids are important signaling molecules. • A highly sensitive and specific derivatization strategy was developed for eicosanoid profiling. • The strategy was employed for

  6. Continuous High Frequency Activity: A peculiar SEEG pattern related to specific brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Federico; Zelmann, Rina; Mari, Francesco; Gotman, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective While visually marking the high frequency oscillations in the stereo-EEG of epileptic patients, we observed a continuous/semicontinuous activity in the ripple band (80–250 Hz), which we defined continuous High Frequency Activity (HFA). We aim to analyze in all brain regions the occurrence and significance of this particular pattern. Methods Twenty patients implanted in mesial temporal and neocortical areas were studied. One minute of slow-wave sleep was reviewed. The background was classified as continuous/semicontinuous, irregular, or sporadic based on the duration of the fast oscillations. Each channel was classified as inside/outside the seizure onset zone (SOZ) or a lesion. Results The continuous/semicontinuous HFA occurred in 54 of the 790 channels analyzed, with a clearly higher prevalence in hippocampus and occipital lobe. No correlation was found with the SOZ or lesions. In the occipital lobe the continuous/semicontinuous HFA was present independently of whether eyes were open or closed. Conclusions We describe what appears to be a new physiological High Frequency Activity, independent of epileptogenicity, present almost exclusively in the hippocampus and occipital cortex but independent of the alpha rhythm. Significance The continuous HFA may be an intrinsic characteristic of specific brain regions, reflecting a particular type of physiological neuronal activity. PMID:23768436

  7. Synthesis of molecules of biological interest labelled with high specific activity tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petillot, Yves

    1975-01-01

    Labelled molecules are artificial organic compounds possessing one or several radioactive or steady isotopic atoms. Using tritium to label molecules presents several benefits: a raw material easy to obtain with a high purity and at reasonable cost; synthesised labelled molecules displaying high specific activities very interesting in molecular biology; high resolution of radiographies; relatively simple and quick introduction of tritium atoms in complex molecules. Thus, this report for graduation in organic chemistry addresses the synthesis and study of new labelled molecules which belong to families of organic compounds which have fundamental activities in biology: uridine 3 H-5,6 and thymidine 3 H-methyl which are nucleotides which intervene under the form of phosphates in the synthesis of nucleic acids, oestradiol 3 H-2,4,6,7 which is a powerful estrogenic hormone which naturally secreted by the ovary; and noradrenaline 3 H-1,1' and dopamine 3 H-1,2 which are usually secreted by adrenal medulla and have multiple actions on the nervous system

  8. High-affinity uranyl-specific antibodies suitable for cellular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisser-Rubrecht, L.; Torne-Celer, C.; Renier, W.; Averseng, O.; Plantevin, S.; Quemeneur, E.; Bellanger, L.; Vidaud, C. [CEA Valrho, DSV, IBEB, Serv Biochim et Toxicol Nucl, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have proved to be valuable models for the study of protein-metal interactions, and previous reports have described very specific antibodies to chelated metal ions, including uranyl. We raised specific mAbs against UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-DCP-BSA (DCP, 1, 10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid) to generate new sets of antibodies that might cross-react with various complexed forms of uranyl in different environments for further application in the field of toxicology. Using counter-screening with UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-DCP-casein, we selected two highly specific mAbs against uranyl-DCP (K{sub D} = 10-100 pM): U04S and U08S. Competitive assays in the presence of different metal ions (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Ca{sup 2+}) showed that uranyl in solution can act as a good competitor, suggesting some antibody ability to cross-react with chelating groups other than DCP in the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} equatorial coordination plane. Interestingly, one of the antibodies could be used for revealing uranyl cations in cell samples. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analyses after immuno-labeling revealed the interaction of uranyl with human kidney cells HK2. The intracellular accumulation of uranyl could be directly visualized by metal-immunostaining using fluorescent-labeled mAb. Our results suggest that U04S mAb epitopes mostly include the uranyl fraction and its para-topes can accommodate a wide variety of chelating groups. (authors)

  9. High-affinity uranyl-specific antibodies suitable for cellular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisser-Rubrecht, L.; Torne-Celer, C.; Renier, W.; Averseng, O.; Plantevin, S.; Quemeneur, E.; Bellanger, L.; Vidaud, C.

    2008-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have proved to be valuable models for the study of protein-metal interactions, and previous reports have described very specific antibodies to chelated metal ions, including uranyl. We raised specific mAbs against UO 2 2+ -DCP-BSA (DCP, 1, 10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid) to generate new sets of antibodies that might cross-react with various complexed forms of uranyl in different environments for further application in the field of toxicology. Using counter-screening with UO 2 2+ -DCP-casein, we selected two highly specific mAbs against uranyl-DCP (K D = 10-100 pM): U04S and U08S. Competitive assays in the presence of different metal ions (UO 2 2+ , Fe 3+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Ca 2+ ) showed that uranyl in solution can act as a good competitor, suggesting some antibody ability to cross-react with chelating groups other than DCP in the UO 2 2+ equatorial coordination plane. Interestingly, one of the antibodies could be used for revealing uranyl cations in cell samples. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analyses after immuno-labeling revealed the interaction of uranyl with human kidney cells HK2. The intracellular accumulation of uranyl could be directly visualized by metal-immunostaining using fluorescent-labeled mAb. Our results suggest that U04S mAb epitopes mostly include the uranyl fraction and its para-topes can accommodate a wide variety of chelating groups. (authors)

  10. Barcoded pyrosequencing reveals that consumption of galactooligosaccharides results in a highly specific bifidogenic response in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M G Davis

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that allow specific changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer health benefits to the host. However, the effects of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota are incomplete as most studies have relied on methods that fail to cover the breadth of the bacterial community. The goal of this research was to use high throughput multiplex community sequencing of 16S rDNA tags to gain a community wide perspective of the impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS on the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects. Fecal samples from eighteen healthy adults were previously obtained during a feeding trial in which each subject consumed a GOS-containing product for twelve weeks, with four increasing dosages (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 gram of GOS. Multiplex sequencing of the 16S rDNA tags revealed that GOS induced significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbiota, principally by increasing the abundance of organisms within the Actinobacteria. Specifically, several distinct lineages of Bifidobacterium were enriched. Consumption of GOS led to five- to ten-fold increases in bifidobacteria in half of the subjects. Increases in Firmicutes were also observed, however, these changes were detectable in only a few individuals. The enrichment of bifidobacteria was generally at the expense of one group of bacteria, the Bacteroides. The responses to GOS and the magnitude of the response varied between individuals, were reversible, and were in accordance with dosage. The bifidobacteria were the only bacteria that were consistently and significantly enriched by GOS, although this substrate supported the growth of diverse colonic bacteria in mono-culture experiments. These results suggest that GOS can be used to enrich bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract with remarkable specificity, and that the bifidogenic properties of GOS that occur in vivo are caused by selective fermentation as well as by

  11. Hierarchical CuCo2O4 nanobelts as a supercapacitor electrode with high areal and specific capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Subbukalai; Lee, Seong-Hun; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First time we report the synthesis of CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelts using hydrothermal method. • The spinel CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelts exhibit maximum areal capacitance of 2.42 F cm −2 . • After 1800 cycles, 127% of the initial specific capacitance was retained. - Abstract: One dimensional hierarchical CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelt like architecture was synthesized via hydrothermal method. The synthesized nanomaterial was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM image clearly shows the nanobelt like architecture of CuCo 2 O 4 . The supercapacitor properties of CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelts electrode were tested using cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The spinel CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelts exhibit maximum areal and specific capacitance of 2.42 F cm −2 (809 F g −1 ). After 1800 continuous charge-discharge cycles, 127% of the initial capacitance was retained. This superior electrochemical supercapacitor property is mainly due to increased surface area and ion transport of nanobelt like architecture. The charge transfer resistance (R ct ) value of CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelt electrode is 3.85 Ω. This high capacitance and cyclic stability demonstrate that the prepared CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelts are a promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  12. Combinatorial Modulation of Signaling Pathways Reveals Cell-Type-Specific Requirements for Highly Efficient and Synchronous iPSC Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon E. Vidal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The differentiated state of somatic cells provides barriers for the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. To address why some cell types reprogram more readily than others, we studied the effect of combined modulation of cellular signaling pathways. Surprisingly, inhibition of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β together with activation of Wnt signaling in the presence of ascorbic acid allows >80% of murine fibroblasts to acquire pluripotency after 1 week of reprogramming factor expression. In contrast, hepatic and blood progenitors predominantly required only TGF-β inhibition or canonical Wnt activation, respectively, to reprogram at efficiencies approaching 100%. Strikingly, blood progenitors reactivated endogenous pluripotency loci in a highly synchronous manner, and we demonstrate that expression of specific chromatin-modifying enzymes and reduced TGF-β/mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase activity are intrinsic properties associated with the unique reprogramming response of these cells. Our observations define cell-type-specific requirements for the rapid and synchronous reprogramming of somatic cells.

  13. Magnetic nanoparticles with high specific absorption rate of electromagnetic energy at low field strength for hyperthermia therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubitidze, Fridon; Kekalo, Katsiaryna; Stigliano, Robert; Baker, Ian

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), referred to as the Dartmouth MNPs, which exhibit high specific absorption rate at low applied field strength have been developed for hyperthermia therapy applications. The MNPs consist of small (2-5 nm) single crystals of gamma-Fe2O3 with saccharide chains implanted in their crystalline structure, forming 20-40 nm flower-like aggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of 110-120 nm. The MNPs form stable (>12 months) colloidal solutions in water and exhibit no hysteresis under an applied quasistatic magnetic field, and produce a significant amount of heat at field strengths as low as 100 Oe at 99-164 kHz. The MNP heating mechanisms under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) are discussed and analyzed quantitatively based on (a) the calculated multi-scale MNP interactions obtained using a three dimensional numerical model called the method of auxiliary sources, (b) measured MNP frequency spectra, and (c) quantified MNP friction losses based on magneto-viscous theory. The frequency responses and hysteresis curves of the Dartmouth MNPs are measured and compared to the modeled data. The specific absorption rate of the particles is measured at various AMF strengths and frequencies, and compared to commercially available MNPs. The comparisons demonstrate the superior heating properties of the Dartmouth MNPs at low field strengths (therapy to deeper tumors that were previously non-viable targets, potentially enabling the treatment of some of the most difficult cancers, such as pancreatic and rectal cancers, without damaging normal tissue.

  14. The real gas dynamics of the fluids of high specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, G.E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The gas dynamics of real fluids show several new effects beyond the gas dynamics of ideal substances. Many of these effects rely on phase changes in the flow fields and can be explained with the help of more complicated thermal and caloric state equations of the real fluids. Complete adiabatic liquefaction and evaporation are possible for those substances whose specific heat exceeds a limit of about twenty gas constants. These fluids consisting of great molecules have so much internal energy storage capacity in their numerous vibrational degrees of freedom that the heat of evaporation can be supplied or also stored in the case of condensation. So liquefaction shock waves, which transform a gas completely or partly into a liquid, are possible. The shock front becomes thereby the surface of a liquid. Partial liquefaction with droplet condensation occurs in weaker shock waves. On the other hand a superheated liquid with high specific heat can be changed into a gas or mixture state in expansion waves or flows. (orig.)

  15. Identification of lung cancer with high sensitivity and specificity by blood testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bernhard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is a very frequent and lethal tumor with an identifiable risk population. Cytological analysis and chest X-ray failed to reduce mortality, and CT screenings are still controversially discussed. Recent studies provided first evidence for the potential usefulness of autoantigens as markers for lung cancer. Methods We used extended panels of arrayed antigens and determined autoantibody signatures of sera from patients with different kinds of lung cancer, different common non-tumor lung pathologies, and controls without any lung disease by a newly developed computer aided image analysis procedure. The resulting signatures were classified using linear kernel Support Vector Machines and 10-fold cross-validation. Results The novel approach allowed for discriminating lung cancer patients from controls without any lung disease with a specificity of 97.0%, a sensitivity of 97.9%, and an accuracy of 97.6%. The classification of stage IA/IB tumors and controls yielded a specificity of 97.6%, a sensitivity of 75.9%, and an accuracy of 92.9%. The discrimination of lung cancer patients from patients with non-tumor lung pathologies reached an accuracy of 88.5%. Conclusion We were able to separate lung cancer patients from subjects without any lung disease with high accuracy. Furthermore, lung cancer patients could be seprated from patients with other non-tumor lung diseases. These results provide clear evidence that blood-based tests open new avenues for the early diagnosis of lung cancer.

  16. Preparation of a high specific activity I-125 labeled styryl dye for leukocyte membrane labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, C.; Mease, R.C.; Le, T.; Sabet, H.; Avren, L.I.; McAfee, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a high specific activity radioiodinated cell membrane probe for tracking lymphocytes in-vivo to replace the nucleus localizing, cytotoxic lipophilic chelates (In-111 oxine and Tc-99m HMPAO) currently used. Alkylation of parent dye 4-[2-[-N,N-didecylamino]phenyl]ethenyl pyridine with E-1-tributylstannyl-3-tosylpropene (prepared form E-1-tributylstannyl-1-propene-3-ol), gave a tributyltin precursor 1. Radiolabeled 3-[4-[2-[4-(N,N-didecylamino)phenyl]ethenyl]pyridino] E-[I-125]-1-iodopropene (2), was prepared from 1 using peracetic acid in acetonitrile/water. Labeling yields and specific activities achieved were 26% (∼2170 Ci/mmol), 40% (1220 Ci/mmol), and 55% (200 Ci/mmol) for nca, 0.4, and 2 nanomole carrier iodide runs respectively. Canine mixed leukocytes (0.5-1.0 x 10 8 cells) were labeled with 2 (67% and 42% yields for 200 Ci/mol and 1220 Ci/mmol preparations) and showed blood clearance similar to In 111 oxine. Radioiodinated styryl dye 2 appears to be a promising leukocyte labeling agent. Imaging studies with I-131 labeled 2 are in progress

  17. Application of the specific thermal properties of Ag nanoparticles to high-resolution metal patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Yong; Yeo, Junyeob; Ha, Cheol Woo; Lee, Jinhwan; Hong, Sukjoon; Nam, Koo Hyun; Yang, Dong-Yol; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles exhibit specific electronic, chemical and optical properties due to the thermodynamic size effect, which cannot be observed in bulk materials. Ag NPs show size dependent melting temperature depression phenomena. In this study, the thermal sintering behavior of the self-assembled monolayer protected Ag NPs has been observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy. The thermal characteristics of the Ag NPs have also been examined with a thermogravimetric analysis, a differential scanning calorimetry and a thermal conductivity measurement. These assessments have shown that the melting of the Ag NPs starts at 150 °C, which is much lower than the melting temperature of bulk silver (960 °C). The measured thermal conductivity of the Ag NPs (0.37 W/(m K)) is also lower than that of bulk silver (429 W/(m K)). These specific thermal properties of the Ag NPs can be applied to a low-temperature and a high-resolution direct-metal patterning process.

  18. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Behr, Michael K; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2011-09-27

    Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain regions. For the critical case of language, conflicting answers arise from the neuropsychological literature, which features striking dissociations between deficits in linguistic and nonlinguistic abilities, vs. the neuroimaging literature, which has argued for overlap between activations for linguistic and nonlinguistic processes, including arithmetic, domain general abilities like cognitive control, and music. Here, we use functional MRI to define classic language regions functionally in each subject individually and then examine the response of these regions to the nonlinguistic functions most commonly argued to engage these regions: arithmetic, working memory, cognitive control, and music. We find little or no response in language regions to these nonlinguistic functions. These data support a clear distinction between language and other cognitive processes, resolving the prior conflict between the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literatures.

  19. Very High Specific Energy, Medium Power Li/CFx Primary Battery for Launchers and Space Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochard, Paul; Godillot, Gerome; Peres, Jean Paul; Corbin, Julien; Espinosa, Amaya

    2014-08-01

    Benchmark with existing technologies shows the advantages of the lithium-fluorinated carbon (Li/CFx) technology for use aboard future launchers in terms of a low Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), especially for high energy demanding missions such as re-ignitable upper stages for long GTO+ missions and probes for deep space exploration.This paper presents the new results obtained on this chemistry in terms of electrical and climatic performances, abuse tests and life tests. Studies - co-financed between CNES and Saft - looked at a pure CFx version with a specific energy up to 500 Wh/kg along with a medium power of 80 to 100 W/kg.

  20. Study of Stable Cathodes and Electrolytes for High Specific Density Lithium-Air Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lugo, Dionne M.; Wu, James; Bennett, William; Ming, Yu; Zhu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Future NASA missions require high specific energy battery technologies, greater than 400 Wh/kg. Current NASA missions are using "state-of-the-art" (SOA) Li-ion batteries (LIB), which consist of a metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and an organic electrolyte. NASA Glenn Research Center is currently studying the physical and electrochemical properties of the anode-electrolyte interface for ionic liquid based Li-air batteries. The voltage-time profiles for Pyr13FSI and Pyr14TFSI ionic liquids electrolytes studies on symmetric cells show low over-potentials and no dendritic lithium morphology. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate that these ionic liquids have a wide electrochemical window. As a continuation of this work, sp2 carbon cathode and these low flammability electrolytes were paired and the physical and electrochemical properties were studied in a Li-air battery system under an oxygen environment.

  1. Waste acceptance product specifications for vitrified high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applewhite-Ramsey, A.; Sproull, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 mandated that all high-level waste (HLW) be sent to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. DOE published the Environmental Assessment in 1982 which identified borosilicate glass as the chosen HLW form. 1 In 1985 the Department of Energy instituted a Waste Acceptance Process to assure that DWPF glass waste forms would be acceptable to such a repository. This assurance was important since production of waste forms will precede repository construction and licensing. As part of this Waste Acceptance Process, the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) formed the Waste Acceptance Committee (WAC). The WAC included representatives from the candidate repository sites, the waste producing sites and DOE. The WAC was responsible for developing the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) which defined the requirements the waste forms must meet to be compatible with the candidate repository geologies

  2. High-Level software requirements specification for the TWRS controlled baseline database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    This Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is an as-built document that presents the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Controlled Baseline Database (TCBD) in its current state. It was originally known as the Performance Measurement Control System (PMCS). Conversion to the new system name has not occurred within the current production system. Therefore, for simplicity, all references to TCBD are equivalent to PMCS references. This SRS will reference the PMCS designator from this point forward to capture the as-built SRS. This SRS is written at a high-level and is intended to provide the design basis for the PMCS. The PMCS was first released as the electronic data repository for cost, schedule, and technical administrative baseline information for the TAAS Program. During its initial development, the PMCS was accepted by the customer, TARS Business Management, with no formal documentation to capture the initial requirements

  3. SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE LATTICE TEST REACTOR BUILDING 318 PROJECT CAH-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitro Engineering Company

    1964-07-15

    This is the specifications for the High Temperature Lattice Test Reactor Building 318 and it is divided into the following 21 divisions or chapters: (1) Excavating, Backfill & Grading; (2) Reinforced Concrete; (3) Masonry; (4) Structural Steel & Miscellaneous Metal Items, Contents - Division V; (5) Plumbing, Process & Service Piping; (6) Welding; (7) Insulated Metal Siding; (8) Roof Decks & Roofing; (9) Plaster Partitions & Ceiling; (10) Standard Doors, Windows & Hardware; (11) Shielding Doors; (12) Sprinkler System & Fire Extinguishers, Contents - Division XIII; (13) Heating, Ventilating & Air Conditioning; (14) Painting, Protective Coating & Floor Covering, Contents - Division XV; (15) Electrical; (16) Communications & Alarm Systems; (17) Special Equipment & Furnishings; (18) Overhead Bridge Crane; (19) Prefabricated Steel Building; (20) Paved Drive; and (21) Landscaping & Irrigation Sprinklers.

  4. Demonstration of a switchable damping system to allow low-noise operation of high-Q low-mass suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Jan-Simon; Barr, Bryan W.; Bell, Angus S.; Cunningham, William; Danilishin, Stefan L.; Dupej, Peter; Gräf, Christian; Hough, James; Huttner, Sabina H.; Jones, Russell; Leavey, Sean S.; Pascucci, Daniela; Sinclair, Martin; Sorazu, Borja; Spencer, Andrew; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Strain, Kenneth A.; Wright, Jennifer; Zhang, Teng; Hild, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Low-mass suspension systems with high-Q pendulum stages are used to enable quantum radiation pressure noise limited experiments. Utilizing multiple pendulum stages with vertical blade springs and materials with high-quality factors provides attenuation of seismic and thermal noise; however, damping of these high-Q pendulum systems in multiple degrees of freedom is essential for practical implementation. Viscous damping such as eddy-current damping can be employed, but it introduces displacement noise from force noise due to thermal fluctuations in the damping system. In this paper we demonstrate a passive damping system with adjustable damping strength as a solution for this problem that can be used for low-mass suspension systems without adding additional displacement noise in science mode. We show a reduction of the damping factor by a factor of 8 on a test suspension and provide a general optimization for this system.

  5. Demonstration of high-responsivity epitaxial β-Ga2O3/GaN metal–heterojunction-metal broadband UV-A/UV-C detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Anisha; Vura, Sandeep; Rathkanthiwar, Shashwat; Muralidharan, Rangarajan; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Nath, Digbijoy N.

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate epitaxial β-Ga2O3/GaN-based vertical metal–heterojunction-metal (MHM) broadband UV-A/UV-C photodetectors with high responsivity (3.7 A/W) at 256 and 365 nm, UV-to-visible rejection >103, and a photo-to-dark current ratio of ∼100. A small (large) conduction (valence) band offset at the heterojunction of pulsed laser deposition (PLD)-grown β-Ga2O3 on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-grown GaN-on-silicon with epitaxial registry, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) azimuthal scanning, is exploited to realize detectors with an asymmetric photoresponse and is explained with one-dimensional (1D) band diagram simulations. The demonstrated novel vertical MHM detectors on silicon are fully scalable and promising for enabling focal plane arrays for broadband ultraviolet sensing.

  6. Development of the radiosynthesis of high-specific-activity {sup 123}I-NKJ64

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S., E-mail: a.tavares.1@research.gla.ac.u [Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jobson, Nicola K. [WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, The Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow (United Kingdom); Dewar, Deborah [Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutherland, Andrew [WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, The Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow (United Kingdom); Pimlott, Sally L. [West of Scotland Radionuclide Dispensary, University of Glasgow and North Glasgow University Hospital NHS Trust, G11 6NT Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Introduction: {sup 123}I-NKJ64, a reboxetine analogue, is currently under development as a potential novel single photon emission computed tomography radiotracer for imaging the noradrenaline transporter in brain. This study describes the development of the radiosynthesis of {sup 123}I-NKJ64, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages, pitfalls and solutions encountered while developing the final radiolabelling methodology. Methods: The synthesis of {sup 123}I-NKJ64 was evaluated using an electrophilic iododestannylation method, where a Boc-protected trimethylstannyl precursor was radioiodinated using peracetic acid as an oxidant and deprotection was investigated using either trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) or 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). Results: Radioiodination of the Boc-protected trimethylstannyl precursor was achieved with an incorporation yield of 92{+-}6%. Deprotection with 2 M HCl produced {sup 123}I-NKJ64 with the highest radiochemical yield of 98.05{+-}1.63% compared with 83.95{+-}13.24% with TFA. However, the specific activity of the obtained {sup 123}I-NKJ64 was lower when measured after using 2 M HCl (0.15{+-}0.23 Ci/{mu}mol) as the deprotecting agent in comparison to TFA (1.76{+-}0.60 Ci/{mu}mol). Further investigation of the 2 M HCl methodology found a by-product, identified as the deprotected proto-destannylated precursor, which co-eluted with {sup 123}I-NKJ64 during the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification. Conclusions: The radiosynthesis of {sup 123}I-NKJ64 was achieved with good isolated radiochemical yield of 68% and a high specific activity of 1.8 Ci/{mu}mol. TFA was found to be the most suitable deprotecting agent, since 2 M HCl generated a by-product that could not be fully separated from {sup 123}I-NKJ64 using the HPLC methodology investigated. This study highlights the importance of HPLC purification and accurate measurement of specific activity while developing new radiosynthesis methodologies.

  7. Development of the radiosynthesis of high-specific-activity 123I-NKJ64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S.; Jobson, Nicola K.; Dewar, Deborah; Sutherland, Andrew; Pimlott, Sally L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: 123 I-NKJ64, a reboxetine analogue, is currently under development as a potential novel single photon emission computed tomography radiotracer for imaging the noradrenaline transporter in brain. This study describes the development of the radiosynthesis of 123 I-NKJ64, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages, pitfalls and solutions encountered while developing the final radiolabelling methodology. Methods: The synthesis of 123 I-NKJ64 was evaluated using an electrophilic iododestannylation method, where a Boc-protected trimethylstannyl precursor was radioiodinated using peracetic acid as an oxidant and deprotection was investigated using either trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) or 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). Results: Radioiodination of the Boc-protected trimethylstannyl precursor was achieved with an incorporation yield of 92±6%. Deprotection with 2 M HCl produced 123 I-NKJ64 with the highest radiochemical yield of 98.05±1.63% compared with 83.95±13.24% with TFA. However, the specific activity of the obtained 123 I-NKJ64 was lower when measured after using 2 M HCl (0.15±0.23 Ci/μmol) as the deprotecting agent in comparison to TFA (1.76±0.60 Ci/μmol). Further investigation of the 2 M HCl methodology found a by-product, identified as the deprotected proto-destannylated precursor, which co-eluted with 123 I-NKJ64 during the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification. Conclusions: The radiosynthesis of 123 I-NKJ64 was achieved with good isolated radiochemical yield of 68% and a high specific activity of 1.8 Ci/μmol. TFA was found to be the most suitable deprotecting agent, since 2 M HCl generated a by-product that could not be fully separated from 123 I-NKJ64 using the HPLC methodology investigated. This study highlights the importance of HPLC purification and accurate measurement of specific activity while developing new radiosynthesis methodologies.

  8. New Innovations in Highly Ion Specific Media for Recalcitrant Waste stream Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, M. S.; Wilson, J.; Ahrendt, M.; Bostick, W. D.; DeSilva, F.; Meyers, P.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) outage cycle and recovery (four months), was the down-select and development of a number of highly ion specific media for the specific removal of such elusive isotopes. Over three dozen media including standard cation and anion ion exchangers, specialty IX, standard carbons, and, finally, chemically doped media (e.g., carbon and alumina substrates). The latter involved doping with iron, manganese, and even metals. The media down-select was carried out on actual plant waste streams so that all possible outage affects were accounted for, and distribution coefficients (Kd's) were determined (vs. decontamination factors, DF's, or percent removals). Such Kd's, in milliliters of solution per gram of media (mug), produce data indicative of the longevity of the media in that particular waste stream. Herein, the down-select is reported in Pareto (decreasing order) tables. Further affects such as the presence of high cobalt concentrations, high boron concentrations, the presence of hydrazine and chelating agents, and extreme pH conditions. Of particular importance here is to avoid the affinity of competing ions (e.g., a Sb specific media having more than a slight affinity for Co). The latter results in the snow-plow effect of sloughing off 3 to 4 times the cobalt into the effluent as was in the feed upon picking up the Sb. The study was quite successful and resulted in the development of and selection of a resin-type and two granular media for antimony removal, and two resin-types and a granular media for cobalt removal. The decontamination factors for both media were hundreds to thousands of times that of the full filtration and de-min. (authors)

  9. High-fidelity tissue engineering of patient-specific auricles for reconstruction of pediatric microtia and other auricular deformities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa J Reiffel

    Full Text Available Autologous techniques for the reconstruction of pediatric microtia often result in suboptimal aesthetic outcomes and morbidity at the costal cartilage donor site. We therefore sought to combine digital photogrammetry with CAD/CAM techniques to develop collagen type I hydrogel scaffolds and their respective molds that would precisely mimic the normal anatomy of the patient-specific external ear as well as recapitulate the complex biomechanical properties of native auricular elastic cartilage while avoiding the morbidity of traditional autologous reconstructions.Three-dimensional structures of normal pediatric ears were digitized and converted to virtual solids for mold design. Image-based synthetic reconstructions of these ears were fabricated from collagen type I hydrogels. Half were seeded with bovine auricular chondrocytes. Cellular and acellular constructs were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsa of nude rats and harvested after 1 and 3 months.Gross inspection revealed that acellular implants had significantly decreased in size by 1 month. Cellular constructs retained their contour/projection from the animals' dorsa, even after 3 months. Post-harvest weight of cellular constructs was significantly greater than that of acellular constructs after 1 and 3 months. Safranin O-staining revealed that cellular constructs demonstrated evidence of a self-assembled perichondrial layer and copious neocartilage deposition. Verhoeff staining of 1 month cellular constructs revealed de novo elastic cartilage deposition, which was even more extensive and robust after 3 months. The equilibrium modulus and hydraulic permeability of cellular constructs were not significantly different from native bovine auricular cartilage after 3 months.We have developed high-fidelity, biocompatible, patient-specific tissue-engineered constructs for auricular reconstruction which largely mimic the native auricle both biomechanically and histologically, even after an extended

  10. A novel high specific surface area conducting paper material composed of polypyrrole and Cladophora cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihranyan, Albert; Nyholm, Leif; Bennett, Alfonso E Garcia; Strømme, Maria

    2008-10-02

    We present a novel conducting polypyrrole-based composite material, obtained by polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of iron(III) chloride on a cellulose substrate derived from the environmentally polluting Cladophora sp. algae. The material, which was doped with chloride ions, was molded into paper sheets and characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, N 2 gas adsorption analysis, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and conductivity measurements at varying relative humidities. The specific surface area of the composite was found to be 57 m (2)/g and the fibrous structure of the Cladophora cellulose remained intact even after a 50 nm thick layer of polypyrrole had been coated on the cellulose fibers. The composite could be repeatedly used for electrochemically controlled extraction and desorption of chloride and an ion exchanging capacity of 370 C per g of composite was obtained as a result of the high surface area of the cellulose substrate. The influence of the oxidation and reduction potentials on the chloride ion exchange capacity and the nucleation of delocalized positive charges, forming conductive paths in the polypyrrole film, was also investigated. The creation of conductive paths during oxidation followed an effective medium rather than a percolative behavior, indicating that some conduction paths survive the polymer reduction steps. The present high surface area material should be well-suited for use in, e.g., electrochemically controlled ion exchange or separation devices, as well as sensors based on the fact that the material is compact, light, mechanically stable, and moldable into paper sheets.

  11. High-fidelity haptic and visual rendering for patient-specific simulation of temporal bone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sonny; Li, Peter; Locketz, Garrett; Salisbury, Kenneth; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2016-12-01

    Medical imaging techniques provide a wealth of information for surgical preparation, but it is still often the case that surgeons are examining three-dimensional pre-operative image data as a series of two-dimensional images. With recent advances in visual computing and interactive technologies, there is much opportunity to provide surgeons an ability to actively manipulate and interpret digital image data in a surgically meaningful way. This article describes the design and initial evaluation of a virtual surgical environment that supports patient-specific simulation of temporal bone surgery using pre-operative medical image data. Computational methods are presented that enable six degree-of-freedom haptic feedback during manipulation, and that simulate virtual dissection according to the mechanical principles of orthogonal cutting and abrasive wear. A highly efficient direct volume renderer simultaneously provides high-fidelity visual feedback during surgical manipulation of the virtual anatomy. The resulting virtual surgical environment was assessed by evaluating its ability to replicate findings in the operating room, using pre-operative imaging of the same patient. Correspondences between surgical exposure, anatomical features, and the locations of pathology were readily observed when comparing intra-operative video with the simulation, indicating the predictive ability of the virtual surgical environment.

  12. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP2-05: Feasibility Demonstration of High-Voltage Clinical CT and Impact On X-Ray Penetration Through Metal Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y; De Man, B; Robinson, V; Gjesteby, L; Wang, G; Verburg, J; Giantsoudi, D; Paganetti, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the possibility and quantify the impact of operating a clinical CT scanner at exceptionally high x-ray tube voltage for better penetration through metal objects and facilitating metal artifact reduction. Methods: We categorize metal objects according to the data corruption severeness (level of distortion and complete photon starvation fraction). To demonstrate feasibility and investigate the impact of high voltage scanning we modified a commercial GE LightSpeed VCT scanner (generator and software) to enable CT scans with x-ray tube voltages as high as 175 kVp. A 20 cm diameter water phantom with two metal rods (10 mm stainless and 25 mm titanium) and a water phantom with realistic metal object (spine cage) were used to evaluate the data corruption and image artifacts in the absence of any algorithm correction. We also performed simulations to confirm our understanding of the transmitted photon levels through metal objects with different size and composition. Results: The reconstructed images at 175 kVp still have significant dark shading artifacts, as expected since no special scatter correction or beam hardening was performed but show substantially lower noise and photon starvation than at lower kVp due to better beam penetration. Analysis of the raw data shows that the photon starved data is reduced from over 4% at 140 kVp to below 0.2% at 175 kVp. The simulations indicate that for clinically relevant titanium and stainless objects a 175 kVp tube voltage effectively avoids photon starvation. Conclusion: The use of exceptionally high tube voltage on a clinical CT system is a practical and effective solution to avoid photon starvation caused by certain metal implants. Sparse and hybrid high-voltage protocols are being considered to maintain low patient dose. This opens the door to algorithmic physics-based corrections rather than treating the data as missing and relying on missing data algorithms. Some of the authors are employees of General

  13. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP2-05: Feasibility Demonstration of High-Voltage Clinical CT and Impact On X-Ray Penetration Through Metal Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y; De Man, B [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Robinson, V [GE, Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Gjesteby, L [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Wang, G [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY (United States); Verburg, J [Massachusetts, General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Giantsoudi, D; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the possibility and quantify the impact of operating a clinical CT scanner at exceptionally high x-ray tube voltage for better penetration through metal objects and facilitating metal artifact reduction. Methods: We categorize metal objects according to the data corruption severeness (level of distortion and complete photon starvation fraction). To demonstrate feasibility and investigate the impact of high voltage scanning we modified a commercial GE LightSpeed VCT scanner (generator and software) to enable CT scans with x-ray tube voltages as high as 175 kVp. A 20 cm diameter water phantom with two metal rods (10 mm stainless and 25 mm titanium) and a water phantom with realistic metal object (spine cage) were used to evaluate the data corruption and image artifacts in the absence of any algorithm correction. We also performed simulations to confirm our understanding of the transmitted photon levels through metal objects with different size and composition. Results: The reconstructed images at 175 kVp still have significant dark shading artifacts, as expected since no special scatter correction or beam hardening was performed but show substantially lower noise and photon starvation than at lower kVp due to better beam penetration. Analysis of the raw data shows that the photon starved data is reduced from over 4% at 140 kVp to below 0.2% at 175 kVp. The simulations indicate that for clinically relevant titanium and stainless objects a 175 kVp tube voltage effectively avoids photon starvation. Conclusion: The use of exceptionally high tube voltage on a clinical CT system is a practical and effective solution to avoid photon starvation caused by certain metal implants. Sparse and hybrid high-voltage protocols are being considered to maintain low patient dose. This opens the door to algorithmic physics-based corrections rather than treating the data as missing and relying on missing data algorithms. Some of the authors are employees of General

  14. High Temperature Uniaxial Compression and Stress-Relaxation Behavior of India-Specific RAFM Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naimish S.; Sunil, Saurav; Sarkar, Apu

    2018-05-01

    India-specific reduced activity ferritic martensitic steel (INRAFM), a modified 9Cr-1Mo grade, has been developed by India as its own structural material for fabrication of the Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be installed in the International Thermonuclear Energy Reactor (ITER). The extensive study on mechanical and physical properties of this material has been currently going on for appraisal of this material before being put to use in the ITER. High temperature compression, stress-relaxation, and strain-rate change behavior of the INRAFM steel have been investigated. The optical microscopic and scanning electron microscopic characterizations were carried out to observe the microstructural changes that occur during uniaxial compressive deformation test. Comparable true plastic stress values at 300 °C and 500 °C and a high drop in true plastic stress at 600 °C were observed during the compression test. Stress-relaxation behaviors were investigated at 500 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C at a strain rate of 10-3 s-1. The creep properties of the steel at different temperatures were predicted from the stress-relaxation test. The Norton's stress exponent (n) was found to decrease with the increasing temperature. Using Bird-Mukherjee-Dorn relationship, the temperature-compensated normalized strain rate vs stress was plotted. The stress exponent (n) value of 10.05 was obtained from the normalized plot. The increasing nature of the strain rate sensitivity (m) with the test temperature was found from strain-rate change test. The low plastic stability with m 0.06 was observed at 600 °C. The activation volume (V *) values were obtained in the range of 100 to 300 b3. By comparing the experimental values with the literature, the rate-controlling mechanisms at the thermally activated region of high temperature were found to be the nonconservative movement of jogged screw dislocations and thermal breaking of attractive junctions.

  15. Specific capture and detection of Staphylococcus aureus with high-affinity modified aptamers to cell surface components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstummler, A; Lehmann, D; Janjic, N; Ochsner, U A

    2014-10-01

    Slow off-rate modified aptamer (SOMAmer) reagents were generated to several Staphylococcus aureus cell surface-associated proteins via SELEX with multiple modified DNA libraries using purified recombinant or native proteins. High-affinity binding agents with sub-nanomolar Kd 's were obtained for staphylococcal protein A (SpA), clumping factors (ClfA, ClfB), fibronectin-binding proteins (FnbA, FnbB) and iron-regulated surface determinants (Isd). Further screening revealed several SOMAmers that specifically bound to Staph. aureus cells from all strains that were tested, but not to other staphylococci or other bacteria. SpA and ClfA SOMAmers proved useful for the selective capture and enrichment of Staph. aureus cells, as shown by culture and PCR, leading to improved limits of detection and efficient removal of PCR inhibitors. Detection of Staph. aureus cells was enhanced by several orders of magnitude when the bacterial cell surface was coated with SOMAmers followed by qPCR of the SOMAmers. Furthermore, fluorescence-labelled SpA SOMAmers demonstrated their utility as direct detection agents in flow cytometry. Significance and impact of the study: Monitoring for microbial contamination of food, water, nonsterile products or the environment is typically based on culture, PCR or antibodies. Aptamers that bind with high specificity and affinity to well-conserved cell surface epitopes represent a promising novel type of reagents to detect bacterial cells without the need for culture or cell lysis, including for the capture and enrichment of bacteria present at low cell densities and for the direct detection via qPCR or fluorescent staining. © 2014 Soma Logic, Inc. published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd On behalf of the society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Conductor Specification and Validation for High-Luminosity LHC Quadrupole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L. D.; Ghosh, A. K.; Dietderich, D. R.; Pong, I.

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN will replace the main ring inner triplet quadrupoles, identified by the acronym MQXF, adjacent to the main ring intersection regions. For the past decade, the U.S. LHC Accelerator R&D Program, LARP, has been evaluating conductors for the MQXFA prototypes, which are the outer magnets of the triplet. Recently, the requirements for MQXF magnets and cables have been published in P. Ferracin et al., IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 26, no. 4, 2016, Art. no.4000207, along with the final specification for Ti-alloyed Nb3Sn conductor determined jointly by CERN and LARP. This paper describes the rationale beneath the 0.85 mm diameter strand’s chief parameters, which are 108 or more sub-elements, a copper fraction not less than 52.4%, strand critical current at 4.22 K not less than 631 A at 12 T and 331 A at 15 T, and residual resistance ratio of not less than 150. This paper also compares the performance for ~100 km production lots of the five most recent LARP conductors to the first 163 km of strand made according to the HL-LHC specification. Two factors emerge as significant for optimizing performance and minimizing risk: a modest increase of the sub-element diameter from 50 to 55 μm, and a Nb:Sn molar ratio of 3.6 instead of 3.4. Furthermore, the statistics acquired so far give confidence that the present conductor can balance competing demands in production for the HL-LHC project.

  17. Prostate-Specific Antigen Bounce After High-Dose-Rate Monotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Niraj H.; Kamrava, Mitchell; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Steinberg, Michael; Demanes, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the magnitude and kinetics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounces after high-dose-rate (HDR) monotherapy and determine relationships between certain clinical factors and PSA bounce. Methods and Materials: Longitudinal PSA data and various clinical parameters were examined in 157 consecutive patients treated with HDR monotherapy between 1996 and 2005. We used the following definition for PSA bounce: rise in PSA ≥threshold, after which it returns to the prior level or lower. Prostate-specific antigen failure was defined per the Phoenix definition (nadir +2 ng/mL). Results: A PSA bounce was noted in 67 patients (43%). The number of bounces per patient was 1 in 45 cases (67%), 2 in 19 (28%), 3 in 2 (3%), 4 in 0, and 5 in 1 (1%). The median time to maximum PSA bounce was 1.3 years, its median magnitude was 0.7, and its median duration was 0.75 years. Three patients (2%) were noted to have PSA failure. None of the 3 patients who experienced biochemical failure exhibited PSA bounce. In the fully adjusted model for predicting each bounce, patients aged <55 years had a statistically significant higher likelihood of experiencing a bounce (odds ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.38-3.57, P=.001). There was also a statistically significant higher probability of experiencing a bounce for every unit decrease in Gleason score (odds ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.04, P=.045). Conclusions: A PSA bounce occurs in a significant percentage of patients treated with HDR monotherapy, with magnitudes varying from <1 in 28% of cases to ≥1 in 15%. The median duration of bounce is <1 year. More bounces were identified in patients with lower Gleason score and age <55 years. Further investigation using a model to correlate magnitude and frequency of bounces with clinical variables are under way

  18. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Non-Competitive Immunoassay for Specific Detection of Nodularin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Akter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nodularin (NOD is a cyclic penta-peptide hepatotoxin mainly produced by Nodularia spumigena, reported from the brackish water bodies of various parts of the world. It can accumulate in the food chain and, for safety reasons, levels of NOD not only in water bodies but also in food matrices are of interest. Here, we report on a non-competitive immunoassay for the specific detection of NOD. A phage display technique was utilized to interrogate a synthetic antibody phage library for binders recognizing NOD bound to an anti-ADDA (3-Amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4(E,6(E-dienoic acid monoclonal antibody (Mab. One of the obtained immunocomplex binders, designated SA32C11, showed very high specificity towards nodularin-R (NOD-R over to the tested 10 different microcystins (microcystin-LR, -dmLR, -RR, -dmRR, -YR, -LY, -LF, -LW, -LA, -WR. It was expressed in Escherichia coli as a single chain antibody fragment (scFv fusion protein and used to establish a time-resolved fluorometry-based assay in combination with the anti-ADDA Mab. The detection limit (blank + 3SD of the immunoassay, with a total assay time of 1 h 10 min, is 0.03 µg/L of NOD-R. This represents the most sensitive immunoassay method for the specific detection of NOD reported so far. The assay was tested for its performance to detect NOD using spiked (0.1 to 3 µg/L of NOD-R water samples including brackish sea and coastal water and the recovery ranged from 79 to 127%. Furthermore, a panel of environmental samples, including water from different sources, fish and other marine tissue specimens, were analyzed for NOD using the assay. The assay has potential as a rapid screening tool for the analysis of a large number of water samples for the presence of NOD. It can also find applications in the analysis of the bioaccumulation of NOD in marine organisms and in the food chain.

  19. New Nanostructured Li 2 S/Silicon Rechargeable Battery with High Specific Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan; McDowell, Matthew T.; Jackson, Ariel; Cha, Judy J.; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are important energy storage devices; however, the specific energy of existing lithium ion batteries is still insufficient for many applications due to the limited specific charge capacity of the electrode

  20. Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Peggy

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999; Johnstone, 1991) have been studying the difficulty students have in learning science, particularly chemistry. Gabel (1999) suggests that, "while research into misconceptions (also known as alternative conceptions) and problem-solving has dominated the field for the past 25 years, we are no closer to a solution that would improve the teaching and learning of chemistry" (P. 549). Gabel (1999) relates the difficulty in learning chemistry to use of language. She refers to student difficulty both with words that have more than one meaning in English and with words that are used to mean one idea in chemistry and another idea in every day language. The Frayer Model, a research-based teaching strategy, is a graphic organizer which students use to create meaningful definitions for terms in context (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969). It was used as the treatment---the specific vocabulary instruction---in this research study. The researcher collected and analyzed data to answer three research questions that focused on the effect of using the Frayer model (a graphic organizer) on high school students' knowledge and understanding of academic language used in chemistry. The research took place in a New England high school. Four intact chemistry classes provided the student participants; two classes were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and two classes were assigned to the control group (CG). The TG received vocabulary instruction on 14 chosen terms using the Frayer Model. The CG received traditional vocabulary instruction with no special attention to the 14 terms selected for this study

  1. 1H High Resolution Magic-Angle Coil Spinning (HR-MACS µNMR Metabolic Profiling of whole Saccharomyces cervisiae cells: A Demonstrative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eWong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The low sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR is its prime shortcoming compared to other analytical methods for metabolomic studies. It relies on large sample volume (30–50 µl for HR-MAS for rich metabolic profiling, hindering high-throughput screening especially when the sample requires a labor-intensive preparation or is a sacred specimen. This is indeed the case for some living organisms. This study evaluates a 1H HR-MAS approach for metabolic profiling of small volume (250 nl whole bacterial cells, Saccharomyces cervisiae, using an emerging micro-NMR technology: high-resolution magic-angle coil spinning (HR-MACS. As a demonstrative study for whole cells, we perform two independent metabolomics studies identifying the significant metabolites associated with osmotic stress and aging.

  2. Production of radiohalogens and [11C]-methane at high specific activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Jonathon Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The halogens, occupying Group VII of the periodic table, play an important role in the biochemical processes underlying health and disease. A variety of positron emitters covering a broad range of half-lives permit the imaging of the body's physiochemical behavior using PET. Neutron deficient isotopes of the halogen group can be produced by (p,n) reactions from enriched targets with low energy (production process insures their role in the clinical/research environment, labeling H215 O, 13NH3, CH3-compounds and 18F-FDG. Halogens with half-lives longer than 18F have been avoided due to a combination of several factors, such as complexity of the target systems, expense of the enriched substrate, low reaction yields, and extensive post-processing to reclaim the target material. PET research over the last decade has forced a match between drug development and emerging small animal instrumentation, shifting focus to agents labeled with high specific activity 11CH3I and the long-lived radiohalogens, 76Br and 124I. A steady local supply of 18F-fluoride, 11C-methane, 76B-bromide, and 124I-iodide is essential to seize today's research opportunities or for limited distribution outside of our local area. To keep pace, new targetry developments are implemented to reliably produce these isotopes on a batch basis. The research presented details improvements on existing production methods for 18F-fluoride intended for nucleophilic substitution and high specific activity 11C-methane (→CH3I) for the N-methylation of a half-dozen neuroligands. A significant effort is placed on the novel use of low energy cyclotrons for the production of 76Br and 124I involved in labeling antibody and protein agents. Performance of these new designs and the success of the solid targetry development will be described. The ten-fold scale-up in yields at end-of-bombardment promises new hope for the synthesis of PET tracers, previously limited by access to the radio-halogen precursors.

  3. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David

    2017-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. Methodology/Principal findings A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74–0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling

  4. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Eliza Davies Calvani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples.A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76 was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic

  5. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic to non

  6. Demonstration of high mobility and quantum transport in modulation-doped β-(AlxGa1-x)2O3/Ga2O3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuewei; Neal, Adam; Xia, Zhanbo; Joishi, Chandan; Johnson, Jared M.; Zheng, Yuanhua; Bajaj, Sanyam; Brenner, Mark; Dorsey, Donald; Chabak, Kelson; Jessen, Gregg; Hwang, Jinwoo; Mou, Shin; Heremans, Joseph P.; Rajan, Siddharth

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the β-(AlxGa1-x)2O3/Ga2O3 interface through modulation doping. Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations were observed in the modulation-doped β-(AlxGa1-x)2O3/Ga2O3 structure, indicating a high-quality electron channel formed at the heterojunction interface. The formation of the 2DEG channel was further confirmed by the weak temperature dependence of the carrier density, and the peak low temperature mobility was found to be 2790 cm2/Vs, which is significantly higher than that achieved in bulk-doped Beta-phase Gallium Oxide (β-Ga2O3). The observed SdH oscillations allowed for the extraction of the electron effective mass in the (010) plane to be 0.313 ± 0.015 m0 and the quantum scattering time to be 0.33 ps at 3.5 K. The demonstrated modulation-doped β-(AlxGa1-x)2O3/Ga2O3 structure lays the foundation for future exploration of quantum physical phenomena and semiconductor device technologies based on the β-Ga2O3 material system.

  7. A high pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experimental method for characterization of solid-liquid interfaces demonstrated with a Li-ion battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maibach, Julia; Xu, Chao; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Edström, Kristina [Department of Chemistry–Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Eriksson, Susanna K. [Department of Chemistry–Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 523, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Åhlund, John [VG Scienta AB, Box 15120, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); Siegbahn, Hans; Rensmo, Håkan; Hahlin, Maria, E-mail: maria.hahlin@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    We report a methodology for a direct investigation of the solid/liquid interface using high pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HPXPS). The technique was demonstrated with an electrochemical system represented by a Li-ion battery using a silicon electrode and a liquid electrolyte of LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) cycled versus metallic lithium. For the first time the presence of a liquid electrolyte was realized using a transfer procedure where the sample was introduced into a 2 mbar N{sub 2} environment in the analysis chamber without an intermediate ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) step in the load lock. The procedure was characterized in detail concerning lateral drop gradients as well as stability of measurement conditions over time. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrate that the solid substrate and the liquid electrolyte can be observed simultaneously. The results show that the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition for the wet electrode is stable within the probing time and generally agrees well with traditional UHV studies. Since the methodology can easily be adjusted to various high pressure photoelectron spectroscopy systems, extending the approach towards operando solid/liquid interface studies using liquid electrolytes seems now feasible.

  8. High performance cone-beam spiral backprojection with voxel-specific weighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckmann, Sven; Knaup, Michael; Kachelriess, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Cone-beam spiral backprojection is computationally highly demanding. At first sight, the backprojection requirements are similar to those of cone-beam backprojection from circular scans such as it is performed in the widely used Feldkamp algorithm. However, there is an additional complication: the illumination of each voxel, i.e. the range of angles the voxel is seen by the x-ray cone, is a complex function of the voxel position. In general, one needs to multiply a voxel-specific weight w(x, y, z, α) prior to adding a projection from angle α to a voxel at position x, y, z. Often, the weight function has no analytically closed form and must be numerically determined. Storage of the weights is prohibitive since the amount of memory required equals the number of voxels per spiral rotation times the number of projections a voxel receives contributions and therefore is in the order of up to 10 12 floating point values for typical spiral scans. We propose a new algorithm that combines the spiral symmetry with the ability of today's 64 bit operating systems to store large amounts of precomputed weights, even above the 4 GB limit. Our trick is to backproject into slices that are rotated in the same manner as the spiral trajectory rotates. Using the spiral symmetry in this way allows one to exploit data-level paralellism and thereby to achieve a very high level of vectorization. An additional postprocessing step rotates these slices back to normal images. Our new backprojection algorithm achieves up to 17 giga voxel updates per second on our systems that are equipped with four standard Intel X7460 hexa core CPUs (Intel Xeon 7300 platform, 2.66 GHz, Intel Corporation). This equals the reconstruction of 344 images per second assuming that each slice consists of 512 x 512 pixels and receives contributions from 512 projections. Thereby, it is an order of magnitude faster than a highly optimized code that does not make use of the spiral symmetry. In its present version, the

  9. High performance cone-beam spiral backprojection with voxel-specific weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckmann, Sven; Knaup, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2009-06-01

    Cone-beam spiral backprojection is computationally highly demanding. At first sight, the backprojection requirements are similar to those of cone-beam backprojection from circular scans such as it is performed in the widely used Feldkamp algorithm. However, there is an additional complication: the illumination of each voxel, i.e. the range of angles the voxel is seen by the x-ray cone, is a complex function of the voxel position. In general, one needs to multiply a voxel-specific weight w(x, y, z, α) prior to adding a projection from angle α to a voxel at position x, y, z. Often, the weight function has no analytically closed form and must be numerically determined. Storage of the weights is prohibitive since the amount of memory required equals the number of voxels per spiral rotation times the number of projections a voxel receives contributions and therefore is in the order of up to 1012 floating point values for typical spiral scans. We propose a new algorithm that combines the spiral symmetry with the ability of today's 64 bit operating systems to store large amounts of precomputed weights, even above the 4 GB limit. Our trick is to backproject into slices that are rotated in the same manner as the spiral trajectory rotates. Using the spiral symmetry in this way allows one to exploit data-level paralellism and thereby to achieve a very high level of vectorization. An additional postprocessing step rotates these slices back to normal images. Our new backprojection algorithm achieves up to 17 giga voxel updates per second on our systems that are equipped with four standard Intel X7460 hexa core CPUs (Intel Xeon 7300 platform, 2.66 GHz, Intel Corporation). This equals the reconstruction of 344 images per second assuming that each slice consists of 512 × 512 pixels and receives contributions from 512 projections. Thereby, it is an order of magnitude faster than a highly optimized code that does not make use of the spiral symmetry. In its present version, the

  10. A screening on Specific Learning Disorders in an Italian speaking high genetic homogeneity area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Claudia; Giulivi, Sara; Schilirò, Antonino; Bastiani, Luca; Muzio, Carlo; Meloni, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate the prevalence of Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) in Ogliastra, an area of the island of Sardinia, Italy. Having experienced centuries of isolation, Ogliastra has become a high genetic homogeneity area, and is considered particularly interesting for studies on different kinds of pathologies. Here we are going to describe the results of a screening carried out throughout 2 consecutive years in 49 second grade classes (24 considered in the first year and 25 in the second year of the study) of the Ogliastra region. A total of 610 pupils (average age 7.54 years; 293 female, 317 male) corresponding to 68.69% of all pupils who were attending second grade in the area, took part in the study. The tool used for the screening was "RSR-DSA. Questionnaire for the detection of learning difficulties and disorders", which allowed the identification of 83 subjects at risk (13.61% of the whole sample involved in the study). These subjects took part in an enhancement training program of about 6 months. After the program, pupils underwent assessment for reading, writing and calculation abilities, as well as cognitive assessment. According to the results of the assessment, the prevalence of SLDs is 6.06%. For what concerns dyslexia, 4.75% of the total sample manifested this disorder either in isolation or in comorbidity with other disorders. According to the first national epidemiological investigation carried out in Italy, the prevalence of dyslexia is 3.1-3.2%, which is lower than the prevalence obtained in the present study. Given the genetic basis of SLDs, this result, together with the presence of several cases of SLD in isolation (17.14%) and with a 3:1 ratio of males to females diagnosed with a SLD, was to be expected in a sample coming from a high genetic homogeneity area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mid-Season High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Forecasting Site-Specific Corn Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahuel R. Peralta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A timely and accurate crop yield forecast is crucial to make better decisions on crop management, marketing, and storage by assessing ahead and implementing based on expected crop performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high-resolution satellite imagery data collected at mid-growing season for identification of within-field variability and to forecast corn yield at different sites within a field. A test was conducted on yield monitor data and RapidEye satellite imagery obtained for 22 cornfields located in five different counties (Clay, Dickinson, Rice, Saline, and Washington of Kansas (total of 457 ha. Three basic tests were conducted on the data: (1 spatial dependence on each of the yield and vegetation indices (VIs using Moran’s I test; (2 model selection for the relationship between imagery data and actual yield using ordinary least square regression (OLS and spatial econometric (SPL models; and (3 model validation for yield forecasting purposes. Spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran’s I test for both yield and VIs (red edge NDVI = NDVIre, normalized difference vegetation index = NDVIr, SRre = red-edge simple ratio, near infrared = NIR and green-NDVI = NDVIG was tested positive and statistically significant for most of the fields (p < 0.05, except for one. Inclusion of spatial adjustment to model improved the model fit on most fields as compared to OLS models, with the spatial adjustment coefficient significant for half of the fields studied. When selected models were used for prediction to validate dataset, a striking similarity (RMSE = 0.02 was obtained between predicted and observed yield within a field. Yield maps could assist implementing more effective site-specific management tools and could be utilized as a proxy of yield monitor data. In summary, high-resolution satellite imagery data can be reasonably used to forecast yield via utilization of models that include spatial adjustment to

  12. A dominant EV71-specific CD4+ T cell epitope is highly conserved among human enteroviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruicheng Wei

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in determining the immunopathogenesis of viral infections. However, the role of CD4+ T cells in EV71 infection, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD, has yet to be elucidated. We applied a sophisticated method to identify promiscuous CD4+ T cell epitopes contained within the sequence of the EV71 polyprotein. Fifteen epitopes were identified, and three of them are dominant ones. The most dominant epitope is highly conserved among enterovirus species, including HFMD-related coxsackieviruses, HFMD-unrelated echoviruses and polioviruses. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cells specific to the epitope indeed cross-reacted with the homolog of poliovirus 3 Sabin. Our findings imply that CD4+ T cell responses to poliovirus following vaccination, or to other enteroviruses to which individuals may be exposed in early childhood, may have a modulating effect on subsequent CD4+ T cell response to EV71 infection or vaccine.

  13. Introduced ascidians harbor highly diverse and host-specific symbiotic microbial assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James S; Erwin, Patrick M; Shenkar, Noa; López-Legentil, Susanna

    2017-09-08

    Many ascidian species have experienced worldwide introductions, exhibiting remarkable success in crossing geographic borders and adapting to local environmental conditions. To investigate the potential role of microbial symbionts in these introductions, we examined the microbial communities of three ascidian species common in North Carolina harbors. Replicate samples of the globally introduced species Distaplia bermudensis, Polyandrocarpa anguinea, and P. zorritensis (n = 5), and ambient seawater (n = 4), were collected in Wrightsville Beach, NC. Microbial communities were characterized by next-generation (Illumina) sequencing of partial (V4) 16S rRNA gene sequences. Ascidians hosted diverse symbiont communities, consisting of 5,696 unique microbial OTUs (at 97% sequenced identity) from 47 bacterial and three archaeal phyla. Permutational multivariate analyses of variance revealed clear differentiation of ascidian symbionts compared to seawater bacterioplankton, and distinct microbial communities inhabiting each ascidian species. 103 universal core OTUs (present in all ascidian replicates) were identified, including taxa previously described in marine invertebrate microbiomes with possible links to ammonia-oxidization, denitrification, pathogenesis, and heavy-metal processing. These results suggest ascidian microbial symbionts exhibit a high degree of host-specificity, forming intimate associations that may contribute to host adaptation to new environments via expanded tolerance thresholds and enhanced holobiont function.

  14. The Clatterbridge high-energy neutron therapy facility: specification and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnett, D.E.; Blake, S.W.; Shaw, J.E.; Bewley, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A high energy neutron therapy facility has been installed at the Douglas Cyclotron Centre, Clatterbridge Hospital Merseyside, to extend M.R.C. clinical trials of fast neutrons. The neutron beam is produced by bombarding a beryllium target with 62 MeV protons. The target is isocentrically mounted with potential for 360 0 rotation, with a fully variable collimator, giving a range of rectilinear field sizes from 5 cm x 5 cm to 30 cm x 30 cm. Basic neutron beam data including output, field flatness, penumbra and depth-dose data have been measured. For a 10 cm x 10 cm field, 50% depth dose occurs at 16.2 cm in water and output is 1.63 cGy μ A -1 min -1 at maximum dose depth. Effectiveness of the target shielding and neutron-induced radioactivity in the treatment head were also measured. It is concluded that the equipment meets design specifications and fully satisfies criticisms of earlier neutron therapy equipment. A full radiation survey showed that radiation levels present no significant staff hazard. (UK)

  15. Highly abundant and stage-specific mRNAs in the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, H S; Michelmore, R W

    1990-01-01

    Germinating spores of the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae (lettuce downy mildew) contain several unusually abundant species of mRNA. Thirty-nine cDNA clones corresponding to prevalent transcripts were isolated from a library synthesized using poly(A)+ RNA from germinating spores; these clones represented only five distinct classes. Each corresponding mRNA accounted for from 0.4 to 9 percent by mass of poly(A)+ RNA from germinating spores and together represented greater than 20 percent of the mRNA. The expression of the corresponding genes, and a gene encoding Hsp70, was analyzed in spores during germination and during growth in planta. The Hsp70 mRNA and mRNA from one abundant cDNA clone (ham34) were expressed constitutively. Two clones (ham9 and ham12) hybridized only to mRNA from spores and germinating spores. Two clones (ham37 and ham27) showed hybridization specific to germinating spores. Quantification of the number of genes homologous to each cDNA clone indicated that four clones corresponded to one or two copies per haploid genome, and one hybridized to an approximately 11-member family of genes. A sequence of the gene corresponding to ham34 was obtained to investigate its function and to identify sequences conferring high levels of gene expression for use in constructing vectors for the transformation of B. lactucae.

  16. Serial high resolution CT in non-specific interstitial pneumonia: prognostic value of the initial pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Screaton, N.J. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nicholas.screaton@papworth.nhs.uk; Hiorns, M.P. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Lee, K.S. [Samsung Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea); Franquet, T. [Hospital de Saint Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Johkoh, T. [Department of Medical Physics and Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Fujimoto, K. [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Ichikado, K. [First Department of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Colby, T.V. [Department of Laboratory Medicine/Pathology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Mueller, N.L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relationship between initial CT pattern and serial changes in CT findings and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serial high resolution (HR) CTs and PFTs were retrospectively analyzed in 38 cases of histologically proven NSIP, including 4 with cellular NSIP, 13 with mixed cellular and fibrotic NSIP, and 21 with fibrotic NSIP. The presence and extent of various CT findings were assessed. A fibrosis index (defined as the ratio of the extent of a reticular/honeycomb pattern to the overall extent of abnormal parenchyma) was derived. RESULTS: The predominant CT pattern was reticular/honeycomb in 27 (84%) cases and ground-glass/consolidation in 6 (16%) cases. Between scans, mean disease extent reduced by 5.2%. Disease extent reduced by >10% in 13 (34%) and increased by >10% in 6 (16%) patients. Histopathological subtype of NSIP did not correlate with individual CT pattern, predominant pattern, fibrosis index or serial change in disease extent on CT or PFTs. Response on follow-up CT was associated with fibrosis index, predominant pattern and extent of consolidation on initial CT. CONCLUSION: In NSIP disease, progression on CT correlates with the predominant CT pattern, fibrosis index, and extent of consolidation but not with histopathological subtype. An inflammatory (ground-glass/consolidation) predominant pattern is associated with better outcome in terms of disease extent on HRCT.

  17. Study on flow fields in high specific speed centrifugal compressor with unpinched vaneless diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Performance of centrifugal compressors strongly depends on their internal flow fields. CFD has become indispensable tool for getting the information about flow fields in centrifugal compressors. CFD codes are usually validated by some representative data or compared with calculated results by other CFD codes, in order to ensure their accuracies. However, learning their accuracies for all types of centrifugal compressor's specifications requires continuous works that compare experimental data obtained in developmental processes of various types of centrifugal compressors with CFD results. A prediction of a performance and a flow field of a centrifugal compressor by CFD is relatively accurate when the impact of separation and secondary flow on that flow field is weak, i.e. near design condition. Centrifugal compressors are deemed to have a wide operating range alongside high efficiencies at design points. Hence the prediction accuracy of CFD at off design conditions, where the impacts of separation and secondary flow on the flow field are strong, is critical for the design of the centrifugal compressors. This study therefore investigated the prediction accuracy of CFD using a centrifugal compressor whose geometry was intentionally changed to have a distorted flow field over a whole operating range, i.e. from choke to surge.

  18. Study on flow fields in high specific speed centrifugal compressor with unpinched vaneless diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Hideaki [IHI Corporation, Yokoham (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Performance of centrifugal compressors strongly depends on their internal flow fields. CFD has become indispensable tool for getting the information about flow fields in centrifugal compressors. CFD codes are usually validated by some representative data or compared with calculated results by other CFD codes, in order to ensure their accuracies. However, learning their accuracies for all types of centrifugal compressor's specifications requires continuous works that compare experimental data obtained in developmental processes of various types of centrifugal compressors with CFD results. A prediction of a performance and a flow field of a centrifugal compressor by CFD is relatively accurate when the impact of separation and secondary flow on that flow field is weak, i.e. near design condition. Centrifugal compressors are deemed to have a wide operating range alongside high efficiencies at design points. Hence the prediction accuracy of CFD at off design conditions, where the impacts of separation and secondary flow on the flow field are strong, is critical for the design of the centrifugal compressors. This study therefore investigated the prediction accuracy of CFD using a centrifugal compressor whose geometry was intentionally changed to have a distorted flow field over a whole operating range, i.e. from choke to surge.

  19. Design of a High Temperature Radiator for the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Chambliss, Joe P.

    2012-01-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR), currently under development by Ad Astra Rocket Company (Webster, TX), is a unique propulsion system that could change the way space propulsion is performed. VASIMR's efficiency, when compared to that of a conventional chemical rocket, reduces the propellant needed for exploration missions by a factor of 10. Currently plans include flight tests of a 200 kW VASIMR system, titled VF-200, on the International Space Station (ISS). The VF-200 will consist of two 100 kW thruster units packaged together in one engine bus. Each thruster core generates 27 kW of waste heat during its 15 minute firing time. The rocket core will be maintained between 283 and 573 K by a pumped thermal control loop. The design of a high temperature radiator is a unique challenge for the vehicle design. This paper will discuss the path taken to develop a steady state and transient-based radiator design. The paper will describe the radiator design option selected for the VASIMR thermal control system for use on ISS, and how the system relates to future exploration vehicles.

  20. Design Analysis of a High Temperature Radiator for the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Chambliss, Joe P.; Cassady, Leonard D.

    2011-01-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR), currently under development by Ad Astra Rocket Company, is a unique propulsion system that can potentially change the way space propulsion is performed. VASIMR's efficiency, when compared to that of a conventional chemical rocket, reduce propellant needed for exploration missions by a factor of 10. Currently plans include flight tests of a 200 kW VASIMR system, titled VF-200, on the International Space Station. The VF-200 will consist of two 100 kW thruster units packaged together in one engine bus. Each thruster unit has a unique heat rejection requirement of about 27 kW over a firing time of 15 minutes. In order to control rocket core temperatures, peak operating temperatures of about 300 C are expected within the thermal control loop. Design of a high temperature radiator is a unique challenge for the vehicle design. This paper will discuss the path taken to develop a steady state and transient based radiator design. The paper will describe radiator design options for the VASIMR thermal control system for use on ISS as well as future exploration vehicles.

  1. High performance wash-free magnetic bioassays through microfluidically enhanced particle specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechstein, Daniel J B; Lee, Jung-Rok; Ooi, Chin Chun; Gani, Adi W; Kim, Kyunglok; Wilson, Robert J; Wang, Shan X

    2015-06-30

    Magnetic biosensors have emerged as a sensitive and versatile platform for high performance medical diagnostics. These magnetic biosensors require well-tailored magnetic particles as detection probes, which need to give rise to a large and specific biological signal while showing very low nonspecific binding. This is especially important in wash-free bioassay protocols, which do not require removal of particles before measurement, often a necessity in point of care diagnostics. Here we show that magnetic interactions between magnetic particles and magnetized sensors dramatically impact particle transport and magnetic adhesion to the sensor surfaces. We investigate the dynamics of magnetic particles' biomolecular binding and magnetic adhesion to the sensor surface using microfluidic experiments. We elucidate how flow forces can inhibit magnetic adhesion, greatly diminishing or even eliminating nonspecific signals in wash-free magnetic bioassays, and enhancing signal to noise ratios by several orders of magnitude. Our method is useful for selecting and optimizing magnetic particles for a wide range of magnetic sensor platforms.

  2. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  3. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal Energy Technology Center

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round 2. The project is described in the report ''Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO(sub x)) Emissions from High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers'' (Southern Company Services 1990). In June 1990, Southern Company Services (Southern) entered into a cooperative agreement to conduct the study. Southern was a cofunder and served as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. Other participants and cofunders were EPRI (formerly the Electric Power Research Institute) and Ontario Hydro. DOE provided 40 percent of the total project cost of$23 million. The long-term operation phase of the demonstration was started in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. This independent evaluation is based primarily on information from Southern's Final Report (Southern Company Services 1996). The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH(sub 3)) into boiler flue gas and passing the 3 flue gas through a catalyst bed where the NO(sub x) and NH(sub 3) react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The objectives of the demonstration project were to investigate: Performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and manufacturing methods at typical U.S. high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions; Catalyst resistance to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals but not present, or present at much lower concentrations, in fuels from other countries; and Effects on the balance-of-plant equipment

  4. Highly sensitive real-time PCR for specific detection and quantification of Coxiella burnetii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linke Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii, the bacterium causing Q fever, is an obligate intracellular biosafety level 3 agent. Detection and quantification of these bacteria with conventional methods is time consuming and dangerous. During the last years, several PCR based diagnostic assays were developed to detect C. burnetii DNA in cell cultures and clinical samples. We developed and evaluated TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays that targeted the singular icd (isocitrate dehydrogenase gene and the transposase of the IS1111a element present in multiple copies in the C. burnetii genome. Results To evaluate the precision of the icd and IS1111 real-time PCR assays, we performed different PCR runs with independent DNA dilutions of the C. burnetii Nine Mile RSA493 strain. The results showed very low variability, indicating efficient reproducibility of both assays. Using probit analysis, we determined that the minimal number of genome equivalents per reaction that could be detected with a 95% probability was 10 for the icd marker and 6.5 for the IS marker. Plasmid standards with cloned icd and IS1111 fragments were used to establish standard curves which were linear over a range from 10 to 107 starting plasmid copy numbers. We were able to quantify cell numbers of a diluted, heat-inactivated Coxiella isolate with a detection limit of 17 C. burnetii particles per reaction. Real-time PCR targeting both markers was performed with DNA of 75 different C. burnetii isolates originating from all over the world. Using this approach, the number of IS1111 elements in the genome of the Nine Mile strain was determined to be 23, close to 20, the number revealed by genome sequencing. In other isolates, the number of IS1111 elements varied widely (between seven and 110 and seemed to be very high in some isolates. Conclusion We validated TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays targeting the icd and IS1111 markers of C. burnetii. The assays were shown to be specific, highly

  5. Pseudogap and the specific heat of high Tc superconductors: a Hubbard model in a n-pole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calegari, E J; Lausmann, A C; Magalhaes, S G; Chaves, C M; Troper, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work the specific heat of a two-dimensional Hubbard model, suitable to discuss high-T c superconductors (HTSC), is studied taking into account hopping to first (t) and second (t 2 ) nearest neighbors. Experimental results for the specific heat of HTSC's, for instance, the YBCO and LSCO, indicate a close relation between the pseudogap and the specific heat. In the present work, we investigate the specific heat by the Green's function method within a n-pole approximation. The specific heat is calculated on the pseudogap and on the superconducting regions. In the present scenario, the pseudogap emerges when the antiferromagnetic (AF) fluctuations become sufficiently strong. The specific heat jump coefficient Δγ decreases when the total occupation per site (n T ) reaches a given value. Such behavior of Δγ indicates the presence of a pseudogap in the regime of high occupation

  6. Pseudogap and the specific heat of high Tc superconductors: a Hubbard model in a n-pole approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, E. J.; Lausmann, A. C.; Magalhaes, S. G.; Chaves, C. M.; Troper, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this work the specific heat of a two-dimensional Hubbard model, suitable to discuss high-Tc superconductors (HTSC), is studied taking into account hopping to first (t) and second (t2) nearest neighbors. Experimental results for the specific heat of HTSC's, for instance, the YBCO and LSCO, indicate a close relation between the pseudogap and the specific heat. In the present work, we investigate the specific heat by the Green's function method within a n-pole approximation. The specific heat is calculated on the pseudogap and on the superconducting regions. In the present scenario, the pseudogap emerges when the antiferromagnetic (AF) fluctuations become sufficiently strong. The specific heat jump coefficient Δγ decreases when the total occupation per site (nT) reaches a given value. Such behavior of Δγ indicates the presence of a pseudogap in the regime of high occupation.

  7. Mammalian transcriptional hotspots are enriched for tissue specific enhancers near cell type specific highly expressed genes and are predicted to act as transcriptional activator hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anagha

    2014-12-30

    Transcriptional hotspots are defined as genomic regions bound by multiple factors. They have been identified recently as cell type specific enhancers regulating developmentally essential genes in many species such as worm, fly and humans. The in-depth analysis of hotspots across multiple cell types in same species still remains to be explored and can bring new biological insights. We therefore collected 108 transcription-related factor (TF) ChIP sequencing data sets in ten murine cell types and classified the peaks in each cell type in three groups according to binding occupancy as singletons (low-occupancy), combinatorials (mid-occupancy) and hotspots (high-occupancy). The peaks in the three groups clustered largely according to the occupancy, suggesting priming of genomic loci for mid occupancy irrespective of cell type. We then characterized hotspots for diverse structural functional properties. The genes neighbouring hotspots had a small overlap with hotspot genes in other cell types and were highly enriched for cell type specific function. Hotspots were enriched for sequence motifs of key TFs in that cell type and more than 90% of hotspots were occupied by pioneering factors. Though we did not find any sequence signature in the three groups, the H3K4me1 binding profile had bimodal peaks at hotspots, distinguishing hotspots from mono-modal H3K4me1 singletons. In ES cells, differentially expressed genes after perturbation of activators were enriched for hotspot genes suggesting hotspots primarily act as transcriptional activator hubs. Finally, we proposed that ES hotspots might be under control of SetDB1 and not DNMT for silencing. Transcriptional hotspots are enriched for tissue specific enhancers near cell type specific highly expressed genes. In ES cells, they are predicted to act as transcriptional activator hubs and might be under SetDB1 control for silencing.

  8. Characterisation of the epitope for a herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B-specific monoclonal antibody with high protective capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Däumer, Martin P; Schneider, Beate; Giesen, Doris M; Aziz, Sheriff; Kaiser, Rolf; Kupfer, Bernd; Schneweis, Karl E; Schneider-Mergener, Jens; Reineke, Ulrich; Matz, Bertfried; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M

    2011-05-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2c, specific for glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus (HSV), had been shown to mediate clearance of infection from the mucous membranes of mice, thereby completely inhibiting mucocutaneous inflammation and lethality, even in mice depleted of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. Additionally, ganglionic infection was highly restricted. In vitro, MAb 2c exhibits a potent complement-independent neutralising activity against HSV type 1 and 2, completely inhibits the viral cell-to-cell spread as well as the syncytium formation induced by syncytial HSV strains (Eis-Hübinger et al. in Intervirology 32:351-360, 1991; Eis-Hübinger et al. in J Gen Virol 74:379-385, 1993). Here, we describe the mapping of the epitope for MAb 2c. The antibody was found to recognise a discontinuous epitope comprised of the HSV type 1 glycoprotein B residues 299 to 305 and one or more additional discontinuous regions that can be mimicked by the sequence FEDF. Identification of the epitope was confirmed by loss of antibody binding to mutated glycoprotein B with replacement of the epitopic key residues, expressed in COS-1 cells. Similarly, MAb 2c was not able to neutralise HSV mutants with altered key residues, and MAb 2c was ineffective in mice inoculated with such mutants. Interestingly, identification and fine-mapping of the discontinuous epitope was not achieved by binding studies with truncated glycoprotein B variants expressed in COS cells but by peptide scanning with synthetic overlapping peptides and peptide key motif analysis. Reactivity of MAb 2c was immensely increased towards a peptide composed of the glycoprotein B residues 299 to 305, a glycine linker, and a C-terminal FEDF motif. If it could be demonstrated that antibodies of the specificity and bioactivity of MAb 2c can be induced by the epitope or a peptide mimicking the epitope, strategies for active immunisation might be conceivable.

  9. High fat diet feeding results in gender specific steatohepatitis and inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Michal; Csak, Timea; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-07-14

    To develop an animal model that encompasses the different facets of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which has been a challenge. In this study, we used a high fat diet (HFD) feeding supplemented with fructose and sucrose in the water mimicking the high-fructose corn syrup that is abundant in the diet in the United States. We used C57Bl/6 wild-type mice for short and long-term feedings of 6 and 16 wk respectively, and evaluated the extent of liver damage, steatosis, and inflammasome activation. Our methods included histopathological analysis to assess liver damage and steatosis, which involved H and E and oil-red-o staining; biochemical studies to look at ALT and triglyceride levels; RNA analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; and cytokine analysis, which included the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to look at interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels. Furthermore, at each length of feeding we also looked at insulin resistance and glucose tolerance using insulin tolerance tests (ITT) and glucose tolerance tests. There was no insulin resistance, steatosis, or inflammasome activation at 6 wk. In contrast, at 16 wk we found significant insulin resistance demonstrated by impaired glucose and ITT in male, but not female mice. In males, elevated alanine aminotransferase and triglyceride levels, indicated liver damage and steatosis, respectively. Increased liver TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein, correlated with steatohepatitis. The inflammasome components, adaptor molecule, Aim2, and NOD-like receptor 4, increased at the mRNA level, and functional inflammasome activation was indicated by increased caspase-1 activity and IL-1β protein levels in male mice fed a long-term HFD. Male mice on HFD had increased α-smooth muscle actin and pro-collagen-1 mRNA indicating evolving fibrosis. In contrast, female mice displayed only elevated triglyceride levels, steatosis, and no fibrosis. Our data

  10. Canine classical seminoma: a specific malignant type with human classifications is highly correlated with tumor angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Yu, Chi-Ho; Yhee, Ji-Young; Im, Keum-Soon; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2010-01-01

    Human seminoma is classified as classical seminoma (SE) and spermatocytic seminoma (SS). Human SE is known to be more malignant and metastasizing more frequently than SS. Tumor angiogenesis is highly related with tumor progression and metastasis, with microvessel density (MVD) being an important parameter of metastatic potential. Canine seminoma is not yet well-established as SE or SS type including correlation with angiogenesis. We classified canine SE and SS, and then compared them to tumor associated vessels. Twenty-three cases of canine seminomas (2 intratubular, 9 diffuse, and 12 intratubular/diffuse seminomas showing both intratubular and diffuse patterns) were classified as SE or SS by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using monoclonal antibody against PLAP and by PAS stain. The histopathological data were then compared to see if there was a correlation with SE or SS. Angiogenesis of seminomas were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay using polyclonal antibody against Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and by calculating the means of MVD, vessels area and perimeters using computerized image analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program was used for various statistical analyses. The numbers of PLAP+/PAS+ canine SEs were 8/23 (34.8%) and PLAP-/PAS- SSs were 15/23 (61.2%). All SE cases (8/8, 100%) were intratubular/diffuse types. SS types included 2 intratubular (2/15, 13.3%), 9 diffuse (9/15, 60%), and 4 intratubular/diffuse (4/15, 26.7%) types. MVD and vascular parameters in SEs were significantly higher than in SSs, showing the highest value in the intratubular/diffuse type. Seminomas observed with neoplastic cells invasion of vessels presented higher perimeter and area values than seminomas without conformed neoplastic cells invasion. In this study, we demonstrated a positive relationship between canine SE and tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we also showed that a tumor cells invasion of vessels were a correlated vascular parameter. Although

  11. Canine classical seminoma: a specific malignant type with human classifications is highly correlated with tumor angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong-Hyuk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human seminoma is classified as classical seminoma (SE and spermatocytic seminoma (SS. Human SE is known to be more malignant and metastasizing more frequently than SS. Tumor angiogenesis is highly related with tumor progression and metastasis, with microvessel density (MVD being an important parameter of metastatic potential. Canine seminoma is not yet well-established as SE or SS type including correlation with angiogenesis. We classified canine SE and SS, and then compared them to tumor associated vessels. Methods Twenty-three cases of canine seminomas (2 intratubular, 9 diffuse, and 12 intratubular/diffuse seminomas showing both intratubular and diffuse patterns were classified as SE or SS by immunohistochemistry (IHC using monoclonal antibody against PLAP and by PAS stain. The histopathological data were then compared to see if there was a correlation with SE or SS. Angiogenesis of seminomas were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay using polyclonal antibody against Von Willebrand factor (vWF and by calculating the means of MVD, vessels area and perimeters using computerized image analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program was used for various statistical analyses. Results The numbers of PLAP+/PAS+ canine SEs were 8/23 (34.8% and PLAP-/PAS- SSs were 15/23 (61.2%. All SE cases (8/8, 100% were intratubular/diffuse types. SS types included 2 intratubular (2/15, 13.3%, 9 diffuse (9/15, 60%, and 4 intratubular/diffuse (4/15, 26.7% types. MVD and vascular parameters in SEs were significantly higher than in SSs, showing the highest value in the intratubular/diffuse type. Seminomas observed with neoplastic cells invasion of vessels presented higher perimeter and area values than seminomas without conformed neoplastic cells invasion. Conclusion In this study, we demonstrated a positive relationship between canine SE and tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we also showed that a tumor cells invasion of vessels

  12. Demonstration of InAlN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors with an enhanced breakdown voltage by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, JunShuai, E-mail: junshuaixue@hotmail.com; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2016-01-04

    In this work, InAlN/AlGaN heterostructures employing wider bandgap AlGaN instead of conventional GaN channel were grown on sapphire substrate by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition, where the nominal Al composition in InAlN barrier and AlGaN channel were chosen to be 83% and 5%, respectively, to achieve close lattice-matched condition. An electron mobility of 511 cm{sup 2}/V s along with a sheet carrier density of 1.88 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} were revealed in the prepared heterostructures, both of which were lower compared with lattice-matched InAlN/GaN due to increased intrinsic alloy disorder scattering resulting from AlGaN channel and compressively piezoelectric polarization in barrier, respectively. While the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) processed on these structures not only exhibited a sufficiently high drain output current density of 854 mA/mm but also demonstrated a significantly enhanced breakdown voltage of 87 V, which is twice higher than that of reported InAlN/GaN HEMT with the same device dimension, potential characteristics for high-voltage operation of GaN-based electronic devices.

  13. Specificity and transcriptional activity of microbiota associated with low and high microbial abundance sponges from the