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Sample records for demonstrated elevated levels

  1. Demonstration of elevated levels of active cathepsin S in dextran sulfate sodium colitis using a new activatable probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, N; Nasser, Y; Zhao, P; Sharma, N; Guerrero-Alba, R; Edgington-Mitchell, L E; Lieu, T; Veldhuis, N A; Poole, D P; Conner, J W; Lindström, E; Craig, A W; Graham, B; Vanner, S J; Bunnett, N W

    2015-11-01

    Proteases play a major role in inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Activatable probes are a major technological advance, enabling sensitive detection of active proteases in tissue samples. Our aim was to synthesize an activatable probe for cathepsin S and validate its use in a mouse model of colitis. We designed and synthesized a new fluorescent activatable probe, NB200, for the detection of active cathepsin S. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by the administration of 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Homogenized mouse colons, with or without the addition of the specific cathepsin S inhibitor MV026031, were incubated with NB200 in a fluorescent plate reader. NB200 selectively detected purified cathepsin S and not other common inflammatory proteases. Homogenates of colon from mice with DSS colitis induced a significant fluorescent increase when compared to control animals (control vs DSS: p < 0.05 at 200 min and p < 0.01 at 220-240 min), indicating cathepsin S activation. The cathepsin S inhibitor abolished this increase in fluorescence (DSS vs DSS + MV026031: p < 0.05 at 140 min, p < 0.01 at 180 min, p < 0.001 at 200-240 min), which confirms cathepsin S activation. Cathepsin S activity correlated with the disease activity index (Spearman r = 0.77, p = 0.017). Our investigation has demonstrated the utility of activatable probes for detecting protease activity in intestinal inflammation. Panels of such probes may allow 'signature' protease profiles to be established for a range of inflammatory diseases and disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential to all cells in the body. Both high levels and low levels of vitamin B12 are significant. High serum cobalamin (vitamin B12 levels are found particularly in hematological disorders, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases and infectious diseases; and this elevation is associated with prognosis in some of these diseases. High levels of serum vitamin B12 should be taken into consideration and more studies should be performed on this issue.

  3. Technology Development and Demonstration Concepts for the Space Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s several discoveries and advances in the development of carbon nano-tube (CNT) materials indicated that material strengths many times greater than common high-strength composite materials might be possible. Progress in the development of this material led to renewed interest in the space elevator concept for construction of a tether structure from the surface of the Earth through a geostationary orbit (GEO) and thus creating a new approach to Earth-to-orbit transportation infrastructures. To investigate this possibility the author, in 1999, managed for NASA a space elevator work:hop at the Marshall Space Flight Center to explore the potential feasibility of space elevators in the 21 century, and to identify the critical technologies and demonstration missions needed to make development of space elevators feasible. Since that time, a NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) funded study of the Space Elevator proposed a concept for a simpler first space elevator system using more near-term technologies. This paper will review some of the latest ideas for space elevator development, the critical technologies required, and some of the ideas proposed for demonstrating the feasibility for full-scale development of an Earth to GEO space elevator. Critical technologies include CNT composite materials, wireless power transmission, orbital object avoidance, and large-scale tether deployment and control systems. Numerous paths for technology demonstrations have been proposed utilizing ground experiments, air structures. LEO missions, the space shuttle, the international Space Station, GEO demonstration missions, demonstrations at the lunar L1 or L2 points, and other locations. In conclusion, this paper finds that the most critical technologies for an Earth to GEO space elevator include CNT composite materials development and object avoidance technologies; that lack of successful development of these technologies need not preclude continued development of

  4. Elevated B6 levels and peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K; Zeris, S; Kothari, M J

    2008-01-01

    Polyneuropathy related to decreased levels of Vitamin B6 are well known. In contrast, the association between elevated levels of pyridoxine and neuropathy is not well described. This study is a retrospective review of patients in our neuromuscular clinic that were found to have elevated B6 levels. Twenty-six patients were found to have elevated serum B6 levels. The mean B6 level was 68.8 ng/ml. Twenty patients (76.9%) reported daily vitamin use. Twenty-one patients (80.8%) reported only sensory complaints. The most common symptoms reported were numbness (96%), burning pain (49.9%), tingling (57.7%), balance difficulties (30.7%), and weakness (7.8%). Nine (out of 26) had an abnormal EMG/NCS. Eight patients had an abnormal quantitative sensory study. We conclude that elevated pyridoxine levels should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy.

  5. A neural network model for predicting aquifer water level elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Emery A; Rana, Anthony J; Poulton, Mary M; Szidarovszky, Ferenc; Uhl, Vincent W

    2005-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were developed for accurately predicting potentiometric surface elevations (monitoring well water level elevations) in a semiconfined glacial sand and gravel aquifer under variable state, pumping extraction, and climate conditions. ANNs "learn" the system behavior of interest by processing representative data patterns through a mathematical structure analogous to the human brain. In this study, the ANNs used the initial water level measurements, production well extractions, and climate conditions to predict the final water level elevations 30 d into the future at two monitoring wells. A sensitivity analysis was conducted with the ANNs that quantified the importance of the various input predictor variables on final water level elevations. Unlike traditional physical-based models, ANNs do not require explicit characterization of the physical system and related physical data. Accordingly, ANN predictions were made on the basis of more easily quantifiable, measured variables, rather than physical model input parameters and conditions. This study demonstrates that ANNs can provide both excellent prediction capability and valuable sensitivity analyses, which can result in more appropriate ground water management strategies.

  6. Reproductive impacts of elevated selenium levels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to: 1. Evaluate selenium levels in Neotropical migrants and riparian obligate birds on Imperial National Wildlife Refuge. 2....

  7. Elevated circulating somatostatin levels in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, M; Porretti, S; Epaminonda, P; Giavoli, C; Gebbia, C; Penati, C; Beck-Peccoz, P; Peracchi, M

    2003-06-01

    GH increases hypothalamic somatostatin (SS) synthesis and secretion but it is unknown if chronic GH excess, as found in acromegaly, may influence circulating SS levels, that are mainly of enteropancreatic source and affect several gastrointestinal functions, including motility. Circulating SS occurs in several post-translational forms including somatostatin-14 (SS-14), somatostatin-28 (SS-28) and other small peptides. The aim of the present study was to characterize the fasting and postprandial pattern of plasma circulating somatostatin in normal subjects and patients with acromegaly. Fasting total SS and SS-28 levels were measured in 32 subjects, 16 acromegalic patients with a new diagnosis (A) (8 F, 8 M, median age 48) and 16 matched healthy volunteers (C) (8 F, 8 M, median age 45). SS was also determined after a standard solid-liquid meal (550 kCal) in 24 of the subjects (12 C and 12 A). Fasting SS and SS-28 were significantly higher in acromegalic patients as compared to healthy subjects. In the former, a positive correlation was found between IGF-I and SS levels (r = 0.525 p acromegaly. Excess GH/IGF-I could be a causal factor in somatostatin hypersecretion. Conceivably this abnormality might play a role in some alterations of gastrointestinal function of acromegalic patients such as prolonged bowel transit.

  8. Elevated peripheral visfatin levels in narcoleptic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Dahmen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Narcolepsy is a severe sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexies and a tendency towards obesity. Recent discoveries indicate that the major pathophysiology is a loss of hypocretin (orexin producing neurons due to immunologically mediated degeneration. Visfatin is a recently described proinflammatory adipokine. It is identical to the immune modulating pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF. Our study examines the hypothesis that visfatin levels are altered in narcoleptic patients. METHODS: For the analysis, a total of n = 54 patients (n = 18 males and n = 36 females with the diagnosis of narcolepsy according to DSM-IV and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders were examined (BMI mean 30.3+/-5.5, age mean 52.5+/-16.1 years. As a control group 39 unrelated (n = 12 males and n = 27 females healthy volunteers with no sleep disorder according to DSM-IV were included (BMI mean 28.5+/-4.6, age mean 51.1+/-13.6 years. Peripheral visfatin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit with a measurement range from 0.1-1000 ng/ml. Narcolepsy symptoms, severity and frequency of symptoms as well as the total duration of various aspects of the symptomatology were assessed by unstructured and structured clinical interviews in including the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Sleep Inventory. RESULTS: Circulating visfatin was found to be significantly increased in HLA DR2 positive narcoleptic patients compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results add to the evidence of disturbed immunological regulation in patients with narcolepsy.

  9. Clinical considerations in the interpretation of elevated troponin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rujic, Dragana; Pareek, Manan; Egholm, Gro

    2015-01-01

    The essential role of cardiac troponin (cTn) in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction has led to the development of high-sensitivity assays, which are able to detect very small amounts of myocardial necrosis. However, although elevated blood levels of cTn indicate myocardial injury, they do...... not provide a causal explanation. The differential diagnosis of minor elevations of the cTn-level is broad and includes both acute and chronic cardiac and non-cardiac conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review common causes of elevated cTn-levels in daily clinical practice....

  10. The Reliability of Highly Elevated CA 19-9 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Osswald

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available CA 19-9 is used as a tumour marker of the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, extremely elevated CA 19-9 levels are found also in patients with benign diseases. Cholestasis was present in 97.1 % of patients with high elevated CA 19-9, independent of their primary disease. 50% of patients with non-malignant diseases and increased CA 19-9 levels showed liver cirrhosis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis and/or hepatitis. In 8.8% no explanation was found for the extremely high CA 19-9 level. The results provide evidence of different factors influencing the CA 19-9 level.

  11. A Case of Isolated Elevated Copper Levels during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaToya R. Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Outside of Wilson's Disease, abnormal copper metabolism is a rare condition. In pregnancy, excess copper levels can be associated with intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and neurological disease. Case Report. A 32 year old Gravida 4 para 2012 with an obstetrical history complicated by elevated copper levels presented for routine prenatal care. Her children had elevated copper levels at birth, with her firstborn child being diagnosed with autism and suffering three myocardial infarctions and being treated for elevated copper levels. During her prior pregnancies, she declined treatment for her elevated copper levels. During this pregnancy, she had declined chelation therapy and instead choose zinc therapy. She delivered a healthy infant with normal copper levels. Conclusion. Alterations in copper metabolism are rare, the consequences in pregnancy can be devastating. While isolated elevations of copper in pregnancy is exceedingly rare, it is treated the same as Wilson's disease. The goal is to prevent fetal growth restricting and neurological sequelae in the newborn and preeclampsia in the mother. Counseling, along with treatment options and timely delivery can greatly improve neonatal and maternal outcome.

  12. Tethered elevator and platforms as space station facilities: Systems studies and demonstrative experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Several key concepts of the science and applications tethered platforms were studied. Some conclusions reached are herein listed. Tether elevator and platform could improve the space station scientific and applicative capabilities. The space elevator presents unique characteristics as microgravity facility and as a tethered platform servicing vehicle. Pointing platforms could represent a new kind of observation facility for large class of payloads. The dynamical, control and technological complexity of these concepts advised demonstrative experiments. The on-going tethered satellite system offers the opportunity to perform such experiments. And feasibility studies are in progress.

  13. Papillary thyroid carcinoma shows elevated levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakheja, Dinesh; Boriack, Richard L; Mitui, Midori; Khokhar, Shama; Holt, Shelby A; Kapur, Payal

    2011-04-01

    Elevated levels of D: -2-hydroxyglutarate (D: -2-HG) occur in gliomas and myeloid leukemias associated with mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. L: -2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria, an inherited metabolic disorder, predisposes to brain tumors. Therefore, we asked whether sporadic cancers, without IDH1 or IDH2 hot-spot mutations, show elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate levels. We retrieved 15 pairs of frozen papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and adjacent non-neoplastic thyroid, and 14 pairs of hyperplastic nodule (HN) and adjacent non-hyperplastic thyroid. In all lesions, exon 4 sequencing confirmed the absence of known mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. We measured 2-hydroxyglutarate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to normal thyroid, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG and L: -2-hydroxyglutarate (L: -2-HG) levels, and compared to HNs, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG levels. D: -2-HG/L: -2-HG levels were not significantly different between HNs and normal thyroid. Further studies should clarify if elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate in PTC may be useful as cancer biomarker and evaluate the role of 2-hydroxyglutarate in cancer biology.

  14. Elevated homocysteine level in siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Vadim; Friger, Michael; Sela, Ben-Ami; Levine, Joseph

    2013-12-30

    Increased homocysteine plasma levels were reported in patients with schizophrenia and Levine et al. (2002) suggested that such increase characterizes mainly males. In the following study we examined whether such increased levels also characterize male siblings of schizophrenia patients. Forty-four pairs of schizophrenia patients and their corresponding healthy male siblings were recruited and sampled for homocysteine. We also had age-matched controls for each of the sibling. The median homocysteine plasma level for patients was 13.0 µMol/L and 11.7 µMol/L for their male siblings compared with a median of 10.9 µMol/L for the siblings' controls. There was no significant difference between homocysteine plasma level in patients and their siblings. Significant difference was found for homocysteine plasma level between the siblings' group and their matched controls. A partial correlation of Ln plasma homocysteine level between patients and their siblings was found to be close to a zero correlation of -0.089, p=0.57 for the whole study group and -0.15, p=0.38 in the male-male patient-sibling pairs. Our results show that elevated homocysteine plasma level may characterize schizophrenia patients' male siblings, a finding that seems to agree with previous studies suggesting elevated homocysteine level as a risk factor for developing schizophrenia.

  15. Cadmium levels in a North Carolina cohort: Identifying risk factors for elevated levels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sharon E; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine cadmium (Cd) levels and relationships to demographics in an observational, prospective pregnancy cohort study in Durham County, North Carolina. Multivariable models were used to compare blood Cd levels across demographic characteristics. The relative risk of having a blood Cd level that exceeds the US national median (0.32 μg/l) was estimated. Overall, >60% of the women had an elevated (>0.32 μg/l) blood Cd level. Controlling for confounding variables, smoking was associated with 21% (95% CI: 15-28%) increased risk for an elevated blood Cd level. High Cd levels were also observed in non-smokers and motivated smoking status-stratified models. Race, age, education, relationship status, insurance status and cotinine level were not associated with risk of elevated Cd levels among smokers; however, older age and higher cotinine levels were associated with elevated Cd levels among non-smokers. Taken together, more than half of pregnant women in this cohort had elevated blood Cd levels. Additionally, among non-smokers, 53% of the women had elevated levels of Cd, highlighting other potential sources of exposure. This study expands on the limited data describing Cd levels in pregnant populations and highlights the importance of understanding Cd exposures among non-smokers. Given the latent health risks of both smoking and Cd exposure, this study further highlights the need to biomonitor for exposure to toxic metals during pregnancy among all women of child-bearing age.

  16. Dihydrotestosterone: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Clinical Implications of Elevated Blood Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdloff, Ronald S; Dudley, Robert E; Page, Stephanie T; Wang, Christina; Salameh, Wael A

    2017-06-01

    Benefits associated with lowered serum DHT levels after 5α-reductase inhibitor (5AR-I) therapy in men have contributed to a misconception that circulating DHT levels are an important stimulus for androgenic action in target tissues (e.g., prostate). Yet evidence from clinical studies indicates that intracellular concentrations of androgens (particularly in androgen-sensitive tissues) are essentially independent of circulating levels. To assess the clinical significance of modest elevations in serum DHT and the DHT/testosterone (T) ratio observed in response to common T replacement therapy, a comprehensive review of the published literature was performed to identify relevant data. Although the primary focus of this review is about DHT in men, we also provide a brief overview of DHT in women. The available published data are limited by the lack of large, well-controlled studies of long duration that are sufficiently powered to expose subtle safety signals. Nonetheless, the preponderance of available clinical data indicates that modest elevations in circulating levels of DHT in response to androgen therapy should not be of concern in clinical practice. Elevated DHT has not been associated with increased risk of prostate disease (e.g., cancer or benign hyperplasia) nor does it appear to have any systemic effects on cardiovascular disease safety parameters (including increased risk of polycythemia) beyond those commonly observed with available T preparations. Well-controlled, long-term studies of transdermal DHT preparations have failed to identify safety signals unique to markedly elevated circulating DHT concentrations or signals materially different from T. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  17. Elevated serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels in metastatic ovarian dysgerminoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    A case of a 32-year-old XY genotype female is described, presenting with mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy and associated with an elevated serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (SACE) level. Lymph node histology showed a malignant dysgerminoma of ovarian origin. Combined chemotherapy led to a radiological regression of the lymphadenopathy and coincided with a decrease in SACE concentration. The authors suggest that SACE may be a marker for disseminated germinoma tumours and may be useful for monitoring treatment.

  18. Marine bacterial communities are resistant to elevated carbon dioxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Anna E; Newbold, Lindsay K; Whiteley, Andrew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that the release of anthropogenic-derived CO2 into the atmosphere will be mainly absorbed by the oceans, with a concomitant drop in pH, a process termed ocean acidification. As such, there is considerable interest in how changes in increased CO2 and lower pH will affect marine biota, such as bacteria, which play central roles in oceanic biogeochemical processes. Set within an ecological framework, we investigated the direct effects of elevated CO2, contrasted with ambient conditions on the resistance and resilience of marine bacterial communities in a replicated temporal seawater mesocosm experiment. The results of the study strongly indicate that marine bacterial communities are highly resistant to the elevated CO2 and lower pH conditions imposed, as demonstrated from measures of turnover using taxa–time relationships and distance–decay relationships. In addition, no significant differences in community abundance, structure or composition were observed. Our results suggest that there are no direct effects on marine bacterial communities and that the bacterial fraction of microbial plankton holds enough flexibility and evolutionary capacity to withstand predicted future changes from elevated CO2 and subsequent ocean acidification.

  19. Elevated systolic pressure following chronic low-level cadmiun feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, H M; Erlanger, M; Perry, E F

    1977-02-01

    Groups of 16 female Long-Evans rats received 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg cadmium/liter dringking water (parts per million (ppm)), from the time they were weaned until they were 30 mo old. Systolic pressure was measured indirectly in triplicate at 6-mo intervals. Both 2.5 and 5 ppm cadmium consistently induced significant elevations in mean systolic pressure, ranging from 13 to 33 mmHg. At 6 mo, 10 and 25 ppm cadmium also induced significant elevations, whereas at 12 mo and subsequently 1 ppm cadmium induced significant elevations. With 10 ppm cadmium or less weight gain was normal and there was no evidence of cadmium toxicity. With 25 and 50 ppm cadmium weight gain was diminished, suggesting toxicity. Five rats with each level of exposure were sacrificed every 6 mo from a second population of similarly handled rats in order to determine renal cadmium concetrations. Cadmium intakes that had induced hypertension were associated with mean renal cadmium concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 mug/g kidney.

  20. Chronic burnout, somatic arousal and elevated salivary cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, S; Ugarten, U; Shirom, A; Kahana, L; Lerman, Y; Froom, P

    1999-06-01

    Burnout syndrome, comprised of the symptoms of emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness, is believed to be a result of ineffective coping with enduring stress. This study of 111 nonshift blue-collar workers free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) examined whether chronic burnout is associated with a state of somatic and physiological hyperarousal. Results showed that 37 workers exhibited symptoms of chronic burnout, with symptoms lasting at least 6 months. These workers, compared to those with no burnout symptoms (n = 52) or nonchronic burnout symptoms (n = 22), had higher levels of tension at work, postwork irritability, more sleep disturbances and complaints of waking up exhausted, and higher cortisol levels during the work day. These results suggest that chronic burnout is associated with heightened somatic arousal and elevated salivary cortisol levels. This may be part of the mechanism underlying the emerging association between burnout and risk of CVD.

  1. Elevated systemic galectin-1 levels characterize HELLP syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Annegret; Blois, Sandra M; Meint, Peter; Freitag, Nancy; Ernst, Wolfgang; Barrientos, Gabriela; Conrad, Melanie L; Rose, Matthias; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of a family of conserved β-galactoside-binding proteins, has been shown to exert a key role during gestation. Though gal-1 is expressed at higher levels in the placenta from HELLP patients, it is still poorly understood whether systemic gal-1 levels also differ in HELLP patients. In the present study, we evaluated the systemic expression of gal-1, together with the angiogenic factors, placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) in conjunction with HELLP syndrome severity. Systemic levels of gal-1 and sFlt-1 were elevated in patients with both early- and late-onset HELLP syndrome as compared to healthy controls. In contrast, peripheral PlGF levels were decreased in early- and late-onset HELLP. A positive correlation between systemic gal-1 levels and sFlt-1/PlGF ratios was found in early onset HELLP patients. Our results show that HELLP syndrome is associated with increased circulating levels of gal-1; integrating systemic gal-1 measurements into the diagnostic analyses of pregnant women may provide more effective prediction of HELLP syndrome development.

  2. Oxidative Stress in Autism: Elevated Cerebellar 3-nitrotyrosine Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Sajdel-Sulkowska

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that oxidative stress and/or mercury compounds play an important role in the pathophysiology of autism. This study compared for the first time the cerebellar levels of the oxidative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, mercury (Hg and the antioxidant selenium (Se levels between control and autistic subjects. Tissue homogenates were prepared in the presence of protease inhibitors from the frozen cerebellar tissue of control (n=10; mean age, 15.5 years; mean PMI, 15.5 hours and autistic (n=9; mean age 12.1 years; mean PMI, 19.3 hours subjects. The concentration of cerebellar 3-NT, determined by ELISA, in controls ranged from 13.69 to 49.04 pmol g-1 of tissue; the concentration of 3-NT in autistic cases ranged from 3.91 to 333.03 pmol g-1 of tissue. Mean cerebellar 3-NT was elevated in autism by 68.9% and the increase was statistically significant (p=0.045. Cerebellar Hg, measured by atomic absorption spectrometry ranged from 0.9 to 35 pmol g-1 tissue in controls (n=10 and from 3.2 to 80.7 pmol g-1 tissue in autistic cases (n=9; the 68.2% increase in cerebellar Hg was not statistically significant. However, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar 3-NT and Hg levels (r=0.7961, p=0.0001. A small decrease in cerebellar Se levels in autism, measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy, was not statistically significant but was accompanied by a 42.9% reduction in the molar ratio of Se to Hg in the autistic cerebellum. While preliminary, the results of the present study add elevated oxidative stress markers in brain to the growing body of data reflecting greater oxidative stress in autism.

  3. Engineered particles demonstrate improved flow properties at elevated drug loadings for direct compression manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trementozzi, Andrea N; Leung, Cheuk-Yui; Osei-Yeboah, Frederick; Irdam, Erwin; Lin, Yiqing; MacPhee, J Michael; Boulas, Pierre; Karki, Shyam B; Zawaneh, Peter N

    2017-05-15

    Optimizing powder flow and compaction properties are critical for ensuring a robust tablet manufacturing process. The impact of flow and compaction properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) becomes progressively significant for higher drug load formulations, and for scaling up manufacturing processes. This study demonstrated that flow properties of a powder blend can be improved through API particle engineering, without critically impacting blend tabletability at elevated drug loadings. In studying a jet milled API (D50=24μm) and particle engineered wet milled API (D50=70μm and 90μm), flow functions of all API lots were similarly poor despite the vast difference in average particle size (ffc10) compared with the jet milled API blends. Investigation of the compaction properties of both wet and jet milled powder blends also revealed that both jet and wet milled material produced robust tablets at the drug loadings used. The ability to practically demonstrate this uncommon observation that similarly poor flowing APIs can lead to a marked difference upon blending is important for pharmaceutical development. It is especially important in early phase development during API selection, and is advantageous particularly when material-sparing techniques are utilized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated calprotectin levels reveal bowel inflammation in spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypers, H; Varkas, G; Beeckman, S; Debusschere, K; Vogl, T; Roth, J; Drennan, M B; Lavric, M; Foell, D; Cuvelier, C A; De Vos, M; Delanghe, J; Van den Bosch, F; Elewaut, D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Microscopic bowel inflammation is present in up to 50% of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) and is associated with more severe disease. Currently no reliable biomarkers exist to identify patients at risk. Calprotectin is a sensitive marker of neutrophilic inflammation, measurable in serum and stool. Objectives To assess whether serum and faecal calprotectin in addition to C-reactive protein (CRP) can be used to identify patients with SpA at risk of microscopic bowel inflammation. Methods Serum calprotectin and CRP were measured in 125 patients with SpA. In 44 of these patients, faecal samples were available for calprotectin measurement. All 125 patients underwent an ileocolonoscopy to assess the presence of microscopic bowel inflammation. Results Microscopic bowel inflammation was present in 53 (42.4%) patients with SpA. Elevated serum calprotectin and CRP were independently associated with microscopic bowel inflammation. Faecal calprotectin was also significantly higher in patients with microscopic bowel inflammation. Patients with CRP and serum calprotectin elevated had a frequency of bowel inflammation of 64% vs 25% in patients with low levels of both. When either CRP or serum calprotectin was elevated, the risk was intermediate (40%) and measuring faecal calprotectin provided further differentiation. Hence we suggest a screening approach where initially serum calprotectin and CRP are assessed and, if necessary, faecal calprotectin. The model using this scenario provided an area under the ROC curve of 74.4% for detection of bowel inflammation. Conclusions Calprotectin measurements in stool and serum, in addition to CRP, may provide a promising strategy to identify patients with SpA at risk of bowel inflammation and could play a role in overall patient stratification. PMID:26698844

  5. Elevation of blood ciclosporin levels by voriconazole leading to leukoencephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Caihong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that one 18-year-old female patient with no epilepsia history developed severe epileptiform seizures while she was receiving "ciclosporin A (CsA-mycophenolate-methylprednisolone" antirejection therapy after combining one week′s voriconazole administration following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. Her blood concentration of CsA was 378 ng/ml (elevated ↑64%, contrasted with the level before the addition of voriconazole on the second day of admission, and the MRI of head showed leukoencephalopathy in bilateral occipital and left frontal lobe on the 4 th day of admission. The most likely mechanism is that because of voriconazole′s enzyme inhibition and CsA as the substrate of hepatic enzymes, voriconazole elevated the blood concentration of CsA and enhanced its toxicity. This case highlights the importance of clinical pharmacists joining the medical team and optimizing the patients′ treatment protocols by performing a systematic literature research, accumulating the knowledge of the potential drug interaction and examining prescriptions.

  6. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.;

    1996-01-01

    basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three......A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...

  7. Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Toussirot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3±1.6 μg/mL versus 9.7±0.6 μg/mL; =.01. As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined.

  8. Elevated endotoxin levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhesh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging data indicate that gut-derived endotoxin may contribute to low-grade systemic inflammation in insulin resistant states. This study aimed to examine the importance of serum endotoxin and inflammatory markers in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD patients, with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and to explore the effect of treatment with a lipase inhibitor, Orlistat, on their inflammatory status. Methods Fasted serum from 155 patients with biopsy proven NAFLD and 23 control subjects were analysed for endotoxin, soluble CD14 (sCD14, soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor II (sTNFRII and various metabolic parameters. A subgroup of NAFLD patients were re-assessed 6 and 12 months after treatment with diet alone (n = 6 or diet plus Orlistat (n = 8. Results Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD compared with controls (NAFLD: 10.6(7.8, 14.8 EU/mL; controls: 3.9(3.2, 5.2 EU/mL, p Sub-cohort treatment with Orlistat in patients with NAFLD showed significant decreases in ALT (p = 0.006, weight (p = 0.005 and endotoxin (p = 0.004 compared with the NAFLD, non-Orlistat treated control cohort at 6 and 12 months post therapy, respectively. Conclusions Endotoxin levels were considerably increased in NAFLD patients, with marked increases noted in early stage fibrosis compared with controls. These results suggest elevated endotoxin may serve as an early indicator of potential liver damage, perhaps negating the need for invasive liver biopsy. As endotoxin may promote insulin resistance and inflammation, interventions aimed at reducing endotoxin levels in NAFLD patients may prove beneficial in reducing inflammatory burden.

  9. Influence of elevator acceleration induced loading on injury levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funai, K.; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Nunen, E. van

    2008-01-01

    The influence on human body of the acceleration caused by the elevator emergency stop has been studied. Experiments were performed with an automotive dummy in an elevator. The study is furthermore based on numerical simulations in MADYMO with an active human model. Kinematics and contact forces of v

  10. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, James O; Hamali, Hassan A; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K; Goodall, Alison H; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve)) and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve)) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients.

  11. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Burton

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD, 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p0.3. Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients.

  12. Confirmation of elevated arsenic levels in groundwater of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geen, Alexander; Win, Kyi Htut; Zaw, Than; Naing, Win; Mey, Jacob L.; Mailloux, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Millions of villagers across South and Southeast Asia are exposed to toxic levels of arsenic (As) by drinking well water. In order to confirm field-kit results that Myanmar is also affected, a total of 55 wells were tested in the field in January 2013 and sampled for laboratory analysis across seven villages spanning a range of As contamination in the lower Ayeyarwady basin. Elevated concentrations of As (50–630 μg/L) were measured in wells up to 60 m deep and associated with high levels of Fe (up to 21 mg/L) and low concentrations of SO4 (<0.05 mg/L). Concentrations of As <10 μg/L were measured in some shallow (<30 m) grey sands and in both shallow and deep orange sands. These results indicate that the main mechanism of As release to groundwater in Myanmar is the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, as in the neighboring Bengal, Mekong, and Red River basins. Concentrations of As in groundwater of Myanmar are therefore unlikely to change rapidly over time and switching to existing low-As wells is a viable way of reducing exposure in the short term. However, only 17 of the 55 well owners interviewed correctly recalled the status of their well despite extensive testing in the region. A renewed effort is thus needed to test existing wells and new wells that continue to be installed and to communicate the health risks of exposure to As for infants, children, and adults. PMID:24530581

  13. Elevated levels of natriuretic peptides in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, David G; Kennedy, Norman S; Pirzada, Omar; Batchelor, Sheila A; Struthers, Allan D; Lipworth, Brian J

    2005-10-01

    .2-19.3), respectively. PTE is associated with significantly elevated levels of the natriuretic peptides ANP, BNP and N-ANP. Increasing ventilation-perfusion mismatch on scintigraphy corresponds to incremental increases in the levels of ANP, BNP and N-ANP found. These peptides, and in particular BNP, may add to the diagnosis by rapidly providing a probability of PE before dedicated imaging studies can be performed. Natriuretic peptides require further study to establish their role in identifying a high-risk group who may benefit from early treatments such as thrombolysis.

  14. Elevated Progesterone Levels on the Day of Oocyte Maturation May Affect Top Quality Embryo IVF Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Ren, Xinling; Wu, Li; Zhu, Lixia; Xu, Bei; Li, Yufeng; Ai, Jihui; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the impact of elevated progesterone on endometrial receptivity, the data on whether increased progesterone levels affects the quality of embryos is still limited. This study retrospectively enrolled 4,236 fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and sought to determine whether increased progesterone is associated with adverse outcomes with regard to top quality embryos (TQE). The results showed that the TQE rate significantly correlated with progesterone levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger (P = 0.009). Multivariate linear regression analysis of factors related to the TQE rate, in conventional IVF cycles, showed that the TQE rate was negatively associated with progesterone concentration on the day of hCG (OR was -1.658, 95% CI: -2.806 to -0.510, P = 0.005). When the serum progesterone level was within the interval 2.0–2.5 ng/ml, the TQE rate was significantly lower (P 2.5 ng/ml. Then, we choose a progesterone level at 1.5ng/ml, 2.0 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml as cut-off points to verify this result. We found that the TQE rate was significantly different (P 2.0 ng/ml. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated a negative effect of elevated progesterone levels on the day of hCG trigger, on TQE rate, regardless of the basal FSH, the total gonadotropin, the age of the woman, or the time of ovarian stimulation. These data demonstrate that elevated progesterone levels (>2.0 ng/ml) before oocyte maturation were consistently detrimental to the oocyte. PMID:26745711

  15. Particle Size Evidence of Intertidal Elevation: A Basis for Quantitative Sea-level Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plater, Andrew; Mills, Hayley; Zhang, Weiguo; Dong, Chenyin

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between particle size distributions and bed elevation within the tidal frame is controlled largely by hydroperiod and proximity to tidal ingress. Here, the upper part of the intertidal zone is characterised by poorly sorted, near symmetrical, platy- to mesokurtic, fine-grained particle size distributions due to particle settling from suspension as the tidal flow velocity decreases to high tide slack water. Indeed, an elevational or spatial gradient in particle size distribution can be observed whereby shorter hydroperiods (higher elevations) are accompanied by slower and more variable flow velocities. However, this gradient may become complicated by creek networks, whereby particle size can be observed to decrease away from creek margins, or extant vegetation that increases bed friction. Unvegetated, planar tidal flats in the Yangtze estuary offer an ideal test bed to explore evidence for a quantitative relationship between particle size distributions and bed elevation within the tidal frame. Such a relationship would then serve as an effective proxy for tidal level preserved within sediment cores, and thus a means for reconstructing past sea level. This principle is based largely on ecological transfer function-based reconstructions of Holocene sea level from foraminifera and diatoms. Surface sediment samples were collected along three transects extending eastwards from Chongming Island in South Branch channel of the Yangtze estuary. Sample positions relative to the high water mark were determined using RTK surveying, and particle size analysis was undertaken using laser granulometry. Unconstrained cluster analysis, based on unweighted Euclidean distance, was undertaken on the particle size classes at 0.25 phi intervals (up to 50 size bins) as well as Udden-Wentworth size classes (6-7 size bins). All three transects demonstrate a good clustering of particle size classes with distance and elevation, i.e. sites that are higher within the tidal frame

  16. Impact of the association between elevated oestradiol and low testosterone levels on erectile dysfunction severity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed I El-Sakka

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of the association between elevated oestradiol (E2) and low testosterone (T) levels on erectile dysfunction (ED) severity.A total of 614 male patients with ED and a normal or low T level in association with normal or elevated E2 levels were enrolled.Patients underwent routine laboratory investigations in addition to measurements of total T,total E2,follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin.We compared the responses to the erectile function domain,Q3 (achieving erection) and Q4 (maintaining erection) of the International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) score in patients with the following:normal T and E2 levels; low T level; low T level and elevated E2 level; and elevated E2 level.Of the patients included,449 (73.1%) had normal T and E2 levels,110 (17.9%) had a low T level,36 (5.9%) had a low T level and an elevated E2 level,and 19 (3.1%) had an elevated E2 level.Increased ED severity was significantly associated with low T levels,elevated E2 levels,and both a low T level and an elevated E2 level.Additionally,the mean values of the EF-domain,Q3 and Q4 were significantly lower in patients with both a low T level and an elevated E2 level compared to patients with any condition alone.In conclusion,a low T level had the primary effect on erectile function; however,a concomitantly elevated E2 level had an additive impairment effect.

  17. Vacuum level effects on gait characteristics for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The elevated vacuum suspension system has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on gait characteristics is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated vacuum levels on temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics for unilateral transtibial amputees. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted in 9 unilateral transtibial amputees walking at a controlled speed with five vacuum levels ranging from 0 to 20inHg, and also in 9 able-bodied subjects walking at self-preferred speed. Repeated ANOVA and Dunnett's t-test were performed to determine the effect of vacuum level and limb for within subject and between groups. The effect of vacuum level significantly affected peak hip external rotation and external knee adduction moment. Maximum braking and propulsive ground reaction forces generally increased for the residual limb and decreased for the intact limb with increasing vacuum. Additionally, the intact limb experienced an increased loading due to gait asymmetry for several variables. There was no systematic vacuum level effect on gait. Higher vacuum levels, such as 15 and 20inHg, were more comfortable and provided some relief to the intact limb, but may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis of the residual limb due to the increased peak external hip and knee adduction moments. Very low vacuum should be avoided because of the negative effects on gait symmetry. A moderate vacuum level at 15inHg is suggested for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiac troponins in the elderly: interpretation of elevated levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Elderly patients with myocardial infarction commonly present with symptoms other than chest pain. The clinician evaluation of the elderly may rely on laboratory methods more so than in younger patients. Fortunately, advances in laboratory science have brought newer biomarkers of cardiac injury to the clinical arena including cardiac troponins I and T(cTnI,cTnT). These regulatory components of the contractile apparatus are sensitive indicators of myocardial injury. Their central role in the current definition of acute myocardial infarction highlights their utility in the diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemic syndromes. The troponins are also released in some clinical situations where thrombotic complications of coronary artery disease and resultant acute myocardial infarction have not occurred. Examples of these conditions include conditions like myocarditis, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, and acute stroke. Elevated troponins in these conditions are thought to emanate from injured myocardial cells and in most circumstances have been associated with adverse outcomes. Interpretation of elevated troponin in the elderly requires consideration of other possible conditions.

  19. Elevated pleural copeptin levels can distinguish to exudate from transudates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gümüş, Aziz; Çınarka, Halit; Karataş, Mevlüt; Kırbaş, Aynur; Kayhan, Servet; Şahin, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    ... and malignacy.Tuberculosis is one of the other major causes of pleural effusion in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to assess whether pleural copeptin level may be a new discriminative biomarker for exudates and transudates pleural effusions...

  20. [Elevated pleural copeptin levels can distinguish to exudate from transudates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Aziz; Çınarka, Halit; Karataş, Mevlüt; Kırbaş, Aynur; Kayhan, Servet; Şahin, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Copeptin is released simultaneously along with arginine-vasopressine as a result of different stimuli from the neurohypophysis. Physiological function of copeptin is still unclear. Increased blood copeptin levels is associated with poor prognosis in many diseases. Pleural effusion is a common clinical condition. The most common causes of pleural effusions are heart failure, parapneumonic effusion, pulmonary embolism and malignacy.Tuberculosis is one of the other major causes of pleural effusion in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to assess whether pleural copeptin level may be a new discriminative biomarker for exudates and transudates pleural effusions. Research was done at Recep Tayyip Erdogan University School of Medicine in the Department of Chest Diseases. The concentrations of pleural copeptin and typical pleural and serum marker levels were measured in 76 subjects with pleural effusions including 22 transudates caused by congestive heart failure (CHF), and 54 exudates including 18 parapneumonic (PPE), 18 tuberculous pleural effusions (TBPEs), 18 malignant effusions (MPEs). Median pleural fluid copeptin levels were higher in exudates than in transudates (1936 ng/mL and 1313 pg/mL, p value exudates (n= 54). Pleural copeptin levels of exudates, with a cut off value of 1469 ng/mL, yielded a 79.6% sensitivity, 81.8% specificity, with an are a under the curve of 0.851. Pleural copeptin level is a new biomarker to separate exudates from transudates. Pleural effusion discriminative effect of copeptin is lower than plasma protein level and plasma lactat dehydrogenase (LDH). Pleural copeptin measurement is not recommended for routine clinical use. Pleural copeptin level is not contribute to different iate exudative pleural fluids from each other like PPE, TBPE and MPE.

  1. Prediction and comparison of noise levels from ground and elevated flare systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obasi, E. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Flaring is a process to dispose of hydrocarbons during clean-up, emergency shut downs or dispose a small volume waste streams of mixed gasses that cannot easily or safely be separated. This presentation discussed flaring as a noise issue. It focused on flaring noise characterization; flare noise modeling; flare sound power levels; and flare sound pressure level comparison at a distance of 1.5 km. The presentation included a photograph of flaring at a gas plant in Nigeria. The presentation listed some of the potential health effects associated with long term exposure to excessive noise, such as hearing loss; headaches; stress; fatigue; sleep disturbance; and high blood pressure. Companies flare gas to dispose waste gases in a safe and reliable manner through combustion and to depressurize gas lines during maintenance and emergencies. This presentation also discussed ground and elevated flares; components of flare noise characterization; and key factors affecting flare noise. A model to predict flaring noise was also presented. It demonstrated that at the same gas mass flow rate, the noise level from elevated flare stacks are significantly higher than ground flares. tabs., figs.

  2. Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in North Central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, J.H.; Jackman, A.P.; Triska, F.J.; Sheibley, R.W.; Avanzino, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between local ground water flows and NO3- transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO3- concentrations decreased from ???3 mg N L-1 beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L-1 at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl- concentrations and NO3/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO3- dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect looted ???5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO3- sink. Subsurface NO3- injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L-1 was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO3- retention under both background and elevated NO 3- levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO3- was followed by transient NO2- formation and, in the presence of C2H2, by N2O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO3- associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO 3- levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO3- transport to the channel. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  3. Elevated immunoglobulin D levels in children with PFAPA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Laszlo; Hlavatá, Anna; Baldovič, Marián; Paulovicova, Ema; Dallos, Tomas; Fehérvízyová, Zuzana; Kadasi, Ludovít

    2010-01-01

    The periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome appears to be more common than generally appreciated and should be differentiated from hereditary periodic fever syndromes, particularly from mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD). 14 unrelated patients (7 males, 7 females) met clinical criteria for both the PFAPA syndrome and MKD. Immunoglobulin D (IgD) levels, mevalonic aciduria and mevalonate kinase (MVK) genotype was determined in all patients. Children experienced their first febrile episode at the age of 24.5±5.9 months (mean±SD), the clinical diagnosis of PFAPA syndrome was established with delay at 42.7±11.7 months. The duration of febrile episodes was 3.4±0.2 days, the asymptomatic interval between them lasted 5.4±0.9 weeks. Accompanying symptoms included pharyngitis (92.8%), cervical lymphadenitis (85.7%), aphthous stomatitis (21.4%), arthralgia (14.3%) and skin erythema (35.7%). Neither mevalonic aciduria nor MVK gene mutations were found in any of the subjects, however, unexpectedly, increased plasma IgD (322.2±29.2 U/l) levels were detected in all patients. Raised IgD levels may represent a non-specific epiphenomenon, which frequently accompanies PFAPA syndrome as well as MKD. Because of the overlapping clinical and laboratory features, genetic testing of the MVK gene is indicated to differentiate these two conditions, if clinical criteria for both are fulfilled.

  4. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-05-14

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

  5. Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Jensen, Ryan L

    2003-04-01

    Virus-induced autoimmunity may play a causal role in autism. To examine the etiologic link of viruses in this brain disorder, we conducted a serologic study of measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus. Viral antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum of autistic children, normal children, and siblings of autistic children. The level of measles antibody, but not mumps or rubella antibodies, was significantly higher in autistic children as compared with normal children (P = 0.003) or siblings of autistic children (P molecular weight. The antibody to this antigen was found in 83% of autistic children but not in normal children or siblings of autistic children. Thus autistic children have a hyperimmune response to measles virus, which in the absence of a wild type of measles infection might be a sign of an abnormal immune reaction to the vaccine strain or virus reactivation.

  6. Elevated amniotic fluid amino acid levels in fetuses with gastroschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kale

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to measure maternal plasma and amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations in pregnant women diagnosed as having fetuses with gastroschisis in the second trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-one pregnant women who had fetuses with gastroschisis detected by ultrasonography (gastroschisis group in the second trimester and 32 women who had abnormal triple screenings indicating an increased risk for Down syndrome but had healthy fetuses (control group were enrolled in the study. Amniotic fluid was obtained by amniocentesis, and maternal plasma samples were taken simultaneously. The chromosomal analysis of the study and control groups was normal. Levels of free amino acids and non-essential amino acids were measured in plasma and amniotic fluid samples using EZ:fast kits (EZ:fast GC/FID free (physiological amino acid kit by gas chromatography (Focus GC AI 3000 Thermo Finnigan analyzer. The mean levels of essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine and non-essential amino acids (alanine, glycine, proline, and tyrosine in amniotic fluid were found to be significantly higher in fetuses with gastroschisis than in the control group (P < 0.05. A significant positive correlation between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid concentrations of essential and nonessential amino acids was found only in the gastroschisis group (P < 0.05. The detection of significantly higher amino acid concentrations in the amniotic fluid of fetuses with a gastroschisis defect than in healthy fetuses suggests the occurrence of amino acid malabsorption or of amino acid leakage from the fetus into amniotic fluid.

  7. Neural basis of moral elevation demonstrated through inter-subject synchronization of cortical activity during free-viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë A Englander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the neural basis of social emotions has examined emotions that give rise to negative evaluations of others (e.g. anger, disgust. Emotions triggered by the virtues and excellences of others have been largely ignored. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of two "other-praising" emotions--Moral Elevation (a response to witnessing acts of moral beauty, and Admiration (which we restricted to admiration for physical skill. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten participants viewed the same nine video clips. Three clips elicited moral elevation, three elicited admiration, and three were emotionally neutral. We then performed pair-wise voxel-by-voxel correlations of the BOLD signal between individuals for each video clip and a separate resting-state run. We observed a high degree of inter-subject synchronization, regardless of stimulus type, across several brain regions during free-viewing of videos. Videos in the elevation condition evoked significant inter-subject synchronization in brain regions previously implicated in self-referential and interoceptive processes, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and insula. The degree of synchronization was highly variable over the course of the videos, with the strongest synchrony occurring during portions of the videos that were independently rated as most emotionally arousing. Synchrony in these same brain regions was not consistently observed during the admiration videos, and was absent for the neutral videos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that the neural systems supporting moral elevation are remarkably consistent across subjects viewing the same emotional content. We demonstrate that model-free techniques such as inter-subject synchronization may be a useful tool for studying complex, context dependent emotions such as self-transcendent emotion.

  8. Neural Basis of Moral Elevation Demonstrated through Inter-Subject Synchronization of Cortical Activity during Free-Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Zoë A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Morris, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most research investigating the neural basis of social emotions has examined emotions that give rise to negative evaluations of others (e.g. anger, disgust). Emotions triggered by the virtues and excellences of others have been largely ignored. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of two “other-praising" emotions – Moral Elevation (a response to witnessing acts of moral beauty), and Admiration (which we restricted to admiration for physical skill). Methodology/Principal Findings Ten participants viewed the same nine video clips. Three clips elicited moral elevation, three elicited admiration, and three were emotionally neutral. We then performed pair-wise voxel-by-voxel correlations of the BOLD signal between individuals for each video clip and a separate resting-state run. We observed a high degree of inter-subject synchronization, regardless of stimulus type, across several brain regions during free-viewing of videos. Videos in the elevation condition evoked significant inter-subject synchronization in brain regions previously implicated in self-referential and interoceptive processes, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and insula. The degree of synchronization was highly variable over the course of the videos, with the strongest synchrony occurring during portions of the videos that were independently rated as most emotionally arousing. Synchrony in these same brain regions was not consistently observed during the admiration videos, and was absent for the neutral videos. Conclusions/Significance Results suggest that the neural systems supporting moral elevation are remarkably consistent across subjects viewing the same emotional content. We demonstrate that model-free techniques such as inter-subject synchronization may be a useful tool for studying complex, context dependent emotions such as self-transcendent emotion. PMID:22745745

  9. Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schulz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean ecosystem is particular vulnerable for ocean acidification (OA related alterations due to the relatively high CO2 solubility and low carbonate saturation states of its cold surface waters. Thus far, however, there is only little known about the consequences of OA on the base of the food web. In a mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (overall CO2 levels ranged from ∼180 to 1100 μatm in the Kongsfjord off Svalbard, we studied the consequences of OA on a natural pelagic microbial community. The most prominent finding of our study is the profound effect of OA on the composition and growth of the Arctic phytoplankton community, i.e. the picoeukaryotic photoautotrophs and to a lesser extent the nanophytoplankton prospered. A shift towards the smallest phytoplankton as a result of OA will have direct consequences for the structure and functioning of the pelagic food web and thus for the biogeochemical cycles. Furthermore, the dominant pico- and nanophytoplankton groups were found prone to viral lysis, thereby shunting the carbon accumulation in living organisms into the dissolved pools of organic carbon and subsequently affecting the efficiency of the biological pump in these Arctic waters.

  10. Serotonin-promoted elevation of ROS levels may lead to cardiac pathologies in diabetic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Tahir; Shaheen Farhat; Mahmud Madiha; Waheed Hina; Ishtiaq Muhammad; Javed Qamar; Murtaza Iram

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) develop tendencies toward heart disease. Hyperglycemia induces the release of serotonin from enterochromaffin cells (EC). Serotonin was observed to elevate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and downregulate antioxidant enzymes. As a result, elevated levels of serotonin could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by alloxan administrati...

  11. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are associated with increased short-term cancer risk among patients referred for this laboratory measurement. We aimed to assess prognosis in cancer patients with elevated plasma Cbl. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort...

  12. Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Katharina M; Schote, Andrea B; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.

  13. Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina M Gross

    Full Text Available Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2 were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.

  14. Towards quantitative ecological risk assessment of elevated carbon dioxide levels in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Pepijn; Tamis, Jacqueline E; Foekema, Edwin M; Klok, Chris; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-08-30

    The environmental impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels has become of more interest in recent years. This, in relation to globally rising CO2 levels and related considerations of geological CO2 storage as a mitigating measure. In the present study effect data from literature were collected in order to conduct a marine ecological risk assessment of elevated CO2 levels, using a Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD). It became evident that information currently available from the literature is mostly insufficient for such a quantitative approach. Most studies focus on effects of expected future CO2 levels, testing only one or two elevated concentrations. A full dose-response relationship, a uniform measure of exposure, and standardized test protocols are essential for conducting a proper quantitative risk assessment of elevated CO2 levels. Improvements are proposed to make future tests more valuable and usable for quantitative risk assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels and herbivore damage alter host plant preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, J. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund (Sweden); Anderson, Peter, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Crop Sciences, Alnarp (SE)); Oleszek, W.; Stochmal, Anna [Inst. of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Dept. of Biochemistry, Pulawy (Poland); Agrell, Cecilia [Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between the moth Spodoptera littoralis and two of its host plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) were examined, using plants grown under ambient (350 ppm) and elevated (700 ppm) CO{sub 2} conditions. To determine strength and effects of herbivore-induced responses assays were performed with both undamaged (control) and herbivore damaged plants. CO{sub 2} and damage effects on larval host plant preferences were determined through dual-choice bioassays. In addition, larvae were reared from hatching to pupation on experimental foliage to examine effects on larval growth and development. When undamaged plants were used S. littoralis larvae in consumed more cotton than alfalfa, and CO{sub 2} enrichment caused a reduction in the preference for cotton. With damaged plants larvae consumed equal amounts of the two plant species (ambient CO{sub 2} conditions), but CO{sub 2} enrichment strongly shifted preferences towards cotton, which was then consumed three times more than alfalfa. Complementary assays showed that elevated CO{sub 2} levels had no effect on the herbivore-induced responses of cotton, whereas those of alfalfa were significantly increased. Larval growth was highest for larvae fed undamaged cotton irrespectively of CO{sub 2} level, and lowest for larvae on damaged alfalfa from the high CO{sub 2} treatment. Development time increased on damaged cotton irrespectively of CO{sub 2} treatment, and on damaged alfalfa in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. (au) These results demonstrate that elevated CO2 levels can cause insect herbivores to alter host plant preferences, and that effects on herbivore-induced responses may be a key mechanism behind these processes. Furthermore, since the insects were shown to avoid foliage that reduced their physiological performance, our data suggest that behavioural host plant shifts result in partial escape from negative consequences of feeding on high CO2 foliage. Thus, CO2 enrichment can alter

  16. A case of renal infarction associated with elevated factor VIII level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, O Asif; Al-Absi, A; Showkat, A

    2011-09-01

    Elevated factor VIII level has recently been shown to be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. We report here a case of renal infarction in association with elevated factor VIII level. The patient presented with a three-day history of flank pain. Laboratory studies on presentation showed an elevated serum creatinine concentration and microscopic hematuria. He was found to have bilateral pulmonary emboli and left common femoral vein thrombosis; imaging studies showed evidence of renal arterial thrombosis with infarction. Hypercoagulability assessment showed an elevated factor VIII level. He was treated with heparin and warfarin with significant improvement in his renal function. Consideration should be given to measurement of factor VIII level as a part of the workup of unexplained thrombo-embolic events.

  17. [Association of hypercalcemia, elevated levels of calcitriol and tuberculosis in patients on hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Díaz Corte, C

    2000-01-01

    Hypercalcemia is associated with numerous chronic granulomatous processes and chronic infections. Increased production of calcitriol by activated macrophages has been shown to be the cause in most cases. In this article, we describe three cases of hypercalcemia associated with inappropriately elevated calcitriol levels and suppressed PTH in hemodialysis. In addition to conventional techniques for tuberculosis diagnosis we used Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR) to detect mycobacterial DNA in pleural effusion with acid-fast stain and culture negativity. Antituberculous therapy was associated with a decrease in the levels of calcium, as well as in serum calcitriol concentrations, and a substantial increase in the levels of iPTH. The serum levels of 25(OH)D3 remained unchanged. These findings suggested ectopic production of calcitriol. The discussion reviews the previously reported cases of hypercalcemia and tuberculosis that occurred during hemodialysis, and concludes that ectopic production of calcitriol by tuberculous granulomas is extremely unusual and its demonstration requires a high index of suspicion. Molecular techniques are a potentially useful approach for early and rapid diagnosis of tuberculous infection in dialysis patients.

  18. What are the characteristics of asthma patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, T; Marchand-Adam, S; Gatault, P; Dupin, C; Diot, P; Guilleminault, L

    2016-03-01

    IgG4 has recently been a subject of great interest in human pathology. No data are available about the characteristics of asthma patients with elevated IgG4 levels. An observational study was conducted from January 2006 to March 2015 in a difficult-to-treat population of asthma patients. Twenty-six difficult-to-treat asthma patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels (IgG4/IgG ratio up to 10%) were compared with a control population of 98 difficult-to-treat asthma patients with normal serum IgG4. Blood eosinophilia, total IgE and FeNO were compared between groups to better characterize asthma patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels. Median IgG4 concentrations were 1.72 g/l [1.19-2.36] and 0.22 g/l [0.10-0.49] in the elevated IgG4 group and normal Ig4 group, respectively. Median blood eosinophilia was more than three times higher in patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels than in controls (0.75 10(9)/L [IQR 0.54-1.78] vs 0.22 10(9)/L [IQR 0.09-0.54] respectively, p ppb vs 35 [IQR 23-51] ppb, p < 0.001). Allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) were observed in the asthma patients with elevated serum IgG4. Ten patients had unexplained increased blood eosinophilia. Asthma patients with elevated IgG4 levels have significantly higher blood eosinophilia, total IgE and FeNO. ABPA and EGPA are observed in patients with elevated serum IgG4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A community-based epidemiological study of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels in Kinmen, Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Ming Liu; Tao-Hsin Tung; Jorn-Hon Liu; Victor Tze-Kai Chen; Ching-Heng Lin; Chung-Te Hsu; Pesus Chou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore any gender-related differences in prevalence of and condition-associated factors related to an elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level amongst residents of Kinmen, Taiwan.METHODS: A total of 11 898 of a potential 20 112 regional residents aged 30 years or more completed a related questionnaire that was carried out by the Yang-Ming Crusade between 1991 and 1994 inclusively, with blood samples being collected by public nurses. The overall questionnaire response rate was 59.3% (52.4% for males and 66.0% for females).RESULTS: The prevalence of an elevated serum ALT level for this sub-population was found to be 7,2%, the prevalence revealing a statistically significant decrease with increasing population age (P<0.0001). Males exhibited a greater prevalence of elevated serum ALT level than did females (9.4% vs 5.3%, P<0.0001). Using multiple logistic regression analysis, in addition to male gender, a younger age, greater waist circumference,presence of type-2 diabetes and hyperuricemia were the significant factors associated with an elevated serum ALT level for both males and females. Gender-related differences as regards associated factors were also revealed. For males, obesity was significantly related to an elevated serum ALT level (OR = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.00-1.66)but this was not so for females (OR = 1.09, 95%CI:0.84-1.42). Hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.80, 95%CI:1.36-2.39) and hyperuricemia (OR = 1.61, 95%CI:1.03-2.52) were significantly related to elevated serum ALT levels only for females.CONCLUSION: Several gender-related differences were noted pertaining to the prevalence of and relationship between obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia and elevated serum ALT level in the present study.(c)2005 The WJG Press and Elsevier Ihc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation.

  1. Increased expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors in a Smith-Lemli-Opitz infant with elevated bilirubin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, G C; Lopez, D; Borrego, O; Gilbert-Barness, E

    1997-01-31

    We report on an infant girl with severe RSH or Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome with hyperbilirubinemia. The infant died at age 2 months. Sterol analysis of liver and brain tissues showed marked elevations of 7-dehydrocholesterol with decreased levels of cholesterol. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated remarkable increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in these tissues, indicative of a deficiency in available cholesterol for tissue needs.

  2. Impact of increased erythropoietin receptor expression and elevated serum erythropoietin levels on clinicopathological features and prognosis in renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    ITO, KEIICHI; YOSHII, HIDEHIKO; ASANO, TAKAKO; HORIGUCHI, AKIO; Sumitomo, Makoto; Hayakawa, Masamichi; ASANO, TOMOHIKO

    2012-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) expression and EPO receptor (EpoR) expression have been demonstrated in various malignant tumors. EPO-EpoR signaling can activate several downstream signal transduction pathways that enhance tumor aggressiveness. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of overexpression of EpoR and elevated serum EPO (sEPO) levels on the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). EpoR expression was evaluated immunohistochemical...

  3. [Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

  4. Proteomics of Peripheral Leukocytes in Patients with Elevated Serum Levels of PSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    chronic prostatitis (CP) or benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH ) [1]. If, after an elevated PSA test, our test could distinguish among these...prostate disease, even though each individual has an elevated PSA level. Two patients with pathology reports showing only enlargement or inflammation but...short amount of time available, we chose to not pursue this work further. BPH / CP PrCA S ig n e d S u m S co re Figure 1. Discrimination between

  5. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  6. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  7. Possible association of elevated serum collagen type IV level with skin sclerosis in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Chisako; Toki, Sayaka; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-08-29

    Collagen type IV is the primary collagen in the basement membranes around blood vessels and in the dermoepidermal junction in the skin. Perivascular collagen type IV is synthesized by endothelial cells and pericytes, and contributes to the homeostasis and remodeling of blood vessels. It has been well recognized that elevated serum collagen type IV levels are associated with the liver fibrosis. The objective was to examine serum collagen type IV levels and their clinical associations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to examine the expression of collagen type IV in the fibrotic skin in SSc. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients and diffuse cutaneous type SSc patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals. Serum collagen type IV levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. Serum collagen type IV levels in early stage (disease duration ≤3 years) diffuse cutaneous SSc patients were significantly elevated. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients with digital ulcers (DU) were significantly elevated. In immunohistochemical staining, the expression of collagen type IV around dermal small vessels in the affected skin was reduced compared with those of normal individuals. These results suggest that elevated serum collagen type IV levels may be associated with the skin sclerosis in the early stage of SSc. The measurement of serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients may be useful as a disease activity marker in skin sclerosis and DU.

  8. Towards quantitave ecological risk assessment of elevated carbon dioxide levels in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de P.; Tamis, J.E.; Foekema, E.M.; Klok, T.C.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels has become of more interest in recent years. This, in relation to globally rising CO2 levels and related considerations of geological CO2 storage as a mitigating measure. In the present study effect data from literature were collected

  9. Towards quantitave ecological risk assessment of elevated carbon dioxide levels in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de P.; Tamis, J.E.; Foekema, E.M.; Klok, T.C.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels has become of more interest in recent years. This, in relation to globally rising CO2 levels and related considerations of geological CO2 storage as a mitigating measure. In the present study effect data from literature were collected

  10. Plasma YKL-40 levels are elevated in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathcke, Camilla Noelle; Kistorp, Caroline; Raymond, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Congestive heart failure (CHF) has been associated with elevated biomarker levels reflecting chronic low-grade inflammation. YKL-40 is a biomarker with increasing levels in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) of increasing severity. Furthermore, YKL-40 is associated with all...

  11. Effects of Elevated β-Estradiol Levels on the Functional Morphology of the Testis - New Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Myles; Trottmann, Matthias; Liedl, Bernhard; Reese, Sven; Stief, Christian; Freitag, Benjamin; Baugh, John; Spagnoli, Giulio; Kölle, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Elevated estradiol levels are correlated with male infertility. Causes of hyperestrogenism include diseases of the adrenal cortex, testis or medications affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effects of estradiol treatment on testicular cellular morphology and function, with reference to the treatment regimen received. Testes samples (n = 9) were obtained post-orchiectomy from male-to-female transsexuals within the age range of 26–52 years. Each patient had a minimum of 1–6 years estradiol treatment. For comparison, additional samples were obtained from microscopically unaltered testicular tissue surrounding tumors (n = 7). The tissues obtained were investigated by stereomicroscopy, histochemistry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry. Our studies revealed that estradiol treatment significantly decreased the diameter of the seminiferous tubules (p estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Both Sertoli and Leydig cells showed morphological alterations and glycoprotein accumulations. These results demonstrate that increased estradiol levels drastically impact the human testis. PMID:28045098

  12. Elevated blood-lead levels among children living in the rural Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Travis J; Solon, Orville; Quimbo, Stella A; Tan, Cheryl May C; Butrick, Elizabeth; Peabody, John W

    2007-09-01

    Generally, lead poisoning is not considered a significant environmental hazard for children in rural areas of developing countries. With a prospectively designed policy experiment, the research community and the government are conducting a broad-based investigation to introduce and evaluate the impact of health policy reforms on children in a rural area of the Philippines - the Quality Improvement Demonstration Study (QIDS). As part of this study, we researched lead exposure in children under the age of five. We sampled a population of children from the Visayas region in the central Philippines, covering approximately one third of the country's geographical area. From December 2003 to September 2004, the survey collected blood lead levels (BLL) together with demographic, socioeconomic and child health data points. Supplemental field-testing among a sub-sample of the most exposed children assessed the sources of environmental lead exposure. Among children in this study, 21% (601 of 2861 children) had BLL greater than 10 microg/dl. BLL were associated independently with age, haemoglobin concentration, water source, roofing material, expenditures and history of breastfeeding. A follow-up assessment of possible environmental exposures among the sub-sample of children with elevated BLL revealed no single or predominant exposure source. Instead, there appear to be multiple potential sources, such as fossil-fuel combustion, lead paint (in or around 38% of homes) and household items. Elevated BLL are common among children in the Visayas, and may signify an under-recognized threat to children living in rural areas of other developing nations. This setting has varied environmental sources of lead. Observed correlates of BLL may be of clinical, environmental and public health utility to identify and mitigate the consequences of lead toxicity.

  13. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  14. Pravastatin inhibits tumor growth through elevating the levels of apolipoprotein A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yeh

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that pravastatin elevated ApoA1, an HDL major constituent with anti-inflammatory characteristics, which displayed strong adversary associations with tumor developments and growth. Increasing the amounts of ApoA1 by pravastatin coupled with DOX may improve the therapeutic efficacy for cancer treatment.

  15. Ovarian fibroma with marked ascites and elevated serum levels of CA-125 in a young girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akihide; Urushihara, Naoto; Fukumoto, Koji; Fukuzawa, Hiroaki; Nagae, Hideki; Watanabe, Kentaro; Mitsunaga, Maki; Hasegawa, Shiro; Koyama, Masashi

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of ovarian fibroma with marked ascites and elevated serum CA-125 levels in a young girl. Ovarian fibromas are rare in children. They usually present as a solid mass and may be associated with ascites and elevated serum CA-125 levels. Because of their solid nature and these associations, they can be mistaken for a malignant tumor, resulting in unnecessary oophorectomy. Ovarian fibromas are benign neoplasms, and the prognosis is extremely good. Surgical management should be an ovarian-sparing tumor excision. Although uncommon in pediatric patients, ovarian fibromas should be included in the differential diagnosis of ovarian mass in children.

  16. Acute Cholecystitis with Significantly Elevated Levels of Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Akimoto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9, a marker of malignant tumors, is generally slightly elevated in benign conditions. We report a case of acute cholecystitis with a significantly elevated level of serum CA 19-9 based on positron emission tomography (PET-computed tomography (CT findings. A 65-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and fever. A CT image revealed an enlarged gallbladder without tumor shadows. The C-reactive protein (CRP level was elevated to 7.66 mg/dl. Moreover, the serum CA 19-9 level was significantly elevated to 19,392 U/ml. We started antibiotic treatment, because we suspected acute cholecystitis, but still, we could not ignore the possible presence of malignant tumors. After 11 days of antibiotic treatment, serum CRP and CA 19-9 levels decreased to 0.11 mg/dl and 1,049 U/ml, respectively. There was an accumulation of fluorine 18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (maximum standardized uptake value, 9.3 without tumor shadows in the liver, near the gallbladder, on the PET-CT examination. We considered the possibility that the inflammation had spread from the gallbladder to the liver, made a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, and performed a cholecystectomy 33 days after treatment initiation. The serum CA 19-9 level decreased to 45 U/ml after the surgery. One year after the surgery, the patient was alive, and the serum CA 19-9 level was 34 U/ml. Acute cholecystitis with a significantly high elevation of the serum CA 19-9 level is rare. In such cases, it is important to confirm the change in the serum CA 19-9 level over time after antibiotic treatment and perform imaging studies to distinguish between inflammation and malignancy.

  17. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  18. Clinical significance of elevated serum and urine amylase levels in patients with appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensson, E E; Maull, K I

    1981-12-01

    During the 45 month period beginning January 1977, 251 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis underwent celiotomy at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital. A preoperative serum or urine amylase determination was recorded in 155 of the patients (62 percent). Of this group, 15 patients (10 percent) had elevation of serum amylase or 2 hour urine amylase. Hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria directly led to misdiagnosis or treatment delay in 5 of the 15 patients. Appendiceal rupture occurred in three patients, two of whom had prolonged (greater than 1 month) hospitalizations directly attributable to the misdiagnosis. As a result of this study, we conclude that (1) acute appendicitis and elevated amylase levels may occur concurrently, (2) hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria should not dissuade the surgeon from early operation if other clinical features suggest appendicitis, and (3) abdominal pain and elevation of amylase level define significant intraabdominal disease, not specifically pancreatic disease.

  19. Clinical importance of elevated CK-MB and troponin I levels in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ahmet; Yalta, Kenan; Turgut, Okan Onur; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Ozyol, Ali; Kendirlioglu, Omer; Karadas, Filiz; Tandogan, Izzet

    2006-01-01

    Myocyte necrosis has been considered to play a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure (CHF), which has usually evolved as a consequence of depletion of compensatory mechanisms and contractile reserve of myocardium. Elevated levels of creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) and troponin I (Tn-I) have been regarded as biochemical markers of myocyte necrosis. This study was planned to investigate the specificity and sensitivity of Tn-I and CK-MB in CHF and to examine the correlation of these markers with disease severity. A total of 104 patients (38 female, 66 male; mean age, 66 y [range, 36-89]) with symptoms and signs of heart failure on admission and with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (EF; by transthoracic echocardiography) were labeled "the patient group," and 58 patients (40 female,18 male; mean age, 61 y [range, 34-77]) with no signs or symptoms of CHF and with a normal EF detected by transthoracic echocardiography were included in the study as "the control group." Left ventricular EFs, end-diastolic diameters, and end-systolic diameters of patients in both groups were measured. Blood samples were drawn from all patients in both groups on admission, so that levels of CK-MB and Tn-I could be measured. All patients in both groups also underwent coronary angiography. Conditions leading to elevation of CK-MB or Tn-I were considered exclusion criteria. The 2 groups failed to show any significant differences in terms of mean age and the presence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus (P>.05). Mean EF in the patient group was lower than that in the control group (Phypertensive patients were found to have significantly higher mean values of CK-MB than were seen in normotensive patients in the same group (PHeart Association [NYHA]) (group 1), and 52 were considered to be class III-IV (group 2). Group 1, group 2, and the control group did not differ significantly from one another with regard to the presence of

  20. Liver is the major source of elevated serum lipocalin-2 levels after bacterial infection or partial hepatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ming-Jiang; Feng, Dechun; Wu, Hailong;

    2015-01-01

    knockout (Lcn2(Hep-/-)) mice were generated and subjected to bacterial infection (with Klesbsiella pneumoniae or Escherichia coli) or partial hepatectomy (PHx). Studies of Lcn2(Hep-/-) mice revealed that hepatocytes contributed to 25% of the low basal serum level of LCN2 protein (∼ 62 ng/mL) but were...... responsible for more than 90% of the highly elevated serum LCN2 protein level (∼ 6,000 ng/mL) postinfection and more than 60% post-PHx (∼ 700 ng/mL). Interestingly, both Lcn2(Hep-/-) and global Lcn2 knockout (Lcn2(-/-)) mice demonstrated comparable increases in susceptibility to infection with K. pneumoniae...

  1. Elevated nicotianamine levels in Arabidopsis halleri roots play a key role in zinc hyperaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Weber, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Rensch, Stefan; Trampczynska, Aleksandra; Hansen, Thomas H; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan K; Talke, Ina N; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

    2012-02-01

    Zn deficiency is among the leading health risk factors in developing countries. Breeding of Zn-enriched crops is expected to be facilitated by molecular dissection of plant Zn hyperaccumulation (i.e., the ability of certain plants to accumulate Zn to levels >100-fold higher than normal plants). The model hyperaccumulators Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens share elevated nicotianamine synthase (NAS) expression relative to nonaccumulators among a core of alterations in metal homeostasis. Suppression of Ah-NAS2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in strongly reduced root nicotianamine (NA) accumulation and a concomitant decrease in root-to-shoot translocation of Zn. Speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that the dominating Zn ligands in roots were NA and thiols. In NAS2-RNAi plants, a marked increase in Zn-thiol species was observed. Wild-type A. halleri plants cultivated on their native soil showed elemental profiles very similar to those found in field samples. Leaf Zn concentrations in NAS2-RNAi lines, however, did not reach the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold. Leaf Cd accumulation was also significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a role for NAS2 in Zn hyperaccumulation also under near-natural conditions. We propose that NA forms complexes with Zn(II) in root cells and facilitates symplastic passage of Zn(II) toward the xylem.

  2. Elevated Nicotianamine Levels in Arabidopsis halleri Roots Play a Key Role in Zinc Hyperaccumulation[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Weber, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Rensch, Stefan; Trampczynska, Aleksandra; Hansen, Thomas H.; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Talke, Ina N.; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Zn deficiency is among the leading health risk factors in developing countries. Breeding of Zn-enriched crops is expected to be facilitated by molecular dissection of plant Zn hyperaccumulation (i.e., the ability of certain plants to accumulate Zn to levels >100-fold higher than normal plants). The model hyperaccumulators Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens share elevated nicotianamine synthase (NAS) expression relative to nonaccumulators among a core of alterations in metal homeostasis. Suppression of Ah-NAS2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in strongly reduced root nicotianamine (NA) accumulation and a concomitant decrease in root-to-shoot translocation of Zn. Speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that the dominating Zn ligands in roots were NA and thiols. In NAS2-RNAi plants, a marked increase in Zn-thiol species was observed. Wild-type A. halleri plants cultivated on their native soil showed elemental profiles very similar to those found in field samples. Leaf Zn concentrations in NAS2-RNAi lines, however, did not reach the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold. Leaf Cd accumulation was also significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a role for NAS2 in Zn hyperaccumulation also under near-natural conditions. We propose that NA forms complexes with Zn(II) in root cells and facilitates symplastic passage of Zn(II) toward the xylem. PMID:22374395

  3. Elevated serum levels of soluble CD154 in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeft Andrew S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Cytokines play important roles in mediating inflammation in autoimmunity. Several cytokines are elevated in serum and synovial fluid samples from children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA. Soluble CD154 (sCD154 is elevated in other autoimmune disorders, but has not been characterized in JIA. Our objectives were to determine if sCD154 is elevated in JIA, and to examine correlations between sCD154 and other inflammatory cytokines. Methods Serum from 77 children with JIA and 81 pediatric controls was analyzed for interleukin (IL1β, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12, IL13, sCD154, interferon-γ (IFNγ, soluble IL2 receptor (sIL2R, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, using the Luminex Multi-Analyte Profiling system. Differences in levels of cytokines between cases and controls were analyzed. Logistic regression was also performed. Results sCD154 was significantly elevated in cases compared to controls (p Conclusion Serum levels of sCD154, IL1β, IL6, IL8, sIL2R and TNFα are elevated in most JIA subtypes, suggesting a major role for sCD154, and these cytokines and cytokine receptors in the pathogenesis of JIA.

  4. Spectrum of Disorders Associated with Elevated Serum IgG4 Levels Encountered in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay H. Ryu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently described systemic fibroinflammatory disease associated with elevated circulating levels of IgG4 and manifests a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Although serum IgG4 level has been described to be the most sensitive and specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, it is recognized that an elevated serum IgG4 level can be encountered in other diseases. In this study, we sought to identify the frequency of IgG4-RD and other disease associations in patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels seen in clinical practice. Among 3,300 patients who underwent IgG subclass testing over a 2-year period from January 2009 to December 2010, 158 (4.8% had an elevated serum IgG4 level (>140 mg/dL. IgG4 subclass testing was performed for evaluation of suspected IgG4-RD or immunodeficiency. Twenty-nine patients (18.4% had definite or possible IgG4-RD. Among those patients without IgG4-RD, a broad spectrum of biliary tract, pancreatic, liver, and lung diseases, as well as systemic vasculitis, was diagnosed. We conclude that patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels encountered in clinical practice manifest a wide array of disorders, and only a small minority of them has IgG4-RD.

  5. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Peri, G.; Setiati, T.E.; Hack, C.E.; Koraka, P.; Soemantri, A.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Brandjes, D.P.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Mantovani, A.; Gorp, E. van

    2005-01-01

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  6. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, ATA; Peri, G; Setiati, TE; Hack, CE; Koraka, P; Soemantri, A; Osterhaus, ADME; Brandjes, DPM; van der Meer, JWM; Mantovani, A; van Gorp, ECM

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  7. Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Holst, J J; Møller, Søren;

    2000-01-01

    during catheterization with elective blood sampling from different vascular beds (artery, and renal, hepatic, iliac and cubital veins). Plasma leptin was determined by a radioimmunoassay. Patients with hypertension had significantly elevated levels of circulating leptin (12.8 ng/l, compared with 4.1 ng...

  8. Impact of elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummer, Christian; Schwetz, Verena; Giuliani, Albrecht; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels on the metabolic and endocrine phenotype in 583 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Endocrine and metabolic parameters were measured in all patients and compared between women with and without elevated TSH levels. Of the 583 women with PCOS, 125 women (21.4%) had thyroid disturbances (thyroid replacement therapy: 109 women, subclinical hypothyroidism: 16 women). Patients with elevated TSH levels had significantly increased fasting insulin, area under the curve-insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, and total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) ratio and lower free thyroxin, insulin sensitivity and HDL (p < 0.05 for all). Euthyroid PCOS women with thyroid hormone substitution showed significant differences in TSH, age, body mass index, HDL and systolic blood pressure compared to those without hormone replacement therapy (p < 0.05 for all). We conclude that hypothyroid disturbances and elevated TSH levels are common findings in PCOS, which are associated with an adverse metabolic profile. Therefore, women with diagnosed PCOS should be screened for thyroid dysfunction.

  9. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Peri, G.; Setiati, T.E.; Hack, C.E.; Koraka, P.; Soemantri, A.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Brandjes, D.P.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Mantovani, A.; Gorp, E. van

    2005-01-01

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  10. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, ATA; Peri, G; Setiati, TE; Hack, CE; Koraka, P; Soemantri, A; Osterhaus, ADME; Brandjes, DPM; van der Meer, JWM; Mantovani, A; van Gorp, ECM

    2005-01-01

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  11. Malakoplakia of the prostate diagnosed by elevated PSA level and transrectal prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Nuri Görgel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is an inflammation which is thought to develop secondary to chronic Escherichia coli infections. Although often seen in the genitourinary tract, it can also be seen in colon, stomach, lung, liver, bone, uterus, and skin. In this case report, we present prostatic malakoplakia diagnosed by elevated prostate-specific antigen level and transrectal prostate biopsy.

  12. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nilsson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy in patients with VaD. Results: Elevated plasma tHcy levels in patients with VaD could only partly be attributed to cobalamin/folate deficiency or renal impairment. Plasma tHcy might also be related to the vascular disease process since patients with depression and vascular disease exhibited similar plasma tHcy levels to patients with VaD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated plasma tHcy might be a sensitive marker for the vascular disease process in patients with VaD and that the level also is a reflection of changes in the other main determinants of plasma tHcy.

  13. Synergistic effects of elevated homocysteine level and abnormal blood lipids on the onset of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hao; Zhenzhen Cheng; Qiang Wu; Shuzhang Li; Liming Chen; Xiaoyong Sai; Zhefeng Liu; Guang Yang; Rongzeng Yan; Lili Wang; Caiyun Fu; Xuan Xu

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and abnormal blood lipids are independent risk factors for stroke. However, whether both factors exert a synergistic effect in the onset of stroke remains unclear. The present study is a retrospective analysis of 2 089 cases of stroke and 2 089 control cases of simple inter-vertebral disk protrusion using a paired multivariate logistic regression method. Adjusting for known confounding variables including the patients’ age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, patient and family medical history, and clinical biochemical indices, elevated homocysteine level was related to the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids showed a 40.9%increase in the risk for stroke compared to patients with normal ho-mocysteine levels and blood lipids (odds ratio 1.409;95%confidence interval 1.127-1.761). These results indicate that elevated homocysteine and abnormal blood lipids exert synergistic effects in the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids are predis-posed to stroke.

  14. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in Liaohe Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-dong; Wang, Ming; Lu, Xian-guo; Jiang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    The Liaohe Delta in China is an ecologically and commercially important wetland system under threat from sea level rise and marsh subsidence. Sediments deposited in coastal marshes could offer wetlands a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level, yet coastal wetland stability in Liaohe Delta is not well understood due to limited data from long-term experiments. In this study, wetland surface elevation and vertical accretion were measured from 2011 to 2015 using a surface elevation table (SET) and feldspar marker horizons in two Phragmites and two Suaeda marshes receiving Liaohe River water. The analysis shows that the Phragmites marshes exhibited higher rates of marsh accretion and elevation change than the Suaeda marshes. The two Phragmites marsh sites had average surface elevation change rates at 8.8 and 9.3 mm yr-1, vertical accretion at 17.4 and 17.6 mm yr-1, and shallow subsidence at 8.6 and 8.3 mm yr-1. The average rates of elevation change, vertical accretion, and shallow subsidence at two Suaeda marsh sites were 5.8 and 6.3 mm yr-1, 13.6 and 14.8 mm yr-1, and 7.8 and 8.5 mm yr-1, respectively. The trends suggest that coastal marshes in Liaohe Delta are experiencing changes in average soil elevation that range from a net increase of 0.3 mm y-1 to 6.9 mm y-1 relative to averaged sea level rise in Bohai Sea reported by the 2016 State Oceanic Administration People's Republic of China projection (2.4-5.5 mm y-1), which indicated that the four wetland sites would adjust to the sea level rise and even continue to gain elevation, especially for the Phragmites sites. Nevertheless, the vulnerability of coastal wetlands in Liaohe Delta need further assessment considering the accelerated sea level rise, the high rate of subsidence, and the declining sediment delivery owing to anthropogenic activities such as dam constructions in the river basin.

  15. Growth response and tissue accumulation trends of herbaceous wetland plant species exposed to elevated aqueous mercury levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jonathan M; Gambrell, Robert P; Hester, Mark W

    2010-08-01

    The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by elevated mercury levels, whereas Typha latifolia and Panicum hemitomon were somewhat impacted at elevated mercury levels. Eleocharis parvula, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia generally had the greatest overall belowground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 7.21, 7.32, and 9.64 ppm respectively; 4 ppm treatment: 16.23, 18.23, and 13.98 ppm, respectively) and aboveground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 0.01, 0.04, 0.02; 4 ppm treatment: 0.26; 0.11; 0.17 ppm, respectively). However, the species investigated in this study demonstrated lower levels of mercury accumulation into tissues when compared with similar investigations of other aquatic plants, suggesting that the above species are not optimal for phytoremediation efforts.

  16. There Is No Elevation of Immunoglobulin E Levels in Albanian Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatixhe Latifi-Pupovci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Studies in several ethnic groups reported high incidence of elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD, especially in patients with Graves’ disease. Objective. To study association between serum levels of IgE and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb in Albanian patients with ATD. Material and Methods. Study was performed in 40 patients with Graves’ disease, 15 patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and 14 subjects in the control group. The IgE levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay, whereas the TRAb levels were measured by radioreceptor assay. Results. In all groups of subjects the IgE levels were within reference values (<200 kIU/L. Significant difference in mean concentration of IgE was found between two groups of Graves’ disease patients, and those with normal and elevated TRAb levels (22.57 versus 45.03, P<0.05. Positive correlation was found between TRAb and IgE only in Graves’ disease patients (r=0.43, P=0.006. Conclusion. In Albanian patients with ATD there is no elevation of IgE levels. This could be the result of low prevalence of allergic diseases in Albanian population determined by genetic and environmental factors.

  17. [Studies on the mechanism of elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizono, Kenji; Oita, Tatsuo; Eto, Masaaki; Bito, Sanae; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Kasakura, Shinpei

    2002-03-01

    We measured serum PIVKA-II concentrations in 18 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease was diagnosed by the history of ethanol intake of more than 900 ml/day for over 10 years. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed histologically. Infections with hepatitis B and C viruses were ruled out by assaying serum virus markers. No tumor was detected in liver by ultrasonography and computed tomography during observation period. None of the patients studied were positive for alpafetoprotein (AFP). Eight out of 18 (44.4%) patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. In contrast, only eight out of 93 (8.6%) patients with nonalcholic liver cirrhosis had elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. PIVKA-II is well known as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rates of positive PIVKA-II found in alcoholic liver cirrhosis approached its rates in HCC. However, the time course for the elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels was different each other in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and HCC. In HCC, serum PIVKA-II "levels" continued to elevate until therapy. In contrast, its elevation was transient and its levels returned to baseline in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The values of ALT (GPT), gamma-GTP, and ALP correlated poorly with serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. To investigate the mechanism by which elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis occurred, we studied the effect of vitamin K on production of PIVKA-II and AFP by hepatocytes. Hepatocytes(Alexander PLC/PRF/F cell line) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of vitamin K (Kaytwo, Eisai, Tokyo). Vitamin K had no effect on AFP production. In contrast, PIVKA-II production was inhibited by addition of vitamin K in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was suppressed by administration of vitamin K (Kaytwo) to these patients. Taken

  18. CT Findings of Disease with Elevated Serum D-Dimer Levels in an Emergency Room Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Youn; Kwon, Woo Cheol; Kim, Young Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Wonju Christian Hospital, Yensei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are the leading causes of elevated serum D-dimer levels in the emergency room. Although D-dimer is a useful screening test because of its high sensitivity and negative predictive value, it has a low specificity. In addition, D-dimer can be elevated in various diseases. Therefore, information on the various diseases with elevated D-dimer levels and their radiologic findings may allow for accurate diagnosis and proper management. Herein, we report the CT findings of various diseases with elevated D-dimer levels in an emergency room setting, including an intravascular contrast filling defect with associated findings in a venous thromboembolism, fracture with soft tissue swelling and hematoma formation in a trauma patient, enlargement with contrast enhancement in the infected organ of a patient, coronary artery stenosis with a perfusion defect of the myocardium in a patient with acute myocardial infarction, high density of acute thrombus in a cerebral vessel with a low density of affected brain parenchyma in an acute cerebral infarction, intimal flap with two separated lumens in a case of aortic dissection, organ involvement of malignancy in a cancer patient, and atrophy of a liver with a dilated portal vein and associated findings.

  19. Plasma PCSK9 levels are elevated with acute myocardial infarction in two independent retrospective angiographic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A M Almontashiri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 is a circulating protein that promotes degradation of the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. Mutations that block PCSK9 secretion reduce LDL-cholesterol and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI. However, it remains unclear whether elevated plasma PCSK9 associates with coronary atherosclerosis (CAD or more directly with rupture of the plaque causing MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma PCSK9 was measured by ELISA in 645 angiographically defined controls (50% stenosis in a major coronary artery from the Ottawa Heart Genomics Study. Because lipid lowering medications elevated plasma PCSK9, confounding association with disease, only individuals not taking a lipid lowering medication were considered (279 controls and 492 with CAD. Replication was sought in 357 controls and 465 with CAD from the Emory Cardiology Biobank study. PCSK9 levels were not associated with CAD in Ottawa, but were elevated with CAD in Emory. Plasma PCSK9 levels were elevated in 45 cases with acute MI (363.5±140.0 ng/ml compared to 398 CAD cases without MI (302.0±91.3 ng/ml, p = 0.004 in Ottawa. This finding was replicated in the Emory study in 74 cases of acute MI (445.0±171.7 ng/ml compared to 273 CAD cases without MI (369.9±139.1 ng/ml, p = 3.7×10(-4. Since PCSK9 levels were similar in CAD patients with or without a prior (non-acute MI, our finding suggests that plasma PCSK9 is elevated either immediately prior to or at the time of MI. CONCLUSION: Plasma PCSK9 levels are increased with acute MI.

  20. Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels, Psychological Distress, and Depression in 73 131 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress and depres......CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress...... and depression. DESIGN We performed cross-sectional and prospective analyses of CRP levels in 4 clinically relevant categories using data from 2 general population studies. SETTING The Copenhagen General Population and the Copenhagen City Heart studies. PARTICIPANTS We examined 73 131 men and women aged 20...

  1. Pregnancy in an azoospermic patient with markedly elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Salom, M; Remohí, J; Mínguez, Y; Rubio, C; Pellicer, A

    1995-12-01

    To assess the possibility of achieving a pregnancy in an azoospermic patient with markedly elevated serum FSH level. A case report. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. An azoospermic patient with small testes and serum FSH level (38.7 mIU/mL) higher than three times normal. Testicular biopsy revealed Sertoli cell-only syndrome with focal spermatogenesis. Intracytoplasmic microinjection of testicular tissue-extracted spermatozoa. Fertilization rate, cleavage rate, clinical pregnancy. Eight of 11 (73%) intact oocytes showed two pronuclei. All of them cleaved normally. Four embryos were replaced into the uterine cavity and the other four were cryopreserved. A twin clinical pregnancy was achieved. Spermatozoa may be present in testicular biopsy specimens of azoospermic patients with severe spermatogenic failure despite markedly elevated serum FSH level. These patients can be fertile after intracytoplasmic testicular sperm microinjection.

  2. Recognition of Facial Expressions in Individuals with Elevated Levels of Depressive Symptoms: An Eye-Movement Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingdan Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies consistently reported abnormal recognition of facial expressions in depression. However, it is still not clear whether this abnormality is due to an enhanced or impaired ability to recognize facial expressions, and what underlying cognitive systems are involved. The present study aimed to examine how individuals with elevated levels of depressive symptoms differ from controls on facial expression recognition and to assess attention and information processing using eye tracking. Forty participants (18 with elevated depressive symptoms were instructed to label facial expressions depicting one of seven emotions. Results showed that the high-depression group, in comparison with the low-depression group, recognized facial expressions faster and with comparable accuracy. Furthermore, the high-depression group demonstrated greater leftwards attention bias which has been argued to be an indicator of hyperactivation of right hemisphere during facial expression recognition.

  3. Associates of an Elevated Natriuretic Peptide Level in Stable Heart Failure Patients: Implications for Targeted Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Jan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Persistently elevated natriuretic peptide (NP levels in heart failure (HF patients are associated with impaired prognosis. Recent work suggests that NP-guided therapy can improve outcome, but the mechanisms behind an elevated BNP remain unclear. Among the potential stimuli for NP in clinically stable patients are persistent occult fluid overload, wall stress, inflammation, fibrosis, and ischemia. The purpose of this study was to identify associates of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP in a stable HF population. Methods. In a prospective observational study of 179 stable HF patients, the association between BNP and markers of collagen metabolism, inflammation, and Doppler-echocardiographic parameters including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left atrial volume index (LAVI, and E/e prime (E/e′ was measured. Results. Univariable associates of elevated BNP were age, LVEF, LAVI, E/e′, creatinine, and markers of collagen turnover. In a multiple linear regression model, age, creatinine, and LVEF remained significant associates of BNP. E/e′ and markers of collagen turnover had a persistent impact on BNP independent of these covariates. Conclusion. Multiple variables are associated with persistently elevated BNP levels in stable HF patients. Clarification of the relative importance of NP stimuli may help refine NP-guided therapy, potentially improving outcome for this at-risk population.

  4. Impact of elevated CO2 background levels on the host-seeking behaviour of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Shahid; Hill, Sharon Rose; Ignell, Rickard

    2014-02-15

    Mosquitoes rely on carbon dioxide (CO2) to detect and orient towards their blood hosts. However, the variable and rapid fluctuations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. In this study, we analysed the effect of transient elevated background levels of CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour and the physiological characteristics of the CO2-sensitive olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) in female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. We show that the take-off and source contact behaviour of A. aegypti is impeded at elevated background levels of CO2 as a result of masking of the stimulus signal. The mechanism underlying this masking during take-off behaviour is one of sensory constraint. We show that the net response of the CO2-ORNs regulates this CO2-related behaviour. Since these neurones themselves are not habituated or fatigued by the transient elevation of background CO2, we propose that habituation of second-order neurones in response to the elevated CO2-ORN activity could be one mechanism by which the net response is transduced by the olfactory system. The findings from this study may help to predict future shifts in mosquito-host interactions and consequently to predict vectorial capacity in the light of climate change.

  5. Storage and survival of red blood cells with elevated sodium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H; Harris, A S; Wetherall, N T

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 25 percent of black blood donors have an elevated red blood cell (RBC) sodium (Nai) level compared with white donors. This elevation results in a significant increase in the mean Nai from black (9.00 +/- 2.96 mmoles/l RBC) as compared to white blood donors (7.04 +/- 1.48 mmoles/l RBC, p less than 0.001). Red blood cells from four black donors with mean Nai levels of 15 +/- 2.8 mmoles/l RBC were stored for 35 days in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine and compared to that of four donors with normal levels of Nai. Serial measurements of red blood cell adenosine triphosphate, diphosphoglycerate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvic kinase, lactate production rates, and intracellular cations showed no differences between the two donor groups. Furthermore, the mean 24-hour posttransfusion survival was not significantly different for the high Nai group (83.2 +/- 5.6%) as compared with the control group (82.3 +/- 6.9%). Based on this study, it is not necessary to eliminate individuals with an elevated red blood cell Nai level as blood donors.

  6. Falsely elevated serum creatinine levels secondary to the presence of 5-fluorocytosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R T; Marshall, L H; Lefkowitz, L B; Stratton, C W

    1985-08-01

    The Kodak Ektachem (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) is a new clinical chemistry analyzer that uses an enzymatic method to measure creatinine. The authors report the case of a patient with falsely elevated creatinine levels that were caused by the presence of 5-fluorocytosine. A review of the literature confirmed that this can occur, but well documented reports are not found. In order to determine the magnitude of this interference, the authors plotted creatinine levels versus 5-FC concentration. Significant interference is seen with therapeutic levels of 5-FC. Both clinicians and pathologists should be aware of this phenomenon.

  7. Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Holst, J J; Moller, S

    2000-01-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone produced mainly in fat cells, appears to be important for the regulation of metabolism, insulin secretion/sensitivity and body weight. Recently, elevated plasma leptin levels have been reported in patients with arterial hypertension. Because a change in circulating leptin...... concentrations in such patients could be caused by altered rates of production or disposal, or both, the aim of the present study was to identify regions of leptin overflow into the bloodstream and of leptin extraction. Patients with arterial hypertension (n=12) and normotensive controls (n=20) were studied...... during catheterization with elective blood sampling from different vascular beds (artery, and renal, hepatic, iliac and cubital veins). Plasma leptin was determined by a radioimmunoassay. Patients with hypertension had significantly elevated levels of circulating leptin (12.8 ng/l, compared with 4.1 ng...

  8. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  9. Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Tiling-Range, Ginger

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of coral reefs due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole coral reef ecosystems in our study ranged from −0.09 to −0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4  ×  106 to 80.5  ×  106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both coral-dominated substrate and non-coral substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of coral reefs or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of coral reef systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.

  10. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply.

  11. Elevated levels of circulating IL-18BP and perturbed regulation of IL-18 in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palladino Ilaria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin (IL-18 has been proposed to play a role in schizophrenia, since elevated circulating levels of its protein and altered frequencies of genetic variants in its molecular system are reported in schizophrenic patients. Methods We analyzed 77 patients with schizophrenia diagnosis (SCZ and 77 healthy control subjects (HC for serum concentration of both IL-18 and its natural inhibitor, the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP. Results We confirmed that serum levels of total IL-18 are significantly increased in SCZ, as compared to HC. However, due to a highly significant increase in levels of circulating IL-18BP in SCZ, as compared to HC, the levels of free, bioactive IL-18 are not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the relationships between the levels of IL-18 and its inhibitor, as well as between the two molecules and age appear dissimilar for SCZ and HC. In particular, the elevated levels of IL-18BP, likely a consequence of the body’s attempt to counteract the early prominent inflammation which characterizes schizophrenia, are maintained in earlier and later stages of the disease. However, the IL-18BP elevation appears ineffective to balance the IL-18 system in younger SCZ patients, while in older patients the levels of circulating bioactive IL-18 are comparable to those of HC, if not lower. Conclusions In conclusion, these findings indicate that the IL-18 system is perturbed in schizophrenia, supporting the idea that this pro-inflammatory cytokine might be part of a pathway of genetic and environmental components for vulnerability to the disease.

  12. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels are elevated in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Sachiko; Soeki, Takeshi; Matsuura, Tomomi; Tobiume, Takeshi; Ise, Takayuki; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Sata, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, especially heart failure. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has also been shown to be upregulated at the transcriptional and translational levels by pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiac myocytes. Although we often measure plasma BNP levels in cancer patients, it remains unknown whether cancer-related inflammation affects the plasma BNP levels. We investigated the relationship between the BNP and human cancers. We retrospectively studied 2,923 patients in whom the plasma BNP levels and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured and echocardiography was performed. Patients with clinically evident heart failure (NYHA II or higher), heart disease requiring medical treatment or surgery, renal dysfunction, and inflammatory disease were excluded. There were 234 patients in the final analysis. Blood sampling was performed before surgery and chemotherapy. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the inflammation and plasma BNP levels in mouse models of colon cancer. Of the 234 patients, 80 were diagnosed with cancer. Both the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels were significantly higher in cancer patients than those without. There were no significant differences in the echocardiographic parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels in cancer patients (r = 0.360, P<0.01) but not in those without. In cancer patients, only the CRP correlated with the BNP independent of the age, creatinine level, hypertension, and body mass index. In addition, in nude mice with subcutaneous colon cancer, the plasma BNP level was elevated compared with that in non-cancer mice, and there was a significant relationship between the plasma BNP and serum levels of the inflammatory markers. In cancer patients, as well as colon cancer model mice, the plasma BNP levels were elevated, possibly due to cancer-related inflammation. The effect of cancer on the BNP

  13. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-02-01

    Although elevated ground-level O₃ has a species-specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O₃ pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O₃ Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O₃-tolerant (YD6) and the O₃-sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O₃ pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O₃ negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O₃ pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O₃ pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O₃ pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O₃. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pancreatic Tuberculosis with Markedly Elevated CA 19-9 Levels: A Diagnostic Pitfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manveen Kaur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB in developing countries, isolated pancreatic TB is rare and is usually seen in immunocompromised patients. It presents with non-specific signs and symptoms and may mimic malignancy both clinically and radiologically. Cytologic and histologic confirmation is required to establish the definitive diagnosis. We present a case of a 25-year-old male with a pancreatic mass and markedly elevated serum cancer antigen (CA 19-9 levels raising the suspicion of malignancy but with a histopathologic picture of TB. This case suggests that clinicians should have a heightened suspicion of pancreatic TB when faced with discrete pancreatic lesions even though elevated tumor markers may indicate malignancy. It is important to perform appropriate diagnostic testing and initiate antitubercular therapy early.

  15. Elevated serum IgG4 levels in two cases of paragonimiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Sho; Horio, Yuko; Hirosako, Susumu; Ichiyasu, Hidenori; Fujii, Kazuhiko; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a parasitic pleuropulmonary infection caused by eating raw crustaceans and wild boar meat and this infection is endemic in Asia. We herein report two cases of pulmonary Paragonimus westermani infection associated with elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 and dense infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the lung lesions. Treatment with praziquantel resolved the pulmonary lesions and decreased the serum levels of IgG4. IgG4-related disease is a systemic disease occasionally involving the lungs and leads to increased serum levels of IgG4. Our findings suggest that P. westermani infection requires a differential diagnosis from IgG4-related diseases and the serum IgG4 level may be a potentially useful marker of P. westermani infection. PMID:26392854

  16. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and mortality in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, Helle; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hjelmborg, Jacob v B

    2003-01-01

    the subsequent 5 years. RESULTS: Only 9 subjects were alive after 5 years. Elevated levels of TNF-alpha were associated with mortality in both men and women (hazard ratio = 1.34 per SD of 2.81 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 1.60, P = 0.001). Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 did not affect survival; levels of C...... as confounders. CONCLUSION: TNF-alpha was an independent prognostic marker for mortality in persons aged 100 years, suggesting that it has specific biological effects and is a marker of frailty in the very elderly.......BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied by low-grade inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha initiates the cytokine cascade, and high levels are associated with dementia and atherosclerosis in persons aged 100 years. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha was also a prognostic marker for all...

  17. Measures for the reduction of the noise and vibration level of apartment house elevators. [changes in construction and insulation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enescu, N.; Munteanu, M.; Stan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The reduction of the level of elevator noise and vibrations in apartment buildings was studied. By improving the mounting and gearing conditions of the winch and soundproofing the winch chamber, as well as by covering the elevator's control panel, the noise and vibration level was appreciably reduced.

  18. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and exercise capacity in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy and elevated p-lactate levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Birgit Thorup; Calbet, José A L; Møller, Kirsten

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy or elevated p-lactate levels.......To investigate the skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy or elevated p-lactate levels....

  19. Elevated red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in black blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H

    1978-01-01

    Mean levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) were significantly increased in erythrocytes (RBC) from 43 nonanemic black blood donors (4.80 +/- 0.06 micromoles/l RBC) compared with 22 white donors 4.47 +/- 0.08 micromoles/l RBCs from eight of the 12 black donors with DPG levels greater than 5 micromoles/l RBC. Although a potentially hemolytic disorder could be defined in four (AS hemoglobin, beta-Thalassemia minor, G6PD deficiency), reticulocyte counts were normal. However, when RBCs from the subgroup were compared to RBCs from an additional 25 unselected white donors, the following suggested an abnormally large population of young RBCs in the subgroup: 1) normal or elevated RBC-ATP with normal serum phosphate level; 2) significantly increased activities of RBC age-dependent enzymes hexokinase (p less than 0.02), pyruvate kinase (p less than 0.05), and glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase (p less than 0.01), with normal activity of phosphoglycerate kinase, an age-independent enzyme; 3) decreased dense (older) RBCs as determined by sedimentation in phthalate esters. Since DPG is increased in young RBCs and falls as the RBC ages, loss of older relatively DPG depleted RBCs due to shortened survival could account for the elevated DPG levels seen in the subgroup.

  20. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, Nazmul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Medicine, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi 6000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003 (Bangladesh); Islam, Khairul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail 1902 (Bangladesh); Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossainbio@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  1. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B; Sahakian, Barbara J; Wilkinson, Paul O; Dunn, Valerie J; Croudace, Timothy J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2014-03-04

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys.

  2. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan JIA; Shi-rong TANG; Xue-hai JU; Li-na SHU; Shu-xing TU; Ren-wei FENG; Lorenzino GIUSTI

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multifiorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1 000 μl/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2.Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation.

  3. The Use of Demonstrative Pronoun and Demonstrative Determiner "This" in Upper-Level Student Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustipa, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrative "this" is worthy to investigate because of the role of "this" as a common cohesive device in academic writing. This study attempted to find out the variables underlying the realization of demonstrative "this" in graduate-student writing of Semarang State University, Indonesia. The data of the study were…

  4. Elevated serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Hong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increased serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with nonmalignant diseases have been investigated in previous reports. This study evaluates the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. The median CA 19-9 level was higher in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease than in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: 13.80, tuberculosis: 5.85, p < 0.001. A multivariate logistic regression analysis performed in this study showed that Mycobacterium abscessus (OR 9.97, 95% CI: 1.58, 62.80; p = 0.014 and active phase of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease (OR 12.18, 95% CI: 1.07, 138.36, p = 0.044 were found to be risk factors for serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The serum CA 19-9 levels showed a tendency to decrease during successful treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease but not in pulmonary tuberculosis. These findings suggest that CA 19-9 may be a useful marker for monitoring therapeutic responses in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, although it is not pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease-specific marker.

  5. Mechanism of Elevated Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Peritoneal Fluids from Patients with Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义; 吕立群

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in peritoneal fluids from patients with endometriosis, macrophages were recovered from peritoneal fluids obtained at the time of diagnostic laparoscopy from infertile women with endometriosis (EMT group, n = 20) and without endometriosis (control group, n = 20). Macrophages were cultured in vitro. The VEGF levels of peritoneal fluid and the supernatant of macrophages culture were determined by enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). Meanwhile, the eutopic (n = 20) and ectopic endometrium (n=20) from endometriosis patients, and normal edometrium (n=20) from non-endometriosis patients were obtained for the analysis of VEGF expression by labeled Streptavidin Biotin (LSAB). It was found that VEGF levels in peritoneal fluid and macrophages culture supernatant were significantly higher in EMT group than in control group (P<0.01). In normal endometrium, VEGF showed a cyclic changes and similar in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis. There was no difference in the intensity of VEGF in endometrium between two groups within each menstrual phase. It is suggested that altered VEGF production by peritoneal macrophages and ectopic endometrium secretion may contribute to the elevated VEGF levels in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis.

  6. Elevated serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Young; Jang, Sun Hee; Kim, Song Yee; Chung, Kyung Soo; Song, Joo Han; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with nonmalignant diseases have been investigated in previous reports. This study evaluates the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. The median CA 19-9 level was higher in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease than in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: 13.80, tuberculosis: 5.85, pdisease (OR 12.18, 95% CI: 1.07, 138.36, p=0.044) were found to be risk factors for serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The serum CA 19-9 levels showed a tendency to decrease during successful treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease but not in pulmonary tuberculosis. These findings suggest that CA 19-9 may be a useful marker for monitoring therapeutic responses in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, although it is not pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease-specific marker.

  7. New agent to treat elevated phosphate levels: magnesium carbonate/calcium carbonate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caitlin; Cameron, Karen; Battistella, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    In summary, Binaphos CM, a magnesium carbonate/calcium carbonate combination phosphate binder, is marketed for treating elevated phosphate levels in dialysis patients. Although studies using magnesium/calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder are short term with small numbers of patients, this phosphate binder has shown some promising results and may provide clinicians with an alternative for phosphate binding. Using a combination phosphate binder may reduce pill burden and encourage patient compliance. In addition to calcium and phosphate, it is imperative to diligently monitor magnesium levels in patients started on this medication, as magnesium levels may increase with longer duration of use. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of this combination phosphate binder.

  8. Elevated serum levels of MMP-11 correlate with poor prognosis in colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Li; Wang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Da-Hai; Meng, Xiang-Wei

    2016-03-11

    Matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11) has been shown to play a key role in human tumor progression and indicates poor clinical outcome in cancer patients. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of MMP-11 and prognosis in colon cancer patients. Serum levels of MMP-11 were determined in 92 colon cancer patients and 92 healthy individuals using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Associations between serum MMP-11 levels and clinicopathological characteristics of the patients and their outcomes were investigated. Survival analyses were performed to measure the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Serum MMP-11 levels were substantially higher in colon cancer patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, serum MMP-11 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced T status, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and a higher TNM stage. Elevated serum levels of MMP-11 were identified as an independent prognostic factor for 5-year mortality and adverse events associated with colon cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified the serum MMP-11 level as an independent predictor of OS and DFS. Our study established that high serum levels of MMP-11 are associated with poor clinical outcome and may serve as a prognostic biomarker in colon cancer patients.

  9. Elevated Plasma YKL-40 Levels and Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, A.D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population. In contrast to C-reactive protein (CRP) produced in the liver in response to inflammation, YKL-40 is produced by lipid-laden macrophages...... inside the vessel wall. Methods: We measured plasma YKL-40 in 8,899 21- to 93-year-old participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 examination, and followed them for up to 18 years. Endpoints were ischemic stroke, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart...

  10. Elevated serum levels of free triiodothyronine in adolescent boys with gynaecomastia compared with controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglæde, Lise;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a frequent phenomenon occurring in 20-40% of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. Little is known about the aetiology of pubertal gynaecomastia. Markedly elevated thyroid hormone levels in adults with hyperthyroidism are associated with gynaecomastia. DESIGN......: A cross-sectional examination of 444 healthy boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia. METHODS: We evaluated TSH, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), free T4 and free T3 in a cohort of healthy boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia. RESULTS: Boys with gynaecomastia had significantly higher...

  11. Elevated levels of Dickkopf-related protein 3 in seminal plasma of prostate cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenzmaier Christoph

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of Dkk-3, a secreted putative tumor suppressor, is altered in age-related proliferative disorders of the human prostate. We now investigated the suitability of Dkk-3 as a diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa in seminal plasma (SP. Methods SP samples were obtained from 81 patients prior to TRUS-guided prostate biopsies on the basis of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA; > 4 ng/mL levels and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. A sensitive indirect immunoenzymometric assay for Dkk-3 was developed and characterized in detail. SP Dkk-3 and PSA levels were determined and normalized to total SP protein. The diagnostic accuracies of single markers including serum PSA and multivariate models to discriminate patients with positive (N = 40 and negative (N = 41 biopsy findings were investigated. Results Biopsy-confirmed PCa showed significantly higher SP Dkk-3 levels (100.9 ± 12.3 vs. 69.2 ± 9.4 fmol/mg; p = 0.026. Diagnostic accuracy (AUC of SP Dkk-3 levels (0.633 was enhanced in multivariate models by including serum PSA (model A; AUC 0.658 or both, serum and SP PSA levels (model B; AUC 0.710. In a subpopulation with clinical follow-up > 3 years post-biopsy to ensure veracity of negative biopsy status (positive biopsy N = 21; negative biopsy N = 25 AUCs for SP Dkk-3, model A and B increased to 0.667, 0.724 and 0.777, respectively. Conclusions In multivariate models to detect PCa, inclusion of SP Dkk-3 levels, which were significantly elevated in biopsy-confirmed PCa patients, improved the diagnostic performance compared with serum PSA only.

  12. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, Pfasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated free tear lactoferrin levels in leprosy are associated with type 2 reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ebenezer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the association of demographics, leprosy and ocular characteristics with altered levels of lactoferrin in the tears of normal subjects and leprosy patients, and to detect the presence of antibodies to lactoferrin in these tear samples. Method: We collected light-stimulated tears from 298 leprosy patients and an equal number of normal subjects using the glass capillary method. Free lactoferrin levels were estimated using ELISA and the presence of antibodies to lactoferrin was detected using the immuno-blotting method. Significant associations were looked for between tear lactoferrin levels and demographic characteristics, leprosy characteristics such as type of disease, duration of disease, reactions, deformity and bacterial load, and ocular complications, using chi-square and regression analysis. Results: Tear lactoferrin levels with a mean (SD of 2.55 (2.83mg/ml in the control group were significantly different (P Conclusion: Age is inversely related to tear lactoferrin levels in normal subjects. Free lactoferrin levels in tears are significantly higher in leprosy patients compared with normal controls. Type 2 reactions in leprosy are significantly associated with elevated tear lactoferrin levels.

  14. Whole-body vibration training elevates creatine kinase levels in sedentary subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojanovic, Boris; Feihl, Francois; Liaudet, Lucas; Gremion, Gérald; Waeber, Bernard

    2011-07-07

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is an increasingly popular modality of muscle training, especially in sedentary subjects. We hypothesised that the vigorous muscle contractions elicited by WBV can cause muscle damage expressed as an elevation in muscle enzymes. Twenty inactive subjects, ten male and ten female, aged 22.7 ± 2.6, BMI 22.4 ± 2.1 were included based on the absence of regular physical activity as defined by international guidelines, and no history of recent trauma, musculoskeletal pathology, implanted prosthetics, cardiovascular disease or drug intake. The intervention consisted of one bout of high intensity WBV corresponding to a typical training session, involving all the major muscle groups. Plasma levels of muscle enzymes prior to and at 24, 48 and 96 hours post exercise (creatine kinase - CK, MB fraction, troponin I, aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase) were measured. In addition, blood lactate was assayed immediately after exercise. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was evaluated using a visual analogical scale. Five participants (25%) showed a significant increase in post exercise CK levels (> double of baseline). Maximal value was 3520 U/l. No change was observed in CK-MB or troponin I. Lactate increased to 10.0 ± 2.4 in men and 6.9 ± 2.4 in women. All participants had some degrees of DOMS, without correlation to enzymatic changes. WBV can provoke high CK elevation in healthy, medication-free inactive subjects. Such an elevation is transient and harmless, but could be wrongly attributed to drug induced myopathy, as in patients treated with statins. Practitioners should bear this in mind before discontinuing a potential life saving drug.

  15. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-08-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively.

  16. Investigation of potential sea level rise impact on the Nile Delta, Egypt using digital elevation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Emad; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the future impact of Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Nile Delta region in Egypt is assessed by evaluating the elevations of two freely available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): the SRTM and the ASTER-GDEM-V2. The SLR is a significant worldwide dilemma that has been triggered by recent climatic changes. In Egypt, the Nile Delta is projected to face SLR of 1 m by the end of the 21th century. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the future SLR impact on Nile Delta's land and population, this study corrected the DEM's elevations by using linear regression model with ground elevations from GPS survey. The information for the land cover types and future population numbers were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and the Gridded Population of the Worlds (GPWv3) datasets respectively. The DEM's vertical accuracies were assessed using GPS measurements and the uncertainty analysis revealed that the SRTM-DEM has positive bias of 2.5 m, while the ASTER-GDEM-V2 showed a positive bias of 0.8 m. The future inundated land cover areas and the affected population were illustrated based on two SLR scenarios of 0.5 m and 1 m. The SRTM DEM data indicated that 1 m SLR will affect about 3900 km(2) of cropland, 1280 km(2) of vegetation, 205 km(2) of wetland, 146 km(2) of urban areas and cause more than 6 million people to lose their houses. The overall vulnerability assessment using ASTER-GDEM-V2 indicated that the influence of SLR will be intense and confined along the coastal areas. For instance, the data indicated that 1 m SLR will inundate about 580 Km(2) (6%) of the total land cover areas and approximately 887 thousand people will be relocated. Accordingly, the uncertainty analysis of the DEM's elevations revealed that the ASTER-GDEM-V2 dataset product was considered the best to determine the future impact of SLR on the Nile Delta region.

  17. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  18. IgE myeloma with elevated level of serum CA125

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man-ling WANG; Qiang HUANG; Tian-xin YANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore clinical and laboratory features and significance of detecting serum carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) in immunoglobulin E (IgE) multiple myeloma. Methods: We reported the clinical findings of a male patient with IgE myeloma and elevated level of serum CA125 and reviewed the literature. Results: Laboratory tests of this patient on admission showed extremely high serum IgE and CA125, a bone marrow aspirate revealed abnormal plasma cells (38.4% of nucleated cells: 16.4% mature and 22% atypical), and in bone marrow biopsy, immunoperoxidase staining showed positive cytoplasmic staining for IgE and κ light chain within the vast majority of plasma cells. Computed tomography (CT) bone scans indicated wedge shape change and compressive fracture of thoracic vertebrae, and emission computed tomography (ECT) discovered multiple punctiform aggregation of radiation in both cervical ribs and spine. The serum IgE and CA125 gradually decreased to normal limits after eight cycles of chemotherapy. This patient is alive well with an 18-month complete remission. Conclusion: We reported the first case of IgE myeloma with elevated level of serum CA125. To further evaluate clinical characteristics and significance of CA125 in IgE myeloma, more cases are needed.

  19. Elevated urine heparanase levels are associated with proteinuria and decreased renal allograft function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Shafat

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome.

  20. Elevated levels of plasma phenylalanine in schizophrenia: a guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 metabolic pathway abnormality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoluwa Okusaga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. METHODS: We measured non-fasting plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine in 950 schizophrenia patients and 1000 healthy controls. We carried out multivariate analyses to compare log transformed phenylalanine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio between patients and controls. RESULTS: Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients had higher phenylalanine (p<0.0001 and phenylalanine: tyrosine ratio (p<0.0001 but tyrosine did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.596. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated phenylalanine and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio in the blood of schizophrenia patients have to be replicated in longitudinal studies. The results may relate to an abnormal PAH function in schizophrenia that could become a target for novel preventative and interventional approaches.

  1. The effect of educational level elevation on the mathematical skill in hearing-impaired students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Sharifi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: There is a relation between language skills and science learning in educational approach. Hearing-impairment and delay in learning of language skills influence the progress of learning. The aim of this research was to study the effect of educational level elevation on growth of mathematical skill. Therefore, third grade hearing-impaired students of secondary school, and forth grade hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students of elementary school were compared in terms of mathematical skill.Methods: The research was cross-sectional and the internationally standardized mathematics questions (2007 were selected as the tools of the test. The sample included 31 students of 4th grade elementary and third grade of secondary school with sever hearing loss from exceptional schools, and 17 normal-hearing students were randomly selected from ordinary schools next to the exceptional schools in Robatkarim, Karaj, and Shahriyar cities, Iran.Results: According to data analysis there was a meaningful difference between hearing-impaired students of forth and third grades and normal-hearing students in the three fields of knowledge, application and argument (p0.05.Conclusion: No significant improvement was seen in the mathematical skill of hearing-impaired students by educational level elevation. Writing mathematical books for the pre-elementary courses, revision of teaching methods, and increasing teaching hours are necessary in mathematics.

  2. Elevated circulating levels of copper and nickel are found in elderly subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, P Monica; Olsén, Lena; Lind, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Identified risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are hypertension, diabetes and obesity. However, since these risk factors only explain a part of the variation in left ventricular mass, we investigated if trace and heavy metals might also play a role in LVH. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were determined by echocardiography together with eleven different trace and heavy metals in 993 subjects aged 70 years. Only copper levels were significantly related to LVMI following adjustment for sex, blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, diabetes and body mass index (BMI) (p<0.0001). However, both copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were related to RWT following adjustment (p<0.0001). When divided into four geometric groups, both Cu and Ni were elevated in subjects with concentric remodelling and concentric LVH, but not in those with eccentric hypertrophy, when compared to subjects with a normal left ventricle. No relationships were found for zinc, aluminium, manganese, molybdenum, mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt or chromium. Elevated levels of copper and nickel are found in elderly subjects with LVH, especially of the concentric type, following adjustment for known risk factors for LVH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does elevated osteopontin level play an important role in the development of scoliosis in bipedal mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ning; Li, Mo; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Wang, Binbin; Tang, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies implied indirectly that an elevated osteopontin (OPN) level might play a key role in the pathomechanism of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nonetheless, up to now, no direct evidence was proposed to determine this issue. The aim was to determine the role of OPN in the pathomechanism of scoliosis. This was an experimental study to investigate the role of OPN in a bipedal mouse scoliosis model. All procedures were performed under the approval and supervision of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of our university. A new bipedal mouse model with elevated OPN level was established in this study. Amputation of forelimbs and tail was performed on 80 male C3H/HeJ mice at the age of 3 weeks. Then, these mice were randomly divided into two groups: Group A consisted of 40 mice treated with OPN 40 mg/kg daily and Group B consisted of the remaining 40 mice treated with saline. Then, 40 quadruped mice with saline were included in Group C. Body length, X-rays, and computed tomographic scans were obtained at the twentieth week. Then, scoliosis incidence, curve magnitude, and circulating OPN level were compared among groups. Osteopontin level was significantly higher in Group A compared with that in Groups B and C. Spine deformity was identified in 37 mice in Group A, 21 mice in Group B, and 5 mice in Group C. The average Cobb angle was 29.8° in Group A, 20.9° in Group B, and 17.5° in Group C. Although no significant difference of body length was found, significant statistical difference was noted in terms of scoliosis incidence and curve magnitude, among the three groups. The results of the present study indicated that the elevated OPN level might play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of scoliosis, that is, it not only raises the risk for scoliosis in bipedal mice but also contributes to curve progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated Troponin Level with Negative Outcome Was Found in Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buse Hasırcı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Troponin increment is a highly sensitive and specific marker of myocardial necrosis. The reason of high troponin levels in acute stroke is not clear. The aim of this study was to identify the relationships between cardiac troponin-I (cTnI level and stroke. Methods. This study recruited 868 patients who were admitted to Istanbul Medeniyet University due to acute ischemic stroke, and the diagnosis was confirmed by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The patients with the causes increasing troponin level were excluded from the study. A total of 239 patients were finally included in the study. Clinics were evaluated by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS. Results. Serum level of troponin was higher in ischemic stroke patients with anterior circulation involvement in comparison to posterior involvement or hemorrhagic stroke (. Higher troponin levels related to increased stroke scale scores at discharge in ischemic stroke (. The level of cTnI was correlated with stroke scale scores at both admission and discharge in posterior stroke patients (. Conclusion. cTnI is a highly specific and sensitive marker of myocardial damage, and its elevation was associated with more severe neurological deficits in acute ischemic stroke.

  5. Elevated Platelet Activating Factor Level in Ischemia-Related Arrhythmia and Its Electrophysiological Effect on Myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong Kang; ZHAO Shui Ping; YU Pu Lin; SHI Jing; GU Cheng Dong; SUN Hong Tao; ZHANG Guo Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The mechanism through which platelet activating factor (PAF) induces cardiac electrical activity and arrhythmia is not well understood and previous studies have suggested a potential involvement of ion channels in its action. The present study was aimed to clarify the role of PAF in fatal arrhythmias following acute myocardia infarction (AMI) and the underlying mechanism. Methods (1) Blood PAF levels were measured among 72 AMI patients at the time of diagnosis with AMI and 48 h later, and their electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded continuously. (2) Ischemia simulation and surface electrocardiogram were conducted in 20 pigs and their PAF levels were measured. (3) PAF perfusion and standard microelectrode recording were performed on guinea pig papillary muscles. Results In both humans and pigs, elevated PAF levels were detected in AMI and simulated ischemia, respectively, and even higher PAF levels were found when fatal arrhythmias occurred. In guinea pig myocardium, PAF induced a shortening of action potential duration at 90% level of repolarization (APD90)under non-ischemic conditions and a more pronounced shortening under early simulated ischemic conditions. Conclusion AMI and ischemia are associated with increased PAF levels in humans and pigs, which are further raised when fatal arrhythmia follows. The effects of PAF on the myocardium may be mediated by multiple ion channels.

  6. Tumor promoter 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate elevates serum progesterone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, O.K.; Kerr, S.J.

    1979-04-27

    The phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA), the most potent promoter of two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin, simulates some of the early effects of several carcinogens in immature chicks. Actinomycin D, ethionine, thioacetamide (non-mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test) and kepone are known to increase serum progesterone concentrations and induce synthesis of ovalbumin in chicks. Intraperitoneal administration of TPA to chicks caused a 5- to 7-fold elevation of serum progesterone levels and induced ovalbumin synthesis. Phorbol ester, 4..cap alpha..-phorbol-12, 13-didecanoate, which is inactive as a mouse skin tumor promoter, did not increase serum progesterone levels nor did it induce ovalbumin synthesis.

  7. Low-level lead exposure and elevations in blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ellen M; Navas-Acien, Ana; Herbstman, Julie B; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Halden, Rolf U; Witter, Frank R; Goldman, Lynn R

    2011-05-01

    Lead exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure during pregnancy; however, the magnitude of this relationship at low exposure levels is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between low-level lead exposure and blood pressure during late pregnancy. We collected admission and maximum (based on systolic) blood pressures during labor and delivery among 285 women in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured umbilical cord blood lead using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, race, median household income, parity, smoking during pregnancy, prepregnancy body mass index, and anemia. These models were used to calculate benchmark dose values. Geometric mean cord blood lead was 0.66 μg/dL (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.70). Comparing blood pressure measurements between those in the highest and those in the lowest quartile of lead exposure, we observed a 6.87-mmHg (1.51-12.21 mmHg) increase in admission systolic blood pressure and a 4.40-mmHg (0.21-8.59 mmHg) increase in admission diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for confounders. Corresponding values for maximum blood pressure increase were 7.72 (1.83-13.60) and 8.33 (1.14-15.53) mmHg. Benchmark dose lower limit values for a 1-SD increase in blood pressure were blood lead for all blood pressure end points. A significant association between low-level lead exposures and elevations in maternal blood pressure during labor and delivery can be observed at umbilical blood lead levels < 2 μg/dL.

  8. Interactive effects of salinity and elevated CO2 levels on juvenile eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Gary H; Ivanina, Anna V; Matoo, Omera B; Pörtner, Hans O; Lannig, Gisela; Bock, Christian; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) lead to acidification of the ocean and alter seawater carbonate chemistry, which can negatively impact calcifying organisms, including mollusks. In estuaries, exposure to elevated CO(2) levels often co-occurs with other stressors, such as reduced salinity, which enhances the acidification trend, affects ion and acid-base regulation of estuarine calcifiers and modifies their response to ocean acidification. We studied the interactive effects of salinity and partial pressure of CO(2) (P(CO2)) on biomineralization and energy homeostasis in juveniles of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, a common estuarine bivalve. Juveniles were exposed for 11 weeks to one of two environmentally relevant salinities (30 or 15 PSU) either at current atmospheric P(CO2) (∼400 μatm, normocapnia) or P(CO2) projected by moderate IPCC scenarios for the year 2100 (∼700-800 μatm, hypercapnia). Exposure of the juvenile oysters to elevated P(CO2) and/or low salinity led to a significant increase in mortality, reduction of tissue energy stores (glycogen and lipid) and negative soft tissue growth, indicating energy deficiency. Interestingly, tissue ATP levels were not affected by exposure to changing salinity and P(CO2), suggesting that juvenile oysters maintain their cellular energy status at the expense of lipid and glycogen stores. At the same time, no compensatory upregulation of carbonic anhydrase activity was found under the conditions of low salinity and high P(CO2). Metabolic profiling using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed altered metabolite status following low salinity exposure; specifically, acetate levels were lower in hypercapnic than in normocapnic individuals at low salinity. Combined exposure to hypercapnia and low salinity negatively affected mechanical properties of shells of the juveniles, resulting in reduced hardness and fracture resistance. Thus, our data suggest that the combined effects of elevated P(CO2) and

  9. Elevation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 level in Pallister-Killian syndrome: implications for the postnatal growth retardation phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kosuke; Kellogg, Emily; Fujiki, Katsunori; Kaur, Maninder; Tilton, Richard K; Noon, Sarah; Wilkens, Alisha; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Krantz, Ian D

    2015-06-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a multi-system developmental disorder caused by tetrasomy 12p that exhibits tissue-limited mosaicism. Probands with PKS often demonstrate a unique growth profile consisting of macrosomia at birth with deceleration of growth postnatally. We have previously demonstrated that cultured skin fibroblasts from PKS probands have significantly elevated expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP2). To further evaluate the role of IGFBP2 in PKS, the amount of IGFBP2 secreted from cultured skin fibroblast cell lines and serum IGFBP2 levels were measured in probands with PKS. Approximately 60% of PKS fibroblast cell lines secreted higher levels of IGFBP2 compared to control fibroblasts, although the remaining 40% of PKS samples produced comparable level of IGFBP2 to that of control fibroblasts. Serum IGFBP2 levels were also measured in PKS probands and were elevated in 40% of PKS probands. PKS probands with elevated IGFBP2 manifested with severe postnatal growth retardation. IGFBPs are the family of related proteins that bind IGFs with high affinity and are typically thought to attenuate IGF action. We suggest that elevated IGFBP2 levels might play a role in the growth retardation phenotype of PKS.

  10. Serum Interleukin-34 Levels Are Elevated in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxu Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-34 (IL-34 was initially identified as an alternative ligand for the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R to mediate the biology of mononuclear phagocytic cells. Recently, IL-34 was found to be associated with chronic inflammation, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Both RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are multifactorial autoimmune diseases and are characterized by excessive immune and inflammatory responses. Thus, we investigated whether IL-34 is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. In all, 78 SLE patients and 53 healthy controls were enrolled in the research. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was employed to measure the concentrations of serological IL-34. Then serum IL-34 levels between the SLE group and healthy controls were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. Meanwhile, the correlations between the serum IL-34 levels and disease activity indexes and other established serum markers were assessed. Furthermore, the serum IL-34 levels of 20 active SLE patients were reevaluated when diseases were in the remission stage from corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs. Serum IL-34 levels were significantly higher in SLE patients compared to healthy controls. Their levels were remarkably associated with accumulation of the clinical features of SLE. Additionally, IL-34 titers were positively correlated with the SLE disease activity indexes, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA titers and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, and inversely with complement3 (C3 levels. Moreover, serum IL-34 levels were significantly decreased after successful treatment of SLE. Serum IL-34 could be a candidate biomarker for SLE as there are elevated serum levels in treatment-naive SLE patients and we saw a significant decrease after effective treatment.

  11. Serum Interleukin-34 Levels Are Elevated in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxu; Cao, Ju; Lai, Xiaofei

    2016-12-28

    Interleukin-34 (IL-34) was initially identified as an alternative ligand for the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) to mediate the biology of mononuclear phagocytic cells. Recently, IL-34 was found to be associated with chronic inflammation, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are multifactorial autoimmune diseases and are characterized by excessive immune and inflammatory responses. Thus, we investigated whether IL-34 is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. In all, 78 SLE patients and 53 healthy controls were enrolled in the research. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to measure the concentrations of serological IL-34. Then serum IL-34 levels between the SLE group and healthy controls were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. Meanwhile, the correlations between the serum IL-34 levels and disease activity indexes and other established serum markers were assessed. Furthermore, the serum IL-34 levels of 20 active SLE patients were reevaluated when diseases were in the remission stage from corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs. Serum IL-34 levels were significantly higher in SLE patients compared to healthy controls. Their levels were remarkably associated with accumulation of the clinical features of SLE. Additionally, IL-34 titers were positively correlated with the SLE disease activity indexes, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA) titers and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and inversely with complement3 (C3) levels. Moreover, serum IL-34 levels were significantly decreased after successful treatment of SLE. Serum IL-34 could be a candidate biomarker for SLE as there are elevated serum levels in treatment-naive SLE patients and we saw a significant decrease after effective treatment.

  12. Efficient Quantitative Analysis of Carboxyalkylpyrrole Ethanolamine Phospholipids: Elevated Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junhong; Wang, Hua; Hrinczenko, Borys; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-07-18

    γ-Hydroxy-α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, generated by oxidative damage of polyunsaturated phospholipids, form pyrrole derivatives that incorporate the ethanolamine phospholipid (EP) amino group such as 2-pentylpyrrole (PP)-EP and 2-(ω-carboxyalkyl)pyrrole (CAP)-EP derivatives: 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP)-EP, 2-(ω-carboxypropyl)pyrrole (CPP)-EP, and 2-(ω-carboxyheptyl)pyrrole (CHP)-EP. Because EPs occur in vivo in various forms, a complex mixture of pyrrole-modified EPs with different molecular weights is expected to be generated. To provide a sensitive index of oxidative stress, all of the differences in mass related to the glycerophospholipid moieties were removed by releasing a single CAP-ethanolamine (ETN) or PP-ETN from each mixture by treatment with phospholipase D. Accurate quantization was achieved using the corresponding ethanolamine-d4 pyrroles as internal standards. The product mixture obtained by phospholipolysis of total blood phospholipids from sickle cell disease (SCD) patients was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to measure CAP-EP and PP-EP levels in blood plasma from clinical monitoring of SCD patients. We found uniformly elevated blood levels of CEP-EP (63.9 ± 9.7 nM) similar to mean levels in blood from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients (56.3 ± 37.1 nM), and 2-fold lower levels (27.6 ± 3.6 nM, n = 5) were detected in plasma from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis, although mean levels remain higher than those (12.1 ± 10.5 nM) detected in blood from healthy controls. Plasma levels of CPP-EPs from SCD clinic patients were 4-fold higher than those of SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (45.1 ± 10.9 nM, n = 5 versus 10.9 ± 3.4 nM, n = 6; p < 0.002). PP-EP concentration in plasma from SCD clinic patients is nearly 4.8-fold higher than its level in plasma samples from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (7.06 ± 4.05 vs 1.48 ± 0.92 nM; p < 0.05). Because

  13. Are serum hepcidin levels chronically elevated in collegiate female distance runners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoya; Patterson, Kaitlyn J; Gieschen, Kayla M; Bodary, Peter F

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of iron deficiency tends to be higher in athletic populations, especially among endurance-trained females. Recent studies have provided evidence that the iron-regulating hormone hepcidin is transiently increased with acute exercise and suggest that this may contribute to iron deficiency anemia in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting serum hepcidin is significantly elevated in highly trained female distance runners compared with a low exercise control group. Due to the importance of the monocyte in the process of iron recycling, monocyte expression of hepcidin was also measured. A single fasted blood sample was collected midseason from twenty female distance runners averaging 81.9 ± 14.2 km of running per week. Ten age-, gender-, and BMI-matched low-exercise control subjects provided samples during the same period using identical collection procedures. There was no difference between the runners (RUN) and control subjects (CON) for serum hepcidin levels (p = .159). In addition, monocyte hepcidin gene expression was not different between the two groups (p = .635). Furthermore, no relationship between weekly training volume and serum hepcidin concentration was evident among the trained runners. The results suggest that hepcidin is not chronically elevated with sustained training in competitive collegiate runners. This is an important finding because the current clinical conditions that link hepcidin to anemia include a sustained elevation in serum hepcidin. Nevertheless, additional studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of the well-documented, transient rise in hepcidin that follows acute sessions of exercise.

  14. Hepatitis A virus genotype IA-infected patient with marked elevation of aspartate aminotransferase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yoshifumi; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Takahashi, Koji; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Arai, Makoto; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-02-01

    We describe a case of acute liver failure (ALF) without hepatic encephalopathy with marked elevation of aminotransferase due to hepatitis A, according to the revised Japanese criteria of ALF. This liver biopsy of the patient showed compatible to acute viral hepatitis and she immediately recovered without intensive care. She had no comorbid disorders. Of interest, phylogenetic tree analysis using almost complete genomes of hepatitis A virus (HAV) demonstrated that the HAV isolate from her belonged to the HAV subgenotype IA strain and was similar to the HAJFF-Kan12 strain (99% nucleotide identity) or FH1 strain (98% nucleotide identity), which is associated with severe or fulminant hepatitis A. Careful interpretation of the association between HAV genome variations and severity of hepatitis A is needed and the mechanism of the severe hepatitis should be explored.

  15. Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron- sufficient microcytosis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, D.; Strehl, F.; Human Resources

    1998-05-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P< 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels.

  16. Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, A.

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

  17. Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: A prospective follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Winnie CW

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009. Methods In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 μg/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system. Results The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects. The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 μg/mmol (median 0.8 μg/mmol. Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%. We invited 47 (9% subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months. None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol. Conclusions Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level.

  18. beta-Alanine elevates dopamine levels in the rat nucleus accumbens: antagonism by strychnine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Mia; Clarke, Rhona B C; Chau, PeiPei; Adermark, Louise; Söderpalm, Bo

    2010-04-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) have recently been suggested to be involved in the reinforcing and dopamine-elevating properties of ethanol via a neuronal circuitry involving the VTA. Apart from ethanol, both glycine and taurine have the ability to modulate dopamine output via GlyRs in the same brain region. In the present study, we wanted to explore whether yet another endogenous ligand for the GlyR, beta-alanine, had similar effects. To this end, we monitored dopamine in the nAc by means of in vivo microdialysis and found that local perfusion of beta-alanine increased dopamine output. In line with previous observations investigating ethanol, glycine and taurine, the competitive GlyR antagonist strychnine completely blocked the dopamine elevation. The present results suggest that beta-alanine has the ability to modulate dopamine levels in the nAc via strychnine-sensitive GlyRs, and are consistent with previous studies suggesting the importance of this receptor for modulating dopamine output.

  19. Human embryonic stem cells express elevated levels of multiple pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Madden

    Full Text Available Two of the greatest challenges in regenerative medicine today remain (1 the ability to culture human embryonic stem cells (hESCs at a scale sufficient to satisfy clinical demand and (2 the ability to eliminate teratoma-forming cells from preparations of cells with clinically desirable phenotypes. Understanding the pathways governing apoptosis in hESCs may provide a means to address these issues. Limiting apoptosis could aid scaling efforts, whereas triggering selective apoptosis in hESCs could eliminate unwanted teratoma-forming cells. We focus here on the BCL-2 family of proteins, which regulate mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. We used quantitative PCR to compare the steady-state expression profile of all human BCL-2 family members in hESCs with that of human primary cells from various origins and two cancer lines. Our findings indicate that hESCs express elevated levels of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only BCL-2 family members NOXA, BIK, BIM, BMF and PUMA when compared with differentiated cells and cancer cells. However, compensatory expression of pro-survival BCL-2 family members in hESCs was not observed, suggesting a possible explanation for the elevated rates of apoptosis observed in proliferating hESC cultures, as well as a mechanism that could be exploited to limit hESC-derived neoplasms.

  20. Elevated levels of a glycoprotein antigen (P-80) in gray and white matter of brain from victims of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, T F; Quackenbush, E J; Letarte, M; Moscarello, M A

    1986-06-01

    The levels of a glycoprotein reactive with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 44D10 in white and gray matter from brains of victims of several neurological diseases, including Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, were compared to that of normal individuals. The concentration of antigen reactive with MAb 44D10 was elevated in both gray and white matter of all MS brains examined, but not in brains with other neurological diseases. The increase in the concentration of antigen varied amongst the MS brains, such that the levels of antigen were only slightly increased in 2 of the 6 MS brains whereas 2 to 4 fold higher levels were found in the other 4 brains. Increased levels of antigen were detected in gray matter of MS brains, whereas this antigen was either not detected or present in very low levels in gray matter homogenates prepared from age-matched normal brains. MAb Leu 1, which reacts with T lymphocytes, was not absorbed by normal and MS brain tissue suggesting the increase in antigen reactive with MAb 44D10 in MS brain homogenates was not associated with non-specific infiltration by T lymphocytes. Comparison of the purified antigen from MS gray matter and normal white matter by gel electrophoresis demonstrated that MAb 44D10 was reacting with a similar protein in both tissues with an apparent molecular weight of 80K. We have named this molecule P-80 glycoprotein.

  1. Genetic predisposition to elevated levels of C-reactive protein is associated with a decreased risk for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Smith, Caitlin J; Saftlas, Audrey F; Triche, Elizabeth W; Bjonnes, Andrew; Keating, Brendan J; Saxena, Richa; Breheny, Patrick J; Dewan, Andrew T; Robinson, Jennifer G; Hoh, Josephine; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2017-02-01

    To examine the association between genetic predisposition to elevated C-reactive protein (CRP)and risk for preeclampsia using validated genetic loci for C-reactive protein. Preeclampsia cases (n = 177) and normotensive controls (n = 116) were selected from live birth certificates to nulliparous Iowa women during the period August 2002-May 2005. Disease status was verified by the medical chart review. Genetic predisposition to CRP was estimated by a genetic risk score on the basis of established loci for CRP levels. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between the genotype score and preeclampsia. Replication analyses were performed in an independent, US population of preeclampsia cases (n = 516) and controls (n = 1,097) of European ancestry. The genetic risk score (GRS) related to higher levels of CRP demonstrated a significantly decreased risk of preeclampsia (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96). When the GRS was analyzed by quartile, an inverse linear trend was observed (p = 0.0006). The results were similar after adjustments for the body mass index (BMI), smoking, and leisure-time physical activity. In the independent replication population, the association with the CRP GRS was also marginally significant (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92, 1.02). Meta-analysis of the two studies was statistically significant (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90, 0.99). Our data suggest an inverse, counterintuitive association between the genetic predisposition to elevated levels of CRP and a decreased risk of preeclampsia. This suggests that the blood CRP level is a marker of preeclampsia, but it does not appear to be a factor on the causal pathway.

  2. Cystine accumulation attenuates insulin release from the pancreatic β-cell due to elevated oxidative stress and decreased ATP levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Bernadette; Sumayao, Rodolfo; Slattery, Craig; McMorrow, Tara; Newsholme, Philip

    2015-12-01

    The pancreatic β-cell has reduced antioxidant defences making it more susceptible to oxidative stress. In cystinosis, a lysosomal storage disorder, an altered redox state may contribute to cellular dysfunction. This rare disease is caused by an abnormal lysosomal cystine transporter, cystinosin, which causes excessive accumulation of cystine in the lysosome. Cystinosis associated kidney damage and dysfunction leads to the Fanconi syndrome and ultimately end-stage renal disease. Following kidney transplant, cystine accumulation in other organs including the pancreas leads to multi-organ dysfunction. In this study, a Ctns gene knockdown model of cystinosis was developed in the BRIN-BD11 rat clonal pancreatic β-cell line using Ctns-targeting siRNA. Additionally there was reduced cystinosin expression, while cell cystine levels were similarly elevated to the cystinotic state. Decreased levels of chronic (24 h) and acute (20 min) nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion were observed. This decrease may be due to depressed ATP generation particularly from glycolysis. Increased ATP production and the ATP/ADP ratio are essential for insulin secretion. Oxidised glutathione levels were augmented, resulting in a lower [glutathione/oxidised glutathione] redox potential. Additionally, the mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced, apoptosis levels were elevated, as were markers of oxidative stress, including reactive oxygen species, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, the basal and activated phosphorylated forms of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB were increased in cells with silenced Ctns. From this study, the cystinotic-like pancreatic β-cell model demonstrated that the altered oxidative status of the cell, resulted in depressed mitochondrial function and pathways of ATP production, causing reduced nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion.

  3. Clinical significance of elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level in acute viral hepatitis A (AHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung In; Kim, Su Sun; Choi, Bo Youn; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Sung Jun; Park, Hye Won; Kim, Hyoung Su; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Kyung Ho; Lee, Jin Heon; Kim, Hak Yang; Jang, Myoung Kuk

    2013-10-01

    The clinical course of acute viral hepatitis A (AHA) is highly variable. Serum alphafetoprotein (AFP) level is often elevated in various types of acute liver injuries, indicating active liver regeneration. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of serum AFP level in the aspect of the early recovery in AHA. A total of 238 patients with AHA, confirmed by IgM anti-hepatitis A virus, were included. The patients were classified according to serum AFP level. Multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards model using dichotomized clinical variables was performed to identify the independent predictors for early recovery (ALT normalization within 2 weeks). The median age (range) was 30 (17-50) years and male dominant (62%, 147/238). Compared to low AFP group, high AFP group (>10 ng/mL) had significantly lower platelet counts (p 10 ng/mL) was the only independent predictor for early recovery (Hazard ratio (HR); 2.392, 95% CI; 1.564-3.659, p = 0.0001). High serum AFP level (>10 ng/mL) may indicate the already-started recovery through active liver regeneration or the early recovery within 2 weeks in AHA.

  4. Elevated plasma angiopoietin-2 levels and primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Diamond

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Primary graft dysfunction (PGD is a significant contributor to early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Increased vascular permeability in the allograft has been identified as a possible mechanism leading to PGD. Angiopoietin-2 serves as a partial antagonist to the Tie-2 receptor and induces increased endothelial permeability. We hypothesized that elevated Ang2 levels would be associated with development of PGD. METHODS: We performed a case-control study, nested within the multi-center Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Plasma angiopoietin-2 levels were measured pre-transplant and 6 and 24 hours post-reperfusion. The primary outcome was development of grade 3 PGD in the first 72 hours. The association of angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and PGD was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE. RESULTS: There were 40 PGD subjects and 79 non-PGD subjects included for analysis. Twenty-four PGD subjects (40% and 47 non-PGD subjects (59% received a transplant for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Among all subjects, GEE modeling identified a significant change in angiopoietin-2 level over time in cases compared to controls (p = 0.03. The association between change in angiopoietin-2 level over the perioperative time period was most significant in patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of IPF (p = 0.02; there was no statistically significant correlation between angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and the development of PGD in the subset of patients transplanted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (p = 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin-2 levels were significantly associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation. Further studies examining the regulation of endothelial cell permeability in the pathogenesis of PGD are indicated.

  5. Elevated levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, H.; Andersen, K.K.; Frystyk, J.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that type 1 diabetic patients have elevated total levels of the adipocyte-derived adipocytokine adiponectin. However, adiponectin circulates in three different subforms, and the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subform is believed to be the primary biologically...... active form. The effects of the medium-molecular-weight (MMW) subform and the low-molecular-weight (LMW) subform are still unresolved. PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to investigate the distribution of the three molecular subforms of adiponectin in well-characterized groups of type 1 diabetics...... with varying degrees of nephropathy as well as in healthy control subjects. STUDY POPULATION: Two hundred seven individuals were included: 58 type 1 diabetics with normoalbuminuria, 46 with microalbuminuria, 46 with macroalbuminuria, and 57 matched controls. METHODS: The HMW, MMW, and LMW subforms were...

  6. Elevated Levels of Microbial Translocation Markers and CCL2 Among Older HIV-1-Infected Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Eileen; Lockhart, Ainsley; Huang, Lisa; Robles, Yvonne; Becerril, Carlos; Romero-Tejeda, Marisol; Albrecht, Mary A; Palmer, Christine D; Bosch, Ronald J; Altfeld, Marcus; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lin, Nina H

    2016-03-01

    The aging of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected population obligates a focus on the interaction between aging, comorbid conditions, and HIV-1. We recruited a cohort of HIV-1-infected men aged ≤ 35 years or ≥ 50 years who were receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed plasma markers of inflammation; T-cell activation, exhaustion, proliferation; and innate cellular subsets and functional capacity. Levels of lipopolysaccharide and the plasma marker of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 were significantly elevated in older HIV-infected men despite comparable cellular phenotypes. Compared with similarly age-stratified uninfected subjects, older HIV-1-infected adults were also more frequently in the upper quartile of soluble CD14 expression.

  7. Plasma high-mobility group box 1 levels predict mortality after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten V; Pedersen, Sune; Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the potential association between plasma high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels and outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention.......We evaluated the potential association between plasma high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels and outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention....

  8. [The elevated level of anti-thyroid antibodies aTPO in chronic spontaneous urticaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaykivska, Zlata; Antoszczyk, Grazyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of chronic urticaria (CU - Chronic Urticaria) is one of the most difficult issues in allergy practice. Studies on the etiopathogenesis of chronic urticaria suggest that environmental factors, immune, genetic and hormonal are involved in triggering and maintaining the reaction of hives. In practice, despite detailed diagnosis is usually not possible to determine the real cause of the disease. For this reason, the use of causal treatment for patients suffering from chronic urticaria is not possible and supportive treatment is often ineffective. 0.1% of the population suffers from chronic spontaneous urticaria, which main cause has not been detected. Very often CU coexists with autoimmune thyroid dysfunction. Studies confirm higher incidence of thyroid antibodies in patients with chronic urticaria than in the general population. We analyzed 100 patients who met the criteria for chronic urticaria according to the WHO, in Allergology Clinic of the University Hospital Jagiellonian University Medical College. According to our study 17.4% of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria occurred elevated titer of anti-TPO antibodies. In patients with non-spontaneous type of CU, elevated titer of anti-TPO antibodies only occurred in 8.3% of patients, and this difference was statistically significant p = < 0.003. All the patients had thyroid levels normal and there were no clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. Our research indicates a link with autoimmune thyroid diseases, especially Hashimoto's disease, with a prevalence of CU. It is necessary to conduct further studies to confirm the relationship of pathogenic autoimmune thyroid disorders with the occurrence of CU, which will help to provide the causal treatment of spontaneous CU coexisting with high levels of anti-TPO antibodies in patients with euthyroid status.

  9. Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids with a Significant Elevation of β-2 Microglobulin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Naoaki; Oya, Soichi; Mori, Harushi; Matsui, Toru

    2015-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a relapsing-remitting disorder for which steroid administration is a key to control the progression. CLIPPERS can exhibit radiological features similar to malignant lymphoma, whose diagnosis is confounded by prior steroid administration. We report a case of CLIPPERS accompanied by abnormal elevation of β-2 microglobulin in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A 62-year-old man started to experience numbness in all fingers of his left hand one year ago, which gradually extended to his body trunk and legs on both sides. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated numerous small enhancing spots scattered in his brain and spinal cord. CSF levels of β-2 microglobulin were elevated; although this often indicates central nervous system involvement in leukemia and lymphoma, the lesions were diagnosed as CLIPPERS based on the pathological findings from a biopsy specimen. We emphasize the importance of biopsy to differentiate between CLIPPERS and malignant lymphoma because the temporary radiological response to steroid might be the same in both diseases but the treatment strategies regarding the use of steroid are quite different.

  10. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra. PMID:16722306

  11. A National Assessment of Sea Level Rise Exposure Using Lidar Elevation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Third National Climate Assessment addressed sea level rise and aggravated coastal flood exposure in all regions, but was completed before high quality lidar-based elevation data became available throughout the entire coastal United States (excluding Alaska). Here we present what we believe to be the first full national assessment incorporating these data. The assessment includes tabulation of land less than 1-6 m above the local high tide line, and of a wide range of features sitting on that land, including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and a wide range of other infrastructure and critical facilities, as well as EPA-listed facilities that are potential sources of contamination during floods or permanent inundation. Tabulations span from zip code to national levels. Notable patterns include the strong concentration of exposure across multiple scales, with a small number of states accounting for most of the total national exposure; and a small number of zip codes accounting for a large proportion of the exposure within many states. Additionally, different features show different exposure patterns; in one example, land and road miles have relatively high exposure but population and property have relatively low exposure in North Carolina. The assessment further places this exposure analysis in the context of localized sea level rise projections integrated with coastal flood risk.

  12. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite, progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  13. Application of plastic polymers in remediating wine with elevated alkyl-methoxypyrazine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botezatu, Andreea; Pickering, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    3-Alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) are odour-active compounds that elicit atypical green aromas and flavours in some wines, and are resilient to removal using traditional wine-making approaches. They originate either as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles inadvertently introduced during wine processing ("ladybug taint") or as grape-derived constituents that are undesirable at elevated levels. In this study we investigated the capacity of a selection of plastic polymers to reduce concentrations of three MPs: isopropyl methoxypyrazine (IPMP), secbutyl methoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutyl methoxypyrazine (IBMP). In Trial 1, red wine was spiked with IPMP (20 ng/l), SBMP (20 ng/l) and IBMP (20 ng/l), then separately treated with 13 plastic polymers (surface area 350 cm(2)/l). Three polymers were then identified for further testing based on the results from Trial 1: silicone, ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) and a poly-lactic acid-based biodegradable polymer. In Trial 2, the efficacy of these selected polymers to reduce MP levels in red wine was tested as a function of contact time. Solid-phase micro-extraction multi-dimensional GC-MS was used to measure MP levels before and after treatment with the polymers. Results showed significant reductions in all target odorants after 24 h treatment: silicone reduced IPMP and IBMP by 96% and 100%, respectively, while the biodegradable polymer decreased IPMP and IBMP concentrations by 52% and 36%, respectively. EVA was less effective in lowering MP levels (7% IPMP and 23% IBMP after 24 h). Taken overall, the data suggest the potential for the use of poly-lactic acid and silicone in treating wines contaminated by ladybug taint, as well as in reducing high levels of grape-derived MPs.

  14. [Elevated serum aldosterone levels in dialysis patients: Are we underusing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Reyes, M J; Velasco, S; Gutierrez, C; Gonzalez Villalba, M J; Heras, M; Molina, A; Callejas, R; Rodríguez, A; Calle, L; Lopes, V

    Serum aldosteronelevels (SA) are a marker of cardiovascular (CV) risk in the general population. To analyze SA levels in dialysis patients and its relationship with characteristics of dialysis; comorbidity; blood pressure and the use of blocking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system agents (BSRAA). We determined SA in 102 patients: 81 on hemodialysis (HD) and 21 on peritoneal dialysis. Mean age 71.4±12 years; 54.9% male; 29.4% diabetics. Mean time on dialysis 59.3±67 months. In 44 HD patients plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured. Mean SA was 72.6±114.9ng/dl (normal range 1.17-23.6ng/dl). A total of 57.8% of patients had above normal levels which were not related to dialysis characteristics or comorbidity. Only 21% of patients with heart failure and 19.2% with ischemic heart disease used BSRAA. A number of 25 patients treated with BSRAA had significantly lower levels of SA. There was an inverse correlation between AS and systolic blood pressure (SBP), and direct with PRA. The logistic regression analysis conducted to find SA levels above the median associated factors showed that SBP was the only independent risk variable in the overall population (OR 0.97; P=.022); in the 44 patients in whom PRA was determined this was the only independent risk factor (OR 2.24; P=.012). A high percentage of dialysis patients have elevated levels of SA that are associated to diminished SBP and activated PRA and not to dialysis characteristics. In patients with a history of heart disease we underuse BSRAA. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated levels of circulating DNA in cardiovascular disease patients: metagenomic profiling of microbiome in the circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Rathinavel, Andiappan; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Sivakumar, Ramamoorthy; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. An expanding body of evidence supports the role of human microbiome in the establishment of CVDs and, this has gained much attention recently. This work was aimed to study the circulating human microbiome in CVD patients and healthy subjects. The levels of circulating cell free DNA (circDNA) was higher in CVD patients (n = 80) than in healthy controls (n = 40). More specifically, the relative levels of circulating bacterial DNA and the ratio of 16S rRNA/β-globin gene copy numbers were higher in the circulation of CVD patients than healthy individuals. In addition, we found a higher circulating microbial diversity in CVD patients (n = 3) in comparison to healthy individuals (n = 3) by deep shotgun sequencing. At the phylum level, we observed a dominance of Actinobacteria in CVD patients, followed by Proteobacteria, in contrast to that in healthy controls, where Proteobacteria was predominantly enriched, followed by Actinobacteria. The circulating virome in CVD patients was enriched with bacteriophages with a preponderance of Propionibacterium phages, followed by Pseudomonas phages and Rhizobium phages in contrast to that in healthy individuals, where a relatively greater abundance of eukaryotic viruses dominated by Lymphocystis virus (LCV) and Torque Teno viruses (TTV) was observed. Thus, the release of bacterial and viral DNA elements in the circulation could play a major role leading to elevated circDNA levels in CVD patients. The increased circDNA levels could be either the cause or consequence of CVD incidence, which needs to be explored further.

  16. High prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in both rural and urban Iowa newborns: Spatial patterns and area-level covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Zahrieh, David; Young, Sean G; Oleson, Jacob; Ryckman, Kelli K; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L; Saftlas, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1-3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother's residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels. We find that one in five newborns exceed the 5 μg/dL action level set by the US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Bayesian spatial zero inflated regression indicates that elevated blood lead in newborns is associated with areas of increased pre-1940s housing and childbearing-age women with low educational status in both rural and urban settings. No differences in blood lead levels or the proportion of children exceeding 5 μg/dL are observed between urban and rural maternal residence, though a spatial cluster of elevated blood lead is observed in rural counties. These characteristics can guide the recommendation for testing of infants at well-baby appointments in places where risk factors are present, potentially leading to earlier initiation of case management. The findings also suggest that rural populations are at as great of risk of elevated blood lead levels as are urban populations. Analysis of newborn dried blood spots is an important tool for lead poisoning surveillance in newborns and can direct public health efforts towards specific places and populations where lead testing and case management will have the greatest impact.

  17. Inadequate prenatal care and elevated blood lead levels among children born in Providence, Rhode Island: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Anna; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Shenassa, Edmond D

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether children born to mothers receiving inadequate prenatal care are at an increased risk for having an elevated blood lead level during early childhood. The authors conducted a population-based study of children born in Providence, Rhode Island, from 1997 to 2001 whose mothers had received adequate, intermediate, or inadequate prenatal care. The children's blood lead levels were compared between groups using bivariate and logistic regression. To understand the regulatory implications and public health impact of changing the definition of an elevated blood lead level, "elevated" was defined as 5 microg/dL, 10 microg/dL, and 15 microg/dL. Children born to mothers who received inadequate prenatal care were at an elevated risk for having an elevated blood lead level later in life. This relationship remained statistically significant for each definition of elevated blood lead level and after controlling for other socio-economic status measures and birthweight (at 5 microg/dL, odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.68, p = 0.006; at 10 microg/dL, OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.26, 2.24, p prenatal care provision could help identify women possibly experiencing ongoing lead exposure and help reduce or prevent exposures to their offspring.

  18. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  19. Elevated fluoride levels and periostitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving long-term voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlock, Katherine; Johnson, Darren; Cornell, Cathy; Parnell, Shawn; Meshinchi, Soheil; Baker, K Scott; Englund, Janet A

    2015-05-01

    Azole therapy is widely utilized in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients for the treatment of aspergillus. Complications of voriconazole treatment related to its elevated fluoride content have been described in adults, including reports of symptomatic skeletal fluorosis. We review fluoride levels, clinical, and laboratory data in five pediatric HCT recipients on long-term voriconazole therapy, all found to have elevated serum fluoride levels. Two patients had toxic fluoride levels, one infant had symptoms of significant pain with movement and radiographs confirmed skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring fluoride levels in children, especially with skeletal symptoms, should be considered in patients on long-term voriconazole.

  20. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F.; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objective NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic hormone with elevated levels in obese and decreased levels in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. Moreover, a role in the regulation of stress and emotions was suggested by several rodent and preliminary human studies. Since anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in AN, we investigated the association of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 with anxiety, depression and perceived stress in AN. Methods We analyzed circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in 64 female inpatients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (body mass index, BMI; mean±SD, 14.7±2.3 kg/m2). At the same time anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9), stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were measured psychometrically. Results No correlation was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and BMI (r = 0.06, p = 0.70). The study population was divided in patients with low anxiety (n = 32, GAD-7 scores, mean±SD, 7.5±3.3) and high anxiety (n = 32, 16.0±3.0, p0.05). EDI-2 total score was also higher in the high anxiety group (52.3±14.1 vs. 40.2±16.0, p = 0.02), while no correlations of EDI-2-scores with plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 were observed (p>0.05). Conclusions Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels correlated positively with perceived anxiety, whereas no association with BMI or eating disorder symptoms was observed. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be primarily involved in the modulation of anxiety and subsequently in the regulation of eating habits and body weight in AN. PMID:26162003

  1. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hofmann

    Full Text Available NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic hormone with elevated levels in obese and decreased levels in anorexia nervosa (AN patients. Moreover, a role in the regulation of stress and emotions was suggested by several rodent and preliminary human studies. Since anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in AN, we investigated the association of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 with anxiety, depression and perceived stress in AN.We analyzed circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in 64 female inpatients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (body mass index, BMI; mean±SD, 14.7±2.3 kg/m2. At the same time anxiety (GAD-7, depression (PHQ-9, stress (PSQ-20 and disordered eating (EDI-2 were measured psychometrically.No correlation was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and BMI (r = 0.06, p = 0.70. The study population was divided in patients with low anxiety (n = 32, GAD-7 scores, mean±SD, 7.5±3.3 and high anxiety (n = 32, 16.0±3.0, p0.05. EDI-2 total score was also higher in the high anxiety group (52.3±14.1 vs. 40.2±16.0, p = 0.02, while no correlations of EDI-2-scores with plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 were observed (p>0.05.Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels correlated positively with perceived anxiety, whereas no association with BMI or eating disorder symptoms was observed. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be primarily involved in the modulation of anxiety and subsequently in the regulation of eating habits and body weight in AN.

  2. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  3. Immunological Roles of Elevated Plasma Levels of Matricellular Proteins in Japanese Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Shiratori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated matricellular proteins (MCPs, including osteopontin (OPN and galectin-9 (Gal-9, were observed in the plasma of patients with Manila-type tuberculosis (TB previously. Here, we quantified plasma OPN, Gal-9, and soluble CD44 (sCD44 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and another 29 cytokines by Luminex assay in 36 patients with pulmonary TB, six subjects with latent tuberculosis (LTBI, and 19 healthy controls (HCs from Japan for a better understanding of the roles of MCPs in TB. All TB subjects showed positive results of enzyme-linked immunospot assays (ELISPOTs. Spoligotyping showed that 20 out of 36 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strains belong to the Beijing type. The levels of OPN, Gal-9, and sCD44 were higher in TB (positivity of 61.1%, 66.7%, and 63.9%, respectively than in the HCs. Positive correlations between OPN and Gal-9, between OPN and sCD44, and negative correlation between OPN and ESAT-6-ELISPOT response, between chest X-ray severity score of cavitary TB and ESAT-6-ELISPOT response were observed. Instead of OPN, Gal-9, and sCD44, cytokines G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, and IL-1RA levels were higher in Beijing MTB-infected patients. These findings suggest immunoregulatory, rather than inflammatory, effect of MCPs and can advance the understanding of the roles of MCPs in the context of TB pathology.

  4. The importance of trans-boundary contributions to elevated smog levels in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, D.; Fraser, D.; Kiely, P.; Cheng, C.; De Brou, G.; Reid, N. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada). Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch

    2004-07-01

    The state of air quality in Ontario is often linked to distinct weather patterns that affect the lower Great Lakes area. Smog levels vary from one year to another due to transboundary contributions during warm south to southwesterly airflow conditions. It was noted that a significant proportion of Ontario's smog is a result of transfrontier pollution from neighbouring industrial and urbanized areas in the United States. Ozone and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) are both elevated during the summer. Episodes of PM{sub 2.5} smog occur much less often during the winter and are associated mostly with stagnant conditions and local build-up of pollutants. Although the impact of transboundary smog is prevalent in southwestern Ontario, the Georgian Bay area has recorded higher levels of pollutants in Michigan and Lake Huron. This occurs mostly during the summer when the flow of polluted air crosses northern Michigan and Lake Huron before entering into Ontario.

  5. Elevated levels of matrix metalloprotein-3 in patients with coronary aneurysm: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duman Can

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of arterial aneurysms through increased proteolysis of extracellular matrix proteins. Increased proteolysis due to elevated matrix degrading enzyme activity in the arterial wall may act as a susceptibility factor for the development of coronary aneurysms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MMPs and presence of coronary aneurysms. Methods Thirty patients with aneurysmal coronary artery disease and stable angina were enrolled into study (Group 1. Fourteen coronary artery disease patients with stable angina were selected as control group (Group 2. MMP-1, MMP-3 and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured in peripheral venous blood and matched between the groups. Results Serum MMP-3 level was higher in patients with aneurismal coronary artery disease compared to the control group (20.23 ± 14.68 vs 11.45 ± 6.55 ng/ml, p = 0.039. Serum MMP-1 (13.63 ± 7.73 vs 12.15 ± 6.27 ng/ml, p = 0.52 and CRP levels (4.78 ± 1.47 vs 4.05 ± 1.53 mg/l, p = 0.13 were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion MMPs can cause arterial wall destruction. MMP-3 may play role in the pathogenesis of coronary aneurysm development through increased proteolysis of extracellular matrix proteins.

  6. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

  7. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  8. Elevated Fibrinogen Levels Associate with Risk of Pulmonary Embolism, but not with Deep Venous Thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klovaite, Jolanta; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne;

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: It is unclear whether elevated plasma fibrinogen associates with both deep venous thrombosis(DVT) and its complication pulmonary embolism(PE), and whether elevated fibrinogen is a direct cause of these disorders. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypotheses that elevated plasma fibrinogen...... relationship using a Mendelian randomization approach, we genotyped for FGB(rs1800790; rs4220) encoding fibrinogen beta chain. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Increasing plasma fibrinogen quintiles associated with increased risk of PE in combination with DVT(P-trend...

  9. Elevated Serum Levels of Soluble CD30 in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients and Its Association with Disease Severity-Related Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfen Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble CD30 (sCD30, a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR superfamily, has been shown to be associated with various pathological conditions. This study was designed to measure the levels of serum sCD30 in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and to evaluate the relationships between serum sCD30 levels and other disease severity-related indexes, including bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI, ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS, and bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI. Our results demonstrated significantly elevated sCD30 levels in AS patients compared to healthy controls (HCs with mean values of 32.0±12.2 and 24.9±8.0 ng/mL, respectively (P**=0.007, suggesting a potential role of sCD30 in the pathogenesis of AS. However, no significant correlations of sCD30 with BASDAI, ASDAS, or BASFI were detected in our study (P>0.05. Therefore, sCD30 cannot be used as a reliable marker for reflecting disease activity and functional ability of AS patients.

  10. Low levels of estradiol are associated with elevated conditioned responding during fear extinction and with intrusive memories in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegerer, Melanie; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be conceptualized as a disorder of emotional memory showing strong (conditioned) responses to trauma reminders and intrusive memories among other symptoms. Women are at greater risk of developing PTSD than men. Recent studies have demonstrated an influence of ovarian steroid hormones in both fear conditioning and intrusive memory paradigms. However, although intrusive memories are considered non-extinguished emotional reactions to trauma reminders, none of the previous studies has investigated effects of ovarian hormones on fear conditioning mechanisms and intrusive memories in conjunction. This may have contributed to an overall inconsistent picture of the role of these hormones in emotional learning and memory. To remedy this, we exposed 37 healthy women with a natural menstrual cycle (during early follicular or luteal cycle phase) to a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Intrusive memories about the film clips were assessed ambulatorily on subsequent days. Women with lower levels of estradiol displayed elevated differential conditioned skin conductance responding during fear extinction and showed stronger intrusive memories. The inverse relationship between estradiol and intrusive memories was at least partially accounted for by the conditioned responding observed during fear extinction. Progesterone levels were not associated with either fear acquisition/extinction or with intrusive memories. This suggests that lower levels of estradiol might promote stronger symptoms of PTSD through associative processes.

  11. Experimental Demonstration of Array-level Learning with Phase Change Synaptic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Eryilmaz, S. Burc; Kuzum, Duygu; Jeyasingh, Rakesh G. D.; Kim, SangBum; BrightSky, Matthew; Lam, Chung; Wong, H.-S. Philip

    2014-01-01

    The computational performance of the biological brain has long attracted significant interest and has led to inspirations in operating principles, algorithms, and architectures for computing and signal processing. In this work, we focus on hardware implementation of brain-like learning in a brain-inspired architecture. We demonstrate, in hardware, that 2-D crossbar arrays of phase change synaptic devices can achieve associative learning and perform pattern recognition. Device and array-level ...

  12. Association of testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with elevated serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin-like material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    1996-01-01

    in nontesticular non-germ cell tumors including non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) as well. It has never been investigated whether testicular NHL is also associated with elevated S-hCG-1. In the present study the relationship of testicular NHL with increased S-hCG-1 was investigated. In the Danish population-based NHL...... registry, LYFO registry, 12 cases with testicular involvement of the lymphoma at the time of diagnosis and that had S-hCG-1 measured prior to treatment were identified, and cases with elevated S-hCG-1 were analyzed clinicopathologically. Of these, 2 patients had elevated levels. Both cases were high...

  13. Falsely Elevated Serum Vitamin B12 Levels Were Associated with the Severity and Prognosis of Chronic Viral Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Takaaki; Koda, Masahiko; Okamoto, Toshiaki; Miyoshi, Kenichi; Matono, Tomomitsu; Oyama, Kenji; Hosho, Keiko; Okano, Jun-Ichi; Isomoto, Hajime; Murawaki, Yoshikazu

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is stored primarily in the liver, and highly elevated serum vitamin B12 levels occur in acute hepatitis and severe alcoholic liver disease. We evaluated the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and liver disease severity and long term prognosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. We enrolled 90 patients (57 men, 33 women) with chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis who admitted to our hospital as a prospective cohort study. Overall, 37 patients had chronic hepatitis and 53 had cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A 33, B 13, and C 7); 57 patients had primary liver cancer. Serum vitamin B12 concentration and holotranscobalamin (holoTC) II (active form of vitamin B12) were determined and followed prospectively for at least 5 years. Mean total serum vitamin B12 concentration was significantly higher in Child-Pugh C (1308 ± 599 pg/mL) compared to those with chronic hepatitis (655 ± 551 pg/mL), Child-Pugh A (784 ± 559 pg/mL), and Child-Pugh B (660 ± 464 pg/mL) (P = 0.036) Presence of primary liver cancer also influenced serum vitamin B12 levels [657 (167-2956) vs. 432 (189-2956); P = 0.015]. Patients were divided into quartiles by vitamin B12 level. Patients without primary liver cancer in quartile 4 (≥ 880 pg/mL) demonstrated significantly poorer prognosis than those in quartiles 1-3 (vitamin B12 - holoTC II) × 100] was significantly higher in Child-Pugh B and C 86 (80-87)% than chronic hepatitis and Child-Pugh A 77 (31-89)% (P = 0.006) Multivariate analysis indicated serum vitamin B12 levels (HR = 1.001, P = 0.029) as a prognostic factor. Falsely elevated serum vitamin B12 levels mainly composed of increased holoHC were associated with severity (Child-Pugh C and primary liver cancer) and prognosis in chronic viral liver disease.

  14. Association of Elevated first Trimester Serum Uric Acid Levels with Development of GDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Rasika; Samal, Sunita; Ghose, Seetesh

    2014-12-01

    Early intervention and appropriate treatment in patients with GDM will help in preventing the adverse maternal and fetal outcome and protect them from long term complications. Several studies have shown the association of hyperuricemia with GDM. This study was undertaken to find out the association of elevated first trimester uric acid with development of GDM. This prospective observational study was conducted in Mahatma Gandhi Medical Collage and Research Institute, Pondicherry, India, between November 2010 and May 2012. A total of 70 pregnant women were included and parameters like age, parity, BMI, history of DM, serum uric acid at <15 weeks and at 24 to 28 weeks and one step test at 24 to 28 weeks were noted and compared. There was no significant correlation between the demographic variables and GDM, but a moderate significance noted between the family history of DM and one step test (p=0.048). Though there is a proportional increase in the serum uric acid with increase in the BMI, it was not statistically significant. A significant correlation was seen between BMI and risk of development of GDM (p= 0.001). Though there is a significant correlation between serum uric acid at <15 weeks and at 24 to 28 weeks, serum uric acid at <15 weeks of gestation is a better predictor of GGI and GDM (Pearson's correlation = 0.735). There is increase in the risk of development of GDM with increased levels of serum uric acid in the first trimester. Uric acid levels at <15 weeks of gestation is more significantly associated with risk of development of GDM than it's levels at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation.

  15. Elevated levels of serum IL-5 are associated with an increased likelihood of major depressive disorder

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    Elomaa Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory mediators in both the peripheral circulation and central nervous system (CNS are dysregulated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the role of the T-helper (Th-2 effector cytokines interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 in MDD. Methods We examined the serum levels of these cytokines and a Th-1 comparison cytokine, interferon (IFN-γ, in 116 individuals (MDD, n = 58; controls, n = 58. Results In our basic multivariate model controlling for the effects of potential confounders on the associations between MDD and the examined cytokines, each 1-unit increase in the serum IL-5 level increased the likelihood of belonging to the MDD group by 76% (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-2.99, p = 0.04; model covariates: age, gender, marital status, daily smoking and alcohol use. The likelihood further increased in models additionally controlling for the effects of the use of antidepressants and NSAIDS, and a diagnosis of asthma. No such associations were detected with regard to IL-13 (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22, p = 0.22 or IFN-γ (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.05, p = 0.23. Conclusions Elevated levels of IL-5, which uses the neural plasticity-related RAS GTPase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK pathway to mediate its actions in the central nervous system (CNS, could be one of the factors underlying the depression-related changes in CNS plasticity.

  16. Vitamin A deficiency suppresses high fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis and elevates resolvin D1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Gopal Reddy, Mooli; Pavan Kumar, Chodisetti; Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Sravan Kumar, Manchiryala; Mullapudi Venkata, Surekha; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin A and its metabolites are known to regulate lipid metabolism. However so far, no study has assessed, whether vitamin A deficiency per se aggravates or attenuates the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, here, we tested the impact of vitamin A deficiency on the development of NAFLD. Male weanling Wistar rats were fed one of the following diets; control, vitamin A-deficient (VAD), high fructose (HFr) and VAD with HFr (VADHFr) of AIN93G composition, for 16weeks, except half of the VAD diet-fed rats were shifted to HFr diet (VAD(s)HFr), at the end of 8(th) week. Animals fed on VAD diet with HFr displayed hypotriglyceridemia (33.5mg/dL) with attenuated hepatic triglyceride accumulation (8.2mg/g), compared with HFr diet (89.5mg/dL and 20.6mg/g respectively). These changes could be partly explained by the decreased activity of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and the down-regulation of stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), both at gene and protein levels, the key determinants of triglyceride biosynthesis. On the other hand, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid and its active metabolite; resolvin D1 (RvD1) levels were elevated in the liver and plasma of VAD diet-fed groups, which was negatively associated with triglyceride levels. All these factors confer vitamin A deficiency-mediated protection against the development of hepatic steatosis, which was also evident from the group shifted from VAD to HFr diet. Vitamin A deficiency attenuates high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis, by regulating triglyceride synthesis, possibly through GPDH, SCD1 and RvD1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-17A and interferon-γ levels in early asymptomatic neurosyphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszczak, Maciej; Jakiela, Bogdan; Wielowieyska-Szybinska, Dorota; Jaworek, Andrzej K; Zeman, Jacek; Wojas-Pelc, Anna

    2013-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the process of Treponema pallidum clearance from the central nervous system have not yet been established. Considering that neurosyphilis is associated with mild cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis with a lymphocytic predominance, it has been suggested that cells involved in the adaptive immune response may play a role in this process. In the current study, we assessed the cytokine production profile of T-helper cells in the serum and CSF of patients with early syphilis, with and without CSF abnormalities. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were collected from 33 patients with secondary and early latent syphilis. Five patients (15%) had a reactive CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test without any accompanying neurological symptoms. According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention classification, they were diagnosed with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. Serum and CSF levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ; Th1-type cytokine), interleukin-4 (IL-4; Th2-type cytokine), and interleukin-17A (IL-17A; Th17-type cytokine) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients with asymptomatic neurosyphilis had significantly higher levels of IL-17A (8-fold) and IFN-γ (7.8-fold) in the CSF compared with patients in the no-neurosyphilis group. Six individuals had CSF pleocytosis but a negative CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test result (presumptive neurosyphilis group). In this group, CSF IFN-γ and CSF IL-17A levels were also significantly elevated when compared with no-neurosyphilis group. There was no correlation between serum and CSF concentrations of IL-17A. However, CSF pleocytosis correlated positively with both CSF IL-17A (r = 0.4, P = 0.01) and IFN-γ (r = 0.42, P = 0.01). Increased CSF levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A in syphilitic patients with CSF abnormalities suggest that cells of adaptive immunity (probably T-helper cells producing IFN-γ and IL-17) may contribute to the inflammatory response associated with

  18. Elevated Total Homocysteine Levels in Acute Ischemic Stroke Are Associated With Long-Term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhihong; Guan, Yalin; Huo, Ya Ruth; Liu, Shuling; Zhang, Meilin; Lu, Hui; Yue, Wei; Wang, Jinhuan; Ji, Yong

    2015-09-01

    Total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are associated with secondary vascular events and mortality after stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate whether tHcy levels in the acute phase of a stroke contribute to the recurrence of cerebro-cardiovascular events and mortality. A total of 3799 patients were recruited after hospital admission for acute ischemic stroke. Levels of tHcy were measured within 24 hours after primary admission. Patients were followed for a median of 48 months. During the follow-up period, 233 (6.1%) patients died. After adjustment for age, smoking status, diabetes mellitus, and other cardiovascular risk factors, patients in the highest tHcy quartile (>18.6 μmol/L) had a 1.61-fold increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.53) compared with patients in the lowest quartile (≤10 μmol/L). Further subgroup analysis showed that this correlation was only significant in the large-artery atherosclerosis stroke subtype (adjusted HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.05-3.07); this correlation was not significant in the small-vessel occlusion subtype (adjusted HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.30-2.12). The risk of stroke-related mortality was 2.27-fold higher for patients in the third tHcy quartile (adjusted HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06-4.86) and 2.15-fold more likely for patients in the fourth quartile (adjusted HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.01-4.63) than for patients in the lowest tHcy quartile. The risk of cardiovascular-related mortality and the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke were not associated with tHcy levels. Our findings suggest that elevated tHcy levels in the acute phase of an ischemic stroke can predict mortality, especially in stroke patients with the large-vessel atherosclerosis subtype. © 2015 The Authors.

  19. Inhibition of fatty acid binding proteins elevates brain anandamide levels and produces analgesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaczocha

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  20. The plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia and predicts mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, p; Kronborg, Gitte; Nielsen, H

    2004-01-01

    This multicentre prospective study was conducted to investigate whether the level of the soluble form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated during pneumococcal bacteraemia and is of predictive value in the early stage of the disease. Plasma levels of suPAR were incr...

  1. Elevated glutathione levels confer cellular sensitization to cisplatin toxicity by up-regulation of copper transporter hCtr1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Helen H W; Song, Im-Sook; Hossain, Anwar; Choi, Min-Koo; Yamane, Yoshiaki; Liang, Zheng D; Lu, Jia; Wu, Lily Y-H; Siddik, Zahid H; Klomp, Leo W J; Savaraj, Niramol; Kuo, Macus Tien

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that treating cultured cells with cisplatin (CDDP) up-regulated the expression of glutathione (GSH) and its de novo rate-limiting enzyme glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), which consists of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. It has also been shown that many CDDP-resistant cell lines exhibit high levels of GCLC/GCLM and GSH. Because the GSH system is the major intracellular regulator of redox conditions that serve as an important detoxification cytoprotector, these results have been taken into consideration that elevated levels of GCL/GSH are responsible for the CDDP resistance. In contrast to this context, we demonstrated here that overexpression of GSH by transfection with an expression plasmid containing the GCLC cDNA conferred sensitization to CDDP through up-regulation of human copper transporter (hCtr) 1, which is also a transporter for CDDP. Depleting GSH levels in these transfected cells reversed CDDP sensitivity with concomitant reduction of hCtr1 expression. Although rates of copper transport were also up-regulated in the transfected cells, these cells exhibited biochemical signature of copper deficiency, suggesting that GSH functions as an intracellular copper-chelator and that overexpression of GSH can alter copper metabolism. More importantly, our results reveal a new role of GSH in the regulation of CDDP sensitivity. Overproduction of GSH depletes the bioavailable copper pool, leading to up-regulation of hCtr1 and sensitization of CDDP transport and cell killing. These findings also have important implications in that modulation of the intracellular copper pool may be a novel strategy for improving chemotherapeutic efficacy of platinum-based antitumor agents.

  2. Photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system of Gynura Bicolor DC grown at different elevated CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO _{2}] will increase in the future and will affect global climate and ecosystem productivity. However, this is not clearly an area that requires further study on the most appropriate [CO _{2}] selection for plant growth and quality in a closed, controlled environment. The aim of this study was to determine the variation of photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant status under five CO _{2} concentration (400, 800, 1200, 2000 and 3000 umol mol (-1) ) on the leaf of Gynura bicolor DC. Here the results show that net photosynthetic rate(Pn), Chl content, edible biomass(EB), leaf blade width(LBW), root weight(RW), fructose(Fru) and sucrose(Suc) of Gynura bicolor DC increased under elevated [CO _{2}] of 800 umol mol (-1) , 1200 umol mol (-1) and 2000 umol mol (-1) . On the contrary, photosynthesis and biomass production declined significantly at 3000 umol mol (-1) CO _{2}, While Lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H _{2}O _{2}) achieved the highest levels. Furthermore, the contents of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C (VC), and vitamin E (VE), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) reached the highest level at 2000 umol mol ({-1) }CO _{2}. Results imply that a significant increase in growth and antioxidant defense system of Gynura bicolor DC occurred under 800-2000 umol mol (-1) of CO _{2} concentration provided a theoretical basis for the application for plants selection in Bioregeneration Life Support System (BLSS) and a closed controlled environment.

  3. Test-beam results from the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Bohm, C; Bright-Thomas, P G; Connors, A; Edwards, J; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellis, Nick; Engström, M; Farthouat, Philippe; Garvey, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Hanke, P; Hatley, R; Hellman, S; Hillier, S J; Kluge, E E; Landon, M; Maddox, A J; Pentney, J M; Perera, V J O; Pfeiffer, U; Schuler, G A; Schumacher, C; Shah, T P; Silverstein, S; Staley, R J; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Wunsch, M

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger will utilise a number of advanced technologies, many of which have already been successfully demonstrated. To evaluate the different technologies associated with the important areas of $9 high-speed data transport a large demonstrator system has been designed and operated during the last two years, using signals from prototype calorimeters in the ATLAS test-beam. Using this system, inter-crate data transmission and $9 reception have been demonstrated at over 1.4 Gbyte/s, with individual links running at up to 1.6 Gbaud. Operating with 160 Mbit/s signals across a transmission-line backplane, custom transceiver ASICs have achieved inter-module data $9 fanout at peak rates above 800 Mbyte/s. With the addition of further modules, the system was extended to emulate a vertical slice through the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger. We present here the results from these tests, including $9 measurements of bit-error rates across different data paths. (12 refs).

  4. Plasma cell-free DNA levels are elevated in acute Puumala hantavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula K Outinen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Puumala hantavirus (PUUV causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica (NE. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma cell-free DNA (cf-DNA levels and urinary cf-DNA excretion in acute NE as well as their associations with the severity of the disease. METHODS: Total plasma cf-DNA was quantified directly in plasma of 61 patients and urine of 20 patients with acute NE. We also carried out a qualitative high-sensitivity lab-on-a-chip DNA assay in 20 patients to elucidate the appearance of cf-DNA in plasma and urine. RESULTS: The maximum plasma cf-DNA values taken during acute NE were significantly higher than the control values taken after the hospitalization period (median 1.33 µg/ml, range 0.94-3.29 µg/ml vs. median 0.77 µg/ml, range 0.55-0.99 µg/ml, P<0.001. The maximum plasma cf-DNA levels correlated positively with maximum blood leukocyte count (r = 0.388, P = 0.002 and the length of hospital stay (r = 0.376, P = 0.003, and inversely with minimum blood platelet count (r = -0.297, P = 0.020. Qualitative analysis of plasma cf-DNA revealed that in most of the patients cf-DNA displayed a low-molecular weight appearance, corresponding to the size of apoptotic DNA (150-200 bp. The visually graded maximum cf-DNA band intensity correlated positively with the maximum quantity of total plasma cf-DNA (r = 0.513, P = 0.021. Maximum urinary excretion of cf-DNA in turn was not markedly increased during the acute phase of NE and did not correlate with any of the variables reflecting severity of the disease or with the maximum plasma cf-DNA level. CONCLUSIONS: The plasma levels of cf-DNA are elevated during acute PUUV infection and correlate with the apoptotic cf-DNA-band intensity. The plasma cf-DNA concentration correlates with some variables reflecting the severity of the disease. The urinary excretion of cf-DNA does not reflect the degree of inflammation in the kidney.

  5. Anemia and elevated systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunst, J.; Becker, A.; Lautenschlaeger, C.; Markau, S.; Becker, H.; Fischer, K.; Haensgen, G. [Martin-Luther Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Background: Tissue hypoxia is a major stimulus for the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anemia might theoretically impact on angiogenesis via impairment of tissue oxygenation. We have investigated this hypothesis in patients with solid cancers and benign diseases. Patients and methods: 49 patients with untreated locoregionally confined solid cancers of the head and neck, cervix, rectum and lung and 59 additional patients with non-malignant diseases (36 normemic patients without serious diseases and 23 patients with renal anemia) were enrolled and the impact of anemia on plasma VEGF levels were determined. VEGF was measured with a commercially available sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results: Plasma levels of VEGF were 16.2{+-}12.7 pg/ml in 36 normemic patients without malignant disease, 49,2{+-}34.5 pg/ml in 49 patients with cancers (p<0.001), and 89.9{+-}67.8 pg/ml in 23 patients with renal anemia (p=0.001). VEGF levels in cancer patients were significantly correlated with hemoglobin (hb) levels and platelet counts (each p=0.001), but not with type of tumor, stage, histology or age. Patients with cancers had higher plasma levels of VEGF than patients with non-malignant diseases in case of hb{>=}12 g/dl (33.1{+-}17.5 vs. 16.6{+-}13.0 pg/ml, p<0.001) and in case of hb between 11.0 and 11.9 g/dl (56.1{+-}26.4 vs 18.5{+-}14.5 pg/ml, p=0.038). In case of a hb<11 g/dl, plasma VEGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with and without cancers (67.0{+-}47.5 vs 88.9{+-}68.8 pg/ml, n.s.). In a multivariate model, a significant association between low hb levels and increased plasma levels of VEGF was confirmed. In 16 patients with renal anemia, changes in hb under erythropoietin treatment were inversely correlated with changes in plasma VEGF levels with decreasing VEGF after increase in hb (p=0.01). Conclusions: Anemic patients have elevated levels of VEGF. The data suggest that anemia might impact on the progression of

  6. Elevated serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels are negatively correlated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

    2015-02-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters.

  7. Human cytomegalovirus infection leads to elevated levels of transplant arteriosclerosis in a humanized mouse aortic xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele-Ohl, S; Leis, M; Wollin, M; Mahmoudian, S; Hoffmann, J; Müller, R; Heim, C; Spriewald, B M; Weyand, M; Stamminger, T; Ensminger, S M

    2012-07-01

    Recent findings emphasized an important role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a human peripheral blood lymphocyte (hu-PBL)/Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mouse-xenograft-model to investigate both immunological as well as viral effector mechanisms in the progression of transplant arteriosclerosis. For this, sidebranches from the internal mammary artery were recovered during coronary artery bypass graft surgery, tissue-typed and infected with HCMV. Then, size-matched sidebranches were implanted into the infrarenal aorta of Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice. The animals were reconstituted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) 7 days after transplantation. HCMV-infection was confirmed by Taqman-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses. Arterial grafts were analyzed by histology on day 40 after transplantation. PBMC-reconstituted Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) animals showed splenic chimerism levels ranging from 1-16% human cells. After reconstitution, Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice developed human leukocyte infiltrates in their grafts and vascular lesions that were significantly elevated after infection. Cellular infiltration revealed significantly increased ICAM-1 and PDGF-R-β expression after HCMV-infection of the graft. Arterial grafts from unreconstituted Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) recipients showed no vascular lesions. These data demonstrate a causative relationship between HCMV-infection as an isolated risk factor and the development of transplant-arteriosclerosis in a humanized mouse arterial-transplant-model possibly by elevated ICAM-1 and PDGF-R-β expression.

  8. Elevated Levels of Plasma Mitochondrial DNA DAMPs Are Linked to Clinical Outcome in Severely Injured Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmon, Jon D.; Lee, Yann-Leei; Mulekar, Sujata; Kuck, Jamie L.; Brevard, Sidney B.; Gonzalez, Richard P.; Gillespie, Mark N.; Richards, William O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to execute a prospective cohort study to determine relationships between plasma mtDNA DAMP levels and the occurrence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and mortality. Background Mitochondrial DNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) accumulate in the circulation after severe injury. Observations in animal models demonstrate that mtDNA DAMPs contribute to organ dys-function; however, the link between plasma mtDNA DAMPs and outcome in severely injured human subjects has not been established. Methods DNA was isolated from plasma samples taken from severely injured patients at hospital days 0, 1, and 2. Real-time PCR was used to quantify selected ≈200 base pair sequences of mtDNA within the COX1, ND1, and ND6 genes, as well as from the D-Loop transcriptional regulatory region. MODS was defined as a Denver Multiple Organ Failure score of 4 or greater. Results MtDNA DAMPs were quantified as PCR threshold cycle number. Lower threshold cycles indicate increased mtDNA DAMP content. Patients with SIRS had significantly increased mtDNA DAMP levels in all 4 sequences examined (32.14 ± 0.90 vs 29.00 ± 1.15 for COX1, 31.90 ± 0.47 vs 30.16 ± 1.42 for ND1, 32.40 ± 0.61 vs 28.94 ± 1.13 for ND6, and 33.12 ± 0.83 vs 28.30 ± 1.14 for D-Loop). Patients who developed MODS also had elevated mtDNA DAMP levels compared with those who did not (32.57 ± 0.74 vs 27.12 ± 0.66 for COX1, 32.45 ± 0.65 vs 28.20 ± 0.73 for ND1, 32.52 ± 0.56 vs 27.60 ± 0.79 for ND6, and 32.85 ± 0.75 vs 27.86 ± 1.27 for D-Loop). Patients with above-median mtDNA DAMP levels had a significantly elevated relative risk for mortality. Four patients died secondary to severe MODS. Conclusions These findings comprise the first observational evidence that plasma mtDNA DAMPs is associated with the evolution of SIRS, MODS, and mortality in severely injured human subjects. PMID:23979273

  9. Elevated factor VIII level and stroke in patients without traditional risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasek-Bal A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anetta Lasek-Bal, Przemyslaw Puz, Zofia KazibutowskaStroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Silesia, Professor Leszek Giec Upper Silesian Medical Centre, Katowice, PolandIntroduction: Hemostasis is affected by interactions between physiological processes, including those connected with the coagulation system, whose essence is converting fibrinogen into fibrin. The role of factor VIII (FVIII consists in activating factor X, which directly participates in the generation of thrombin, which is able to produce stable fibrin, which in turn forms blood clots. There are divergent opinions regarding the significance of high levels of FVIII in stroke pathogenesis.Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate FVIII activity in individuals with cryptogenic stroke in order to determine a potential relationship between it and cerebral ischemia.Material and methods: Nine patients suffering with stroke were used in this study: six women and three men aged 49–63 years. In all of the patients, the presence of known and potential risk factors for stroke had been excluded during previous diagnostic procedures. These patients accounted for 1.2% of the 719 people who suffered a stroke and were hospitalized in 2011 at the Stroke Unit. FVIII activity was examined in each of the nine qualified subjects within 1–2 months of the occurrence of stroke (the first test and repeated (the second test in five patients with abnormal results obtained from the first examination.Results: Increased activity of FVIII was found in 5 out of 9 patients. In patients with abnormal results, elevated FVIII was found in follow-up examinations in the 8th–10th month following stroke. Hemodynamic abnormalities in carotid or cerebral artery (presence of thrombus were found in 3 of the 5 patients with increased FVIII levels. In the first 24 hours following stroke the neurological state of patients with abnormal FVIII was worse than individuals with normal FVIII activity. The

  10. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied.

  11. First-time demonstration of measuring concrete prestress levels with metal packaged fibre optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeeman, I.; Fusiek, G.; Perry, M.; Johnston, M.; Saafi, M.; Niewczas, P.; Walsh, M.; Khan, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present the first large-scale demonstration of metal packaged fibre Bragg grating sensors developed to monitor prestress levels in prestressed concrete. To validate the technology, strain and temperature sensors were mounted on steel prestressing strands in concrete beams and stressed up to 60% of the ultimate tensile strength of the strand. We discuss the methods and calibration procedures used to fabricate and attach the temperature and strain sensors. The use of induction brazing for packaging the fibre Bragg gratings and welding the sensors to prestressing strands eliminates the use of epoxy, making the technique suitable for high-stress monitoring in an irradiated, harsh industrial environment. Initial results based on the first week of data after stressing the beams show the strain sensors are able to monitor prestress levels in ambient conditions.

  12. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  13. Elevated chemerin levels in Pakistani men: an interrelation with metabolic syndrome phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Sadia Fatima

    Full Text Available Chemerin is a novel protein linked to adipocyte differentiation and the development of metabolic imbalances. We sought to examine the relationship of chemerin with metabolic syndrome disturbances including body fat percentage, serum lipid, glucose, insulin levels and body fat percentage in lean and obese volunteers. A cross-sectional study of 90 randomly selected healthy males from Pakistan were divided into three groups as per Body Mass Index (BMI criteria for South Asian Population. Anthropometric measurements were taken for BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and body fat percentage, while serum analyses were performed for fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, fasting lipid profile and serum chemerin. Associations between serum chemerin levels and body fat and other metabolic syndrome parameters were performed using ANOVA and multiple regression analyses. Data was presented as Mean±SD. In all statistical analyses p-values <0.05 were considered significant. Circulating chemerin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects with BMI greater than 25 kg/m(2 compared with those with a BMI below 25 kg/m(2 (P = 0.001. Serum chemerin levels were found to be independently and significantly associated with serum levels of cholesterol (P = 0.0160; r = 0.255, fasting glucose (P = 0.002; r = 0.323, HOMA-IR (P = 0.004; r = 0.300 and hip circumference (P = 0.021; r = 0.246. This demonstrates that chemerin levels are associated with obesity and dyslipidemia and may play a role in the development of insulin resistance. This data suggests that chemerin may serve as an independent marker in diagnosing these conditions even before they become clinically symptomatic.

  14. Angiopoietin-2 and biliary diseases: elevated serum, but not bile levels are associated with cholangiocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Voigtländer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CC is challenging especially in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC and often delayed due to the lack of reliable markers. Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2 has been employed as a biomarker of angiogenesis and might be involved in tumor neoangiogenesis. AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of Angpt-2 as a biomarker to detect patients with CC. METHODS: Bile and serum Angpt-2 levels were measured in patients with CC (n=45, PSC (n=74, CC complicating PSC (CC/PSC (n=11 and patients with bile duct stones (n=37 in a cross sectional study. Diagnostic accuracy of Angpt-2 was compared to carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry from human CC liver tissue samples was performed to localize the origin of Angpt-2. RESULTS: Serum Angpt-2 concentration was significantly elevated in patients with CC compared to control patients (p<0.05. Diagnostic accuracy of Angpt-2 as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis resulted in a higher area under the curve (AUC value compared to CA19-9 (AUC: 0.85 versus 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.74-0.93 versus 0.65-0.87, respectively. Angpt-2 was also detectable in bile, but was not associated with the presence of CC. Immunohistochemistry revealed a strong induction of Angpt-2 expression in the tumor vasculature. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating Angpt-2 in serum might be a promising protein candidate locally derived from the tumor vasculature in patients with CC. Measurement of Angpt-2 in serum may be useful for diagnosis and further clinical management of patients with CC.

  15. Elevated plasma levels of endostatin are associated with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hamm, L Lee; Kleinpeter, Myra A; Husserl, Fred; Khan, Islam Enver; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Liu, Yanxi; Mills, Katherine T; He, Chuan; Rifai, Nader; Simon, Eric E; He, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis may play an important role in the renal repair process after injury. We investigated the association between plasma endostatin, an endothelial-specific antiangiogenic factor, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We compared plasma endostatin levels in 201 CKD patients and 201 controls. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or presence of albuminuria (≥30 mg/24 h). After adjustment for established CKD risk factors, the median (interquartile range) of plasma endostatin was 276.7 ng/dl (199.3-357.5) in patients with CKD and 119.4 ng/dl (103.7-134.6) in controls without CKD (p < 0.0001 for group difference). log-transformed plasma endostatin was significantly and inversely correlated with eGFR (r = -0.83, p < 0.0001) and positively correlated with log-transformed urine albumin (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001) in the study participants. In addition, one standard deviation increase in log-transformed plasma endostatin (0.55 ng/dl) was associated with a decline in eGFR of -26.2 ml/min and an increase in urine albumin of 3.26 mg/ 24 h after adjusting for multiple covariables. Furthermore, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for CKD comparing the highest tertile (≥131.4 ng/dl) to the two lower tertiles of plasma endostatin was 21.6 (95% CI: 10.2-45.5; p < 0.0001). These data indicate that elevated plasma endostatin is strongly and independently associated with CKD. Prospective cohort studies and clinical trials are warranted to further examine the causal relationship between endostatin and risk of CKD and to develop novel interventions targeting circulating endostatin aimed at reducing CKD risk. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Candalla, Barbara M; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    We sought to describe the impact of pica, the craving for and intentional ingestion of substances not defined as food, as a risk factor for lead poisoning in New York City (NYC) pregnant women. In order to describe pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) who report pica, NYC health department data from 491 cases of lead-poisoned pregnant women from January 2001 to June 2009 were reviewed. Descriptive frequencies were obtained for women reporting pica. Data were compared between women reporting and not reporting pica. In NYC, of the 43 (9%) lead-poisoned pregnant women reporting pica, 42 (97.7%) were immigrants and 28 (64.6%) had consumed soil. Compared to lead-poisoned pregnant women not reporting pica, women reporting pica had higher peak BLLs (29.5 vs. 23.8 μg/dL, P = 0.0001), were more likely to have had a BLL ≥ 45 μg/dL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.25, 8.68) and receive chelation (OR = 10.88, 95% CI, 1.49, 79.25), more likely to have emigrated from Mexico (OR = 3.05, 95% CI, 1.38–6.72), and less likely to have completed high school (OR = indeterminate; 0 vs. 34%; P = 0.003). Among NYC lead-poisoned pregnant women, pica was associated with higher peak BLLs. Providers in NYC, and possibly other urban settings, should be vigilant and question pregnant women, especially immigrants, about pica and strongly consider testing this at-risk population for lead poisoning.

  17. Phytoplankton-bacteria coupling under elevated CO2 levels: a stable isotope labelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Middelburg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of rising carbon dioxide (CO2 on carbon transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria was investigated during the 2005 PeECE III mesocosm study in Bergen, Norway. Sets of mesocosms, in which a phytoplankton bloom was induced by nutrient addition, were incubated under 1× (~350 μatm, 2× (~700 μatm, and 3× present day CO2 (~1050 μatm initial seawater and sustained atmospheric CO2 levels for 3 weeks. 13C labelled bicarbonate was added to all mesocosms to follow the transfer of carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC into phytoplankton and subsequently heterotrophic bacteria, and settling particles. Isotope ratios of polar-lipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA were used to infer the biomass and production of phytoplankton and bacteria. Phytoplankton PLFA were enriched within one day after label addition, whilst it took another 3 days before bacteria showed substantial enrichment. Group-specific primary production measurements revealed that coccolithophores showed higher primary production than green algae and diatoms. Elevated CO2 had a significant positive effect on post-bloom biomass of green algae, diatoms, and bacteria. A simple model based on measured isotope ratios of phytoplankton and bacteria revealed that CO2 had no significant effect on the carbon transfer efficiency from phytoplankton to bacteria during the bloom. There was no indication of CO2 effects on enhanced settling based on isotope mixing models during the phytoplankton bloom, but this could not be determined in the post-bloom phase. Our results suggest that CO2 effects are most pronounced in the post-bloom phase, under nutrient limitation.

  18. Growth response of Spirulina platensis PCC9108 to elevated CO2 levels and flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmahdi Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because their ability to capture CO2, photosynthetical microorganisms have some advantages to CO2 mitigation from high CO2 streams such as flue gases and they can use CO2 as carbon source. Recently, experts have made efforts to exploit microorganisms intended for recovering CO2 from power plants. Materials and methods: To achieve this purpose, we studied the growth response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis PCC9108 under different concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036% to 10% and flue gas in a bench-scale system. Preparation of different concentrations of CO2 and injection into Erlenmeyer flasks was performed by a system including air compressor, CO2 capsule, pressure gauge and flow meter. Results: The main goal of studying this paper is a survey of organism's potential to grow by generated CO2 from flue gas of power plant. It already had the potential and highest biomass production recorded at 8% CO2 (v/v. Also we proved that S.platensis PCC9108 can be grown under flue gas, although biomass production decreased fairly. Total lipid content of algae interestingly enhanced with elevated CO2 levels from ambient air to 4% and 6% which ranged from 14.5 to 15.8 and 16 dry weight (wt. % respectively. In contrast, total protein content illustrated no difference between all treatment and its value was about 46 wt.%. Discussion and conclusion: The results of present study suggested that understudied S.platensis PCC9108 is appropriate for mitigating CO2 because of its carbon fixation ability. Also due to its high protein content, this cyanobacterium is a good candidate to produce SCP (single cell protein.

  19. Elevated blood lead levels and reading readiness at the start of kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaine, Pat; Navas-Acien, Ana; Lee, Rebecca; Simon, Peter; Diener-West, Marie; Agnew, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and reading readiness at kindergarten entry, an early marker of school performance, in a diverse urban school population. Kindergarten reading readiness test scores for children attending public kindergarten in Providence, Rhode Island, were linked to state health department records of blood lead testing by using individual identifiers. The study population (N = 3406) was 59% Hispanic. For each child, the geometric mean BLL was estimated by using all previously reported BLLs. Analyses were adjusted for gender, age, year enrolled, race, child language, and free/reduced lunch status as a measure of socioeconomic status. The median geometric mean BLL was 4.2 µg/dL; 20% of children had at least 1 venous BLL ≥10 µg/dL. Compared with children with BLLs reading readiness were 1.21 (1.19 to 1.23) and 1.56 (1.51 to 1.60) for children with BLLs of 5 to 9 and ≥10 µg/dL, respectively. On average, reading readiness scores decreased by 4.5 (95% CI: -2.9 to -6.2) and 10.0 (95% CI: -7.0 to -13.3) points for children with BLLs of 5 to 9 and ≥10 µg/dL, respectively, compared with BLLs reading readiness at kindergarten entry. The high prevalence of elevated BLLs warrants additional investigation in other high-risk US populations. Results suggest benefits from additional collaboration between public health, public education, and community data providers.

  20. Central somatosensory conduction slowing in adults with isolated elevated plasma level of homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jun Luo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Elevated plasma level of homocysteine (eHcy is a recognized risk factor for dementia. However, whether the central conduction is affected in patients with an isolated eHcy is unknown. In this study, we addressed whether central conduction is altered in adults with eHcy. Methods: Evoked potential studies including somatosensory (SSEP, visual (VEP and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP, were performed to evaluate central conduction in patients with isolated eHcy. Results: Nine SSEP, 7 VEP, and 6 BAEP were studied in 9 patients with eHcy (age: 63.3 ± 7.5 years old, mean ± standard deviation, male/female: 4/5. SSEP with median nerve stimulation was delayed in peak latency of N9 (5/9/55.6%, abnormal/total subjects/percentage, N13 (7/9/77.8%, N20 (6/9/66.7%, and/or interpeak latency of N9-N13 (5/9/55.6%, N13-N20 (5/9/55.6%, and N9-N20 (4/9/44.4%. There was one delayed P100 latency (1/7/14.3% in 7 VEP. BAEP was within normal limits in all the 6 subjects tested. Conclusion: Our pilot study provided neurophysiologic evidence of central conduction slowness in patients with eHcy, which may be due to a large diameter fiber dysfunction within the somatosensory, but not the visual and auditory, white matter pathway. The central conduction slowing in eHcy may be relevant to the pathophysiologic background for slowing the central processing.

  1. Decreased glutathione and elevated hair mercury levels are associated with nutritional deficiency-based autism in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Omar; Ali, Amanat; Ouhtit, Allal; Zang, Tianzhu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Deth, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Genetic, nutrition, and environmental factors have each been implicated as sources of risk for autism. Oxidative stress, including low plasma levels of the antioxidant glutathione, has been reported by numerous autism studies, which can disrupt methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression with neurodevelopmental consequences. We investigated the status of redox and methylation metabolites, as well as the level of protein homocysteinylation and hair mercury levels, in autistic and neurotypical control Omani children, who were previously shown to exhibit significant nutritional deficiencies in serum folate and vitamin B₁₂. The serum level of glutathione in autistic subjects was significantly below control levels, while levels of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated, indicative of oxidative stress and decreased methionine synthase activity. Autistic males had lower glutathione and higher homocysteine levels than females, while homocysteinylation of serum proteins was increased in autistic males but not females. Mercury levels were markedly elevated in the hair of autistic subjects vs. control subjects, consistent with the importance of glutathione for its elimination. Thus, autism in Oman is associated with decreased antioxidant resources and decreased methylation capacity, in conjunction with elevated hair levels of mercury.

  2. Distribution of serum immunoglobulin G4 levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and clinical features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Ken; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Hidefumi; Inagaki, Yuko; Yamaoka, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Furuta, Hiroto; Nishi, Masahiro; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels, IgG4-positive plasmacytes, and lymphocyte infiltration into multiple organs. IgG4 thyroiditis is a subset of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) who exhibited histopathological features of IgG4-RD; its source of serum IgG4 is suggested to be the thyroid gland. Although a relationship between IgG4-RD and IgG4 thyroiditis has been reported, the meaning of serum IgG4 in HT is uncertain. In this report, we prospectively evaluated serum IgG4 levels and clinical features of patients with HT. A total of 149 patients with HT were prospectively recruited into this study. According to the comprehensive diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD, patients were divided into two groups: elevated IgG4 (>135 mg/dL) and non-elevated IgG4 (≤135 mg/dL). Median serum IgG4 levels of HT patients were 32.0 mg/dL (interquartile range, 20.0-65.0), with a unimodal non-normal distribution. Six patients (4.0%) had elevated serum IgG4 levels above 135 mg/dL. The elevated IgG4 group was older and exhibited enlarged hypoechoic areas in the thyroid gland, as revealed by ultrasonography, relative to the non-elevated IgG4 group. Levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement doses and titers of anti-thyroid antibodies did not differ significantly between the two groups. Two out of six HT patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels had extra-thyroid organ involvement as seen in IgG4-RD. In conclusion, HT patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels shared clinical features with both IgG4-RD and IgG4 thyroiditis. Longer follow-up periods and histopathological assessments are needed to further understand the meaning of elevated serum IgG4 levels in HT.

  3. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 levels become elevated in neurons around amyloid plaques: implications for Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Fu, Yifan; Yasvoina, Marina; Shao, Peizhen; Hitt, Brian; O'Connor, Tracy; Logan, Sreemathi; Maus, Erika; Citron, Martin; Berry, Robert; Binder, Lester; Vassar, Robert

    2007-04-04

    Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) (beta-secretase) initiates generation of beta-amyloid (Abeta), which plays an early role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). BACE1 levels are increased in postmortem AD brain, suggesting BACE1 elevation promotes Abeta production and AD. Alternatively, the BACE1 increase may be an epiphenomenon of late-stage AD. To distinguish between these possibilities, we analyzed BACE1 elevation using a highly specific BACE1 antibody, BACE-Cat1, made in BACE1-/- mice, which mount a robust anti-BACE1 immune response. Previous BACE1 immunohistochemical studies lack consistent results because typical BACE1 antibodies produce nonspecific background, but BACE-Cat1 immunolabels BACE1 only. BACE1 elevation was recapitulated in two amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse lines. 5XFAD mice form amyloid plaques at young ages and exhibit neuron loss. In contrast, Tg2576 form plaques at a more advanced age and do not show cell death. These two mouse lines allow differentiation between early Abeta-induced events and late phenomena related to neuron death. BACE1 levels became elevated in parallel with amyloid burden in each APP transgenic, starting early in 5XFAD and late in Tg2576. The increase in BACE1 protein occurred without any change in BACE1 mRNA level, indicating a posttranscriptional mechanism. In APP transgenic and AD brains, high BACE1 levels were observed in an annulus around Abeta42-positive plaque cores and colocalized with neuronal proteins. These results demonstrate that amyloid plaques induce BACE1 in surrounding neurons at early stages of pathology before neuron death occurs. We conclude that BACE1 elevation is most likely triggered by the amyloid pathway and may drive a positive-feedback loop in AD.

  4. Elevation of branched-chain amino acid levels in diabetes and NAFL and changes with antidiabetic drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Motoh; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Fujita, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwata, Kazuko; Kaito, Masahiko; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), and obesity are associated with elevated branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, but the mechanism and significance of this has not been elucidated. Eighty-four subjects were enrolled including 43 with DM. Serum BCAA levels were positively correlated with waist-hip ratio and ALT. Serum BCAA levels in subjects with DM were higher than non-DM and those in subjects with NAFL were also higher than non-NAFL. Treatment with pioglitazone and alogliptin (19 of 43 DM subjects) improved serum haemoglobin A1c and decreased BCAA levels. The decrease in BCAAs with improved glucose metabolism suggests that abnormal glucose metabolism is also a factor in elevated BCAA levels.

  5. Integrin α(IIb)β₃ exists in an activated state in subjects with elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGarrigle, Sarah A

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known but may relate to modification of cell surface thiols. The platelet specific integrin α(IIb)β₃ is a cysteine-rich cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in platelet aggregation and adhesion in haemostasis and thrombosis. In this study, we looked for evidence of a homocysteine-induced modification of α(IIb)β₃ using a fluorescently labeled PAC-1 antibody that recognizes the activated conformation of the integrin on the platelet surface. We show that exogenous Hcy (10-100 µM) and homocysteine thiolactone (HcyTL) (10-100 µM) increased PAC-1 binding to platelets in a concentration dependent manner in vitro. In parallel, we show subjects with clinical hyperhomocysteinemia exhibit a greater degree of activation of α(IIb)β₃ compared to age-matched controls. These findings demonstrate that circulating Hcy can modulate the activation state of the platelet integrin α(IIb)β₃, a key player in platelet aggregation and thrombosis.

  6. Development of a Rapid Qualitative Assay for Determining Elevated Antibody Levels to Periodontopathic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    another report, showed no elevation in IgM or IgA in these patients, with some-elevation of total~lgG (Rahney et’aL. 1981)’. Murray & Genco (1980) found...leukotoxic activity compared to 24% of normal, 39%of adult periodontitis,.,and 38% of ANUG sera. Genco et at. (1980b) found that.89% of LJP patients...Aactinomycetemcomitans have been notedin patients with rapidly progressive disease ( Genco et al. 1985). Theserum antibody response in adult periodontitis is more

  7. Elevated levels of G-quadruplex formation in human stomach and liver cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Giulia; Tannahill, David; Miller, Jodi; Howat, William J; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Four-stranded G-quadruplex DNA secondary structures have recently been visualized in the nuclei of human cultured cells. Here, we show that BG4, a G-quadruplex-specific antibody, can be used to stain DNA G-quadruplex structures in patient-derived tissues using immunohistochemistry. We observe a significantly elevated number of G-quadruplex-positive nuclei in human cancers of the liver and stomach as compared to background non-neoplastic tissue. Our results suggest that G-quadruplex formation can be detected and measured in patient-derived material and that elevated G-quadruplex formation may be a characteristic of some cancers.

  8. Biomass Production Potential of a Wastewater Alga Chlorella vulgaris ARC 1 under Elevated Levels of CO2 and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Chinnasamy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth response of Chlorella vulgaris was studied under varying concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036 to 20% and temperature (30, 40 and 50oC. The highest chlorophyll concentration (11 µg mL-1 and biomass (210 µg mL-1, which were 60 and 20 times more than that of C. vulgaris at ambient CO2 (0.036%, were recorded at 6% CO2 level. At 16% CO2 level, the concentrations of chlorophyll and biomass values were comparable to those at ambient CO2 but further increases in the CO2 level decreased both of them. Results showed that the optimum temperature for biomass production was 30oC under elevated CO2 (6%. Although increases in temperature above 30oC resulted in concomitant decrease in growth response, their adverse effects were significantly subdued at elevated CO2. There were also differential responses of the alga, assessed in terms of NaH14CO3 uptake and carbonic anhydrase activity, to increases in temperature at elevated CO2. The results indicated that Chlorella vulgaris grew better at elevated CO2 level at 30oC, albeit with lesser efficiencies at higher temperatures.

  9. Urine cardiac specific microRNA-1 level in patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段晓霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the change of urine level of cardiac specific microRNA-1(miR-1) in patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction(STEAMI) and investigate its potential applications. Methods Urine samples were collected from 20 STEAMI patients within

  10. Impact of elevated H2S on metabolite levels, activity of enzymes and expression of genes involved in cysteine metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemenschneider, A; Nikiforova, V.; Hoefgen, R; De Kok, LJ; Papenbrock, J

    2005-01-01

    The effects of elevated atmospheric hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mu l l(-1)) have been investigated in a short-term exposure experiment (3-48 h) on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in comparison to untreated control plants. The most pronounced effects of H2S fum

  11. Association of serum uric acid level with mortality and morbidity of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hajizadeh

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: In the current study, high serum UA level in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI was not associated with higher in-hospital or midterm mortality, but it was associated with lower LVEF, higher Killip class, elevated cTnI, creatinine, triglyceride, and higher AF.

  12. Elevated Lipoprotein(a) Levels, LPA Risk Genotypes, and Increased Risk of Heart Failure in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sough to test whether elevated lipoprotein(a) levels and corresponding LPA risk genotypes (low number of kringle IV type 2 repeats, rs3798220 and rs10455872, minor allele carriers) are associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein......(a) levels represent a genetically determined risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI) and aortic valve stenosis (AVS). It is presently unknown whether elevated lipoprotein(a) levels also cause heart failure (HF). METHODS: We combined 2 general population studies, the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n = 10...... mediation analyses. RESULTS: Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels were associated with multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for HF of 1.10 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.25) for the 34th to 66th percentiles (8 to 19 mg/dl), 1.24 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.42) for the 67th to 90th percentiles (20 to 67 mg/dl), 1.57 (95% CI: 1.32 to 1...

  13. The lipoprotein lipase (Asn291 → Ser) mutation is associated with elevated lipid levels in families with familial combined hyperlipidaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffer, M.J.V.; Bredie, S.J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.; Reymer, P.W.A.; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Knijff, P. de; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Frants, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCHL) is one of the major genetic causes of coronary heart disease (CHD) and is characterised by elevated levels of plasma cholesterol and/or triglycerides in individuals within a single family. Decreased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity has been found in some

  14. Impact of elevated H2S on metabolite levels, activity of enzymes and expression of genes involved in cysteine metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemenschneider, A; Nikiforova, V.; Hoefgen, R; De Kok, LJ; Papenbrock, J

    The effects of elevated atmospheric hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mu l l(-1)) have been investigated in a short-term exposure experiment (3-48 h) on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in comparison to untreated control plants. The most pronounced effects of H2S

  15. Differences in responses of summer and winter spinach to elevated UV-B at varying soil NPK levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variations in response of spinach to elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) during summer and winter were assessed with respect to growth, biomass, yield, NPK uptake and NPK use efficiencies at varying NPK levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended NPK (RNPK) and 1.5 times recommended NPK (1.5 RNPK). Season significantly affected the measured parameters except the number of leaves. Under ambient UV-B, the growth performance of summer spinach was better in both the NPK levels, higher being at 1.5 RNPK leading to higher nutrient uptake. However, more reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B in 1.5 RNPK was recorded during summer, while during winter in RNPK. Reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B was accompanied by the modification in its partitioning with more biomass allocation to root during summer compared to winter at both the NPK levels. NPK uptake was higher in summer, while NPK use efficiencies were higher during winter. At higher than recommended NPK level, better NPK use efficiencies were displayed during both the seasons. Increased NPK supply during winter enabled spinach to capitalize light more efficiently and hence increased biomass accumulation. Strategies for surviving elevated UV-B in winter differ from those that provided protection from the same stress when it occurs in summer.

  16. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes.

  17. Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P

    2016-04-01

    We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43-85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging.

  18. Alpinia zerumbet potentially elevates high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Liang, Yu-Jing; Yeh, Wan-Ting; Wang, Hui-Er; Yu, Tung-Hsi; Peng, Robert Y

    2008-06-25

    In folkloric plant medicines, Alpinia zerumbet (AZ) has been popularly recognized as an exellent hepatoprotector. To search for a good high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) elevating herbal preparation, we examined AZ for its antioxidant and hypolipidaemic bioactivities, especially its HDL-C elevating activity. AZ seeds contain 0.51% essential oils (SO), which are comprised of monoterpenoids, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids, aldehydes, acid, and esters. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicated that most of the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were recoverable in pentane eluent, whilst the oxygenated monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids remained in ether eluent. The high contents of rutin, quercetin, and polyphenolics in ethanolic extract of AZ seeds exhibit moderate antilipoperoxidative but potent DPPH free radical scavenging bioactivities. Conclusively, both seed powder (SP) and SO are effective hypolipidaemics with amazingly potent HDL-C elevating capabilities. On the basis of hepatoprotectivity, SP is a more feasible hypolipidemic agent as well as a promising HDL-C elevating plant medicine.

  19. Elevated nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid of children with hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Frederike; Koehne, Petra; Schäper, Christoph; Butenandt, Otfrid; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Ring-Mrozik, Elfride; Obladen, Michael; Bührer, Christoph

    2001-01-01

    Background Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) resulting from impaired drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) causes hydrocephalus with damage to the central nervous system. Clinical symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in infants may be difficult to diagnose, leading to delayed treatment by shunt placement. Until now, no biochemical marker of elevated ICP has been available for clinical diagnosis and monitoring. In experimental animal models, nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) have been shown to be produced by glial cells as an adaptive response to hypoxia. We investigated whether concentrations of NGF and NT-3 are increased in the CSF of children with hydrocephalus. Methods NGF was determined in CSF samples collected from 42 hydrocephalic children on 65 occasions (taps or shunt placement surgery). CSF samples obtained by lumbar puncture from 22 children with suspected, but unconfirmed bacterial infection served as controls. Analysis was performed using ELISA techniques. Results NGF concentrations in hydrocephalic children were over 50-fold increased compared to controls (median 225 vs 4 pg/mL, p 1 pg/mL) in 14/31 hydrocephalus samples at 2–51 pg/mL but in none of 11 control samples (p = 0.007). Conclusion NGF and NT-3 concentrations are increased in children with hydrocephalus. This may represent an adaptive response of the brain to elevated ICP. PMID:11580868

  20. Elevated nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid of children with hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felderhoff-Mueser Ursula

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP resulting from impaired drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF causes hydrocephalus with damage to the central nervous system. Clinical symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP in infants may be difficult to diagnose, leading to delayed treatment by shunt placement. Until now, no biochemical marker of elevated ICP has been available for clinical diagnosis and monitoring. In experimental animal models, nerve growth factor (NGF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 have been shown to be produced by glial cells as an adaptive response to hypoxia. We investigated whether concentrations of NGF and NT-3 are increased in the CSF of children with hydrocephalus. Methods NGF was determined in CSF samples collected from 42 hydrocephalic children on 65 occasions (taps or shunt placement surgery. CSF samples obtained by lumbar puncture from 22 children with suspected, but unconfirmed bacterial infection served as controls. Analysis was performed using ELISA techniques. Results NGF concentrations in hydrocephalic children were over 50-fold increased compared to controls (median 225 vs 4 pg/mL, p 1 pg/mL in 14/31 hydrocephalus samples at 2–51 pg/mL but in none of 11 control samples (p = 0.007. Conclusion NGF and NT-3 concentrations are increased in children with hydrocephalus. This may represent an adaptive response of the brain to elevated ICP.

  1. Cellular responses to elevated light levels in Fucus spiralis embryos during the first days after fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, S.; Rijstenbil, J.W.; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Brown, M.

    2001-01-01

    Cellular responses of 1-, 2- and 4-d-old Fucus spiralis embryos subjected to a single dose of elevated photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD), with or without ultraviolet (U-V) radiation, were investigated by measuring the effects on the effective quantum yield of photosystem II

  2. Heparanase Levels Are Elevated in the Plasma of Pediatric Cancer Patients and Correlate with Response to Anticancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Shafat

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate (HS side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, the major proteoglycan in the extracellular matrix (ECM and cell surfaces. Heparanase upregulation was documented in an increasing number of primary human tumors, correlating with reduced postoperative survival rate and enhanced tumor angiogenesis. The purpose of the current study was to determine heparanase levels in blood samples collected from pediatric cancer patients using an ELISA method. Heparanase levels were elevated four-fold in the plasma of cancer patients compared with healthy controls (664 ± 143 vs 163 ± 18 pg/ml, respectively. Evaluating plasma samples following anticancer therapy revealed reduced heparanase levels (664 ± 143 vs 429 ± 82 pg/ml, differences that are statistically highly significant (P = .0048. Of the 55 patients with complete remission (CR or very good partial remission (VGPR at restaging, 41 (74.5% had lower heparanase amounts, whereas 14 patients (25.5% had similar or higher amounts of plasma heparanase. All nine patients with stable or advancing disease had similar or elevated levels of heparanase on restaging. The results show that heparanase levels are elevated in the plasma of pediatric cancer patients and closely correlate with treatment responsiveness, indicating that heparanase levels can be used to diagnose and monitor patient's response to anticancer treatment.

  3. Elevated serum creatine kinase levels in psychiatric practice: differential diagnosis and clinical significance: A brief, practical guideline for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voros, Viktor; Osvath, Peter; Fekete, Sandor; Tenyi, Tamas

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Elevated serum CK levels often occur in psychiatric in-patient practice. Although the majority of cases are benign and temporary, it is important to recognize and treat these conditions. Aims. To discuss the etiology, the clinical significance and the management of elevated creatine kinase levels in psychiatric in-patient practice, focusing on antipsychotic-induced rhabdomyolysis. To compare the pathogenesis and the clinical features of rhabdomyolysis and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Methods. Review of the literature. Results. A brief, practical guideline is introduced, which may help clinicians in the differential diagnosis and in the management of patients with elevated creatine kinase activity in emergent psychiatric practice. Conclusions. The most common etiologic factors (prescription drugs, alcohol, physical reasons, cardiac etiology) and clinical syndromes (rhabdomyolysis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, acute coronary syndrome) should be considered, when elevated creatine kinase levels are encountered in psychiatric in-patients. Routine creatine kinase measurements in asymptomatic patients on antipsychotic medications are not recommended, but patients should be carefully followed for the development of rhabdomyolysis, when muscular symptoms arise. Careful monitoring of symptoms and potential complications is critical in order to avoid devastating clinical consequences. Cautiously challenging patients with another antipsychotic after an antipsychotic-induced rhabdomyolysis is recommended to decrease the possibility of recurrence.

  4. Measurement of amino acid levels in the vitreous humor of rats after chronic intraocular pressure elevation or optic nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Baumrind, Lisa A; Pease, Mary Ellen; Valenta, Danielle

    2002-10-01

    To investigate whether the levels of free amino acids and protein in the vitreous of rat eyes are altered with chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation or after optic nerve transection. The concentrations of 20 amino acids in the vitreous humor were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in both eyes of 41 rats with unilateral IOP elevation induced by translimbal photocoagulation. Eyes were studied 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 9 weeks after initial IOP elevation. The same amino acids were measured in 41 rats 1 day and 2, 4, and 9 weeks after unilateral transection of the orbital optic nerve. The intravitreal protein level was assayed in additional 22 rats with IOP elevation and 12 rats after nerve transection. Two masked observers evaluated the amount of optic nerve damage with a semiquantitative, light-microscopic technique. In rats with experimental glaucoma, amino acid concentrations were unchanged 1 day after treatment. At 1 week, 4 of 20 amino acids (aspartate, proline, alanine, and lysine) were higher than in control eyes ( 0.05). Vitreous protein level was significantly higher in glaucomatous eyes than their paired controls at 1 day ( 0.01).

  5. Source identification and budget analysis on elevated levels of formaldehyde within ship plumes: a photochemical/dynamic model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C. H.; Kim, H. S.; von Glasow, R.; Brimblecombe, P.; Kim, J.; Park, R. J.; Woo, J. H.

    2010-06-01

    Elevated levels of formaldehyde (HCHO) along the ship corridors have been observed by satellite sensors, such as ESA/ERS-2 GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), and were also predicted by global 3-D chemistry-transport models. In this study, three likely sources of the elevated HCHO levels were investigated to identify the detailed sources and examine the contributions of the sources (budget) of the elevated levels of HCHO in the ship corridors using a newly-developed ship-plume photochemical/dynamic model: (1) primary HCHO emission from ships; (2) secondary HCHO production via the atmospheric oxidation of Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted from ships; and (3) atmospheric oxidation of CH4 within the ship plumes. From multiple ship-plume model simulations, CH4 oxidation by elevated levels of in-plume OH radicals was found to be the main factor responsible for the elevated levels of HCHO in the ship corridors. More than ~91% of the HCHO for the base ship plume case (ITCT 2K2 ship-plume case) is produced by this atmospheric chemical process, except in the areas close to the ship stacks where the main source of the elevated HCHO levels would be primary HCHO from the ships (due to the deactivation of CH4 oxidation from the depletion of in-plume OH radicals). Because of active CH4 oxidation (chemical destruction of CH4) by OH radicals, the instantaneous chemical lifetime of CH4 (τ CH4) decreased to ~0.45 yr inside the ship plume, which is in contrast to τ CH4 of ~1.1 yr in the background (up to ~41% decrease). A variety of likely ship-plume situations at three locations at different latitudes within the global ship corridors was also studied to determine the extent of the enhancements in the HCHOlevels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) influenced by ship emissions. It was found that the ship-plume HCHO levels could be 20.5-434.9 pptv higher than the background HCHO levels depending on the latitudinal locations of the ship plumes (i

  6. Association of serum cystatin C levels with myocardial perfusion and cardiac functional recovery in patients with anterior wall ST elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Fang, Zhen-Fei; Zhou, Sheng-Hua; Tai, Shi; Ahmed, Salah; Huang, Feng; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Zhao, Yan-Shu; Hu, Xin-Qun

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the association of baseline serum cystatin C levels with myocardial perfusion and cardiac functional recovery in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). 108 patients with a first anterior STEMI who underwent PPCI were enrolled. Serum cystatin C was measured by immunoturbidimetric method. Patients were divided into two groups according to the median cystatin C levels on admission: group 1 (≥median, n = 54) and group 2 (C levels on admission. Patients with an IMR ≥33.7 U also had significantly higher cystatin C levels. The WMSI showed a greater improvement in group 2 than in group 1 and there was a significant negative correlation between improvement of WMSI and the cystatin C levels. There was no significant difference in MACEs between the 2 groups. However, congestive heart failure (CHF) was observed significantly more frequent in group 1 than in group 2 (18.5 vs. 5.6 %, p = 0.022). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that cystatin C levels at admission were a significant independent predictor of angiographic no-reflow and the development of CHF at 6-month follow-up. Elevated cystatin C levels at admission were independently associated with impaired myocardial perfusion, poor cardiac functional recovery and development of CHF in patients with anterior STEMI undergoing PPCI.

  7. Elevated salicylic acid levels conferred by increased expression of ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1 contribute to hyperaccumulation of SUMO1 conjugates in the Arabidopsis mutant early in short days 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villajuana-Bonequi, Mitzi; Elrouby, Nabil; Nordström, Karl; Griebel, Thomas; Bachmair, Andreas; Coupland, George

    2014-07-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is essential for plant growth and development. Mutations in the SUMO protease early in short days 4 (ESD4) cause hyperaccumulation of conjugates formed between SUMO and its substrates, and phenotypically are associated with extreme early flowering and impaired growth. We performed a suppressor mutagenesis screen of esd4 and identified a series of mutants called suppressor of esd4 (sed), which delay flowering, enhance growth and reduce hyperaccumulation of SUMO conjugates. Genetic mapping and genome sequencing indicated that one of these mutations (sed111) is in the gene salicylic acid induction-deficient 2 (SID2), which encodes ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE I, an enzyme required for biosynthesis of salicylic acid (SA). Analyses showed that compared with wild-type plants, esd4 contains higher levels of SID2 mRNA and about threefold more SA, whereas sed111 contains lower SA levels. Other sed mutants also contain lower SA levels but are not mutant for SID2, although most reduce SID2 mRNA levels. Therefore, higher SA levels contribute to the small size, early flowering and elevated SUMO conjugate levels of esd4. Our results support previous data indicating that SUMO homeostasis influences SA biosynthesis in wild-type plants, and also demonstrate that elevated levels of SA strongly increase the abundance of SUMO conjugates.

  8. Competitive interactions between established grasses and woody plant seedlings under elevated CO₂ levels are mediated by soil water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, A; Leishman, M R

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of woody plants into grasslands has been observed worldwide and is likely to have widespread ecological consequences. One proposal is that woody plant expansion into grasslands is driven in part by the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We have examined the effect of CO2 concentration on the competitive interactions between established C4 grasses and woody plant seedlings in a model grassland system. Woody plant seedlings were grown in mesocosms together with established C4 grasses in three competition treatments (root competition, shoot competition and root + shoot competition) under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. We found that the growth of the woody plant seedlings was suppressed by competition from grasses, with root and shoot competition having similar competitive effects on growth. In contrast to expectations, woody plant seedling growth was reduced at elevated CO2 levels compared to that at the ambient CO2 level across all competition treatments, with the most plausible explanation being reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms was associated with an increased leaf area index of the grasses which offset the reductions in stomatal conductance and increased rainfall interception. The woody plant seedlings also had reduced 'escapability' (stem biomass and stem height) under elevated compared to ambient CO2 levels. Our results suggest that the expansion of woody plants into grasslands in the future will likely be context-dependent, with the establishment success of woody plant seedlings being strongly coupled to the CO2 response of competing grasses and to soil water availability.

  9. The conservation value of elevation data accuracy and model sophistication in reserve design under sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingjian; Hoctor, Tom; Volk, Mike; Frank, Kathryn; Linhoss, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have explored the value of using more sophisticated coastal impact models and higher resolution elevation data in sea-level rise (SLR) adaptation planning. However, we know little about to what extent the improved models and data could actually lead to better conservation outcomes under SLR. This is important to know because high-resolution data are likely to not be available in some data-poor coastal areas in the world and running more complicated coastal impact models is relatively time-consuming, expensive, and requires assistance by qualified experts and technicians. We address this research question in the context of identifying conservation priorities in response to SLR. Specifically, we investigated the conservation value of using more accurate light detection and ranging (Lidar)-based digital elevation data and process-based coastal land-cover change models (Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model, SLAMM) to identify conservation priorities versus simple "bathtub" models based on the relatively coarse National Elevation Dataset (NED) in a coastal region of northeast Florida. We compared conservation outcomes identified by reserve design software (Zonation) using three different model dataset combinations (Bathtub-NED, Bathtub-Lidar, and SLAMM-Lidar). The comparisons show that the conservation priorities are significantly different with different combinations of coastal impact models and elevation dataset inputs. The research suggests that it is valuable to invest in more accurate coastal impact models and elevation datasets in SLR adaptive conservation planning because this model-dataset combination could improve conservation outcomes under SLR. Less accurate coastal impact models, including ones created using coarser Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data can still be useful when better data and models are not available or feasible, but results need to be appropriately assessed and communicated. A future research priority is to investigate how

  10. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - sorghum at elevated levels of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, R.B.; Chaudhuri, U.N.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

    1985-12-31

    Enhancement of plant growth is an important effect of the rising concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Crops vary in response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Growth often appears greater in C{sub 3} plants than in C{sub 4} plants. But relatively little work has been done with C{sub 4} plants, and most of it has been with corn. The few existing C{sub 4} data conflict. Some studies indicate that the yield of C{sub 4} plants at elevated CO{sub 2} is about one-fourth that of C{sub 3} crops, but other studies show that C{sub 4} plants with increased CO{sub 2} yield at a rate the average for all crops.

  11. The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

    1993-12-01

    The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

  12. Development of derived investigation levels for use in internal dosimetry at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The objective was to determine if the routine intemal dosimetry program at the West Valley Demonstration Project is capable of meeting the performance objective of 1 mSv annual effective dose equivalent due to internal contamination. With the use of the computer code REMedy the annual effective dose equivalent is calculated. Some of the radionuclides of concern result in an annual effective dose equivalent that exceeds the performance objective. Although the results exceed the performance objective, in all but two cases they do not exceed the US DOE regulatory limits. In these instances the Th-232 and Am-241 were determined to exceed the committed dose equivalent limit to their limiting tissue. In order to document the potential missed dose for regulatory compliance, Sr-90 is used as an indicator for Th-232. For Am-241 an investigation as to whether or not the minimum detectable amount can be lowered is performed. The derived investigation levels as a result of this project are 4.9E3 Bq/lung count for Co-60, 2.2E4 Bq/lung count for Cs-137, 1.9 Bq/1 for Sr-90 and for radionuclides other than Sr-90 any value greater than or equal to three standard deviations above their net count is considered to require further investigation.

  13. A Demonstration of Spectral Level Reconstruction of Intrinsic $B$-mode Power

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Barun

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the prospects and consequences of the spectral level reconstruction of primordial $B$-mode power by solving the systems of linear equations assuming that the lensing potential together with the lensed polarization spectra are already in hand. We find that this reconstruction technique may be very useful to have an estimate of the amplitude of primordial gravity waves or more specifically the value of tensor to scalar ratio. We also see that one can have cosmic variance limited reconstruction of the intrinsic $B$-mode power up to few hundred multipoles ($\\ell\\sim500$) which is more than sufficient to have an estimate of the tensor to scalar ratio. Since the small scale cosmic microwave background (CMB henceforth) anisotropies are not sourced by the primordial gravity waves generated during inflation. We also find that the impact of instrumental noise may be bypassed within this reconstruction algorithm. A simple demonstration for the nullification of the instrumental noise anticipating COrE like...

  14. ELEVATED LEVELS OF KYNURENIC ACID DURING GESTATION PRODUCE NEUROCHEMICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL, AND COGNITIVE DEFICITS IN ADULTHOOD: IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Michelle L.; Bortz, David M.; Pocivavsek, Ana; Fredericks, Peter J.; Jørgensen, Christinna V.; Vunck, Sarah A.; Leuner, Benedetta; Schwarcz, Robert; Bruno, John P.

    2016-01-01

    The levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous negative modulator of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs), are elevated in the brains of patients with schizophrenia (SZ). We reported that increases of brain KYNA in rats, through dietary exposure to its precursor kynurenine from embryonic day (ED)15 to postnatal day (PD) 21, result in neurochemical and cognitive deficits in adulthood. The present experiments focused on the effects of prenatal exposure to elevated kynurenine on measures of prefrontal excitability known to be impaired in SZ. Pregnant dams were fed a mash containing kynurenine (100 mg/day; progeny = EKYNs) from ED15 until ED22. Controls were fed an unadulterated mash (progeny = ECONs). The dietary loading procedure elevated maternal and fetal plasma kynurenine (2223% and 693% above controls, respectively) and increased fetal KYNA (forebrain; 500% above controls) on ED21. Elevations in forebrain KYNA disappeared after termination of the loading (PD2), but KYNA levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were unexpectedly increased again when measured in adults (PD56-80; 75% above controls). We also observed changes in several markers of prefrontal excitability, including expression of the α7nAChR (22% and 17% reductions at PD2 and PD56-80), expression of mGluR2 (31% and 24% reductions at ED21 and PD56-80), dendritic spine density (11–14% decrease at PD56-80), subsensitive mesolimbic stimulation of glutamate release in PFC, and reversal/extra-dimensional shift deficits in the prefrontally-mediated set-shifting task. These results highlight the deleterious impact of elevated KYNA levels during sensitive periods of early development, which model the pathophysiological and cognitive deficits seen in SZ. PMID:25446576

  15. Lithium toxicity in a neonate owing to false elevation of blood lithium levels caused by contamination in a lithium heparin container: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Zainab; Athiraman, Naveen K; Clark, Simon J

    2016-08-01

    Lithium toxicity in a neonate can occur owing to antenatal exposure as a result of maternal treatment for psychiatric illnesses. False elevation of lithium levels has been reported in the paediatric population when the sample was mistakenly collected in a lithium heparin container. A term, male infant was born to a mother who was on lithium treatment for a psychiatric illness. On day 1, the infant was jittery, had a poor suck with difficulties in establishing feeds. Blood taken from the infant approximately 8 hours after birth demonstrated a lithium level of 4.9 mmol/L (adult toxic level w1.5 mmol/L). However, the sample for lithium levels was sent in a lithium heparin container and the probability of false elevation was considered. He was closely monitored in the neonatal intensive care unit and his hydration was optimised with intravenous fluids. Clinically, he remained well and commenced feeding, and his jitteriness had decreased the following day. A repeat blood lithium level, collected in a gel container, was only 0.4 mmol/L. The initially raised lithium level was owing to contamination from the lithium heparin container.

  16. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weger, Hans, Ph.D.; Kodanda, Raja Tilek Meruva; Mazumdar, Anindra; Srivastava, Rajiv Ph.D.; Ebadian, M.A. Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Four hand-held tools were tested for failed high-level waste melter decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The forces felt by the tools during operation were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer since they will be operated by a remote manipulator. The efficiency of the tools was also recorded. Melter D&D consists of three parts: (1) glass fracturing: removing from the furnace the melted glass that can not be poured out through normal means, (2) glass cleaning: removing the thin layer of glass that has formed over the surface of the refractory material, and (3) K-3 refractory breakup: removing the K-3 refractory material. Surrogate glass, from a formula provided by the Savannah River Site, was melted in a furnace and poured into steel containers. K-3 refractory material, the same material used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, was utilized for the demonstrations. Four K-3 blocks were heated at 1150 C for two weeks with a glass layer on top to simulate the hardened glass layer on the refractory surface in the melter. Tools chosen for the demonstrations were commonly used D&D tools, which have not been tested specifically for the different aspects of melter D&D. A jackhammer and a needle gun were tested for glass fracturing; a needle gun and a rotary grinder with a diamond face wheel (diamond grinder) were tested for glass cleaning; and a jackhammer, diamond grinder, and a circular saw with a diamond blade were tested for refractory breakup. The needle gun was not capable of removing or fracturing the surrogate glass. The diamond grinder only had a removal rate of 3.0 x 10-4 kg/s for K-3 refractory breakup and needed to be held firmly against the material. However, the diamond grinder was effective for glass cleaning, with a removal rate of 3.9 cm2/s. The jackhammer was successful in fracturing glass and breaking up the K-3 refractory block. The jackhammer had a glass-fracturing rate of 0.40 kg/s. The jackhammer split the K-3 refractory block into two

  17. Elevated C-reactive protein levels in schizophrenia inpatients is associated with aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, R; Lobel, T; Krivoy, A; Shlosberg, D; Weizman, A; Katz, N

    2016-01-01

    An association between inflammation and behavioral domains of mental disorders is of growing interest. Recent studies reported an association between aggression and inflammation. In this study, we investigated the association between aggressive behavior and inflammatory markers in schizophrenia inpatients. Adult schizophrenia inpatients without affective symptoms (n=213) were retrospectively identified and categorized according to their C-reactive protein measurement at admission as either elevated (CRP>1 mg/dL; n=57) or normal (CRPinflammation including leukocyte count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (r=0.387, Pinflammation) of a specific behavioral endophenotype (aggression) in schizophrenia inpatients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of pirenzepine on Dai-kenchu-to-induced elevation of the plasma neuropeptide levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuhki; Inoue, Shin; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Itoh, Hiroki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Dai-kenchu-to has been used for the treatment of abdominal obstructions, including bowel obstructions and a feeling of coldness in the abdomen. We reported that Dai-kenchu-to increases plasma neuropeptide [motilin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), serotonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and substance P]-like immunoreactive substances (IS) levels and that its pharmacologic effects on the gastrointestine are due to changes in gastrointestinal mucosa-regulatory peptide levels. We examined the effects of the selective M(1) muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on the elevation of Dai-kenchu-to-induced plasma neuropeptide (gastrin, motilin, somatostatin, VIP, CGRP, substance P)-IS levels in human volunteers and the area under the plasma neuropeptide concentration-time curve from 0 to 240 min (AUC(0-->240 min)), which were calculated from the plasma neuropeptide concentration-time curves from each volunteers. Oral pretreatment with pirenzepine reduced the Dai-kenchu-to-induced elevation of plasma motilin and VIP-IS levels and AUC(0-->240 min). Combined treatment with Dai-kenchu-to and pirenzepine increased plasma somatostatin-IS levels and decreased plasma gastrin-IS levels and had no effects on plasma CGRP- and substance P-IS levels and AUC(0-->240 min) compared with administration of Dai-kenchu-to alone. Dai-kenchu-to appeared to induce the release of motilin and VIP into plasma mainly through the activation of M(1) muscarinic receptors, and pirenzepine may affect the pharmacologic action of Dai-kenchu-to by elevation of plasma motilin and VIP levels.

  19. Olympic boxing is associated with elevated levels of the neuronal protein tau in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neselius, Sanna; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Randall, Jeffrey; Wilson, David; Marcusson, Jan; Brisby, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if olympic (amateur) boxing is associated with elevation of brain injury biomarkers in peripheral blood compared to controls. Thirty olympic boxers competing in at least 47 bouts were compared to 25 controls. Blood was collected from the controls at one occasion and from the boxers within 1-6 days after a bout and after a rest period of at least 14 days. Tau concentration in plasma was determined using a novel single molecule ELISA assay and S-100B, glial fibrillary acidic protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and amyloid β 1-42 were determined using standard immunoassays. None of the boxers had been knocked-out during the bout. Plasma-tau was significantly increased in the boxers after a bout compared to controls (mean ± SD, 2.46 ± 5.10 vs. 0.79 ± 0.961 ng L(-1), p = 0.038). The other brain injury markers did not differ between the groups. Plasma-tau decreased significantly in the boxers after a resting period compared to after a bout (p = 0.030). Olympic boxing is associated with elevation of tau in plasma. The repetitive minimal head injury in boxing may lead to axonal injuries that can be diagnosed with a blood test.

  20. Elevated amylase creatinine clearance ratio and normal serum amylase levels in chronic relapsing pancreatitis after partial pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattau, E L; Garcia-Torres, F

    1980-12-01

    A 29-year-old woman admitted for alcohol detoxification five years after a 90% distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis had abdominal pain similar to that associated with preoperative pancreatitis. Although her clinical course was consistent with recurrent pancreatitis, the serum amylase level remained normal, but the amylase creatinine clearance ratio became elevated and then returned to normal, paralleling her clinical course. The ACCR may be a useful laboratory method in diagnosing chronic recurrent pancreatitis in patients with decreased functional pancreatic tissue.

  1. Recognition of Facial Expressions in Individuals with Elevated Levels of Depressive Symptoms: An Eye-Movement Study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies consistently reported abnormal recognition of facial expressions in depression. However, it is still not clear whether this abnormality is due to an enhanced or impaired ability to recognize facial expressions, and what underlying cognitive systems are involved. The present study aimed to examine how individuals with elevated levels of depressive symptoms differ from controls on facial expression recognition and to assess attention and information processing using eye trackin...

  2. Evaluating the response of two high yielding Indian rice cultivars against ambient and elevated levels of ozone by using open top chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, S B

    2012-03-01

    A continuous increase in the background level of tropospheric ozone (O(3)) has become a major challenge for present and future agricultural productivity at worldwide. Present study was designed to assess the impact of ambient (present) and elevated (future) concentrations of O(3) on two cultivars of Indian rice (Oryza sativa L. cvs Malviya dhan 36 and Shivani). Shoot and root lengths, number of leaves and total leaf area were severely affected by both ambient and elevated concentrations of O(3). Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) were also reduced by O(3) with more drastic effects under elevated levels of O(3). Leaf proteome showed reduction of some major proteins due to O(3). Pollen viability, viable florets plant(-1) and economic yield also showed significant negative impact under O(3)-exposure in both the test cultivars. The experimental findings depict that both the cultivars of rice demonstrate differential response against O(3), and it may help the plant breeders in selection of resistant cultivars for the area having higher concentrations of O(3).

  3. A case of thyroid storm with a markedly elevated level of circulating soluble interleukin-2 receptor complicated by multiple organ failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Yoko; Satoh, Tetsurou; Takahashi, Hiroki; Katano-Toki, Akiko; Ozawa, Atsushi; Tomaru, Takuya; Horiguchi, Norio; Kaira, Kyoichi; Nishioka, Masaki; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Wakino, Shu; Mori, Masatomo; Yamada, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid storm (TS) is a life-threatening endocrine emergency. However, the pathogenesis of TS is poorly understood. A 40-year-old man was admitted to a nearby hospital with body weight loss and jaundice. Five days after a contrasted abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scan, he exhibited high fever and disturbance of consciousness. He was diagnosed with TS originating from untreated Graves' disease and was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) of our hospital. The patient exhibited impaired consciousness (E4V1M4 in Glasgow coma scale), high fever (39.3°C), and atrial flutter with a pulse rate 162/min, and was complicated by heart failure, acute hepatic failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC). His circulating level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), a serum marker of an activated immune response, was highly elevated (7,416 U/mL, reference range: 135-483). Multiple organ failure (MOF) and DIC were successfully managed by multimodality treatments using inorganized iodide, glucocorticoids, anti-thyroid drugs, beta-blockers, and diuretics as well as an anticoagulant agent and the transfusion of platelet concentrate and fresh frozen plasma. sIL-2R levels gradually decreased during the initial treatment, but were still above the reference range even after thyroidectomy. Mild elevations in serum levels of sIL-2R have previously been correlated with thyroid hormone levels in non-storm Graves' disease. The present study demonstrated, for the first time, that circulating sIL-2R levels could be markedly elevated in TS. The marked increase in sIL-2R levels was speculated to represent an inappropriate generalized immune response that plays an unknown role in the pathogenesis of TS.

  4. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A

    2003-11-01

    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web.

  5. Elevated levels of collagen cross-link residues in gingival tissues and crevicular fluid of teeth with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Søren; Springer, Ingo N G; Buschmann, Andreas; Hedderich, Jürgen; Açil, Yahya

    2003-06-01

    Lysylpyridinoline (LP) and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) are collagen cross-link residues. Lysylpyridinoline is present in most tissues, whereas LP is present mainly in mineralized tissue. Both are elevated in tissue with increased collagen resorption. The purpose of this investigation was to assess if the concentrations of LP and HP are elevated in gingiva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of teeth with advanced periodontitis (AP). We investigated human gingival biopsies of healthy teeth (n = 19) and teeth with AP (n = 43) in 49 individuals. Samples of GCF from 54 teeth with AP were collected in seven patients and compared with samples from 11 patients with experimentally induced gingivitis. Levels of LP and HP were measured by HPLC and fluorescence detection. Gingival concentrations of HP but not LP around teeth with advanced periodontitis were significantly elevated compared with teeth with healthy periodontium. While significant amounts of HP and LP were measurable in the GCF of teeth with AP, no HP and LP was identified 3 months following non-surgical periodontal therapy of the teeth or in fluid from teeth subjected to experimentally induced gingivitis. Elevated concentrations of HP and LP in GCF may serve as indicators of ongoing destruction of periodontal tissues and alveolar bone in advanced periodontitis.

  6. Elevated levels of nitric oxide and low levels of haptoglobin are associated with severe malarial anaemia in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyan, Ben; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Akanmori, Bartholomew D

    2002-01-01

    was there any correlation between parasitaemias and neopterin levels. The low haptoglobin and high levels of NO in this SA group may contribute to haemolysis. Taken together our results support the hypothesis that immune-mediated erythrocyte destruction is involved in the pathogenesis of malarial anaemia....

  7. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  8. Genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W-M; Zhang, H-F; Zhu, Z-Y; Zhou, Y-L; Liang, N-X; Xu, D-J; Zhou, F; Sheng, Y-H; Yang, R; Gong, L; Yin, Z-J; Chen, F-K; Cao, K-J; Li, X-L

    2013-04-01

    Elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and increased arterial stiffness are associated with cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have reported an association between levels of circulating triglycerides and arterial stiffness. We used Mendelian randomization to test whether this association is causal. We investigated the association between circulating triglyceride levels, the apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA5) -1131T>C single nucleotide polymorphism and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) by examining data from 4421 subjects aged 18-74 years who were recruited from the Chinese population. baPWV was significantly associated with the levels of circulating triglycerides after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist-to-hip ratio, antihypertensive treatment and diabetes mellitus status. The -1131C allele was associated with a 5% (95% confidence interval 3-8%) increase in circulating triglycerides (adjusted for age, sex, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diabetes mellitus and antihypertensive treatment). Instrumental variable analysis showed that genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides were not associated with increased baPWV. These results do not support the hypothesis that levels of circulating triglycerides have a causal role in the development of arterial stiffness.

  9. Circulating heat shock protein 60 levels are elevated in HIV patients and are reduced by anti-retroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaru Anraku

    Full Text Available Circulating heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60 and heat shock protein 10 (Hsp10 have been associated with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. To determine whether these heat shock proteins might be associated with the immune activation seen in HIV-infected patients, the plasma levels of Hsp60 and Hsp10 were determined in a cohort of 20 HIV-infected patients before and after effective combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART. We show for the first time that circulating Hsp60 levels are elevated in HIV-infected patients, with levels significantly reduced after cART, but still higher than those in HIV-negative individuals. Hsp60 levels correlated significantly with viral load, CD4 counts, and circulating soluble CD14 and lipopolysaccharide levels. No differences or correlations were seen for Hsp10 levels. Elevated circulating Hsp60 may contribute to the immune dysfunction and non-AIDS clinical events seen in HIV-infected patients.

  10. Orexin-A level elevation in recently abstinent male methamphetamine abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Yin; Kao, Chung-Feng; Chen, Po-Yu; Lin, Shih-Ku; Huang, Ming-Chyi

    2016-05-30

    Research has suggested that methamphetamine (METH) use influences orexin regulation. We examined the difference in orexin-A levels between METH abusers and healthy controls. Fasting serum orexin-A levels were measured in 35 participants who used METH in the preceding 3 weeks and 36 healthy controls. We found METH abusers had significantly higher orexin-A levels. No association was observed between orexin-A levels and METH use variables. Our results, consistent with prior preclinical evidence, showed that recent METH exposure is associated with increased orexin-A expression. Further investigation is required to determine whether orexin-A levels normalize after a longer term of abstinence.

  11. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO.

  12. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  13. Elevated levels of exhaled nitric oxide in patients with anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Oświęcimska, Joanna; Ziora, Katarzyna; Ziora, Dariusz; Machura, Edyta; Smerdziński, Sebastian; Pyś-Spychała, Magdalena; Kasperski, Jacek; Zamłyński, Jacek; Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in eating behavior and inflammatory response. Moreover, there is evidence that NO production is altered in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Aim To assess whether the overproduction of NO in AN can affect NO level in exhaled air. Materials and methods Exhaled NO level was studied in 23 girls with AN and compared with that of healthy age- and gender-matched nonatopic controls. Results Exhaled NO levels were significantly higher in girls with AN compa...

  14. Geodetic Control Points, Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level elevations have been determined., Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Control Points dataset current as of 1995. Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level...

  15. Elevated levels of exhaled nitric oxide in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oświęcimska, Joanna; Ziora, Katarzyna; Ziora, Dariusz; Machura, Edyta; Smerdziński, Sebastian; Pyś-Spychała, Magdalena; Kasperski, Jacek; Zamłyński, Jacek; Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja

    2014-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in eating behavior and inflammatory response. Moreover, there is evidence that NO production is altered in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). To assess whether the overproduction of NO in AN can affect NO level in exhaled air. Exhaled NO level was studied in 23 girls with AN and compared with that of healthy age- and gender-matched nonatopic controls. Exhaled NO levels were significantly higher in girls with AN compared with healthy age-matched controls. It appears that anorexia nervosa was accompanied by a higher level of exhaled NO, likely resulting from a systemic increase in NO production because of the severe catabolic state.

  16. A computational model for exploratory activity of rats with different anxiety levels in elevated plus-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ariadne A; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C; Tinós, Renato

    2014-10-30

    The elevated plus-maze is an apparatus widely used to study the level of anxiety in rodents. The maze is plus-shaped, with two enclosed arms and two open arms, and elevated 50cm from the floor. During a test, which usually lasts for 5min, the animal is initially put at the center and is free to move and explore the entire maze. The level of anxiety is measured by variables such as the percentage of time spent and the number of entries in the enclosed arms. High percentage of time spent at and number of entries in the enclosed arms indicate anxiety. Here we propose a computational model of rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze based on an artificial neural network trained by a genetic algorithm. The fitness function of the genetic algorithm is composed of reward (positive) and punishment (negative) terms, which are incremented as the computational agent (virtual rat) moves in the maze. The punishment term is modulated by a parameter that simulates the effects of different drugs. Unlike other computational models, the virtual rat is built independently of prior known experimental data. The exploratory behaviors generated by the model for different simulated pharmacological conditions are in good agreement with data from real rats.

  17. Prognostic Value of Plasma Intermedin Level in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyang; Shi, Lin; Han, Yalei; Zhao, Yuntao; Qi, Yongfen; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Intermedin (IMD), an autocrine/paracrine biologically active peptide, plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Recent research has shown that high plasma levels of IMD are associated with poor outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, the prognostic utility of IMD levels in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that the level of plasma IMD would have prognostic value in patients with NSTE-ACS. Plasma IMD was determined by radioimmunoassay in 132 NSTE-ACS patients on admission to hospital and 132 sex- and age-matched healthy-control subjects. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, heart failure, hospitalization, and acute myocardial infarction, were noted during follow-up. In total, 23 patients suffered MACEs during the follow-up period (mean 227 ± 118 days, range 2-421 days). Median IMD levels were higher in NSTE-ACS patients than control [320.0 (250.9/384.6) vs. 227.2 (179.7/286.9) pg/mL, P variables and NT-proBNP showed that the risk of MACEs increased by a factor of 12.96 (95% CI, 3.26-49.42; P <0.001) with high IMD levels (at the cut-off value). IMD has potential as a prognostic biomarker for predicting MACEs in patients with NSTE-ACS.

  18. Created mangrove wetlands store belowground carbon and surface elevation change enables them to adjust to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Cormier, Nicole; Osland, Michael J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.; Stagg, Camille L.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Russell, Marc J.; From, Andrew; Spivak, Amanda C.; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; Almario, Alejandro E.

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove wetlands provide ecosystem services for millions of people, most prominently by providing storm protection, food and fodder. Mangrove wetlands are also valuable ecosystems for promoting carbon (C) sequestration and storage. However, loss of mangrove wetlands and these ecosystem services are a global concern, prompting the restoration and creation of mangrove wetlands as a potential solution. Here, we investigate soil surface elevation change, and its components, in created mangrove wetlands over a 25 year developmental gradient. All created mangrove wetlands were exceeding current relative sea-level rise rates (2.6 mm yr−1), with surface elevation change of 4.2–11.0 mm yr−1 compared with 1.5–7.2 mm yr−1 for nearby reference mangroves. While mangrove wetlands store C persistently in roots/soils, storage capacity is most valuable if maintained with future sea-level rise. Through empirical modeling, we discovered that properly designed creation projects may not only yield enhanced C storage, but also can facilitate wetland persistence perennially under current rates of sea-level rise and, for most sites, for over a century with projected medium accelerations in sea-level rise (IPCC RCP 6.0). Only the fastest projected accelerations in sea-level rise (IPCC RCP 8.5) led to widespread submergence and potential loss of stored C for created mangrove wetlands before 2100.

  19. Low serum LDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated mortality from liver cancer in Japan: the Ibaraki Prefectural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Nobue; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Irie, Fujiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Iimura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Muto, Takashi; Ota, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer a global public health concern and well known for poor prognosis. The association between low total cholesterol level and liver cancer has been reported. However, the association between low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and liver cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between LDL cholesterol level and liver cancer mortality. A total of 16,217 persons (5,551 men and 10,666 women) aged 40-79 years in 1993 were followed until 2008. LDL cholesterol levels were divided into four categories (LDL cholesterol level for liver cancer mortality was calculated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Covariates were age, sex, alanine transaminase, body mass index, alcohol intake and smoking status, all of which were correlated with LDL cholesterol levels. There were 51 deaths (32 men and 19 women) from liver cancer. Multivariable hazard ratios of liver cancer deaths for LDL cholesterol levels of LDL cholesterol levels of 80-99 mg/dl was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.42, 2.53), and for LDL cholesterol levels of ≥120 mg/dl was 0.43 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.92) compared with LDL cholesterol levels of 100-199 mg/dl (p for trendLDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated risk of liver cancer mortality. Low LDL cholesterol may be a predictive marker for death due to liver cancer.

  20. Investigating the response of tropical maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars against elevated levels of O3 at two developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-10-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations are rising in Indo-Gangetic plains of India, causing potential threat to agricultural productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important staple crop at global level after rice and wheat. Two high yielding cultivars of Indian maize (HQPM1-quality protein maize and DHM117-normal/non quality protein maize) were exposed to two levels of elevated O3 above the ambient level (NFC) viz. NFC + 15 ppb O3 (NFC + 15) and NFC + 30 ppb O3 (NFC + 30) using open top chambers under field conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical responses of two cultivars at different developmental stages leading to change in yield responses. Initially at lower O3 dose, photosynthetic pigments showed an increase but reduction at later stage, while higher dose caused a decline at both the stages of sampling. Levels of superoxide radical (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly increased and contributed to lipid peroxidation at elevated O3. Histochemical localization assay of O2 (-) and H2O2 showed that guard cells of stomata and cells around trichomes took deeper stain at elevated O3 reflecting more formation of reactive oxygen species. Secondary metabolites like total phenol, flavonoids and anthocyanin pigments also increased in plants under O3 stress. Enzymatic antioxidants were triggered in both the cultivars due to elevated O3, while induction of non-enzymatic antioxidants was more in HQPM1. Native PAGE analysis also showed that SOD, POX, CAT, APX and GPX were stimulated at elevated O3 concentrations compared to NFC. SDS-PAGE showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins with higher decrease in DHM117. Principal Component Analysis showed that both the cultivars showed differential response against O3 at two developmental stages. HQPM1 maintained the analogous defense strategy at both the sampling stages while DHM117 showed variable response. Overall metabolic induction of antioxidants related to defense was

  1. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Field studies of plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    In the present study, CO{sub 2} enrichment has been applied to sweet potatoes and cowpeas in order to investigate its effect on their growth, physiology, and yield under field condition. Objectives were: (1) to establish at Tuskegee Institute the facilities for growing crops in the field under enriched CO{sub 2} atmospheric conditions; (2) to obtain field data on the morphological, physiological, biochemical, growth and yield responses of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to elevated levels of CO{sub 2}; (3) to determine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} in the rate of nitrogen fixation of cowpeas; (4) to provide data for a generalized crop growth model for predicting yield of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas as a function of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment.

  2. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy : Maternal and fetal outcomes associated with elevated bile acid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Laura; Koster, Maria P H; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C M L; Kemperman, Hans; Boon, Janine; Evers, Inge M.; Bogte, Auke; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pregnancy outcome and bile acid (BA) levels in pregnancies that were affected by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). In addition, correlations between maternal and fetal BA levels were explored. Study Design

  3. Factors associated with elevated blood lead levels in inner ·city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cent of children had blood lead levels;;:' 25 ~g/dl, the present USA 'action' level. Dusty homes and homes in a poor state of repair, over-crowding, low parental education and income .... potential ill-effects associated with increased exposure.

  4. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  5. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However, v

  6. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  7. High doses of bifendate elevate serum and hepatic triglyceride levels in rabbits and mice: animal models of acute hypertriglyceridemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-yuan PAN; Rong YANG; Yi-fan HAN; Hang DONG; Xu-dong FENG; Na LI; Wei GENG; Kam-ming KO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of bifendate on serum and hepatic lipids level in rabbits and mice. Methods: Animals were administered bifendate [powdered pill suspended in 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)] at increasing doses (0.25-1 g/kg, ig). Blood lipid and apolipoprotein levels were measured using commercially available assay kits. Results: The treatment of rabbits with a single dose of bifendate (0.3 g/kg) caused a time-dependent and biphasic change in serum triglyceride (TG) levels, with the value reaching a maximum (3-fold increase compared to the baseline value) between 24 and 36 h post-dosing. When mice were orally treated with bifendate (0.25-1 g/kg), serum TG levels increased by 39%-76% and 14%-39% at 24 and 48 h post-dosing, respectively. When given at daily doses of 0.25 and 1 g/kg for 4 d, bifendate increased serum TG levels (56%-79%), with concomitant elevations in apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B levels at 24 h after the last dosing. TG levels were also increased (11%-43%) in liver samples of mice receiving single or multiple doses of bifendate. However, bifendate treatment caused slight reductions in serum and hepatic total cholesterol levels (9%-13%). The hypertriglyceridemia induced by bifendate was ameliorated by fenofibrate but not inositol nicotinate treatment in mice. Conclusion: The findings suggest that bifendate treatment at high oral doses can cause an acute elevation in serum and hepatic TG levels.

  8. Elevated neurofilament light chain (NFL) mRNA levels in prediabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikbilek, Asuman; Tanik, Nermin; Sabah, Seda; Borekci, Elif; Akyol, Lutfi; Ak, Hakan; Adam, Mehmet; Suher, Murat; Yilmaz, Neziha

    2014-06-01

    Evidence suggests that peripheral nerve injury occurs during the early stages of disease with mild glycemic dysregulation. Two proteins, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and neurofilament light chain (NFL), have been examined previously as possible markers of neuronal damage in the pathophysiology of neuropathies. Herein, we aimed to determine the potential value of circulatory NSE and NFL mRNA levels in prediabetic patients and in those with peripheral neuropathy. This prospective clinical study included 45 prediabetic patients and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. All prediabetic patients were assessed with respect to diabetes-related microvascular complications, such as peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy. mRNA levels of NSE and NFL were determined in the blood by real-time polymerase chain reaction. NSE mRNA levels were similar between prediabetic and control groups (p > 0.05), whereas NFL mRNA levels were significantly higher in prediabetics than in controls (p 0.05), while NFL mRNA levels were significantly higher in prediabetics with peripheral neuropathy than in those without (p = 0.038). According to correlation analysis, NFL mRNA levels were positively correlated with the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire score in prediabetic patients (r = 0.302, p = 0.044). This is the first study to suggest blood NFL mRNA as a surrogate marker for early prediction of prediabetic peripheral neuropathy, while NSE mRNA levels may be of no diagnostic value in prediabetic patients.

  9. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  10. The plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia and predicts mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, P; Kronborg, G; Weis, N;

    2004-01-01

    This multicentre prospective study was conducted to investigate whether the level of the soluble form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated during pneumococcal bacteraemia and is of predictive value in the early stage of the disease. Plasma levels of suPAR were...... (n = 117; p cerebral symptoms and high serum concentrations of protein YKL-40 and suPAR were associated significantly with mortality (p ....05). In multivariate analysis, only suPAR remained a significant predictor of death (mortality rate of 13 for suPAR levels of > 10 ng/mL; 95% CI: 1.1-158). The increase in suPAR levels may reflect increased expression by vascular or inflammatory cells in the setting of pneumococcal sepsis. This plasma protein may...

  11. Experimental demonstration of interaction region beam waist position knob for luminosity leveling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yue [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bai, Mei [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany). Inst. for Advanced Simulation; Duan, Zhe [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Luo, Yun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, Aljosa [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, Guillaume [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shen, Xiaozhe [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-03

    In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of the model-dependent control of the interaction region beam waist position (s* knob) at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The s* adjustment provides an alternative way of controlling the luminosity and is only known method to control the luminosity and reduce the pinch effect of the future eRHIC. In this paper, we will first demonstrate the effectiveness of the s* knob in luminosity controlling and its application in the future electron ion collider, eRHIC, followed by the detail experimental demonstration of such knob in RHIC.

  12. Elevated levels of urinary markers of oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder and its multi-system nature are unclear. Oxidatively generated damage to nucleosides has been demonstrated in metabolic disorders; however, the extent to which this occurs in bipolar disorder in vivo is unknown. We investig...... expectancy, and the progressive course of illness observed in bipolar disorder....

  13. Stigma-related stress, shame and avoidant coping reactions among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibalski, J V; Müller, M; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Vetter, S; Rodgers, S; Oexle, N; Corrigan, P W; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-04-01

    It is unclear whether mental illness stigma affects individuals with subthreshold syndromes outside clinical settings. We therefore investigated the role of different stigma variables, including stigma-related stress and shame reactions, for avoidant stigma coping among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels. Based on a representative population survey, general stress resilience, stigma variables, shame about having a mental illness as well as avoidant stigma coping (secrecy and social withdrawal) were assessed by self-report among 676 participants with elevated symptom levels. Stigma variables and resilience were examined as predictors of avoidant stigma coping in a path model. Increased stigma stress was predicted by lower general stress resilience as well as by higher levels of perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy of discrimination. More shame was associated with higher perceived legitimacy. Lower resilience as well as more perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy predicted avoidant coping. Stigma stress partly mediated effects of resilience, perceived stigma and group identification on avoidant coping; shame partly mediated effects of perceived legitimacy on coping. Stigma stress and shame were also directly and positively related to avoidant stigma coping. Analyses were adjusted for symptoms, neuroticism and sociodemographic variables. Stigma may affect a larger proportion of the population than previously thought because stigma variables predicted secrecy and withdrawal among members of the general population with elevated, but overall mild symptom levels. Avoidant stigma coping likely has harmful effects, potentially exacerbating pre-existing psychological distress and undermining social networks. This highlights the need to reduce public stigma as well as to support individuals with subthreshold syndromes in their coping with stigma stress and shame reactions. Copyright © 2017

  14. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Pedersen, Lars; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients referred for plasma vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) measurement present with high Cbl levels, which have been reported in patients with different cancer types. However, the cancer risk among patients with newly diagnosed high Cbl levels has not been...... a database of laboratory test results covering the entire population. Data on cancer incidence (follow-up 1998-2010), Cbl treatment, and prior diagnoses were obtained from medical registries. Patients receiving Cbl treatment were excluded. Cancer risks were calculated as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs......) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by plasma Cbl levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 333 667 persons without prevalent cancer and not receiving Cbl treatment. Six percent had Cbl levels greater than the upper reference limit (≥601 pmol/L). Cancer risk...

  15. Serum soluble Talin-1 levels are elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis, reflecting its disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiro; Liu, Jia; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Uchida, Tomohiko; Masuda, Hiroki; Ohtani, Ryohei; Sugimoto, Kazuo; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-04-15

    Previously, we identified anti-Talin-1 antibodies in the serum of MS. In this case, we measured the serum soluble Talin-1 (sTalin-1) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum sTalin-1 levels were significantly higher in 40 patients with MS than in 43 normal controls and in the acute phase of disease than in the remission phase. Interestingly, serum sTalin-1 levels were associated with a sustained increase in disability after MS attack but not with serum anti-Talin-1 antibody levels. sTalin-1 may be a biomarker for the acute phase of MS and may be used for the short-term prognosis of MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Predominant role of the 9-hydroxy metabolite of risperidone in elevating blood prolactin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, R; Baselmans, P; Castelein, S; Bosker, F; Bruggeman, R; van den Bosch, RJ

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The atypical antipsychotic risperidone significantly raises plasma prolactin levels in patients, but clozapine, olanzapine, and quetiapine do not. The differences in neuroendocrine response may be connected with the metabolism of the medications. The authors examined the contributory role

  17. Elevated levels of cell-free circulating DNA in patients with acute dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Ngoc Ha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of severe dengue and the release of cell-free DNA into the circulatory system in several medical conditions. Therefore, we investigated circulating DNA as a potential biomarker for severe dengue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A direct fluorometric degradation assay using PicoGreen was performed to quantify cell-free DNA from patient plasma. Circulating DNA levels were significantly higher in patients with dengue virus infection than with other febrile illnesses and healthy controls. Remarkably, the increase of DNA levels correlated with the severity of dengue. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating DNA levels independently correlated with dengue shock syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating DNA levels were increased in dengue patients and correlated with dengue severity. Additional studies are required to show the benefits of this biomarker in early dengue diagnosis and for the prognosis of shock complication.

  18. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is a Well Established Mediating Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality—Should Patients with Elevated Levels Be Supplemented with Citrulline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F.

    2016-01-01

    The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor and uncoupler of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that acts in multifarious ways to promote cardiovascular health. This phenomenon likely explains, at least in part, why elevated ADMA has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular mortality. Fortunately, the suppressive impact of ADMA on eNOS activity can be offset by increasing intracellular arginine levels with supplemental citrulline. Although the long-term impact of supplemental citrulline on cardiovascular health in patients with elevated ADMA has not yet been studied, shorter-term clinical studies of citrulline administration demonstrate effects suggestive of increased NO synthesis, such as reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased erection hardness, and increased ejection fractions in patients with heart failure. Supplemental citrulline could be a practical option for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality, as it is inexpensive, has a mild flavor, and is well tolerated in doses (3–6 g daily) that can influence eNOS activity. Large and long-term clinical trials, targeting patients at high risk for cardiovascular events in whom ADMA is elevated, are needed to evaluate citrulline’s potential for aiding cardiovascular health. PMID:27417628

  19. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is a Well Established Mediating Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality—Should Patients with Elevated Levels Be Supplemented with Citrulline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F. McCarty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a competitive inhibitor and uncoupler of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, an enzyme that acts in multifarious ways to promote cardiovascular health. This phenomenon likely explains, at least in part, why elevated ADMA has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular mortality. Fortunately, the suppressive impact of ADMA on eNOS activity can be offset by increasing intracellular arginine levels with supplemental citrulline. Although the long-term impact of supplemental citrulline on cardiovascular health in patients with elevated ADMA has not yet been studied, shorter-term clinical studies of citrulline administration demonstrate effects suggestive of increased NO synthesis, such as reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased erection hardness, and increased ejection fractions in patients with heart failure. Supplemental citrulline could be a practical option for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality, as it is inexpensive, has a mild flavor, and is well tolerated in doses (3–6 g daily that can influence eNOS activity. Large and long-term clinical trials, targeting patients at high risk for cardiovascular events in whom ADMA is elevated, are needed to evaluate citrulline’s potential for aiding cardiovascular health.

  20. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is a Well Established Mediating Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality-Should Patients with Elevated Levels Be Supplemented with Citrulline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2016-07-08

    The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor and uncoupler of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that acts in multifarious ways to promote cardiovascular health. This phenomenon likely explains, at least in part, why elevated ADMA has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular mortality. Fortunately, the suppressive impact of ADMA on eNOS activity can be offset by increasing intracellular arginine levels with supplemental citrulline. Although the long-term impact of supplemental citrulline on cardiovascular health in patients with elevated ADMA has not yet been studied, shorter-term clinical studies of citrulline administration demonstrate effects suggestive of increased NO synthesis, such as reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased erection hardness, and increased ejection fractions in patients with heart failure. Supplemental citrulline could be a practical option for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality, as it is inexpensive, has a mild flavor, and is well tolerated in doses (3-6 g daily) that can influence eNOS activity. Large and long-term clinical trials, targeting patients at high risk for cardiovascular events in whom ADMA is elevated, are needed to evaluate citrulline's potential for aiding cardiovascular health.

  1. Elevated nitric oxide and 3',5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C(i)ntia Siqueira; Miguel Carneiro de Moura; Ana J(u)lia Pedro; Paula Rocha

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether serum levels of nitric oxide (NO') and plasma levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (Cgmp) and total glutathione (GSH) are altered in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to examine their correlation with the severity of liver disease.METHODS: Twenty-six patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were studied. Serum levels of NO· and plasma levels of cGMP and GSH were measured in 7 patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A) and 19 patients with advanced cirrhosis (Child-Pugh B and C).The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was evaluated. Sixteen healthy volunteers served as controls.Liver enzymes and creatinine levels were also tested.RESULTS: NO· and cGMP levels were higher in patients with Child-Pugh B and C cirrhosis than in Child-Pugh A cirrhosis or controls (NO·: 21.70 ± 8.07 vs 11.70 ± 2.74; 21.70 ± 8.07 vs 7.26 ± 2.47 μmol/L, respectively;P < 0.001) and (cGMP: 20.12 ± 6.62 vs 10.14 ± 2.78;20.12 ± 6.62 vs 4.95 ± 1.21 pmol/L, respectively; P <0.001). Total glutathione levels were lower in patients with Child-Pugh B and C cirrhosis than in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis or controls (16.04 ± 6.06 vs 23.01 ± 4.38 or 16.04 ± 6.06 vs 66.57 ± 26.23 μmol/L,respectively; P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between NO· and cGMP levels in all patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. A significant negative correlation between reduced glutathione/glutathione disulfide and the MELD score was found in all cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a role for oxidative stress in alcoholic liver cirrhosis, which is more significant in decompensated patients with higher levels of NO· and cGMP and lower GSH levels than in compensated and control patients. Altered mediator levels in decompensated patients may influence the hemodynamic changes in and progression of liver disease.

  2. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Bamias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3 exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3 levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH, decompensated cirrhosis (DC, and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P<0.01. sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P<0.001 for both but to CVH patients as well (P<0.001 for both. In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P=0.019 or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r=0.698, P<0.001. In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r=0.653, P<0.001. Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease.

  3. Elevated serum levels of interleukin-17A in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Ayadhi Laila

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The T-helper (Th1/Th2 dichotomy dominated the field of immune regulation until interleukin (IL-17-expressing T cells (Th17 were proposed to be a third lineage of helper T cells, the key players in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. Autoimmunity to brain tissue may play a pathogenic role in autism. IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been shown to play an important role in various autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to measure serum levels of IL-17A in relation to the degree of the severity of autism. Methods Serum IL-17A levels were measured by ELISA in 45 children with autism and 40 matched healthy controls. Results Children with autism had significantly higher serum IL-17A levels than healthy controls (P P = 0.01, and raised serum IL-17A levels were significantly more common in children with severe autism (67.9% than in those with mild to moderate autism (17.6%, P = 0.001. Conclusions Serum IL-17A levels were raised in the group with autism, and the levels correlated significantly with the severity of autism. This is the first study to measure levels of IL-17A in relation to the severity of autism, to our knowledge. Further research, with a larger subject population, is warranted to determine whether the increase of serum IL-17A levels plasma has a pathogenic role in autism, and whether anti- IL-17A therapy could be useful

  4. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS.

  5. Recovery Act - Demonstration of Sodium Ion Battery for Grid Level Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, Ted [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Whitacre, Jay [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weber, Eric [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Eshoo, Michael [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Noland, James [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blackwood, David [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Campbell, Williams [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sheen, Eric [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Spears, Christopher [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Smith, Christopher [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Aquion Energy received a $5.179 million cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energy's Smart Grid Demonstration Program Demonstration of Promising Energy Storage Technologies (Program Area 2.5) of FOA DE-FOE-0000036. The main objective of this project was to demonstrate Aquion's low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium ion energy storage device. The centerpiece of the technology is a novel hybrid energy storage chemistry that has been proven in a laboratory environment. The objective was to translate these groundbreaking results from the small-batch, small-cell test environment to the pilot scale to enable significant numbers of multiple ampere-hour cells to be manufactured and assembled into test batteries. Aquion developed a proof of concept demonstration unit that showed similar performance and major cost improvement over existing technologies. Beyond minimizing cell and system cost, Aquion built a technology that is safe, environmentally benign and durable over many thousands of cycles as used in a variety of grid support roles.

  6. GAMA: multi-level and complex environment for agent-based models and simulations (demonstration)

    OpenAIRE

    Drogoul, Alexis; Amouroux, Edouard; Caillou, Philippe; Gaudou, Benoit; Grignard, Arnaud; Marilleau, Nicolas; Taillandier, Patrick; Vavaseur, Maroussia; Vo, Duc-An; Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Agent-based models are now used in numerous application domains (ecology, social sciences, etc.) but their use is still impeded by the lack of generic yet ready-to-use tools sup- porting the design and the simulation of complex models in- tegrating multiple level of agency and realistic environments. The GAMA modeling and simulation platform is proposed to address such issues. It allows modelers to build com- plex models thanks to high-level modeling language, various ...

  7. Does elevated urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid level predict acute appendicitis in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosak Versic, Ana; Glavan, Nedeljka; Bukvic, Nado; Tomasic, Zlatko; Nikolic, Harry

    2016-12-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency in children, and appendectomy is the most frequent acute abdominal operation. Prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment are required to reduce the risk of perforation and prevent complications, especially in small children. Enterochromaffin cells that contain large amounts of serotonin are mostly located in the distal appendix. Serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) could therefore be a marker for acute appendicitis. We tested urinary 5-HIAA concentrations in spot urine samples from children with acute appendicitis. We enrolled 93 patients who underwent surgery for suspicion of acute appendicitis. The diagnosis was made intraoperatively and confirmed histopathologically. Additionally, urine samples from 102 healthy children were collected as controls. Their 5-HIAA was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Acute appendicitis was diagnosed in 81 patients, whereas there were other explanations for abdominal pain in the remaining 12 patients in the non-appendicitis group. The control group comprised 102 healthy children. Considering the median of all measured 5-HIAA values as the cut-off, we analysed the proportions of patients with elevated values in all the groups. Our analysis showed that statistically there was no significant difference in the distribution of percentages among the groups. The area under the curve for 5-HIAA was 0.55 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.62) with sensitivity and specificity 60.4% and 48.9%, respectively. Urine 5-HIAA concentration measured in spot samples is not a reliable method for diagnosing acute appendicitis in children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Elevated level of serum osteopontin in school-age children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akelma, A Z; Cizmeci, M N; Kanburoglu, M K; Bozkaya, D; Catal, F; Mete, E; Kutukoglu, I; Namuslu, M

    2014-01-01

    The role of osteopontin (OPN) has not been elucidated in childhood asthma. Our purpose was to investigate whether OPN levels change due to allergic inflammation in pre-school and school-age children. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 42 healthy children and a total of 51 children with asthma were recruited. OPN levels and its association with clinical and laboratory parameters were investigated in the study population. The asthma group were divided into two groups with respect to age, ≤ 5-years (n = 23) and >5-years (n = 28), and labelled Asthma Group 1 and Asthma Group 2, respectively. OPN levels were compared between subgroups. Serum OPN levels were significantly higher in the asthma group when compared to the control group (p = 0.004). OPN levels were similar in Asthma Group 1 and control groups, whereas it was found to be higher in Asthma Group 2 (p>0.025, p = 0.001, respectively). In the >5-years age asthmatic group, OPN levels of the patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 15) were higher than those of the patients (n=13) without allergic rhinitis (p = 0.021). The study underscores the relationship between childhood asthma and OPN as the first study in the literature. In this study we found that OPN, which plays a role in Th2 mediated inflammation, may also play a role in childhood asthma. The fact that OPN levels do not increase in preschool-age children with asthma might be due to the transient wheezing in this group. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated skeletal muscle glucose transporter levels in exercise-trained middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmard, J A; Egan, P C; Neufer, P D; Friedman, J E; Wheeler, W S; Israel, R G; Dohm, G L

    1991-10-01

    Exercise training has been proposed to improve whole body insulin sensitivity through a postreceptor adaptation in skeletal muscle. This study examined if levels of the insulin-responsive muscle glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4) were associated with improved insulin sensitivity in trained vs. sedentary middle-aged individuals. Muscle GLUT-4 levels and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) responses were obtained in age-matched trained and sedentary men (n = 11). Plasma insulin levels during the OGTT were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) in the trained men, whereas no differences were seen in plasma glucose responses. GLUT-4 protein content was approximately twofold higher in the trained men (2.41 +/- 0.17 vs. 1.36 +/- 0.11 micrograms standard, P less than 0.001). OGTT responses and GLUT-4 levels were not altered 15-18 h after a standard exercise bout in six representative sedentary subjects. These data suggest that GLUT-4 levels are increased in conjunction with insulin sensitivity in chronically exercise-trained middle-aged men. This finding suggests a possible mechanism for the improved insulin sensitivity observed with exercise training in humans.

  10. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcomes associated with elevated bile acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Laura; Koster, Maria P H; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C M L; Kemperman, Hans; Boon, Janine; Evers, Inge M; Bogte, Auke; Oudijk, Martijn A

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pregnancy outcome and bile acid (BA) levels in pregnancies that were affected by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). In addition, correlations between maternal and fetal BA levels were explored. We conducted a retrospective study that included women with pruritus and BA levels ≥10 μmol/L between January 2005 and August 2012 in 3 large hospitals in the Netherlands. The study group was divided in mild (10-39 μmol/L), moderate (40-99 μmol/L), and severe (≥100 μmol/L) ICP. Main outcome measures were spontaneous preterm birth, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, asphyxia, and perinatal death. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study associations between BA levels and adverse outcome. A total of 215 women were included. Gestational age at diagnosis and gestational age at delivery were significantly lower in the severe, as compared with the mild, ICP group (P pregnancy outcome. Levels of BA correlate between mother and fetus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Proteomic response of rice seedling leaves to elevated CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Saleem A; Wan, Xiang-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Wei; Zhou, Lu; Tang, Wan-Li; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2007-12-01

    Previous investigations of plant responses to higher CO 2 levels were mostly based on physiological measurements and biochemical assays. In this study, a proteomic approach was employed to investigate plant response to higher CO 2 levels using rice as a model. Ten-day-old seedlings were progressively exposed to 760 ppm, 1140 ppm, and 1520 ppm CO 2 concentrations for 24 h each. The net photosynthesis rate ( P n), stomatal conductance ( G s), transpiration rate ( E), and intercellular to ambient CO 2 concentration ratio ( C i/ C a) were measured. P n, G s, and E showed a maximum increase at 1140 ppm CO 2, but further exposure to 1520 ppm for 24 h resulted in down regulation of these. Proteins extracted from leaves were subjected to 2-DE analysis, and 57 spots showing differential expression patterns, as detected by profile analysis, were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Most of the proteins belonged to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, and energy pathways. Several molecular chaperones and ascorbate peroxidase were also found to respond to higher CO 2 levels. Concomitant with the down regulation of P n and G s, the levels of enzymes of the regeneration phase of the Calvin cycle were decreased. Correlations between the protein profiles and the photosynthetic measurements at the three CO 2 levels were explored.

  12. Elevated Angiopoietin-1 Serum Levels in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Schreitmüller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles and by massive neuronal loss in the brain. There is epidemiologic and pathologic evidence that AD is associated with vascular risk factors and vascular diseases, contributing to cerebral hypoperfusion with consecutive stimulation of angiogenesis and upregulation of proangiogenic factors such as Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1. Methods. In the present study, we measured Ang-1 serum levels in 42 patients with AD, 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and in 40 healthy elderly controls by ELISA. Results. We found significantly increased Ang-1 serum levels in patients with AD compared to control subjects (P=0.003. There was no significant difference between MCI patients and healthy controls (P=0.553 or between AD and MCI patients (P=0.054. The degree of cognitive impairment as measured by the mini-mental status examination (MMSE score was significantly correlated with the Ang-1 serum levels in all patients and healthy controls. Conclusions. We found significantly increased Ang-1 serum levels in AD patients. We could also show an association between Ang-1 serum levels and the cognitive status in all patients and healthy controls. Thus, serum Ang-1 could be a potential candidate for a biomarker panel for AD diagnosis.

  13. Environmental salinity modulates the effects of elevated CO2 levels on juvenile hard-shell clams, Mercenaria mercenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Gary H; Matoo, Omera B; Tourek, Robert T; Sokolova, Inna M; Beniash, Elia

    2013-07-15

    Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations results in a decrease in seawater pH and shifts in the carbonate chemistry that can negatively affect marine organisms. Marine bivalves such as the hard-shell clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, serve as ecosystem engineers in estuaries and coastal zones of the western Atlantic and, as for many marine calcifiers, are sensitive to the impacts of ocean acidification. In estuaries, the effects of ocean acidification can be exacerbated by low buffering capacity of brackish waters, acidic inputs from freshwaters and land, and/or the negative effects of salinity on the physiology of organisms. We determined the interactive effects of 21 weeks of exposure to different levels of CO2 (~395, 800 and 1500 μatm corresponding to pH of 8.2, 8.1 and 7.7, respectively) and salinity (32 versus 16) on biomineralization, shell properties and energy metabolism of juvenile hard-shell clams. Low salinity had profound effects on survival, energy metabolism and biomineralization of hard-shell clams and modulated their responses to elevated PCO2. Negative effects of low salinity in juvenile clams were mostly due to the strongly elevated basal energy demand, indicating energy deficiency, that led to reduced growth, elevated mortality and impaired shell maintenance (evidenced by the extensive damage to the periostracum). The effects of elevated PCO2 on physiology and biomineralization of hard-shell clams were more complex. Elevated PCO2 (~800-1500 μatm) had no significant effects on standard metabolic rates (indicative of the basal energy demand), but affected growth and shell mechanical properties in juvenile clams. Moderate hypercapnia (~800 μatm PCO2) increased shell and tissue growth and reduced mortality of juvenile clams in high salinity exposures; however, these effects were abolished under the low salinity conditions or at high PCO2 (~1500 μatm). Mechanical properties of the shell (measured as microhardness and

  14. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3...... were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder...

  15. Elevated plasma levels of chemerin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengliu; Yang, Gangyi; Dong, Jing; Liu, Ying; Zong, Haihong; Liu, Hua; Boden, Guenther; Li, Ling

    2010-10-01

    Chemerin is a recently discovered metabolic regulator hormone. The pathophysiologic role of this hormone in humans remains unknown. In this study, we have compared plasma chemerin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without hypertension and in control subjects. We also assessed the association of plasma chemerin with body composition and metabolic parameters in these subjects. Plasma chemerin levels were found to be markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension as compared with patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal controls (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, 2-hour plasma insulin after glucose overload, and HbA1c were independently related factors influencing plasma chemerin levels. The present work indicates the potential link of chemerin with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

  16. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  17. Kidney fibroblast growth factor 23 does not contribute to elevation of its circulating levels in uremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mace, Maria L.; Gravesen, Eva; Nordholm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    a disrupted feedback regulatory loop or an extra-skeletal source of this phosphatonin. Since induction of FGF23 expression in injured organs has been reported we decided to examine the regulation of FGF23 gene and protein expressions in the kidney and whether kidney-derived FGF23 contributes to the high...... of the injured kidney to circulating FGF23 levels in uremia appears to be reduced renal extraction of bone-derived FGF23. Kidney-derived FGF23 does not generate high plasma FGF23 levels in uremia and is regulated differently than the corresponding regulation of FGF23 gene expression in bone....

  18. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  19. CSF Neurofilament Proteins Levels are Elevated in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Jeroen J. J.; van Everbroeck, Bart; Abdo, W. Farid; Kremer, Berry P. H.; Verbeek, Marcel M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light (NFL) and heavy chain (NFHp35), total tau (t-tau), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to detect disease specific profiles in sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (sCJD) patients and Alzheimer's disease

  20. CSF neurofilament proteins levels are elevated in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, J.J.J. van; Everbroeck, B. van; Abdo, W.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light (NFL) and heavy chain (NFHp35), total tau (t-tau), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to detect disease specific profiles in sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (sCJD) patients and Alzheimer's disease

  1. CSF Neurofilament Proteins Levels are Elevated in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Jeroen J. J.; van Everbroeck, Bart; Abdo, W. Farid; Kremer, Berry P. H.; Verbeek, Marcel M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light (NFL) and heavy chain (NFHp35), total tau (t-tau), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to detect disease specific profiles in sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (sCJD) patients and Alzheimer's disease (A

  2. Elevated circulating stromal-derived factor-1 levels in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landburg, P P; Nur, E; Maria, N; Brandjes, D P M; Biemond, B J; Schnog, J B; Duits, A J

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are of importance in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). Recently, the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been shown to be a key mediator of angiogenesis and inflammation. In this study we determined serum SDF-1 levels in consecutive adult

  3. Effects of elevated peroxidase levels and corn earworm feeding on gene expression in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato gene arrays were used to investigate how high levels of transgenic peroxidase expression and feeding by the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, affected expression of defensive and other genes. High peroxidase activity significantly upregulated proteinase inhibitors and a few other defensive gene...

  4. Chronic consumers of boiled coffee have elevated serum levels of lipoprotein(a).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urgert, R.; Weusten-van der Wouw, M.P.M.E.; Hovenier, R.; Lund-Larsen, P.G.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipoprotein(a) consists of an LDL-particle attached to apolipoprotein(a), which is made by the liver. Diterpenes present in boiled coffee raise serum levels of LDL cholesterol and of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase in man. We investigated the association between intake of boile

  5. Elevated circulating stromal-derived factor-1 levels in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landburg, P P; Nur, E; Maria, N; Brandjes, D P M; Biemond, B J; Schnog, J B; Duits, A J

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are of importance in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). Recently, the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been shown to be a key mediator of angiogenesis and inflammation. In this study we determined serum SDF-1 levels in consecutive adult sick

  6. Effect of elevated total CoA levels on metabolic pathways in cultured hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, C.A.; Smith, C.M.

    1987-05-01

    Livers from fasted rats have 30% higher total CoA levels than fed rats. To determine whether this increase of total CoA influences metabolism, the rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were measured in hepatocytes with cyanamide (CYM) or pantothenate (PA) deficient medium used to vary total CoA levels independently of hormonal status. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated 14 hrs with Bt/sub 2/ cAMP, dexamethasone + theophylline in PA deficient medium or with CYM (500 ..mu..M) + PA, rinsed and preincubated 0.5 hr to remove the CYM. Hepatocytes treated with CYM had total CoA levels 10-24% higher than PA deficient cells and lower rates of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate (L/P) or from alanine (0.23 +/- 0.05 and 0.089 +/- 0.02 ..mu..m/mg protein, respectively in CYM treated cells compared to 0.33 +/- 0.06 and 0.130 +/- 0.006 in PA deficient cells). This decrease was not due to CYM per se, as the direct addition of CYM stimulated glucose production from L/P. CYM treated cells with 15-40% higher total CoA and 30% higher fatty acyl-CoA levels had the same rates of (/sup 14/C)-palmitate oxidation as PA deficient cells. However, rates of ketogenesis were lower in CYM treated cells (163 +/- 11 nm/mg compared to 217 +/- 14 nm/mg protein). These results suggest that physiological alterations of hepatic total CoA levels are not necessary for fasting rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.

  7. Continuous intrathecal fluid infusions elevate nerve growth factor levels and prevent functional deficits after spinal cord ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, M; Tuszynski, M H; Conner, J; Zivin, J A

    2000-11-17

    Continuous intracerebroventricular or intrathecal infusions of neurotrophic factors have been reported to prevent neuronal degeneration, stimulate axonal sprouting and ameliorate behavioral deficits in various models of CNS injury and aging. In the present study, the ability of intrathecal infusions of recombinant human nerve growth factor (NGF) to reduce functional deficits following spinal cord ischemia was investigated. Adult rabbits underwent intrathecal cannulation and continuous infusions of either 300 microg/ml recombinant human NGF or artificial CSF (vehicle) at a rate of 143 microl/day for 7 days prior to induction of spinal cord ischemia. Continuous infusions were maintained after induction of ischemia. Four days later, both NGF-treated and vehicle-infused subjects showed a significant amelioration of functional motor deficits compared to lesioned, non-infused subjects (PNGF-infused subjects (mean+/-S.E.M.). Significantly elevated NGF protein levels were attained within the spinal cords of both NGF-treated subjects and artificial CSF-infused subjects, although levels were substantially higher in NGF-treated subjects (9.8+/-3.8 ng/g in NGF-infused vs. 2.0+/-0.4 ng/g in vehicle-infused and only 0.4+/-0.2 ng/g in lesioned, non-infused animals). These findings indicate that the process of intrathecal cannulation and fluid infusion elicits alterations in the spinal cord environment that are neuroprotective, including spontaneous elevations in NGF levels.

  8. High levels of vitamin D in relation to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dao-min; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Ai-guo; Chu, Zhao-xue; Wu, Qing; Li, Hui; Ge, Jin-fang; Dong, Yi; Zhu, Peng

    2015-08-30

    There is growing evidence on the novel role of vitamin D in reducing inflammation. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that vitamin D is inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with schizophrenia, and high levels of vitamin D may be linked to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated CRP. Ninety-three patients with schizophrenia and 93 family-matched controls were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Plasma concentrations of CRP and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured using commercial kits. Information about demographic characteristics and clinic data were obtained by interviews or medical records. Mean levels of CRP and 25(OH)D were 43.3% higher and 26.7% lower for patients compared to controls, respectively. 25(OH)D were inversely associated with CRP in the patients, but not in the controls. The proportions of patients significantly increased with increasing quartiles of CRP, while significantly decreased with increasing quartiles of 25(OH)D. Among individuals with high CRP, participants with high 25(OH)D have significantly lower proportion (adjusted OR =0.217, 95% CI 0.063, 0.751) of schizophrenia compared to those with low 25(OH)D. The evidence suggested that high levels of vitamin D may be linked to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated CRP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pancreaticopleural fistula : CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung [Chuncheon Medical Center, ChunChon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the pancreaticopleural fistula is known to cause recurrent exudative or hemorrhagic pleural effusions. These are often large in volume and require treatment, unlike the effusions in acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis can be made either by the finding of elevated pleural fluid amylase level or, using imaging studies, by the direct demonstration of the fistulous tract. We report two cases of pancreaticopleural fistula demonstrated by computed tomography.

  10. Elevated serum level of IL-27 and VEGF in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and associate with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Jing; Qi, Chen-Yue; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiao-Lin; Xia, Li-Ping; Shen, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-27 is an IL-12 family cytokine and exerts a critical role in immune regulation in the context of infection, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible pathophysiological role of IL-27 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and forty AS patients and 90 healthy controls were included in the current study. The levels of IL-27 and VEGF in serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 were measured by standard laboratory techniques. Disease activity in AS was scored with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Hip involvement, peripheral arthritis, and eye involvement were also recorded. The serum levels of IL-27 were remarkably higher in AS patients than healthy groups and significantly correlated with serum levels of VEGF. Furthermore, the serum levels of IL-27 were correlated with BASDAI independent of other markers of inflammation. Elevated serum levels of IL-27 and VEGF were detected in AS patients with peripheral arthritis and HLA-B27 positive. The SF levels of IL-27 and VEGF were significantly higher than serum levels in AS patients with peripheral arthritis. By contrast, levels of IL-27 and VEGF were not increased in AS patients with hip involvement and eye involvement. IL-27 may regulate the immunological or inflammatory process of AS.

  11. Elevated levels of the vesicular monoamine transporter and a novel repetitive behavior in the Drosophila model of fragile X syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Tauber

    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is characterized by mental impairment and autism in humans, and it often features hyperactivity and repetitive behaviors. The mechanisms for the disease, however, remain poorly understood. Here we report that the dfmr1 mutant in the Drosophila model of FXS grooms excessively, which may be regulated differentially by two signaling pathways. Blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling enhances grooming in dfmr1 mutant flies, whereas blocking the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT suppresses excessive grooming. dfmr1 mutant flies also exhibit elevated levels of VMAT mRNA and protein. These results suggest that enhanced monoamine signaling correlates with repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity associated with FXS.

  12. Elevated human chorionic gonadotropin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women are often subjected to serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG testing prior to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. A positive result leads to further testing to rule out pregnancy and avoid possible fetal teratogenicity. The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD on HCG testing has not been studied. We report a series of 5 women out of 62 with CKD, who had a positive HCG test on routine pre-transplant screening at a single transplant center. We analyzed their case records retrospectively. Despite aggressive investigation, their elevated HCG levels remained unexplained. The positive test contributed to delays in transplantation and increased overall cost of treatment.

  13. The effects of elevated levels of sodium chloride on ascites and related problems in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W D; Ferguson, A E; Pettit, J R; Cunnigham, D C

    1975-01-01

    The response of young poults to diets containing 0.7, 1.2, 1.7 and 2.7 per cent sodium chloride was studied. Water intake, feed intake and wieght gain were not significantly influenced by treatment. Only the highest level caused a significant increase in mortality. Ascites was not a consistent finding even on high levels of salt. A straight line best described the response but confidence limits were large and this was also true for heart, kidney and lung lesions. Lesions showing myocardial distension with pericardial adhesions, severe congestion of the lungs and enlarged pale kidneys seemed more indicative of salt intoxication than classic ascites. Microscopically heterophilic (eosinophilic) lung and meningeal infiltrates accompanied by myocardial degeneration and adhesions were suggestive, but not specific, of salt intoxication.

  14. Levels of circulating MMP-7 degraded elastin are elevated in pulmonary disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J.H.; Larsen, L.; Dasgupta, B.

    2015-01-01

    for the quantification of MMP-7 generated elastin fragments (ELM7) was therefore developed to investigate MMP-7 derived elastin degradation in pulmonary disorders such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and lung cancer. Design and methods:  Monoclonal antibodies (mABs) were raised against eight carefully selected...... MMP-7 cleavage sites on elastin. After characterisation and validation of the mABs, one mAB targeting the ELM7 fragment was chosen. ELM7 fragment levels were assessed in serum samples from patients diagnosed with IPF (n = 123, baseline samples, CTgov reg. NCT00786201), and lung cancer (n = 40......) and compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Results: The ELM7 assay was specific towards in vitro MMP-7 degraded elastin and the ELM7 neoepitope but not towards other MMP-7 derived elastin fragments. Serum ELM7 levels were significantly increased in IPF (113%, p cancer (96%, p

  15. Huge splenic epidermoid cyst with elevation of serum CA19-9 level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Sayo; Mori, Toshifumi; Miyoshi, Jinsei; Imoto, Yoshitaka; Shinomiya, Hirohiko; Wada, Satoshi; Nakao, Toshihiro; Shinohara, Hisamitsu; Yoshida, Sadahiro; Izumi, Keisuke; Okazaki, Jun; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old female was referred to our hospital for further examination of liver dysfunction. A huge, soft mass was noted in her left upper quadrant on physical examination. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a huge cystic tumor of 20 cm in the hilus of the spleen. Serum CA19-9 was 491 U/ml, and splenectomy was performed under suspicion of a malignant cystic tumor. The inner surface of the cyst was lined by squamous epithelial cells that were immunohistochemically positive for CA19-9. Serum CA19-9 level was normalized after the surgery. Our case of a very rare, huge epidermoid cyst of the spleen suggests that measurement of the serum CA19-9 level is useful for evaluating therapeutic efficacy of a splenic epidermoid cyst.

  16. Reduction of elevated IGF-1 levels in coincident amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Turner, Martin R; Wass, John A H; Talbot, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with ALS in whom acromegaly was later confirmed. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been tried in the treatment of ALS and despite equivocal results from clinical trials, efforts have continued to try to harness the significant positive effects on motor neuron growth observed in vitro and in survival of mouse models of the disease. One subsequent study has reported an association between higher circulating serum IGF-1 levels and longer disease duration in ALS patients. Concern therefore arose in our case that treatment of the acromegaly with a somatostatin analogue might adversely affect the natural course of his ALS through lowering of potentially beneficial IGF-1 levels. Through clinical observation and prognostic modelling we suggest that this concern was unfounded. The potential interaction of these two rarely coincident disorders in our patient is discussed.

  17. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  18. Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A.; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

  19. Elevated serum levels of mannose-binding lectin and diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Zhi Guan

    Full Text Available Inflammation and complement activation initiated by mannose-binding lectin (MBL may be implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. We investigated serum MBL levels in type 2 diabetes with diabetic nephropathy (DN and with persistent normoalbuminuria.Serum MBL levels were determined in 242 type 2 diabetes with overt nephropathy and 242 type 2 diabetes with persistent normoalbuminuria matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, as well as in 100 healthy control subjects. The prediction value of MBL was compared with HbA1c, Hs-CRP and with other known predictors. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models.The serum MBL levels were significantly higher in diabetes with DN as compared to with persistent normoalbuminuria (P<0.0001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for common factors showed that serum MBL levels≥2950ug/L was an independent indictor of DN (OR=7.55; 95%CI: 3.44-19.04. Based on the ROC curve, the optimal cutoff value of serum MBL levels as an indicator for diagnosis of DN was projected to be 2950ug/L, which yielded a sensitivity of 77.2% and a specificity of 80.8%, with the area under the curve at 0.809 (95%CI, 0.769-0.848.Our findings suggested that MBL may be involved in the pathogenesis of DN in type 2 diabetes, and that determination of MBL status might be used to identify patients at increased risk of developing nephropathy complications.

  20. Effects of pH and elevated glucose levels on the electrochemical behavior of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Evsen; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2014-04-01

    Implant failure is more likely to occur in persons with medically compromising systemic conditions, such as diabetes related to high blood glucose levels and inflammatory diseases related to pH levels lower than those in healthy people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lower pH level and simulated- hyperglycemia on implant corrosion as these effects are critical to biocompatibility and osseointegration. The electrochemical corrosion properties of titanium implants were studied in four different solutions: Ringer's physiological solution at pH = 7.0 and pH = 5.5 and Ringer's physiological solution containing 15 mM dextrose at pH = 7 and pH = 5.5. Corrosion behaviors of dental implants were determined by cyclic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Surface alterations were studied using a scanning electron microscope. All test electrolytes led to apparent differences in corrosion behavior of the implants. The implants under conditions of test exhibited statistically significant increases in I(corr) from 0.2372 to 1.007 μAcm(-2), corrosion rates from 1.904 to 8.085 mpy, and a decrease in polarization resistances from 304 to 74 Ω. Implants in dextrose-containing solutions were more prone to corrosion than those in Ringer's solutions alone. Increasing the acidity also yielded greater corrosion rates for the dextrose-containing solutions and the solutions without dextrose.

  1. Deimination level and peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 expression are elevated in astrocytes with increased incubation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Algeciras, Mabel; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K; Serra, Horacio M

    2015-09-01

    Astrocytes respond to environmental cues, including changes in temperatures. Increased deimination, observed in many progressive neurological diseases, is thought to be contributed by astrocytes. We determined the level of deimination and expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in isolated primary astrocytes in response to changes on either side (31°C and 41°C) of the optimal temperature (37°C). We investigated changes in the astrocytes by using a number of established markers and accounted for cell death with the CellTiter-Blue assay. We found increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, ALDH1L1, and J1-31, resulting from increased incubation temperature and increased expression of TSP1, S100β, and AQP4, resulting from decreased incubation temperature vs. optimal temperature, suggesting activation of different biochemical pathways in astrocytes associated with different incubation temperatures. Mass spectrometric analyses support such trends. The PAD2 level was increased only as a result of increased incubation temperature with a commensurate increased level of deimination. Actin cytoskeleton and iso[4]LGE, a lipid peroxidase modification, also showed an increase with higher incubation temperature. Altogether, these results suggest that temperature, as an environmental cue, activates astrocytes in a different manner on either side of the optimal temperature and that increase in deimination is associated only with the higher temperature side of the spectrum.

  2. Elevated Circulating Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Al Shahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We evaluated inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in patients with either acute coronary syndrome (ACS or stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods. We enrolled 20 ACS patients and 50 stable CAD patients without previous history of ACS who underwent cardiac catheterization. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and C-reactive protein of ≥1.0 mg/dL were excluded. Blood samples were collected from the patients just before catheterization, and PBMCs were isolated from the whole blood. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were measured by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays. Results. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-10, IL-23A, IL-27, and IL-37 was significantly higher in the ACS group than in the CAD group (P<0.05. In contrast, the expression of IL-33 was significantly lower in the ACS group than in the CAD group (P<0.05. The ACS patients had higher plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in the ACS group than in the CAD group. Conclusion. Circulating levels of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-23A, IL-27, IL-33, and IL-37, may be associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in ACS patients.

  3. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and mortality in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, Helle; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hjelmborg, Jacob v B;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied by low-grade inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha initiates the cytokine cascade, and high levels are associated with dementia and atherosclerosis in persons aged 100 years. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha was also a prognostic marker for all-cause morta...... as confounders. CONCLUSION: TNF-alpha was an independent prognostic marker for mortality in persons aged 100 years, suggesting that it has specific biological effects and is a marker of frailty in the very elderly.......BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied by low-grade inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha initiates the cytokine cascade, and high levels are associated with dementia and atherosclerosis in persons aged 100 years. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha was also a prognostic marker for all......-cause mortality in these persons. METHODS: We enrolled 126 subjects at or around the time of their 100th birthday. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline, and we determined the associations between the markers of inflammation and mortality during...

  4. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  5. Elevated levels of circulating microRNA-200 family members correlate with serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Casina WS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a critical need for improved diagnostic markers for high grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC. MicroRNAs are stable in the circulation and may have utility as biomarkers of malignancy. We investigated whether levels of serum microRNA could discriminate women with high-grade SEOC from age matched healthy volunteers. Methods To identify microRNA of interest, microRNA expression profiling was performed on 4 SEOC cell lines and normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Total RNA was extracted from 500 μL aliquots of serum collected from patients with SEOC (n = 28 and age-matched healthy donors (n = 28. Serum microRNA levels were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR following preamplification. Results microRNA (miR-182, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were highly overexpressed in the SEOC cell lines relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells and were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate biomarkers. miR-103, miR-92a and miR -638 had relatively invariant expression across all ovarian cell lines, and with small-nucleolar C/D box 48 (RNU48 were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate endogenous normalizers. No correlation between serum levels and age were observed (age range 30-79 years for any of these microRNA or RNU48. Individually, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c normalized to serum volume and miR-103 were significantly higher in serum of the SEOC cohort (P  Conclusions We identified serum microRNAs able to discriminate patients with high grade SEOC from age-matched healthy controls. The addition of these microRNAs to current testing regimes may improve diagnosis for women with SEOC.

  6. Elevated plasma SPARC levels are associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggested that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a novel adipokine, is a key player in the pathology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether concentrations of SPARC were altered in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT controls and to investigate the relationships between SPARC and metabolic parameters in pregnant women. DESIGN/METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 120 pregnant women with GDM and 60 controls with NGT, in a university hospital setting. Plasma levels of SPARC, adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, insulin and proinsulin were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: GDM women had higher SPARC and lower adiponectin than NGT subjects; no difference was found in FGF21. SPARC levels were the lowest in subjects in the third tertile of insulin sensitivity index (ISIOGTT and correlated positively with pre-pregnant BMI, insulin and 3 h glucose during 100-g OGTT, HOMA-IR, fasting proinsulin, hsCRP and white blood cells count, and negatively with ISIOGTT, when adjusting for gestational age. Triglyceride (TG, Apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a correlated with SPARC in partial Pearson correlation. Correlations between SPARC with adiponectin, systolic blood pressure and TG were marginally significant in partial Spearman correlation analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, SPARC was an independent negative indicator of ISIOGTT. CONCLUSIONS: SPARC levels are correlated significantly with inflammation and may also be correlated with dyslipidemia and represent an independent determinant of insulin resistance in late pregnancy, indicating a potential role of SPARC in the pathophysiology of GDM.

  7. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  8. Elevated levels of growth-related hormones in autism and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James L; Hediger, Mary L; Molloy, Cynthia A; Chrousos, George P; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Yu, Kai F; Brasington, Mark; England, Lucinda J

    2007-08-01

    Children with autism are known to have larger head circumferences; whether they are above average in height and weight is less clear. Moreover, little is known about growth-related hormone levels in children with autism. We investigated whether children with autism were taller and heavier, and whether they had higher levels of growth-related hormones than control children did. A case-control study design was employed. Boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autism (n = 71) and age-matched control boys (n = 59) were evaluated at Cincinnati Children's Hospital. Height, weight and head circumference were measured. Blood samples were assayed for IGF-1 and 2, IGFBP-3, growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) and for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS). Subjects with autism/ASD had significantly (P = 0.03) greater head circumferences (mean z-score 1.24, SD 1.35) than controls (mean z-score 0.78, SD 0.93). Subjects with autism also had significantly (P = 0.01) greater weights (mean z-score 0.91, SD 1.13) than controls (mean z-score 0.41, SD 1.11). Height did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.65); subjects with autism/ASD had significantly (P = 0.003) higher body mass indices (BMI) (mean z-score 0.85, SD 1.19) than controls (mean z-score 0.24, SD 1.17). Levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3 and GHBP in the group with autism/ASD were all significantly higher (all P < or = 0.0001) than in controls. Children with autism/ASD had significantly higher levels of many growth-related hormones: IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3 and GHBP. These findings could help explain the significantly larger head circumferences and higher weights and BMIs seen in these subjects. Future studies should examine the potential role of growth-related hormones in the pathophysiology of autism.

  9. Levels of procoagulant microvesicles are elevated after traumatic injury and platelet microvesicles are negatively correlated with mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Curry

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microvesicles (MV have been implicated in the development of thrombotic disease, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and multiple organ failure (MOF. Trauma patients are at increased risk of late thrombotic events, particularly those who receive a major transfusion. The aims of this study were: (a to determine whether there were increased numbers of pro-coagulant MV following injury; (b to determine their cellular origin; and (c to explore the effects of MV with clinical outcomes; in particular red cell transfusion requirements and death. Methods: Trauma patients were recruited at a Level 1 trauma centre. The presence of MV procoagulant phospholipid (PPL was assessed using 2 activity assays (PPL and thrombin generation. Enumeration and MV cellular origin was assessed using 2 colour flow cytometry. Results: Fifty consecutive patients were recruited; median age 38 (IQR: 24–55, median ISS 18 (IQR: 9–27. Circulating procoagulant MV, rich in phospholipid, were significantly elevated following traumatic injury relative to controls and remained elevated at 72 h post-injury. Red cell/AnnV+ and platelet/AnnV+ MV numbers were 6-fold and 2-fold higher than controls, respectively. Patients who died (n=9, 18% had significantly fewer CD41/AnnV+ MV and lower endogenous thrombin potential relative to patients who survived. Conclusions: MV are elevated following traumatic injury and may be implicated in the increased risk of trauma patients to pro-thrombotic states such as MOF and ARDS. Lower levels of procoagulant MV are associated with mortality and further investigation of this association is warranted.

  10. Thermal Properties of Simulated and High-Level Waste Solutions Used for the Solvent Extraction Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2001-06-27

    Researchers measured the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of supernate from a blend of Tank 37H and 44F, of a simulant of this blend, and of a simulant specifically designed for solvent extraction experiments. The measured heat capacity of the blend from the Tanks 37H and 44F equaled 0.871 cal/(g degrees C). The simulant of this blend produced an identical result. The heat capacity of the simulant designed for solvent extraction testing equaled 0.859 cal/(g degrees C). All three solutions have thermal conductivities in the range of 0.54 to 0.6 Watts/(m degrees C). The slight variation in the thermophysical properties of these solutions successfully explains the different flowmeter readings observed during the real waste demonstration of the solvent extraction technology.

  11. 'Natural experiment' demonstrates top-down control of spiders by birds on a landscape level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldre Rogers

    Full Text Available The combination of small-scale manipulative experiments and large-scale natural experiments provides a powerful approach for demonstrating the importance of top-down trophic control on the ecosystem scale. The most compelling natural experiments have come from studies examining the landscape-scale loss of apex predators like sea otters, wolves, fish and land crabs. Birds are dominant apex predators in terrestrial systems around the world, yet all studies on their role as predators have come from small-scale experiments; the top-down impact of bird loss on their arthropod prey has yet to be examined at a landscape scale. Here, we use a unique natural experiment, the extirpation of insectivorous birds from nearly all forests on the island of Guam by the invasive brown tree snake, to produce the first assessment of the impacts of bird loss on their prey. We focused on spiders because experimental studies showed a consistent top-down effect of birds on spiders. We conducted spider web surveys in native forest on Guam and three nearby islands with healthy bird populations. Spider web densities on the island of Guam were 40 times greater than densities on islands with birds during the wet season, and 2.3 times greater during the dry season. These results confirm the general trend from manipulative experiments conducted in other systems however, the effect size was much greater in this natural experiment than in most manipulative experiments. In addition, bird loss appears to have removed the seasonality of spider webs and led to larger webs in at least one spider species in the forests of Guam than on nearby islands with birds. We discuss several possible mechanisms for the observed changes. Overall, our results suggest that effect sizes from smaller-scale experimental studies may significantly underestimate the impact of bird loss on spider density as demonstrated by this large-scale natural experiment.

  12. Association of serum uric acid level with mortality and morbidity of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Reza; Ghaffari, Samad; Salehi, Rezvanieh; Mazani, Sarvin; Aghavali, Sharmin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Investigating the clinical impact of serum uric acid (UA) and its lowering agents on the complications and mortality of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can open a new era in STEMI treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of on admission serum UA level on the mortality and morbidity of patients admitted with STEMI. Methods: A number of 608 patients with STEMI were enrolled in this study from December 21, 2012 until February 19, 2014. Patients were followed for 20 months. Male to female ratio was 2.53, and the mean age of patients was 62.6±13.4. The relationship between the level of UA and patients’ mortality and morbidity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), atrial and ventricular arrhythmia was analyzed. Results: Patients with high serum UA level had higher Killip class after STEMI (P=0.001). Mean LVEF was measured to be 39.5±9.6 in normal UA group and 34.6±11.6 in high UA group (P=0.001). In comparison with normal UA group, high UA group had significantly higher cTnI (2.68±0.09 vs 4.09±0.42, respectively, P=0.001), increased blood pressure (P=0.009), and higher atrial fibrillation (AF) occurrence (P=0.03), but no association was seen between ventricular tachycardia and serum UA level. Short term and midterm mortality were not different in two groups (P=0.44 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusion: In the current study, high serum UA level in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) was not associated with higher in-hospital or midterm mortality, but it was associated with lower LVEF, higher Killip class, elevated cTnI, creatinine, triglyceride, and higher AF. PMID:27489597

  13. A Lead ANRIL Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated CRP Levels in Periodontitis: A Pilot Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeuw, Wijnand J; Laine, Marja L; Bizzarro, Sergio; Loos, Bruno G

    2015-01-01

    Elevated high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a marker for systemic inflammation and a risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), and has also been associated with periodontitis. Inter-individual variation for hsCRP in periodontitis has been shown. ANRIL is the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for both periodontitis and ACVD, and it is speculated that genetic variation in ANRIL may modulate inflammatory processes. Therefore, we explored the possible association between hsCRP plasma levels and a leading ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in periodontitis patients and controls. 171 healthy subjects with North European descent (115 periodontitis and 56 controls) were included in this case-control study. hsCRP levels were determined and subjects were genotyped for the leading ANRIL SNP rs1333048. In a multivariate analysis, periodontitis, female gender, increasing BMI and homozygosity for the major allele (AA-genotype) of rs1333048 were significantly associated with elevated hsCRP plasma levels (p = 0.012, p = 0.004, p = 0.007 and p = 0.003, respectively). Periodontitis patients with rs1333048 AA-genotype showed higher levels of hsCRP than those carrying the minor C allele (median: 4.5 mg/L vs. 1.6 mg/L, padjusted = 0.007). This study is the first to show that, in addition to gender and BMI, also a leading SNP in ANRIL is explanatory for inter-individual variation in hsCRP levels in periodontitis patients of North European descent.

  14. Elevated systemic glutamic acid level in the non-obese diabetic mouse is Idd linked and induces beta cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Viqar Showkat; Lejon, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated disease in the effector stage, the mechanism behind the initial beta cell assault is less understood. Metabolomic differences, including elevated levels of glutamic acid, have been observed in patients with T1D before disease onset, as well as in pre-diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Increased levels of glutamic acid damage both neurons and beta cells, implying that this could contribute to the initial events of T1D pathogenesis. We investigated the underlying genetic factors and consequences of the increased levels of glutamic acid in NOD mice. Serum glutamic acid levels from a (NOD×B6)F2 cohort (n = 182) were measured. By genome-wide and Idd region targeted microsatellite mapping, genetic association was detected for six regions including Idd2, Idd4 and Idd22. In silico analysis of potential enzymes and transporters located in and around the mapped regions that are involved in glutamic acid metabolism consisted of alanine aminotransferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, alutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamic acid transporters GLAST and EAAC1. Increased EAAC1 protein expression was observed in lysates from livers of NOD mice compared with B6 mice. Functional consequence of the elevated glutamic acid level in NOD mice was tested by culturing NOD. Rag2(-/-) Langerhans' islets with glutamic acid. Induction of apoptosis of the islets was detected upon glutamic acid challenge using TUNEL assay. Our results support the notion that a dysregulated metabolome could contribute to the initiation of T1D. We suggest that targeting of the increased glutamic acid in pre-diabetic patients could be used as a potential therapy.

  15. Class switch recombination process in ataxia telangiectasia patients with elevated serum levels of IgM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadinejad, Payam; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Ghosh, Sujal; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Durandy, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with various clinical manifestations. Increased serum levels of IgM and recurrent infections, mainly sinopulmonary infections, can be the presenting feature in a number of AT patients and may be initially misdiagnosed as hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome. This study was designed to investigate class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical mechanism in B lymphocytes' maturation to produce different isotypes of antibody in response to antigen stimulation in AT cases with HIgM presentation. Quantitative IgE production after stimulation by IL-4 and CD40L was considered as an indicator for CSR function. We also compared their results with sex and age matched AT patients without HIgM presentation. We report four AT patients with recurrent infections during infancy and high serum levels of IgM. Laboratory evaluations revealed defective CSR while none of the three AT patients without HIgM presentation had a defect in the CSR process. The characterized defect in AT is a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. This gene may result in CSR defects due to impaired DNA break repair. A special association between AT and HIgM may indicate a new subgroup of AT patients according to their clinical phenotype and CSR condition.

  16. An elevated 1-h post- load glucose level during the oral glucose tolerance test detects prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysschaert, Martin; Bergman, Michael; Yanogo, Donald; Jagannathan, Ram; Buysschaert, Benoit; Preumont, Vanessa

    The objective of the study was to compare the diagnosis of dysglycemic states by conventional oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) criteria (fasting and 2-h plasma glucose) with the 1-h post-load plasma glucose level. 34 individuals (mean age: 55±13years; BMI: 27.7±6.3kg/m(2)) at risk for prediabetes were administered a 75g OGTT. Individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes were identified according to fasting and/or 2-h plasma glucose (PG) concentrations. Subsequently, subjects were divided in 2 groups: group 1 (n=21) with a 1-h PGh PG≥155mg/dl. HOMA was performed to assess β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. NGT or prediabetes based on conventional criteria correlated with the 1-h PGh PG≥155mg/dl was associated with higher HbA1c levels (6.1±0.5 vs. 5.5±0.3%, ph PGh post-load plasma glucose value ≥155mg/dl is strongly associated with conventional criteria for (pre)diabetes and alterations of β-cell function. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Elevated serum levels of neopterin in adult patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, M Y; Nassonov, E L; Tilz, G P; Geht, B M; Demel, U; Gurkina, G T; Shtutman, V Z; Guseva, A G; Wachter, H; Fuchs, D

    1997-06-01

    We determined serum concentrations of neopterin, soluble tumour necrosis factor (55 kDa) receptor (sTNF-R) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in plasma of 44 patients with polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM), including 15 patients with primary PM, 13 patients with primary DM, and 16 patients with myositis and systemic sclerosis in overlap. Concentrations of neopterin, sTNF-R and sIL-2R were measured using commercially available immunoassays. Serum neopterin was increased in 35 of 44 PM/DM patients (80%), sTNF-R in 14 (32%) and sIL-2R in 18 (41%) patients, respectively. There were significant correlations between serum neopterin and sTNF-R, sIL-2R and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (all P < 0.001). Neopterin, as well as sTNF-R and sIL-2R, did not correlate with clinical (neuromuscular and activities of daily living scores) and laboratory (creatine kinase levels) manifestations of myositis. Increased serum levels of neopterin were associated with non-muscular manifestations of PM/DM. In conclusion, serum neopterin appears to be a useful laboratory marker for ongoing immune activation and global disease activity in PM/DM.

  18. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-11

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  19. Compromised proteasome degradation elevates neuronal nitric oxide synthase levels and induces apoptotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Philip Y; Cadenas, Enrique

    2008-10-15

    The significance of impairment of proteasome activity in PC12 cells was examined in connection with nitrative/nitrosative stress and apoptotic cell death. Treatment of differentiated PC12 cells with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, elicited a dose- and time-dependent increase in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) protein levels, decreased cell viability, and increased cytotoxicity. Viability and cytotoxicity were ameliorated by L-NAME (a broad NOS inhibitor). Nitric oxide/peroxynitrite formation was increased upon treatment of PC12 cells with MG132 and decreased upon treatment with the combination of MG132 and 7-NI (a specific inhibitor of nNOS). The decreases in cell viability appeared to be effected by an activation of JNK and its effect on mitochondrial Bcl-x(L) phosphorylation. These effects are strengthened by the activation of caspase-9 along with increased caspase-3 activity upon treatment of PC12 cells with MG132. These results suggest that impairment of proteasome activity and consequent increases in nNOS levels lead to a nitrative stress that involves the coordinated response of JNK cytosolic signaling and mitochondrion-driven apoptotic pathways.

  20. Elevated levels of circulating thyroid hormone do not cause the medical sequelae of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Tammas; Denmark, Lawrence; Lieberman, Daniel Z

    2016-11-03

    Clinicians have been reluctant to use high dose thyroid (HDT) to treat affective disorders because high circulating levels of thyroid hormone have traditionally been equated with hyperthyroidism, and understood as the cause of the medical sequelae of hyperthyroidism, such as osteoporosis and cardiac abnormalities. This conclusion is not supported by (HDT) research. A literature review of research related to the morbidity and mortality of HDT treatment was performed. There exists a large body of research involving the use of HDT treatment to prevent the recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer and to treat affective disorders. A review of this literature finds a lack of support for HDT as a cause of osteoporosis, nor is there support for an increase in morbidity or mortality associated with HDT. This finding contrasts with the well-established morbidity and mortality associated with Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and other endogenous forms of hyperthyroidism. The lack of evidence that exogenous HDT causes osteoporosis, cardiac abnormalities or increases mortality compared with the significant morbidity and mortality of hyperthyroidism requires an alternative cause for the medical sequelae of hyperthyroidism. One possibility is an autoimmune mechanism. High circulating levels of thyroid hormone is not the cause of the sequela of hyperthyroidism. The reluctance to using high dose thyroid is unwarranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Primary Metabolite Levels in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 Leaves: An Examination of Metabolome Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Ko; Watanabe, Chihiro K; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentrations ([CO(2)]) affect primary metabolite levels because CO(2) is a direct substrate for photosynthesis. In several studies, the responses of primary metabolite levels have been examined using Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, but these results have not been comprehensively discussed. Here, we examined metabolome data for A. thaliana accession Col-0 leaves that were grown at elevated [CO(2)] with sufficient nitrogen (N) nutrition. At elevated [CO(2)], starch, monosaccharides and several major amino acids accumulated in leaves. The degree of accumulation depended on whether the rooting medium contained NH(4) (+) or only NO(3) (-). Because low N conditions induce an increase in carbohydrates similar to that of elevated [CO(2)], we compared the responses of primary metabolite levels between elevated [CO(2)] and low N conditions. Levels of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-associated organic acids and major amino acids decreased with low N, but not with elevated [CO(2)]. Even at elevated [CO(2)], the low N induced the decreases in the levels of organic acids and major amino acids. A small sink size also affects the primary metabolite response patterns in leaves under elevated [CO(2)] conditions. Thus, care is necessary when interpreting primary metabolite changes in leaves of field-grown plants.

  2. Elevated levels of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Junichi; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Kato, So; Hayakawa, Kentaro; Oka, Hiroyuki; Takeshita, Katsushi; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2015-07-01

    The phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNfH) is an axon fiber structural protein that is released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after nerve damage. Although the previous studies have reported elevated CSF levels of pNfH in various neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, these levels have not been examined in patients with spinal stenosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the CSF levels of pNfH in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and to examine the relationship between CSF levels of pNfH and the severity of LSS. This is a prospective observational study. We included consecutive patients with LSS who were undergoing myelography for preoperative evaluation. The CSF samples from patients with idiopathic scoliosis were used as the controls. Physiological measures: CSF levels of pNfH were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) and the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for sciatic pain were used to assess the clinical severity of LSS, and patients were grouped into tertiles according to their symptom severity and pain grading. Axial magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the morphological severity of LSS, and patients were classified into three groups based on their morphological grading (using the CSF/rootlet ratio). Analysis of variance was used to examine the relationship between the CSF levels of pNfH and the severity of LSS. Thirty-three patients with LSS were included (13 men and 20 women and mean age 73.2 [range 58-88] years). Most patients (n=32) were positive for pNfH in their CSF (mean 1,344 [149-9,250] pg/mL), whereas all control subjects were negative for pNfH in their CSF. Regarding the association with clinical severity, patients in the third tertiles of ZCQ and NRS tended to have higher levels of pNfH compared with the other groups. There was no association between the CSF level of pNfH and the morphological severity of LSS. This study

  3. Voluntary exercise and clomipramine treatment elevate prepro-galanin mRNA levels in the locus coeruleus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Philip V; Yoo, Ho Sang; Dishman, Rod K

    2006-11-06

    Exercise exerts antidepressant effects in humans and rodent models of affective disorders. These effects may be mediated by the upregulation of endogenous factors that exert antidepressant actions. The physiological functions and behavioral actions of the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) suggest antidepressant activity. Previous studies have shown that various modes of exercise elevate GAL gene expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) in rats. The present experiments examined the interaction between voluntary exercise and antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided access to activity wheels (exercise condition) or inoperative wheels (sedentary condition) for 28 days. Rats in each group were injected with clomipramine (10mg/kg/day) or vehicle throughout this period (for 3 weeks). Prepro-GAL mRNA in the LC was measured by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Exercise and clomipramine treatment significantly elevated GAL gene expression, though prepro-GAL mRNA levels in rats receiving both interventions did not differ from sedentary controls that received vehicle. Prepro-GAL mRNA levels were significantly correlated with running distance. The results further implicate a role for GAL in the antidepressant effects of exercise and pharmacotherapy, though the mechanisms through which these treatments influence GAL gene expression appear to differ significantly.

  4. Modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors are associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Svensson, Elisabeth; Rungby, Jørgen;

    2014-01-01

    />21 drinks per week for women/men) (aPR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03-2.50), and in those with no regular physical activity (aPR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.04-1.93). Obesity and metabolic syndrome per se showed no association with elevated ALT when adjusted for other markers, whereas we found positive associations of ALT...... aminotransferase (ALT) levels as a marker of NAFLD in new T2DM patients. METHODS: Alanine aminotransferase levels were measured in 1026 incident T2DM patients enrolled in the nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) cohort. We examined prevalence of elevated ALT (>38 IU/L for women...... and >50 IU/L for men) and calculated prevalence ratios associated with clinical and lifestyle factors using Poisson regression. We examined the association with other biomarkers by linear regression. RESULTS: The median value of ALT was 24 IU/L (interquartile range: 18-32 IU/L) in women and 30 IU...

  5. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, R F; Dijkhuis, M A J; van der Schaar, M A; Berg, M P; Verhoef, H A

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web.

  6. Abnormal nociception and opiate sensitivity of STOP null mice exhibiting elevated levels of the endogenous alkaloid morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunis Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Mice deficient for the stable tubule only peptide (STOP display altered dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with severe behavioural defects including disorganized locomotor activity. Endogenous morphine, which is present in nervous tissues and synthesized from dopamine, may contribute to these behavioral alterations since it is thought to play a role in normal and pathological neurotransmission. Results- In this study, we showed that STOP null brain structures, including cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and spinal cord, contain high endogenous morphine amounts. The presence of elevated levels of morphine was associated with the presence of a higher density of mu opioid receptor with a higher affinity for morphine in STOP null brains. Interestingly, STOP null mice exhibited significantly lower nociceptive thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulations. They also had abnormal behavioural responses to the administration of exogenous morphine and naloxone. Low dose of morphine (1 mg/kg, i.p. produced a significant mechanical antinociception in STOP null mice whereas it has no effect on wild-type mice. High concentration of naloxone (1 mg/kg was pronociceptive for both mice strain, a lower concentration (0.1 mg/kg was found to increase the mean mechanical nociceptive threshold only in the case of STOP null mice. Conclusions- Together, our data show that STOP null mice displayed elevated levels of endogenous morphine, as well as an increase of morphine receptor affinity and density in brain. This was correlated with hypernociception and impaired pharmacological sensitivity to mu opioid receptor ligands.

  7. I(f) blocking potency of ivabradine is preserved under elevated endotoxin levels in human atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheruebel, Susanne; Koyani, Chintan N; Hallström, Seth; Lang, Petra; Platzer, Dieter; Mächler, Heinrich; Lohner, Karl; Malle, Ernst; Zorn-Pauly, Klaus; Pelzmann, Brigitte

    2014-07-01

    Lower heart rate is associated with better survival in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), a disease mostly caused by sepsis. The benefits of heart rate reduction by ivabradine during MODS are currently being investigated in the MODIfY clinical trial. Ivabradine is a selective inhibitor of the pacemaker current If and since If is impaired by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin), a trigger of sepsis, we aimed to explore If blocking potency of ivabradine under elevated endotoxin levels in human atrial cardiomyocytes. Treatment of myocytes with S-LPS (containing the lipid A moiety, a core oligosaccharide and an O-polysaccharide chain) but not R595 (an O-chain lacking LPS-form) caused If inhibition under acute and chronic septic conditions. The specific interaction of S-LPS but not R595 to pacemaker channels HCN2 and HCN4 proves the necessity of O-chain for S-LPS-HCN interaction. The efficacy of ivabradine to block If was reduced under septic conditions, an observation that correlated with lower intracellular ivabradine concentrations in S-LPS- but not R595-treated cardiomyocytes. Computational analysis using a sinoatrial pacemaker cell model revealed that despite a reduction of If under septic conditions, ivabradine further decelerated pacemaking activity. This novel finding, i.e. If inhibition by ivabradine under elevated endotoxin levels in vitro, may provide a molecular understanding for the efficacy of this drug on heart rate reduction under septic conditions in vivo, e.g. the MODIfY clinical trial.

  8. Short term exposure to elevated levels of leptin reduces proximal tubule cell metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briffa, Jessica F; Grinfeld, Esther; McAinch, Andrew J; Poronnik, Philip; Hryciw, Deanne H

    2014-01-25

    Leptin plays a pathophysiological role in the kidney, however, its acute effects on the proximal tubule cells (PTCs) are unknown. In opossum kidney (OK) cells in vitro, Western blot analysis identified that exposure to leptin increases the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p44/42 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Importantly leptin (0.05, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 μg/ml) significantly reduced the metabolic activity of PTCs, and significantly decreased protein content per cell. Investigation of the role of p44/42 and mTOR on metabolic activity and protein content per cell, demonstrated that in the presence of MAPK inhibitor U0126 and mTOR inhibitor Ku-63794, that the mTOR pathway is responsible for the reduction in PTC metabolic activity in response to leptin. However, p44/42 and mTOR play no role the reduced protein content per cell in OKs exposed to leptin. Therefore, leptin modulates metabolic activity in PTCs via an mTOR regulated pathway.

  9. QuickNGS elevates Next-Generation Sequencing data analysis to a new level of automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Prerana; Nikolić, Miloš; Frommolt, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has emerged as a widely used tool in molecular biology. While time and cost for the sequencing itself are decreasing, the analysis of the massive amounts of data remains challenging. Since multiple algorithmic approaches for the basic data analysis have been developed, there is now an increasing need to efficiently use these tools to obtain results in reasonable time. We have developed QuickNGS, a new workflow system for laboratories with the need to analyze data from multiple NGS projects at a time. QuickNGS takes advantage of parallel computing resources, a comprehensive back-end database, and a careful selection of previously published algorithmic approaches to build fully automated data analysis workflows. We demonstrate the efficiency of our new software by a comprehensive analysis of 10 RNA-Seq samples which we can finish in only a few minutes of hands-on time. The approach we have taken is suitable to process even much larger numbers of samples and multiple projects at a time. Our approach considerably reduces the barriers that still limit the usability of the powerful NGS technology and finally decreases the time to be spent before proceeding to further downstream analysis and interpretation of the data.

  10. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  11. Measurement procedure for the determination of thermal exchange coefficient for subsea pipelines at elevated pressure levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Luis Fernando A.; Farias, Paula S.C.; Martins, Fabio J.W.A.; Rabello, Pedro C.; Barros Junior, Julio M. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Lopes Junior, Fernando M.; Silva Junior, Jose Fernando; Castro, Adriana M.; Santos, Augusto A.; Pessanha, Maikon C.R. [Technip, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The present paper describes a methodology successfully employed to determine the Thermal Exchange Coefficient - TEC - for insulated sub sea flexible lines up to a pressure level of 200 bar. In this methodology, controlled internal electrical heating was employed, together with temperature sensors installed at the inner and outer surfaces of the line. The instrumented line sample was placed in a hyperbaric chamber filled with water. Two methods were employed in parallel to determine the line TEC value. In the first method, the TEC value was determined by direct measurement of the radial heat flux by the use of heat flux sensors. The readings of these sensors, together with the inner-to-outer surface temperature difference and geometric parameters, yielded the desired TEC value. In the second method, the radial heat flux was obtained as the difference between the total energy generated by the electrical heater installed in the interior of the sample and the heat losses through the end connectors, evaluated by the readings of temperature sensors installed in covers that surrounded the end connectors. The knowledge of the cover geometry, thermal properties and the temperature readings allowed for an accurate estimate of the heat lost through the covers. Both measuring methods were backed by a detailed uncertainty analysis. A calibration procedure of the second method was performed from zero to 100 bar, the pressure range where the calibration of the heat flux sensor is valid. Beyond 100 bar and up to 200 bar, the TEC values were obtained by the second method, corrected by the calibration procedure extrapolated from the 0-100 bar range. The TEC values obtained were valid under an uncertainty level of {+-} 5%. (author)

  12. Elevated Systemic Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Older Women with Persistent Cervical HPV Infection1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; García-Piñeres, Alfonso; Williams, Marcus C.; Shearer, Gene M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, Jose; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Defects in lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen/antigens in women >45 years old ith a persistent type-specific HPV infection have been reported. Methods To determine whether these defects were associated with altered cytokine profiles, plasma and PBMC culture supernatants from 50 cases (persistent HPV infection and weak lymphoproliferative responses) and 50 uninfected controls were examined for 24 cytokines using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The following plasma cytokines were significantly increased from cases relative to controls: (cases vs. controls (median pg/ml); IL-6: 393.1 vs. 14.5, IL-8: 1128.5 vs. 43.9, TNF-α: 164.1 vs. 9.2, MIP-1α: 1368.9 vs. 25.5, GM-CSF: 13.8 vs. 7.3, IL-1β: 8.3 vs. 1.6, all p10) and highly statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Moreover, length of persistence or type of infection (high risk and low risk) did not affect these differences. IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α levels were increased in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants from cases compared to controls (p <0.05), except for IL-8 (p=0.09). However, the cytokine levels from PHA-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants were significantly lower in the cases (p<0.0001). Conclusions Persistent HPV infection in older women with evidence of immune deficit is associated with an increase in systemic inflammatory cytokines. Impact Future studies are needed to determine whether the inflammatory profile is age dependent and to examine the role inflammatory cytokines play in HPV-induced progression from infection to cervical cancer. PMID:20647411

  13. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Kent W; Elliott, William S

    2015-10-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ((238)U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74-145 mBq L(-1) (2.0-3.9 pCi L(-1)). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger and Shelburn formations, or the

  14. Elevated Levels of DNA Strand Breaks Induced by a Base Analog in the Human Cell Line with the P32T ITPA Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina S.-R. Waisertreiger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Base analogs are powerful antimetabolites and dangerous mutagens generated endogenously by oxidative stress, inflammation, and aberrant nucleotide biosynthesis. Human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA hydrolyzes triphosphates of noncanonical purine bases (i.e., ITP, dITP, XTP, dXTP, or their mimic: 6-hydroxyaminopurine (HAP deoxynucleoside triphosphate and thus regulates nucleotide pools and protects cells from DNA damage. We demonstrate that the model purine base analog HAP induces DNA breaks in human cells and leads to elevation of levels of ITPA. A human polymorphic allele of the ITPA, 94C->A encodes for the enzyme with a P32T amino-acid change and leads to accumulation of nonhydrolyzed ITP. The polymorphism has been associated with adverse reaction to purine base-analog drugs. The level of both spontaneous and HAP-induced DNA breaks is elevated in the cell line with the ITPA P32T variant. The results suggested that human ITPA plays a pivotal role in the protection of DNA from noncanonical purine base analogs.

  15. Elevation of serum GGT and LDH levels, together with higher BCLC staging are associated with poor overall survival from hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zongguo; Ye, Peiyan; Xu, Qingnian; Lu, Yunfei; Tang, Bozong; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Shishi; Chen, Xiaorong

    2015-06-01

    Serum biomarkers predicting prognosis have not been adequately explored in HCC patients. The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic significance of parameters of liver function, tumor markers, and other clinicopathological features in HCC patients. Medical records of HCC patients were retrospectively extracted and overall survival was evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Significant difference was estimated with the Log rank method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used for the study of significance of prognostic factor. A total of 273 HCC patients were included in this analysis. According to the Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier event analysis, GGT and LDH levels of liver function tests were significantly associated with HCC overall survival. Elevated serum CEA level was a risk factor related to poor HCC overall survival. And advanced BCLC staging contributed to a lower overall survival in HCC patients. HCC could benefit from surgical resection, TACE, and radiotherapy. ROC curves demonstrated that different from CEA, elevated GGT and LDH could accurately predict HCC overall survival. In conclusion, serum GGT and LDH together with higher BCLC staging should be potential predictive factors for HCC overall survival.

  16. Enduring, Sexually Dimorphic Impact of In Utero Exposure to Elevated Levels of Glucocorticoids on Midbrain Dopaminergic Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda E. Gillies

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life. In order to understand the underlying neural processes, particular interest has focused on the midbrain dopaminergic systems, which are critical regulators of normal adaptive behaviours, cognitive and sensorimotor functions. Specifically, using a rodent model of GC exposure in late gestation (approximating human brain development at late second/early third trimester, we demonstrated enduring effects on the shape and volume of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc (origins of the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways on the topographical organisation and size of the dopaminergic neuronal populations and astrocytes within these nuclei and on target innervation density and neurochemical markers of dopaminergic transmission (receptors, transporters, basal and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release at striatal and prefrontal cortical sites that impact on the adult brain. The effects of antenatal GC treatment (AGT were both profound and sexually-dimorphic, not only in terms of quantitative change but also qualitatively, with several parameters affected in the opposite direction in males and females. Although such substantial neurobiological changes might presage marked

  17. Elevation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6levels in aortic intima of Chinese Guizhou minipigs with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Lin; DING Feng-hua; SHEN Jie; CHEN Qiu-jin; LOU Sheng; FANG Dan-hong; SHEN Wei-feng; ZHANG Qi; PU Li-jin; XU Xue-wei; ZHANG Rui-yan; ZHANG Jian-sheng; HU Jian; YANG Zheng-kun; L(U) An-kang

    2007-01-01

    Background Large animal models with toxin-mediated pancreatic damage have been used extensively in researches with respect to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diabetic complications. The present study aimed to establish Chinese Guizhou minipig models with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and characterize the animal models by analyzing inflammatory cytokine levels in aortic wall, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6).Methods Twenty-two male Chinese Guizhou minipigs (age, 4 to 6 months; weight, 20 kg to 30 kg) were divided into STZ-induced diabetic group (n=12) and control group (n=10). STZ (125 mg/kg) was administrated to induce hyperglycemia and afterwards insulin was used to control fasting blood glucose levels below 10 mmol/L. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and one month after STZ administration and serum concentrations of alanine transaminase, asparagine transaminase, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, lipids and white blood cell count were measured before and six months later. Animals in both groups were euthanized after six months and pancreas was examined immunohistochemically for islet β cells. Aortic intima of diabetic minipigs and controls was analyzed for TNF-α level in tissue conditioned medium by Western blot. TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels in aortic intima were assayed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Significant elevation in serum glucose levels was observed one month and six months after STZ induction (P<0.001) and markedly increased OGTT values were noted, compared with baseline data. The normal pancreas had many irregular sized islets and small clusters of islet β cells, while in pancreas of diabetic minipigs islet β cells almost disappeared. No statistical difference was notified in serum concentrations of biochemical examinations before and six months after STZ induction. Western blot demonstrated

  18. Metal ions induced heat shock protein response by elevating superoxide anion level in HeLa cells transformed by HSE-SEAP reporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhanjiang; Yang, Xiaoda; Wang, Kui

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this work is to define the relationship between heat shock protein (HSP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells exposed to different concentrations of metal ions, and to evaluate a new method for tracing the dynamic levels of cellular reactive oxygen species using a HSE-SEAP reporter gene. The expression of heat shock protein was measured using a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene transformed into HeLa cell strain, the levels of superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were determined by NBT reduction assay and DCFH staining flow cytometry (FCM), respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that the expression of heat shock protein induced by metal ions was linearly related to the cellular superoxide anion level before cytotoxic effects were observed, but not related to the cellular hydrogen peroxide level. The experimental results suggested that metal ions might induce heat shock protein by elevating cellular superoxide anion level, and thus the expression of heat shock protein indicated by the HSE-SEAP reporter gene can be an effective model for monitoring the dynamic level of superoxide anion and early metal-induced oxidative stress/cytotoxicity.

  19. Increased prevalence of leukocytes and elevated cytokine levels in semen from Schistosoma haematobium-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutscher, Peter D C; Pedersen, Mette; Raharisolo, Clairette; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Hoffmann, Steen; Lisse, Ida; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Reimert, Claus M; Mauclere, Philippe; Ullum, Henrik

    2005-05-15

    In this study, we investigated the seminal inflammatory response to egg infestation of the urogenital organs in 240 semen-donating men aged 15-49 years living in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area of Madagascar. In 29 subjects (12%) with excretion of > or =5 ova/ejaculate, leukocytospermia (>10(6) leukocytes/mL) and the presence of seminal lymphocytes and eosinophil leukocytes were each significantly more prevalent than in 74 subjects (31%) who were S. haematobium negative (Pinfection-negative subjects (Pinfection (STI) with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis did not act as a confounding factor for the observed associations. At follow-up, 6 months after systematic antischistosomiasis and STI syndrome treatment at baseline, the prevalence of seminal leukocytes decreased significantly among the previously seminal egg-positive subjects. The same tendency was observed for the posttreatment levels of cytokines. Numerous studies have already shown an association between STI-associated genital inflammation and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) propagation. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that male urogenital schistosomiasis may constitute a risk factor for HIV transmission, as a result of egg-induced inflammation in the semen-producing pelvic organs.

  20. Nonselenium glutathione peroxidase in human brain : elevated levels in Parkinson's disease and dementia with lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, John H T; Shannon, John M; Blumbergs, Peter C; Gai, Wei-Ping

    2002-09-01

    Nonselenium glutathione peroxidase (NSGP) is a new member of the antioxidant family. Using antibodies to recombinant NSGP we have examined the distribution of this enzyme in normal, Parkinson's disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy body disease (DLB) brains. We have also co-localized this enzyme with alpha-synuclein as a marker for Lewy bodies. In normal brains there was a very low level of NSGP staining in astrocytes. In PD and DLB there were increases in the number and staining intensity of NSGP-positive astrocytes in both gray and white matter. Cell counting of NSGP cells in PD and DLB frontal and cingulated cortices indicated there was 10 to 15 times more positive cells in gray matter and three times more positive cells in white matter than in control cortices. Some neurons were positive for both alpha-synuclein and NSGP in PD and DLB, and double staining indicated that NSGP neurons contained either diffuse cytoplasmic alpha-synuclein deposits or Lewy bodies. In concentric Lewy bodies, alpha-synuclein staining was peripheral whereas NSGP staining was confined to the central core. Immunoprecipitation indicated there was direct interaction between alpha-synuclein and NSGP. These results suggest oxidative stress conditions exist in PD and DLB and that certain cells have responded by up-regulating this novel antioxidant enzyme.

  1. Antiherbivore defense mutualism under elevated carbon dioxide level: A fungal endophyte and grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S. [Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States); Lincoln, D.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects commonly consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. However, lepidoteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which product toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but also suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to understand how these 2 factors may interact to affect larval consumption and growth in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., were grown under CO{sub 2} concentrations, but was not influenced by infection. As expected, larvae had significantly reduced efficiency of conversion of ingested food. These 2 factors also interacted so that the lowest efficiency of conversion of ingested food was seen when both infection and an enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} environment were present. As global atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels continue to increase, it appears that fungal endophytes will continue to be important in turfgrasses as protection against insect herbivores and may lead to increased fitness for infected plant genotypes. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. (Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

  3. Evidence for Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid ERK1/2 Levels in Alzheimer Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Spitzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from 33 patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD, 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment who converted to AD during followup (MCI-AD, 25 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI-stable, and 16 nondemented subjects (ND were analyzed with a chemiluminescence immunoassay to assess the levels of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. The results were evaluated in relation to total Tau (tTau, phosphorylated Tau (pTau, and beta-amyloid 42 peptide (Aβ42. CSF-ERK1/2 was significantly increased in the AD group as compared to stable MCI patients and the ND group. Western blot analysis of a pooled cerebrospinal fluid sample revealed that both isoforms, ERK1 and ERK2, and low amounts of doubly phosphorylated ERK2 were detectable. As a predictive diagnostic AD biomarker, CSF-ERK1/2 was inferior to tTau, pTau, and Aβ42.

  4. Effects of elevated temperatures and rising sea level on Arctic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    Ice is a major agent on the inner shelf, gouging the bottom, increasing hydraulic scour, transporting sediment, and influencing river flood patterns. Rapid coastal retreat is common and low barrier islands and beaches are constantly changing due to the influence of permafrost, ice-push, waves, and currents. Coastal processes are presently a balance between the influence of ice and the action of waves and currents. Quantitative values for processes are poorly known, however our qualitative understanding is nearly complete. Climatic warming and rising sea levels would decrease the temporal and aerial extent of coastal ice thereby expanding the role of waves and currents. As a result, shoreline retreat rates would increase, producing a transgressive erosional surface on the low coastal plain. With increased wave activity, beaches and barrier islands presently nourished by ice push processes would decay and disappear. Increased sediment supply from a deeply thawed, active layer would release more sediments to rivers and coasts. Additional research should be focused on permafrost and sea ice processes active during freeze up and breakup; the two seasons of most vigorous activity and change.

  5. Self-aligned blocking integration demonstration for critical sub-40nm pitch Mx level patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, Angélique; Mohanty, Nihar; Sun, Xinghua; Farrell, Richard A.; Smith, Jeffrey T.; Ko, Akiteru; Metz, Andrew W.; Biolsi, Peter; Devilliers, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Multipatterning has enabled continued scaling of chip technology at the 28nm node and beyond. Selfaligned double patterning (SADP) and self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) as well as Litho- Etch/Litho-Etch (LELE) iterations are widely used in the semiconductor industry to enable patterning at sub 193 immersion lithography resolutions for layers such as FIN, Gate and critical Metal lines. Multipatterning requires the use of multiple masks which is costly and increases process complexity as well as edge placement error variation driven mostly by overlay. To mitigate the strict overlay requirements for advanced technology nodes (7nm and below), a self-aligned blocking integration is desirable. This integration trades off the overlay requirement for an etch selectivity requirement and enables the cut mask overlay tolerance to be relaxed from half pitch to three times half pitch. Selfalignement has become the latest trend to enable scaling and self-aligned integrations are being pursued and investigated for various critical layers such as contact, via, metal patterning. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a low cost flexible self-aligned blocking strategy for critical metal layer patterning for 7nm and beyond from mask assembly to low -K dielectric etch. The integration is based on a 40nm pitch SADP flow with 2 cut masks compatible with either cut or block integration and employs dielectric films widely used in the back end of the line. As a consequence this approach is compatible with traditional etch, deposition and cleans tools that are optimized for dielectric etches. We will review the critical steps and selectivities required to enable this integration along with bench-marking of each integration option (cut vs. block).

  6. The mGluR5 antagonist MPEP elevates accumbal dopamine and glycine levels; interaction with strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, PeiPei; Söderpalm, Bo; Ericson, Mia

    2011-10-01

    Studies have indicated that the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) decreases ethanol self-administration, and the same receptor type was also suggested to be involved in the mechanism of action of the anti-craving substance acamprosate. Our previous research suggested that glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) play a major part in mediating the dopamine-elevating properties of ethanol and are highly involved in the ethanol intake-reducing effect of acamprosate. The aim of this study was to examine if modulation of nAc dopamine via mGluR5 antagonism or GlyR agonism is a linked or separated phenomena. The extracellular levels of dopamine as well as of the GlyR ligands, glycine, taurine and β-alanine were measured in the nAc by means of microdialysis after local perfusion of MPEP (100 or 500 µM) with or without pre-treatment with strychnine. MPEP increased dopamine levels, an effect that was blocked by pre-treatment with strychnine. In addition, the higher MPEP concentration increased glycine output, whereas no alterations of taurine or β-alanine were observed. These results indicate a relationship between the glutamatergic and glycinergic transmitter systems in regulating dopamine output, possibly via alteration of extracellular glycine levels. Taken together with our previous data demonstrating the importance of accumbal GlyRs both in ethanol-induced elevation of nAc dopamine and in ethanol consumption, it is plausible that the effects of MPEP treatment, on dopamine output and on ethanol intake, may be mediated via interaction with the same neuronal circuitry that previously has been demonstrated for ethanol, taurine and acamprosate. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Human induced pluripotent cells resemble embryonic stem cells demonstrating enhanced levels of DNA repair and efficacy of nonhomologous end-joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Jinshui; Robert, Carine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, BRB 7-023A, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Jang, Yoon-Young; Liu Hua; Sharkis, Saul; Baylin, Stephen Bruce [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD 21231-1000 (United States); Rassool, Feyruz Virgilia, E-mail: frassool@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, BRB 7-023A, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: {yields} iPSC and hESC demonstrate a similar cell cycle profile, with increased S phase cells and decreased G0/G1. {yields} iPSC and hESC increased ROS and decreased DSBs, compared with differentiated parental cells. {yields} iPSC and hESC demonstrate elevated DSB repair activity, including nonhomologous end-joining, compared with differentiated parental cells. {yields} iPSC however show a partial apoptotic response to DNA damage, compared to hESC. {yields} DNA damage responses may constitute important markers for the efficacy of iPSC reprogramming. - Abstract: To maintain the integrity of the organism, embryonic stem cells (ESC) need to maintain their genomic integrity in response to DNA damage. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most lethal forms of DNA damage and can have disastrous consequences if not repaired correctly, leading to cell death, genomic instability and cancer. How human ESC (hESC) maintain genomic integrity in response to agents that cause DSBs is relatively unclear. Adult somatic cells can be induced to 'dedifferentiate' into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and reprogram into cells of all three germ layers. Whether iPSC have reprogrammed the DNA damage response is a critical question in regenerative medicine. Here, we show that hESC demonstrate high levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can contribute to DNA damage and may arise from high levels of metabolic activity. To potentially counter genomic instability caused by DNA damage, we find that hESC employ two strategies: First, these cells have enhanced levels of DNA repair proteins, including those involved in repair of DSBs, and they demonstrate elevated nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) activity and repair efficacy, one of the main pathways for repairing DSBs. Second, they are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents, as evidenced by a high level of apoptosis upon irradiation. Importantly, iPSC, unlike the parent cells they are derived

  8. Mildly elevated serum bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    Full Text Available Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in atherosclerosis. Limited information is available on whether serum total bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis {for example, intima-media thickness (IMT, plaque} measured noninvasively by B-mode ultrasonography only among elderly persons. The study subjects were 325 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± standard deviation years and 509 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients aged ≥ 60 years in the medical department. Carotid IMT and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that in men age (β = 0.199, p = 0.002, smoking status (β = 0.154, p = 0.006, GGT (β = -0.139, p = 0.039, and GGT (β = -0.133, p = 0.022 were significantly and independently associated with carotid IMT, and in women age (β = 0.186, p < 0.001, systolic blood pressure (β = 0.104, p = 0.046, diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.148, p = 0.004, prevalence of antihypertensive medication (β = 0.126, p = 0.004, fasting plasma glucose (β = 0.135, p = 0.003, GGT (β = -0.104, p = 0.032, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum bilirubin (β = -0.119, p = 0.006, and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD (β = 0.103, p = 0.017 were also independently associated with carotid IMT. The odds ratios (ORs {95% confidence interval (CI} of increasing serum bilirubin category were negatively associated with carotid IMT ≥ 1.0 mm and plaque in both genders. Compared to subjects with a serum bilirubin of Quartile-1, the multivariate-OR (95% CI of carotid plaque was 0.25 (0.11-0.57 in the Quartile-4 male group, and 0.41 (0.21-0.78 in the Quartile-2 female group, 0.51 (0.26-0.98 in the Quartile-3 female group, and 0.46 (0.24-0.89 in the Quartile-4 female group. Our data demonstrated an independently negative association between serum bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis in both genders.

  9. Elevated level of spindle checkprotein MAD2 correlates with cellular mitotic arrest, but not with aneuploidy and clinicopathological characteristics in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chew-Wun Wu; Chin-Wen Chi; Tze-Sing Huang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the relevance of spindle assembly checkprotein MAD2 to cellular mitotic status, aneuploidy and other clinicopathological characteristics in gastric cancer.METHODS: Western blot analyses were performed to analyze the protein levels of MAD2 and cyclin B1 in the tumorous and adjacent nontumorous tissues of 34 gastric cancer patients. Cell cycle distribution and DNA ploidy of cancer tissues were also determined by flow cytometry.Conventional statistical methods were adopted to determine the relevance of abnormal MAD2 level to mitotic status,aneuploidy and clinicopathological parameters.RESULTS: Out of 34 gastric cancer patients 25 (74%)exhibited elevated MAD2 levels in their tumorous tissues compared with the corresponding nontumorous tissues.Elevation of MAD2 levels significantly correlated with the increased levels of cydin B1 expression and G2/M-phase distribution (P = 0.038 and P = 0.033, respectively), but was not relevant to aneuploidy. The gastric cancer patients with elevated MAD2 levels showed a tendency toward better disease-free and overall survival (P>0.05). However, no association was found between elevated MAD2 levels and patients' clinicopathological characteristics.CONCLUSION: Elevation of MAD2 level is present in 74%of gastric cancer patients, and correlates with increased mitotic checkpoint activity. However, elevation of MAD2level is not associated with patients' aneuploidy and any of the clinicopathological characteristics.

  10. Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Huiming; Lyons, J R; Zhou, Chuanming

    2008-05-22

    Understanding the composition of the atmosphere over geological time is critical to understanding the history of the Earth system, as the atmosphere is closely linked to the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Although much of the history of the lithosphere and hydrosphere is contained in rock and mineral records, corresponding information about the atmosphere is scarce and elusive owing to the lack of direct records. Geologists have used sedimentary minerals, fossils and geochemical models to place constraints on the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen or methane in the past. Here we show that the triple oxygen isotope composition of sulphate from ancient evaporites and barites shows variable negative oxygen-17 isotope anomalies over the past 750 million years. We propose that these anomalies track those of atmospheric oxygen and in turn reflect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)) in the past through a photochemical reaction network linking stratospheric ozone to carbon dioxide and to oxygen. Our results suggest that P(CO2) was much higher in the early Cambrian than in younger eras, agreeing with previous modelling results. We also find that the (17)O isotope anomalies of barites from Marinoan (approximately 635 million years ago) cap carbonates display a distinct negative spike (around -0.70 per thousand), suggesting that by the time barite was precipitating in the immediate aftermath of a Neoproterozoic global glaciation, the P(CO2) was at its highest level in the past 750 million years. Our finding is consistent with the 'snowball Earth' hypothesis and/or a massive methane release after the Marinoan glaciation.

  11. Elevated serum triglyceride and retinol-binding protein 4 levels associated with fructose-sweetened beverages in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA production. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 among Taiwanese adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl. The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (≥24 interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r = 0.253 to 0.404, but not among non-drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4.

  12. Benign Hydronephrosis and Elevated of Serum Levels of Carbohydrate Antigen CA 19-9: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Branka; Milinić, Nikola; Gacic, Jasna; Markovic, Olivera; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Filipovic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Hydronephrosis Symptoms: Blunt abdominal pain • constipation • constipation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Carbohydrate tumor-associated antigen (CA 19-9) has been shown to be upregulated in other malignant tumors including gastric, ovarian, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinoma as well as benign diseases of the biliary track such as pancreatitis, cholangitis, and choledocholithiasis. According to the available literature, in several cases of benign hydronephrosis and in a few cases of benign renal diseases, elevated CA 19-9 has been noted. Case Report: A 58-year-old Caucasian male patient was admitted in our clinic with complaints about blunt abdominal pain in the past two-month period localized in the right lumbar region and irradiating into the right inguinal area, constipation, abdominal bloating, and intermittent hematuria. The concentration of serum CA 19-9 was 3500 U/mL. Urine cytology provided no signs of abnormality. Intravenous urography visualized right-sided pyelon and ureter duplex with the defect in contrast shade of the pyelon, caused by a stag horn calculus. Contrast added computerized axial tomography of the abdomen and pelvis visualized the pyelon casted concretion spreading throughout the right pyelon, with ureterohydronephrosis with the distal block for passage of the contrast to the distal part of the ureter. Conclusions: There is no doubt that CA 19-9 level is occasionally elevated in patients with obstructive urolithiasis as it was in our case. In the routine medical praxis, urolithiasis should not be neglected in the differential diagnosis of elevated concentrations of CA 19-9 marker. PMID:27287959

  13. Elevated Preoperative Serum Hs-CRP Level as a Prognostic Factor in Patients Who Underwent Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Bin; Ying, Jie; Kuang, Su-Juan; Jin, Hao-Sheng; Yin, Zi; Chang, Liang; Yang, Hui; Ou, Ying-Liang; Zheng, Jiang-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Li, Chuan-Sheng; Jian, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of preoperative highly sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) in serum on the prognostic outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following hepatic resection in Chinese samples.From January 2004 to December 2008, a total of 624 consecutive HCC patients who underwent hepatic resection were incorporated. Serum levels of Hs-CRP were tested at preoperation via a collection of venous blood samples. Survival analyses adopted the univariate and multivariate analyses.In our study, among the 624 screened HCC patients, 516 patients were eventually incorporated and completed follow-up. Positive correlations were found regarding preoperative serum Hs-CRP level and tumor size, Child-Pugh class, or tumor stage (all P Hs-CRP levels at preoperation (both P Hs-CRP-normal group, the overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival rates were evidently decreased in the Hs-CRP-elevated group. Further, preoperative serum Hs-CRP level might be having possible prediction effect regarding survival and recurrence of HCC patients after hepatic section in the multivariate analysis.Preoperative increased serum Hs-CRP level was an independent prognostic indicator in patients with HCC following hepatic resection in Chinese samples.

  14. Plants on constant alert: elevated levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonate-induced transcripts in caterpillar-resistant maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaji, Renuka; Camas, Alberto; Ankala, Arunkanth; Engelberth, Jurgen; Tumlinson, James H; Williams, W Paul; Wilkinson, Jeff R; Luthe, Dawn Sywassink

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine if constitutive levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and other octadecanoid compounds were elevated prior to herbivory in a maize genotype with documented resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and other lepidopteran pests. The resistant inbred Mp708 had approximately 3-fold higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) prior to herbivore feeding than the susceptible inbred Tx601. Constitutive levels of cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) also were higher in Mp708 than Tx601. In addition, the constitutive expression of JA-inducible genes, including those in the JA biosynthetic pathway, was higher in Mp708 than Tx601. In response to herbivory, Mp708 generated comparatively higher levels of hydrogen peroxide, and had a greater abundance of NADPH oxidase transcripts before and after caterpillar feeding. Before herbivore feeding, low levels of transcripts encoding the maize insect resistance cysteine protease (Mir1-CP) and the Mir1-CP protein were detected consistently. Thus, Mp708 appears to have a portion of its defense pathway primed, which results in constitutive defenses and the ability to mount a stronger defense when caterpillars attack. Although the molecular mechanisms that regulate the constitutive accumulation of JA in Mp708 are unknown, it might account for its enhanced resistance to lepidopteran pests. This genotype could be valuable in studying the signaling pathways that maize uses to response to insect herbivores.

  15. Elevated levels of serum antibodies against alpha-1, 6-glucan in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Dai; Xiao-Ming Gao

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether levels of anti-alpha-1,6-glucan antibodies in human sera correlate with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Serum samples were collected from patients with SLE (n =30),RA (n =30) and healthy adult volunteers.IgG,IgA and IgM levels against alpha-1,6-glucan were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays.Anti-alpha-1,6-glucan IgG prevalence was raised in patients with active SLE (73.3%)and RA (60%) compared with healthy controls (13.3%).Strong correlation between anti-alpha-1,6-glucan-IgG levels and anti-perinuclear factor (r =0.642; p< 0.05) in RA patients or anti-nuclear antibodies (r =0.675; p < 0.05)in SLE patients was observed.No significant differences in anti-alpha-1,6-glucan-lgA or-lgM levels were noted between different groups.We conclude that anti-alpha1,6-glucan-lgG levels were significantly elevated in patients with SLE or RA and positively correlated with disease activity.

  16. Demonstration of a Benchmarking Technique to Compare Graduate Education Level of Air Force Project Managers and Selected Benchmarking Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    the 1,450th file. This 46 technique sampled files on a nonprobability representation basis; some files did not have a nonzero chance of being reviewed...04 ELECTE: 4 t- OF A DEMONSTRATION OF A BENCHMARKING * ’~ TECHNIQUE TO COMPARE GRADUATE EDUCATION LEVELS OF AIR FORCE PROJECT MANAGERS AND SELECTED...8217,- -AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY .Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio AFIT/GSM/LAS/94S-3 A DEMONSTRATION OF A BENCHMARKING TECHNIQUE TO COMPARE

  17. Elevated levels of triglycerides and vldl-cholesterol provoke activation of nlrp1 inflammasome in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleda, Silvia; de Haro, Joaquin; Varela, Cesar; Ferruelo, Antonio; Acin, Francisco

    2016-10-01

    Soluble stimuli present in the plasma of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are capable of directly stimulating intracellular signalling in endothelium. Oxidized-LDL (oxLDL) induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. However, it is not clear how lipid profile affect NLRP1 inflammasome gene expression in endothelial cells. In this study, the effect of cholesterol and TG of plasma of patients with PAD on NLRP1 inflammasome gene expression in human arterial endothelial cells (HAECS) was assessed. We included 113 patients with symptomatic PAD. HAECs were stimulated for 2h using the plasma samples of the study participants. The NLRP1 quantification of the transcription was carried out on the 7500 real-time PCR system using the Taqman® Universal PCR Master Mix and Assays on demand. Relative quantification of the NLRP1 expression was carried out using the ΔΔCt (threshold cycle) comparative method. Plasma from patients with elevated VLDL-cholesterol levels (>33.6mg/dL, the median value of the sample) provoked a higher expression of NLRP1 inflammasome in HAECs (RQ=1.15±0.23 vs. 1.05±0.69; p=0.045), as well as plasma from patients with elevated TGs levels (>168mg/dL, the median value of the sample) (RQ=1.15±0.23 vs. 1.05±0.69; p=0.045). A positive correlation was found between NLRP1 inflammasome expression and VLDL-cholesterol plasma levels (r=0.4; pcholesterol of patients with atherosclerosis, manifested as PAD, promote the in vitro NLRP1 inflammasome expression in HAECs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma levels of carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2 or TAFIa) are elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaerts, D; Bosmans, J M; van der Veken, P; Sim, Y; Lambeir, A M; Hendriks, D

    2015-12-01

    Two decades after its discovery, carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2 or TAFIa) has become a compelling drug target in thrombosis research. However, given the difficulty of measuring CPU in the blood circulation and the demanding sample collecton requirements, previous clinical studies focused mainly on measuring its inactive precursor, proCPU (proCPB2 or TAFI). Using a sensitive and specific enzymatic assay, we investigated plasma CPU levels in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in controls. In this case-control study, peripheral arterial blood samples were collected from 45 patients with AMI (25 with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI], 20 with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI]) and 42 controls. Additionally, intracoronary blood samples were collected from 11 STEMI patients during thrombus aspiration. Subsequently, proCPU and CPU plasma concentrations in all samples were measured by means of an activity-based assay, using Bz-o-cyano-Phe-Arg as a selective substrate. CPU activity levels were higher in patients with AMI (median LOD-LOQ, range 0-1277 mU L(-1) ) than in controls (median CPU levels and AMI type (NSTEMI [median between LOD-LOQ, range 0-465 mU L(-1) ] vs. STEMI [median between LOD-LOQ, range 0-1277 mU L(-1) ]). Intracoronary samples (median 109 mU L(-1) , range 0-759 mU L(-1) ) contained higher CPU levels than did peripheral samples (median between LOD-LOQ, range 0-107 mU L(-1) ), indicating increased local CPU generation. With regard to proCPU, we found lower levels in AMI patients (median 910 U L(-1) , range 706-1224 U L(-1) ) than in controls (median 1010 U L(-1) , range 753-1396 U L(-1) ). AMI patients have higher plasma CPU levels and lower proCPU levels than controls. This finding indicates in vivo generation of functional active CPU in patients with AMI. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. Worse health-related quality of life and hip function in female patients with elevated chromium levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Daniel K; Madanat, Rami; Donahue, Gabrielle S; Rolfson, Ola; Muratoglu, Orhun K; Malchau, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Blood metal ion levels can be an indicator for detecting implant failure in metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties. Little is known about the effect of bilateral MoM implants on metal ion levels and patient-reported outcomes. We compared unilateral patients and bilateral patients with either an ASR hip resurfacing (HR) or an ASR XL total hip replacement (THR) and investigated whether cobalt or chromium was associated with a broad spectrum of patient outcomes. Patients and methods From a registry of 1,328 patients enrolled in a multicenter prospective follow-up of the ASR Hip System, which was recalled in 2010, we analyzed data from 659 patients (311 HR, 348 THR) who met our inclusion criteria. Cobalt and chromium blood metal ion levels were measured and a 21-item patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) questionnaire was used mean 6 years after index surgery. Results Using a minimal threshold of ≥7 ppb, elevated chromium ion levels were found to be associated with worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (p hip function (p < 0.05) in women. These associations were not observed in men. Patients with a unilateral ASR HR had lower levels of cobalt ions than bilateral ASR HR patients (p < 0.001) but similar levels of chromium ions (p = 0.09). Unilateral ASR XL THR patients had lower chromium and cobalt ion levels (p < 0.005) than bilateral ASR XL THR patients. Interpretation Chromium ion levels of ≥7 ppb were associated with reduced functional outcomes in female MoM patients. PMID:27459602

  20. Efficacy and safety of deferasirox in non-thalassemic patients with elevated ferritin levels after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, N; Lieder, K; Albrecht, S; Leismann, O; Hubert, K; Bug, G; Kröger, N; Platzbecker, U; Stadler, M; de Haas, K; Altamura, S; Muckenthaler, M U; Niederwieser, D; Al-Ali, H K

    2016-01-01

    Elevated serum ferritin contributes to treatment-related morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The multicenter DE02 trial assessed the safety, efficacy and impact of deferasirox on iron homeostasis after allogeneic HSCT. Deferasirox was administered at a starting dose of 10 mg/kg per day to 76 recipients of allogeneic HSCT, with subsequent dose adjustments based on efficacy and safety. Deferasirox was initiated at a median of 168 days after HSCT, with 84% of patients still on immunosuppression. Baseline serum ferritin declined from 2045 to 957 ng/mL. Deferasirox induced a negative iron balance in 84% of patients. Hemoglobin increased in the first 3 months, and trough serum cyclosporine levels were stable. Median exposure was 330 days, with a median compliance rate of >80%. The most common investigator-reported drug-related adverse events (AEs) were increased blood creatinine (26.5%), nausea (9.0%) and abdominal discomfort (8.3%). Fifty-four (71.1%) patients experienced drug-related AEs, which occasionally resulted in discontinuation (gastrointestinal (n=6), skin (n=3), elevated transaminases (n=1) and creatinine (n=1)). The incidence of AEs appeared to be dose related, with 7.5 mg/kg per day being the best-tolerated dose. Low-dose deferasirox is an effective chelation therapy after allogeneic HSCT, with a manageable safety profile, even in patients receiving cyclosporine.

  1. Estimation of the level of anxiety in rats: differences in results of open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel's conflict test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Nazarova, G A; Alekseeva, E V; Bashkatova, V G

    2013-07-01

    We compared individual anxiety assessed by three standard tests, open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel conflict drinking test, in the same animals. No significant correlations between the main anxiety parameters were found in these three experimental models. Groups of animals with high and low anxiety rats were formed by a single parameter and subsequent selection of two extreme groups (10%). It was found that none of the tests could be used for reliable estimation of individual anxiety in rats. The individual anxiety level with high degree of confidence was determined in high-anxiety and low-anxiety rats demonstrating behavioral parameters above and below the mean values in all tests used. Therefore, several tests should be used for evaluation of the individual anxiety or sensitivity to emotional stress.

  2. Elevated Plasma Endothelin-1 Levels in Normal Tension Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengjie; Zhang, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the association between the plasma endothelin-1 level and the risks of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. Relevant publications were collected from three databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science through December 31, 2015. In this study, the terms “(endothelin OR ET) AND glaucoma” were searched. Review Manager 5.2 was used to process the data. Results. Seven studies (212 cases, 164 controls) were included for the NTG analysis. The mean plasma endothelin-1 level in the NTG subjects was 0.60 pg/mL (p = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.17–1.04) higher than that of the healthy controls. Six studies (160 cases, 174 controls) were included for the POAG analysis, and the endothelin-1 level was 0.63 pg/mL (p = 0.007, 95% CI: 0.12–1.15) higher in the POAG subjects than in the healthy controls. Additionally, two studies influenced the meta-analysis results regarding the association of plasma endothelin-1 with POAG by sensitivity analysis, and the probability of publication bias was low. Conclusions. The observation that NTG and POAG subjects showed significantly elevated endothelin-1 plasma concentrations suggests that a higher plasma level of endothelin-1 might increase the risk of NTG and POAG development. PMID:27965889

  3. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan N Narayanan

    Full Text Available Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels.

  4. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels.

  5. Insulin elevates leptin secretion and mRNA levels via cyclic AMP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes deprived of glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Tsubai

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Insulin alone stimulates leptin secretion and elevates leptin mRNA levels via cAMP under the lack of glucose metabolism, while glucose is a significant and ambivalent effector on the insulin effects of leptin.

  6. Detectability of Water Level along Yaluzangbu River Demonstrated by Envisat, Jason-2, and SARAL/AltiKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, K. H.; Liu, G. T.; Shum, C. K.; Lee, H.; Kuo, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Periodic and flash flood is one of major natural disasters happened annually in mainland South Asia, especially for countries within the basin of Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Mekong River. The flood either caused by massive rainfall or melting glacier/snow water has combined with land subsidence and results in exacerbated economic loss in adjacent regions. A monitoring system based on satellite observation is thus necessary for early warning and precautionary estimate of inundation area since it is difficult to build river gauges and collect data in remote areas. The knowledge of water level along the river is thus important for monitoring the anomalous rise of water flow that potentially causes floods downstream. The satellite altimetry, which was widely used for open ocean sea-level measurements, had been applied for monitoring inland waters, such as rivers, reservoirs, and even glaciers surface elevation change. In this study, we utilized and compared a series of altimetry satellites along the Yaluzangbu River, upstream of the Brahmaputra River, located in the southern Tibetan Plateau with its origin located at Angsi Glacier. These satellites include Envisat, Jason-2, and SARAL/AltiKa. The detectability of water level has been examined in terms of the backscattering coefficient in radar echo, radar waveform pattern, height retrieval, stability of measurement over water surface, and percentage of detectable crossovers. Our preliminary result shows that the Ka-band AltiKa is more stable over narrow (level.

  7. [Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines level at early age as the risk factor of neurological and mental pathology development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, O E; Klimenko, V M

    2011-10-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 (IL-1, IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the key mediators of neuroimmune interactions, are the common pathogenic part of various kinds of the perinatal pathology leading to severe neurological and mental diseases. In the review, features of expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors in the brain at early age under normal and pathological conditions, their influence on processes of maturing of the CNS cells are described, the data of experimental and clinical researches of disturbances of the mental functions arising in adults owing to elevation of the IL-1, IL-6 levels and TNFalpha in early ontogenesis are cited. The role of the cytokines in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, a syndrome of attention deficiency, autism and a Parkinsonism is discussed.

  8. Elevated Levels of Microbial Translocation Markers and CCL2 Among Older HIV-1–Infected Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Eileen; Lockhart, Ainsley; Huang, Lisa; Robles, Yvonne; Becerril, Carlos; Romero-Tejeda, Marisol; Albrecht, Mary A.; Palmer, Christine D.; Bosch, Ronald J; Altfeld, Marcus; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Lin, Nina H.

    2016-01-01

    The aging of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected population obligates a focus on the interaction between aging, comorbid conditions, and HIV-1. We recruited a cohort of HIV-1–infected men aged ≤35 years or ≥50 years who were receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed plasma markers of inflammation; T-cell activation, exhaustion, proliferation; and innate cellular subsets and functional capacity. Levels of lipopolysaccharide and the plasma marker of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 were significantly elevated in older HIV-infected men despite comparable cellular phenotypes. Compared with similarly age-stratified uninfected subjects, older HIV-1–infected adults were also more frequently in the upper quartile of soluble CD14 expression. PMID:26494772

  9. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U

    1995-01-01

    It is generally believed that copper causes changes in carabid communities indirectly by reducing food availability, because these animals are frequently found to have only slightly elevated metal contents even close to pollution sources. Using computer-centered video tracking, the locomotor...... behavior of adult Pterostichus cupreus carabid beetles was quantified after being raised on copper-contaminated food and soil during larval development. Copper was found to have an acute toxic effect measured in larval mortality, to cause a slight increase in the developmental period of males......, but not to effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...

  10. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  11. Elevated glutamatergic compounds in pregenual anterior cingulate in pediatric autism spectrum disorder demonstrated by 1H MRS and 1H MRSI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bejjani

    Full Text Available Recent research in autism spectrum disorder (ASD has aroused interest in anterior cingulate cortex and in the neurometabolite glutamate. We report two studies of pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC in pediatric ASD. First, we acquired in vivo single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H MRS in 8 children with ASD and 10 typically developing controls who were well matched for age, but with fewer males and higher IQ. In the ASD group in midline pACC, we found mean 17.7% elevation of glutamate + glutamine (Glx (p<0.05 and 21.2% (p<0.001 decrement in creatine + phosphocreatine (Cr. We then performed a larger (26 subjects with ASD, 16 controls follow-up study in samples now matched for age, gender, and IQ using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1H MRSI. Higher spatial resolution enabled bilateral pACC acquisition. Significant effects were restricted to right pACC where Glx (9.5%, p<0.05, Cr (6.7%, p<0.05, and N-acetyl-aspartate + N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (10.2%, p<0.01 in the ASD sample were elevated above control. These two independent studies suggest hyperglutamatergia and other neurometabolic abnormalities in pACC in ASD, with possible right-lateralization. The hyperglutamatergic state may reflect an imbalance of excitation over inhibition in the brain as proposed in recent neurodevelopmental models of ASD.

  12. Elevated ammonium levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Novak, Ivana; MacAulay, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    ]glutamate uptake and glutamate transport currents but had no effect on EAAT2. The maximal EAAT3-mediated glutamate transport current was increased but the apparent affinities for glutamate and Na(+) were unaltered. Ammonium did not affect EAAT3-mediated transient currents, indicating that EAAT3 surface expression...... was not enhanced. The ammonium-induced stimulation of EAAT3 increased with increasing extracellular pH, suggesting that the gaseous form NH(3) mediates the effect. An ammonium-induced intracellular alkalinization was excluded as the cause of the enhanced EAAT3 activity because 1) ammonium acidified the oocyte...... cytoplasm, 2) intracellular pH buffering with MOPS did not reduce the stimulation, and 3) ammonium enhanced pH-independent cysteine transport. Our data suggest that the ammonium-elicited uptake stimulation is not caused by intracellular alkalinization or changes in the concentrations of cotransported ions...

  13. Contextualization of Holocene beach ridge systems for relative sea-level reconstruction using the SRTM elevation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse; Raniolo, Luís Ariel; Alberdi, Ernesto; Pejrup, Morten

    2014-05-01

    Beach ridge plains are a common feature of prograding coastlines and they have in the past been widely used as geomorphological archives for the reconstruction of past coastal dynamics, event chronologies or late quaternary sea-level change. The most critical parameters for sea-level related research are the consistent definition and confidence of information on surface elevation of the beach ridge deposits. In most parts of the world, the availability of high-resolution geodata is very limited. The measurement of e.g. high-precision GPS (Global Positioning System) data is costly, time-consuming and essentially of limited spatial coverage. The SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) dataset is a freely-available digital surface model covering landmasses between approximately 60° N and 56° S at a 90 m (3 arc seconds) resolution. The model elevations are indicated without decimals (integer) and are projected for the WGS84 ellipsoid. On a beach ridge plain at Caleta de los Loros, Río Negro, Argentina, we observed a good correlation of GPS-RTK (GPS-Real Time Kinematic) measurements (estimated vertical accuracy: migration during the approx. 13 years between the date of SRTM data acquisition and our GPS measurement. This interpretation is supported by a multi-decadal sequence of Landsat false-color composites. Vegetation cover and rounding errors are further possible factors in explaining vertical deviation. The consistency of data quality was confirmed by a comparison study using a LiDAR (Light detection and ranging)-based digital elevation model (vertical accuracy: data in near-coastal environments is probably owed to the correction of the original dataset for a fixed value of 0 m along the coastlines of the world (SRTM Water Body Data). Our findings indicate that, at certain scales, a spatial integration of linear GPS data can be attempted using the SRTM dataset. However, the process must be aided by adequate surface information (e.g. Landsat images from close to

  14. Demonstration of an All-Optical 2-to-4 Level Encoder Based on an Optical Parametric Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a novel technique for all-optical 2-to-4 level amplitude-shift keying (ASK coding based on a fiber optical parametric amplifier. A 20-Gb/s signal is realized by multiplexing two 10-Gb/s data streams.

  15. Is Quality/Effectiveness An Empirically Demonstrable School Attribute? Statistical Aids for Determining Appropriate Levels of Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James

    2002-01-01

    Describes and demonstrates analytical techniques used in organizational psychology and contemporary multilevel analysis. Using these analytic techniques, examines the relationship between educational outcomes and the school environment. Finds that at least some indicators might be represented as school-level phenomena. Results imply that the…

  16. Small-scale demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and solidification using actual SRP waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeson, J K; Galloway, R M; Wilhite, E L; Woolsey, G B; B, Ferguson R

    1980-01-01

    A small-scale demonstration of the high-level radioactive waste solidification process by vitrification in borosilicate glass is being conducted using 5-6 liter batches of actual waste. Equipment performance and processing characteristics of the various unit operations in the process are reported and, where appropriate, are compared to large-scale results obtained with synthetic waste.

  17. Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels predict cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 10-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tae-Seok; Yun, Jae-Seung; Cha, Seon-Ah; Song, Ki-Ho; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) level is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the data that has been reported on the association between the Lp(a) level and CVD in type 2 diabetes has been limited and incoherent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the Lp(a) concentration and new onset CVD in type 2 diabetes. From March 2003 to December 2004, patients with type 2 diabetes without a prior history of CVD were consecutively enrolled. CVD was defined as the occurrence of coronary artery disease or ischemic stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify the associations between the Lp(a) and CVD after adjusting for confounding variables. Of the 1,183 patients who were enrolled, 833 participants were evaluated with a median follow-up time of 11.1 years. A total of 202 participants were diagnosed with CVD (24.2%). The median Lp(a) level for 1st and 4th quartile group was 5.4 (3.5 to 7.1) and 55.7 mg/dL (43.1 to 75.3). Compared with patients without CVD, those with CVD were older, had a longer duration of diabetes and hypertension, and used more insulin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers at baseline. A Cox hazard regression analysis revealed that the development of CVD was significantly associated with serum Lp(a) level (hazard ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26 to 2.92; p level was an independent predictable risk factor for CVD in type 2 diabetes. Other cardiovascular risk factors should be treated more intensively in type 2 diabetic patients with high Lp(a) levels.

  18. Elevated C-reactive protein levels predict worsening prognosis in Chinese patients with first-onset stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangtao YAN; Rutai HUI; Daowen WANG

    2009-01-01

    The role of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in predicting prognosis after stroke in the Asian population has not been investigated. We hypothesized that elevated levels of hsCRP were associated with worsening prognosis after stroke in Chinese patients. Two hundred and ninety consecutive patients with first-onset stroke and 290 age- and gender-matched control subjects without any cerebrovascular disease were enrolled for study. Plasma hsCRP level was detected and subsequent vascular events and death were recorded in both groups over a 5-year period. Compared to control group, patients presenting with stroke had higher plasma hsCRP level (3.3±3.8 vs 1.3±2.2 mg/L, P < 0.01). Furthermore, in the group of patients with stroke, the mean plasma hsCRP level was higher in patients who developed subsequent vascular diseases or died as compared with the patients without further complications (4.4±4.3 vs 2.7±3.3 mg/L, P< 0.01). Compared to the lowest tertile of hsCRP level, the relative risk for vascular events or death in stroke patients was 2.91 in the highest tertile ofhsCRP (95% CI, 1.54-5.50, P = 0.001). This increase in relative risk for vascular events or death in stroke patients continued after adjustment for age, sex and other cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes (OR: 2.771, 95% CI: 1.367-5.617, P = 0.005). These findings indicate that increased hsCRP level is associated with worsening prognosis after stroke in Chinese patients and suggests that inflammation is correlated with stroke outcome.

  19. Analysis of the Causes of Elevated C-Reactive Protein Level in the Early Postoperative Period After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Dong Hwan; Oh, Won Seuk; Sim, Jae Ang; Lee, Yong Seuk; Lee, Beom Koo

    2016-09-01

    Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as a screening test for acute periprosthetic joint infection has high sensitivity and low specificity. We performed the present study to analyze the causes of elevated CRP levels in the early postoperative period after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study is intended to help the postoperative care of patients through understanding the factors associated with postoperative elevation of CRP. The records for 627 patients who underwent primary TKA between January 2005 and May 2013 were examined. We excluded 50 patients for whom TKA with inflammatory arthritis or revision TKA was performed. We measured serial CRP levels during the 4-week early postoperative period in all included cases to find the cases that showed a CRP pattern of elevation-depression-elevation (a bimodal pattern). We analyzed the causes of re-elevated CRP levels in patients with a bimodal pattern of CRP change. Of the 577 included patients, 76 showed bimodal CRP elevation patterns. Eighteen elevations were caused by postoperative infections (periprosthetic infection), 10 by cardiovascular problems, 11 by gastrointestinal problems, 12 by urologic problems, 10 by respiratory problems, and 15 had unknown origins. Our study shows that elevated CRP levels after TKA can have various causes. Although there may be other causes for an elevated CRP, it is essential to perform a work-up for prosthetic joint infections. In addition, there seems to be a need to evaluate noninfectious causes and infection of other sites, in addition to periprosthetic infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated levels of urinary hydrogen peroxide, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP) and malondialdehyde in humans infected with intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramathi, S; Suresh, K; Anita, Z B; Kuppusamy, U R

    2009-03-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important pathogenic factor in the pathophysiology of various life-threatening diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. It occurs when the production of free radicals (generated during aerobic metabolism, inflammation, and infections) overcome the antioxidant defences in the body. Although previous studies have implied that oxidative stress is present in serum of patients with parasitic infection there have been no studies confirming oxidative stress levels in the Malaysian population infected with intestinal parasites. Three biochemical assays namely hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation (LP) and advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP) assays were carried out to measure oxidative stress levels in the urine of human subjects whose stools were infected with parasites such as Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm and microsporidia. The levels of H2O2, AOPP and LP were significantly higher (Pparasite-infected subjects (n=75) compared to the controls (n=95). In conclusion, the study provides evidence that oxidative stress is elevated in humans infected by intestinal parasites. This study may influence future researchers to consider free radical-related pathways to be a target in the interventions of new drugs against parasitic infection and related diseases.

  1. Can elevated CO2 modify regeneration from seed banks of floating freshwater marshes subjected to rising sea-level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Higher atmospheric concentrations of CO2 can offset the negative effects of flooding or salinity on plant species, but previous studies have focused on mature, rather than regenerating vegetation. This study examined how interacting environments of CO2, water regime, and salinity affect seed germination and seedling biomass of floating freshwater marshes in the Mississippi River Delta, which are dominated by C3 grasses, sedges, and forbs. Germination density and seedling growth of the dominant species depended on multifactor interactions of CO2 (385 and 720 μl l-1) with flooding (drained, +8-cm depth, +8-cm depth-gradual) and salinity (0, 6% seawater) levels. Of the three factors tested, salinity was the most important determinant of seedling response patterns. Species richness (total = 19) was insensitive to CO2. Our findings suggest that for freshwater marsh communities, seedling response to CO2 is species-specific and secondary to salinity and flooding effects. Elevated CO2 did not ameliorate flooding or salinity stress. Consequently, climate-related changes in sea level or human-caused alterations in hydrology may override atmospheric CO2 concentrations in driving shifts in this plant community. The results of this study suggest caution in making extrapolations from species-specific responses to community-level predictions without detailed attention to the nuances of multifactor responses.

  2. Resistance to aspirin is increased by ST-elevation myocardial infarction and correlates with adenosine diphosphate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öhlin Hans

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To be fully activated platelets are dependent on two positive feedback loops; the formation of thromboxane A2 by cyclooxygenase in the platelets and the release of ADP. We wanted to evaluate the effect of aspirin on platelet function in patients with acute coronary syndromes and we hypothesized that increased levels of ADP in patients with acute coronary syndromes could contribute to aspirin resistance. Methods Platelet activity in 135 patients admitted for chest pain was assessed with PFA-100. An epinephrine-collagen cartridge (EPI-COLL was used for the detection of aspirin resistance together with an ADP-collagen cartridge (ADP-COLL. ADP was measured with hplc from antecubital vein samples. Three subgroups were compared: chest pain with no sign of cardiac disease (NCD, NonST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI and STEMI. Results Platelet activation was increased for the STEMI group compared NCD. Aspirin resistance defined as Conclusion Platelets are activated and aspirin resistance is more frequent in STEMI, probably due to a general activation of platelets. ADP levels are increased in STEMI and correlates with platelet activation. Increased levels of ADP could be one reason for increased platelet activity and aspirin resistance.

  3. Elevated Serum Hepcidin Levels during an Intensified Training Period in Well-Trained Female Long-Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Ishibashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods involving different training regimens. Sixteen female long-distance runners participated. Over a seven-month period, fasting blood samples were collected during their regular training period (LOW; middle of February and during an intensified training period (INT; late of August to determine blood hematological, iron, and inflammatory parameters. Three-day food diaries were also assessed. Body weight and lean body mass did not differ significantly between LOW and INT, while body fat and body fat percentage were significantly lower in INT (p < 0.05. Blood hemoglobin, serum ferritin, total protein, and iron levels, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation did not differ significantly between the two periods. Serum hepcidin levels were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05. Carbohydrate and iron intakes from the daily diet were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05. In conclusion, an elevated hepcidin level was observed during an intensified training period in long-distance runners, despite an apparently adequate daily intake of iron.

  4. Elevated Serum Hepcidin Levels during an Intensified Training Period in Well-Trained Female Long-Distance Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Aya; Maeda, Naho; Sumi, Daichi; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-01-01

    Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods involving different training regimens. Sixteen female long-distance runners participated. Over a seven-month period, fasting blood samples were collected during their regular training period (LOW; middle of February) and during an intensified training period (INT; late of August) to determine blood hematological, iron, and inflammatory parameters. Three-day food diaries were also assessed. Body weight and lean body mass did not differ significantly between LOW and INT, while body fat and body fat percentage were significantly lower in INT (p < 0.05). Blood hemoglobin, serum ferritin, total protein, and iron levels, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation did not differ significantly between the two periods. Serum hepcidin levels were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05). Carbohydrate and iron intakes from the daily diet were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05). In conclusion, an elevated hepcidin level was observed during an intensified training period in long-distance runners, despite an apparently adequate daily intake of iron. PMID:28335426

  5. Anxiolytic Effect Evaluation of Methanol Extract of Ceplukan Leaves in the Elevated Plus Maze Test through IL-6 Level Changes in Ovariectomized Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurfitria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceplukan (Physalis minima L. has long been used to treat various conditions in traditional medicine. This study aims to demonstrate the anxiolytic effects of Methanol Extract of Ceplukan Leaves (MECL in the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM test and correlate to IL-6 level of ovariectomized rat brain. Total of 24 Wistar rats were divided into six groups: one normal group, one group of 1 month ovariectomized (ovx, one group of 2 months ovx, three groups of 2 months ovx (each given with MECL 500; 1500 and 2500 mg/kg doses for 1 month. The anxiety-like behavior level was measured by EPM test. After EPM test, the brain was removed to measure level of IL-6 by ELISA. The data were processed and analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation. We found that the MECL-treated rats enter the opened-arm higher than the control rats. It indicates that the MECL-treated rats are less anxious than the control rats. The results also show the decreased of IL-6 level in MECL-treated rats.

  6. Long-Term Intermittent Hypoxia Elevates Cobalt Levels in the Brain and Injures White Matter in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Sigrid C.; Lear, Jessica; Zhu, Yan; Grinspan, Judith B.; Hare, Dominic J.; Wang, SiHe; Bunch, Dustin; Doble, Philip A.; Robinson, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to the variable oxygenation patterns in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes oxidative stress within the brain. We hypothesized that this stress is associated with increased levels of redox-active metals and white matter injury. Design: Participants were randomly allocated to a control or experimental group (single independent variable). Setting: University animal house. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6J mice. Interventions: To model OSA, mice were exposed to long-term intermittent hypoxia (LTIH) for 10 hours/day for 8 weeks or sham intermittent hypoxia (SIH). Measurements and Results: Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantitatively map the distribution of the trace elements cobalt, copper, iron, and zinc in forebrain sections. Control mice contained 62 ± 7 ng cobalt/g wet weight, whereas LTIH mice contained 5600 ± 600 ng cobalt/g wet weight (P Cobalt was concentrated within white matter regions of the brain, including the corpus callosum. Compared to that of control mice, the corpus callosum of LTIH mice had significantly more endoplasmic reticulum stress, fewer myelin-associated proteins, disorganized myelin sheaths, and more degenerated axon profiles. Because cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12, serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels were measured. LTIH mice had low MMA levels (P cobalt, predominantly in the white matter. The increased cobalt is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, myelin loss, and axonal injury. Low plasma methylmalonic acid levels are associated with white matter injury in long-term intermittent hypoxia and possibly in obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Veasey SC; Lear J; Zhu Y; Grinspan JB; Hare DJ; Wang S; Bunch D; Doble PA; Robinson SR. Long-term intermittent hypoxia elevates cobalt levels in the brain and injures white matter in adult mice. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1471-1481. PMID:24082306

  7. Does regular lipid apheresis in patients with isolated elevated lipoprotein(a) levels reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosada, Adrian; Kassner, Ursula; Vogt, Anja; Willhauck, Michael; Parhofer, Klaus; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2014-02-01

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is known as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Regular lipid apheresis decreases elevated Lp(a) concentrations. However, there is a lack of reliable data regarding the effect of lipid apheresis on cardiovascular endpoints. To assess the effects of apheresis, we compared the occurrence of cardiovascular events in 37 patients treated regularly with lipid apheresis at the time periods of preinitiation of apheresis and during apheresis treatment. A retrospective analysis of 37 patients (35 men and two women; aged 58 years ± 11 [mean ± standard deviation]; body mass index 26 kg/m(2)  ± 3; low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol before apheresis 84 mg/dL ± 21; Lp(a) before apheresis 112 mg/dL ± 34) treated regularly with lipid apheresis was performed. Patients' medical records were screened for cardiovascular events at the preapheresis and during apheresis periods. Apheresis led to a significant reduction of lipid levels (LDL cholesterol -60%; Lp(a) -68%) measured after apheresis. The event-free survival rate after 1 year in the preapheresis period was 38% (22-54%, 95% confidence interval [CI]) vs. 75% (61-89%, 95% CI) in the during-apheresis period with a statistically significant difference (P Apheresis seems to lower the progression of atherosclerosis leading to a reduced number of cardiovascular events in hyperlipoproteinemia(a). Because prospective and controlled trials are lacking, the therapeutic effectiveness of lipid apheresis can only be estimated.

  8. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase decreases elevated levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptotic cell death in ocular hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Mutay, E-mail: mutayaslan@akdeniz.edu.tr [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Basaranlar, Goksun [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Unal, Mustafa [Department of Ophthalmology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Ciftcioglu, Akif [Department of Pathology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Derin, Narin [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Mutus, Bulent [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive nitric oxide production via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal retinal cell death in ocular hypertension. Neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase)/ceramide pathway can regulate NOS2 expression, hence this study determined the role of selective neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibition on retinal NOS2 levels, ER stress, apoptosis and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in a rat model of elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). NOS2 expression and retinal protein nitration were significantly greater in EIOP and significantly decreased with N-SMase inhibition. A significant increase was observed in retinal ER stress markers pPERK, CHOP and GRP78 in EIOP, which were not significantly altered by N-SMase inhibition. Retinal TUNEL staining showed increased apoptosis in all EIOP groups; however N-SMase inhibition significantly decreased the percent of apoptotic cells in EIOP. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were significantly increased in EIOP and returned to baseline levels following N-SMase inhibition. Latencies of all VEP components were significantly prolonged in EIOP and shortened following N-SMase inhibition. Data confirm the role of nitrative injury in EIOP and highlight the protective effect of N-SMase inhibition in EIOP via down-regulation of NOS2 levels and nitrative stress. - Highlights: • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases NOS2 levels in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases protein nitration in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases caspase activation in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases apoptosis in ocular hypertension.

  9. Elevated CO2 levels modify TiO2 nanoparticle effects on rice and soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenchao; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Xie, Yuwei; Yin, Ying; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ji, Rong; Gu, Kaihua; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that CO2 modifies the behavior of nanomaterials. Thus, in a few decades, plants might be exposed to additional stress if atmospheric levels of CO2 and the environmental burden of nanomaterials increase at the current pace. Here, we used a full-size free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) system in farm fields to investigate the effect of elevated CO2 levels on phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity of nTiO2 (0, 50, and 200mgkg(-1)) in a paddy soil system. Results show that nTiO2 did not induce visible signs of toxicity in rice plants cultivated at the ambient CO2 level (370μmolmol(-1)), but under the high CO2 concentration (570μmolmol(-1)) nTiO2 significantly reduced rice biomass by 17.9% and 22.1% at 50mgkg(-1) and 200mgkg(-1), respectively, and grain yield by 20.8% and 44.1% at 50mgkg(-1) and 200mgkg(-1), respectively. In addition, at the high CO2 concentration, nTiO2 at 200mgkg(-1) increased accumulation of Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Zn, and Ti by 22.5%, 16.8%, 29.1%, 7.4%, 15.7% and 8.6%, respectively, but reduced fat and total sugar by 11.2% and 25.5%, respectively, in grains. Such conditions also changed the functional composition of soil microbial communities, alerting specific phyla of bacteria and the diversity and richness of protista. Overall, this study suggests that increases in CO2 levels would modify the effects of nTiO2 on the nutritional quality of crops and function of soil microbial communities, with unknown implications for future economics and human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The economic burden of elevated blood glucose levels in 2012: diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus, and prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Timothy M; Yang, Wenya; Halder, Pragna; Pang, Bo; Massoudi, Marjan; Wintfeld, Neil; Semilla, April P; Franz, Jerry; Hogan, Paul F

    2014-12-01

    To update estimates of the economic burden of undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes mellitus in 2012 in the U.S. and to present state-level estimates. Combined with published estimates for diagnosed diabetes, these statistics provide a detailed picture of the economic costs associated with elevated glucose levels. This study estimated health care use and medical expenditures in excess of expected levels occurring in the absence of diabetes or prediabetes. Data sources that were analyzed include Optum medical claims for ∼4.9 million commercially insured patients who were continuously enrolled from 2010 to 2012, Medicare Standard Analytical Files containing medical claims for ∼2.6 million Medicare patients in 2011, and the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample containing ∼7.8 million hospital discharge records. The indirect economic burden includes reduced labor force participation, missed workdays, and reduced productivity. State-level estimates reflect geographic variation in prevalence, risk factors, and prices. The economic burden associated with diagnosed diabetes (all ages) and undiagnosed diabetes, gestational diabetes, and prediabetes (adults) exceeded $322 billion in 2012, consisting of $244 billion in excess medical costs and $78 billion in reduced productivity. Combined, this amounts to an economic burden exceeding $1,000 for each American in 2012. This national estimate is 48% higher than the $218 billion estimate for 2007. The burden per case averaged $10,970 for diagnosed diabetes, $5,800 for gestational diabetes, $4,030 for undiagnosed diabetes, and $510 for prediabetes. These statistics underscore the importance of finding ways to reduce the burden of prediabetes and diabetes through prevention and treatment. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Advanced chronic kidney disease populations have elevated trimethylamine N-oxide levels associated with increased cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Richard B; Morse, Bridget L; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Tang, Mila; Muirhead, Norman; Barrett, Brendan; Holmes, Daniel T; Madore, Francois; Clase, Catherine M; Rigatto, Claudio; Levin, Adeera

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is more common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and traditional risk factors do not adequately predict those at risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Recent evidence suggests elevated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), created by gut microflora from dietary L-carnitine and choline, is associated with CV events. We investigated the relationship of TMAO levels in patients with stages 3b and 4 CKD to ischemic CV events using the CanPREDDICT cohort, a Canada-wide observational study with prospective 3-year follow-up of adjudicated CV events. Baseline samples were obtained for 2529 CKD patients. TMAO, choline, and L-carnitine levels were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. Baseline median TMAO level was high for the whole cohort (20.41 μM; interquartile range [IQR]: 12.82-32.70 μM). TMAO was independently associated with CV events (hazard ratio 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.42 / 1 SD lnTMAO) after adjusting for all potential CV risk factors. Those in the highest TMAO quartile had significantly higher risk of CV events (adjusted hazard ratio 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.43; P = 0.0351) in the analysis of recurring ischemic events. Among those with stage 3b CKD (hazard ratio 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.87 / 1 SD lnTMAO), independent of kidney function, TMAO levels identified those at highest risk for events. Our results suggest that TMAO may represent a new potentially modifiable CV risk factor for CKD patients. Further studies are needed to determine sources of variability and if lowering of TMAO reduces CV risk in CKD.

  12. Significant Association of Serum Adiponectin and Creatine Kinase-MB Levels in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsukawa, Tomoaki; Maeda, Norikazu; Fukuda, Shiro; Yamaoka, Masaya; Fujishima, Yuya; Nagao, Hirofumi; Sato, Fumi; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Sawano, Hirotaka; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Funahashi, Tohru; Kai, Tatsuro; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2017-08-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific secretory protein, abundantly exists in the blood stream while its concentration paradoxically decreases in obesity. Hypoadiponectinemia is one of risks of cardiovascular diseases. However, impact of serum adiponectin concentration on acute ischemic myocardial damages has not been fully clarified. The present study investigated the association of serum adiponectin and creatine kinase (CK)-MB levels in subjects with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study is a physician-initiated observational study and is also registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (Number: UMIN 000014418). Patients were admitted to Senri Critical Care Medical Center, given a diagnosis of STEMI, and treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Finally, 49 patients were enrolled and the association of serum adiponectin, CK-MB, and clinical features were mainly analyzed. Serum adiponectin levels decreased rapidly and reached the bottom at 24 hours after recanalization. Such reduction of serum adiponectin was inversely correlated with the area under the curve (AUC) of serum CK-MB (p=0.013). Serum adiponectin concentrations were inversely correlated with AUC of serum CK-MB. In multivariate analysis, serum adiponectin concentration on admission (p=0.002) and collateral (p=0.037) were significantly and independently correlated with serum AUC of CK-MB. Serum AUC of CK-MB in STEMI subjects was significantly associated with serum adiponectin concentration on admission and reduction of serum adiponectin levels from baseline to bottom. The present study may provide a possibility that serum adiponectin levels at acute phase are useful in the prediction for prognosis after PCI-treated STEMI subjects.

  13. Elevated cell-free plasma DNA level as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Filho, Edison Moraes; Simon, Daniel; Ikuta, Nilo; Klovan, Caroline; Dannebrock, Fernando Augusto; Oliveira de Oliveira, Carla; Regner, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death in individuals less than 45 years old worldwide, and up to 50% of trauma fatalities are because of brain injury. Prediction of outcome is one of the major problems associated with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and research efforts have focused on the investigation of biomarkers with prognostic value after TBI. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether cell-free DNA concentrations correlated to short-term primary outcome (survival or death) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores after severe TBI. A total of 188 patients with severe TBI were enrolled in this prospective study; outcome variables comprised survival and neurological assessment using the GCS at intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Control blood samples were obtained from 25 healthy volunteers. Peripheral venous blood was collected at admission to the ICU. Plasma DNA was measured using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the β-globin gene. There was correlation between higher DNA levels and both fatal outcome and lower hospital admission GCS scores. Plasma DNA concentrations at the chosen cutoff point (≥171,381 kilogenomes-equivalents/L) predicted mortality with a specificity of 90% and a sensitivity of 43%. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated plasma DNA levels were independently associated with death (pfree DNA concentration was a predictor of short-term mortality after severe TBI.

  14. Transition to Kindergarten: Negative Associations between the Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Relationships and Elevated Cortisol Levels in Children with an Immigrant Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmeyer, Constanze; Lebiger-Vogel, Judith; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Background: The transition to child care is a challenging time in a child's life and leads to elevated levels of cortisol. These elevations may be influenced by the quality of the mother-child relationship. However, remarkably little is known about cortisol production in response to the beginning of child care among children-at-risk such as children with an immigrant background. However, attending kindergarten or any other child day-care institution can for example have a compensating effect on potential language deficits thus improving the educational opportunities of these children. Method: Data of a subsample of N = 24 "hard-to-reach" mother-child dyads was collected in the context of the psychoanalytic early prevention project FIRST STEPS. The project focuses on the earliest integration of children with an immigrant background by supporting parenting capacities in the critical phase of migration and early parenthood. Children's hair cortisol concentration (HCC) was assessed 1 week before (mean age = 38.77 months) and 3 months after kindergarten entry (mean age = 42.26 months). Hair analysis was conducted for both times of measurement, reflecting the first 3 months after kindergarten entry and 3 months prior. Furthermore, the emotional quality of the mother-child relationship was assessed with the help of the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS; Biringen, 2008) shortly before kindergarten entry when the children were about 3 years old (mean age = 37.2). Results and Conclusion: Children's mean cumulated HCC was higher after kindergarten entry than before. The increase correlated negatively with several dimensions of the EAS. Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that particularly responsive children and children who had experienced less intrusive mother-child relationships demonstrated lower elevations in HCC after kindergarten entry. Furthermore, a decreased EA score was found in all EA dimensions, besides the dimension "mother's non-hostility," indicating

  15. Transition to Kindergarten: Negative Associations between the Emotional Availability in Mother–Child Relationships and Elevated Cortisol Levels in Children with an Immigrant Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Rickmeyer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transition to child care is a challenging time in a child’s life and leads to elevated levels of cortisol. These elevations may be influenced by the quality of the mother–child relationship. However, remarkably little is known about cortisol production in response to the beginning of child care among children-at-risk such as children with an immigrant background. However, attending kindergarten or any other child day-care institution can for example have a compensating effect on potential language deficits thus improving the educational opportunities of these children.Method: Data of a subsample of N = 24 “hard-to-reach” mother–child dyads was collected in the context of the psychoanalytic early prevention project FIRST STEPS. The project focuses on the earliest integration of children with an immigrant background by supporting parenting capacities in the critical phase of migration and early parenthood. Children’s hair cortisol concentration (HCC was assessed 1 week before (mean age = 38.77 months and 3 months after kindergarten entry (mean age = 42.26 months. Hair analysis was conducted for both times of measurement, reflecting the first 3 months after kindergarten entry and 3 months prior. Furthermore, the emotional quality of the mother–child relationship was assessed with the help of the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS; Biringen, 2008 shortly before kindergarten entry when the children were about 3 years old (mean age = 37.2.Results and Conclusion: Children’s mean cumulated HCC was higher after kindergarten entry than before. The increase correlated negatively with several dimensions of the EAS. Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that particularly responsive children and children who had experienced less intrusive mother–child relationships demonstrated lower elevations in HCC after kindergarten entry. Furthermore, a decreased EA score was found in all EA dimensions, besides the dimension

  16. Transition to Kindergarten: Negative Associations between the Emotional Availability in Mother–Child Relationships and Elevated Cortisol Levels in Children with an Immigrant Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmeyer, Constanze; Lebiger-Vogel, Judith; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Background: The transition to child care is a challenging time in a child’s life and leads to elevated levels of cortisol. These elevations may be influenced by the quality of the mother–child relationship. However, remarkably little is known about cortisol production in response to the beginning of child care among children-at-risk such as children with an immigrant background. However, attending kindergarten or any other child day-care institution can for example have a compensating effect on potential language deficits thus improving the educational opportunities of these children. Method: Data of a subsample of N = 24 “hard-to-reach” mother–child dyads was collected in the context of the psychoanalytic early prevention project FIRST STEPS. The project focuses on the earliest integration of children with an immigrant background by supporting parenting capacities in the critical phase of migration and early parenthood. Children’s hair cortisol concentration (HCC) was assessed 1 week before (mean age = 38.77 months) and 3 months after kindergarten entry (mean age = 42.26 months). Hair analysis was conducted for both times of measurement, reflecting the first 3 months after kindergarten entry and 3 months prior. Furthermore, the emotional quality of the mother–child relationship was assessed with the help of the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS; Biringen, 2008) shortly before kindergarten entry when the children were about 3 years old (mean age = 37.2). Results and Conclusion: Children’s mean cumulated HCC was higher after kindergarten entry than before. The increase correlated negatively with several dimensions of the EAS. Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that particularly responsive children and children who had experienced less intrusive mother–child relationships demonstrated lower elevations in HCC after kindergarten entry. Furthermore, a decreased EA score was found in all EA dimensions, besides the dimension “mother’s non

  17. Rivastigmine lowers Aβ and increases sAPPα levels, which parallel elevated synaptic markers and metabolic activity in degenerating primary rat neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Bailey

    Full Text Available Overproduction of amyloid-β (Aβ protein in the brain has been hypothesized as the primary toxic insult that, via numerous mechanisms, produces cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Cholinesterase inhibition is a primary strategy for treatment of AD, and specific compounds of this class have previously been demonstrated to influence Aβ precursor protein (APP processing and Aβ production. However, little information is available on the effects of rivastigmine, a dual acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor, on APP processing. As this drug is currently used to treat AD, characterization of its various activities is important to optimize its clinical utility. We have previously shown that rivastigmine can preserve or enhance neuronal and synaptic terminal markers in degenerating primary embryonic cerebrocortical cultures. Given previous reports on the effects of APP and Aβ on synapses, regulation of APP processing represents a plausible mechanism for the synaptic effects of rivastigmine. To test this hypothesis, we treated degenerating primary cultures with rivastigmine and measured secreted APP (sAPP and Aβ. Rivastigmine treatment increased metabolic activity in these cultured cells, and elevated APP secretion. Analysis of the two major forms of APP secreted by these cultures, attributed to neurons or glia based on molecular weight showed that rivastigmine treatment significantly increased neuronal relative to glial secreted APP. Furthermore, rivastigmine treatment increased α-secretase cleaved sAPPα and decreased Aβ secretion, suggesting a therapeutic mechanism wherein rivastigmine alters the relative activities of the secretase pathways. Assessment of sAPP levels in rodent CSF following once daily rivastigmine administration for 21 days confirmed that elevated levels of APP in cell culture translated in vivo. Taken together, rivastigmine treatment enhances neuronal sAPP and shifts APP processing toward the

  18. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  19. Elevated levels of the serum endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and metabolic control in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Fu, Yun-feng; Fu, Si-hai; Zhou, Hong-hao

    2003-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the relationship between elevated levels of the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and metabolic control in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Serum levels of ADMA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at 8 weeks after diabetes was induced. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was tested in aortic rings from nondiabetic age-matched control, untreated diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic rats to evaluate endothelial function. Serum concentrations of glucose, glycosylated serum protein, and malondialdehyde were examined to estimate metabolic control. Serum levels of ADMA increased dramatically in untreated diabetic rats compared with control rats. This elevation in ADMA levels was accompanied by impairment of the endothelium-dependent relaxation response to acetylcholine in aortic rings. Long-term insulin treatment not only prevented the elevation of serum ADMA levels, but also improved the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in diabetic rats. Serum levels of glucose, glycosylated serum protein, and malondialdehyde were significantly increased in parallel with the elevation of ADMA in untreated diabetic rats compared with control rats. These parameters were normalized after diabetic rats received insulin treatment for 8 weeks. These results provide the first evidence that an elevation in the concentration of ADMA in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes is closely related to metabolic control of the disease.

  20. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, V.M.; Fitzwilliam, A.; Peters, H.L.; Groopman, J.D. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 {plus_minus} 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 {mu}g/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Elevated corticosterone levels and severe weather conditions decrease parental investment of incubating Adélie penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Massemin, Sylvie; Handrich, Yves; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-03-01

    Corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, mediates resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to changes in the environment. Incubation is a time and energy-consuming phase of the avian reproductive cycle. It may be terminated prematurely, when the parents' energy stores are depleted or when environmental conditions are severe. In this study, the effects of experimentally elevated baseline corticosterone levels on the parental investment of incubating male Adélie penguins were investigated. Incubation duration and reproductive success of 60 penguins were recorded. The clutches of some birds were replaced by dummy eggs, which recorded egg temperatures and rotation rates, enabling a detailed investigation of incubation behaviour. Corticosterone levels of treated birds were 2.4-fold higher than those of controls 18 days post treatment. Exogenous corticosterone triggered nest desertion in 61% of the treated birds; consequently reducing reproductive success, indicating that corticosterone can reduce or disrupt parental investment. Regarding egg temperatures, hypothermic events became more frequent and more pronounced in treated birds, before these birds eventually abandoned their nest. The treatment also significantly decreased incubation temperatures by 1.3°C and lengthened the incubation period by 2.1 days. However, the number of chicks at hatching was similar among successful nests, regardless of treatment. Weather conditions appeared to be particularly important in determining the extent to which corticosterone levels affected the behaviour of penguins, as treated penguins were more sensitive to severe weather conditions. This underlines the importance of considering the interactions of organisms with their environment in studies of animal behaviour and ecophysiology.

  2. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1 is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST and the tail suspension (TST tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  3. Acute dosing of latrepirdine (Dimebon™, a possible Alzheimer therapeutic, elevates extracellular amyloid-β levels in vitro and in vivo

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    Sano Mary

    2009-12-01

    increases in extracellular Aβx-42 levels (+10%; p = 0.001; of note, however, was the observation that extracellular Aβx-40 levels did not change. Conclusions Here, we report the surprising association of acute latrepirdine dosing with elevated levels of extracellular Aβ as measured in three independent neuron-related or neuron-derived systems, including the hippocampus of freely moving Tg2576 mice. Given the reported association of chronic latrepirdine treatment with improvement in cognitive function, the effects of chronic latrepirdine treatment on extracellular Aβ levels must now be determined.

  4. Foraminifera in elevated Bermudian caves provide further evidence for +21 m eustatic sea level during Marine Isotope Stage 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hengstum, Peter J.; Scott, David B.; Javaux, Emmanuelle J.

    2009-09-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of marine isotope stage (MIS) 11 deposits in small Bermudian caves at +21 m above modern sea level: (1) a +21 m MIS 11 eustatic sea-level highstand, and (2) a MIS 11 mega-tsunami event. Importantly, the foraminifera reported in these caves have yet to be critically evaluated within a framework of coastal cave environments. After statistically comparing foraminifera in modern Bermudian littoral caves and the MIS 11 Calonectris Pocket A (+21 m cave) to the largest available database of Bermudian coastal foraminifera, the assemblages found in modern littoral caves - and Calonectris Pocket A - cannot be statistically differentiated from lagoons. This observation is expected considering littoral caves are simply sheltered extensions of a lagoon environment in the littoral zone, where typical coastal processes (waves, storms) homogenize and rework lagoonal, reefal, and occasional planktic taxa. Fossil protoconchs of the Bermudian cave stygobite Caecum caverna were also associated with the foraminifera. These results indicate that the MIS 11 Bermudian caves are fossil littoral caves (breached flank margin caves), where the total MIS 11 microfossil assemblage is preserving a signature of coeval sea level at +21 m. Brackish foraminifera ( Polysaccammina, Pseudothurammina) and anchialine gastropods (˜95%, >300 individuals) indicate a brackish anchialine habitat developed in the elevated caves after the prolonged littoral environmental phase. The onset of sea-level regression following the +21 m highstand would first lower the ancient brackish Ghyben-Herzberg lens (<0.5 m) and flood the cave with brackish water, followed by drainage of the cave to create a permanent vadose environment. These interpretations of the MIS 11 microfossils (considering both taphonomy and paleoecology) are congruent with the micropaleontological, hydrogeological and physical mechanisms influencing modern Bermudian coastal cave environments. In

  5. Elevated soluble CD163 plasma levels are associated with disease severity in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junning Wang

    Full Text Available Hantaan virus is a major zoonotic pathogen that causesing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. Although HFRS pathogenesis has not been entirely elucidated, the importance of host-related immune responses in HFRS pathogenesis has been widely recognized. CD163, a monocyte and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor that plays a vital function in the hosts can reduce inflammation, is shed during activation as soluble CD163 (sCD163. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological significance of sCD163 in patients with HFRS.Blood samples were collected from 81 hospitalized patients in Tangdu Hospital from October 2011 to January 2014 and from 15 healthy controls. The sCD163 plasma levels were measured using a sandwich ELISA, and the relationship between sCD163 and disease severity was analyzed. Furthermore, CD163 expression in 3 monocytes subset was analyzed by flow cytometry.The results demonstrated that sCD163 plasma levels during the HFRS acute phase were significantly higher in patients than during the convalescent stage and the levels in the healthy controls (P<0.0001. The sCD163 plasma levels in the severe/critical group were higher than those in the mild/moderate group during the acute (P<0.0001. A Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the sCD163 levels were positively correlated with white blood cell, serum creatine, blood urea nitrogen levels, while they were negatively correlated with blood platelet levels in the HFRS patients. The monocyte subsets were significantly altered during the acute stage. Though the CD163 expression levels within the monocyte subsets were increased during the acute stage, the highest CD163 expression level was observed in the CD14++CD16+ monocytes when compared with the other monocyte subsets.sCD163 may be correlated with disease severity and the disease progression in HFRS patients; however, the underlying mechanisms should be explored further.

  6. Elevated serum level of YKL-40 is an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Johansen, Julia Sidenius; Gehl, Julie

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 is a growth factor for connective tissue cells and       stimulates migration of endothelial cells. Cancer cells, macrophages, and       neutrophils secrete YKL-40. Its function in cancer is unknown. High serum       YKL-40 levels have been associated with a poor prognosis...... that serum YKL-40 (hazard ratio       [HR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.8; P = 0.004) and serum       lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (HR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9; P = 0.004) were       independent prognostic factors for survival. A combination variable of       elevated serum YKL-40 and LDH...... quadrupled the risk of early death (HR =       4.4; 95% CI, 2.5-7.7; P Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV       classification. Furthermore, serum...

  7. Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Silicone and Polylactic Acid-Based Remedial Treatments for Elevated Methoxypyrazine Levels in Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botezatu, Andreea; Kemp, Belinda S; Pickering, Gary J

    2016-09-16

    Alkylmethoxypyrazines (MPs) are a class of compounds that can elicit undesirable aroma and flavor characteristics in wine, and resist remediation using traditional wine making approaches. MPs are grape-derived constituents as well as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles present during wine processing; the latter eliciting an off-flavor referred to as 'ladybug taint'. In this study we investigated the capacity of two plastic polymers-one silicone-based, the other polylactic acid-based-applied with varying surface areas to reduce concentrations of isopropylmethoxypyrazine (IPMP), sec-butylmethoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutylmethoxypyrazine (IBMP) in a Merlot wine using multi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME-MDGCMS). The impact of treatments on the sensory characteristics of the wine (descriptive analysis) and volatile aroma compounds (VOCs) (SPME-MDGCMS) was also investigated. Results showed substantial reductions for all of the target odorants: up to 38%, 44% and 39% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the silicone polymer, and up to 75%, 78% and 77% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the polylactic acid polymer. These polymers had no or minimal effect on VOCs at applications of 200 cm²/L for silicone or for all polylactic acid treatments. Sensory impacts were less clear, but generally showed minimal effect from the treatments. Taken overall, the data confirm the utility of both polylactic acid and silicone polymers in reducing elevated levels of grape-derived MPs, as well as potentially improving wine contaminated by ladybug taint.

  8. LPIN1 deficiency with severe recurrent rhabdomyolysis and persistent elevation of creatine kinase levels due to chromosome 2 maternal isodisomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Meijer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid oxidation disorders and lipin-1 deficiency are the commonest genetic causes of rhabdomyolysis in children. We describe a lipin-1-deficient boy with recurrent, severe rhabdomyolytic episodes from the age of 4 years. Analysis of the LPIN1 gene that encodes lipin-1 revealed a novel homozygous frameshift mutation in exon 9, c.1381delC (p.Leu461SerfsX47, and complete uniparental isodisomy of maternal chromosome 2. This mutation is predicted to cause complete lipin-1 deficiency. The patient had six rhabdomyolytic crises, with creatine kinase (CK levels up to 300,000 U/L (normal, 30 to 200. Plasma CK remained elevated between crises. A treatment protocol was instituted, with early aggressive monitoring, hydration, electrolyte replacement and high caloric, high carbohydrate intake. The patient received dexamethasone during two crises, which was well-tolerated and in these episodes, peak CK values were lower than in preceding episodes. Studies of anti-inflammatory therapy may be indicated in lipin-1 deficiency.

  9. Elevated Levels of SOX10 in Serum from Vitiligo and Melanoma Patients, Analyzed by Proximity Ligation Assay.

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    Andries Blokzijl

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of malignant melanoma currently relies on clinical inspection of the skin surface and on the histopathological status of the excised tumor. The serum marker S100B is used for prognostic estimates at later stages of the disease, but analyses are marred by false positives and inadequate sensitivity in predicting relapsing disorder.To investigate SOX10 as a potential biomarker for melanoma and vitiligo.In this study we have applied proximity ligation assay (PLA to detect the transcription factor SOX10 as a possible serum marker for melanoma. We studied a cohort of 110 melanoma patients. We further investigated a second cohort of 85 patients with vitiligo, which is a disease that also affects melanocytes.The specificity of the SOX10 assay in serum was high, with only 1% of healthy blood donors being positive. In contrast, elevated serum SOX10 was found with high frequency among vitiligo and melanoma patients. In patients with metastases, lack of SOX10 detection was associated with treatment benefit. In two responding patients, a change from SOX10 positivity to undetectable levels was seen before the response was evident clinically.We show for the first time that SOX10 represents a promising new serum melanoma marker for detection of early stage disease, complementing the established S100B marker. Our findings imply that SOX10 can be used to monitor responses to treatment and to assess if the treatment is of benefit at stages earlier than what is possible radiologically.

  10. Testicular activin and follistatin levels are elevated during the course of experimental autoimmune epididymo–orchitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Nour; Michel, Vera; Bhushan, Sudhanshu; Wahle, Eva; Hayward, Susan; Ludlow, Helen; de Kretser, David M.; Loveland, Kate L.; Schuppe, Hans-Christian; Meinhardt, Andreas; Hedger, Mark P.; Fijak, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune epididymo-orchitis (EAEO) is a model of chronic inflammation, induced by immunisation with testicular antigens, which reproduces the pathology of some types of human infertility. Activins A and B regulate spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, but are also pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic cytokines. Expression of the activins and their endogenous antagonists, inhibin and follistatin, was examined in murine EAEO. Adult untreated and adjuvant-treated control mice showed no pathology. All mice immunised with testis antigens developed EAEO by 50 days, characterised by loss of germ cells, immune cell infiltration and fibrosis in the testis, similar to biopsies from human inflamed testis. An increase of total CD45+ leukocytes, comprising CD3+ T cells, CD4 + CD8− and CD4 + CD25+ T cells, and a novel population of CD4 + CD8+ double positive T cells was also detected in EAEO testes. This was accompanied by increased expression of TNF, MCP-1 and IL-10. Activin A and B and follistatin protein levels were elevated in EAEO testes, with peak activin expression during the active phase of the disease, whereas mRNA expression of the inhibin B subunits (Inha and Inhbb) and activin receptor subunits (Acvr1b and Acvr2b) were downregulated. These data suggest that activin–follistatin regulation may play a role during the development of EAEO. PMID:28205525

  11. Long-term folic acid (but not pyridoxine) supplementation lowers elevated plasma homocysteine level in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, P; Chadefaux, B; Coudé, M; Aupetit, J; Kamoun, P; Jungers, P

    1996-01-01

    Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for premature atherosclerosis, is present in chronic uremic patients. We prospectively evaluated the effects of sequential supplementation with pyridoxine (70 mg/day) and folic acid (10 mg/day) for two 3-month periods in 37 nondialyzed patients (29 males) with creatinine clearance (CCr) ranging from 10 to 80 ml/min, whose plasma vitamin B12 and folate level was in the normal range. Mean (+/- SD) baseline plasma total homocysteine (Hcy) was 14.9 +/- 5.2, 16.5 +/- 5.1 and 26.1 +/- 12.1 mumol/l (upper limit in 45 healthy controls 14.1 mumol/l) in patients with CCr 40-80, 20-40 and pyridoxine Hcy did not significantly decrease whereas following folic acid Hcy decreased significantly to 9.9 +/- 2.9 (-33% vs. baseline), 10.3 +/- 3.4 (-37%) and 15.4 +/- 5.5 (-40%), respectively (Student's paired t test, p pyridoxine) pharmacologic supplementation is effective in lowering elevated plasma Hcy in chronic renal failure patients, thus suggesting that enhancing the Hcy remethylation pathway may overcome hyperhomocysteinemia in such patients. In view of the potential atherogenic effects of hyperhomocysteinemia, long-term folate supplementation should be considered in uremic patients.

  12. Changes in cardiac specific microRNA-208a level in peripheral blood in ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe serum cardiac specific microRNA-208a(miR-208a) levels in ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction(STEAMI) patients,and to explore the role of serum miR-208a levels in the diagnosis of STEAMI. Methods The serum miR-208a concentrations were assessed within 12 hours after STEAMI,while

  13. A prospective analysis of elevated fasting glucose levels and cognitive function in older people: Results from PROSPER and the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Euser (Sjoerd); N. Sattar (Naveed); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E.L.E.M. Bollen (Eduard); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); I.J. Perry (Ivan); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - To investigate the relationship between fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance, and cognitive impairment in old age. Diabetes is associated with cognitive impairment in older people. However, the link between elevated fasting glucose levels and insulin resistance in nondi

  14. Somatic mutations throughout the entire mitochondrial genome are associated with elevated PSA levels in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Schäfer, Georg; Erhart, Gertraud; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Coassin, Stefan; Seifarth, Christof; Summerer, Monika; Bektic, Jasmin; Klocker, Helmut; Kronenberg, Florian

    2010-12-10

    The genetic etiology of prostate cancer, the most common form of male cancer in western countries, is complex and the interplay of disease genes with environmental factors is far from being understood. Studies on somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have become an important aspect of cancer research because these mutations might have functional consequences and/or might serve as biosensors for tumor detection and progression. We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (16,569 bp) from 30 prospectively collected pairs of macrodissected cancerous and benign cells from prostate cancer patients and compared their genetic variability. Given recent concerns regarding the authenticity of newly discovered mtDNA mutations, we implemented a high-quality procedure for mtDNA whole-genome sequencing. In addition, the mitochondrial genes MT-CO2, MT-CO3, MT-ATP6, and MT-ND6 were sequenced in further 35 paired samples from prostate cancer patients. We identified a total of 41 somatic mutations in 22 out of 30 patients: the majority of these mutations have not previously been observed in the human phylogeny. The presence of somatic mutations in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) was found to be associated with elevated PSA levels (14.25 ± 5.44 versus 7.15 ± 4.32 ng/ml; p = 0.004). The level and degree of heteroplasmy increased with increasing tumor activity. In summary, somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome are frequent events in prostate cancer. Mutations mapping to mitochondrial tRNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and protein coding genes might impair processes that occur within the mitochondrial compartment (e.g., transcription, RNA processing, and translation) and might finally affect oxidative phosphorylation.

  15. Missense mutations in the MEFV gene are associated with fibromyalgia syndrome and correlate with elevated IL-1beta plasma levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinong Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS, a common, chronic, widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder found in 2% of the general population and with a preponderance of 85% in females, has both genetic and environmental contributions. Patients and their parents have high plasma levels of the chemokines MCP-1 and eotaxin, providing evidence for both a genetic and an immunological/inflammatory origin for the syndrome (Zhang et al., 2008, Exp. Biol. Med. 233: 1171-1180. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a search for a candidate gene affecting inflammatory pathways, among five screened in our patient samples (100 probands with FMS and their parents, we found 10 rare and one common alleles for MEFV, a gene in which various compound heterozygous mutations lead to Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF. A total of 2.63 megabases of genomic sequence of the MEFV gene were scanned by direct sequencing. The collection of rare missense mutations (all heterozygotes and tested in the aggregate had a significant elevated frequency of transmission to affecteds (p = 0.0085, one-sided, exact binomial test. Our data provide evidence that rare missense variants of the MEFV gene are, collectively, associated with risk of FMS and are present in a subset of 15% of FMS patients. This subset had, on average, high levels of plasma IL-1beta (p = 0.019 compared to FMS patients without rare variants, unaffected family members with or without rare variants, and unrelated controls of unknown genotype. IL-1beta is a cytokine associated with the function of the MEFV gene and thought to be responsible for its symptoms of fever and muscle aches. CONCLUSIONS: Since misregulation of IL-1beta expression has been predicted for patients with mutations in the MEFV gene, we conclude that patients heterozygous for rare missense variants of this gene may be predisposed to FMS, possibly triggered by environmental factors.

  16. D-Dimer Levels before HIV Seroconversion Remain Elevated Even after Viral Suppression and Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-AIDS Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Matthew S; Bebu, Ionut; Tracy, Russell; So-Armah, Kaku; Okulicz, Jason; Ganesan, Anuradha; Armstrong, Adam; O'Bryan, Thomas; Rimland, David; Justice, Amy C; Agan, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the excess risk of non-AIDS diseases among HIV infected people is unclear. HIV associated inflammation/hypercoagulability likely plays a role. While antiretroviral therapy (ART) may return this process to pre-HIV levels, this has not been directly demonstrated. We analyzed data/specimens on 249 HIV+ participants from the US Military HIV Natural History Study, a prospective, multicenter observational cohort of >5600 active duty military personnel and beneficiaries living with HIV. We used stored blood specimens to measure D-dimer and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) at three time points: pre-HIV seroconversion, ≥6 months post-HIV seroconversion but prior to ART initiation, and ≥6 months post-ART with documented HIV viral suppression on two successive evaluations. We evaluated the changes in biomarker levels between time points, and the association between these biomarker changes and future non-AIDS events. During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, there were 28 incident non-AIDS diseases. At ART initiation, the median CD4 count was 361cells/mm3; median duration of documented HIV infection 392 days; median time on ART was 354 days. Adjusted mean percent increase in D-dimer levels from pre-seroconversion to post-ART was 75.1% (95% confidence interval 24.6-148.0, p = 0.002). This increase in D-dimer was associated with a significant 22% increase risk of future non-AIDS events (p = 0.03). Changes in IL-6 levels across time points were small and not associated with future non-AIDS events. In conclusion, ART initiation and HIV viral suppression does not eliminate HIV associated elevation in D-dimer levels. This residual pathology is associated with an increased risk of future non-AIDS diseases.

  17. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-05-01

    The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase [γ-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and γ-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with γ-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol.

  18. Free triiodothyronine level indicates the degree of myocardial injury in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-yao; TANG Yi-da; YANG Min; CUI Cheng; MU Mu; QIAN Jie; YANG Yue-jin

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that hypothyroidism correlated with coronary heart diseases (CHD) mortality in long-term cohort,but whether the thyroid function status is associated with myocardial injury in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been investigated sufficiently.Methods Five hundred and eighty-two hospitalized patients from January 2010 to December 2011,with the diagnosis of STEMI,were enrolled in this study.All patients underwent testing for thyroid function status,cardiac troponin I (cTnl),cardiac enzymes,C-reactive protein (CRP).We investigated the association between thyroid hormone levels and cardiac markers (creatine kinase-MB and cTnl),and thus evaluated the potential role of thyroid function status in predicting the myocardial injury.Results There were 76 patients (13.06%)who had hypothyroidism including low-T3-syndrome (34 patients,5.84%),subclinical hypothyroidism (28 patients,4.81%) and clinical hypothyroidism (14 patients,2.41%).After adjusting for conventional risk factors (age,gender,smoking,diabetes mellitus,dyslipidemia,hypertension),free triiodothyronine (FT3) was significantly and negatively correlated with log-CKMB (r=-0.244,P <0.001) and log-cTnl (r=0.290,P <0.001),indicating that the lower thyroid hormone level correlates with the severer cardiac injury in STEMI patients.FT3 also had a moderate negative correlation with CRP (r=-0.475,P <0.001),which might indicate that hypothyroidism may activate the inflammation response.No significant correlation was found between other thyroid parameters (TSH,FT4) and cardiac markers.Conclusions As the lower FT3 level correlates with higher level of cardiac markers and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF),the hypothyroidism may be a predictor for myocardial injury in STEMI.And these results may warrant further study to investigate whether reversing the hypothyroidism could benefit the STEMI patients.

  19. Gene Transcription Profile in Mice Vaccinated with Ultraviolet-attenuated Cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum Reveals Molecules Contributing to Elevated IFN-γLevels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang ZHU; Feng LIU; Chuan SU; Guan-Ling WU; Zhao-Song ZHANG; Min-Jun JI; Hai-Wei WU; Yong WANG; Xiao-Ping CAI; Lei ZHANG; Shu-Ying HU; Lin-Lin FU

    2005-01-01

    Vaccination with ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum induced protective immunity against challenge infection in experimental animal models. Our preliminary study on the transcription levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 in splenic CD4+ T cells revealed that attenuated cercariae elicited predominantly a Thl response in mice at the early stage, whereas normal cercariae stimulated primarily Th2dependent responses. Further analysis on the gene profile of the skin-draining lymph nodes demonstrated that the levels of IFN-γ were significantly higher in vaccinated mice than those in infected mice at day 4, 7 and 14 post-vaccination or post-infection. However, for IL-12 and IL-4, the potent inducers of Th l and Th2 responses, respectively, as well as IL-10, there were no differences over the course of the experiment between the infected and vaccinated mice. To explore the underlying factors that may potentially contribute to elevated IFN-γ in vaccinated mice, the mRNA profiles of the skin-draining lymph nodes at day 4 postexposure were compared using oligonucleotide microarrays. Within the 847 probe sets with increased signal values, we focused on chemokines, cytokines and relevant receptors, which were validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. A comprehensive understanding of the immune mechanisms of attenuated cercariae-induced protection may contribute to developing efficient vaccination strategies against S. japonicum, especially during the early stage of infection.

  20. Elevated levels of Hs-CRP and IL-6 after delivery are associated with depression during the 6 months post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Yutao; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-09-30

    The objective of this study is to determine whether inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6) early in the postpartum period contribute to the development of postpartum depression (PPD). From 4 May 2014 to 30 June 2014, all eligible women not on medication for depression giving birth at the Beijing Chao-Yang hospital were consecutively recruited and followed up for 6 months. Depression symptoms were measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and inflammatory biomarkers (Hs-CRP and IL-6) were tested. During the study period, 296 women were enrolled and completed follow-up. In these women, 45 (15.2%) were considered as meeting the criteria for PPD. Serum levels of Hs-CRP and IL-6 in women with PPD were significantly higher than those without PPD (all PHs-CRP (0.837 (95% CI, 0.781-0.894), PHs-CRP were independent predictors of PPD. The present study demonstrates a strong relationship between elevated serum Hs-CRP and IL-6 levels at admission and the development of PPD within 6 months.

  1. Upregulation of skeletal muscle PGC-1α through the elevation of cyclic AMP levels by Cyanidin-3-glucoside enhances exercise performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Toshiya; Motojima, Hideko; Sato, Yuki; Takahashi, Shinya; Villareal, Myra O.; Isoda, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α’s ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated. ICR mice were given Cy3G (1 mg/kg, orally) everyday and made to perform weight-loaded swimming exercise for 15 days. The endurance of mice orally administered with Cy3G was improved, enabling them to swim longer (time) and while the levels of exercise-induced lactate and fatigue markers (urea nitrogen, creatinine and total ketone bodies) were reduced. Additionally, the expression of lactate metabolism-related genes (lactate dehydrogenase B and monocarboxylate transporter 1) in gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscles was increased in response to Cy3G-induced PGC-1α upregulation. In vitro, using C2C12 myotubes, Cy3G-induced elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels increased PGC-1α expression via the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase pathway. This study demonstrates that Cy3G enhances exercise performance by activating lactate metabolism through skeletal muscle PGC-1α upregulation. PMID:28317895

  2. An assessment of racial differences in the upper limits of normal ALT levels in children and the effect of obesity on elevated values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliethermes, S; Ma, M; Purtell, C; Balasubramanian, N; Gonzalez, B; Layden, T J; Cotler, S J

    2017-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and poses important public health issues for children. Racial differences in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among children have not been described. This study aimed to identify racial differences in upper limit normal (ULN) ALT levels and evaluate the effect of obesity on elevated levels in children without other metabolic risk factors. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and clinical data from the Loyola University Health System were used to determine ULN ALT by race and gender. Quantile regression was used to evaluate the impact of obesity on elevated ALT and to identify potential risk factors for ALT above the ULN. Upper limit normal (ULN) ALT was approximately 28.0 and 21.0-24.0 U/L for boys and girls, respectively. No significant difference in ULN ALT across race was observed. Obesity was significantly associated with elevated ALT; obese children with elevated ALT had values 10 U/L higher than normal-weight children. Racial differences in ALT levels among adults are not evident in children. Obesity, in the absence of metabolic risk factors and other causes of liver disease, is associated with elevated ALT, providing evidence against the concept of healthy obesity in children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Restructuring of epibacterial communities on Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili in response to elevated pCO2 and increased temperature levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte eMensch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine multicellular organisms in composition with their associated microbiota – representing metaorganisms – are confronted with constantly changing environmental conditions. In 2110, the seawater temperature is predicted to be increased by approximately 5 °C, and the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2 is expected to reach approximately 1,000 ppm. In order to assess the response of marine metaorganisms to global changes, e.g. by effects on host-microbe interactions, we evaluated the response of epibacterial communities associated with Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili (F. mytili to future climate conditions. During an 11-week lasting mesocosm experiment on the island of Sylt (Germany in spring 2014, North Sea F. mytili individuals were exposed to elevated pCO2 (1,000 ppm and increased temperature levels (∆+5 °C. Both abiotic factors were tested for single and combined effects on the epibacterial community composition over time, with three replicates per treatment. The respective community structures of bacterial consortia associated to the surface of F. mytili were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing after 0, 4, 8 and 11 weeks of treatment (in total 96 samples. The results demonstrated that the epibacterial community structure was strongly affected by temperature, but only weakly by elevated pCO2. No interaction effect of both factors was observed in the combined treatment. We identified several indicator operational taxonomic units (iOTUs that were strongly influenced by the respective experimental factors. An OTU association network analysis revealed that relationships between OTUs were mainly governed by habitat. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of how epibacterial communities associated with F. mytili may adapt to future changes in seawater acidity and temperature, ultimately with potential consequences for host-microbe interactions.

  4. Restructuring of Epibacterial Communities on Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili in Response to Elevated pCO2 and Increased Temperature Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensch, Birte; Neulinger, Sven C; Graiff, Angelika; Pansch, Andreas; Künzel, Sven; Fischer, Martin A; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    Marine multicellular organisms in composition with their associated microbiota-representing metaorganisms-are confronted with constantly changing environmental conditions. In 2110, the seawater temperature is predicted to be increased by ~5°C, and the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) is expected to reach approximately 1000 ppm. In order to assess the response of marine metaorganisms to global changes, e.g., by effects on host-microbe interactions, we evaluated the response of epibacterial communities associated with Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili (F. mytili) to future climate conditions. During an 11-week lasting mesocosm experiment on the island of Sylt (Germany) in spring 2014, North Sea F. mytili individuals were exposed to elevated pCO2 (1000 ppm) and increased temperature levels (Δ+5°C). Both abiotic factors were tested for single and combined effects on the epibacterial community composition over time, with three replicates per treatment. The respective community structures of bacterial consortia associated to the surface of F. mytili were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing after 0, 4, 8, and 11 weeks of treatment (in total 96 samples). The results demonstrated that the epibacterial community structure was strongly affected by temperature, but only weakly by elevated pCO2. No interaction effect of both factors was observed in the combined treatment. We identified several indicator operational taxonomic units (iOTUs) that were strongly influenced by the respective experimental factors. An OTU association network analysis revealed that relationships between OTUs were mainly governed by habitat. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of how epibacterial communities associated with F. mytili may adapt to future changes in seawater acidity and temperature, ultimately with potential consequences for host-microbe interactions.

  5. The synthetic retinoid AGN 193109 but not retinoic acid elevates CYP1A1 levels in mouse embryos and Hepa-1c1c7 cells.

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    Soprano, D R; Gambone, C J; Sheikh, S N; Gabriel, J L; Chandraratna, R A; Soprano, K J; Kochhar, D M

    2001-07-15

    The synthetic retinoid AGN 193109 is a potent pan retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonist. Treatment of pregnant mice with a single oral 1 mg/kg dose of this antagonist on day 8 postcoitum results in severe craniofacial (median cleft face or frontonasal deficiency) and eye malformations in virtually all exposed fetuses. Using differential display analysis, we have determined that CYP1A1 mRNA levels are elevated in mouse embryos 6 h following treatment with AGN 193109. Similarly, an elevation in CYP1A1 mRNA levels, protein levels, and aryl hydrocarbon hydoxylase activity occurs in Hepa-1c1c7 cells, with the maximal elevation observed when the cells were treated with 10(-5) M AGN 193109 for 4 to 8 h. Elevation in CYP1A1 mRNA levels in mouse embryos and Hepa-1c1c7 cells does not occur upon treatment with the natural retinoid, all-trans-retinoic acid. Finally, elevation in CYP1A1 mRNA levels was not observed when mutant Hepa-1c1c7 cells, which are defective in either the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), were treated with AGN 193109. This suggests that the AhR/ARNT pathway and not the RAR/RXR pathway is mediating the elevation of CYP1A1 mRNA levels by AGN 193109, at least in the Hepa-1c1c7 cells. This is the first example of a retinoid that displays the abililty to regulate both the RAR/RXR and AhR/ARNT transcriptional regulatory pathways.

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on yield and fruit quality of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) at two levels of nitrogen application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Mantri, Nitin; Lou, Heqiang; Hu, Ya; Sun, Dan; Zhu, Yueqing; Dong, Tingting; Lu, Hongfei

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if elevated CO(2) could alleviate the negative effect of high temperature on fruit yield of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Toyonoka) at different levels of nitrogen and also tested the combined effects of CO(2), temperature and nitrogen on fruit quality of plants cultivated in controlled growth chambers. Results show that elevated CO(2) and high temperature caused a further 12% and 35% decrease in fruit yield at low and high nitrogen, respectively. The fewer inflorescences and smaller umbel size during flower induction caused the reduction of fruit yield at elevated CO(2) and high temp