WorldWideScience

Sample records for demonstrated detectable levels

  1. Detectability of Water Level along Yaluzangbu River Demonstrated by Envisat, Jason-2, and SARAL/AltiKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, K. H.; Liu, G. T.; Shum, C. K.; Lee, H.; Kuo, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Periodic and flash flood is one of major natural disasters happened annually in mainland South Asia, especially for countries within the basin of Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Mekong River. The flood either caused by massive rainfall or melting glacier/snow water has combined with land subsidence and results in exacerbated economic loss in adjacent regions. A monitoring system based on satellite observation is thus necessary for early warning and precautionary estimate of inundation area since it is difficult to build river gauges and collect data in remote areas. The knowledge of water level along the river is thus important for monitoring the anomalous rise of water flow that potentially causes floods downstream. The satellite altimetry, which was widely used for open ocean sea-level measurements, had been applied for monitoring inland waters, such as rivers, reservoirs, and even glaciers surface elevation change. In this study, we utilized and compared a series of altimetry satellites along the Yaluzangbu River, upstream of the Brahmaputra River, located in the southern Tibetan Plateau with its origin located at Angsi Glacier. These satellites include Envisat, Jason-2, and SARAL/AltiKa. The detectability of water level has been examined in terms of the backscattering coefficient in radar echo, radar waveform pattern, height retrieval, stability of measurement over water surface, and percentage of detectable crossovers. Our preliminary result shows that the Ka-band AltiKa is more stable over narrow (level.

  2. Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

  3. Probability of Detection (POD) Demonstration Transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Special Level POD demonstration tests are typically performed on flat plates of a single material containing fatigue cracks with aspect rations between 0.3 and 0.5. Subsequent fracture mechanics analyses consider aspect ratios that range from 0.1 to 0.5. There is debate within the NDE community about the detectability of shallow cracks associated with NASA Special Level penetrant inspections that are routinely performed by propellant tank manufactures. The objective of the task is to investigate effect of crack aspect ratio on POD crack sizes for the penetrant inspection technique.

  4. Optimizing Probability of Detection Point Estimate Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2017-01-01

    Probability of detection (POD) analysis is used in assessing reliably detectable flaw size in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). MIL-HDBK-18231and associated mh18232POD software gives most common methods of POD analysis. Real flaws such as cracks and crack-like flaws are desired to be detected using these NDE methods. A reliably detectable crack size is required for safe life analysis of fracture critical parts. The paper provides discussion on optimizing probability of detection (POD) demonstration experiments using Point Estimate Method. POD Point estimate method is used by NASA for qualifying special NDE procedures. The point estimate method uses binomial distribution for probability density. Normally, a set of 29 flaws of same size within some tolerance are used in the demonstration. The optimization is performed to provide acceptable value for probability of passing demonstration (PPD) and achieving acceptable value for probability of false (POF) calls while keeping the flaw sizes in the set as small as possible.

  5. Probability of Detection (POD) Demonstration Transferability: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Special Level POD demonstration tests are typically performed on flat plates of a single material containing fatigue cracks with aspect rations between 0.3 and 0.5. In many cases, the inspectors that pass the demonstration tests use (transfer) the NDE technique to inspect different materials and part geometries and for varying types of flaws. The objective of the task is to investigate several of the factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. An existing set of 30 6061-T6 aluminum crack panels will be used to create parts with a square tube and pocket type geometries. These same aluminum crack panels were used in a study of the effect of penetrant sensitivity level on POD. Hence, we should be able to directly compare the POD for flat panels versus larger parts with more complex geometries.

  6. Webcams for bird detection and monitoring: a demonstration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Willem W; Vermeulen, Bart; Stuckens, Jan; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Van Ranst, Marc; Coppin, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  7. Webcams for Bird Detection and Monitoring: A Demonstration Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem W. Verstraeten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  8. LOTUS field demonstration of integrated multi-sensor mine-detection system in Bosnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Breejen, E. den; Benoist, K.W.; Schutte, K.; Tettelaar, P.; Bijl, M. de; Fritz, P.J.; Cohen, L.H.; Mark, W. van der; Chignell, R.

    2003-01-01

    The successful demonstration of the LOTUS landmine detection system was discussed. The demonstration of the integrated multi-sensor mine-detection system took place in August 2002 near the village of Vidovice, in the northeast of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The system consisted of a metal detector (MD)

  9. Evaluation of object level change detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, John M.; Bergeron, Stuart; Hugo, Doug; O'Brien, Michael A.

    2007-04-01

    A variety of change detection (CD) methods have been developed and employed to support imagery analysis for applications including environmental monitoring, mapping, and support to military operations. Evaluation of these methods is necessary to assess technology maturity, identify areas for improvement, and support transition to operations. This paper presents a methodology for conducting this type of evaluation, discusses the challenges, and illustrates the techniques. The evaluation of object-level change detection methods is more complicated than for automated techniques for processing a single image. We explore algorithm performance assessments, emphasizing the definition of the operating conditions (sensor, target, and environmental factors) and the development of measures of performance. Specific challenges include image registration; occlusion due to foliage, cultural clutter and terrain masking; diurnal differences; and differences in viewing geometry. Careful planning, sound experimental design, and access to suitable imagery with image truth and metadata are critical.

  10. Schizophrenia Patients Demonstrate Both Inter-Voxel Level and Intra-Voxel Level White Matter Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Chuanjun; Ma, Xiaolei; Qu, Hongru; Wang, Lina; Jia, Feng; Wang, Chunli

    2016-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) are the most frequently used metrics to investigate white matter impairments in mental disorders. However, these two metrics are derived from intra-voxel analyses and only reflect the diffusion properties solely within the voxel unit. Local diffusion homogeneity (LDH) is a newly developed inter-voxel metric which quantifies the local coherence of water molecule diffusion in a model-free manner. In this study, 94 schizophrenia patients and 91 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) examinations. White matter integrity was assessed by FA, MD and LDH. Group differences in these metrics were compared using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Compared with healthy controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited reduced FA and increased MD in the corpus callosum, cingulum, internal capsule, fornix and widespread superficial white matter in the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. We also found decreased LDH in the corpus callosum, cingulum, internal capsule and fornix in schizophrenia. Our findings suggest that both intra-voxel and inter-voxel diffusion metrics are able to detect impairments in the anisotropic white matter regions, and intra-voxel diffusion metrics could detect additional impairments in the widespread isotropic white matter regions in schizophrenia.

  11. Real-Time Hazard Detection and Avoidance Demonstration for a Planetary Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2014-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. In addition to precision landing close to a pre-mission defined landing location, the ALHAT System must be capable of autonomously identifying and avoiding surface hazards in real-time to enable a safe landing under any lighting conditions. This paper provides an overview of the recent results of the ALHAT closed loop hazard detection and avoidance flight demonstrations on the Morpheus Vertical Testbed (VTB) at the Kennedy Space Center, including results and lessons learned. This effort is also described in the context of a technology path in support of future crewed and robotic planetary exploration missions based upon the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN).

  12. Demonstration Of Synthetic Exo-earth Detection In The Lab With Speckle Subtraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Give'on, A.; Savransky, D.; Pueyo, L.; Kern, B.; Kasdin, J.

    2007-12-01

    The problem of detecting and imaging earth-like exoplanets is hampered by the fact that wavefront error in the optics of a space telescope creates a speckle pattern that can swamp the exoplanet. The standard approach for dealing with speckles is to suppress them below the planet level by a deformable mirror using a wavefront control algorithm. However, such wavefront control may take a long time to achieve speckle suppression of 1010, the nominal contrast necessary for exo-earths, especially if the target star is dim. Furthermore, a very precise deformable mirror and electronics are required. In this paper, we present and demonstrate in the lab a method to detect planet light from amidst a brighter speckle pattern (as long as that pattern is stable), thus relaxing the requirement of 1010 speckle suppression. Furthermore, our detection is simultaneous with wavefront control and uses all the images taken in the course of wavefront control, saving valuable mission time. The method consists of (a) using the wavefront control estimate of the coherent speckle field to separate the speckles from the incoherent planet light, and (b) using a matched filter to reduce noise. No motion or rotation of the telescope is required for this method. The experiment was conducted on the High Contrast Imaging Testbed at the Jet Propulsion Lab using the Shaped Pupil coronagraph under 10% optical bandwidth. This work was funded in part by JPL contract 1254357 and the Michelson Science Center, and carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Development of derived investigation levels for use in internal dosimetry at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The objective was to determine if the routine intemal dosimetry program at the West Valley Demonstration Project is capable of meeting the performance objective of 1 mSv annual effective dose equivalent due to internal contamination. With the use of the computer code REMedy the annual effective dose equivalent is calculated. Some of the radionuclides of concern result in an annual effective dose equivalent that exceeds the performance objective. Although the results exceed the performance objective, in all but two cases they do not exceed the US DOE regulatory limits. In these instances the Th-232 and Am-241 were determined to exceed the committed dose equivalent limit to their limiting tissue. In order to document the potential missed dose for regulatory compliance, Sr-90 is used as an indicator for Th-232. For Am-241 an investigation as to whether or not the minimum detectable amount can be lowered is performed. The derived investigation levels as a result of this project are 4.9E3 Bq/lung count for Co-60, 2.2E4 Bq/lung count for Cs-137, 1.9 Bq/1 for Sr-90 and for radionuclides other than Sr-90 any value greater than or equal to three standard deviations above their net count is considered to require further investigation.

  14. The Use of Demonstrative Pronoun and Demonstrative Determiner "This" in Upper-Level Student Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustipa, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrative "this" is worthy to investigate because of the role of "this" as a common cohesive device in academic writing. This study attempted to find out the variables underlying the realization of demonstrative "this" in graduate-student writing of Semarang State University, Indonesia. The data of the study were…

  15. Simultaneous SERS detection of copper and cobalt at ultratrace levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoutsi, Dionysia; Guerrini, Luca; Hermida-Ramon, Jose Manuel; Giannini, Vincenzo; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Wei, Alexander; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A

    2013-07-07

    We report a SERS-based method for the simultaneous and independent determination of two environmental metallic pollutants, Cu(ii) and Co(ii). This was achieved by exploiting the coordination-sensitive Raman bands of a terpyridine (TPY) derivative for detecting transition metal ions. Changes in the vibrational SERS spectra of dithiocarbamate anchored terpyridine (TPY-DTC) were correlated as a function of each metal ion concentration, with limits of detection comparable to those of several conventional analytical methods. Simultaneous detection of ultratrace levels of Co(ii) in the presence of high Cu(ii) concentration was also demonstrated, supporting the potential of this sensing strategy for monitoring potable water supplies.

  16. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-08-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively.

  17. A demonstration of one-atom detection. [Proportional counter with laser photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G.S.; Nayfeh, M.H.; Young, J.P.

    1977-03-01

    Resonance ionization spectroscopy, a photoionization method in which all of a given quantum selected species are converted to ion pairs, has been used to develop a detector for a single atom. We have demonstrated the detection of one atom by using a pulsed dye laser to photoionize Cs to saturation and a proportional counter for the detection of single electrons. Some current applications, e.g., the slow transport and chemical reactions of atoms, are briefly discussed. Future applications may include the detection of rare events such as quarks, solar neutrinos, and superheavy elements. (AIP)

  18. Demonstration of submersible high-throughput microfluidic immunosensors for underwater explosives detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, André A; Charles, Paul T; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2011-11-15

    Significant security threats posed by highly energetic nitroaromatic compounds in aquatic environments and the demilitarization and pending cleanup of areas previously used for munitions manufacture and storage represent a challenge for less expensive, faster, and more sensitive systems capable of analyzing groundwater and seawater samples for trace levels of explosive materials. Presented here is an inexpensive high throughput microfluidic immunosensor (HTMI) platform intended for the rapid, highly selective quantitation of nitroaromatic compounds in the field. Immunoaffinity and fluorescence detection schemes were implemented in tandem on a novel microfluidic device containing 39 parallel microchannels that were 500 μm tall, 250 μm wide, and 2.54 cm long with covalently tethered antibodies that was engineered for high-throughput high-volume sample processing. The devices were produced via a combination of high precision micromilling and hot embossing. Mass transfer limitations were found in conventional microsystems and were minimized due to higher surface area to volume ratios that exceeded those possessed by conventional microdevices and capillaries. Until now, these assays were limited to maximum total volume flow rates of ~1 mL/min due in part to kinetics and high head pressures of single microchannels. In the design demonstrated here, highly parallelized microchannels afforded up to a 100-fold increase in total volume flow rate while maintaining favorable kinetic constraints for efficient antigen-antibody interaction. The assay employed total volume throughput of up to 6 mL/min while yielding signal-to-noise ratios of >15 in all cases. In addition to samples being processed up to 60 times faster than in conventional displacement-based immunoassays, the current system was capable of quantitating 0.01 ng/mL TNT samples without implementing offline preconcentration, thereby, demonstrating the ability to improve sensitivity by as much as 2 orders of magnitude

  19. A Desk-top tutorial Demonstration of Model-based Fault Detection and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, John Z.; Elshanti, Ali; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a demonstration on the model-based approach for fault detection has been presented. The aim of this demo is to provide students a desk-top tool to start learning model-based approach. The demo works on a traditional three-tank system. After a short review of the model-based approach, this paper emphasizes on two difficulties often asked by students when they start learning model-based approach: how to develop a system model and how to generate residual for fault detection. The ...

  20. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  1. Demonstration of neutron detection utilizing open cell foam and noble gas scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavelle, C. M., E-mail: christopher.lavelle@jhuapl.edu; Miller, E. C. [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Asymmetric Operations Department, Laurel, Maryland 20723 (United States); Coplan, M. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20142 (United States); Thompson, Alan K.; Vest, Robert E.; Yue, A. T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Kowler, A. L. [Department of Chemical Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20142 (United States); Koeth, T. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20142 (United States); Al-Sheikhly, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Clark, Charles W. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20142 (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    We present results demonstrating neutron detection via a closely spaced converter structure coupled to low pressure noble gas scintillation instrumented by a single photo-multiplier tube (PMT). The converter is dispersed throughout the gas volume using a reticulated vitreous carbon foam coated with boron carbide (B{sub 4}C). A calibrated cold neutron beam is used to measure the neutron detection properties, using a thin film of enriched {sup 10}B as a reference standard. Monte Carlo computations of the ion energy deposition are discussed, including treatment of the foam random network. Results from this study indicate that the foam shadows a significant portion of the scintillation light from the PMT. The high scintillation yield of Xe appears to overcome the light loss, facilitating neutron detection and presenting interesting opportunities for neutron detector design.

  2. Sentence Level Information Patterns for Novelty Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Information Patterns for Novelty Detection 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...technology transfer arm, has sold the worldwide marketing rights to the drug Daca in return for cash payments and royalties should the drug be marketed...34> Stockbroker Lehman Brothers estimates that it may eventually generate Dollars 250m in sales.</s> <s docid="FT943-9461" num=൓"> Daca is still in the early

  3. Experimental Demonstration of Array-level Learning with Phase Change Synaptic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Eryilmaz, S. Burc; Kuzum, Duygu; Jeyasingh, Rakesh G. D.; Kim, SangBum; BrightSky, Matthew; Lam, Chung; Wong, H.-S. Philip

    2014-01-01

    The computational performance of the biological brain has long attracted significant interest and has led to inspirations in operating principles, algorithms, and architectures for computing and signal processing. In this work, we focus on hardware implementation of brain-like learning in a brain-inspired architecture. We demonstrate, in hardware, that 2-D crossbar arrays of phase change synaptic devices can achieve associative learning and perform pattern recognition. Device and array-level ...

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  5. Test-beam results from the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Bohm, C; Bright-Thomas, P G; Connors, A; Edwards, J; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellis, Nick; Engström, M; Farthouat, Philippe; Garvey, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Hanke, P; Hatley, R; Hellman, S; Hillier, S J; Kluge, E E; Landon, M; Maddox, A J; Pentney, J M; Perera, V J O; Pfeiffer, U; Schuler, G A; Schumacher, C; Shah, T P; Silverstein, S; Staley, R J; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Wunsch, M

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger will utilise a number of advanced technologies, many of which have already been successfully demonstrated. To evaluate the different technologies associated with the important areas of $9 high-speed data transport a large demonstrator system has been designed and operated during the last two years, using signals from prototype calorimeters in the ATLAS test-beam. Using this system, inter-crate data transmission and $9 reception have been demonstrated at over 1.4 Gbyte/s, with individual links running at up to 1.6 Gbaud. Operating with 160 Mbit/s signals across a transmission-line backplane, custom transceiver ASICs have achieved inter-module data $9 fanout at peak rates above 800 Mbyte/s. With the addition of further modules, the system was extended to emulate a vertical slice through the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger. We present here the results from these tests, including $9 measurements of bit-error rates across different data paths. (12 refs).

  6. Solid waste bin level detection using gray level co-occurrence matrix feature extraction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arebey, Maher; Hannan, M A; Begum, R A; Basri, Hassan

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents solid waste bin level detection and classification using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) feature extraction methods. GLCM parameters, such as displacement, d, quantization, G, and the number of textural features, are investigated to determine the best parameter values of the bin images. The parameter values and number of texture features are used to form the GLCM database. The most appropriate features collected from the GLCM are then used as inputs to the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifiers for bin image classification and grading. The classification and grading performance for DB1, DB2 and DB3 features were selected with both MLP and KNN classifiers. The results demonstrated that the KNN classifier, at KNN = 3, d = 1 and maximum G values, performs better than using the MLP classifier with the same database. Based on the results, this method has the potential to be used in solid waste bin level classification and grading to provide a robust solution for solid waste bin level detection, monitoring and management.

  7. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied.

  8. First-time demonstration of measuring concrete prestress levels with metal packaged fibre optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeeman, I.; Fusiek, G.; Perry, M.; Johnston, M.; Saafi, M.; Niewczas, P.; Walsh, M.; Khan, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present the first large-scale demonstration of metal packaged fibre Bragg grating sensors developed to monitor prestress levels in prestressed concrete. To validate the technology, strain and temperature sensors were mounted on steel prestressing strands in concrete beams and stressed up to 60% of the ultimate tensile strength of the strand. We discuss the methods and calibration procedures used to fabricate and attach the temperature and strain sensors. The use of induction brazing for packaging the fibre Bragg gratings and welding the sensors to prestressing strands eliminates the use of epoxy, making the technique suitable for high-stress monitoring in an irradiated, harsh industrial environment. Initial results based on the first week of data after stressing the beams show the strain sensors are able to monitor prestress levels in ambient conditions.

  9. Saliency Detection via Combining Region-Level and Pixel-Level Predictions with CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Youbao; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel saliency detection method by combining region-level saliency estimation and pixel-level saliency prediction with CNNs (denoted as CRPSD). For pixel-level saliency prediction, a fully convolutional neural network (called pixel-level CNN) is constructed by modifying the VGGNet architecture to perform multi-scale feature learning, based on which an image-to-image prediction is conducted to accomplish the pixel-level saliency detection. For region-level saliency estima...

  10. Demonstration of the SeptiStrand benthic microbial fuel cell powering a magnetometer for ship detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Thode, Y. Meriah; Hsu, Lewis; Anderson, Greg; Babauta, Jerome; Fransham, Roy; Obraztsova, Anna; Tukeman, Gabriel; Chadwick, D. Bart

    2017-07-01

    The Navy has a need for monitoring conditions and gathering information in marine environments. Sensors can monitor and report environmental parameters and potential activities such as animal movements, ships, or personnel. However, there has to be a means to power these sensors. One promising enabling technology that has been shown to provide long-term power production in underwater environments is the benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFC). BMFCs are devices that generate energy by coupling bioanodes and biocathodes through an external energy harvester. Recent studies have demonstrated success for usage of BMFCs in powering small instruments and other devices on the seafloor over limited periods of time. In this effort, a seven-stranded BMFC linear array of 30 m was designed to power a seafloor magnetometer to detect passing ship movements through Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The BMFC system was connected to a flyback energy harvesting circuit that charged the battery powering the magnetometer. The deployment was demonstrated the BMFC supplied power to the battery for approximately 38 days. This is the first large-scale demonstration system for usage of the SeptiStrand BMFC technology to power a relevant sensor.

  11. Event Detection Intelligent Camera: Demonstration of flexible, real-time data taking and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabolics, Tamás, E-mail: szabolics.tamas@wigner.mta.hu; Cseh, Gábor; Kocsis, Gábor; Szepesi, Tamás; Zoletnik, Sándor

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We present EDICAM's operation principles description. • Firmware tests results. • Software test results. • Further developments. - Abstract: An innovative fast camera (EDICAM – Event Detection Intelligent CAMera) was developed by MTA Wigner RCP in the last few years. This new concept was designed for intelligent event driven processing to be able to detect predefined events and track objects in the plasma. The camera provides a moderate frame rate of 400 Hz at full frame resolution (1280 × 1024), and readout of smaller region of interests can be done in the 1–140 kHz range even during exposure of the full image. One of the most important advantages of this hardware is a 10 Gbit/s optical link which ensures very fast communication and data transfer between the PC and the camera, enabling two level of processing: primitive algorithms in the camera hardware and high-level processing in the PC. This camera hardware has successfully proven to be able to monitoring the plasma in several fusion devices for example at ASDEX Upgrade, KSTAR and COMPASS with the first version of firmware. A new firmware and software package is under development. It allows to detect predefined events in real time and therefore the camera is capable to change its own operation or to give warnings e.g. to the safety system of the experiment. The EDICAM system can handle a huge amount of data (up to TBs) with high data rate (950 MB/s) and will be used as the central element of the 10 camera overview video diagnostic system of Wendenstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator. This paper presents key elements of the newly developed built-in intelligence stressing the revolutionary new features and the results of the test of the different software elements.

  12. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes.

  13. Demonstration of the BNL Continuous Dual Trap Analyzer to Detect Perfluorocarbon Tracers for the Tag, Track and Location Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser,J.H.; Adams, J.; Dietz, R..; Milian, L.; Watson, T.

    2008-10-07

    The Tag, Track and Location System (TTL) Program is investigating methods of tracking an asset using perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT). The success of any TTL method requires sound detection/location instrumentation. Tracer Detection Technologies Corp (TDT), through a contract with the Office of Naval Research (ONR), is investigating different detection systems. The detections systems generally fall into two categories; proximity detectors and standoff detectors. Proximity detectors, as the name implies, need to be in close proximity (e.g., meter to 10's of meters) to the PFT source. Standoff detection searches for the PFT from a greater distance away from the source (e.g., 100's of meters to kilometers). Gas Chromatographs (GC) are generally considered a proximity detection systems, but in the case of PFTs should be considered for both proximity and standoff detection with the caveat that in standoff use the GC needs to be somewhere in the PFT plume, i.e., generally downwind of the source. With a properly sized PFT source, the right GC can afford fairly large standoff (distance from the source) distances; 100's of meters to kilometers downwind. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has such a GC system and offered to demonstrate the CDTA for TTL as a no cost addition to the TDTTTL project, of which BNL was a participant. BNL is a leading authority on the sampling, collection, release and detection of PFTs. In addition, the BNL team has extensive background in atmospheric dispersion, the application of PFTs to such studies and the development of applications utilizing PFTs such as building infiltration measurements, control room integrity determination, leak location and environmental investigations. This experience and expertise is essential in developing any PFT application were dispersion, dilution and overcoming environmental conditions and interferences are integral to success. BNL has developed sophisticated gas chromatography methods and

  14. Operational Bright-Band Snow Level Detection Using Doppler Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method to detect the bright-band snow level from radar reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocity data collection with an atmospheric profiling Doppler radar. The...

  15. A Demonstration of Spectral Level Reconstruction of Intrinsic $B$-mode Power

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Barun

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the prospects and consequences of the spectral level reconstruction of primordial $B$-mode power by solving the systems of linear equations assuming that the lensing potential together with the lensed polarization spectra are already in hand. We find that this reconstruction technique may be very useful to have an estimate of the amplitude of primordial gravity waves or more specifically the value of tensor to scalar ratio. We also see that one can have cosmic variance limited reconstruction of the intrinsic $B$-mode power up to few hundred multipoles ($\\ell\\sim500$) which is more than sufficient to have an estimate of the tensor to scalar ratio. Since the small scale cosmic microwave background (CMB henceforth) anisotropies are not sourced by the primordial gravity waves generated during inflation. We also find that the impact of instrumental noise may be bypassed within this reconstruction algorithm. A simple demonstration for the nullification of the instrumental noise anticipating COrE like...

  16. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weger, Hans, Ph.D.; Kodanda, Raja Tilek Meruva; Mazumdar, Anindra; Srivastava, Rajiv Ph.D.; Ebadian, M.A. Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Four hand-held tools were tested for failed high-level waste melter decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The forces felt by the tools during operation were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer since they will be operated by a remote manipulator. The efficiency of the tools was also recorded. Melter D&D consists of three parts: (1) glass fracturing: removing from the furnace the melted glass that can not be poured out through normal means, (2) glass cleaning: removing the thin layer of glass that has formed over the surface of the refractory material, and (3) K-3 refractory breakup: removing the K-3 refractory material. Surrogate glass, from a formula provided by the Savannah River Site, was melted in a furnace and poured into steel containers. K-3 refractory material, the same material used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, was utilized for the demonstrations. Four K-3 blocks were heated at 1150 C for two weeks with a glass layer on top to simulate the hardened glass layer on the refractory surface in the melter. Tools chosen for the demonstrations were commonly used D&D tools, which have not been tested specifically for the different aspects of melter D&D. A jackhammer and a needle gun were tested for glass fracturing; a needle gun and a rotary grinder with a diamond face wheel (diamond grinder) were tested for glass cleaning; and a jackhammer, diamond grinder, and a circular saw with a diamond blade were tested for refractory breakup. The needle gun was not capable of removing or fracturing the surrogate glass. The diamond grinder only had a removal rate of 3.0 x 10-4 kg/s for K-3 refractory breakup and needed to be held firmly against the material. However, the diamond grinder was effective for glass cleaning, with a removal rate of 3.9 cm2/s. The jackhammer was successful in fracturing glass and breaking up the K-3 refractory block. The jackhammer had a glass-fracturing rate of 0.40 kg/s. The jackhammer split the K-3 refractory block into two

  17. Laser-Based Obstacle Detection at Railway Level Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Amaral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for obstacle detection in railway level crossings from 3D point clouds acquired with tilting 2D laser scanners. Although large obstacles in railway level crossings are detectable with current solutions, the detection of small obstacles remains an open problem. By relying on a tilting laser scanner, the proposed system is able to acquire highly dense and accurate point clouds, enabling the detection of small obstacles, like rocks laying near the rail. During an offline training phase, the system learns a background model of the level crossing from a set of point clouds. Then, online, obstacles are detected as occupied space contrasting with the background model. To reduce the need for manual on-site calibration, the system automatically estimates the pose of the level crossing and railway with respect to the laser scanner. Experimental results show the ability of the system to successfully perform on a set of 41 point clouds acquired in an operational one-lane level crossing.

  18. Can Magic Deception Be Detected at an Unconscious Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Miura, Emi

    2017-06-01

    Magicians present magic tricks that seem to defy the laws of nature, entertaining us by manipulating our attention, perception, and awareness. However, although we are unaware of these manipulations at the level of conscious experience, we may still be aware of them at an unconscious level. We examined whether people can detect a magic deception outside of conscious awareness using an indirect measure. In the present study, we used the Cups and Balls magic trick, which is the transposition of balls between two cups. Participants viewed a video of the magic performance and were required to indicate the position of the ball in a direct self-report measure and completed the Single Category Implicit Association Test as an indirect measure. The results showed that the indirect measure of trick detection had higher accuracy than the direct measure. Our results suggest that while humans cannot consciously detect the magic deception, they do have a sense of what occurred on an unconscious level.

  19. The first demonstration of laser computed tomography achieved by Coherent Detection Imaging method for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toida, Masahiro; Ichimura, Tsutomu (Research Development Corp. of Japan (JRDC), Sendai (Japan). Inaba Biophoton Project); Inaba, Humio

    1991-06-01

    The first successful imaging by laser absorption computed tomography of in vitro specimens has been achieved by means of the Coherent Detection Imaging (CDI) method realized with the optical heterodyne detection technique and image reconstruction from back projection of the data obtained via optical absorption measurements in a parallel beam geometry. (author).

  20. Experimental demonstration of interaction region beam waist position knob for luminosity leveling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yue [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bai, Mei [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany). Inst. for Advanced Simulation; Duan, Zhe [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Luo, Yun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, Aljosa [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, Guillaume [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shen, Xiaozhe [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-03

    In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of the model-dependent control of the interaction region beam waist position (s* knob) at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The s* adjustment provides an alternative way of controlling the luminosity and is only known method to control the luminosity and reduce the pinch effect of the future eRHIC. In this paper, we will first demonstrate the effectiveness of the s* knob in luminosity controlling and its application in the future electron ion collider, eRHIC, followed by the detail experimental demonstration of such knob in RHIC.

  1. Recovery Act - Demonstration of Sodium Ion Battery for Grid Level Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, Ted [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Whitacre, Jay [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weber, Eric [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Eshoo, Michael [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Noland, James [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blackwood, David [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Campbell, Williams [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sheen, Eric [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Spears, Christopher [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Smith, Christopher [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Aquion Energy received a $5.179 million cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energy's Smart Grid Demonstration Program Demonstration of Promising Energy Storage Technologies (Program Area 2.5) of FOA DE-FOE-0000036. The main objective of this project was to demonstrate Aquion's low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium ion energy storage device. The centerpiece of the technology is a novel hybrid energy storage chemistry that has been proven in a laboratory environment. The objective was to translate these groundbreaking results from the small-batch, small-cell test environment to the pilot scale to enable significant numbers of multiple ampere-hour cells to be manufactured and assembled into test batteries. Aquion developed a proof of concept demonstration unit that showed similar performance and major cost improvement over existing technologies. Beyond minimizing cell and system cost, Aquion built a technology that is safe, environmentally benign and durable over many thousands of cycles as used in a variety of grid support roles.

  2. GAMA: multi-level and complex environment for agent-based models and simulations (demonstration)

    OpenAIRE

    Drogoul, Alexis; Amouroux, Edouard; Caillou, Philippe; Gaudou, Benoit; Grignard, Arnaud; Marilleau, Nicolas; Taillandier, Patrick; Vavaseur, Maroussia; Vo, Duc-An; Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Agent-based models are now used in numerous application domains (ecology, social sciences, etc.) but their use is still impeded by the lack of generic yet ready-to-use tools sup- porting the design and the simulation of complex models in- tegrating multiple level of agency and realistic environments. The GAMA modeling and simulation platform is proposed to address such issues. It allows modelers to build com- plex models thanks to high-level modeling language, various ...

  3. Mycotoxin detection-Recent trends at global level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan Nimal Selvaraj; ZHOU Lu; WANG Yan; ZHAO Yue-ju; XING Fu-guo; DAI Xiao-feng; LIU Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in agro-food systems has been a serious concern globaly during the last few decades. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi when they grow in agro-food products and feedstuff. Several detection techniques have been developed in recent years to detect mycotoxins in the food and feed effectively. HPLC based tech-niques are very common in usage in the laboratories for the testing of mycotoxins. In recent years, immuno-based assays is widely used and have been reported at large due to its sensitivity and limited detection time. Immuno assay-based kits were developed effectively to be used in the ifelds and in storage systems to detect the mycotoxin levels. Microarray-based immunoassays developed in the recent years could simultaneously detect alfatoxin, ochratoxin, and zearalenone with the higher sensitivity. Aptamer-based assays could target the detection of ochratoxin and alfatoxins and fumonisins at high speciifcity in food products. In recent years, several assays reported for the simultaneous multiple detection of different mycotoxin was based on HPLC and LC-MS/MS. There is a need for the use of these advanced technologies in the com-mercial scale.

  4. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-07-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  5. Methodological demonstration of laser beam pointing control for space gravitational wave detection missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-Hui; Liu, He-Shan; Luo, Zi-Ren; Li, Yu-Qiong; Jin, Gang

    2014-07-01

    In space laser interferometer gravitational wave (G.W.) detection missions, the stability of the laser beam pointing direction has to be kept at 10 nrad/√Hz. Otherwise, the beam pointing jitter noise will dominate the noise budget and make the detection of G.W. impossible. Disturbed by the residue non-conservative forces, the fluctuation of the laser beam pointing direction could be a few μrad/√Hz at frequencies from 0.1 mHz to 10 Hz. Therefore, the laser beam pointing control system is an essential requirement for those space G.W. detection missions. An on-ground test of such beam pointing control system is performed, where the Differential Wave-front Sensing technique is used to sense the beams pointing jitter. An active controlled steering mirror is employed to adjust the beam pointing direction to compensate the jitter. The experimental result shows that the pointing control system can be used for very large dynamic range up to 5 μrad. At the interested frequencies of space G.W. detection missions, between 1 mHz and 1 Hz, beam pointing stability of 6 nrad/√Hz is achieved.

  6. Bi-Level Semantic Representation Analysis for Multimedia Event Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaojun; Ma, Zhigang; Yang, Yi; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Hauptmann, Alexander G

    2017-05-01

    Multimedia event detection has been one of the major endeavors in video event analysis. A variety of approaches have been proposed recently to tackle this problem. Among others, using semantic representation has been accredited for its promising performance and desirable ability for human-understandable reasoning. To generate semantic representation, we usually utilize several external image/video archives and apply the concept detectors trained on them to the event videos. Due to the intrinsic difference of these archives, the resulted representation is presumable to have different predicting capabilities for a certain event. Notwithstanding, not much work is available for assessing the efficacy of semantic representation from the source-level. On the other hand, it is plausible to perceive that some concepts are noisy for detecting a specific event. Motivated by these two shortcomings, we propose a bi-level semantic representation analyzing method. Regarding source-level, our method learns weights of semantic representation attained from different multimedia archives. Meanwhile, it restrains the negative influence of noisy or irrelevant concepts in the overall concept-level. In addition, we particularly focus on efficient multimedia event detection with few positive examples, which is highly appreciated in the real-world scenario. We perform extensive experiments on the challenging TRECVID MED 2013 and 2014 datasets with encouraging results that validate the efficacy of our proposed approach.

  7. Thermal Properties of Simulated and High-Level Waste Solutions Used for the Solvent Extraction Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2001-06-27

    Researchers measured the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of supernate from a blend of Tank 37H and 44F, of a simulant of this blend, and of a simulant specifically designed for solvent extraction experiments. The measured heat capacity of the blend from the Tanks 37H and 44F equaled 0.871 cal/(g degrees C). The simulant of this blend produced an identical result. The heat capacity of the simulant designed for solvent extraction testing equaled 0.859 cal/(g degrees C). All three solutions have thermal conductivities in the range of 0.54 to 0.6 Watts/(m degrees C). The slight variation in the thermophysical properties of these solutions successfully explains the different flowmeter readings observed during the real waste demonstration of the solvent extraction technology.

  8. 'Natural experiment' demonstrates top-down control of spiders by birds on a landscape level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldre Rogers

    Full Text Available The combination of small-scale manipulative experiments and large-scale natural experiments provides a powerful approach for demonstrating the importance of top-down trophic control on the ecosystem scale. The most compelling natural experiments have come from studies examining the landscape-scale loss of apex predators like sea otters, wolves, fish and land crabs. Birds are dominant apex predators in terrestrial systems around the world, yet all studies on their role as predators have come from small-scale experiments; the top-down impact of bird loss on their arthropod prey has yet to be examined at a landscape scale. Here, we use a unique natural experiment, the extirpation of insectivorous birds from nearly all forests on the island of Guam by the invasive brown tree snake, to produce the first assessment of the impacts of bird loss on their prey. We focused on spiders because experimental studies showed a consistent top-down effect of birds on spiders. We conducted spider web surveys in native forest on Guam and three nearby islands with healthy bird populations. Spider web densities on the island of Guam were 40 times greater than densities on islands with birds during the wet season, and 2.3 times greater during the dry season. These results confirm the general trend from manipulative experiments conducted in other systems however, the effect size was much greater in this natural experiment than in most manipulative experiments. In addition, bird loss appears to have removed the seasonality of spider webs and led to larger webs in at least one spider species in the forests of Guam than on nearby islands with birds. We discuss several possible mechanisms for the observed changes. Overall, our results suggest that effect sizes from smaller-scale experimental studies may significantly underestimate the impact of bird loss on spider density as demonstrated by this large-scale natural experiment.

  9. A Demonstration Setup to Simulate Detection of Planets outside the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choopan, W.; Ketpichainarong, W.; Laosinchai, P.; Panijpan, B.

    2011-01-01

    We constructed a simple demonstration setup to simulate an extrasolar planet and its star revolving around the system's centre of mass. Periodic dimming of light from the star by the transiting planet and the star's orbital revolution simulate the two major ways of deducing the presence of an exoplanet near a distant star. Apart from being a…

  10. A Demonstration Setup to Simulate Detection of Planets outside the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choopan, W.; Ketpichainarong, W.; Laosinchai, P.; Panijpan, B.

    2011-01-01

    We constructed a simple demonstration setup to simulate an extrasolar planet and its star revolving around the system's centre of mass. Periodic dimming of light from the star by the transiting planet and the star's orbital revolution simulate the two major ways of deducing the presence of an exoplanet near a distant star. Apart from being a…

  11. Detection of high risk campylobacteriosis clusters at three geographic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Weisent

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and many other developed countries. Understanding the spatial distribution of this disease and identifying high-risk areas is vital to focus resources for prevention and control measures. In addition, determining the appropriate scale for geographical analysis of surveillance data is an area of concern to epidemiologists and public health officials. The purpose of this study was to (i compare standardized risk estimates for campylobacteriosis in Tennessee over three distinct geographical scales (census tract, zip code and county subdivision, and (ii identify and investigate high-risk spatial clustering of campylobacteriosis at the three geographical scales to determine if clustering is scale dependent. Significant high risk clusters (P <0.05 were detected at all three spatial scales. There were overlaps in regions of high-risk and clusters at all three geographic levels. At the census tract level, spatial analysis identified smaller clusters of finer resolution and detected more clusters than the other two levels. However, data aggregation at zip code or county subdivision yielded similar findings. The importance of this line of research is to create a framework whereby economically efficient disease control strategies become more attainable through improved geographical precision and risk detection. Accurate identification of disease clusters for campylobacteriosis can enable public health personnel to focus scarce resources towards prevention and control programmes on the most at-risk populations. Consistent results at multiple spatial levels highlight the robustness of the geospatial techniques utilized in this study. Furthermore, analyses at the zip code and county subdivision levels can be useful when address level information (finer resolution data are not available. These procedures may also be used to help identify regionally specific risk factors for

  12. Passive Infrared Detection of Microburst Induced Low Level Wind Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-17

    airborne microburst detector is needed. A low cost, low maintenance system that will provide real-time, accurate detection of this LLWS hazard. Having the...R.L. Kurkowski, and F. Caracena, 1983: Airborne operation of an infrared low-level windshear predicition system, J. Aircraft,20, 170-173. , and R.L...and App. Meteor., Vol. 23, 898-915. Appendix A PREDICITION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSMISSION AND RADIANCE Over the past 50 years various computer codes

  13. Toward 10 10 contrast for terrestrial exoplanet detection: demonstration of wavefront correction in a shaped-pupil coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Give'on, Amir; Trauger, John T.; Carr, Michael; Kasdin, N. J.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2006-06-01

    The Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) is a high-contrast imaging system pioneered at Princeton for detection of extra-solar earthlike planets. It is designed to achieve 10-10 contrast at an inner working angle of 4λ/D. However, a critical requirement in attaining this contrast level in practice is the ability to control wavefront phase and amplitude aberrations to at least λ/10 4 in rms phase and 1/1000 rms amplitude, respectively. Furthermore, this has to be maintained over a large spectral band. The High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) is a state-of-the-art facility for studying high contrast imaging systems and fine wavefront control methods. It consists of a vacuum chamber containing a configurable coronagraph setup with a Xinetics deformable mirror. In this paper, we present the results of testing Princeton's SPC in JPL's HCIT. In particular, we present the achievement of 4x10 -8 contrast using a speckle nulling algorithm, and demonstrate that this contrast is maintained across wavelengths of 785, 836nm, and for broadband light having 10% bandwidth around 800nm.

  14. Self-aligned blocking integration demonstration for critical sub-40nm pitch Mx level patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, Angélique; Mohanty, Nihar; Sun, Xinghua; Farrell, Richard A.; Smith, Jeffrey T.; Ko, Akiteru; Metz, Andrew W.; Biolsi, Peter; Devilliers, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Multipatterning has enabled continued scaling of chip technology at the 28nm node and beyond. Selfaligned double patterning (SADP) and self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) as well as Litho- Etch/Litho-Etch (LELE) iterations are widely used in the semiconductor industry to enable patterning at sub 193 immersion lithography resolutions for layers such as FIN, Gate and critical Metal lines. Multipatterning requires the use of multiple masks which is costly and increases process complexity as well as edge placement error variation driven mostly by overlay. To mitigate the strict overlay requirements for advanced technology nodes (7nm and below), a self-aligned blocking integration is desirable. This integration trades off the overlay requirement for an etch selectivity requirement and enables the cut mask overlay tolerance to be relaxed from half pitch to three times half pitch. Selfalignement has become the latest trend to enable scaling and self-aligned integrations are being pursued and investigated for various critical layers such as contact, via, metal patterning. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a low cost flexible self-aligned blocking strategy for critical metal layer patterning for 7nm and beyond from mask assembly to low -K dielectric etch. The integration is based on a 40nm pitch SADP flow with 2 cut masks compatible with either cut or block integration and employs dielectric films widely used in the back end of the line. As a consequence this approach is compatible with traditional etch, deposition and cleans tools that are optimized for dielectric etches. We will review the critical steps and selectivities required to enable this integration along with bench-marking of each integration option (cut vs. block).

  15. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE LEAK DETECTION/LOCATION TECHNOLOGIES COUPLED WITH WALL-THICKNESS SCREENING FOR WATER MAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  16. Experimental demonstration of a squeezing enhanced power recycled Michelson interferometer for gravitational wave detection

    CERN Document Server

    McKenzie, K; Shaddock, D A; Lam, P K; McClelland, D E; Kenzie, Kirk Mc; Buchler, Ben C.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Lam, Ping Koy; Clelland, David E. Mc

    2002-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors are expected to be limited by shot noise at some frequencies. We experimentally demonstrate that a power recycled Michelson with squeezed light injected into the dark port can overcome this limit. An improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of 2.3dB is measured and locked stably for long periods of time. The configuration, control and signal readout of our experiment are compatible with current gravitational wave detector designs. We consider the application of our system to long baseline interferometer designs such as LIGO.

  17. Significance of coronary artery calcification demonstrated by computed tomography in detecting coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraki, Teruo; Akiyama, Yoko; Kita, Masahide [Iwakuni national Hospital, Yamaguchi (Japan)] [and others

    2002-02-01

    Serial 27 patients with angina attack were enrolled in this trial. Plain computed tomography (CT) of the chest and coronary angiogram were performed simultaneously. Calcification of main branch of coronary arteies (left main trunk, left anterior desending artery, left circumflex artery, right coronary artery) was judged visually. More than 50% stenosis was defined significant by quantitative coronary angiogram. Correlation between calcified lesions detected by CT and angiographic stenoses showed high specificity and negative predictive value was also high (sensitity=58%, specificity=80%, positive predictive value=27%, negative predictive value=94%, p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between patients with calcification of corornary artery and angiographic stenosis. The present study showed the low probability of significant stenosis without calcification and the high probability with multiple calcified lesions. (author)

  18. Detecting subtle expressions: older adults demonstrate automatic and controlled positive response bias in emotional perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dan R; Whiting, Wythe L

    2013-03-01

    The present study examined age differences in emotional perception for the detection of low-intensity, single-emotion facial expressions. Confirming the "positivity effect," at 60 ms and 2,000 ms presentation rates older adults (age = 61+ years, n = 39) exhibited a response bias favoring happy over neutral responses, whereas younger adults (age = 18-23 years, n = 40) favored neutral responses. Furthermore, older adults favored neutral over fearful responses at the 60 ms presentation rate, relative to younger adults. The finding that age differences in response bias were most pronounced at the 60 ms versus 2,000 ms presentation rate suggests that positivity effects in emotional perception rely partly on automatic processing.

  19. Calculating inspector probability of detection using performance demonstration program pass rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumblidge, Stephen; D'Agostino, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been working since the 1970's to ensure that nondestructive testing performed on nuclear power plants in the United States will provide reasonable assurance of structural integrity of the nuclear power plant components. One tool used by the NRC has been the development and implementation of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI Appendix VIII[1] (Appendix VIII) blind testing requirements for ultrasonic procedures, equipment, and personnel. Some concerns have been raised, over the years, by the relatively low pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification testing. The NRC staff has applied statistical tools and simulations to determine the expected probability of detection (POD) for ultrasonic examinations under ideal conditions based on the pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification tests for the ultrasonic testing personnel. This work was primarily performed to answer three questions. First, given a test design and pass rate, what is the expected overall POD for inspectors? Second, can we calculate the probability of detection for flaws of different sizes using this information? Finally, if a previously qualified inspector fails a requalification test, does this call their earlier inspections into question? The calculations have shown that one can expect good performance from inspectors who have passed appendix VIII testing in a laboratory-like environment, and the requalification pass rates show that the inspectors have maintained their skills between tests. While these calculations showed that the PODs for the ultrasonic inspections are very good under laboratory conditions, the field inspections are conducted in a very different environment. The NRC staff has initiated a project to systematically analyze the human factors differences between qualification testing and field examinations. This work will be used to evaluate and prioritize

  20. Demonstration of a Benchmarking Technique to Compare Graduate Education Level of Air Force Project Managers and Selected Benchmarking Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    the 1,450th file. This 46 technique sampled files on a nonprobability representation basis; some files did not have a nonzero chance of being reviewed...04 ELECTE: 4 t- OF A DEMONSTRATION OF A BENCHMARKING * ’~ TECHNIQUE TO COMPARE GRADUATE EDUCATION LEVELS OF AIR FORCE PROJECT MANAGERS AND SELECTED...8217,- -AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY .Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio AFIT/GSM/LAS/94S-3 A DEMONSTRATION OF A BENCHMARKING TECHNIQUE TO COMPARE

  1. Microbial contamination detection at low levels by [125]I radiolabeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, David; Karouia, Fathi

    detection (MPD), respectively. Therefore this assay enables the detection to lower levels than previously possible, down to single cells. The method has also applicability for testing returned samples hardware and for the testing sterilization methods as well as other Astrobiological applications. Future work could extend to species such as viruses and prions.

  2. Demonstration of Passive W-Band Millimeter Wave Imaging Using Optical Upconversion Detection Methodology with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samluk, Jesse P.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Dillon, Thomas; Martin, Richard D.; Stein, E. Lee; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Wilson, John; Robbins, Andrew; Shi, Shouyuan; Chen, Caihua; Yao, Peng; Shireen, Rownak; Macario, Julien; Prather, Dennis W.

    2012-11-01

    Millimeter wave (mmW) imaging has enjoyed a measure of success due to the unique properties of imaging in this spectral region, some of which are still being discovered. For example, a key advantage of mmW imaging is the ability to penetrate through various atmospheric obscurants, including fog, dust, sand, and smoke, due to its longer wavelengths as compared to visible or infrared imaging. Various methods of imaging with mmW energy exist, such as direct detection, downconversion, and upconversion, where this manuscript focuses on the latter. Until now, passive imaging using an optical upconversion method was limited to Q-band frequencies due to the lack of commercially available parts, namely a sufficiently high frequency optical modulator. To overcome this limitation, a custom-built modulator using in-house fabrication facilities was realized to allow imaging within the W-band frequency range (75-110 GHz). Therefore, in this manuscript we report new results of passive imaging in the W-band frequency range using a unique optical upconversion technique, where the higher frequency operation allows for greater detail in the imagery thus collected.

  3. Detecting bots using multi-level traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2016-01-01

    Botnets, as networks of compromised “zombie” computers, represent one of the most serious security threats on the Internet today. This paper explores how machines compromised with bot malware can be identified at local and enterprise networks in accurate and time-efficient manner. The paper...... introduces a novel multi-level botnet detection approach that performs network traffic analysis of three protocols widely considered as the main carriers of botnet Command and Control (C&C) and attack traffic, i.e. TCP, UDP and DNS. The proposed method relies on supervised machine learning for identifying...

  4. Demonstration of an All-Optical 2-to-4 Level Encoder Based on an Optical Parametric Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a novel technique for all-optical 2-to-4 level amplitude-shift keying (ASK coding based on a fiber optical parametric amplifier. A 20-Gb/s signal is realized by multiplexing two 10-Gb/s data streams.

  5. Is Quality/Effectiveness An Empirically Demonstrable School Attribute? Statistical Aids for Determining Appropriate Levels of Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James

    2002-01-01

    Describes and demonstrates analytical techniques used in organizational psychology and contemporary multilevel analysis. Using these analytic techniques, examines the relationship between educational outcomes and the school environment. Finds that at least some indicators might be represented as school-level phenomena. Results imply that the…

  6. Small-scale demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and solidification using actual SRP waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeson, J K; Galloway, R M; Wilhite, E L; Woolsey, G B; B, Ferguson R

    1980-01-01

    A small-scale demonstration of the high-level radioactive waste solidification process by vitrification in borosilicate glass is being conducted using 5-6 liter batches of actual waste. Equipment performance and processing characteristics of the various unit operations in the process are reported and, where appropriate, are compared to large-scale results obtained with synthetic waste.

  7. Is the detection of accelerated sea level rise imminent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasullo, J. T.; Nerem, R. S.; Hamlington, B.

    2016-08-01

    Global mean sea level rise estimated from satellite altimetry provides a strong constraint on climate variability and change and is expected to accelerate as the rates of both ocean warming and cryospheric mass loss increase over time. In stark contrast to this expectation however, current altimeter products show the rate of sea level rise to have decreased from the first to second decades of the altimeter era. Here, a combined analysis of altimeter data and specially designed climate model simulations shows the 1991 eruption of Mt Pinatubo to likely have masked the acceleration that would have otherwise occurred. This masking arose largely from a recovery in ocean heat content through the mid to late 1990 s subsequent to major heat content reductions in the years following the eruption. A consequence of this finding is that barring another major volcanic eruption, a detectable acceleration is likely to emerge from the noise of internal climate variability in the coming decade.

  8. Fast wafer-level detection and control of interconnect reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Sean; Molyneaux, James; Mathewson, Alan

    2000-08-01

    Many of the technological advances in the semiconductor industry have led to dramatic increases in device density and performance in conjunction with enhanced circuit reliability. As reliability is improved, the time taken to characterize particular failure modes with traditional test methods is getting substantially longer. Furthermore, semiconductor customers expect low product cost and fast time-to-market. The limits of traditional reliability testing philosophies are being reached and new approaches need to be investigated to enable the next generation of highly reliable products to be tested. This is especially true in the area of IC interconnect, where significant challenges are predicted for the next decade. A number of fast, wafer level test methods exist for interconnect reliability evaluation. The relative abilities of four such methods to detect the quality and reliability of IC interconnect over very short test times are evaluated in this work. Four different test structure designs are also evaluated and the results are bench-marked against conventional package level Median Time to Failure results. The Isothermal test method combine with SWEAT-type test structures is shown to be the most suitable combination for defect detection and interconnect reliability control over very short test times.

  9. Detecting neighborhood vacancy level in Detroit city using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Wang, R.; Yang, A.; Vojnovic, I.

    2015-12-01

    With the decline of manufacturing industries, many Rust Belt cities, which enjoyed prosperity in the past, are now suffering from financial stress, population decrease and urban poverty. As a consequence, urban neighborhoods deteriorate. Houses are abandoned and left to decay. Neighborhood vacancy brings on many problems. Governments and agencies try to survey the vacancy level by going through neighborhoods and record the condition of each structure, or by buying information of active mailing addresses to get approximate neighborhood vacancy rate. But these methods are expensive and time consuming. Remote sensing provides a quick and comparatively cost-efficient way to access spatial information on social and demographical attributes of urban area. In our study, we use remote sensing to detect a major aspect of neighborhood deterioration, the vacancy levels of neighborhoods in Detroit city. We compared different neighborhoods using Landsat 8 images in 2013. We calculated NDVI that indicates the greenness of neighborhoods with the image in July 2013. Then we used thermal infrared information from image in February to detect human activities. In winter, abandoned houses will not consume so much energy and therefore neighborhoods with more abandoned houses will have smaller urban heat island effect. Controlling for the differences in terms of the greenness obtained from summer time image, we used thermal infrared from winter image to determine the temperatures of urban surface. We find that hotter areas are better maintained and have lower house vacancy rates. We also compared the changes over time for neighborhoods using Landsat 7 images from 2003 to 2013. The results show that deteriorated neighborhoods have increased NDVI in summer and get colder in winter due to abandonment of houses. Our results show the potential application of remote sensing as an easily accessed and efficient way to obtain data about social conditions in cities. We used the neighborhood

  10. Microchip-based ELISA strategy for the detection of low-level disease biomarker in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yun; Wang Huixiang; Huang Jingyu; Yang Jie; Liu Baohong [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang Pengyuan, E-mail: pyyang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2009-09-14

    A simple and sensitive method has been proposed to determine a trace level of {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP), hepatocellular carcinoma biomarker, using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic chips coupled with electrochemical detection system. The PMMA microchannels have been modified with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) containing abundant NH{sub 2} groups to covalently immobilize AFP monoclonal antibody. Afterward, the antigen AFP and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated AFP antibody can sequentially bind through antigen-antibody specific interaction. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal fluorescence microscope (CFFM) were utilized to characterize the surface topography and protein immobilization after modification. Coupled with three-electrode electrochemical detection system, the immunochip can perform the detection limit of AFP down to 1 pg mL{sup -1}, and achieve a detectable linear concentration range of 1-500 pg mL{sup -1} by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The on-chip immunoassay platform can not only provide rapid and sensitive detection for target proteins but also be resistant to non-specific adsorption of proteins, which contributes to the detection of low-level protein in real sample. Finally, AFP existing in healthy human serum was detected to demonstrate the utility of the immunochip. The result shows that the proposed approach is feasible and has the potential application in clinical analysis and diagnosis.

  11. Multi-level damage detection with nonlinear ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, Kathryn H.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Qu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear ultrasonic method of second harmonic generation is used to detect multiple levels of damage on a single specimen. There is a breadth of research in the literature that measures the second harmonic and the resulting nonlinear parameter to monitor increasing amounts of uniform damage, but for this method to be applicable as an in situ technique, it must be able to scan an area of a structure with varying amounts of damage over a region. To investigate this, an aluminum alloy sample is shot-peened to two intensity levels along its length, to produce different sections of cold work and residual stress as a function of spatial location. Previous research has shown that the residual stress and cold work introduced in a material from shot peening causes an increase in the nonlinear parameter. Rayleigh waves are generated in the sample and the first and second harmonic amplitudes are measured at increasing propagation distances that encompass an undamaged section and two sections, each with different levels of shot peening. Results show that the nonlinear parameter increases as the Rayleigh wedge sensor is scanned over the shot peening sections.

  12. Sound-driven enhancement of vision: disentangling detection-level from decision-level contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bellido, Alexis; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; López-Moliner, Joan

    2013-02-01

    Cross-modal enhancement can be mediated both by higher-order effects due to attention and decision making and by detection-level stimulus-driven interactions. However, the contribution of each of these sources to behavioral improvements has not been conclusively determined and quantified separately. Here, we apply psychophysical analysis based on Piéron functions in order to separate stimulus-dependent changes from those accounted by decision-level contributions. Participants performed a simple visual speeded detection task on Gabor patches of different spatial frequencies and contrast values, presented with and without accompanying sounds. On one hand, we identified an additive cross-modal improvement in mean reaction times across all types of visual stimuli that would be well explained by interactions not strictly based on stimulus-driven modulations (e.g., due to reduction of temporal uncertainty and motor times). On the other hand, we singled out an audio-visual benefit that strongly depended on stimulus features such as frequency and contrast. This particular enhancement was selective to low-visual spatial frequency stimuli, optimized for magnocellular sensitivity. We therefore conclude that interactions at detection stages and at decisional processes in response selection that contribute to audio-visual enhancement can be separated online and express on partly different aspects of visual processing.

  13. Molecular detection of vertebrates in stream water: A demonstration using rocky mountain tailed frogs and Idaho giant salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, C.S.; Pilliod, D.S.; Arkle, R.S.; Waits, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    Stream ecosystems harbor many secretive and imperiled species, and studies of vertebrates in these systems face the challenges of relatively low detection rates and high costs. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has recently been confirmed as a sensitive and efficient tool for documenting aquatic vertebrates in wetlands and in a large river and canal system. However, it was unclear whether this tool could be used to detect low-density vertebrates in fast-moving streams where shed cells may travel rapidly away from their source. To evaluate the potential utility of eDNA techniques in stream systems, we designed targeted primers to amplify a short, species-specific DNA fragment for two secretive stream amphibian species in the northwestern region of the United States (Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, and Idaho giant salamanders, Dicamptodon aterrimus). We tested three DNA extraction and five PCR protocols to determine whether we could detect eDNA of these species in filtered water samples from five streams with varying densities of these species in central Idaho, USA. We successfully amplified and sequenced the targeted DNA regions for both species from stream water filter samples. We detected Idaho giant salamanders in all samples and Rocky Mountain tailed frogs in four of five streams and found some indication that these species are more difficult to detect using eDNA in early spring than in early fall. While the sensitivity of this method across taxa remains to be determined, the use of eDNA could revolutionize surveys for rare and invasive stream species. With this study, the utility of eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic vertebrates has been demonstrated across the majority of freshwater systems, setting the stage for an innovative transformation in approaches for aquatic research.

  14. Molecular detection of vertebrates in stream water: a demonstration using Rocky Mountain tailed frogs and Idaho giant salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren S Goldberg

    Full Text Available Stream ecosystems harbor many secretive and imperiled species, and studies of vertebrates in these systems face the challenges of relatively low detection rates and high costs. Environmental DNA (eDNA has recently been confirmed as a sensitive and efficient tool for documenting aquatic vertebrates in wetlands and in a large river and canal system. However, it was unclear whether this tool could be used to detect low-density vertebrates in fast-moving streams where shed cells may travel rapidly away from their source. To evaluate the potential utility of eDNA techniques in stream systems, we designed targeted primers to amplify a short, species-specific DNA fragment for two secretive stream amphibian species in the northwestern region of the United States (Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, and Idaho giant salamanders, Dicamptodon aterrimus. We tested three DNA extraction and five PCR protocols to determine whether we could detect eDNA of these species in filtered water samples from five streams with varying densities of these species in central Idaho, USA. We successfully amplified and sequenced the targeted DNA regions for both species from stream water filter samples. We detected Idaho giant salamanders in all samples and Rocky Mountain tailed frogs in four of five streams and found some indication that these species are more difficult to detect using eDNA in early spring than in early fall. While the sensitivity of this method across taxa remains to be determined, the use of eDNA could revolutionize surveys for rare and invasive stream species. With this study, the utility of eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic vertebrates has been demonstrated across the majority of freshwater systems, setting the stage for an innovative transformation in approaches for aquatic research.

  15. Bayesian inversion for facies detection: An extensible level set framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, M.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2009-10-01

    In many cases, it has been assumed that the variability in hydrologic parameters can be adequately described through a simple geostatistical model with a given variogram. In other cases, variability may be best described as a series of "jumps" in parameter behavior, e.g., those that occur at geologic facies contacts. When using indirect measurements such as pump tests to try to map such heterogeneity (during inverse modeling), the resulting images of the subsurface are always affected by the assumptions invoked. In this paper, we discuss inversion for parameter fields where prior information has suggested that major variability can be described by boundaries between geologic units or facies. In order to identify such parameter fields, we propose a Bayesian level set inversion protocol framework, which allows for flexible zones of any shape, size, and number. We review formulas for defining facies locations using the level set method and for moving the boundaries between zones using a gradient-based technique that improves fit through iterative deformation of the boundaries. We describe the optimization algorithm employed when multiple level set functions are used to represent a field with more than two facies. We extend these formulas to the investigation of the inverse problem in a Bayesian context in which prior information is taken into account and through which measures of uncertainty can be derived. We also demonstrate that the level set method is well suited for joint inversion problems and present a strategy for integrating different data types (such as hydrologic and geophysical) without assuming strict petrophysical relations. Our framework for joint inversion also contrasts with many previous methods in that all data sources (e.g., both hydrologic and geophysical) contribute to boundary delineation at once.

  16. Demonstration of Far-Infrared GaAs/A1GaAs Quantum Well Photodetectors for Broadband Wavelength Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wen-Zhong; Perera A. G. U

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the realization of broadband wavelength detection by demonstrating the longest cutoff wavelength (λ,c = 28.6 μm) far-infrared GaAs/AIGaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). The responsivity is comparable to that of mid-infrared GaAs/AIGaAs and InGaAs/GaAs QWIPs, with a responsivity of 0.265 A/W and detectivity of 3.4×109 cm. Hz1/2/W at the peak wavelength of 26.9μm at 4.2K. Based on the temperature dependent dark current and response results, it is expected that similar performance can be obtained at least up to 20 K. Several ways to expand the wavelength coverage are also addressed.

  17. Demonstration of elevated levels of active cathepsin S in dextran sulfate sodium colitis using a new activatable probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, N; Nasser, Y; Zhao, P; Sharma, N; Guerrero-Alba, R; Edgington-Mitchell, L E; Lieu, T; Veldhuis, N A; Poole, D P; Conner, J W; Lindström, E; Craig, A W; Graham, B; Vanner, S J; Bunnett, N W

    2015-11-01

    Proteases play a major role in inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Activatable probes are a major technological advance, enabling sensitive detection of active proteases in tissue samples. Our aim was to synthesize an activatable probe for cathepsin S and validate its use in a mouse model of colitis. We designed and synthesized a new fluorescent activatable probe, NB200, for the detection of active cathepsin S. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by the administration of 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Homogenized mouse colons, with or without the addition of the specific cathepsin S inhibitor MV026031, were incubated with NB200 in a fluorescent plate reader. NB200 selectively detected purified cathepsin S and not other common inflammatory proteases. Homogenates of colon from mice with DSS colitis induced a significant fluorescent increase when compared to control animals (control vs DSS: p < 0.05 at 200 min and p < 0.01 at 220-240 min), indicating cathepsin S activation. The cathepsin S inhibitor abolished this increase in fluorescence (DSS vs DSS + MV026031: p < 0.05 at 140 min, p < 0.01 at 180 min, p < 0.001 at 200-240 min), which confirms cathepsin S activation. Cathepsin S activity correlated with the disease activity index (Spearman r = 0.77, p = 0.017). Our investigation has demonstrated the utility of activatable probes for detecting protease activity in intestinal inflammation. Panels of such probes may allow 'signature' protease profiles to be established for a range of inflammatory diseases and disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-12-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  19. Luminance level of a monitor: influence on detectability and detection rate of breast cancer in 2D mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemelmans, Frédéric; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Chesterman, Frédérique; Kimpe, Tom; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate lesion detectability and reading time as a function of luminance level of the monitor. Material and Methods: 3D mass models and microcalcification clusters were simulated into ROIs of for processing mammograms. Randomly selected ROIs were subdivided in three groups according to their background glandularity: high (>30%), medium (15-30%) and low (time were computed for all different conditions. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate the effect of luminance on PC and time. A multi-factorial analysis was performed using MANOVA.. Results: Paired t-test indicated a statistically significant difference for the average time per session between 300 and 1200; 800 and 1200; 1000 and 1200 Cd/m2, for all participants combined. There was no effect on PC. MANOVA denoted significantly lower reading times for high glandularity images at 1200 Cd/m2. Both types of masses were significantly faster detected at 1200 Cd/m2, for the contrast study. In the size study, microcalcification clusters and spiculated masses had a significantly higher detection rate at 1200 Cd/m2. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a significant decrease in reading time, while detectability remained constant.

  20. Decision-level fusion for audio-visual laughter detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.; Poel, M.; Truong, K.; Poppe, R.; Pantic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laughter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio-visual laughter detection is per

  1. Decision-Level Fusion for Audio-Visual Laughter Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, Boris; Poel, Mannes; Truong, Khiet; Poppe, Ronald; Pantic, Maja; Popescu-Belis, Andrei; Stiefelhagen, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laugh- ter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio- visual laughter detection is

  2. Detection of 6 November 1997 Ground Level Event by Milagrito

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    1999-01-01

    Solar Energetic Particles from the 6 November 1997 solar flare/CME(coronal mass ejection) with energies exceeding 10 GeV have been detected by Milagrito, a prototype of the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory. While particle acceleration beyond 1 GeV at the Sun is well established, few data exist for protons or ions beyond 10 GeV. The Milagro observatory, a ground based water Cherenkov detector designed for observing very high energy gamma ray sources, can also be used to study the Sun. Milagrito, which operated for approximately one year in 1997/98, was sensitive to solar proton and neutron fluxes above ~5- 10 GeV. Milagrito operated in a scaler mode, which was primarily sensitive to muons, low energy photons, and electrons, and the detector operated in a mode sensitive to showers and high zenith angle muons. In its scaler mode, Milagrito registered a rate increase coincident with the 6 November 1997 ground level event observed by Climax and other neutron monitors. A preliminary analysis suggests the presence of >...

  3. Multi-Level Anomaly Detection on Time-Varying Graph Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, Robert A [ORNL; Collins, John P [ORNL; Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel modeling and analysis framework for graph sequences which addresses the challenge of detecting and contextualizing anomalies in labelled, streaming graph data. We introduce a generalization of the BTER model of Seshadhri et al. by adding flexibility to community structure, and use this model to perform multi-scale graph anomaly detection. Specifically, probability models describing coarse subgraphs are built by aggregating probabilities at finer levels, and these closely related hierarchical models simultaneously detect deviations from expectation. This technique provides insight into a graph's structure and internal context that may shed light on a detected event. Additionally, this multi-scale analysis facilitates intuitive visualizations by allowing users to narrow focus from an anomalous graph to particular subgraphs or nodes causing the anomaly. For evaluation, two hierarchical anomaly detectors are tested against a baseline Gaussian method on a series of sampled graphs. We demonstrate that our graph statistics-based approach outperforms both a distribution-based detector and the baseline in a labeled setting with community structure, and it accurately detects anomalies in synthetic and real-world datasets at the node, subgraph, and graph levels. To illustrate the accessibility of information made possible via this technique, the anomaly detector and an associated interactive visualization tool are tested on NCAA football data, where teams and conferences that moved within the league are identified with perfect recall, and precision greater than 0.786.

  4. Product acceptance of a certified Class C low-level waste form at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, P.J. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., NY (United States); Maestas, E.; Yeazel, J.A. [Dept. of Energy, West Valley, NY (United States). West Valley Project Office; McIntosh, T.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology

    1989-11-01

    The Department of Energy, is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste (HLW) remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities, which were conducted at West Valley, New York between 1966 and 1972. One important aspect of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s fully integrated waste program is the treatment and conditioning of low-level wastes which result from processing liquid high-level waste. The treatment takes place in the project`s Integrated Radwaste Treatment System which removes Cesium-137 from the liquid or supernatant phase of the HLW by utilizing an ion exchange technique. The resulting decontaminated and conditioned liquid waste stream is solidified into a Class C low-level cement waste form that meets the waste form criteria specified in NRC 10 CFR 61. The waste matrix is placed in 71-gallon square drums, remotely handled and stored on site until determination of final disposition. This paper discusses the programs in place at West Valley to ensure production of an acceptable cement-based product. Topics include the short and long term test programs to predict product storage and disposal performance, description of the Process Control Plan utilized to control and maintain cement waste form product specifications and finally discuss the operational performance characteristics of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System. Operational data and product statistics are provided.

  5. Initial demonstration of the NRC`s capability to conduct a performance assessment for a High-Level Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codell, R.; Eisenberg, N.; Fehringer, D.; Ford, W.; Margulies, T.; McCartin, T.; Park, J.; Randall, J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to better review licensing submittals for a High-Level Waste Repository, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has expanded and improved its capability to conduct performance assessments. This report documents an initial demonstration of this capability. The demonstration made use of the limited data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada to investigate a small set of scenario classes. Models of release and transport of radionuclides from a repository via the groundwater and direct release pathways provided preliminary estimates of releases to the accessible environment for a 10,000 year simulation time. Latin hypercube sampling of input parameters was used to express results as distributions and to investigate model sensitivities. This methodology demonstration should not be interpreted as an estimate of performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. By expanding and developing the NRC staff capability to conduct such analyses, NRC would be better able to conduct an independent technical review of the US Department of Energy (DOE) licensing submittals for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. These activities were divided initially into Phase 1 and Phase 2 activities. Additional phases may follow as part of a program of iterative performance assessment at the NRC. The NRC staff conducted Phase 1 activities primarily in CY 1989 with minimal participation from NRC contractors. The Phase 2 activities were to involve NRC contractors actively and to provide for the transfer of technology. The Phase 2 activities are scheduled to start in CY 1990, to allow Sandia National Laboratories to complete development and transfer of computer codes and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to be in a position to assist in the acquisition of the codes.

  6. Trace level detection of analytes using artificial olfactometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); Severin, Erik J. (Inventor); Wong, Bernard (Inventor); Kelso, David M. (Inventor); Munoz, Beth C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for detecting the presence of an analyte indicative of various medical conditions, including halitosis, periodontal disease and other diseases are also disclosed.

  7. Sputtered Encapsulation as Wafer Level Packaging for Isolatable MEMS Devices: A Technique Demonstrated on a Capacitive Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrul Azlan Hamzah

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses sputtered silicon encapsulation as a wafer level packaging approach for isolatable MEMS devices. Devices such as accelerometers, RF switches, inductors, and filters that do not require interaction with the surroundings to function, could thus be fully encapsulated at the wafer level after fabrication. A MEMSTech 50g capacitive accelerometer was used to demonstrate a sputtered encapsulation technique. Encapsulation with a very uniform surface profile was achieved using spin-on glass (SOG as a sacrificial layer, SU-8 as base layer, RF sputtered silicon as main structural layer, eutectic gold-silicon as seal layer, and liquid crystal polymer (LCP as outer encapsulant layer. SEM inspection and capacitance test indicated that the movable elements were released after encapsulation. Nanoindentation test confirmed that the encapsulated device is sufficiently robust to withstand a transfer molding process. Thus, an encapsulation technique that is robust, CMOS compatible, and economical has been successfully developed for packaging isolatable MEMS devices at the wafer level.

  8. Removal of radiocesium from low level radioactive effluents by hexacyanoferrate loaded synthetic zeolite. Laboratory to pilot plant scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Dayamoy; Rao, Manjula A.; Khot, Shantinath A.; Shah, Jayesh G.; Banerjee, Kalyan [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Nuclear Recycle Group; Pawaskar, Chandrahas S.; Gangadharan, Anand; Rao, Shankar N.; Jain, Savita [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-06-01

    Present paper reports removal of radiocesium from low level waste using a modified sorbent (13X-CFC) prepared by in-situ precipitation of potassium copper hexacyanoferrate(II) inside the macropores of a synthetic zeolite. The Cs exchange isotherm of the sorbent is established and it found to follow Fruendlich absorption isotherm equation. It is varified that presence of hexacyanoferrate on zeolite facilitates rapid Cs uptake performance. This is further confirmed in laboratory scale column tests, wherein excellent Cs removal performance from low level waste simulant was observed even at higher flow rates (40 bed volumes per hour). The utility of the sorbent is established through successful demonstration in a pilot scale (50 L) trial with almost complete removal of {sup 137}Cs from more than 14,000 bed volumes of actual low level waste. The sorbent, owing to its low cost and excellent {sup 137}Cs removal performance, is expected to find application in treatment of very low active waste streams.

  9. A Matched Filter Technique for Slow Radio Transient Detection and First Demonstration with the Murchison Widefield Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L.; Vaulin, R.; Hewitt, J. N.; Remillard, R.; Kaplan, D. L.; Murphy, Tara; Kudryavtseva, N.; Hancock, P.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2017-03-01

    Many astronomical sources produce transient phenomena at radio frequencies, but the transient sky at low frequencies (technique for detecting radio transients that is based on temporal matched filters applied directly to time series of images, rather than relying on source-finding algorithms applied to individual images. This technique has well-defined statistical properties and is applicable to variable and transient searches for both confusion-limited and non-confusion-limited instruments. Using the Murchison Widefield Array as an example, we demonstrate that the technique works well on real data despite the presence of classical confusion noise, sidelobe confusion noise, and other systematic errors. We searched for transients lasting between 2 minutes and 3 months. We found no transients and set improved upper limits on the transient surface density at 182 MHz for flux densities between ∼20 and 200 mJy, providing the best limits to date for hour- and month-long transients.

  10. Experimental demonstration of 30 Gb/s direct-detection optical OFDM transmission with blind symbol synchronisation using virtual subcarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouziane, R; Milder, P A; Erkılınç, S; Galdino, L; Kilmurray, S; Thomsen, B C; Bayvel, P; Killey, R I

    2014-02-24

    The paper investigates the performance of a blind symbol synchronisation technique for optical OFDM systems based on virtual subcarriers. The test-bed includes a real-time 16-QAM OFDM transmitter operating at a net data rate of 30.65 Gb/s using a single OFDM band with a single FPGA-DAC subsystem and demonstrates transmission over 23.3 km SSMF with direct detection at a BER of 10(-3). By comparing the performance of the proposed synchronisation scheme with that of the Schmidl and Cox algorithm, it was found that the two approaches achieve similar performance for large numbers of averaging symbols, but the performance of the proposed scheme degrades as the number of averaging symbols is reduced. The proposed technique has lower complexity and bandwidth overhead as it does not rely on training sequences. Consequently, it is suitable for implementation in high speed optical OFDM transceivers.

  11. Results of Tank-Leak Detection Demonstration Using Geophysical Techniques at the Hanford Mock Tank Site-Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D BRENT.; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2002-03-01

    During July and August of 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), hosted researchers from Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories, and a private contractor, HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., for deployment of the following five geophysical leak-detection technologies at the Hanford Site Mock Tank in a Tank Leak Detection Demonstration (TLDD): (1) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); (2) Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction (CEMI); (3) High-Resolution Resistivity (HRR); (4) Cross-Borehole Radar (XBR); and (5) Cross-Borehole Seismic Tomography (XBS). Under a ''Tri-party Agreement'' with Federal and state regulators, the U.S. Department of Energy will remove wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other miscellaneous underground tanks for storage in the double-shell tank system. Waste retrieval methods are being considered that use very little, if any, liquid to dislodge, mobilize, and remove the wastes. As additional assurance of protection of the vadose zone beneath the SSTs, tank wastes and tank conditions may be aggressively monitored during retrieval operations by methods that are deployed outside the SSTs in the vadose zone.

  12. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Kragh Lauridsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Due to its ready adaptation to the dehydrated mucosa of CF airways, PA infections tend to become chronic, eventually killing the patient. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN at ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band at ∼2133 cm−1, is an excellent case for the SERS-based detection due to the infrequent occurrence of triple bonds in nature. For demonstration of direct HCN detection in the gas phase, a gold-coated silicon nanopillar substrate was exposed to 5 ppm HCN in N2. Results showed that HCN adsorbed on the SERS substrate can be consistently detected under different experimental conditions and up to 9 days after exposure. For detection of lower cyanide concentrations serial dilution experiments using potassium cyanide (KCN demonstrated cyanide quantification down to 1 μM in solution (corresponding to 18 ppb. Lower KCN concentrations of 10 and 100 nM (corresponding to 0.18 and 1.8 ppb produced SERS intensities that were relatively similar to the reference signal. Since HCN concentration in the breath of PA colonized CF children is reported to be ∼13.5 ppb, the detection of cyanide is within the required range.

  13. Molecular level detection and localization of mechanical damage in collagen enabled by collagen hybridizing peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnay, Jared L.; Li, Yang; Qin, Zhao; San, Boi Hoa; Depalle, Baptiste; Reese, Shawn P.; Buehler, Markus J.; Yu, S. Michael; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2017-03-01

    Mechanical injury to connective tissue causes changes in collagen structure and material behaviour, but the role and mechanisms of molecular damage have not been established. In the case of mechanical subfailure damage, no apparent macroscale damage can be detected, yet this damage initiates and potentiates in pathological processes. Here, we utilize collagen hybridizing peptide (CHP), which binds unfolded collagen by triple helix formation, to detect molecular level subfailure damage to collagen in mechanically stretched rat tail tendon fascicle. Our results directly reveal that collagen triple helix unfolding occurs during tensile loading of collagenous tissues and thus is an important damage mechanism. Steered molecular dynamics simulations suggest that a likely mechanism for triple helix unfolding is intermolecular shearing of collagen α-chains. Our results elucidate a probable molecular failure mechanism associated with subfailure injuries, and demonstrate the potential of CHP targeting for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of tissue disease and injury.

  14. Detection of Ebola Virus RNA through Aerosol Sampling of Animal Biosafety Level 4 Rooms Housing Challenged Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    301- 619-4768(f). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Title: Detection of Ebola Virus RNA through Aerosol Sampling of Animal Biosafety Level 9 4...embedded in the texts. This is the first report demonstrating detection of Ebola virus 17 RNA from animal rooms housing infected nonhuman primates and...on Ebola virus disease and NHP animal models 34 of filovirus infections 35 • Dr. Robert Hawley, Private Consultant, bobhawley226@gmail.com, Former

  15. Towards Flexibility Detection in Device-Level Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Bijay; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thiesson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing drive towards green energy has boosted the installation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Increasing the share of RES in the power grid requires demand management by flexibility in the consumption. In this paper, we perform a state-of-the-art analysis on the flexibility...... regularities and patterns and the correlation between operating different devices. Subsequently, we show the existence of detectable time and energy flexibility in device operations. Finally, we provide various results providing a foundation for load- and flexibility-detection and -prediction at the device...

  16. Towards Flexibility Detection in Device-Level Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Bijay; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thiesson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing drive towards green energy has boosted the installation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Increasing the share of RES in the power grid requires demand management by flexibility in the consumption. In this paper, we perform a state-of-the-art analysis on the flexibility...... regularities and patterns and the correlation between operating different devices. Subsequently, we show the existence of detectable time and energy flexibility in device operations. Finally, we provide various results providing a foundation for load- and flexibility-detection and -prediction at the device...

  17. Electrochemical Detection of Horseradish Peroxidase at Zeptomole Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical method for determination of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was developed using a capillary catalytic system. HRP can be measured in several minutes with a detection limit of 4.8×10-12 mol/L or 47 zmol (S/N=3).

  18. High-Level Synthesis of DSP Applications Using Adaptive Negative Cycle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Chandrachoodan

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of detecting negative weight cycles in a graph is examined in the context of the dynamic graph structures that arise in the process of high level synthesis (HLS. The concept of adaptive negative cycle detection is introduced, in which a graph changes over time and negative cycle detection needs to be done periodically, but not necessarily after every individual change. We present an algorithm for this problem, based on a novel extension of the well-known Bellman-Ford algorithm that allows us to adapt existing cycle information to the modified graph, and show by experiments that our algorithm significantly outperforms previous incremental approaches for dynamic graphs. In terms of applications, the adaptive technique leads to a very fast implementation of Lawlers algorithm for the computation of the maximum cycle mean (MCM of a graph, especially for a certain form of sparse graph. Such sparseness often occurs in practical circuits and systems, as demonstrated, for example, by the ISCAS 89/93 benchmarks. The application of the adaptive technique to design-space exploration (synthesis is also demonstrated by developing automated search techniques for scheduling iterative data-flow graphs.

  19. Development and Demonstration of a Self-Calibrating Pseudolite Array for Task Level Control of a Planetary Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Stephen M.; LeMaster, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudolites can extend the availability of GPS-type positioning systems to a wide range of applications not possible with satellite-only GPS. One such application is Mars exploration, where the centimeter-level accuracy and high repeatability of CDGPS would make it attractive for rover positioning during autonomous exploration, sample collection, and habitat construction if it were available. Pseudolites distributed on the surface would allow multiple rovers and/or astronauts to share a common navigational reference. This would help enable cooperation for complicated science tasks, reducing the need for instructions from Earth and increasing the likelihood of mission success. Conventional GPS Pseudolite arrays require that the devices be pre-calibrated through a Survey of their locations, typically to sub-centimeter accuracy. This is a problematic task for robots on the surface of another planet. By using the GPS signals that the Pseudolites broadcast, however, it is possible to have the array self-survey its own relative locations, creating a SelfCalibrating Pseudolite Array (SCPA). This requires the use of GPS transceivers instead of standard pseudolites. Surveying can be done either at carrier- or code-phase levels. An overview of SCPA capabilities, system requirements, and self-calibration algorithms is presented in another work. The Aerospace Robotics Laboratory at Statif0id has developed a fully operational prototype SCPA. The array is able to determine the range between any two transceivers with either code- or carrier-phase accuracy, and uses this inter-transceiver ranging to determine the at-ray geometry. This paper presents results from field tests conducted at Stanford University demonstrating the accuracy of inter-transceiver ranging and its viability and utility for array localization, and shows how transceiver motion may be utilized to refine the array estimate by accurately determining carrier-phase integers and line biases. It also summarizes the

  20. Cesium-137 Levels Detected in Otters from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutleb A.C.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution seems to be one of the most important causes for the decline of the European otter (Lutra lutra. The accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant added another aspect to environmental pollution. Few data on cesium-137 contents in otters are available, so levels were measured in 3 otters from Austria. All levels found were very low.

  1. Feasibility demonstration of a massively parallelizable optical near-field sensor for sub-wavelength defect detection and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Mahkamehossadat; Diaz, Rodolfo E.

    2016-05-01

    To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality scan a single detector element across the surface under inspection because the scattered signals from a multiplicity of such elements would end up interfering with each other. However, an alternative massively parallelized configuration, capable of interrogating multiple adjacent areas of the surface at the same time, was proposed in 2002. Full physics simulations of the photonic antenna detector element that enables this instrument, show that using conventional red laser light (in the 600 nm range) the detector magnifies the signal from an 8 nm particle by up to 1.5 orders of magnitude. The antenna is a shaped slot element in a 60 nm silver film. The ability of this detector element to resolve λ/78 objects is confirmed experimentally at radio frequencies by fabricating an artificial material structure that mimics the optical permittivity of silver scaled to 2 GHz, and “cutting” into it the slot antenna. The experimental set-up is also used to demonstrate the imaging of a patterned surface in which the critical dimensions of the pattern are λ/22 in size.

  2. Deception Detection: The Relationship of Levels of Trust and Perspective Taking in Real-Time Online and Offline Communication Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Catherine; Fox Hamilton, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Where humans have been found to detect lies or deception only at the rate of chance in offline face-to-face communication (F2F), computer-mediated communication (CMC) online can elicit higher rates of trust and sharing of personal information than F2F. How do levels of trust and empathetic personality traits like perspective taking (PT) relate to deception detection in real-time CMC compared to F2F? A between groups correlational design (N = 40) demonstrated that, through a paired deceptive conversation task with confederates, levels of participant trust could predict accurate detection online but not offline. Second, participant PT abilities could not predict accurate detection in either conversation medium. Finally, this study found that conversation medium also had no effect on deception detection. This study finds support for the effects of the Truth Bias and online disinhibition in deception, and further implications in law enforcement are discussed.

  3. Hardware Demonstrator of a Level-1 Track Finding Algorithm with FPGAs for the Phase II CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cieri, Davide

    2016-01-01

    At the HL-LHC, proton bunches collide every 25\\,ns, producing an average of 140 pp interactions per bunch crossing. To operate in such an environment, the CMS experiment will need a Level-1 (L1) hardware trigger, able to identify interesting events within a latency of 12.5\\,$\\mu$s. This novel L1 trigger will make use of data coming from the silicon tracker to constrain the trigger rate. Goal of this new \\textit{track trigger} will be to build L1 tracks from the tracker information. The architecture that will be implemented in future to process tracker data is still under discussion. One possibility is to adopt a system entirely based on FPGA electronic. The proposed track finding algorithm is based on the Hough transform method. The algorithm has been tested using simulated pp collision data and it is currently being demonstrated in hardware, using the ``MP7'', which is a $\\mu$TCA board with a powerful FPGA capable of handling data rates approaching 1 Tb/s. Two different implementations of the Hough tran...

  4. Hardware Demonstrator of a Level-1 Track Finding Algorithm with FPGAs for the Phase II CMS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieri, D.; CMS Collaboration; of the Time Multiplexed Track Trigger Group

    2016-10-01

    At the HL-LHC, proton bunches collide every 25 ns, producing an average of 140 pp interactions per bunch crossing. To operate in such an environment, the CMS experiment will need a Level-1 (L1) hardware trigger, able to identify interesting events within a latency of 12.5 μs. This novel L1 trigger will make use of data coming from the silicon tracker to constrain the trigger rate. Goal of this new track trigger will be to build L1 tracks from the tracker information. The architecture that will be implemented in future to process tracker data is still under discussion. One possibility is to adopt a system entirely based on FPGA electronic. The proposed track finding algorithm is based on the Hough transform method. The algorithm has been tested using simulated pp collision data and it is currently being demonstrated in hardware, using the “MP7”, which is a μTCA board with a powerful FPGA capable of handling data rates approaching 1 Tb/s. Two different implementations of the Hough transform technique are currently under investigation: one utilizes a systolic array to represent the Hough space, while the other exploits a pipelined approach.

  5. Hardware Demonstrator of a Level-1 Track Finding Algorithm with FPGAs for the Phase II CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2090481

    2016-01-01

    At the HL-LHC, proton bunches collide every 25\\,ns, producing an average of 140 pp interactions per bunch crossing. To operate in such an environment, the CMS experiment will need a Level-1 (L1) hardware trigger, able to identify interesting events within a latency of 12.5\\,$\\mu$s. This novel L1 trigger will make use of data coming from the silicon tracker to constrain the trigger rate. Goal of this new \\textit{track trigger} will be to build L1 tracks from the tracker information. The architecture that will be implemented in future to process tracker data is still under discussion. One possibility is to adopt a system entirely based on FPGA electronic. The proposed track finding algorithm is based on the Hough transform method. The algorithm has been tested using simulated pp collision data and it is currently being demonstrated in hardware, using the ``MP7'', which is a $\\mu$TCA board with a powerful FPGA capable of handling data rates approaching 1 Tb/s. Two different implementations of the Hough tran...

  6. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steill, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  8. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoops, Alexandra A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Birtola, Salvatore R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jaska, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Strecker, Kevin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bisson, Soott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  9. Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix Bone Fracture Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hum Y. Chai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Currently doctors in orthopedic wards inspect the bone x-ray images according to their experience and knowledge in bone fracture analysis. Manual examination of x-rays has multitude drawbacks. The process is time-consuming and subjective. Approach: Since detection of fractures is an important orthopedics and radiologic problem and therefore a Computer Aided Detection(CAD system should be developed to improve the scenario. In this study, a fracture detection CAD based on GLCM recognition could improve the current manual inspection of x-ray images system. The GLCM for fracture and non-fracture bone is computed and analysis is made. Features of Homogeneity, contrast, energy, correlation are calculated to classify the fractured bone. Results: 30 images of femur fractures have been tested, the result shows that the CAD system can differentiate the x-ray bone into fractured and nonfractured femur. The accuracy obtained from the system is 86.67. Conclusion: The CAD system is proved to be effective in classifying the digital radiograph of bone fracture. However the accuracy rate is not perfect, the performance of this system can be further improved using multiple features of GLCM and future works can be done on classifying the bone into different degree of fracture specifically.

  10. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Molin, Søren

    2015-01-01

    ) at ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band...... at ∼2133 cm-1, is an excellent case for the SERS-based detection due to the infrequent occurrence of triple bonds in nature. For demonstration of direct HCN detection in the gas phase, a gold-coated silicon nanopillar substrate was exposed to 5 ppm HCN in N2. Results showed that HCN adsorbed on the SERS......). Lower KCN concentrations of 10 and 100 nM (corresponding to 0.18 and 1.8 ppb) produced SERS intensities that were relatively similar to the reference signal. Since HCN concentration in the breath of PA colonized CF children is reported to be ∼13.5 ppb, the detection of cyanide is within the required...

  11. Research on Acceleration Disturbance Suppression for Dynamic Detection of Level Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Linxia; Zhang, Fuxue

    The paper presents a new method to eliminate acceleration disturbance in level attitude measurement and control of moving carrier. Output signals of micro-machined inclinometer and gyroscope are analyzed in different states of moving carrier by experimental simulation, results show that gyroscope almost keeps the zero output voltage while inclinometer outputs in significant fluctuations. With the analysis results, a new method on acceleration disturbance suppression is developed base on a combination of inclinometers and gyroscopes, which includes establishment and derivation of its mathematical model and implementation, and an algorithm software design. Finally, tests to the acceleration disturbance suppression effect are demonstrated in line motion, line vibration, angular motion and angular motion plus pitch swing. Experimental results show that the method achieves its expected effect. The inertial system constitutes of inclinometers and gyros interacting with acceleration disturbance suppression method can dynamic detect the level attitude of moving carrier.

  12. Level set formulation of two-dimensional Lagrangian vortex detection methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjighasem, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    We propose here the use of the variational level set methodology to capture Lagrangian vortex boundaries in 2D unsteady velocity fields. This method reformulates earlier approaches that seek material vortex boundaries as extremum solutions of variational problems. We demonstrate the performance of this technique for two different variational formulations built upon different notions of coherence. The first formulation uses an energy functional that penalizes the deviation of a closed material line from piecewise uniform stretching [Haller and Beron-Vera, J. Fluid Mech. 731, R4 (2013)]. The second energy function is derived for a graph-based approach to vortex boundary detection [Hadjighasem et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 063107 (2016)]. Our level-set formulation captures an a priori unknown number of vortices simultaneously at relatively low computational cost. We illustrate the approach by identifying vortices from different coherence principles in several examples.

  13. Fiber optic fluorescence detection of low-level porphyrin concentrations in preclinical and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Thomas S.; McGinnis, Carolyn; Khan, S.

    1990-07-01

    of 50-100 cells using 0.25 mg/kg of sensitizer, a level 20 times lower than normally used for treatment of animal tumors. These results indicate that Photofrin II could be used for fluorescence detection of small metastatic tumors, while substantially reducing the major side effect of PDT; namely, prolonged photosensitivity. Results to be presented demonstrate the ability of this technique to detect microscopic deposits of malignant tumor cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer. These deposits were found in clinically negative areas of the chest wall.

  14. Broadly Applicable Strategy for the Fluorescence Based Detection and Differentiation of Glutathione and Cysteine/Homocysteine: Demonstration in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenqiang; Luo, Hongchen; Liu, Xingjiang; Foley, James W; Song, Xiangzhi

    2016-04-01

    Glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), and homocysteine (Hcy) are small biomolecular thiols that are present in all cells and extracellular fluids of healthy mammals. It is well-known that each plays a separate, critically important role in human physiology and that abnormal levels of each are predictive of a variety of different disease states. Although a number of fluorescence-based methods have been developed that can detect biomolecules that contain sulfhydryl moieties, few are able to differentiate between GSH and Cys/Hcy. In this report, we demonstrate a broadly applicable approach for the design of fluorescent probes that can achieve this goal. The strategy we employ is to conjugate a fluorescence-quenching 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD) moiety to a selected fluorophore (Dye) through a sulfhydryl-labile ether linkage to afford nonfluorescent NBD-O-Dye. In the presence of GSH or Cys/Hcy, the ether bond is cleaved with the concomitant generation of both a nonfluorescent NBD-S-R derivative and a fluorescent dye having a characteristic intense emission band (B1). In the special case of Cys/Hcy, the NBD-S-Cys/Hcy cleavage product can undergo a further, rapid, intramolecular Smiles rearrangement to form a new, highly fluorescent NBD-N-Cys/Hcy compound (band B2); because of geometrical constraints, the GSH derived NBD-S-GSH derivative cannot undergo a Smiles rearrangement. Thus, the presence of a single B1 or double B1 + B2 signature can be used to detect and differentiate GSH from Cys/Hcy, respectively. We demonstrate the broad applicability of our approach by including in our studies members of the Flavone, Bodipy, and Coumarin dye families. Particularly, single excitation wavelength could be applied for the probe NBD-OF in the detection of GSH over Cys/Hcy in both aqueous solution and living cells.

  15. Detection and correction of probe-level artefacts on microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Tobias

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent large-scale analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO data found frequent evidence for spatial defects in a substantial fraction of Affymetrix microarrays in the GEO. Nevertheless, in contrast to quality assessment, artefact detection is not widely used in standard gene expression analysis pipelines. Furthermore, although approaches have been proposed to detect diverse types of spatial noise on arrays, the correction of these artefacts is mostly left to either summarization methods or the corresponding arrays are completely discarded. Results We show that state-of-the-art robust summarization procedures are vulnerable to artefacts on arrays and cannot appropriately correct for these. To address this problem, we present a simple approach to detect artefacts with high recall and precision, which we further improve by taking into account the spatial layout of arrays. Finally, we propose two correction methods for these artefacts that either substitute values of defective probes using probeset information or filter corrupted probes. We show that our approach can identify and correct defective probe measurements appropriately and outperforms existing tools. Conclusions While summarization is insufficient to correct for defective probes, this problem can be addressed in a straightforward way by the methods we present for identification and correction of defective probes. As these methods output CEL files with corrected probe values that serve as input to standard normalization and summarization procedures, they can be easily integrated into existing microarray analysis pipelines as an additional pre-processing step. An R package is freely available from http://www.bio.ifi.lmu.de/artefact-correction.

  16. Note: Improving low-light-level image detection sensitivity with higher speed using auxiliary sinusoidal light signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongying; Yu, Zhengtao

    2015-06-01

    An improved active imaging method, which upgraded the detection sensitivity by applying an auxiliary sawtooth wave light signal, was reported. Nevertheless, such method sacrificed the imaging speed. To speed up imaging, a sinusoidal light signal is used instead and superposed with the undetectable low-light-level signal on the image sensor. After acquiring a superimposed image set in one sine wave cycle, an unbiased low-light-level image estimation is obtained by using least-square optimization. Through probabilistic analysis and experimental study, we demonstrate that the sinusoidal signal could improve the detection sensitivity 1/3 faster than the sawtooth wave signal.

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles for trace level detection of a hazardous pollutant (nitrobenzene) causing Methemoglobinaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, R. [Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, Tamil Nadu (India); Karuppiah, Chelladurai [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Shen-Ming, E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Palanisamy, Selvakumar [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Padmavathy, S. [Department of Zoology and Microbiology, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, Tamil Nadu (India); Prakash, P., E-mail: kmpprakash@gmail.com [Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation for green synthesis of Au-NPs and its electroreduction of nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • A green synthesis of size controlled Au-NPs from plant extract. • Trace level detection of nitro benzene, a pollutant causing Methemoglobinaemia, at Au-NPs modified electrode. • Achievement of lower LOD and wider linear response. • The proposed sensor exhibits excellent practicality in various water samples. - Abstract: The present study involves a green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using Acacia nilotica twig bark extract at room temperature and trace level detection of one of the hazardous materials, viz. nitrobenzene (NB) that causes Methemoglobinaemia. The synthesis protocol demonstrates that the bioreduction of chloroauric acid leads to the formation of Au-NPs within 10 min, suggesting a higher reaction rate than any other chemical methods involved. The obtained Au-NPs have been characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The electrochemical detection of NB has been investigated at the green synthesized Au-NPs modified glassy carbon electrode by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits excellent reduction ability toward NB compared to unmodified electrode. The developed NB sensor at Au-NPs modified electrode displays a wide linear response from 0.1 to 600 μM with high sensitivity of 1.01 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and low limit of detection of 0.016 μM. The modified electrode shows exceptional selectivity in the presence of ions, phenolic and biologically coactive compounds. In addition, the Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits an outstanding recovery results toward NB in various real water samples.

  18. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles for trace level detection of a hazardous pollutant (nitrobenzene) causing Methemoglobinaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, R; Karuppiah, Chelladurai; Chen, Shen-Ming; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Padmavathy, S; Prakash, P

    2014-08-30

    The present study involves a green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using Acacia nilotica twig bark extract at room temperature and trace level detection of one of the hazardous materials, viz. nitrobenzene (NB) that causes Methemoglobinaemia. The synthesis protocol demonstrates that the bioreduction of chloroauric acid leads to the formation of Au-NPs within 10min, suggesting a higher reaction rate than any other chemical methods involved. The obtained Au-NPs have been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The electrochemical detection of NB has been investigated at the green synthesized Au-NPs modified glassy carbon electrode by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits excellent reduction ability toward NB compared to unmodified electrode. The developed NB sensor at Au-NPs modified electrode displays a wide linear response from 0.1 to 600μM with high sensitivity of 1.01μAμM(-1)cm(-2) and low limit of detection of 0.016μM. The modified electrode shows exceptional selectivity in the presence of ions, phenolic and biologically coactive compounds. In addition, the Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits an outstanding recovery results toward NB in various real water samples.

  19. First demonstration of VUV-photon detection in liquid xenon with THGEM and GEM-based Liquid Hole Multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Erdal, E; Rappaport, M; Shchemelinin, S; Vartsky, D; Breskin, A

    2016-01-01

    The bubble-assisted Liquid Hole-Multiplier (LHM) is a recently-introduced detection concept for noble-liquid time projection chambers. In this "local dual-phase" detection element, a gas bubble is supported underneath a perforated electrode (e.g., Thick Gas Electron Multiplier - THGEM, or Gas Electron Multiplier - GEM). Electrons drifting through the holes induce large electroluminescence signals as they pass into the bubble. In this work we report on recent results of THGEM and GEM electrodes coated with cesium iodide and immersed in liquid xenon, allowing - for the first time - the detection of primary VUV scintillation photons in addition to ionization electrons using LHMs.

  20. Using Small-Area Analysis to Estimate County-Level Racial Disparities in Obesity Demonstrating the Necessity of Targeted Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy D'Agostino-McGowan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the national and state levels is often used to inform policy decisions and strategies designed to reduce racial disparities in obesity. Obesity-related health outcomes are realized on the individual level, and policies based on state and national-level data may be inappropriate due to the variations in health outcomes within and between states. To examine county-level variation of obesity within states, we use a small-area analysis technique to fill the void for county-level obesity data by race. Five years of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data are used to estimate the prevalence of obesity by county, both overall and race-stratified. A modified weighting system is used based on demographics at the county level using 2010 census data. We fit a multilevel reweighted regression model to obtain county-level prevalence estimates by race. We compare the distribution of prevalence estimates of non-Hispanic Blacks to non-Hispanic Whites. For 25 of the 26 states included in our analysis there is a statistically significant difference between within-state county-level average obesity prevalence rates for non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. This study provides information needed to target disparities interventions and resources to the local areas with greatest need; it also identifies the necessity of doing so.

  1. Demonstrating the Effects of Shop Flow Process Variability on the Air Force Depot Level Reparable Item Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    DO41). AFLCR 57-4. Wright-Patterson AFB OH: HQ AFLC, 29 April 1983. 137 12. Goldratt , Eliyahu M. and Jeff Cox. The Goal. Croton-On-Hudson NY: North...manufacturing process (14:411). Goldratt and Cox give another example of the same impact of variability in their book The Goal when they demonstrated what

  2. Design of microarray probes for virus identification and detection of emerging viruses at the genus level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Mei-Shang

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most virus detection methods are geared towards the detection of specific single viruses or just a few known targets, and lack the capability to uncover the novel viruses that cause emerging viral infections. To address this issue, we developed a computational method that identifies the conserved viral sequences at the genus level for all viral genomes available in GenBank, and established a virus probe library. The virus probes are used not only to identify known viruses but also for discerning the genera of emerging or uncharacterized ones. Results Using the microarray approach, the identity of the virus in a test sample is determined by the signals of both genus and species-specific probes. The genera of emerging and uncharacterized viruses are determined based on hybridization of the viral sequences to the conserved probes for the existing viral genera. A detection and classification procedure to determine the identity of a virus directly from detection signals results in the rapid identification of the virus. Conclusion We have demonstrated the validity and feasibility of the above strategy with a small number of viral samples. The probe design algorithm can be applied to any publicly available viral sequence database. The strategy of using separate genus and species probe sets enables the use of a straightforward virus identity calculation directly based on the hybridization signals. Our virus identification strategy has great potential in the diagnosis of viral infections. The virus genus and specific probe database and the associated summary tables are available at http://genestamp.sinica.edu.tw/virus/index.htm.

  3. SPA enhanced FPIA-based detection of pesticide residue with ppb/ppt level detection limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrapati, Swathi; Pullela, Phani Kumar; Vijayalakshmi, Uthirapathy

    2017-02-01

    Pesticide residue in fruits & vegetables is one of the key issues affecting the export of rural products in India. Pesticide exposure or intake causes major nervous system problems in children. The solutions to quantitate them in field are rare and the pesticide residue detection in the parts per billion (ppb) ranges is challenging. Except ELISA, none of the existing methods can detect pesticide residues in ppb range in the field. We employed a new approach of concentrating field samples and used sodium polyacrylate (SPA) as water absorbing material. The SPA beads concentrate the field samples and obtained a sub ppb range detection using an existing FPIA system and could improve overall sensitivity by 10-100 fold. The developed assay can be done in few seconds. We have used three pesticides 2,4-D, atrazine and methyl parathion with 0.1, 0.5 and 3 ppb detection limit respectively. We developed a simple field ready FPIA device and used sodium poly acrylate (SPA) in this biochemical FPIA to enhance sensitivity. Our tests with spiked field samples offers a possibility of using SPA concentration assisted FPIA in field. This study will have far reaching applications of both qualitative & quantitative analysis chemical analytes in field samples.

  4. Demonstration of efficient spin injection and detection in various systems using Fe3O4 based spin injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetha G. Bhat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Half-metal based spin injector devices for spin injection and detection application have proven to be efficient owing to their enhanced injection and detection efficiency. In this study, we extend the all-electrical spin injection and detection studies into different systems like Si and GaAs using half-metal Fe3O4 as a spin injector in the presence and absence of tunnel barrier MgO. Injection into GaAs is verified using conventional Fe/MgO/GaAs devices. Room temperature spin injection into both p-type and n-type Si is achieved and the spin injection could be observed down to 100K. Obtained spin relaxation time for these n-type and p-type Si at different temperatures agree well with the existing reports. Further, the temperature dependent spin injection and detection is also successfully achieved in Fe3O4/GaAs (n-type Schottky devices, and a comparison study of the results with control experiment using Fe/MgO/GaAs (n-type devices confirm the relaxation to be similar in the GaAs substrate, as expected. Hence, even Fe3O4 material can be effectively used as an efficient spin injector as well as detector, making it an attractive candidate for the room temperature spintronics device applications.

  5. Preconceptual design study for solidifying high-level waste: Appendices A, B and C West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O.F. (comp.)

    1981-04-01

    This report presents a preconceptual design study for processing radioactive high-level liquid waste presently stored in underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York, and for incorporating the radionculides in that waste into a solid. The high-level liquid waste accumulated from the operation of a chemical reprocessing plant by the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. from 1966 to 1972. The high-level liquid waste consists of approximately 560,000 gallons of alkaline waste from Purex process operations and 12,000 gallons of acidic (nitric acid) waste from one campaign of processing thoria fuels by a modified Thorex process (during this campaign thorium was left in the waste). The alkaline waste contains approximately 30 million curies and the acidic waste contains approximately 2.5 million curies. The reference process described in this report is concerned only with chemically processing the high-level liquid waste to remove radionuclides from the alkaline supernate and converting the radionuclide-containing nonsalt components in the waste into a borosilicate glass.

  6. Fusion of multi-sensory NDT data for reliable detection of surface cracks: Signal-level vs. decision-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa

    2016-02-01

    We present and compare two different approaches for NDT multi-sensor data fusion at signal (low) and decision (high) levels. Signal-level fusion is achieved by applying simple algebraic rules to strategically post-processed images. This is done in the original domain or in the domain of a suitable signal transform. The importance of signal normalization for low-level fusion applications is emphasized in regard to heterogeneous NDT data sets. For fusion at decision level, we develop a procedure based on assembling joint kernel density estimation (KDE). The procedure involves calculating KDEs for individual sensor detections and aggregating them by applying certain combination rules. The underlying idea is that if the detections from more than one sensor fall spatially close to one another, they are likely to result from the presence of a defect. On the other hand, single-senor detections are more likely to be structural noise or false alarm indications. To this end, we design the KDE combination rules such that it prevents single-sensor domination and allows data-driven scaling to account for the influence of individual sensors. We apply both fusion rules to a three-sensor dataset consisting in ET, MFL/GMR and TT data collected on a specimen with built-in surface discontinuities. The performance of the fusion rules in defect detection is quantitatively evaluated and compared against those of the individual sensors. Both classes of data fusion rules result in a fused image of fewer false alarms and thus improved defect detection. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of low-level and high-level NDT data fusion with reference to our experimental results.

  7. Demonstration and Validation of a Portable Raman Sensor for In-Situ Detection and Monitoring of Perchlorate (ClO4-)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzinger, Paul B. [Shaw Environmental, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States); Eres, Gyula [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gu, Baohua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubb, Aaron M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Costs for environmental analysis and monitoring are increasing at a rapid rate and represent a significant percentage of the total and future remedial expenses at many U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) contaminated sites. It has been reported that about 30 to 40% of the remediation budget is usually spent on long-term monitoring (LTM), of which a large percentage represents laboratory analytical costs. Energetics such as perchlorate (ClO4-) are among the most frequently detected contaminants in groundwater and surface water at or near military installations due to their persistence and mobility. Currently, the standard protocol entails collecting samples in the field, packaging them, and shipping them overnight to a designated laboratory for analysis. This process requires significant sample preparation and handling, and analytical results may not be available for several days to weeks. In this project, we developed and demonstrated a portable Raman sensor based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technology to detect ClO4- in contaminated water. We summarize major accomplishments as follows: • A SERS sensor based on elevated gold (Au) nano-ellipse dimer architectures was designed and developed for ClO4- with a detection limit of ~10-6 M (or 100 μg/L); The performance of these sensors was evaluated and optimized through variation of their geometric characteristics (i.e., dimer aspect ratio, dimer separation, etc.). • Large-scale commercial production of SERS substrate sensors via nanoimprinting by Nanova Inc. and Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technology was successfully demonstrated. This is a substantial step forward toward the commercialization of the SERS sensors and may potentially lead to significantly reduced fabrication costs of SERS substrates. • Commercially produced SERS sensors were demonstrated to detect ClO4- at levels above 10-6

  8. Squash vein yellowing virus detection using nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrates Momordica charantia is a reservoir host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a recently described ipomovirus from cucurbits in Florida that induces the relatively unusual symptoms in watermelon of plant death and fruit rind necrosis and discoloration, commonly known in Florida as watermelon vine decline. In this report, we demonstrate ...

  9. ‘Natural experiment’ Demonstrates Top-Down Control of Spiders by Birds on a Landscape Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Haldre; Hille Ris Lambers, Janneke; Miller, Ross; Tewksbury, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of small-scale manipulative experiments and large-scale natural experiments provides a powerful approach for demonstrating the importance of top-down trophic control on the ecosystem scale. The most compelling natural experiments have come from studies examining the landscape-scale loss of apex predators like sea otters, wolves, fish and land crabs. Birds are dominant apex predators in terrestrial systems around the world, yet all studies on their role as predators have come from small-scale experiments; the top-down impact of bird loss on their arthropod prey has yet to be examined at a landscape scale. Here, we use a unique natural experiment, the extirpation of insectivorous birds from nearly all forests on the island of Guam by the invasive brown tree snake, to produce the first assessment of the impacts of bird loss on their prey. We focused on spiders because experimental studies showed a consistent top-down effect of birds on spiders. We conducted spider web surveys in native forest on Guam and three nearby islands with healthy bird populations. Spider web densities on the island of Guam were 40 times greater than densities on islands with birds during the wet season, and 2.3 times greater during the dry season. These results confirm the general trend from manipulative experiments conducted in other systems however, the effect size was much greater in this natural experiment than in most manipulative experiments. In addition, bird loss appears to have removed the seasonality of spider webs and led to larger webs in at least one spider species in the forests of Guam than on nearby islands with birds. We discuss several possible mechanisms for the observed changes. Overall, our results suggest that effect sizes from smaller-scale experimental studies may significantly underestimate the impact of bird loss on spider density as demonstrated by this large-scale natural experiment. PMID:22970126

  10. Detecting application-level failures in component-based internet services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiciman, Emre; Fox, Armando

    2005-09-01

    Most Internet services (e-commerce, search engines, etc.) suffer faults. Quickly detecting these faults can be the largest bottleneck in improving availability of the system. We present Pinpoint, a methodology for automating fault detection in Internet services by: 1) observing low-level internal structural behaviors of the service; 2) modeling the majority behavior of the system as correct; and 3) detecting anomalies in these behaviors as possible symptoms of failures. Without requiring any a priori application-specific information, Pinpoint correctly detected 89%-96% of major failures in our experiments, as compared with 20%-70% detected by current application-generic techniques.

  11. Is sea level rise accelerating in the Chesapeake Bay? A demonstration of a novel new approach for analyzing sea level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Corlett, William Bryce

    2012-10-01

    Sea level data from the Chesapeake Bay are used to test a novel new analysis method for studies of sea level rise (SLR). The method, based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hilbert-Huang Transformation, separates the sea level trend from other oscillating modes and reveals how the mean sea level changes over time. Bootstrap calculations test the robustness of the method and provide confidence levels. The analysis shows that rates of SLR have increased from ˜1-3 mm y-1 in the 1930s to ˜4-10 mm y-1 in 2011, an acceleration of ˜0.05-0.10 mm y-2 that is larger than most previous studies, but comparable to recent findings by Sallenger and collaborators. While land subsidence increases SLR rates in the bay relative to global SLR, the acceleration results support Sallenger et al.'s proposition that an additional contribution to SLR from climatic changes in ocean circulation is affecting the region.

  12. Design and operating features of the high-level waste vitrification system for the West Valley demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, D.H.; Beary, M.M.; Barnes, S.M.; Berger, D.N.; Brouns, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Jones, R.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    A liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melter system is the reference process for immobilization of the high-level liquid waste in the US and several foreign countries. This system has been under development for over ten years at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other national laboratories operated for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributed to this research through its Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and used applicable data to design and test melters and related systems using remote handling of simulated radioactive wastes. This report describes the equipment designed in support of the high-level waste vitrification program at West Valley, New York. Pacific Northwest Laboratory worked closely with West Valley Nuclear Services Company to design a liquid-fed ceramic melter, a liquid waste preparation and feed tank and pump, an off-gas treatment scrubber, and an enclosed turntable for positioning the waste canisters. Details of these designs are presented including the rationale for the design features and the alternatives considered.

  13. First Demonstration of a Scintillating Xenon Bubble Chamber for Detecting Dark Matter and Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, D.; Chen, C. J.; Crisler, M.; Cwiok, T.; Dahl, C. E.; Grimsted, A.; Gupta, J.; Jin, M.; Puig, R.; Temples, D.; Zhang, J.

    2017-06-01

    A 30-g xenon bubble chamber, operated at Northwestern University in June and November 2016, has for the first time observed simultaneous bubble nucleation and scintillation by nuclear recoils in a superheated liquid. This chamber is instrumented with a CCD camera for near-IR bubble imaging, a solar-blind photomultiplier tube to detect 175-nm xenon scintillation light, and a piezoelectric acoustic transducer to detect the ultrasonic emission from a growing bubble. The time of nucleation determined from the acoustic signal is used to correlate specific scintillation pulses with bubble-nucleating events. We report on data from this chamber for thermodynamic "Seitz" thresholds from 4.2 to 15.0 keV. The observed single- and multiple-bubble rates when exposed to a Cf 252 neutron source indicate that, for an 8.3-keV thermodynamic threshold, the minimum nuclear recoil energy required to nucleate a bubble is 19 ±6 keV (1 σ uncertainty). This is consistent with the observed scintillation spectrum for bubble-nucleating events. We see no evidence for bubble nucleation by gamma rays at any of the thresholds studied, setting a 90% C.L. upper limit of 6.3 ×10-7 bubbles per gamma interaction at a 4.2-keV thermodynamic threshold. This indicates stronger gamma discrimination than in CF3 I bubble chambers, supporting the hypothesis that scintillation production suppresses bubble nucleation by electron recoils, while nuclear recoils nucleate bubbles as usual. These measurements establish the noble-liquid bubble chamber as a promising new technology for the detection of weakly interacting massive particle dark matter and coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  14. Novel mechanism by which probucol lowers low density lipoprotein levels demonstrated in the LDL receptor-deficient rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruszewicz, M.; Carew, T.E.; Pittman, R.C.; Witztum, J.L.; Steinberg, D.

    1984-11-01

    Treatment of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient rabbits (WHHL rabbits) with probucol (1% w/w in a chow diet) lowered their LDL-cholesterol levels by 36%, consonant with the reported effectiveness of the drug in patients deficient in the LDL receptor. Initial studies of LDL fractional catabolic rate (FCR) using /sup 125/I-labeled LDL prepared from the serum of untreated WHHL rabbits showed no difference between probucol-treated WHHL rabbits and untreated WHHL rabbits. When, however, /sup 125/I-labeled LDL was prepared from donor WHHL rabbits under treatment with probucol and injected back into them, the FCR was found to be increased by about 50% above that measured simultaneously using /sup 131/I-labeled LDL prepared from untreated WHHL donors. The labeled LDL from probucol-treated donors was also metabolized more rapidly than that from untreated donors when injected into untreated WHHL rabbits or into untreated wild-type New Zealand White rabbits. Finally, it was shown that rabbit skin fibroblasts in culture degraded labeled LDL prepared from probucol-treated WHHL rabbits more rapidly than that prepared from untreated WHHL donors. This was true both for normal rabbit fibroblasts and also for WHHL skin fibroblasts, although the absolute degradation rates in the latter were, of course, much lower for both forms of LDL. The data indicate that a major mechanism by which probucol lowers LDL levels relates not to changes in the cellular mechanisms for LDL uptake or to changes in LDL production but rather to intrinsic changes in the structure and metabolism of the plasma LDL of the probucol-treated animal.

  15. Estimation of exposure distribution adjusting for association between exposure level and detection limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuchen; Shelton, Brent J; Tucker, Thomas T; Li, Li; Kryscio, Richard; Chen, Li

    2017-08-15

    In environmental exposure studies, it is common to observe a portion of exposure measurements to fall below experimentally determined detection limits (DLs). The reverse Kaplan-Meier estimator, which mimics the well-known Kaplan-Meier estimator for right-censored survival data with the scale reversed, has been recommended for estimating the exposure distribution for the data subject to DLs because it does not require any distributional assumption. However, the reverse Kaplan-Meier estimator requires the independence assumption between the exposure level and DL and can lead to biased results when this assumption is violated. We propose a kernel-smoothed nonparametric estimator for the exposure distribution without imposing any independence assumption between the exposure level and DL. We show that the proposed estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed estimator performs well in practical situations. A colon cancer study is provided for illustration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Detection of mixed lymphoid chimerism after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: demonstration by interphase cytogenetics in paraffin-embedded tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, T; Ott, G; Kalla, J; Helbig, W; Schwenke, H; Kubel, M; Pönisch, W; Feyer, P; Friedrich, A

    1994-01-01

    In bone marrow transplantation (BMT) the detection of residual host lymphoid or haematopoietic cells surviving conditioning therapy is because of its association to graft-versus-host disease, graft-versus-leukemia reaction, and relapse of leukemia a matter of great interest. We studied the occurrence of this mixed lymphoid chimerism (MC) in the formol-fixed lymphatic tissue of lymph nodes and spleen from 21 autopsies after allogeneic sex-mismatched BMT (5 females, 16 males, survival 5 to 1140 days after BMT). In situ hybridisation with biotinylated centromer-specific anti-X- and anti-Y-chromosome probes was performed on pepsin-digested paraffin sections. The number of double X-, single X-, and Y-chromosome bearing cells was analysed microscopically. Because of artefacts only 14 cases remained for valid investigation. MC was detected in 6 cases (5 out of 11 males 5 days to 840 days and 1 out of 3 females 76 days after BMT). MC occurred after whole body irradiation with 10 Gy (n = 5) and 7 Gy (n = 1). In 1 autopsy relapse of leukemia caused host cell infiltration. Cases with MC did not express histological signs of acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease, but 5 out of 8 with complete lymphoid chimerism did. The sensitivity of interphase cytogenetics on paraffin embedded tissue is low.

  17. A New Handheld Device for the Detection of Falsified Medicines: Demonstration on Falsified Artemisinin-Based Therapies from the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin K; Kaur, Harparkash; Allan, Elizabeth Louise; Lozama, Anthony; Bell, David

    2017-02-20

    Poor-quality medicines are a major problem for health-care systems in resource-poor settings as identifying falsified medicines requires a complex laboratory infrastructure such as a Medicines Quality Control Laboratory. We report here an evaluation of a low-cost, handheld near-infrared spectrometer (NIRS) device by analyzing a library of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) medicines to determine its usefulness as a drug-screening tool. The "SCiO" research prototype device was used to collect NIR spectra of a library of ACT and artesunate monotherapy medicine samples previously collected in Bioko Island and Equatorial Guinea and Kintampo, Ghana. The quality of these samples had been categorized as falsified, substandard, and quality assured based on the amount of stated active pharmaceutical ingredients detected using high-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array. Numerical analyses were performed on the NIR spectra to assess the usefulness of NIR to identify falsified and substandard medicines. The NIRS device was successful at detecting falsified medicines in all cases where the library contained both quality assured and falsified medicines of the same stated brand of medicines. The NIRS device was successful at identifying substandard amounts of artesunate but not amodiaquine in the ACT samples (N = 15) of artesunate-amodiaquine. This work reveals that this low-cost, portable NIRS device is promising for screening ACTs for falsified samples and could enable widespread drug screening at all points of the health system.

  18. On the detection and tracking of space debris using the Murchison Widefield Array. I. Simulations and test observations demonstrate feasibility

    CERN Document Server

    Tingay, S J; McKinley, B; Briggs, F; Wayth, R B; Hurley-Walker, N; Kennewell, J; Smith, C; Zhang, K; Arcus, W; Bhat, R; Emrich, D; Herne, D; Kudryavtseva, N; Lynch, M; Ord, S M; Waterson, M; Barnes, D G; Bell, M; Gaensler, B M; Lenc, E; Bernardi, G; Greenhill, L J; Kasper, J C; Bowman, J D; Jacobs, D; Bunton, J D; deSouza, L; Koenig, R; Pathikulangara, J; Stevens, J; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Kincaid, B B; Kratzenberg, E; Lonsdale, C J; McWhirter, S R; Rogers, A E E; Salah, J E; Whitney, A R; Deshpande, A; Prabu, T; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Ewall-Wice, A; Feng, L; Goeke, R; Morgan, E; Remillard, R A; Williams, C L; Hazelton, B J; Morales, M F; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Mitchell, D A; Procopio, P; Riding, J; Webster, R L; Wyithe, J S B; Oberoi, D; Roshi, A; Sault, R J; Williams, A

    2013-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a new low frequency interferomeric radio telescope. The MWA is the low frequency precursor to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and is the first of three SKA precursors to be operational, supporting a varied science mission ranging from the attempted detection of the Epoch of Reionisation to the monitoring of solar flares and space weather. We explore the possibility that the MWA can be used for the purposes of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). In particular we propose that the MWA can be used as an element of a passive radar facility operating in the frequency range 87.5 - 108 MHz (the commercial FM broadcast band). In this scenario the MWA can be considered the receiving element in a bi-static radar configuration, with FM broadcast stations serving as non-cooperative transmitters. The FM broadcasts propagate into space, are reflected off debris in Earth orbit, and are received at the MWA. The imaging capabilities of the MWA can be used to simultaneously detect multiple...

  19. Electrochemical Sample Matrix Elimination for Trace Level Potentiometric Detection with Polymeric Membrane Ion-Selective Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Potentiometric sensors are today sufficiently well understood and optimized to reach ultra-trace level (sub-nanomolar) detection limits for numerous ions. In many cases of practical relevance, however, a high electrolyte background hampers the attainable detection limits. A particularly difficult sample matrix for potentiometric detection is seawater, where the high saline concentration forms a major interfering background and reduces the activity of most trace metals by complexation. This pa...

  20. An aviation security (AVSEC) screening demonstrator for the detection of non-metallic threats at 28-33 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Neil A.; Bowring, Nick; Hutchinson, Simon; Southgate, Matthew; O'Reilly, Dean

    2013-10-01

    The unique selling proposition of millimetre wave technology for security screening is that it provides a stand-off or portal scenario sensing capability for non-metallic threats. The capabilities to detect some non-metallic threats are investigated in this paper, whilst recommissioning the AVSEC portal screening system at the Manchester Metropolitan University. The AVSEC system is a large aperture (1.6 m) portal screening imager which uses spatially incoherent illumination at 28-33 GHz from mode scrambling cavities to illuminate the subject. The imaging capability is critically analysed in terms of this illumination. A novel technique for the measurement of reflectance, refractive index and extinction coefficient is investigated and this then use to characterise the signatures of nitromethane, hexane, methanol, bees wax and baking flour. Millimetre wave images are shown how these liquids in polycarbonate bottles and the other materials appear against the human body.

  1. RELAP-7 Level 2 Milestone Report: Demonstration of a Steady State Single Phase PWR Simulation with RELAP-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Andrs; Ray Berry; Derek Gaston; Richard Martineau; John Peterson; Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou

    2012-05-01

    The document contains the simulation results of a steady state model PWR problem with the RELAP-7 code. The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on INL's modern scientific software development framework - MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment). This report summarizes the initial results of simulating a model steady-state single phase PWR problem using the current version of the RELAP-7 code. The major purpose of this demonstration simulation is to show that RELAP-7 code can be rapidly developed to simulate single-phase reactor problems. RELAP-7 is a new project started on October 1st, 2011. It will become the main reactor systems simulation toolkit for RISMC (Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization) and the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series (the replacement for RELAP5). The key to the success of RELAP-7 is the simultaneous advancement of physical models, numerical methods, and software design while maintaining a solid user perspective. Physical models include both PDEs (Partial Differential Equations) and ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) and experimental based closure models. RELAP-7 will eventually utilize well posed governing equations for multiphase flow, which can be strictly verified. Closure models used in RELAP5 and newly developed models will be reviewed and selected to reflect the progress made during the past three decades. RELAP-7 uses modern numerical methods, which allow implicit time integration, higher order schemes in both time and space, and strongly coupled multi-physics simulations. RELAP-7 is written with object oriented programming language C++. Its development follows modern software design paradigms. The code is easy to read, develop, maintain, and couple with other codes. Most importantly, the modern software design allows the RELAP-7 code to

  2. Quantum surface of section method demonstration of semiclassical Berry-Robnik energy level spacing distribution in a generic 2-dim hamiltonian system

    CERN Document Server

    Prosen, T

    1995-01-01

    The recently developed quantum surface of section method is applied to a search for extremely high-lying energy levels in a simple but generic Hamiltonian system between integrability and chaos, namely the semiseparable 2-dim oscillator. Using the stretch of 13,445 consecutive levels with the sequential number around 1.8\\cdot 10^7 (eighteen million) we have clearly demonstrated the validity of the semiclassical Berry-Robnik level spacing distribution while at 1000 times smaller sequential quantum numbers we find the very persistent quasi universal phenomenon of power-law level repulsion which is globally very well described by the Brody distribution.

  3. [Spectral features analysis of Pinus massoniana with pest of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and levels detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang-Hua; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-Yong; Gong, Cong-Hong; Xie, Wan-Jun; Tang, Meng-Ya; Lai, Ri-Wen; Li, Zeng-Lu

    2013-02-01

    Taking 51 field measured hyperspectral data with different pest levels in Yanping, Fujian Province as objects, the spectral reflectance and first derivative features of 4 levels of healthy, mild, moderate and severe insect pest were analyzed. On the basis of 7 detecting parameters construction, the pest level detecting models were built. The results showed that (1) the spectral reflectance of Pinus massoniana with pests were significantly lower than that of healthy state, and the higher the pest level, the lower the reflectance; (2) with the increase in pest level, the spectral reflectance curves' "green peak" and "red valley" of Pinus massoniana gradually disappeared, and the red edge was leveleds (3) the pest led to spectral "green peak" red shift, red edge position blue shift, but the changes in "red valley" and near-infrared position were complicated; (4) CARI, RES, REA and REDVI were highly relevant to pest levels, and the correlations between REP, RERVI, RENDVI and pest level were weak; (5) the multiple linear regression model with the variables of the 7 detection parameters could effectively detect the pest levels of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, with both the estimation rate and accuracy above 0.85.

  4. Joint sparsity based heterogeneous data-level fusion for target detection and estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ruixin; Zulch, Peter; Distasio, Marcello; Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe

    2017-05-01

    Typical surveillance systems employ decision- or feature-level fusion approaches to integrate heterogeneous sensor data, which are sub-optimal and incur information loss. In this paper, we investigate data-level heterogeneous sensor fusion. Since the sensors monitor the common targets of interest, whose states can be determined by only a few parameters, it is reasonable to assume that the measurement domain has a low intrinsic dimensionality. For heterogeneous sensor data, we develop a joint-sparse data-level fusion (JSDLF) approach based on the emerging joint sparse signal recovery techniques by discretizing the target state space. This approach is applied to fuse signals from multiple distributed radio frequency (RF) signal sensors and a video camera for joint target detection and state estimation. The JSDLF approach is data-driven and requires minimum prior information, since there is no need to know the time-varying RF signal amplitudes, or the image intensity of the targets. It can handle non-linearity in the sensor data due to state space discretization and the use of frequency/pixel selection matrices. Furthermore, for a multi-target case with J targets, the JSDLF approach only requires discretization in a single-target state space, instead of discretization in a J-target state space, as in the case of the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) or the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate that the proposed JSDLF approach achieves excellent performance with near real-time accurate target position and velocity estimates.

  5. Feature level fusion of polarimetric infrared and GPR data for landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, F.; Jong, W. de; Schutte, K.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Kovalenko, V.; Bloemenkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Feature-level sensor fusion is the process where specific information (i.e. features) from objects detected by different sensors are combined and classified. This paper focuses on the feature-level fusion procedure for a sensor combination consisting of a polarimetric infrared (IR) imaging sensor an

  6. Target detection and driving behaviour measurements in a driving simulator at mesopic light levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    During night-time driving hazardous objects often appear at mesopic light levels, which are typically measured using light meters with a spectral sensitivity that is only valid for photopic light levels. In order to develop suitable mesopic models a target detection experiment was performed in a dri

  7. Megalencephaly syndromes: exome pipeline strategies for detecting low-level mosaic mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Tapper

    Full Text Available Two megalencephaly (MEG syndromes, megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP and megalencephaly-polymicrogyriapolydactyly-hydrocephalus (MPPH, have recently been defined on the basis of physical and neuroimaging features. Subsequently, exome sequencing of ten MEG cases identified de-novo postzygotic mutations in PIK3CA which cause MCAP and de-novo mutations in AKT and PIK3R2 which cause MPPH. Here we present findings from exome sequencing three unrelated megalencephaly patients which identified a causal PIK3CA mutation in two cases and a causal PIK3R2 mutation in the third case. However, our patient with the PIK3R2 mutation which is considered to cause MPPH has a marked bifrontal band heterotopia which is a feature of MCAP. Furthermore, one of our patients with a PIK3CA mutation lacks syndactyly/polydactyly which is a characteristic of MCAP. These findings suggest that the overlap between MCAP and MPPH may be greater than the available studies suggest. In addition, the PIK3CA mutation in one of our patients could not be detected using standard exome analysis because the mutation was observed at a low frequency consistent with somatic mosaicism. We have therefore investigated several alternative methods of exome analysis and demonstrate that alteration of the initial allele frequency spectrum (AFS, used as a prior for variant calling in samtools, had the greatest power to detect variants with low mutant allele frequencies in our 3 MEG exomes and in simulated data. We therefore recommend non-default settings of the AFS in combination with stringent quality control when searching for causal mutation(s that could have low levels of mutant reads due to post-zygotic mutation.

  8. Detecting the Subtle Shape Differences in Hemodynamic Responses at the Group Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eChen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the hemodynamic response (HDR is still not fully understood due to the multifaceted processes involved. Aside from the overall amplitude, the response may vary across cognitive states, tasks, brain regions, and subjects with respect to characteristics such as rise and fall speed, peak duration, undershoot shape, and overall duration. Here we demonstrate that the fixed-shape or adjusted-shape methods may fail to detect some shape subtleties. In contrast, the estimated-shape method (ESM through multiple basis functions can provide the opportunity to identify some subtle shape differences and achieve higher statistical power at both individual and group levels. Previously, some dimension reduction approaches focused on the peak magnitude, or made inferences based on the area under the curve or interaction, which can lead to potential misidentifications. By adopting a generic framework of multivariate modeling (MVM, we showcase a hybrid approach that is validated by simulations and real data. Unlike the few analyses that were limited to main effect, two- or three-way interactions, we extend the approach to an inclusive platform that is more adaptable than the conventional GLM, achieving a practical equipoise among representation, false positive control, statistical power, and modeling flexibility.

  9. Plasmon resonances in semiconductor materials for detecting photocatalysis at the single-particle level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiahao; Lin, Zhaoyong; Ma, Churong; Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Liu, Pu; Yang, Guowei

    2016-08-11

    Hot carriers, generated via the non-radiative decay of localized surface plasmon, can be utilized in photovoltaic and photocatalytic devices. In recent years, most studies have focused on conventional plasmon materials like Au and Ag. However, they suffer from several drawbacks like low energy of the generated hot carriers and a high charge-carrier recombination rate. To resolve these problems, here, we propose the plasmon resonances in heavily self-doped titanium oxide (TiO1.67) to realize effective hot carrier generation. Since the plasmon resonant energy of TiO1.67 nanoparticles (2.56 eV) is larger than the bandgap (2.15 eV), plasmon resonances through interband transition can realize both the generation and separation of hot carriers and bring a new strategy for visible-light photodegradation. The photodegradation rate for methyl orange was about 0.034 min(-1). More importantly, the combination of plasmonic and catalytic properties makes it feasible to investigate the degradation process of different materials and different structures at the single particle level in situ. By detecting the scattering shift, we demonstrated that the TiO1.67 dimer (Δλ/ΔλRIU = 0.16) possesses a higher photodegradation rate than an individual nanoparticle (Δλ/ΔλRIU = 0.09). We hope this finding may be a beginning, paving the way toward the development of semiconductor plasmonic materials for new applications beyond noble metals.

  10. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) ORGANIC AND NITRATE DESTRUCTION PRIOR TO VITRIFICATION: CRUCIBLE SCALE TO ENGINEERING SCALE DEMONSTRATIONS AND NON-RADIOACTIVE TO RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M; Gene Daniel, G; Paul Burket, P; Charles Crawford, C

    2009-02-07

    Over a decade ago, an in-tank precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The full scale demonstration with actual HLW was performed in SRS Tank 48 (T48). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was added to enable Cs-137 extraction as CsTPB. The CsTPB, an organic, and its decomposition products proved to be problematic for subsequent processing of the Cs-137 precipitate in the SRS HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal in a HLW repository. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a technology for destroying the organics and nitrates in the T48 waste to render it compatible with subsequent HLW vitrification. During FBSR processing the T48 waste is converted into organic-free and nitrate-free carbonate-based minerals which are water soluble. The soluble nature of the carbonate-based minerals allows them to be dissolved and pumped to the vitrification facility or returned to the tank farm for future vitrification. The initial use of the FBSR process for T48 waste was demonstrated with simulated waste in 2003 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a specially designed sealed crucible test that reproduces the FBSR pyrolysis reactions, i.e. carbonate formation, organic and nitrate destruction. This was followed by pilot scale testing of simulants at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003-4 and then engineering scale demonstrations by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRS/SRNL at the Hazen Research, Inc. (HRI) test facility in Golden, CO in 2006 and 2008. Radioactive sealed crucible testing with real T48 waste was performed at SRNL in 2008, and radioactive Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was performed in the SRNL Shielded Cell Facility (SCF) in 2008.

  11. Ultra-Low Level Detection of L-Histidine Using Solution-Processed ZnO Nanorod on Flexible Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Milan; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Tarun Kanti

    2015-09-01

    This work demonstrates a novel label free and sensitive approach for the detection of L-histidine. This is a simple and reliable method for ultra-low level detection of L-histidine. All solution processed synthesizing technique was utilized to develop such type of detection scheme. Silicon substrate was replaced by normal transparent sheet to make it more facile and cost-effective detection technique. Fabricated device for L-histidine detection works upon the variation of current through the ZnO nanorod with L-histidine concentration. Operation principle strongly depends upon the electron charge transfer between metal cation and L-histidine inside the chelating complex. Morphological, structural and optical characterization of solution processed synthesized ZnO nanorod (ZnO NR) was carried out prior to sensor device fabrication. Our sensor device exhibits the sensitivity around 0.86 nA/fM and lower limit of detection (LOD) ∼ 0.1 fM(S/N=3).

  12. Purification and Detection of 39Ar in Groundwater Samples via Low-Level Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, E. K.; Aalseth, C.; Brandenberger, J. M.; Humble, P.; Panisko, M.; Seifert, A.; Williams, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Argon-39 can be used as a radiotracer to age-date groundwater aquifers to study recharge rates and to better understand the mean residence time, or age distributions, of groundwater. Argon-39 (with a half-life of 269 years) is created in the atmosphere by cosmic rays interacting with argon in the air (primarily 40Ar). The use of 39Ar as a radiotracer fills a gap in the age dating range which is currently covered by 3H/3He or 85Kr (1000 years); 39Ar fills the intermediate time scale range from 50-1000 years where the previously established radiotracers are not adequate. We will introduce the process for purifying and detecting 39Ar in ground water using ultra-low-background proportional counters (ULBPCs) at the shallow underground laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Argon-39 is detected through direct beta counting using ULBPCs loaded with a mixture of geologic argon (extracted from a carbon dioxide well with no measureable 39Ar activity) and methane, which enhances the sensitivity for 39Ar measurements. The ULBPCs have been shown to have a background count rate of 148 counts per day (cpd) in the energy range 3-400 keV when filled with 10 atm of P-10 counting gas (90% geologic Ar, 10% CH4). Initial demonstration samples were collected from groundwater aquifers in Fresno, California supported by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). A discussion of the sampling technique to degas the water from these wells and to then purify it for counting will be presented. In order to quantify the 39Ar contribution in the groundwater samples, the ULBPCs were characterized to determine two components: 1) the detector efficiency to modern levels of 39Ar, and 2) the remaining detector background (using geologic sourced argon which is free from 39Ar - no measureable 39Ar activity). These characterization results will be presented along with a discussion of the quantification of the 39Ar age of the demonstration measurements.

  13. Detection of cord blood hepcidin levels as a biomarker for early-onset neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Kara, Semra; Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Simavli, Serap; Duvan, Candan Iltemur; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

    2014-03-01

    Early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) continues to be a severe condition associated with a high mortality and morbidity. However, symptoms and laboratory markers of this serious condition are nonspecific and currently there are no available standard tests to provide perfect diagnostic accuracy. An early recognition and initiation of antimicrobial therapy are essential in order to prevent morbidity and mortality. Hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis, is also an acute-phase reactant, which has a critical role in inflammation and contributes to host defense by interfering with microorganism's access to iron. Since hepcidin expression is induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6), it also plays role in the innate immune system. Recently, endogenous expression of hepcidin by macrophages and neutrophils in response to bacterial pathogens confirmed its role in innate immunity. The clear link between the hepcidin molecule and innate immunity may be used for the detection of EONS. We hypothesized that an increased level of hepcidin in cord blood may be used as a reliable biological marker of EONS and designed a prospective cohort study to test this hypothesis and collected pilot data. Cord blood samples of all infants born between January 2009 and December 2010 at our university hospital were collected after parental consent and a total of 38 infants were enrolled in the study who fulfilled the sepsis criteria. The range of cord blood hepcidin was found to be significantly increased in newborns with EONS (min-max: 118.1-8400 ng/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the pathophysiologic relevance of hepcidin in EONS and demonstrate increased levels of hepcidin in cord blood as an acute-phase reactant in response to sepsis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring the effectiveness of infrastructure-level detection of large-scale botnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zeng, Yuanyuan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shin, Kang G [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

    2010-12-16

    Botnets are one of the most serious security threats to the Internet and its end users. In recent years, utilizing P2P as a Command and Control (C&C) protocol has gained popularity due to its decentralized nature that can help hide the hotmaster's identity. Most bot detection approaches targeting P2P botnets either rely on behavior monitoring or traffic flow and packet analysis, requiring fine-grained information collected locally. This requirement limits the scale of detection. In this paper, we consider detection of P2P botnets at a high-level - the infrastructure level - by exploiting their structural properties from a graph analysis perspective. Using three different P2P overlay structures, we measure the effectiveness of detecting each structure at various locations (the Autonomous System (AS), the Point of Presence (PoP), and the router rendezvous) in the Internet infrastructure.

  15. An Adaptive Hybrid Multi-level Intelligent Intrusion Detection System for Network Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ananthi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection System (IDS plays a vital factor in providing security to the networks through detecting malicious activities. Due to the extensive advancements in the computer networking, IDS has become an active area of research to determine various types of attacks in the networks. A large number of intrusion detection approaches are available in the literature using several traditional statistical and data mining approaches. Data mining techniques in IDS observed to provide significant results. Data mining approaches for misuse and anomaly-based intrusion detection generally include supervised, unsupervised and outlier approaches. It is important that the efficiency and potential of IDS be updated based on the criteria of new attacks. This study proposes a novel Adaptive Hybrid Multi-level Intelligent IDS (AHMIIDS system which is the combined version of anomaly and misuse detection techniques. The anomaly detection is based on Bayesian Networks and then the misuse detection is performed using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. The outputs of both anomaly detection and misuse detection modules are applied to Decision Table Majority (DTM to perform the final decision making. A rule-base approach is used in this system. It is observed from the results that the proposed AHMIIDS performs better than other conventional hybrid IDS.

  16. Detection of gaseous compounds by needle trap sampling and direct thermal-desorption photoionization mass spectrometry: concept and demonstrative application to breath gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeblatt, Juliane; Schubert, Jochen K; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    A fast detection method to analyze gaseous organic compounds in complex gas mixtures was developed, using a needle trap device (NTD) in conjunction with thermal-desorption photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-PI-TOFMS). The mass spectrometer was coupled via a deactivated fused silica capillary to an injector of a gas chromatograph. In the hot injector, the analytes collected on the NTD were thermally desorbed and directly transferred to the PI-TOFMS ion source. The molecules are softly ionized either by single photon ionization (SPI, 118 nm) or by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI, 266 nm), and the molecular ion signals are detected in the TOF mass analyzer. Analyte desorption and the subsequent PI-TOFMS detection step only lasts ten seconds. The specific selectivity of REMPI (i.e., aromatic compounds) and universal ionization characteristics render PI-MS as a promising detection system. As a first demonstrative application, the alveolar phase breath gas of healthy, nonsmoking subjects was sampled on NTDs. While smaller organic compounds such as acetone, acetaldehyde, isoprene, or cysteamine can be detected in the breath gas with SPI, REMPI depicts the aromatic substances phenol and indole at 266 nm. In the breath gas of a healthy, smoking male subject, several xenobiotic substances such as benzene, toluene, styrene, and ethylbenzene can be found as well. Furthermore, the NTD-REMPI-TOFMS setup was tested for breath gas taken from a mechanically ventilated pig under continuous intravenous propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol, narcotic drug) infusion.

  17. Enhancing spatial detection accuracy for syndromic surveillance with street level incidence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemi Farrokh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Department of Defense Military Health System operates a syndromic surveillance system that monitors medical records at more than 450 non-combat Military Treatment Facilities (MTF worldwide. The Electronic Surveillance System for Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE uses both temporal and spatial algorithms to detect disease outbreaks. This study focuses on spatial detection and attempts to improve the effectiveness of the ESSENCE implementation of the spatial scan statistic by increasing the spatial resolution of incidence data from zip codes to street address level. Methods Influenza-Like Illness (ILI was used as a test syndrome to develop methods to improve the spatial accuracy of detected alerts. Simulated incident clusters of various sizes were superimposed on real ILI incidents from the 2008/2009 influenza season. Clusters were detected using the spatial scan statistic and their displacement from simulated loci was measured. Detected cluster size distributions were also evaluated for compliance with simulated cluster sizes. Results Relative to the ESSENCE zip code based method, clusters detected using street level incidents were displaced on average 65% less for 2 and 5 mile radius clusters and 31% less for 10 mile radius clusters. Detected cluster size distributions for the street address method were quasi normal and sizes tended to slightly exceed simulated radii. ESSENCE methods yielded fragmented distributions and had high rates of zero radius and oversized clusters. Conclusions Spatial detection accuracy improved notably with regard to both location and size when incidents were geocoded to street addresses rather than zip code centroids. Since street address geocoding success rates were only 73.5%, zip codes were still used for more than one quarter of ILI cases. Thus, further advances in spatial detection accuracy are dependant on systematic improvements in the collection of individual

  18. Object Detection and Classification by Decision-Level Fusion for Intelligent Vehicle Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang-Il; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2017-01-22

    To understand driving environments effectively, it is important to achieve accurate detection and classification of objects detected by sensor-based intelligent vehicle systems, which are significantly important tasks. Object detection is performed for the localization of objects, whereas object classification recognizes object classes from detected object regions. For accurate object detection and classification, fusing multiple sensor information into a key component of the representation and perception processes is necessary. In this paper, we propose a new object-detection and classification method using decision-level fusion. We fuse the classification outputs from independent unary classifiers, such as 3D point clouds and image data using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The unary classifiers for the two sensors are the CNN with five layers, which use more than two pre-trained convolutional layers to consider local to global features as data representation. To represent data using convolutional layers, we apply region of interest (ROI) pooling to the outputs of each layer on the object candidate regions generated using object proposal generation to realize color flattening and semantic grouping for charge-coupled device and Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) sensors. We evaluate our proposed method on a KITTI benchmark dataset to detect and classify three object classes: cars, pedestrians and cyclists. The evaluation results show that the proposed method achieves better performance than the previous methods. Our proposed method extracted approximately 500 proposals on a 1226 × 370 image, whereas the original selective search method extracted approximately 10 6 × n proposals. We obtained classification performance with 77.72% mean average precision over the entirety of the classes in the moderate detection level of the KITTI benchmark dataset.

  19. Screening-Level Risk Assessment for Styrene-Acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer Detected in Soil and Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Kirman, C. R.; Gargas, M L; Collins, J. J.; Rowlands, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluate...

  20. Target Detection in SAR Images Based on a Level Set Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Regis C.P.; Medeiros, Fatima N.S.; Ushizima, Daniela M.

    2008-09-01

    This paper introduces a new framework for point target detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. We focus on the task of locating reflective small regions using alevel set based algorithm. Unlike most of the approaches in image segmentation, we address an algorithm which incorporates speckle statistics instead of empirical parameters and also discards speckle filtering. The curve evolves according to speckle statistics, initially propagating with a maximum upward velocity in homogeneous areas. Our approach is validated by a series of tests on synthetic and real SAR images and compared with three other segmentation algorithms, demonstrating that it configures a novel and efficient method for target detection purpose.

  1. Amplitude modulation detection with cochlear implants: Effects of electrode separation and stimulus level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarampalis, Anastasios; Chatterjee, Monita

    2001-05-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) detection performance has been studied in the past with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired populations. The temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) is a plot of AM detection performance as a function of modulation rate and provides a way of characterizing temporal sensitivity. Typically the TMTF takes the form of a low-pass filter, with performance declining above 50-70-Hz modulation rate. TMTFs have also been measured with cochlear implant patients, showing a similar low-pass characteristic, with a cutoff around 140-Hz rate, while sensitivity to AM was found to increase with increasing current level. The present study investigated the effects of stimulation level and electrode separation on TMTFs with cochlear implant patients. TMTFs were measured for narrow through wide electrode separations and three different (loudness-balanced) percentages of the dynamic range. Preliminary results indicate that sensitivity increases (lower thresholds) with increasing stimulation level, for a given electrode separation. However, comparing TMTFs across different electrode separations, sensitivity is independent of current level, but increases as a function of percentage of dynamic range. In summary, it appears that AM detection performance with cochlear implants depends primarily on sensation level, rather than current level or electrode separation. [Work supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01DC04786.

  2. Amplitude modulation detection with cochlear implants: Effects of electrode separation and stimulus level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarampalis, Anastasios; Chatterjee, Monita

    2004-05-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) detection performance has been studied in the past with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired populations. The temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) is a plot of AM detection performance as a function of modulation rate and provides a way of characterizing temporal sensitivity. Typically the TMTF takes the form of a low-pass filter, with performance declining above 50-70-Hz modulation rate. TMTFs have also been measured with cochlear implant patients, showing a similar low-pass characteristic, with a cutoff around 140-Hz rate, while sensitivity to AM was found to increase with increasing current level. The present study investigated the effects of stimulation level and electrode separation on TMTFs with cochlear implant patients. TMTFs were measured for narrow through wide electrode separations and three different (loudness-balanced) percentages of the dynamic range. Preliminary results indicate that sensitivity increases (lower thresholds) with increasing stimulation level, for a given electrode separation. However, comparing TMTFs across different electrode separations, sensitivity is independent of current level, but increases as a function of percentage of dynamic range. In summary, it appears that AM detection performance with cochlear implants depends primarily on sensation level, rather than current level or electrode separation. [Work supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01DC04786.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of VIA and HPV detection as primary and sequential screening tests in a cervical cancer screening demonstration project in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Singh, Priyanka; Panda, Chinmay; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Mandal, Ranajit; Das, Pradip; Biswas, Jaydip; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-08-15

    Visual inspection after acetic acid application (VIA) and human papillomavirus (HPV) detection tests have been recommended to screen women for cervical cancer in low and middle income countries. A demonstration project in rural India screened 39,740 women with both the tests to compare their accuracies in real population setting. The project also evaluated the model of screening women in the existing primary health care facilities, evaluating the screen positive women with colposcopy (and biopsy) in the same setup and recalling the women diagnosed to have disease for treatment at tertiary center. Accuracy of VIA and HPV test used sequentially was also studied. VIA was performed by trained health workers and Hybrid Capture II (HC II) assay was used for oncogenic HPV detection. Test positivity was 7.1% for VIA and 4.7% for HC II. Detection rate of CIN 3+ disease was significantly higher with HC II than VIA. Sensitivities of VIA and HC II to detect 162 histology proved CIN 3+ lesions were 67.9 and 91.2%, respectively after adjusting for verification bias. Specificity for the same disease outcome and verification bias correction was 93.2% for VIA and 96.9% for HC II. Triaging of VIA positive women with HPV test would have considerably improved the positive predictive value (4.0 to 37.5% to detect CIN 3+) without significant drop in sensitivity. All VIA positive women and 74.0% of HC II positive women had colposcopy. There was high compliance to treatment and significant stage-shift of the screen-detected cancers towards more early stage.

  4. 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) in direct detection optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, R.; Tokle, Torger; Jensen, J.B.;

    2006-01-01

    Optical 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) carrying four bits for every symbol is proposed for direct detection optical communication systems. Transmitter and receiver schematics are presented, and the receiver sensitivity is discussed. We numerically investigate the impact...

  5. On-demand thread-level fault detection in a concurrent programming environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, J.; Yang, Q.; Poss, R.; Jesshope, C.R.; Zhang, C.; Jeschke, H.; Silvén, O.

    2013-01-01

    The vulnerability of multi-core processors is increasing due to tighter design margins and greater susceptibility to interference. Moreover, concurrent programming environments are the norm in the exploitation of multi-core systems. In this paper, we present an on-demand thread-level fault detection

  6. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Molin, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    ) at ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band...

  7. Galvanic detection of sulfur dioxide in ambient air at trace levels by anodic oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindqvist, F.

    1978-01-01

    A continuous method for the measurement of SO2 in ambient air at trace levels is described. The principle of detection is based on the anodic oxidation of SO2 in a galvanic cell. A differential measuring technique with a cell with two anodes and one cathode is used; background and noise current are

  8. On-demand thread-level fault detection in a concurrent programming environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, J.; Yang, Q.; Poss, R.; Jesshope, C.R.; Zhang, C.; Jeschke, H.; Silvén, O.

    2013-01-01

    The vulnerability of multi-core processors is increasing due to tighter design margins and greater susceptibility to interference. Moreover, concurrent programming environments are the norm in the exploitation of multi-core systems. In this paper, we present an on-demand thread-level fault detection

  9. Cascade Boosting-Based Object Detection from High-Level Description to Hardware Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattab K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Object detection forms the first step of a larger setup for a wide variety of computer vision applications. The focus of this paper is the implementation of a real-time embedded object detection system while relying on high-level description language such as SystemC. Boosting-based object detection algorithms are considered as the fastest accurate object detection algorithms today. However, the implementation of a real time solution for such algorithms is still a challenge. A new parallel implementation, which exploits the parallelism and the pipelining in these algorithms, is proposed. We show that using a SystemC description model paired with a mainstream automatic synthesis tool can lead to an efficient embedded implementation. We also display some of the tradeoffs and considerations, for this implementation to be effective. This implementation proves capable of achieving 42 fps for images as well as bringing regularity in time consuming.

  10. Laser Calorimetry Spectroscopy for ppm-level Dissolved Gas Detection and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K S, Nagapriya; Sinha, Shashank; R, Prashanth; Poonacha, Samhitha; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Bhattacharya, Anandaroop; Choudhury, Niloy; Mahalik, Saroj; Maity, Sandip

    2017-02-20

    In this paper we report a newly developed technique - laser calorimetry spectroscopy (LCS), which is a combination of laser absorption spectroscopy and calorimetry - for the detection of gases dissolved in liquids. The technique involves determination of concentration of a dissolved gas by irradiating the liquid with light of a wavelength where the gas absorbs, and measuring the temperature change caused by the absorbance. Conventionally, detection of dissolved gases with sufficient sensitivity and specificity was done by first extracting the gases from the liquid and then analyzing the gases using techniques such as gas chromatography. Using LCS, we have been able to detect ppm levels of dissolved gases without extracting them from the liquid. In this paper, we show the detection of dissolved acetylene in transformer oil in the mid infrared (MIR) wavelength (3021 nm) region.

  11. Laser Calorimetry Spectroscopy for ppm-level Dissolved Gas Detection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. S., Nagapriya; Sinha, Shashank; Prashanth, R.; Poonacha, Samhitha; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Bhattacharya, Anandaroop; Choudhury, Niloy; Mahalik, Saroj; Maity, Sandip

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we report a newly developed technique - laser calorimetry spectroscopy (LCS), which is a combination of laser absorption spectroscopy and calorimetry - for the detection of gases dissolved in liquids. The technique involves determination of concentration of a dissolved gas by irradiating the liquid with light of a wavelength where the gas absorbs, and measuring the temperature change caused by the absorbance. Conventionally, detection of dissolved gases with sufficient sensitivity and specificity was done by first extracting the gases from the liquid and then analyzing the gases using techniques such as gas chromatography. Using LCS, we have been able to detect ppm levels of dissolved gases without extracting them from the liquid. In this paper, we show the detection of dissolved acetylene in transformer oil in the mid infrared (MIR) wavelength (3021 nm) region.

  12. Laser Calorimetry Spectroscopy for ppm-level Dissolved Gas Detection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. S., Nagapriya; Sinha, Shashank; R., Prashanth; Poonacha, Samhitha; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Bhattacharya, Anandaroop; Choudhury, Niloy; Mahalik, Saroj; Maity, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we report a newly developed technique – laser calorimetry spectroscopy (LCS), which is a combination of laser absorption spectroscopy and calorimetry - for the detection of gases dissolved in liquids. The technique involves determination of concentration of a dissolved gas by irradiating the liquid with light of a wavelength where the gas absorbs, and measuring the temperature change caused by the absorbance. Conventionally, detection of dissolved gases with sufficient sensitivity and specificity was done by first extracting the gases from the liquid and then analyzing the gases using techniques such as gas chromatography. Using LCS, we have been able to detect ppm levels of dissolved gases without extracting them from the liquid. In this paper, we show the detection of dissolved acetylene in transformer oil in the mid infrared (MIR) wavelength (3021 nm) region. PMID:28218304

  13. Understanding and estimating the power to detect cross-level interaction effects in multilevel modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, John E; Aguinis, Herman; Culpepper, Steven A; Chen, Gilad

    2012-09-01

    Cross-level interaction effects lie at the heart of multilevel contingency and interactionism theories. Researchers have often lamented the difficulty of finding hypothesized cross-level interactions, and to date there has been no means by which the statistical power of such tests can be evaluated. We develop such a method and report results of a large-scale simulation study, verify its accuracy, and provide evidence regarding the relative importance of factors that affect the power to detect cross-level interactions. Our results indicate that the statistical power to detect cross-level interactions is determined primarily by the magnitude of the cross-level interaction, the standard deviation of lower level slopes, and the lower and upper level sample sizes. We provide a Monte Carlo tool that enables researchers to a priori design more efficient multilevel studies and provides a means by which they can better interpret potential explanations for nonsignificant results. We conclude with recommendations for how scholars might design future multilevel studies that will lead to more accurate inferences regarding the presence of cross-level interactions.

  14. Development and validation of a potentiometric biosensor assay for tylosin with demonstrated applicability for the detection of two other antimicrobial growth-promoter compounds in feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, S L; Wolodko-Cierniak, K B; Richmond, S F; Sharman, M; Driver, P; Teale, P; Leonardova, O; Purvis, D

    2011-01-01

    A potentiometric biosensor assay based on a commercially available polyclonal antibody was developed to detect tylosin residues in animal feed. The method can be used as a rapid (less than 45 min) laboratory-based procedure or as a portable field-test for the simultaneous measurement of up to 12 different samples. For both procedures the qualitative detection capability (CCβ) for tylosin was determined as 0.2 mg kg(-1) in a range of animal feeds with a measurement repeatability at concentrations between 0.2 and 4 mg kg(-1) of ≤13% coefficient of variation (%CV). The field-test format was capable of detecting tylosin residues at operating (external air) temperatures ranging between +4 and 37°C, although some reduction in signal was observed at the lower temperatures. The laboratory-based tylosin assay was evaluated using 16 medicated and 22 non-medicated feeds and was found to give comparable data with a confirmatory method based upon liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The potential to develop a multi-probe format assay for the simultaneous detection of tylosin, spiramycin and virginiamycin was also demonstrated. Cross-validation in a second laboratory showed the assay to be transferable, reliable and robust.

  15. Test of a demonstrator of an MDT-based first-level muon Trigger for HL-LHC under realistic operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Kroha, Hubert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Highly selective first level triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS Experiment at the HL-LHC where the instantaneous luminosity will exceed the LHC’s instantaneous luminosity by almost an order of magnitude. The ATLAS first level muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum sub-trigger threshold muons due to the limited momentum resolution at trigger level caused by the moderate spatial resolution of the resistive plate and thin gap trigger chambers. This limitation can be overcome by including the data of the precision muon drift tube chambers in the first level Trigger decision. This requires the implementation of a fast MDT read-out chain and a fast MDT track reconstruction. A hardware demonstrator of the fast read-out chain was successfully tested under HL-LHC operating conditions at CERN’s Gamma Irradiation Facility. It could be shown that the data provided by the demonstrator can be processed with a fast track reconstruction algorithm on an ARM CPU within the 6 microseconds ...

  16. Experimental demonstration of half cycle 64-QAM Nyquist-SCM direct-detection optical communication system with data-aided estimation and overlap frequency-domain equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danyu; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2014-12-01

    A half cycle 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) Nyquist subcarrier modulation (SCM) polarization division multiplexing (PDM) intensity modulation direct detection optical communication system is experimentally demonstrated. At the receiver, training sequences-based channel estimation and an overlap frequency domain equalization method are proposed to enhance the system performance. The experimental results show that the half cycle 64-QAM Nyquist-SCM PDM signal can be transmitted over 43-km standard single-mode fibers with a bit error rate below the forward error coding threshold of 2.4×10-2.

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  18. Effect of radiation dose level on the detectability of pulmonary nodules in chest tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, Sara A.; Svalkvist, Angelica; Maansson, Lars Gunnar; Baath, Magnus [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Gothenburg (Sweden); Johnsson, Aase A.; Vikgren, Jenny; Flinck, Agneta; Boijsen, Marianne; Fisichella, Valeria A. [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    To investigate the detectability of pulmonary nodules in chest tomosynthesis at reduced radiation dose levels. Eighty-six patients were included in the study and were examined with tomosynthesis and computed tomography (CT). Artificial noise was added to simulate that the tomosynthesis images were acquired at dose levels corresponding to 12, 32, and 70 % of the default setting effective dose (0.12 mSv). Three observers (with >20, >20 and three years of experience) read the tomosynthesis cases for presence of nodules in a free-response receiver operating characteristics (FROC) study. CT served as reference. Differences between dose levels were calculated using the jack-knife alternative FROC (JAFROC) figure of merit (FOM). The JAFROC FOM was 0.45, 0.54, 0.55, and 0.54 for the 12, 32, 70, and 100 % dose levels, respectively. The differences in FOM between the 12 % dose level and the 32, 70, and 100 % dose levels were 0.087 (p = 0.006), 0.099 (p = 0.003), and 0.093 (p = 0.004), respectively. Between higher dose levels, no significant differences were found. A substantial reduction from the default setting dose in chest tomosynthesis may be possible. In the present study, no statistically significant difference in detectability of pulmonary nodules was found when reducing the radiation dose to 32 %. (orig.)

  19. Human induced pluripotent cells resemble embryonic stem cells demonstrating enhanced levels of DNA repair and efficacy of nonhomologous end-joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Jinshui; Robert, Carine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, BRB 7-023A, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Jang, Yoon-Young; Liu Hua; Sharkis, Saul; Baylin, Stephen Bruce [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD 21231-1000 (United States); Rassool, Feyruz Virgilia, E-mail: frassool@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, BRB 7-023A, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: {yields} iPSC and hESC demonstrate a similar cell cycle profile, with increased S phase cells and decreased G0/G1. {yields} iPSC and hESC increased ROS and decreased DSBs, compared with differentiated parental cells. {yields} iPSC and hESC demonstrate elevated DSB repair activity, including nonhomologous end-joining, compared with differentiated parental cells. {yields} iPSC however show a partial apoptotic response to DNA damage, compared to hESC. {yields} DNA damage responses may constitute important markers for the efficacy of iPSC reprogramming. - Abstract: To maintain the integrity of the organism, embryonic stem cells (ESC) need to maintain their genomic integrity in response to DNA damage. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most lethal forms of DNA damage and can have disastrous consequences if not repaired correctly, leading to cell death, genomic instability and cancer. How human ESC (hESC) maintain genomic integrity in response to agents that cause DSBs is relatively unclear. Adult somatic cells can be induced to 'dedifferentiate' into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and reprogram into cells of all three germ layers. Whether iPSC have reprogrammed the DNA damage response is a critical question in regenerative medicine. Here, we show that hESC demonstrate high levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can contribute to DNA damage and may arise from high levels of metabolic activity. To potentially counter genomic instability caused by DNA damage, we find that hESC employ two strategies: First, these cells have enhanced levels of DNA repair proteins, including those involved in repair of DSBs, and they demonstrate elevated nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) activity and repair efficacy, one of the main pathways for repairing DSBs. Second, they are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents, as evidenced by a high level of apoptosis upon irradiation. Importantly, iPSC, unlike the parent cells they are derived

  20. Detection of Low-Level Cardinium and Wolbachia Infections in Culicoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Peter T; Weeks, Andrew R; Walker, Peter J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts have been identified as potentially useful biological control agents for a range of invertebrate vectors of disease. Previous studies of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species using conventional PCR assays have provided evidence of Wolbachia (1/33) and Cardinium (8/33) infections. Here, we screened 20 species of Culicoides for Wolbachia and Cardinium, utilizing a combination of conventional PCR and more sensitive quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Low levels of Cardinium DNA were detected in females of all but one of the Culicoides species screened, and low levels of Wolbachia were detected in females of 9 of the 20 Culicoides species. Sequence analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene and gyrB sequences identified "Candidatus Cardinium hertigii" from group C, which has previously been identified in Culicoides from Japan, Israel, and the United Kingdom. Wolbachia strains detected in this study showed 98 to 99% sequence identity to Wolbachia previously detected from Culicoides based on the 16S rRNA gene, whereas a strain with a novel wsp sequence was identified in Culicoides narrabeenensis. Cardinium isolates grouped to geographical regions independent of the host Culicoides species, suggesting possible geographical barriers to Cardinium movement. Screening also identified Asaia bacteria in Culicoides. These findings point to a diversity of low-level endosymbiont infections in Culicoides, providing candidates for further characterization and highlighting the widespread occurrence of these endosymbionts in this insect group.

  1. Is my patient actually getting better? Application of the McNemar test for demonstrating the change at a single subject level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronni, Antonio; Sciumè, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the current work is to provide a novel method for demonstrating the modification of a single patient's performance on questionnaires and scales. The minimal detectable change (MDC), a statistics indicating the minimal change in measure not attributable to random variation, is commonly used in rehabilitation for this purpose. However, the MDC has some important drawbacks (e.g. it cannot be calculated on scores from ordinal tests and it can be only used for full questionnaire). Review of the MDC and its limitations and application of the McNemar test on simulated data from single subjects. We propose to use the McNemar test to check if the proportion of test items affirmed by a patient after rehabilitation is significantly different from the same proportion before rehabilitation. A significant McNemar test would indicate a non-random modification of the patient's score and thus a true modification of his/her performance. The application of the McNemar test to questionnaires and scales offers a simple method for demonstrating the modification of a single patient's performance. This use of the McNemar test overcomes the weaknesses of the MDC and gives support to the clinician in assisting him/her to convincingly communicate a non-negligible modification of the patient's status. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Measuring the change in patients' status is of paramount importance in medicine and rehabilitation. However, tracking the change in rehabilitation is difficult. For example, the minimal detectable change cannot be calculated on scores from ordinal questionnaires and tests, which are widely used as rehabilitative outcome measures. We propose here to use a McNemar test to check if the proportion of test items affirmed or passed by is significantly different between two conditions (e.g. before vs. after rehabilitation). Similar to the minimal detectable change, the significant McNemar test would indicate a non-random modification of the patient's test

  2. Detection of subsurface core-level shifts in Si 2p core-level photoemission from Si(111)-(1x1):As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggel, J.J. [Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Hasselblatt, M.; Horn, K. [Fritz-Haber Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschraft, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The (7 x 7) reconstruction of the Si(111) surface arises from a lowering energy through the reduction of the number of dangling bonds. This reconstruction can be removed by the adsorption of atoms such as hydrogen which saturate the dangling bonds, or by the incorporation of atoms, such as arsenic which, because of the additional electron it possesses, can form three bonds and a nonreactive lone pair orbital from the remaining two electrons. Core and valence level photoemission and ion scattering data have shown that the As atoms replace the top silicon atoms. Previous core level spectra were interpreted in terms of a bulk and a single surface doublet. The authors present results demonstrate that the core level spectrum contains two more lines. The authors assign these to subsurface silicon layers which also experience changes in the charge distribution when a silicon atom is replaced by an arsenic atom. Subsurface core level shifts are not unexpected since the modifications of the electronic structure and/or of photohole screening are likely to decay into the bulk and not just to affect the top-most substrate atoms. The detection of subsurface components suggests that the adsorption of arsenic leads to charge flow also in the second double layer of the Si(111) surface. In view of the difference in atomic radius between As and Si, it was suggested that the (1 x 1): As surface is strained. The presence of charge rearrangement up to the second double layer implies that the atomic coordinates also exhibit deviations from their ideal Si(111) counterparts, which might be detected through a LEED I/V or photoelectron diffraction analysis.

  3. Highly sensitive detection of DNA methylation levels by using a quantum dot-based FRET method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunfei; Zhang, Honglian; Liu, Fangming; Wu, Zhenhua; Lu, Shaohua; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Zhong, Xinhua; Mao, Hongju

    2015-10-01

    DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in genomic stability and cellular plasticity. Aberrant changes in DNA methylation status are ubiquitous in human cancer and the detection of these changes can be informative for cancer diagnosis. Herein, we reported a facile quantum dot-based (QD-based) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique for the detection of DNA methylation. The method relies on methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes for the differential digestion of genomic DNA based on its methylation status. Digested DNA is then subjected to PCR amplification for the incorporation of Alexa Fluor-647 (A647) fluorophores. DNA methylation levels can be detected qualitatively through gel analysis and quantitatively by the signal amplification from QDs to A647 during FRET. Furthermore, the methylation levels of three tumor suppressor genes, PCDHGB6, HOXA9 and RASSF1A, in 20 lung adenocarcinoma and 20 corresponding adjacent nontumorous tissue (NT) samples were measured to verify the feasibility of the QD-based FRET method and a high sensitivity for cancer detection (up to 90%) was achieved. Our QD-based FRET method is a convenient, continuous and high-throughput method, and is expected to be an alternative for detecting DNA methylation as a biomarker for certain human cancers.DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in genomic stability and cellular plasticity. Aberrant changes in DNA methylation status are ubiquitous in human cancer and the detection of these changes can be informative for cancer diagnosis. Herein, we reported a facile quantum dot-based (QD-based) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique for the detection of DNA methylation. The method relies on methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes for the differential digestion of genomic DNA based on its methylation status. Digested DNA is then subjected to PCR

  4. High taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota by Ligase Detection Reaction - Universal Array approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Beatrice

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affecting the core functional microbiome, peculiar high level taxonomic unbalances of the human intestinal microbiota have been recently associated with specific diseases, such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and intestinal inflammation. Results In order to specifically monitor microbiota unbalances that impact human physiology, here we develop and validate an original DNA-microarray (HTF-Microbi.Array for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota. Based on the Ligase Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA approach, the HTF-Microbi.Array enables specific detection and approximate relative quantification of 16S rRNAs from 30 phylogenetically related groups of the human intestinal microbiota. The HTF-Microbi.Array was used in a pilot study of the faecal microbiota of eight young adults. Cluster analysis revealed the good reproducibility of the high level taxonomic microbiota fingerprint obtained for each of the subject. Conclusion The HTF-Microbi.Array is a fast and sensitive tool for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota in terms of presence/absence of the principal groups. Moreover, analysis of the relative fluorescence intensity for each probe pair of our LDR-UA platform can provide estimation of the relative abundance of the microbial target groups within each samples. Focusing the phylogenetic resolution at division, order and cluster levels, the HTF-Microbi.Array is blind with respect to the inter-individual variability at the species level.

  5. Detection of TATP precursor acetone at trace levels using rf sputtered SnO2 thin film-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhuri, Arijit; Sharma, Anjali; Gupta, Vinay

    2011-05-01

    Emerging threats of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and homemade explosives (HMEs) have created a demand for reliable and unambiguous recognition of constituent analytes. Triacetone triperoxide (TATP), a cyclic peroxide based explosive has become a weapon of choice [1] in the hands of resourceful urban insurgents mainly because of ease of manufacture with readily available precursor constituents (acetone and concentrated hydrogen peroxide). Failure of conventional EDDs due to absence of nitrogen compounds coupled with the fact that TATP exhibits no significant absorption in UV region and does not demonstrate fluorescence has confined its detection to IR and Raman spectroscopy besides some enzyme-based tests and mass spectrometry [2]. Hence there is an urgent need for highly sensitive technique with a fast response speed that can detect presence of TATP at extremely low vapour pressure and purposely camouflaged physically or under cross-contamination with interfering compounds. In the present work trace level (20 ppm) acetone (precursor of TATP) sensing characteristics of rf sputtered semiconducting SnO2 thin films having embedded Pt interdigital electrodes have been investigated. Specifically a fast response speed of 08 seconds is noted and sensing characteristics of bare SnO2 and catalyst-SnO2 hetero-structures are compared. Innovative catalyst dispersal technique is shown to enhance sensor response as also reduce response times. Novel sensing hetero-structures with reversible acetone detection capabilities are shown to provide a feasible alternative for real-field operation along with remote detection with limited sample size.

  6. Proposal and proof-of-principle demonstration of non-destructive detection of photonic qubits using a Tm:LiNbO3 waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, N.; Heshami, K.; Deshmukh, C.; Oblak, D.; Simon, C.; Tittel, W.

    2016-11-01

    Non-destructive detection of photonic qubits is an enabling technology for quantum information processing and quantum communication. For practical applications, such as quantum repeaters and networks, it is desirable to implement such detection in a way that allows some form of multiplexing as well as easy integration with other components such as solid-state quantum memories. Here, we propose an approach to non-destructive photonic qubit detection that promises to have all the mentioned features. Mediated by an impurity-doped crystal, a signal photon in an arbitrary time-bin qubit state modulates the phase of an intense probe pulse that is stored during the interaction. Using a thulium-doped waveguide in LiNbO3, we perform a proof-of-principle experiment with macroscopic signal pulses, demonstrating the expected cross-phase modulation as well as the ability to preserve the coherence between temporal modes. Our findings open the path to a new key component of quantum photonics based on rare-earth-ion-doped crystals.

  7. Proposal and proof-of-principle demonstration of non-destructive detection of photonic qubits using a Tm:LiNbO3 waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, N; Heshami, K; Deshmukh, C; Oblak, D; Simon, C; Tittel, W

    2016-11-17

    Non-destructive detection of photonic qubits is an enabling technology for quantum information processing and quantum communication. For practical applications, such as quantum repeaters and networks, it is desirable to implement such detection in a way that allows some form of multiplexing as well as easy integration with other components such as solid-state quantum memories. Here, we propose an approach to non-destructive photonic qubit detection that promises to have all the mentioned features. Mediated by an impurity-doped crystal, a signal photon in an arbitrary time-bin qubit state modulates the phase of an intense probe pulse that is stored during the interaction. Using a thulium-doped waveguide in LiNbO3, we perform a proof-of-principle experiment with macroscopic signal pulses, demonstrating the expected cross-phase modulation as well as the ability to preserve the coherence between temporal modes. Our findings open the path to a new key component of quantum photonics based on rare-earth-ion-doped crystals.

  8. Implementation of a Sage-Based Stirling Model Into a System-Level Numerical Model of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2011-01-01

    The Fission Power System (FPS) project is developing a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) to verify the performance and functionality of a subscale version of the FPS reference concept in a relevant environment, and to verify component and system models. As hardware is developed for the TDU, component and system models must be refined to include the details of specific component designs. This paper describes the development of a Sage-based pseudo-steady-state Stirling convertor model and its implementation into a system-level model of the TDU.

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  11. Complete Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  14. A level-crossing based QRS-detection algorithm for wearable ECG sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanshad, Nassim; Rezaee-Dehsorkh, Hamidreza; Lotfi, Reza; Lian, Yong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an asynchronous analog-to-information conversion system is introduced for measuring the RR intervals of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The system contains a modified level-crossing analog-to-digital converter and a novel algorithm for detecting the R-peaks from the level-crossing sampled data in a compressed volume of data. Simulated with MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database, the proposed system delivers an average detection accuracy of 98.3%, a sensitivity of 98.89%, and a positive prediction of 99.4%. Synthesized in 0.13 μm CMOS technology with a 1.2 V supply voltage, the overall system consumes 622 nW with core area of 0.136 mm (2), which make it suitable for wearable wireless ECG sensors in body-sensor networks.

  15. Topoisomerase I as a Biomarker: Detection of Activity at the Single Molecule Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Proszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human topoisomerase I (hTopI is an essential cellular enzyme. The enzyme is often upregulated in cancer cells, and it is a target for chemotherapeutic drugs of the camptothecin (CPT family. Response to CPT-based treatment is dependent on hTopI activity, and reduction in activity, and mutations in hTopI have been reported to result in CPT resistance. Therefore, hTOPI gene copy number, mRNA level, protein amount, and enzyme activity have been studied to explain differences in cellular response to CPT. We show that Rolling Circle Enhanced Enzyme Activity Detection (REEAD, allowing measurement of hTopI cleavage-religation activity at the single molecule level, may be used to detect posttranslational enzymatic differences influencing CPT response. These differences cannot be detected by analysis of hTopI gene copy number, mRNA amount, or protein amount, and only become apparent upon measuring the activity of hTopI in the presence of CPT. Furthermore, we detected differences in the activity of the repair enzyme tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1, which is involved in repair of hTopI-induced DNA damage. Since increased TDP1 activity can reduce cellular CPT sensitivity we suggest that a combined measurement of TDP1 activity and hTopI activity in presence of CPT will be the best determinant for CPT response.

  16. Texture Analysis and Modified Level Set Method for Automatic Detection of Bone Boundaries in Hand Radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaiful Anam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory joint disease characterized by a distinctive pattern of bone and joint destruction. To give an RA diagnosis, hand bone radiographs are taken and analyzed. A hand bone radiograph analysis starts with the bone boundary detection. It is however an extremely exhausting and time consuming task for radiologists. An automatic bone boundary detection in hand radiographs is thus strongly required. Garcia et al. have proposed a method for automatic bone boundary detection in hand radiographs by using an adaptive snake method, but it doesn’t work for those affected by RA. The level set method has advantages over the snake method. It however often leads to either a complete breakdown or a premature termination of the curve evolution process, resulting in unsatisfactory results. For those reasons, we propose a modified level set method for detecting bone boundaries in hand radiographs affected by RA. Texture analysis is also applied for distinguishing the hand bones and other areas. Evaluating the experiments using a particular set of hand bone radiographs, the effectiveness of the proposed method has been proved.

  17. Robust boundary detection of left ventricles on ultrasound images using ASM-level set method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaonan; Gao, Yuan; Li, Hong; Teng, Yueyang; Kang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Level set method has been widely used in medical image analysis, but it has difficulties when being used in the segmentation of left ventricular (LV) boundaries on echocardiography images because the boundaries are not very distinguish, and the signal-to-noise ratio of echocardiography images is not very high. In this paper, we introduce the Active Shape Model (ASM) into the traditional level set method to enforce shape constraints. It improves the accuracy of boundary detection and makes the evolution more efficient. The experiments conducted on the real cardiac ultrasound image sequences show a positive and promising result.

  18. Determining the Detection Efficiency and Background Level of ATIC Electron Observation from Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.; Wu, J.; Guzik, T. G.; Wefel, J. P.; Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M.; Watts, J.; Ahn, H. S.; Kim, K. C.; Seo, E. S.; Wu, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Kouznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Panov, A. D.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of Cosmic-ray electrons are difficult due to the large flux of cosmic ray hadrons. The event selection efficiency and background levels can be estimated from flight data for the ATIC instrument. This reduces the dependence upon Monte Carlo simulations, which show differences between different codes, thereby reducing the systematic errors resulting from analyses that only use simulations. This paper discusses some of the methods used in the ATIC analysis to determine the detection efficiency and background level for the flight data.

  19. Multi-level SLIC superpixels segmentation method based on edge detection operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Sen; Fu, Dongmei; Yang, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) super-pixel algorithm for its excellent performance and efficient border holding computational efficiency is widely used in image processing. But with the increase of the number of super-pixels, there will be a lot of redundancy in the image merging process. In this paper, we propose a multi-level super-pixels method based SLIC algorithm, which focuses on the target area to set up edge detection operator for generating multi-level super-pixels. Simulation results show that the proposed method ensures the accuracy of extraction and improves the computational efficiency.

  20. Content-based image retrieval system for solid waste bin level detection and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Arebey, M; Begum, R A; Basri, Hassan; Al Mamun, Md Abdulla

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a CBIR system to investigate the use of image retrieval with an extracted texture from the image of a bin to detect the bin level. Various similarity distances like Euclidean, Bhattacharyya, Chi-squared, Cosine, and EMD are used with the CBIR system for calculating and comparing the distance between a query image and the images in a database to obtain the highest performance. In this study, the performance metrics is based on two quantitative evaluation criteria. The first one is the average retrieval rate based on the precision-recall graph and the second is the use of F1 measure which is the weighted harmonic mean of precision and recall. In case of feature extraction, texture is used as an image feature for bin level detection system. Various experiments are conducted with different features extraction techniques like Gabor wavelet filter, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and gray level aura matrix (GLAM) to identify the level of the bin and its surrounding area. Intensive tests are conducted among 250 bin images to assess the accuracy of the proposed feature extraction techniques. The average retrieval rate is used to evaluate the performance of the retrieval system. The result shows that, the EMD distance achieved high accuracy and provides better performance than the other distances.

  1. Detection and monitoring of toxic chemical at ultra trace level by utilizing doped nanomaterial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher Bahadar Khan

    Full Text Available Composite nanoparticles were synthesized by eco-friendly hydrothermal process and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. All the spectroscopic techniques suggested the synthesis of well crystalline optically active composite nanoparticles with average diameter of ∼ 30 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles were applied for the development of chemical sensor which was fabricated by coating the nanoparticles on silver electrode for the recognition of phthalimide using simple I-V technique. The developed sensor exhibited high sensitivity (1.7361 µA.mM(-1.cm(-2, lower detection limit (8.0 µM and long range of detection (77.0 µM to 0.38 M. Further the resistances of composite nanoparticles based sensor was found to be 2.7 MΩ which change from 2.7 to 1.7 with change in phthalimide concentration. The major advantages of the designed sensor over existing sensors are its simple technique, low cost, lower detection limit, high sensitivity and long range of detection. It can detect phthalimide even at trace level and sense over wide range of concentrations. Therefore the composite nanoparticals would be a better choice for the fabrication of phthalimide chemical sensor and would be time and cost substituted implement for environmental safety.

  2. Development of an automated sequential injection on-line solvent extraction-back extraction procedure as demonstrated for the determination of cadmium with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    An automated sequential injection (SI) on-line solvent extraction-back extraction separation/preconcentration procedure is described. Demonstrated for the assay of cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), the analyte is initially complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithioc......An automated sequential injection (SI) on-line solvent extraction-back extraction separation/preconcentration procedure is described. Demonstrated for the assay of cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), the analyte is initially complexed with ammonium....../preconcentration process of the ensuing sample. An enrichment factor of 21.4, a detection limit of 2.7 ng/l, along with a sampling frequency of 13s/h were obtained at a sample flow rate of 6.0mlmin/sup -1/. The precision (R.S.D.) at the 0.4 mug/l level was 1.8% as compared to 3.2% when quantifying the organic extractant...

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  6. DPOAE level mapping for detecting noise-induced cochlear damage from short-duration music exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckey, Jay C; Fellows, Abigail M; Clavier, Odile H; Allen, Lindsay V; Brooks, Chris A; Norris, Jesse A; Gui, Jiang; Meinke, Deanna K

    2015-01-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) level mapping provides a comprehensive picture of cochlear responses over a range of DP frequencies and f₂/f₁ratios. We hypothesized that individuals exposed to high-level sound would show changes detectable by DPOAE mapping, but not apparent on a standard DP-gram. Thirteen normal hearing subjects were studied before and after attending music concerts. Pure-tone audiometry (500-8,000 Hz), DP-grams (0.3-10 kHz) at 1.22 ratio, and DPOAE level maps were collected prior to, as soon as possible after, and the day after the concerts. All maps covered the range of 2,000-6,000 Hz in DP frequency and from 1.3 to -1.3 in ratio using equi-level primary tone stimuli. Changes in the pure-tone audiogram were significant (P ≤ 0.01) immediately after the concert at 1,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, and 6,000 Hz. The DP-gram showed significant differences only at f₂= 4,066 (P = 0.01) and f₂= 4,348 (P = 0.04). The postconcert changes were readily apparent both visually and statistically (P ≤ 0.01) on the mean DP level maps, and remained statistically significantly different from baseline the day after noise exposure although no significant changes from baseline were seen on the DP-gram or audiogram the day after exposure. Although both the DP-gram and audiogram showed recovery by the next day, the average DPOAE level maps remained significantly different from baseline. The mapping data showed changes in the cochlea that were not detected from the DP-gram obtained at a single ratio. DPOAE level mapping provides comprehensive information on subtle cochlear responses, which may offer advantages for studying and tracking noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).

  7. Detection of high-frequency energy level changes in speech and singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Lotto, Andrew J; Story, Brad H

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that human listeners are sensitive to level differences in high-frequency energy (HFE) in isolated vowel sounds produced by male singers. Results indicated that sensitivity to HFE level changes increased with overall HFE level, suggesting that listeners would be more "tuned" to HFE in vocal production exhibiting higher levels of HFE. It follows that sensitivity to HFE level changes should be higher (1) for female vocal production than for male vocal production and (2) for singing than for speech. To test this hypothesis, difference limens for HFE level changes in male and female speech and singing were obtained. Listeners showed significantly greater ability to detect level changes in singing vs speech but not in female vs male speech. Mean differences limen scores for speech and singing were about 5 dB in the 8-kHz octave (5.6-11.3 kHz) but 8-10 dB in the 16-kHz octave (11.3-22 kHz). These scores are lower (better) than those previously reported for isolated vowels and some musical instruments.

  8. Dissimilar Metal Weld Probability of Detection Curve Fits from Performance Demonstration Initiative Data: A Comparison with Other Round-Robin Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heasler, Patrick G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doctor, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    The NRC, in cooperation with industry, is developing a computerized simulation and analytical tool within the Extremely Low Probability of Rupture (xLPR) Project to provide insights for determining whether certain types of service degradation would be expected to challenge safety-related systems at operating nuclear power plants. One input for this tool is the probability of detection (POD) for the nondestructive examinations conducted during inservice inspections at these plants. EPRI produced a series of POD curves for ultrasonic testing with data from the industry’s Performance Demonstration Initiative. This report compares the POD curves developed from the EPRI data to other relevant attempts to quantify POD on similar component configurations. The objectives of this report are 1) to determine the reasonableness of the EPRI curves and 2) attempt to explain discrepancies noted with other recent POD studies.

  9. Detection of Cracking Levels in Brittle Rocks by Parametric Analysis of the Acoustic Emission Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian, Zabihallah; Einstein, Herbert H.; Ballivy, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    Determination of the cracking levels during the crack propagation is one of the key challenges in the field of fracture mechanics of rocks. Acoustic emission (AE) is a technique that has been used to detect cracks as they occur across the specimen. Parametric analysis of AE signals and correlating these parameters (e.g., hits and energy) to stress-strain plots of rocks let us detect cracking levels properly. The number of AE hits is related to the number of cracks, and the AE energy is related to magnitude of the cracking event. For a full understanding of the fracture process in brittle rocks, prismatic specimens of granite containing pre-existing flaws have been tested in uniaxial compression tests, and their cracking process was monitored with both AE and high-speed video imaging. In this paper, the characteristics of the AE parameters and the evolution of cracking sequences are analyzed for every cracking level. Based on micro- and macro-crack damage, a classification of cracking levels is introduced. This classification contains eight stages (1) crack closure, (2) linear elastic deformation, (3) micro-crack initiation (white patch initiation), (4) micro-crack growth (stable crack growth), (5) micro-crack coalescence (macro-crack initiation), (6) macro-crack growth (unstable crack growth), (7) macro-crack coalescence and (8) failure.

  10. Demonstration of 2×ONU 80 Gbps direct detection colorless polarization division multiplexing frequency division multiplexing passive optical network uplink transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixin; Xu, Yinfan; Wang, Yanyi; Wang, Yuanquan; Chi, Nan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple direct detection passive optical network (PON) uplink transmission scheme based on frequency division multiplexing and polarization division multiplexing. Two optical network units (ONUs) are assigned to two different frequency bands at two different orthogonal polarization directions. At the optical line terminal, both ONU signals can be simultaneously detected by a single photodiode without utilizing any polarization control, polarization selection, or complicated polarization demultiplexing algorithms. As a proof-of-concept, the 2×ONU 80 Gbps 32-ary quadrature amplitude modulation Nyquist single carrier signals are successfully transmitted over 2 km standard single mode fiber or 20 km large effective area fiber with the assistance of frequency domain equalization and decision-directed least-mean-square. The measured bit error rate can be below the 7% pre-forward error correction threshold of 3.8×10-3. Meanwhile, this scheme is compatible with the widely used wavelength-division multiplexed PON, which shows the promising potential and feasibility of this proposal.

  11. First Detections of the [N II] 122 micron Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [N II] 122 micron line from a high-redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (>6(sigma)) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and H1413 + 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift (zeta) and Early Universe Spectrometer on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line to far-infrared (FIR) continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0 x 10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1 x 10(exo -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line to continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8%-17% of the molecUlar gas mass. The [O III]/[N II] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using Our previous detection of the [O III] 88 micron line, the [O III]/[N II]line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30%-50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82-like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [N II]line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This war!< demonstrates the utility of the [N II] and [O III] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  12. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  13. First Detections of the [N II] 122 micron Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [N II] 122 micron line from a high-redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (>6(sigma)) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and H1413 + 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift (zeta) and Early Universe Spectrometer on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line to far-infrared (FIR) continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0 x 10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1 x 10(exo -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line to continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8%-17% of the molecUlar gas mass. The [O III]/[N II] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using Our previous detection of the [O III] 88 micron line, the [O III]/[N II]line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30%-50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82-like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [N II]line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This war!< demonstrates the utility of the [N II] and [O III] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  14. Experimental demonstration of 608Gbit/s short reach transmission employing half-cycle 16QAM Nyquist-SCM signal and direct detection with 25Gbps EML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Xian; Wang, Yiguang; Wang, Liang; Yuan, Jinhui; Yu, Changyuan; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2016-10-31

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated an IM/DD short reach transmission system with a total capacity of 608Gbit/s (net capacity of 565.4Gbit/s exclude 7% FEC overhead) employing half-cycle 16QAM Nyquist-SCM signal and 25Gbps EML at O band. Direct detection-faster than Nyquist (DD-FTN) technique was employed to compensate channel impairments. Number of taps of DD-LMS and tap coefficient of post filter in DD-FTN were experimentally studied for different baud rates. Single-lane 152Gbit/s transmission over 10km of SSMF was experimentally demonstrated. Employing a 4-lanes LAN-WDM architecture, a total capacity of 608Gbit/s transmission over 2km was successfully achieved with a receiver sensitivity lower than -4dBm. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the highest reported baud rate of half-cycle 16QAM Nyquist-SCM signal and the highest bit rate employing IM/DD and 25Gbps EML in a four lanes LAN-WDM architecture for short reach systems in the O band.

  15. Assessment of a Smart Sensing Shoe for Gait Phase Detection in Level Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Carbonaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis and more specifically ambulatory monitoring of temporal and spatial gait parameters may open relevant fields of applications in activity tracking, sports and also in the assessment and treatment of specific diseases. Wearable technology can boost this scenario by spreading the adoption of monitoring systems to a wide set of healthy users or patients. In this context, we assessed a recently developed commercial smart shoe—the FootMoov—for automatic gait phase detection in level walking. FootMoov has built-in force sensors and a triaxial accelerometer and is able to transmit the sensor data to the smartphone through a wireless connection. We developed a dedicated gait phase detection algorithm relying both on force and inertial information. We tested the smart shoe on ten healthy subjects in free level walking conditions and in a laboratory setting in comparison with an optical motion capture system. Results confirmed a reliable detection of the gait phases. The maximum error committed, on the order of 44.7 ms, is comparable with previous studies. Our results confirmed the possibility to exploit consumer wearable devices to extract relevant parameters to improve the subject health or to better manage his/her progressions.

  16. Automatic Application Level Set Approach in Detection Calcifications in Mammographic Image

    CERN Document Server

    Boujelben, Atef; Mnif, Jameleddine; Abid, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is considered as one of a major health problem that constitutes the strongest cause behind mortality among women in the world. So, in this decade, breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer, in term of appearance frequency, and the fifth most common cause of cancer related death. In order to reduce the workload on radiologists, a variety of CAD systems; Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADi) and Computer-Aided Detection (CADe) have been proposed. In this paper, we interested on CADe tool to help radiologist to detect cancer. The proposed CADe is based on a three-step work flow; namely, detection, analysis and classification. This paper deals with the problem of automatic detection of Region Of Interest (ROI) based on Level Set approach depended on edge and region criteria. This approach gives good visual information from the radiologist. After that, the features extraction using textures characteristics and the vector classification using Multilayer Perception (MLP) and k-Nearest Neighbours...

  17. Electron capture sulfur detector: reduced sulfur species detection at the femtomole level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.E.; Lovelock, J.E.

    1988-04-15

    The authors have developed a new technique to detect reduced sulfur compounds by fluorination with F/sub 2/ (at 200 ppm) on a heated Ag catalyst after GC separation. The excess F/sub 2/ is removed by conversion to HF by reaction with H/sub 2/ on a heated Pd catalysts. The fluorination product, presumably SF/sub 6/, is then detected in an electron capture detector (ECD). The Pd catalyst also destroys the response from halocarbons making the system sulfur specific. This ECD sulfur detector has a calculated minimum detectable level (MDL) for H/sub 2/S, OCS, CH/sub 3/SH, DMS, and CS/sub 2/ of less than 2 fmol/s for each compound, 2 orders of magnitude lower than the best FPD systems. The ratio of the detected molar response of each of these sulfur compounds to the molar response of SF/sub 6/ ranges from 2% to 20% and increases with increasing AgF/sub 2/ temperature.

  18. Detection of Human Papillomavirus Infections at the Single-Cell level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Ayaka; Koutsky, Laura A.; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Xi, Long Fu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore a possibility of single-cell analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Methods Two hundred and twenty cells were isolated by laser-capture microdissection from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical tissue blocks from 8 women who had HPV DNA detected in their cervical swab samples. The number of type-specific HPV copies in individual cells was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction with and without a prior reverse transcription. Cells were assayed and counted for more than once if the corresponding swab sample was positive for ≥2 HPV types. Results Infection with HPV16, HPV39, HPV51, HPV52, HPV58, HPV59, and HPV73 was detected in 12 (5.5%) of 220, 3 (9.4%) of 32, 3 (5.8%) of 52, 11 (22.9%) of 48, 9 (18.8%) of 48, 3 (9.4%) of 32 and none of 20 cells, respectively. Numbers of HPV genome copies varied widely from cell to cell. Coexistence of multiple HPV types was detected in 6 (31.6%) of 19 positive cells from one of the 6 women who had 2 or 3 HPV types detected in their swab samples. Conclusion Given the heterogeneity of HPV status in individual cells, further clarification of HPV infection at the single-cell level may refine our understanding of HPV-related carcinogenesis. PMID:26820741

  19. Different Levels of DNA Methylation Detected in Human Sperms after Morphological Selection Using High Magnification Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Guy Cassuto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze DNA methylation levels between two groups of spermatozoa taken from the same sample, following morphological selection by high magnification (HM at 6100x microscopy. A prospective study was conducted and studied 876 spermatozoa from 10 randomly selected men. Sperm morphology was characterized at HM according to criteria previously established. High-scoring Score 6 and low-scoring Score 0 sperm were selected. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed using an immunoassay method targeting 5-methylcytosine residues by fluorescence microscopy with imaging analysis system to detect DNA methylation in single spermatozoon. Results. In total, 448 S6 spermatozoa and 428 S0 spermatozoa were analyzed. A strong relationship was found between sperm DNA methylation levels and sperm morphology observed at HM. Sperm DNA methylation level in the S6 group was significantly lower compared with that in the S0 group (p<10-6, OR = 2.4; and p<0.001, as determined using the Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Differences in DNA methylation levels are associated with sperm morphology variations as observed at HM, which allows spermatozoa with abnormal levels to be discarded and ultimately decrease birth defects, malformations, and epigenetic diseases that may be transmitted from sperm to offspring in ICSI.

  20. Different Levels of DNA Methylation Detected in Human Sperms after Morphological Selection Using High Magnification Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassuto, Nino Guy; Montjean, Debbie; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Bouret, Dominique; Marzouk, Flora; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze DNA methylation levels between two groups of spermatozoa taken from the same sample, following morphological selection by high magnification (HM) at 6100x microscopy. A prospective study was conducted and studied 876 spermatozoa from 10 randomly selected men. Sperm morphology was characterized at HM according to criteria previously established. High-scoring Score 6 and low-scoring Score 0 sperm were selected. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed using an immunoassay method targeting 5-methylcytosine residues by fluorescence microscopy with imaging analysis system to detect DNA methylation in single spermatozoon. Results. In total, 448 S6 spermatozoa and 428 S0 spermatozoa were analyzed. A strong relationship was found between sperm DNA methylation levels and sperm morphology observed at HM. Sperm DNA methylation level in the S6 group was significantly lower compared with that in the S0 group (p < 10−6), OR = 2.4; and p < 0.001, as determined using the Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Differences in DNA methylation levels are associated with sperm morphology variations as observed at HM, which allows spermatozoa with abnormal levels to be discarded and ultimately decrease birth defects, malformations, and epigenetic diseases that may be transmitted from sperm to offspring in ICSI. PMID:27148551

  1. Demonstrating the use of web analytics and an online survey to understand user groups of a national network of river level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Christopher Kit; Braga, Joao; Arts, Koen; Ioris, Antonio; Han, Xiwu; Sripada, Yaji; van der Wal, Rene

    2016-04-01

    The number of local, national and international networks of online environmental sensors are rapidly increasing. Where environmental data are made available online for public consumption, there is a need to advance our understanding of the relationships between the supply of and the different demands for such information. Understanding how individuals and groups of users are using online information resources may provide valuable insights into their activities and decision making. As part of the 'dot.rural wikiRivers' project we investigated the potential of web analytics and an online survey to generate insights into the use of a national network of river level data from across Scotland. These sources of online information were collected alongside phone interviews with volunteers sampled from the online survey, and interviews with providers of online river level data; as part of a larger project that set out to help improve the communication of Scotland's online river data. Our web analytics analysis was based on over 100 online sensors which are maintained by the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA). Through use of Google Analytics data accessed via the R Ganalytics package we assessed: if the quality of data provided by Google Analytics free service is good enough for research purposes; if we could demonstrate what sensors were being used, when and where; how the nature and pattern of sensor data may affect web traffic; and whether we can identify and profile these users based on information from traffic sources. Web analytics data consists of a series of quantitative metrics which capture and summarize various dimensions of the traffic to a certain web page or set of pages. Examples of commonly used metrics include the number of total visits to a site and the number of total page views. Our analyses of the traffic sources from 2009 to 2011 identified several different major user groups. To improve our understanding of how the use of this national

  2. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning r...

  3. How to evaluate PCR assays for the detection of low-level DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banch-Clausen, Frederik; Urhammer, Emil; Rieneck, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    distribution describing parameters for singleplex real-time PCR-based detection of low-level DNA. The model was tested against experimental data of diluted cell-free foetal DNA. Also, the model was compared with a simplified formula to enable easy predictions. The model predicted outcomes that were......High sensitivity of PCR-based detection of very low copy number DNA targets is crucial. Much focus has been on design of PCR primers and optimization of the amplification conditions. Very important are also the criteria used for determining the outcome of a PCR assay, e.g. how many replicates...... are needed and how many of these should be positive or what amount of template should be used? We developed a mathematical model to obtain a simple tool for quick PCR assay evaluation before laboratory optimization and validation procedures. The model was based on the Poisson distribution and the Binomial...

  4. Octopamine Levels in Blattella Germanica L. Tissues by Capillary Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuren Jiang

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Distribution and levels of octopamine (OA, one of the biogenic amines in the invertebrate nervous system, may have significant effects on insect physiological processes including growth, feeding and reproduction. In this paper capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD and mass selective detection (GC-MS were used to determine the content of OA in Blattella germanica L. central nervous system (CNS, and that of OA in cockroach stressed by kinds of insecticides, known octopaminergic agonists and some essential oils. A derivatization method for organic extracts via reaction with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA was developed. The resulting OA derivatives were confirmed by GC-MS to be tris-pentafluoropropionyl-OA. The method was used to quantify the amount of OA in insect issues by capillary GC-ECD through an extraction-derivatization-liquid/liquid partition procedure. Average OA content in normal cockroaches was determined to be 68.49 ± 7.31 ng/g tissue (N=5 determinations. It was shown that insecticides including chlordimeform, methomyl, permethrin, chlorfluazuron, malathion, trichlorfon and some oxazolidine agonists, essential oils including eugenol, cinnamic alcohol, phenyl ethyl alcohol could led to significant increase of OA levels in the cockroach CNS comparing with which in insect treated by 1-butanone. Malathion, trichlorfon, chlorfluazuron and cinnamic alcohol were shown to be able to cause a 20- fold increase in OA levels.

  5. Multi-level anomaly detection: Relevance of big data analytics in networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saad Y Sait; Akshay Bhandari; Shreya Khare; Cyriac James; Hema A Murthy

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has become a vital source of information; internal and external attacks threaten the integrity of the LAN connected to the Internet. In this work, several techniques have been described for detection of such threats. We have focussed on anomaly-based intrusion detection in the campus environment at the network edge. A campus LAN consisting of more than 9000 users with a 90 Mbps internet access link is a large network. Therefore, efficient techniques are required to handle such big data and to model user behaviour. Proxy server logs of a campus LAN and edge router traces have been used for anomalies like abusive Internet access, systematic downloading (internal threats) and DDoS attacks (external threat); our techniques involve machine learning and time series analysis applied at different layers in TCP/IP stack. Accuracy of our techniques has been demonstrated through extensive experimentation on huge and varied datasets. All the techniques are applicable at the edge and can be integrated into a Network Intrusion Detection System.

  6. Statistics Related Self-Efficacy A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Demonstrating a Significant Link to Prior Mathematics Experiences for Graduate Level Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Larwin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined students' statistics-related self-efficacy, as measured with the current statistics self-efficacy (CSSE inventory developed by Finney and Schraw (2003. Structural equation modeling was used to check the confirmatory factor analysis of the one-dimensional factor of CSSE. Once confirmed, this factor was used to test whether a significant link to prior mathematics experiences exists. Additionally a new post-structural equation modeling (SEM application was employed to compute error-free latent variable score for CSSE in an effort to examine the ancillary effects of gender, age, ethnicity, department, degree level, hours completed, expected course grade, number of college-level math classes, current GPA on students' CSSE scores. Results support the one-dimensional construct and as expected, the model demonstrated a significant link between CSSE scores and prior mathematics experiences to CSSE. Additionally the students' department, expected grade, and number of prior math classes were found to have a significant effect on student's CSSE scores.

  7. Edge Detection in Gray Level Images based on the Shannon Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the classical mathematical methods for edge detection based on the derivative of the pixels of the original image are Gradient operators, Laplacian and Laplacian of Gaussian operators. Gradient based edge detection methods, such as Roberts, Sobel and Prewitts, have used two 2-D linear filters to process vertical edges and horizontal edges separately to approximate first-order derivative of pixel values of the image. The Laplacian edge detection method has used a 2-D linear filter to approximate second-order derivative of pixel values of the image. Major drawback of second-order derivative approach is that the response at and around the isolated pixel is much stronger. In this research study, a novel approach utilizing Shannon entropy other than the evaluation of derivates of the image in detecting edges in gray level images has been proposed. The proposed approach solves this problem at some extent. In the proposed method, we have used a suitable threshold value to segment the image and achieve the binary image. After this the proposed edge detector is introduced to detect and locate the edges in the image. A standard test image is used to compare the results of the proposed edge detector with the Laplacian of Gaussian edge detector operator. In order to validate the results, seven different kinds of test images are considered to examine the versatility of the proposed edge detector. It has been observed that the proposed edge detector works effectively for different gray scale digital images. The results of this study were quite promising.

  8. How to evaluate PCR assays for the detection of low-level DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banch-Clausen, Frederik; Urhammer, Emil; Rieneck, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    are needed and how many of these should be positive or what amount of template should be used? We developed a mathematical model to obtain a simple tool for quick PCR assay evaluation before laboratory optimization and validation procedures. The model was based on the Poisson distribution and the Binomial...... not significantly different from experimental data generated by testing of cell-free foetal DNA. Also, the simplified formula was applicable for fast and accurate assay evaluation. In conclusion, the model can be applied for evaluation of sensitivity of real-time PCR-based detection of low-level DNA, and may also...

  9. The Theory of Edge Detection and Low-level Vision in Retrospect

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sandip; BHAUMIK, KAMALES

    2007-01-01

    The theory of edge detection and the treatise on low-level vision presented in this chapter in the light of the non-classical receptive field of retinal ganglion cells is a straightforward continuation of the approach of David Marr and his group. The appeal of the present approach lies in its simplicity and easy implementation, although it should be kept in mind that no non-linear model of the extended surround has been proposed here, which could be an interesting direction of future work. Po...

  10. Can upwelling signals be detected in intertidal fishes of different trophic levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgar, J; Poblete, E; Alvarez, M; Morales, J P; Aranda, B; Aldana, M; Pulgar, V M

    2013-11-01

    For intertidal fishes belonging to three species, the herbivore Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae), the omnivore Girella laevifrons (Kyphosidae) and the carnivore Graus nigra (Kyphosidae), mass and body size relationships were higher in individuals from an upwelling zone compared with those from a non-upwelling zone. RNA:DNA were higher in the herbivores and omnivores from the upwelling zone. Higher biomass and RNA:DNA in the upwelling intertidal fishes may be a consequence of an increased exposure to higher nutrient availability, suggesting that increased physiological conditioning in vertebrates from upwelling areas can be detected and measured using intertidal fishes of different trophic levels.

  11. Realizing and detecting the quantum Hall effect without landau levels by using ultracold atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, L B; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Sheng, L; Xing, D Y; Wang, Z D

    2008-12-12

    We design an ingenious scheme to realize Haldane's quantum Hall model without Landau levels by using ultracold atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Three standing-wave laser beams are used to construct a wanted honeycomb lattice, where different on site energies in two sublattices required in the model can be implemented through tuning the phase of one laser beam. The staggered magnetic field is generated from the light-induced Berry phase. Moreover, we establish a relation between the Hall conductivity and the atomic density, enabling us to detect the Chern number with the typical density-profile-measurement technique.

  12. Image mathematical morphology and image restoration application in detecting underground bin level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji-ping; WU Bing

    2004-01-01

    By using image recognition technology, the underground bin level can be detdcted. The bin image is noised by vibration, atomy, backgroun and so on. The image restoration and image mathematical morphology were used based on neural network.A modified Hopfield network was presented for image restoration. The greed algorithm with n-simultaneous updates and apartially asynchronous algorithm were combined, improving convergence and avoiding synchronization penalties. Mathematical morphology was widely applicated in digital image processing. The basic idea of mathematical morphology is to use construction element measure image morphology for solving understand problem. Presented advanced Cellular neural network that forms MMCNN equation to be suit for mathematical morphology filter. It gave the theory of MMCNN dynamic extent and stable state. It was evidenced that arrived mathematical morphology filter through steady of dynamic precess in definite condition. The results of implementation were applied in detecting undergroug bin level.

  13. Aerobic plate counts and ATP levels correlate with Listeria monocytogenes detection in retail delis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Susan R; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Roof, Sherry; Oliver, Haley F

    2015-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes an estimated 1,591 cases of illness and 255 deaths annually in the United States, the majority of which are attributed to ready-to-eat deli meats processed in retail delis. Because retail delis distribute product directly to consumers, rapid methods to validate cleaning and sanitation are needed to improve retail food safety. This study investigated the relationships among ATP levels, standard aerobic plate count (APC), and L. monocytogenes presence in fully operational delis. Fifteen full-service delis were concurrently sampled for ATP, APC, and L. monocytogenes during preoperational hours once monthly for 3 months. Fifteen additional delis were recruited for 6 months of operational sampling (n = 30). A 1-log increase in APC was equivalent to a 3.3-fold increase in the odds of detecting L. monocytogenes (P < 0.001) and a 1.9-log increase in L monocytogenes population (P = 0.03). An ATP level increase of 1 log relative light unit correlated to a 0.22-log increase in APC (P < 0.001). A preoperational ATP level mean increase by 1 log relative light unit increased the odds of detecting L. monocytogenes concurrently fourfold. A 0.5-log increase in mean ATP level during preoperational sampling corresponded to a 2% increase in the predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence during operation (P < 0.01). Additionally, 10 statistically representative sites were identified and recommended for use in sanitation monitoring programs. Our data support the use of ATP as a rapid method to validate effective cleaning and sanitation to reduce L. monocytogenes in retail delis.

  14. An Electrochemical Detection of Metallothioneins at the Zeptomole Level in Nanolitre Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An Electrochemical Detection of Metallothioneins at the Zeptomole Level in Nanolitre VolumesWe report on improvement of the adsorptive transfer stripping technique (AdTS coupled with the differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction to determine a thiol-protein. The current technique has been unable to generate reproducible results when analyzing very low sample volumes (nanolitres. This obstacle can be overcome technically by modifying the current transfer technique including cooling step of the adsorbed analyte. We tested the technique on determination of a promising tumour disease marker protein called metallothionein (MT. The detection limit (3 S/N of MT was evaluated as 500 zeptomoles per 500 nL (1 pM and the quantification limit (10 S/N as 1,500 zeptomoles per 500 nL (3 pM. Further, the improved AdTS technique was utilized to analyze blood serum samples from patients with breast cancer. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that the improved technique can be used to detect a thiolprotein in very low sample volumes and can also prevent interferences during the washing and transferring step.

  15. Detection of ST-T Episode Based on the Global Curvature of Isoelectric Level in ECG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. W.; Jun, D. G.; Lee, K. J.; Yoon, H. R. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes an automated detection algorithm of ST-T episodes using global curvature which can connect the isoelectric level in ECG and can eliminate not only the slope of ST segment, but also difference of the baseline and global curve. This above method of baseline correction is very faster than classical baseline correction methods. The optimal values of parameters for baseline correction were found as the value having the highest detection rate of ST episode. The features as input of backpropagation Neural Network were extracted from the whole ST segment. The European ST-T database was used as training and test data. Finally, ST elevation, ST depression and normal ST were classified. The average ST episode sensitivity and predictivity were 85.42%, 80.29%, respectively. This result shows the high speed and reliability in ST episode detection. In conclusion, the proposed method showed the possibility in various applications for the Holter system. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Mutation detection for inventories of traffic signs from street-level panoramic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelhoff, Lykele; Creusen, Ivo; De With, Peter H. N.

    2014-03-01

    Road safety is positively influenced by both adequate placement and optimal visibility of traffic signs. As their visibility degrades over time due to e.g. aging, vandalism, accidents and vegetation coverage, up-to-date inven­tories of traffic signs are highly attractive for preserving a high road safety. These inventories are performed in a semi-automatic fashion from street-level panoramic images, exploiting object detection and classification tech­niques. Next to performing inventories from scratch, these systems are also exploited for the efficient retrieval of situation changes by comparing the outcome of the automated system to a baseline inventory (e.g. performed in a previous year). This allows for specific manual interactions to the found changes, while skipping all unchanged situations, thereby resulting in a large efficiency gain. This work describes such a mutation detection approach, with special attention to re-identifying previously found signs. Preliminary results on a geographical area con­taining about 425 km of road show that 91.3% of the unchanged signs are re-identified, while the amount of found differences equals about 35% of the number of baseline signs. From these differences, about 50% correspond to physically changed traffic signs, next to false detections, misclassifications and missed signs. As a bonus, our approach directly results in the changed situations, which is beneficial for road sign maintenance.

  17. Use of PCR analysis for detecting low levels of bacteria and mold contamination in pharmaceutical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, L; Smalls, S; Ignar, R

    2000-08-01

    PCR assays were developed and compared to standard methods for quality evaluation of pharmaceutical raw materials and finished products with low levels of microbial contamination. Samples were artificially contaminated with less than 10 CFU of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus niger. Bacterial DNA was extracted from each enrichment broth by mild lysis in Tris-EDTA-Tween 20 buffer containing proteinase K while mold DNA was extracted by boiling samples in Tris-EDTA-SDS buffer for 1 h. A 10-microl aliquot of extracted DNA was added to Ready-To-Go PCR beads and specific primers for E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. However, 50-microl aliquots of extracted mold DNA were used for amplification of specific A. niger DNA sequences. Standard methods required 6-8 days while PCR detection of all microorganisms was completed within 27 h. Low levels of microbial contamination were detected in all raw materials and products using PCR assays. Rapid quality evaluation of pharmaceutical samples resulted in optimization of product manufacturing, quality control, and release of finished products.

  18. Design of a Real-Time Face Detection Parallel Architecture Using High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe a High-Level Synthesis implementation of a parallel architecture for face detection. The chosen face detection method is the well-known Convolutional Face Finder (CFF algorithm, which consists of a pipeline of convolution operations. We rely on dataflow modelling of the algorithm and we use a high-level synthesis tool in order to specify the local dataflows of our Processing Element (PE, by describing in C language inter-PE communication, fine scheduling of the successive convolutions, and memory distribution and bandwidth. Using this approach, we explore several implementation alternatives in order to find a compromise between processing speed and area of the PE. We then build a parallel architecture composed of a PE ring and a FIFO memory, which constitutes a generic architecture capable of processing images of different sizes. A ring of 25 PEs running at 80 MHz is able to process 127 QVGA images per second or 35 VGA images per second.

  19. Design of a Real-Time Face Detection Parallel Architecture Using High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a High-Level Synthesis implementation of a parallel architecture for face detection. The chosen face detection method is the well-known Convolutional Face Finder (CFF algorithm, which consists of a pipeline of convolution operations. We rely on dataflow modelling of the algorithm and we use a high-level synthesis tool in order to specify the local dataflows of our Processing Element (PE, by describing in C language inter-PE communication, fine scheduling of the successive convolutions, and memory distribution and bandwidth. Using this approach, we explore several implementation alternatives in order to find a compromise between processing speed and area of the PE. We then build a parallel architecture composed of a PE ring and a FIFO memory, which constitutes a generic architecture capable of processing images of different sizes. A ring of 25 PEs running at 80 MHz is able to process 127 QVGA images per second or 35 VGA images per second.

  20. Multi-level detection of toxic stress in the mudpuppy (amphibian, salamander)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendron, A.D.; Fortin, R.; Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Bishop, C.A. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Van Der Kraak, G. [Guelph Univ., Ontario (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Worldwide reports of declining amphibian populations highlight the need for ecotoxicological research on amphibians. The authors have investigated the response to toxic stress in the mudpuppy. Sites (N = 9) along mixed pollution gradients in the St. Lawrence/Ottawa Rivers systems were sampled on two consecutive winters (1992-93). Elevated concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDFs detected in female gonads at the most contaminated sites, led the investigation toward signs of reproductive dysfunction. High levels of skeletal deformities were observed in the most polluted group where mudpuppies were found significantly more at risk to develop limb defects than at the reference site. The frequencies of terata, including oligodactyly and polydactyly, significantly increased with the intensity of exposure to recognized teratogens, in the St. Lawrence River system. The finding of deformities in adults could signal a more important impact during early life stages. The shift toward older t the most impacted site suggest a decrease in recruitment, that is consistent with lower survival of embryos developing under a toxic stress. Among site differences in other indicators of reproductive performance such as fecundity, gonado-somatic indices, circulating levels of 17{beta}-estradiol, testosterone, and corticosterone in females with vitellogenic eggs, were not detected.

  1. Real-time elastography in the detection of prostate cancer in patients with raised PSA level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Atul; Kapoor, Aprajita; Mahajan, Goldaa; Sidhu, Bholla Singh

    2011-09-01

    The study was done to evaluate the role of real-time elastosonography (ES) in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in 50 consecutive patients with raised PSA level and to determine whether ES can be of use to perform a targeted biopsy. Fifty consecutive patients with raised PSA levels underwent transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and ES examination. ES images with adequate compression and a quality factor of more than 50% were analyzed for areas of increased glandular stiffness. The ES findings were correlated with the targeted and 10-core biopsy and sensitivity, specificity calculated on per patient and per core basis. ES showed a sensitivity and specificity of 91.7% and 86.8% on per patient basis, respectively, with a false positive rate of 13%. The calculated sensitivity and specificity on per core basis of ES targeted biopsy was 72.5% and 100% compared with 100% and 81% of 10-core systematic biopsy group. The study concludes that combining ES with TRUS significantly improves the sensitivity to detect carcinoma prostate in patients with raised PSA, however, ES is unable to differentiate PCa from chronic prostatitis. The use of ES for targeted biopsy also improves the specificity over a 10-core systematic biopsy. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.

  2. Dose critical in-vivo detection of anti-cancer drug levels in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Holly H. (Bethel Island, CA); Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B. (late of Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the in vivo and in vitro detection and measurement of dose critical levels of DNA-binding anti-cancer drug levels in biological fluids. The apparatus comprises a laser based fiber optic sensor (optrode) which utilizes the secondary interactions between the drug and an intercalating fluorochrome bound to a probe DNA, which in turn is attached to the fiber tip at one end thereof. The other end of the optical fiber is attached to an illumination source, detector and recorder. The fluorescence intensity is measured as a function of the drug concentration and its binding constant to the probe DNA. Anticancer drugs which lend themselves to analysis by the use of the method and the optrode of the present invention include doxorubicin, daunorubicin, carminomycin, aclacinomycin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-uracil, arabinosyl cytosine, mitomycin, cis-platinum 11 diamine dichloride procarbazine, vinblastine vincristine and the like. The present method and device are suitable for the continuous monitoring of the levels of these and other anticancer drugs in biological fluids such as blood, serum, urine and the like. The optrode of the instant invention also enables the measurement of the levels of these drugs from a remote location and from multiple samples.

  3. The Applications of Decision-Level Data Fusion Techniques in the Field of Multiuser Detection for DS-UWB Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yebo Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the decision-level data fusion techniques are extended to the multiuser detection (MUD field. Then two novel MUD algorithms, that is the chairman arbitrating decision-level fusion criterion (CA-DFC based MUD algorithm and the veto logic decision-level fusion criterion (VL-DFC based MUD algorithm, are proposed for DS-UWB communication systems. In CA-DFC based method, the chairman can make his arbitration among the preliminary decisions from sub-optimal detectors by his own rule. In the VL-DFC based method, the undetermined bits in these preliminary decisions are considered to construct a simplified solution space, and then the chairman can make his final decision within this space. Simulation results demonstrate that the performances of CA-DFC and VL-DFC based MUD algorithms are superior to those of other sub-optimal MUD algorithms, and even close to that of OMD. Moreover, both of these proposed algorithms have lower computational complexity than OMD, which reveals their efficiency. Compared with CA-DFC, VL-DFC based algorithm achieves a little improvement in its performance, at the cost of the increment in its computational complexity. Thus, they can be applied to different practical situations.

  4. A Water Mass Tracer Detected in Aerosols Demonstrates Ocean-Atmosphere Mass Transfer and Links Sea Spray Aerosol to Source Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergraft, M.; Grimes, D. J.; Giddings, S. N.; Feddersen, F.; Prather, K. A.; Santander, M.; Lee, C.; Beall, C.

    2016-12-01

    During September and October of 2015 the Cross Surfzone/Inner-shelf Dye Exchange (CSIDE) project released rhodamine WT dye to study nearshore water movement and exchange offshore along a Southern California sandy beach. We utilized this opportunity to investigate ocean-atmosphere mass transfer via sea spray aerosol and linkage to source waters. Aerosol-concentrating sampling equipment was deployed at beachside and inland locations during three dye releases. Concentrated aerosol samples were analyzed for dye content using fluorescence spectroscopy. Here we present the ocean and atmosphere conditions associated with the presence and absence of dye in aerosol samples. Dye was identified in aerosol samples collected 0.1-0.3 km from the shoreline for 6 hs during the first and third dye releases of the CSIDE project. During these releases the dye persisted in the waters upwind of the sampling equipment. Dye was not detected in aerosol samples collected during the second release during which dye was moved away from waters upwind of the sampling equipment. Recovery of a chemical tracer in sea spray aerosol allows direct linkage to a known source area in the ocean that is independent of, but supported by, wind data. Our observations demonstrate: a tight ocean-atmosphere spatial coupling; a short residence time of coastal marine constituents before transfer to the atmosphere; that the ocean is both a sink for and a source of atmospheric and terrestrial material; and that human inputs to the ocean can return to us in sea spray aerosol.

  5. Demonstration of 48-Gb/s 16-QAM signal transmission using half cycle sub-carrier modulation in intensity modulation/direct detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin; He, Jing; Chen, Ming; Li, Danyu; Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    A simple spectral-efficiency intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) system based on half cycle sub-carrier modulation (SCM) signal is proposed for short reach fiber communications in this paper. The signal impairment of frequency selective fading due to fiber chromatics dispersion (CD) is mathematically analyzed. To reduce the performance deterioration caused by the non-flat transfer function, digital pre- and post-equalization is applied in the system. The peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the signal is also discussed in comparison with that of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The transmission of 16-QAM half cycle SCM signal with a sub-carrier frequency of half the symbol rate and Nyquist pulse shaping is experimentally demonstrated. The bit-error rate (BER) of 48 Gb/s polarization multiplexing division (PDM) 16 QAM half cycle SCM signal is less than 7% forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 ×10-3 after transmission over 83 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF).

  6. Detecting non-Abelian geometric phases with three-level {Lambda} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Yanxiong; Xue Zhengyuan; Zhang Xinding; Yan Hui [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We show that a non-Abelian gauge potential in two nearly degenerated dressed states may be induced by two laser beams interacting with a three-level {Lambda} atomic system. We demonstrate that the populations of the atomic states at the end of a composed path formed by two closed loops are dependent on the order of those two loops, showing an unambiguous signature of the non-Abelian geometric phase. Through numerical calculations, we show that the non-Abelian feature of the geometric phases can be tested under realistic conditions.

  7. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  8. Characterisation of clinical meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis demonstrating high levels of linezolid resistance (>256 μg/ml) resulting from transmissible and mutational mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Emma M; Fitzgibbon, Siobhan; Clair, James; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim M

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), one of the leading etiological agents of nosocomial infections poses a significant economic burden globally. Introduced in 2000, linezolid (LZD) has become an important antibiotic, used in nearly seventy countries worldwide to treat infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens such as meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species along with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Resistance to LZD in clinical settings remains rare. Here, we report the emergence of meticillin resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) clinical isolates from two voluntary general acute hospitals exhibiting higher than typically reported levels of LZD resistance (MIC>256 μg/ml). The MRSE ST-2 clone isolated from eight patients (2010-2011) not only possessed resistance-conferring mutations such as G2576T in domain V of 23S rRNA gene (as determined by HRM-PCR analysis) and R172C substitution in the ribosomal protein L3, but also carried the cfr gene (the only known transmissible mechanism of LZD resistance). All isolates possessed several key biofilm-associated genes (such as icaA, icaD, aap and atlE) and resistance to multiple clinically significant antibiotics was recorded. This study reports the earliest incidence (2010) of clinical MRSE in the Republic of Ireland demonstrating multiple LZD resistance mechanisms both mutational and potentially transmissible, and characterises this emerging resistance from a molecular perspective.

  9. Object-level change detection based on full-scale image segmentation and its application to Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at object fragmentation and poor detection results caused by discontinuous segmentation scale in object-level change detection,a new object-level change detection method based on the full-scale object tree is presented in this paper.The core idea of this new algorithm is to establish the full-scale object tree based on convexity model theory and integrate full-scale image segmentation techniques and change detection into the whole process.Some Wenchuan Earthquake images are taken as an example to discuss the new method for earthquake damage detection and evaluation in urban area,landslide detection,and extraction of barrier lake boundary.The application shows that the new method is robust and it provides an advanced tool for the quantitative detection and evaluation of earthquake damage.

  10. Wearable Sensor System Powered by a Biofuel Cell for Detection of Lactate Levels in Sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S O; Ulyanova, Y V; Figueroa-Teran, R; Bhatt, K H; Singhal, S; Atanassov, P

    An NAD(+)-dependent enzymatic sensor with biofuel cell power source system for non-invasive monitoring of lactate in sweat was designed, developed, and tested. The sensor component, based on lactate dehydrogenase, showed linear current response with increasing lactate concentrations with limits of detection from 5 to 100 mM lactate and sensitivity of 0.2 µA.mM(-1) in the presence of target analyte. In addition to the sensor patch a power source was also designed, developed and tested. The power source was a biofuel cell designed to oxidize glucose via glucose oxidase. The biofuel cell showed excellent performance, achieving over 80 mA at 0.4 V (16 mW) in a footprint of 3.5 × 3.5 × 0.7 cm. Furthermore, in order to couple the sensor to the power source, system electronic components were designed and fabricated. These consisted of an energy harvester (EH) and a micropotentiostat (MP). The EH was employed for harvesting power provided by the biofuel cell as well as up-converting the voltage to 3.0 V needed for the operation of the MP. The sensor was attached to MP for chronoamperometric detection of lactate. The Sensor Patch System was demonstrated under laboratory conditions.

  11. Using Growth Hormone Levels to Detect Macroadenoma in Patients with Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to assess the clinical differences between acromegalic patients with microadenoma and patients with macroadenoma, and to evaluate the predictive value of growth hormone (GH levels for early detection of macroadenoma.MethodsWe performed a retrospective analysis of 215 patients diagnosed with a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. The patients were divided into two groups: the microadenoma group and the macroadenoma group, and the clinical parameters were compared between these two groups. The most sensitive and specific GH values for predicting macroadenoma were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves.ResultsCompared with the microadenoma group, the macroadenoma group had a significantly younger age, higher body mass index, higher prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and hypogonadism, and a lower proportion of positive suppression to octreotide. However, there were no significant differences in the gender or in the prevalence of diabetes between the two groups. The tumor diameter was positively correlated with all GH values during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. All GH values were significantly higher in the macroadenoma group than the microadenoma group. Cut-off values for GH levels at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes for optimal discrimination between macroadenoma and microadenoma were 5.6, 5.7, 6.3, 6.0, and 5.8 ng/mL, respectively. ROC curve analysis revealed that the GH value at 30 minutes had the highest area under the curve.ConclusionThe GH level of 5.7 ng/mL or higher at 30 minutes during OGTT could provide sufficient information to detect macroadenoma at the time of diagnosis.

  12. Secondary scintillation yield of xenon with sub-percent levels of CO2 additive for rare-event detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, C. A. O.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; González-Díaz, D.; Mano, R. D. P.; Jorge, M. R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Álvarez, V.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carríon, J. V.; Cebrían, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Jones, B. J. P.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; McDonald, A. D.; Monrabal, F.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.; NEXT Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Xe-CO2 mixtures are important alternatives to pure xenon in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) based on secondary scintillation (electroluminescence) signal amplification with applications in the important field of rare event detection such as directional dark matter, double electron capture and double beta decay detection. The addition of CO2 to pure xenon at the level of 0.05-0.1% can reduce significantly the scale of electron diffusion from 10 mm /√{m} to 2.5 mm /√{m}, with high impact on the discrimination efficiency of the events through pattern recognition of the topology of primary ionization trails. We have measured the electroluminescence (EL) yield of Xe-CO2 mixtures, with sub-percent CO2 concentrations. We demonstrate that the EL production is still high in these mixtures, 70% and 35% relative to that produced in pure xenon, for CO2 concentrations around 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. The contribution of the statistical fluctuations in EL production to the energy resolution increases with increasing CO2 concentration, being smaller than the contribution of the Fano factor for concentrations below 0.1% CO2.

  13. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  14. Detection of the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chung, Dong Min; Kim, Jin-Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    By definition, the direct effect is referred to interaction between photon and DNA molecule, whereas the indirect effect is mediated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by radiolysis and subsequent reaction. It has been reported that ROS produced after exposure to IR can react with cellular materials such as DNA, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. ROS is free radicals such as the superoxide anion, hydroxyl radicals and the non-radical hydrogen peroxide. Cells generate ROS during aerobic metabolism. Excessive production of ROS can lead to oxidative stress, genetic alteration and even cell death. It has been reported that ROS plays a critical role in radiation-induced cell injury. Thus, it is of great interest to determine the radiation-induced ROS level. Many kinds of methods to detect the level of ROS have been developed so far. There were random changes of fluorescence intensity in the treatment after irradiation. This result meant that this protocol was not appropriate for determination of radiation-induced ROS. On the other hand, the fluorescence intensity was increased in a dose-dependent manner when the cells were treated with the DCFH-DA solution before irradiation. Conclusions can be drawn from the experimental results of this study. In order to properly measure the ROS level in the cells exposed to ionizing radiation, the cells should be treated with the DCFH-DA solution before irradiation.

  15. Automatic Detection of Cervical Cancer Cells by a Two-Level Cascade Classification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a method for automatic detection of cervical cancer cells in images captured from thin liquid based cytology slides. We selected 20,000 cells in images derived from 120 different thin liquid based cytology slides, which include 5000 epithelial cells (normal 2500, abnormal 2500, lymphoid cells, neutrophils, and junk cells. We first proposed 28 features, including 20 morphologic features and 8 texture features, based on the characteristics of each cell type. We then used a two-level cascade integration system of two classifiers to classify the cervical cells into normal and abnormal epithelial cells. The results showed that the recognition rates for abnormal cervical epithelial cells were 92.7% and 93.2%, respectively, when C4.5 classifier or LR (LR: logical regression classifier was used individually; while the recognition rate was significantly higher (95.642% when our two-level cascade integrated classifier system was used. The false negative rate and false positive rate (both 1.44% of the proposed automatic two-level cascade classification system are also much lower than those of traditional Pap smear review.

  16. Detection of indoxyl sulfate levels in dogs and cats suffering from naturally occurring kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, F P; Hsieh, M J; Chou, C C; Hsu, W L; Lee, Y J

    2015-09-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound uraemic toxin, has been found to accumulate in the serum of people with renal diseases and is associated with free radical induction, nephrotoxicity cardiovascular toxicity, and osteoblast cytotoxicity. Although IS has been studied in humans and in experimental models, the role of IS in dogs and cats with kidney disease has not been investigated. A high performance liquid chromatography system was applied to detect plasma IS concentrations in non-azotaemic animals (63 dogs, 16 cats) and in animals with renal azotaemia (66 dogs, 69 cats). The IS levels of azotaemic animals were significantly higher (P dogs; median [IQR] 21 (18.9) mg/L vs. 14.8 (12.3) mg/L for cats). The IS level was significantly correlated with blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations. Dogs with acute kidney injury had significantly higher IS levels (P dogs and cats. The IS concentration is directly related to loss of renal function. Further studies are necessary to determine whether measurement of IS provides any additional diagnostic or prognostic information in dogs and cats with kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Demonstration of trivalent actinide partitioning from simulated high-level liquid waste using modifier-free unsymmetrical diglycolamide in n-dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, P.K.; Kumaresan, R.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Subramanian, G.G.S.; Rajeswari, S.; Antony, M.P.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.; Chaurasia, Shivkumar; Bhanage, B.M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai (India)

    2015-07-01

    Partitioning of trivalent americium from fast-reactor (FR) simulated high-level liquid waste (SHLLW) has been demonstrated, for the first time, using a modifier-free organic phase containing an unsymmetrical diglycolamide, N,N,-didodecyl-N',N'-dioctyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamide (D{sup 3}DODGA), in n-dodecane (n-DD). The extraction behavior of various metal ions present in the FR-SHLLW that contained about 3.2 g/L of trivalent metal ions (Am(III) and Ln(III)) was studied using a solution of 0.1 M D{sup 3}DODGA/n-DD, by batch equilibration mode. The extraction of Am(III) was accompanied by the co-extraction of all lanthanides and unwanted metal ions such as Zr(IV), Y(III), and Pd(II) from FR-SHLLW. The co-extraction of unwanted metal ions was minimized by adding a suitable aqueous soluble complexing agents to FR-SHLLW, prior to extraction. As a result, trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CyDTA) was identified as an appropriate reagent for preventing the extraction of zirconium and palladium, that posed problems during recovery of trivalent metal ions from the loaded organic phase. The stripping of behavior of Am(III) and Ln(III) from the loaded organic phase was studied using dilute nitric acid in batch equilibration mode. Based on those results, a counter-current mixer-settler run was performed in a 20-stage mixer-settler. About 99.9% of Am(III), Ln(III) and Y(III) from FR-SHLLW in 0.1 M D{sup 3}DODGA/n-DD was achieved in 20 contacts and the recovery of Am(III) and other trivalents from the loaded organic phase was achieved in 5 contacts using 0.01 M nitric acid. The study demonstrated the possibility of using the modifier-free reagent, D{sup 3}DODGA, for the separation of trivalent actinides from FR-SHLLW.

  18. Design and field test equipment of river water level detection based on ultrasonic sensor and SMS gateway as flood early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, Riny; Sujono, Hari Agus; Musthofa, Ahmad Khamdi

    2017-06-01

    Due to the high rainfall, flood often occurs in some regions, especially in the area adjacent to the river banks that led to the idea to make the river water level detection system as a flood early warning. Several researches have produced flood detection equipment based on ultrasonic sensors and android as flood early warning system. This paper reported the results of a field test detection equipment to measure the river water level of the Bengawansolo River that was conducted in three villages in the district of Bungah, Dukun, and Manyar in Gresik regency. Tests were conducted simultaneously for 21 hours during heavy rainfall. The test results demonstrated the accuracy of the equipment of 97.28% for all categories of observation. The application of AFD (Android Flood Detection) via android smartphone demonstrated its precision in conveying the information of water level as represented by the status of SAFE, STAND, WARNING, and DANGER. Some charts presented from the analysis of data was derived from the data acquisition time of testing that can be used as an evaluation of flooding at some points prone to flood.

  19. Determination of intracellular levels of 6-mercaptopurine metabolites in erythrocytes utilizing capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabel, S R; Stobaugh, J F; Trueworthy, R

    1995-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a useful technique for the analysis of intracellular levels of 6-thioguanosine mono-, di-, and triphosphate with analysis times of 20 min. Conditions required for baseline separation of the thioguanine nucleotides consisted of a 25 mM KH2PO4 (pH 8.0) buffer and a separation voltage of +28 kV. Laser-induced fluorescence detection (lambda ex = 325 nm, lambda em = 410 nm) of the thioguanine nucleotide metabolites of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) was possible following oxidation of the thiol functionality. Tedious extraction procedures involving mercury cellulose resins or phenyl mercury adduct formation, which had been required previously for the selective extraction of thiopurines from erythrocytes, were unnecessary due to the overall specificity of the approach. However, the inclusion of 50 mM EDTA in the sample preparation was required to inhibit the anabolic/catabolic enzymatic activity, which was responsible for the degradation of the analytes. The method demonstrated linearity from 5 to 1700 pmol/100 microliters red blood cells for the three analytes (RSDs < or = 8%). The feasibility of the method was demonstrated for the quantitation of 6-thioguanine nucleotides in patients receiving either oral or intravenous 6-MP therapy.

  20. Neural induced embryoid bodies present high levels of metals detected by x-ray microfluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelling, Mariana P.; Cardoso, Simone C.; Paulsen, Bruna S.; Rehen, Stevens K. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas, 373 (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 14, 21941 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas, 373 (Brazil)

    2012-05-17

    Molecular mechanisms driving neural differentiation in human embryonic stem cells are not completely elucidated, specially, the role of atomic elements within this process. In this work, we described the distribution of trace elements in those stem cells growing as embryoid bodies by using synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence (SR-XRF). Naive and neural induced embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 {mu}m to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. We consistently detected metallic elements content raise on neural induced embryoid bodies, mimicking characteristic brain development. The use of SR-XRF reveals that human embryoid bodies exhibit self-organization at the atomic level, which is enhanced during neurogenesis triggered in vitro.

  1. Neural induced embryoid bodies present high levels of metals detected by x-ray microfluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelling, Mariana P.; Cardoso, Simone C.; Paulsen, Bruna S.; Rehen, Stevens K.

    2012-05-01

    Molecular mechanisms driving neural differentiation in human embryonic stem cells are not completely elucidated, specially, the role of atomic elements within this process. In this work, we described the distribution of trace elements in those stem cells growing as embryoid bodies by using synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence (SR-XRF). Naive and neural induced embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 μm to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. We consistently detected metallic elements content raise on neural induced embryoid bodies, mimicking characteristic brain development. The use of SR-XRF reveals that human embryoid bodies exhibit self-organization at the atomic level, which is enhanced during neurogenesis triggered in vitro.

  2. Chromogenic and fluorogenic Schiff base chemosensor for nano scale level fluoride detection with logical interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pritam; Banerjee, Priyabrata

    2016-10-01

    Schiff base Organic Frameworks (SOFs) based chemosensor have been synthesized and utilized for recognization of biologically relevant fluoride anion. The chemosensor is selective for fluoride (F-) and exhibits reversible UV-Vis response with alternate addition of aluminum (Al3+). Interestingly a fluorescence 'turn on' response has been noticed with concomitant addition of fluoride. TICT, PTTS and restricted Cdbnd N isomerization has been taken into account in order to explain the florescence 'turn on' phenomenon. Significantly, the limit of fluoride detection is nano molar level (∼10 nM). The reversible UV-Vis phenomena have been used for designing AND-NAND-NOT-NOR-OR-XOR-XNOR based complex logic circuit to prepare potential feedstock as 'Lab-on a-Molecule'.

  3. Locked Nucleic Acid Probes (LNA) for Enhanced Detection of Low-Level, Clinically Significant Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafa, Khedoudja; Hameed, Meera; Arcila, Marie E

    2016-01-01

    The detection of clinically significant somatic mutations present at low level in a tissue sample represents a challenge in any laboratory. While several high sensitivity methods are described, the incorporation of these new techniques in a clinical lab may be difficult if the technology is not readily available or requires major changes in the workflow of the laboratory. Techniques that are robust and easily adapted to existing laboratory protocols are highly advantageous. In this chapter we describe the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes to modify existing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based protocols which can then be sequenced by Sanger sequencing. LNA probes are used to enhance the sensitivity of Sanger sequencing to mutation frequencies below 1 %. The method is robust and is easily incorporated for assessment of any sample with low tumor content or low mutant allele burden.

  4. Impact of physiological noise correction on detecting blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast in the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Tess E.; Manavaki, Roido; Graves, Martin J.; Patterson, Andrew J.; Gilbert, Fiona J.

    2017-01-01

    Physiological fluctuations are expected to be a dominant source of noise in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments to assess tumour oxygenation and angiogenesis. This work investigates the impact of various physiological noise regressors: retrospective image correction (RETROICOR), heart rate (HR) and respiratory volume per unit time (RVT), on signal variance and the detection of BOLD contrast in the breast in response to a modulated respiratory stimulus. BOLD MRI was performed at 3 T in ten volunteers at rest and during cycles of oxygen and carbogen gas breathing. RETROICOR was optimized using F-tests to determine which cardiac and respiratory phase terms accounted for a significant amount of signal variance. A nested regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of RETROICOR, HR and RVT on the model fit residuals, temporal signal-to-noise ratio, and BOLD activation parameters. The optimized RETROICOR model accounted for the largest amount of signal variance ( Δ R\\text{adj}2   =  3.3  ±  2.1%) and improved the detection of BOLD activation (P  =  0.002). Inclusion of HR and RVT regressors explained additional signal variance, but had a negative impact on activation parameter estimation (P  <  0.001). Fluctuations in HR and RVT appeared to be correlated with the stimulus and may contribute to apparent BOLD signal reactivity.

  5. Detection of high levels of resistance to linezolid and vancomycin in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Aysha; Rasool, Samreen; Haque, Asma; Shan, Sidra; Saeed, Muhammad; Ehsan, Beenish; Haque, Abdul

    2017-09-01

    Both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) are rapidly overcoming the current array of drugs. One hundred and fifty isolates from a hospital were studied for resistance towards linezolid and vancomycin. Fifty-four (36.0 %) isolates were MRSA. Both MRSA and MSSA showed high resistance towards linezolid when using the disc diffusion method, with the figures being 48.1 and 29.2 %, respectively. The figures for the E-test were 46.3 and 27.0 %, respectively. The vancomycin resistance was remarkable in MRSA (14.8 %), but relatively low in MSSA (3.1 %). The E-test results were 13.0 and 4.16 %, respectively. The cfr gene was detected in 78 % of linezolid-resistant isolates and the vanA operon was detected in 74 % of vancomycin-resistant isolates. This level of resistance against linezolid and vancomycin is unprecedented. These results are alarming and highlight the threat of non-treatable S. aureus strains.

  6. Crack detection in magnetic tile images using nonsubsampled shearlet transform and envelope gray level gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengli; Liu, Peiyong; Yin, Guofu; Wang, Ling

    2017-05-01

    A novel algorithm based on nonsubsampled shearlet transform (NSST) and envelope gray level gradient (EGLG) is proposed for detecting low-contrast cracks in variably illuminated magnetic tile images. The algorithm first adopted NSST to decompose the original images into multiple subbands at different directions and scales. Then a novel column filtering based on EGLG was employed to remove the uneven background in the approximation subband, and a shearlet coefficient variance discriminator (SCVD) was used to eliminate interferences of noise and textures in the detail subbands. Finally the cracks were extracted from the reconstructed images. To verify the validity of the proposed algorithm, extensive experiments were conducted in a novel machine vision based system and its comparison with traditional algorithms was given. Experimental results show that this method achieves an accuracy rate of 95.5% in detecting cracks longer than 0.9 mm with an average runtime of 0.576 s, and outperforms traditional methods in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  7. Trophic groups and modules: two levels of group detection in food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauzens, Benoit; Thébault, Elisa; Lacroix, Gérard; Legendre, Stéphane

    2015-05-06

    Within food webs, species can be partitioned into groups according to various criteria. Two notions have received particular attention: trophic groups (TGs), which have been used for decades in the ecological literature, and more recently, modules. The relationship between these two group concepts remains unknown in empirical food webs. While recent developments in network theory have led to efficient methods for detecting modules in food webs, the determination of TGs (groups of species that are functionally similar) is largely based on subjective expert knowledge. We develop a novel algorithm for TG detection. We apply this method to empirical food webs and show that aggregation into TGs allows for the simplification of food webs while preserving their information content. Furthermore, we reveal a two-level hierarchical structure where modules partition food webs into large bottom-top trophic pathways, whereas TGs further partition these pathways into groups of species with similar trophic connections. This provides new perspectives for the study of dynamical and functional consequences of food-web structure, bridging topological and dynamical analysis. TGs have a clear ecological meaning and are found to provide a trade-off between network complexity and information loss.

  8. An efficient probe for rapid detection of cyanide in water at parts per billion levels and naked-eye detection of endogenous cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Namita; Jha, Satadru; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-03-01

    A new molecular probe based on an oxidized bis-indolyl skeleton has been developed for rapid and sensitive visual detection of cyanide ions in water and also for the detection of endogenously bound cyanide. The probe allows the "naked-eye" detection of cyanide ions in water with a visual color change from red to yellow (Δλmax =80 nm) with the immediate addition of the probe. It shows high selectivity towards the cyanide ion without any interference from other anions. The detection of cyanide by the probe is ratiometric, thus making the detection quantitative. A Michael-type addition reaction of the probe with the cyanide ion takes place during this chemodosimetric process. In water, the detection limit was found to be at the parts per million level, which improved drastically when a neutral micellar medium was employed, and it showed a parts-per-billion-level detection, which is even 25-fold lower than the permitted limits of cyanide in water. The probe could also efficiently detect the endogenously bound cyanide in cassava (a staple food) with a clear visual color change without requiring any sample pretreatment and/or any special reaction conditions such as pH or temperature. Thus the probe could serve as a practical naked-eye probe for "in-field" experiments without requiring any sophisticated instruments. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Mass Cytometry for Detection of Silver at the Bacterial Single Cell Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Guo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mass cytometry (Cytometry by Time of Flight, CyTOF allows single-cell characterization on the basis of specific metal-based cell markers. In addition, other metals in the mass range such as silver can be detected per cell. Bacteria are known to be sensible to silver and a protocol was developed to measure both the number of affected cells per population and the quantities of silver per cell.Methods: For mass cytometry ruthenium red was used as a marker for all cells of a population while parallel application of cisplatin discriminated live from dead cells. Silver quantities per cell and frequencies of silver containing cells in a population were measured by mass cytometry. In addition, live/dead subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry and distinguished by cell sorting based on ruthenium red and propidium iodide double staining. Verification of the cells’ silver load was performed on the bulk level by using ICP-MS in combination with cell sorting. The protocol was developed by conveying both, fast and non-growing Pseudomonas putida cells as test organisms.Results: A workflow for labeling bacteria in order to be analyzed by mass cytometry was developed. Three different parameters were tested: ruthenium red provided counts for all bacterial cells in a population while consecutively applied cisplatin marked the frequency of dead cells. Apparent population heterogeneity was detected by different frequencies of silver containing cells. Silver quantities per cell were also well measurable. Generally, AgNP-10 treatment caused higher frequencies of dead cells, higher frequencies of silver containing cells and higher per-cell silver quantities. Due to an assumed chemical equilibrium of free and bound silver ions live and dead cells were associated with silver in equal quantities and this preferably during exponential growth. With ICP-MS up to 1.5 fg silver per bacterial cell were detected.Conclusion: An effective mass cytometry

  10. A General Framework for Power Analysis to Detect the Moderator Effects in Two- and Three-Level Cluster Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo; Spybrook, Jessaca; Kelcey, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a general framework for power analyses to detect the moderator effects in two- and three-level cluster randomized trials (CRTs). The study specifically aims to: (1) develop the statistical formulations for calculating statistical power, minimum detectable effect size (MDES) and its confidence interval to…

  11. Detecting sea-level hazards: Simple regression-based methods for calculating the acceleration of sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Howd, Peter A.; Sallenger,, Asbury H.

    2016-01-04

    This report documents the development of statistical tools used to quantify the hazard presented by the response of sea-level elevation to natural or anthropogenic changes in climate and ocean circulation. A hazard is a physical process (or processes) that, when combined with vulnerability (or susceptibility to the hazard), results in risk. This study presents the development and comparison of new and existing sea-level analysis methods, exploration of the strengths and weaknesses of the methods using synthetic time series, and when appropriate, synthesis of the application of the method to observed sea-level time series. These reports are intended to enhance material presented in peer-reviewed journal articles where it is not always possible to provide the level of detail that might be necessary to fully support or recreate published results.

  12. Evaluation of Rapid Molecular Detection Assays for Salmonella in Challenging Food Matrices at Low Inoculation Levels and Using Difficult-to-Detect Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gina; Roof, Sherry; Post, Laurie; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Assays for detection of foodborne pathogens are generally initially evaluated for performance in validation studies carried out according to guidelines provided by validation schemes (e.g., AOAC International or the International Organization for Standardization). End users often perform additional validation studies to evaluate the performance of assays in specific matrices (e.g., specific foods or raw material streams of interest) and with specific pathogen strains. However, these types of end-user validations are typically not well defined. This study was conducted to evaluate a secondary end user validation of four AOAC-validated commercial rapid detection assays (an isothermal nucleic acid amplification, an immunoassay, and two PCR-based assays) for their ability to detect Salmonella in two challenging matrices (dry pet food and dark chocolate). Inclusivity was evaluated with 68 diverse Salmonella strains at low population levels representing the limit of detection (LOD) for each assay. One assay detected all strains at the LOD, two assays detected multiple strains only at 10 times the LOD, and the fourth assay failed to detect two strains (Salmonella bongori and S. enterica subsp. houtenae) even at 1,000 times the LOD; this assay was not further evaluated. The three remaining assays were subsequently evaluated for their ability to detect five selected Salmonella strains in food samples contaminated at fractional levels. Unpaired comparisons revealed no significant difference between the results for each given assay and the results obtained with the reference assay. However, analysis of paired culture-confirmed results revealed assay false-negative rates of 4 to 26% for dry pet food and 12 to 16% for dark chocolate. Overall, our data indicate that rapid assays may have high false-negative rates when performance is evaluated under challenging conditions, including low-moisture matrices, strains that are difficult to detect, injured cells, and low inoculum

  13. Screening-level risk assessment for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer detected in soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Gargas, M L; Collins, J J; Rowlands, J C

    2012-01-01

    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment.

  14. Ultrasensitive and label-free molecular level detection enabled by light phase control in magnetoplasmonic nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccaferri, Nicolò; Gregorczyk, Keith; de Oliveira, Thales V. A. G.; Kataja, Mikko; van Dijken, Sebastiaan; Pirzadeh, Zhaleh; Dmitriev, Alexandre; Åkerman, Johan; Knez, Mato; Vavassori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Systems allowing label-free molecular detection are expected to have enormous impact on biochemical sciences. Research focuses on materials and technologies based on exploiting localized surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanostructures. The reason for this focused attention is their suitability for single molecule sensing, arising from intrinsically nanoscopic sensing volume, and the high sensitivity to the local environment. Here we propose an alternative route, which enables radically improved sensitivity compared torecently reported plasmon-based sensors. Such high sensitivity is achieved by exploiting the control of the phase of light in magnetoplasmonic nanoantennas. We demonstrate a manifold improvement of refractometric sensing figure-of-merit. Most remarkably, we show a raw surface sensitivity (i.e., without applying fitting procedures) of two orders of magnitude higher than the current values reported for nanoplasmonic sensors. Such sensitivity corresponds to a mass of ~0.8 ag per nanoantenna of polyamide-6.6 (n=1.51), which is representative for a large variety of polymers, peptides and proteins. PMID:25639190

  15. Secondary neutral mass spectrometry using three-color resonance ionization: Os detection at the ppb level and Fe detection in Si at the 40 ppt level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellin, M.J.; Young, C.E.; Calaway, W.F.; Whitten, J.E.; Gruen, D.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Blum, J.D.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Wasserburg, G.J. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Among the many uses of resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy, secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) is both one of the most demanding and one of the most important. Recently, we have demonstrated that the selectivity of REMPI, and thus the sensitivity of SNMS, can be greatly enhanced using resonant excitation schemes involving multiply resonant processes. Of particular interest, is the use of autoionizing resonances, resonances with energies in excess of the ionization potential of the atom, in the REMPI process. The use of autoionizing resonances can reduce the laser intensity required to saturate the ionization process by more than an order of magnitude. This reduction can strongly reduce nonresonant ionization of background substituents enhancing the signal to noise of the SNMS measurement. While this approach to laser ionization SNMS is generally applicable, the three-color ionization method has been demonstrated using two widely disparate yet important systems. 42 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Molecular Tools for the Selective Detection of Nine Diatom Species Biomarkers of Various Water Quality Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Cimarelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the composition of diatom communities and their response to environmental changes is currently limited by laborious taxonomic identification procedures. Advances in molecular technologies are expected to contribute more efficient, robust and sensitive tools for the detection of these ecologically relevant microorganisms. There is a need to explore and test phylogenetic markers as an alternative to the use of rRNA genes, whose limited sequence divergence does not allow the accurate discrimination of diatoms at the species level. In this work, nine diatom species belonging to eight genera, isolated from epylithic environmental samples collected in central Italy, were chosen to implement a panel of diatoms covering the full range of ecological status of freshwaters. The procedure described in this work relies on the PCR amplification of specific regions in two conserved diatom genes, elongation factor 1-a (eEF1-a and silicic acid transporter (SIT, as a first step to narrow down the complexity of the targets, followed by microarray hybridization experiments. Oligonucleotide probes with the potential to discriminate closely related species were designed taking into account the genetic polymorphisms found in target genes. These probes were tested, refined and validated on a small-scale prototype DNA chip. Overall, we obtained 17 highly specific probes targeting eEF1-a and SIT, along with 19 probes having lower discriminatory power recognizing at the same time two or three species. This basic array was validated in a laboratory setting and is ready for tests with crude environmental samples eventually to be scaled-up to include a larger panel of diatoms. Its possible use for the simultaneous detection of diatoms selected from the classes of water quality identified by the European Water Framework Directive is discussed.

  17. Detection of in situ mammary cancer in a transgenic mouse model: in vitro and in vivo MRI studies demonstrate histopathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, S A; Fan, X; Zamora, M; Foxley, S; River, J; Newstead, G M; Karczmar, G S [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Conzen, S D [Department of Medicine and Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, MC 2115, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Krausz, T [Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Avenue, MC 6101, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)], E-mail: gskarczm@uchicago.edu

    2008-10-07

    Improving the prevention and detection of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is expected to lower both morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. Transgenic mouse models can be used as a 'test bed' to develop new imaging methods and to evaluate the efficacy of candidate preventive therapies. We hypothesized that despite its microscopic size, early murine mammary cancer, including DCIS, might be accurately detected by MRI. C3(1) SV40 TAg female mice (n = 23) between 10 and 18 weeks of age were selected for study. Eleven mice were subjected to in vitro imaging using a T{sub 2}-weighted spin echo sequence and 12 mice were selected for in vivo imaging using a T{sub 1}-weighted gradient echo, a T{sub 2}-weighted spin echo and high spectral and spatial resolution imaging sequences. The imaged glands were carefully dissected, formalin fixed and paraffin embedded, and then H and E stained sections were obtained. The ratio of image-detected versus histologically detected cancers was obtained by reviewing the MR images and H and E sections independently and using histology as the gold standard. MR images were able to detect 12/12 intramammary lymph nodes, 1/1 relatively large ({approx}5 mm) tumor, 17/18 small ({approx}1 mm) tumors and 13/16 ducts distended with DCIS greater than 300 {mu}m. Significantly, there were no false positives-i.e., image detection always corresponded to a histologically detectable cancer in this model. These results indicate that MR imaging can reliably detect both preinvasive in situ and early invasive mammary cancers in mice with high sensitivity. This technology is an important step toward the more effective use of non-invasive imaging in pre-clinical studies of breast cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  18. Detection of in situ mammary cancer in a transgenic mouse model: in vitro and in vivo MRI studies demonstrate histopathologic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S. A.; Conzen, S. D.; Fan, X.; Krausz, T.; Zamora, M.; Foxley, S.; River, J.; Newstead, G. M.; Karczmar, G. S.

    2008-10-01

    Improving the prevention and detection of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is expected to lower both morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. Transgenic mouse models can be used as a 'test bed' to develop new imaging methods and to evaluate the efficacy of candidate preventive therapies. We hypothesized that despite its microscopic size, early murine mammary cancer, including DCIS, might be accurately detected by MRI. C3(1) SV40 TAg female mice (n = 23) between 10 and 18 weeks of age were selected for study. Eleven mice were subjected to in vitro imaging using a T2-weighted spin echo sequence and 12 mice were selected for in vivo imaging using a T1-weighted gradient echo, a T2-weighted spin echo and high spectral and spatial resolution imaging sequences. The imaged glands were carefully dissected, formalin fixed and paraffin embedded, and then H&E stained sections were obtained. The ratio of image-detected versus histologically detected cancers was obtained by reviewing the MR images and H&E sections independently and using histology as the gold standard. MR images were able to detect 12/12 intramammary lymph nodes, 1/1 relatively large (~5 mm) tumor, 17/18 small (~1 mm) tumors and 13/16 ducts distended with DCIS greater than 300 µm. Significantly, there were no false positives—i.e., image detection always corresponded to a histologically detectable cancer in this model. These results indicate that MR imaging can reliably detect both preinvasive in situ and early invasive mammary cancers in mice with high sensitivity. This technology is an important step toward the more effective use of non-invasive imaging in pre-clinical studies of breast cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  19. Deception Detection: Accuracy Levels Among International Military Officers Using Content and Contextual Questioning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    average, people are slightly better than fifty-fifty at detecting deception, as seen in a published Personality and Social Psychology Review article...at detecting deception, as seen in a published Personality and Social Psychology Review article. Modern research ideology favors using diagnostic...BACKGROUND HISTORY / LITERATURE REVIEW ...............9 A. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF DECEPTION DETECTION

  20. Reliability of immunohistochemical demonstration of oestrogen receptors in routine practice: interlaboratory variance in the sensitivity of detection and evaluation of scoring systems

    OpenAIRE

    RHODES A.; Jasani, B; Barnes, D; Bobrow, L; Miller, K

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To investigate interlaboratory variance in the immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of oestrogen receptors so as to determine the rate of false negatives, which could adversely influence the decision to give adjuvant tamoxifen treatment.

  1. Detection Level Enhancement of Gravitational Microlensing Events from the Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Ichsan; Djamal, Mitra; Kunjaya, Chatief; Jaelani, Anton Timur; Putri, Gerhana Puannandra

    2015-01-01

    In Astronomy, intensity of the source light is expressed in magnitude. Conventionally, magnitude is defined by logarithmic function of the received flux. This relationship is known as Pogson formulae. For received flux with small signal to noise ratio (S/N), the formulae gives large magnitude error. We want to inspect whether using Inverse Hyperbolic Sine function (hereinafter referred to as Asinh magnitude) can give an alternative calculation of magnitudes for small S/N flux and gives better results to represent the magnitude for that region. We study the possibility of increasing detection level of gravitational microlensing from 40 selected microlensing events light curves for 2013 and 2014 season by using Asinh magnitude. We obtained that the use of the Asinh make the events brighter than using logarithmic with average of about 3.42 x 10^-2 magnitude. We find also average of magnitude error difference between logarithmic magnitude and Asinh magnitude to is about 2.21 x 10^-2 magnitude, so we propose a lim...

  2. Silicon photomultipliers for improved detection of low light levels in miniature near-infrared spectroscopy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Braun, F; Achtnich, T; Lambercy, O; Gassert, R; Wolf, M

    2013-05-01

    Silicon photomultipliers are novel solid state photodetectors that recently became commercially available. The goal of this paper was to investigate their suitability for low light level detection in miniaturized functional near-infrared spectroscopy instruments. Two measurement modules with a footprint of 26×26 mm(2) were built, and the signal-to-noise ratio was assessed for variable source-detector separations between 25 and 65 mm on phantoms with similar optical properties to those of a human head. These measurements revealed that the signal-to-noise ratio of the raw signal was superior to an empirically derived design requirement for source-detector separations up to 50 mm. An arterial arm occlusion was also performed on one of the authors in vivo, to induce reproducible hemodynamic changes which confirmed the validity of the measured signals. The proposed use of silicon photomultipliers in functional near-infrared spectroscopy bears large potential for future development of precise, yet compact and modular instruments, and affords improvements of the source-detector separation by 67% compared to the commonly used 30 mm.

  3. Borehole Volumetric Strainmeters Detect Very Long-period Ocean Level Changes in Tokai Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanami, T.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S. I.; Kitagawa, G.; Hirata, N.; Rydelek, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    We detected a clear very long-period strain signal with a predominant period of about 2 months in the data from Sacks-Evertson borehole volumetric strainmeters. These have been operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) since 1976 in Tokai area, Japan, the area of an expected Tokai eartquake. Earth's surface is always influenced by natural force such as earth tide, air pressure, and precipitation as well as by human induced sources. In order to decompose into their components in the maximum likelihood estimation, state-space modeling (Takanami et al., 2013) is applied to the observed time series data for 15 months before and after the earthquake M6.5 that occurred on 11th August 2009 in Suruga Bay. In the analysis, the strain data are decomposed into trend, air pressure, earth tide, precipitation effects and observation noise. Clear long-period strain signals are seen in the normalized trend component time series. Time series data from JMA tide gages around Suruga Bay are similarly decomposed. Then spectral analyses are applied to the trend components for the same time interval. Comparison of amplitude peaks in spectra for both data sets show all have a peak at period of about 1464 hours. Thus strain changes may be influenced by very long-period ocean level changes; it is necessary to consider this possibility before attributing tectonic significance to such variations.

  4. Semi-Automated Detection of Surface Degradation on Bridges Based on a Level Set Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, A.; Guarnieri, A.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2015-08-01

    Due to the effect of climate factors, natural phenomena and human usage, buildings and infrastructures are subject of progressive degradation. The deterioration of these structures has to be monitored in order to avoid hazards for human beings and for the natural environment in their neighborhood. Hence, on the one hand, monitoring such infrastructures is of primarily importance. On the other hand, unfortunately, nowadays this monitoring effort is mostly done by expert and skilled personnel, which follow the overall data acquisition, analysis and result reporting process, making the whole monitoring procedure quite expensive for the public (and private, as well) agencies. This paper proposes the use of a partially user-assisted procedure in order to reduce the monitoring cost and to make the obtained result less subjective as well. The developed method relies on the use of images acquired with standard cameras by even inexperienced personnel. The deterioration on the infrastructure surface is detected by image segmentation based on a level sets method. The results of the semi-automated analysis procedure are remapped on a 3D model of the infrastructure obtained by means of a terrestrial laser scanning acquisition. The proposed method has been successfully tested on a portion of a road bridge in Perarolo di Cadore (BL), Italy.

  5. Relationship of serum HMGB1 and sentinel lymph node detection with tumor marker levels and malignant molecule expression levels in tumor tissue of gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Hao Gong; Yi-Ting Cai; Hai-Qun Chen; Chao-Feng Zhang; Gang Dai; Song-Ming Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship of serum HMGB1 and sentinel lymph node detection with tumor marker levels and malignant molecule expression levels in tumor tissue of gastric cancer patients.Methods:Patients with early gastric cancer were selected as pathology group, healthy volunteers were selected as control group, serum HMGB1, CA72-4, DDK1, TK1, exosome, PG-I and PG-II levels were determined and PGR percentage was calculated, pathology group received intraoperative sentinel lymph node localization and biopsy, tumor tissue was collected and the expression levels of malignant molecules were determined.Results: Serum HMBG1, CA72-4, DDK1, TK1 and exosome levels of pathology group were higher than those of control group, and PGR percentage was lower than that of control group; the higher the serum HMBG1 level in gastric cancer patients, the higher the CA72-4, DDK1, TK1 and exosome levels and the lower the PGR percentage in serum, and the higher the Survivin protein levels and the lower the PTEN, p21, Caspase-3 and Caspase-7 levels in tumor tissue; CA72-4, DDK1, TK1 and exosome levels in serum and Survivin protein level in tumor tissue of patients with SLNS(+) gastric cancer were significantly higher than those of patients with SLNS(-) gastric cancer, and PGR percentage in serum and PTEN, p21, Caspase-3 and Caspase-7 protein levels in tumor tissue were significantly lower than those of patients with SLNS(-) gastric cancer. Conclusion:Serum HMGB1 and sentinel lymph node detection in gastric cancer patients can early assess tumor malignancy and lymph node metastasis.

  6. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  7. Detection of vitamin B12 levels with the aid of some hematological and biochemical parameters that are more sensitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süheyl Asma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is a health problem, which is usually seen in elderly patients and results in hematological and neurological disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the serum levels of vitamin B12 could represent the real tissue levels with con-sidering some hematological and biochemical parameters. 128 patients whose vitamin B12 levels have been detected to be low and their ages are ranged from 16 to 90, have been investigated. Fifty three of them were females. Complete blood counts, antiparietal antibody(APA, homocysteine levels, peripheral blood smear evaluations and findings of gastroduodenoscopy were assessed. Mean volume of erythrocytes has been found as 107 fl in patient group (group 1, in which vitamin B12 level has been detected lower than 60 pg/mL. Thehigher homocysteine values in 85% cases, neutrophil hyper-segmentation in 82%, atrophic gastritis in 53 % and APA positivity in 47 % of cases have been detected. The average of agehas been detected as 65 in this group. High level of homocysteine has been present in 44 % of cases and MCV has been 91 fl in group 2, in which the vitamin B12 levels are between 61–100 pg/ mL. In group ( group 3, in which vitamin levels are between 101 – 140 pg /mL,elevated homocysteine levels in 27 % cases and MCV as 89 fl have been detected. In group 4, in which vitamin levels are between 141–178 pg/mL, homocysteine elevation in 16 % of cases and MCV as

  8. Demonstration of a very inexpensive, turbidimetric, real-time, RT-LAMP detection platform using shrimp Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunrut, Narong; Suebsing, Rungkarn; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of pathogens under field laboratory conditions is necessary for effective control of veterinary pathogens. Here we describe a prototype, portable, pathogen detection device developed for single tube, real-time, reverse transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) using Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) as a model. LSNV is an RNA virus and a component cause of growth retardation in black tiger shrimp. We chose its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene as the target for our tests. The basis for detection was measurement of turbidity arising from formation of a white, insoluble magnesium pyrophosphate precipitate byproduct upon amplification of the RdRp target sequence from 100 ng template RNA extracted from shrimp. The measurement device consisted of a heating block to maintain constant temperature in the RT-LAMP reaction for 8 Eppindorf sample tubes, a light-emitting diode (LED) light source providing red light emission at 650 nm wavelength to pass through sample tubes, a light dependent resistance (LDR) photo-detector and a software program to report turbidity events and could potentially be marketed for under US$3000. The device was connected to a computer to display real-time results in a variety of formats. The optimized protocol for LSNV detection consisted of incubation of the sample tubes at 65 °C for 1 h during which turbidity was continuously measured, and quantitative results could be obtained by reaction time measurement. The sensitivity of detection was comparable to that of conventional nested RT-PCR and there was no cross reaction with other common shrimp viruses. The device was used for quantitative measurement of relative copy numbers of LSNV RdRp in 8 shrimp tissues and they were found to be highest in the gills followed in order by the lymphoid organ and hemolymph (p ≤ 0.05). This platform can be easily adapted for detection of other pathogens under field laboratory settings.

  9. Demonstration of a very inexpensive, turbidimetric, real-time, RT-LAMP detection platform using shrimp Laem-Singh virus (LSNV as a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narong Arunrut

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate detection of pathogens under field laboratory conditions is necessary for effective control of veterinary pathogens. Here we describe a prototype, portable, pathogen detection device developed for single tube, real-time, reverse transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP using Laem-Singh virus (LSNV as a model. LSNV is an RNA virus and a component cause of growth retardation in black tiger shrimp. We chose its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp gene as the target for our tests. The basis for detection was measurement of turbidity arising from formation of a white, insoluble magnesium pyrophosphate precipitate byproduct upon amplification of the RdRp target sequence from 100 ng template RNA extracted from shrimp. The measurement device consisted of a heating block to maintain constant temperature in the RT-LAMP reaction for 8 Eppindorf sample tubes, a light-emitting diode (LED light source providing red light emission at 650 nm wavelength to pass through sample tubes, a light dependent resistance (LDR photo-detector and a software program to report turbidity events and could potentially be marketed for under US$3000. The device was connected to a computer to display real-time results in a variety of formats. The optimized protocol for LSNV detection consisted of incubation of the sample tubes at 65 °C for 1 h during which turbidity was continuously measured, and quantitative results could be obtained by reaction time measurement. The sensitivity of detection was comparable to that of conventional nested RT-PCR and there was no cross reaction with other common shrimp viruses. The device was used for quantitative measurement of relative copy numbers of LSNV RdRp in 8 shrimp tissues and they were found to be highest in the gills followed in order by the lymphoid organ and hemolymph (p ≤ 0.05. This platform can be easily adapted for detection of other pathogens under field laboratory settings.

  10. Regulator's Workshop on The Role of Future Society and Biosphere in Demonstrating Compliance with High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Standards and Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Blommaert, W. [Agence Federale de Controle Nucleaire, Bruxelles (Belgium); Clark, R. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)] [and others

    2002-09-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a workshop, co-sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The invitations to participate in the Workshop were primarily extended to authorities in countries with major nuclear waste programs involving geological disposal and using performance assessment methodology. The main objective of the Workshop was to develop a common understanding among regulators of the role of society and the biosphere in demonstrating compliance with regulations.

  11. Complete validation of a unique digestion assay to detect Trichinella larvae in horsemeat demonstrates its reliability for meeting food safety and trade requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tissue digestion assay using a double separatory funnel (DSF) procedure for the detection of Trichinella larvae in horsemeat was validated for application in food safety programs and trade. It consisted of a pepsin-HCl digestion step to release larvae from muscle tissue followed by two sequential ...

  12. Experimental demonstration of tunable homodyne detection of WDM and dual-polarization PSK channels by automatically locking the channels to a local pump laser using nonlinear mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaiman, Ahmed; Ziyadi, Morteza; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Cao, Yinwen; Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Liao, Peicheng; Bao, Changjing; Shamee, Bishara; Ahmed, Nisar; Alishahi, Fatemeh; Fallahpour, Ahmad; Akasaka, Youichi; Yang, Jeng-Yuan; Sekiya, Motoyoshi; Touch, Joseph D; Tur, Moshe; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Willner, Alan E

    2016-06-15

    This Letter proposes a method for tunable automatically locked homodyne detection of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) dual-polarization (DP) phase-shift keyed (PSK) channels using nonlinear mixing. Two stages of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides and an LCoS filter enable automatic phase locking of the channels to a local laser.

  13. Independent associations of polymorphisms in vitamin D binding protein (GC) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes with obesity and plasma 25OHD3 levels demonstrate sex dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almesri, Norah; Das, Nagalla S; Ali, Muhallab E; Gumaa, Khalid; Giha, Hayder Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    We investigated a possible association between polymorphisms in vitamin D binding protein (GC) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes and obesity in Bahraini adults. For this purpose, 406 subjects with varying body mass indexes (BMIs) were selected. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms, 2 in the VDR gene (rs731236 TC and rs12721377 AG) and 4 in the GC gene (rs2282679 AC, rs4588 CA, rs7041 GT, and rs2298849 TC), were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that the rs7041 minor allele (G) and rare genotype (GG) were associated with higher BMI (p = 0.007 and p = 0.012, respectively), but they did not influence 25OHD3 levels. However, the minor alleles of rs2282679 (A) and rs4588 (C) were associated with low 25OHD3 plasma levels (p = 0.039 and p = 0.021, respectively), but not with BMI. Having categorized the subjects based on their sex, we found that (i) rs7041 GG associated with high BMI in females (p = 0.003), (ii) rs4588 CC associated with high BMI in females (p = 0.034) and low 25OHD3 levels in males (p = 0.009), and (iii) rs12721377 AA associated with low 25OHD3 levels in females (p = 0.039). Notably, none of the common haplotypes (6 in the GC gene and 3 in the VDR gene) were associated with BMI. Therefore, polymorphisms in the GC (rs2282679, rs4588, rs7041) and VDR (rs12721377) genes were independently associated with obesity and 25OHD3 levels with a clear sex dimorphism.

  14. Advanced Detection Technology of Trace-level Borate for SG Leakage Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seban; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Sung, Jinhyun [Radiation Eng. Center, Shihung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongbum [Academic Support Dept., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Many studies have been reported for monitoring technology of steam generator, however, all of these methods have their own limitations. The leakage monitoring technology of steam generator of PWR has also got a limit due to the adoption of specific radionuclides (N-16, Ar-41, H-3, Xe, etc.) generated by nuclear fission, which are available only when reactor output is 20% or more. Most of domestic NPPs apply the N-16 technique for monitoring tube leakage but it has some problem that it is difficult to calculate the leakage rate because neutron flux are not completely formed during low power operation. For example, tube leakage of steam generator occurred in the Uljin nuclear power plant in 2002 during coast down operation for periodic plant maintenance. This plant could not prevent a rupture accident in advance because N-16 method is not possible the leak monitoring less than 20% reactor power. The development of excellent alternative monitoring technology that can monitor the real-time leakage is required under a variety of operating conditions like start-up and abnormal conditions of NPPs. This study was performed to lay a foundation in monitoring the leakage of steam generator coping with the lower output and low power operational condition using trace level of boron which is non-radioactive nuclide to inject control neutron injection. In this study, non-radioactive nuclide boron ion, which existed in the secondary system water, as leakage monitoring indicator was investigated for the separation of complex cation and anion phase. Borate was detected by using borate concentrator column coupled with the ion-exclusion column analytical column, revealing the problem of overlapped peak between fluoride and boron ions. Meanwhile, ion-exchange column could confirm the possibility as a leakage monitoring indicator of steam generator, despite the peak of glycolic acid salts was slightly overlapped. It will be needed for further research regarding the selectivity of the

  15. Design of Liquid Level Measurement System Using Multi Sensor Data Fusion for Improved Characteristics and Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTHOSH K V Shashank Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Online validation of multi sensor data fusion based liquid level measurement technique using capacitance level sensor and ultrasonic level sensor is implemented in this work. The objectives of the proposed work is to calibrate level measurement system by fusing the outputs of fuzzy sets of Capacitive Level Sensor (CLS and Ultrasonic Level Sensor (ULS such that (i sensitivity and linearity should be improved as compared to ULS, (ii reduction of nonlinear characteristics like offset and saturation which persists in CLS, and (iii detection and identification of faults in sensors if any. These objectives are achieved by using the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL multi sensor data fusion framework in cascade to the outputs of both the sensor. The proposed liquid level measurement technique was subjected to testing with practical data and results show successful implementation of liquid level measurement system.

  16. Detection of bovine meat and bone meal in animal feed at a level of 0.1%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Henk J M; Bouw, El M; Buntjer, Jaap B; Lenstra, Johannes A; Van Raamsdonk, Leo W D

    2006-01-01

    For the control of the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle via feedstuff, a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with ruminant-specific Bov-B SINE primers, SYBR Green fluorescence detection, and melting curve analysis. In formulated cattle and chicken feed samples spiked with pure bovine and sheep meat and bone meal heated at 133 degrees C for 20 min, a contamination level of 0.1% was detected.

  17. A comparison of decision-level sensor-fusion methods for anti-personnel landmine detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Cremer, F.; Breejen, E. den

    2001-01-01

    We present the sensor-fusion results obtained from measurements within the European research project ground explosive ordinance detection (GEODE) system that strives for the realisation of a vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor, anti-personnel landmine-detection system for humanitarian de-mining. The syste

  18. A comparison of decision-level sensor-fusion methods for anti-personnel landmine detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Cremer, F.; Breejen, E. den

    2001-01-01

    We present the sensor-fusion results obtained from measurements within the European research project ground explosive ordinance detection (GEODE) system that strives for the realisation of a vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor, anti-personnel landmine-detection system for humanitarian de-mining. The

  19. Object Level HSI-LIDAR Data Fusion for Automated Detection of Difficult Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-10

    1992). 2. D. W. J. Stein, S. C. Beaven, L. E. Hoff, E. W. Winter, A. P. Schaum , and A. D. Stocker, “Anomaly detection from hyperspectral imagery...Trans. Signal Process. 49(1), 1–16 (2001). 11. A. P. Schaum and A. D. Stocker, “Hyperspectral change detection and supervised matched filtering

  20. Serum Levels of MicroRNA-206 and Novel Mini-STR Assays for Carrier Detection in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Segura, Mónica Alejandra; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Gómez-Díaz, Benjamín; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Zamora-González, Edgar Oswaldo; García, Silvia; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disorder in which the detection of female carriers is of the utmost importance for genetic counseling. Haplotyping with polymorphic markers and quantitation of creatine kinase levels (CK) allow tracking of the at-risk haplotype and evidence muscle damage, respectively. Such approaches are useful for carrier detection in cases of unknown mutations. The lack of informative markers and the inaccuracy of CK affect carrier detection. Therefore, herein we designed novel mini-STR (Short Tandem Repeats) assays to amplify 10 loci within the DMD gene and estimated allele frequencies and the polymorphism information content among other parameters in 337 unrelated individuals from three Mexican populations. In addition, we tested the utility of the assays for carrier detection in three families. Moreover, given that serum levels of miR-206 discern between DMD patients and controls with a high area under the curve (AUC), the potential applicability for carrier detection was assessed. The serum levels of miR-206 of non-carriers (n = 24) and carriers (n = 23) were compared by relative quantitation using real-time PCR (p < 0.05), which resulted in an AUC = 0.80 in the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, miR-206 has potential as a “liquid biopsy” for carrier detection and genetic counseling in DMD. PMID:27529242

  1. Serum Levels of MicroRNA-206 and Novel Mini-STR Assays for Carrier Detection in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Alejandra Anaya-Segura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked neuromuscular disorder in which the detection of female carriers is of the utmost importance for genetic counseling. Haplotyping with polymorphic markers and quantitation of creatine kinase levels (CK allow tracking of the at-risk haplotype and evidence muscle damage, respectively. Such approaches are useful for carrier detection in cases of unknown mutations. The lack of informative markers and the inaccuracy of CK affect carrier detection. Therefore, herein we designed novel mini-STR (Short Tandem Repeats assays to amplify 10 loci within the DMD gene and estimated allele frequencies and the polymorphism information content among other parameters in 337 unrelated individuals from three Mexican populations. In addition, we tested the utility of the assays for carrier detection in three families. Moreover, given that serum levels of miR-206 discern between DMD patients and controls with a high area under the curve (AUC, the potential applicability for carrier detection was assessed. The serum levels of miR-206 of non-carriers (n = 24 and carriers (n = 23 were compared by relative quantitation using real-time PCR (p < 0.05, which resulted in an AUC = 0.80 in the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, miR-206 has potential as a “liquid biopsy” for carrier detection and genetic counseling in DMD.

  2. TU-A-9A-05: First Experimental Demonstration of the Anisotropic Detection Principle in X-Ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M; Bazalova, M; Fahrig, R; Xing, L [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve the sensitivity of X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) for in vivo molecular imaging. Is the maximum sensitivity achieved with an isotropic (4π) detector configuration? We prove that this is not necessarily true, and that a greater sensitivity is possible with anisotropic detector configuration. Methods: An XFCT imaging system was constructed consisting of 1) a collimated pencil beam x-ray source using a fluoroscopy grade x-ray tube; 2) a CdTe x-ray photon counting detector to detect fluorescent x-rays; and 3) a rotation/translation stage for tomographic imaging. We created a 6.5-cm diameter water phantom with 2-cm inserts of low gold concentration (0.25%–1%) to simulate tumors targeted by gold nano-particles. The placement of x-ray fluorescence detector were chosen to minimize scatter x-rays. XFCT imaging was performed at three different detector positions (60°, 90°, 145°) to determine the impact of forward-scatter, side-scatter, and back-scatter on imaging performance. The three data sets were also combined to estimate the imaging performance with an isotropic detector. Results: The highest imaging performance was achieved when the XF detector was in the backscatter 145° configuration. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was 5.5 for the 0.25% gold concentration compared to SNRs of 1.4, 0, and 2.4 for 60°, 90°, and combined (60°+90°+145°) datasets. Only the 145° detector arrangement alone could detect the 0.25% concentration. The imaging dose was 14 mGy for each detector arrangement experiment. Conclusion: This study experimentally proves, for the fist time, the Anisotropic Detection Principle in XF imaging, which holds that optimized anisotropic x-ray fluorescence detection provides greater sensitivity than isotropic detection. The optimized detection arrangement was used to improve the sensitivity of the XFCT experiment. The achieved XFCT sensitivity is the highest ever for a phantom at least this large using a benchtop x

  3. Error detection, handling and recovery at the High Level Trigger of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223972; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) requires a robust system for error detection and handling during online data-taking; it also requires an offline system for the recovery of events where no trigger decision could be made online. The error detection and handling ensure smooth operation of the trigger system and provide debugging information necessary for offline analysis and diagnosis. In this presentation, we give an overview of the error detection, handling and recovery of problematic events at the HLT of ATLAS.

  4. Skin Detection Based on Color Model and Low Level Features Combined with Explicit Region and Parametric Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARPREET KAUR SAINI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin detection is active research area in the field of computer vision which can be applied in the application of face detection, eye detection, etc. These detection helps in various applications such as driver fatigue monitoring system, surveillance system etc. In Computer vision applications, the color model and representations of the human image in color model is one of major module to detect the skin pixels. The mainstream technology is based on the individual pixels and selection of the pixels to detect the skin part in the whole image. In this thesis implementation, we presents a novel technique for skin color detection incorporating with explicit region based and parametric based approach which gives the better efficiency and performances in terms of skin detection in human images. Color models and image quantization technique is used to extract the regions of the images and to represent the image in a particular color model such as RGB and HSV, and then the parametric based approach is applied by selecting the low level skin features are applied to extract the skin and non-skin pixels of the images. In the first step, our technique uses the state-of-the-art non-parametric approach which we call the template based technique or explicitly defined skin regions technique. Then the low level features of the human skin are being extracted such as edge, corner detection which is also known as parametric method. The experimental results depict the improvement in detection rate of the skin pixels by this novel approach. And in the end we discuss the experimental results to prove the algorithmic improvements.

  5. Lung cancer screening with CT: Evaluation of radiologists and different computer assisted detection software (CAD) as first and second readers for lung nodule detection at different dose levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christe, A., E-mail: andreas.christe@insel.ch [Department of Diagnostic, Interventional und Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Leidolt, L.; Huber, A.; Steiger, P. [Department of Diagnostic, Interventional und Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Szucs-Farkas, Z. [Radiology, Hospital Center of Biel (Switzerland); Roos, J.E. [Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Heverhagen, J.T.; Ebner, L. [Department of Diagnostic, Interventional und Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-12-01

    Objectives: To find the best pairing of first and second reader at highest sensitivity for detecting lung nodules with CT at various dose levels. Materials and methods: An anthropomorphic lung phantom and artificial lung nodules were used to simulate screening CT-examination at standard dose (100 mAs, 120 kVp) and 8 different low dose levels, using 120, 100 and 80 kVp combined with 100, 50 and 25 mAs. At each dose level 40 phantoms were randomly filled with 75 solid and 25 ground glass nodules (5–12 mm). Two radiologists and 3 different computer aided detection softwares (CAD) were paired to find the highest sensitivity. Results: Sensitivities at standard dose were 92%, 90%, 84%, 79% and 73% for reader 1, 2, CAD1, CAD2, CAD3, respectively. Combined sensitivity for human readers 1 and 2 improved to 97%, (p1 = 0.063, p2 = 0.016). Highest sensitivities – between 97% and 99.0% – were achieved by combining any radiologist with any CAD at any dose level. Combining any two CADs, sensitivities between 85% and 88% were significantly lower than for radiologists combined with CAD (p < 0.03). Conclusions: Combination of a human observer with any of the tested CAD systems provide optimal sensitivity for lung nodule detection even at reduced dose at 25 mAs/80 kVp.

  6. Increased levels of HIV RNA detected in samples with viral loads close to the detection limit collected in Plasma Preparation Tubes (PPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Brigitte P; Mayo, Donald R

    2006-02-01

    The accurate and reliable quantification of HIV RNA is an essential part of the management of HIV infected individuals, and elucidation of factors that may affect HIV RNA measurements, such as the use of Vacutainer Plasma Preparation Tubes (PPT), is crucial. The objective of this study was to determine if plasma samples with viral loads close to the lower limit of the dynamic range of the assay collected in PPT tubes had increased levels of HIV RNA as compared to samples collected in standard EDTA tubes. HIV RNA levels were compared in 112 paired plasma samples collected in PPT and standard EDTA tubes. All samples had been frozen prior to testing. Discrepancies between PPT and EDTA tubes did not occur for samples with high viral loads. However, in samples with viral loads close to the lower limit of the dynamic range, levels of HIV RNA detected were higher in a large proportion of PPT as compared to the corresponding EDTA plasma samples. Forty percent of plasma pairs had no detectable HIV RNA in the EDTA aliquot, but had low levels of HIV RNA in the corresponding PPT aliquot. This prospective study underlines the need for cautious interpretation of small transient viral load changes in samples with values close to the detection limit.

  7. Test Plan for the Demonstration of Geophysical Techniques for Single-Shell Tank Leak Detection at the Hanford Mock Tank Site: Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2001-07-31

    As part of the Leak Detection, Monitoring and Mitigation (LDMM) program conducted by CH2M HILL 105-A during FY 2001. These tests are being conducted to assess the applicability of these methods (Electrical Resistance Tomography [ERT], High Resolution Resistivity [HRR], Cross-Borehole Seismography [XBS], Cross-Borehole Radar [XBR], and Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction [CEMI]) to the detection and measurement of Single Shell Tank (SST) leaks into the vadose zone during planned sluicing operations. The testing in FY 2001 will result in the selection of up to two methods for further testing in FY 2002. In parallel with the geophysical tests, a Partitioning Interwell Tracer Test (PITT) study will be conducted simultaneously at the Mock Tank to assess the effectiveness of this technology in detecting and quantifying tank leaks in the vadose zone. Preparatory and background work using Cone Penetrometer methods (CPT) will be conducted at the Mock Tank site and an adjacent test area to derive soil properties for groundtruthing purposes for all methods.

  8. Remote System for Detection of Low-Levels of Methane Based on Photonic Crystal Fibres and Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we described an optical fibre sensing system for detecting low levels of methane. The properties of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres are explored to have a sensing head with favourable characteristics for gas sensing, particularly in what concerns intrinsic readout sensitivity and gas diffusion time in the sensing structure. The sensor interrogation was performed applying the Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy technique, and a portable measurement unit was developed with performance suitable for remote detection of low levels of methane. This portable system has the capacity to simultaneously interrogate four remote photonic crystal fibre sensing heads.

  9. Survey on Detecting Method of Liquid Level of Tank%储罐液位检测方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁朝庆; 谌飞翔; 徐松芝; 刘燕; 李晓丽; 于洋; 刘迎春

    2011-01-01

    The accurate measurement of liquid level of tanks is an important role in management and safety production. There are some common methods to detect liquid level of tank, such as hand gauging measurement, differential pressure liquid measurement, magnetostriction liquid level measurement, ultrasonic liquid level measurement, radar liquid level measurement, fiber-optical liquid level measurement. The basic principle, advantage / and disadvantage, detection range and accuracy of every method of detecting liquid level of tank are presented in detail in the paper, and meanwhile a comparative analysis is given.%储罐液位的准确测量对生产安全和管理起着重要的作用。储罐液位常用的检测方法主要有人工检尺法、差压式液位测量法、磁致伸缩液位测量法、超声波液位测量法、雷达液位测量法、光纤液位检测法。详细介绍了每种储罐液位检测方法的基本原理、优缺点以及它们各自的检测范围和精度,并对其进行了对比分析。

  10. Developing a qPCR method to quantify AhR-PCP-DNA complex for detection of environmental trace-level PCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Pang, Xiaoqian; Chaisuwan, Nuanapa

    2011-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a widely-used aseptic or biocide, is known as an environmental toxicant involved in endocrine disruption even at a trace level. In order to reliably and efficiently quantify environmental trace-quantity PCP, this study developed a novel PCP detection method using the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR). DNA probe with AhR binding sites was synthesized by PCR before added into AhR-PCP complex. After AhR-PCP-DNA complex was digested with exonuclease, copy number of DNA probe was determined using fluorescence qPCR. To calculate PCP concentration in samples, a standard curve (PCP concentration versus Ct value) was constructed and the detection range was 10(-13) to 10(-9) M. PCP detection limit was 0.0089 ppt for the AhR-PCP-DNA complex assay and 8.8780 ppm for high performance liquid chromatography, demonstrating that the method developed in this study is more sensitive. These results suggest that AhR-PCP-DNA complex method may be successfully applicable in detection and quantification of environmental trace-level PCP.

  11. Precise Automatic Image Coregistration Tools to Enable Pixel-Level Change Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated detection of land cover changes between multitemporal images (i.e., images captured at different times) has long been a goal of the remote sensing...

  12. Calculation of Minimum-Detectable-Concentration Levels of Radioxenon Isotopes Using the PNNL ARSA System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Reeder, Paul L.

    2006-03-11

    Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The automated Radio-xenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA), built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, can detect 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe via a beta-gamma counting system. Due to the variable background and sources of these four radio-xenon isotopes, it is important to have as sensitive a detection system as possible and to quantify the Minimum-Detectable-Concentrations (MDC) that such a system will be able to detect to preclude false negative and false positive results. From data obtained from IAR in Germany MDC values for 133Xe were well below the 1 mBq/SCMA as required by the PTS for the Comprehensive Test BAn Treaty [WGB TL-11,1999].

  13. Precise automatic image coregistration tools to enable pixel-level change detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated detection of land cover changes between multitemporal images has long been a goal of the remote sensing discipline. Most research in this area has focused...

  14. System-level protection and hardware Trojan detection using weighted voting

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Hany A.M.; Yousra Alkabani; Selim, Gamal M.I.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of hardware Trojans is becoming more serious especially with the widespread of fabless design houses and design reuse. Hardware Trojans can be embedded on chip during manufacturing or in third party intellectual property cores (IPs) during the design process. Recent research is performed to detect Trojans embedded at manufacturing time by comparing the suspected chip with a golden chip that is fully trusted. However, Trojan detection in third party IP cores is more challenging tha...

  15. Laser Calorimetry Spectroscopy for ppm-level Dissolved Gas Detection and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nagapriya K. S.; Shashank Sinha; Prashanth R.; Samhitha Poonacha; Gunaranjan Chaudhry; Anandaroop Bhattacharya; Niloy Choudhury; Saroj Mahalik; Sandip Maity

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we report a newly developed technique – laser calorimetry spectroscopy (LCS), which is a combination of laser absorption spectroscopy and calorimetry - for the detection of gases dissolved in liquids. The technique involves determination of concentration of a dissolved gas by irradiating the liquid with light of a wavelength where the gas absorbs, and measuring the temperature change caused by the absorbance. Conventionally, detection of dissolved gases with sufficient sensitivi...

  16. Fasciola hepatica demonstrates high levels of genetic diversity, a lack of population structure and high gene flow: possible implications for drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Nicola J; Williams, Diana J L; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, the liver fluke, is a trematode parasite of considerable economic importance to the livestock industry and is a re-emerging zoonosis that poses a risk to human health in F. hepatica-endemic areas worldwide. Drug resistance is a substantial threat to the current and future control of F. hepatica, yet little is known about how the biology of the parasite influences the development and spread of resistance. Given that F. hepatica can self-fertilise and therefore inbreed, there is the potential for greater population differentiation and an increased likelihood of recessive alleles, such as drug resistance genes, coming together. This could be compounded by clonal expansion within the snail intermediate host and aggregation of parasites of the same genotype on pasture. Alternatively, widespread movement of animals that typically occurs in the UK could promote high levels of gene flow and prevent population differentiation. We identified clonal parasites with identical multilocus genotypes in 61% of hosts. Despite this, 84% of 1579 adult parasites had unique multilocus genotypes, which supports high levels of genotypic diversity within F. hepatica populations. Our analyses indicate a selfing rate no greater than 2%, suggesting that this diversity is in part due to the propensity for F. hepatica to cross-fertilise. Finally, although we identified high genetic diversity within a given host, there was little evidence for differentiation between populations from different hosts, indicating a single panmictic population. This implies that, once those emerge, anthelmintic resistance genes have the potential to spread rapidly through liver fluke populations.

  17. Use of Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Demonstrate Decreased Serum Statin Levels after Extracorporeal LDL-Cholesterol Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bláha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Using our statin analysis method, it was possible to uncover a significant drop in statin levels (atorvastatin, simvastatin, and metabolites after extracorporeal LDL-cholesterol elimination (EE in severe familial hypercholesterolemia (FH. The purpose of this work was to identify the mechanism underlying this drop and its clinical significance as well as to propose measures to optimize a pharmacotherapeutical regimen that can prevent the loss of statins. Methods. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC connected to the triple quadrupole MS/MS system was used. Patients. A group of long-term treated patients (3–12 years of treatment with severe FH (12 patients and treated regularly by LDL-apheresis (immunoadsorption or haemorheopheresis (cascade filtration were included in this study. Results. After EE, the level of statins and their metabolites decreased (atorvastatin before/after LDL-apheresis: 8.83/3.46 nmol/l; before/after haemorheopheresis: 37.02/18.94 nmol/l. A specific loss was found (concentration of atorvastatin for LDL-apheresis/haemorheopheresis: 0.28/3.04 nmol/l in washing fluids; 11.07 nmol/l in filters. To prevent substantial loss of statin concentrations, a pharmacotherapeutic regimen with a longer time interval between the dose of statins and EE is recommended (15 hours. Conclusions. A specific loss of statins was found in adsorbent columns and filters. The decrease can be prevented by the suggested dosage scheme.

  18. [Prognostic value of leptin level detection in industrial workers suffering from osteoarthrosis in Volgograd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zborovskaia, I A; Simakova, E S; Zavodovskiĭ, B V; Akhverdian, Iu R; Kononov, V E

    2013-01-01

    Study of 130 osteoarthrosis patients revealed high serum level of leptin in 42 (32.3 %) patients including 9 males and 33 females. Osteoarthrosis patients with high serum leptin level are characterized by more severe course of the disease.

  19. Pancreaticopleural fistula : CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung [Chuncheon Medical Center, ChunChon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the pancreaticopleural fistula is known to cause recurrent exudative or hemorrhagic pleural effusions. These are often large in volume and require treatment, unlike the effusions in acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis can be made either by the finding of elevated pleural fluid amylase level or, using imaging studies, by the direct demonstration of the fistulous tract. We report two cases of pancreaticopleural fistula demonstrated by computed tomography.

  20. Revelation of the Technological Versatility of the Eu(TTA)3Phen Complex by Demonstrating Energy Harvesting, Ultraviolet Light Detection, Temperature Sensing, and Laser Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Rai, Shyam Bahadur; Ullrich, Bruno

    2015-08-26

    We synthesized the Eu(TTA)3Phen complex and present herein a detailed study of its photophysics. The investigations encompass samples dispersed in poly(vinyl alcohol) and in ethanol in order to explore the versatile applicability of these lanthanide-based materials. Details upon the interaction between Eu, TTA, and the Phen ligands are revealed by Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible absorption, complemented by steady state and temporally resolved emission studies, which provide evidence of an efficient energy transfer from the organic ligands to the central Eu(3+) ion. The material produces efficient emission even under sunlight exposure, a feature pointing toward suitability for luminescent solar concentrators and UV light sensing, which is demonstrated for intensities as low as 200 nW/cm(2). The paper further promotes the complex's capability to be used as luminescence-based temperature sensor demonstrated by the considerable emission intensity changes of ∼4.0% per K in the temperature range of 50-305 K and ∼7% per K in the temeperature range 305-340 K. Finally, increasing the optical excitation causes both spontaneous emission amplification and emission peak narrowing in the Eu(TTA)3Phen complex dispersed in poly(vinyl alcohol) - features indicative of stimulated emission. These findings in conjunction with the fairly large stimulated emission cross-section of 4.29 × 10(-20) cm(2) demonstrate that the Eu(TTA)3Phen complex dispersed in poly(vinyl alcohol) could be a very promising material choice for lanthanide-polymer based laser architectures.

  1. [Building Change Detection Based on Multi-Level Rules Classification with Airborne LiDAR Data and Aerial Images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi-long; Yan, Li

    2015-05-01

    The present paper proposes a new building change detection method combining Lidar point cloud with aerial image, using multi-level rules classification algorithm, to solve building change detection problem between these two kinds of heterogeneous data. Then, a morphological post-processing method combined with area threshold is proposed. Thus, a complete building change detection processing flow that can be applied to actual production is proposed. Finally, the effectiveness of the building change detection method is evaluated, processing the 2010 airborne LiDAR point cloud data and 2009 high resolution aerial image of Changchun City, Jilin province, China; in addition, compared with the object-oriented building change detection method based on support vector machine (SVM) classification, more analysis and evaluation of the suggested method is given. Experiment results show that the performance of the proposed building change detection method is ideal. Its Kappa index is 0. 90, and correctness is 0. 87, which is higher than the object-oriented building change detection method based on SVM classification.

  2. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  3. A Giant Ovarian Cyst in a Neonate with Classical 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency with Very High Testosterone Levels Demonstrating a High-Dose Hook Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güran, Tülay; Yeşil, Gözde; Güran, Ömer; Cesur, Suna; Bosnalı, Oktav; Celayir, Ayşenur; Topçuoğlu, Sevilay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of disorders affecting the adrenal steroid synthesis. The most common form, 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), leads to decreased production of cortisol and aldosterone with increased androgen secretion. In classic CAH, glucocorticoid treatment can be life-saving and serves to bring the symptoms under control. However, the treatment challenge is to effectively control the excess androgen effect by using the lowest possible glucocorticoid dose. Previous studies suggested a relationship between ovarian cyst formation and adrenal androgen excess, but neonatal large ovarian cysts have been very rarely reported in newborns with CAH. Here, we present the unique case of a neonate with classical 21-OHD who underwent surgery for a giant (10x8x7 cm) unilateral solitary ovarian follicular cyst on the 2nd postnatal day. Hormonal evaluation of the patient revealed high-dose hook effect for serum testosterone levels for the first time by a two-site immunoradiometric assay. Possible mechanisms by which androgen excess may cause ovarian cyst formation are discussed. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22664361

  4. Light-scattering detection below the level of single fluorescent molecules for high-resolution characterization of functional nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaobin; Ma, Ling; Wang, Shuo; Chen, Chaoxiang; Zhang, Wenqiang; Yang, Lingling; Hang, Wei; Nolan, John P; Wu, Lina; Yan, Xiaomei

    2014-10-28

    Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of single nanoparticles (nanoparticles represents the simplest and the most direct method for particle detection. However, the sixth-power dependence of scattering intensity on particle size renders very small particles indistinguishable from the background. Adopting strategies for single-molecule fluorescence detection in a sheathed flow, here we report the development of high sensitivity flow cytometry (HSFCM) that achieves real-time light-scattering detection of single silica and gold nanoparticles as small as 24 and 7 nm in diameter, respectively. This unprecedented sensitivity enables high-resolution sizing of single nanoparticles directly based on their scattered intensity. With a resolution comparable to that of TEM and the ease and speed of flow cytometric analysis, HSFCM is particularly suitable for nanoparticle size distribution analysis of polydisperse/heterogeneous/mixed samples. Through concurrent fluorescence detection, simultaneous insights into the size and payload variations of engineered nanoparticles are demonstrated with two forms of clinical nanomedicine. By offering quantitative multiparameter analysis of single nanoparticles in liquid suspensions at a throughput of up to 10 000 particles per minute, HSFCM represents a major advance both in light-scattering detection technology and in nanoparticle characterization.

  5. Expression profiling in vivo demonstrates rapid changes in lung microRNA levels following lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation but not in the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belvisi Maria G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, nothing is known of the role of miRNAs in the immune response in vivo despite the fact that inflammation is thought to underlie multiple acute and chronic diseases. In these circumstances, patients are commonly treated with corticosteroids such as dexamethasone. Results To address this question, we have examined the differential expression of 104 miRNAs using real-time PCR during the innate immune response in mouse lung following exposure to aerosilised lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Following challenge, we observed rapid and transient increase in both the mean (4.3-fold and individual levels of miRNA expression (46 miRNAs which peaked at 3 hrs. Crucially, this increase was correlated with a reduction in the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-2, suggesting a potential role for miRNAs in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine production. Examination of the individual miRNA expression profiles showed time dependent increases in miR-21, -25, -27b, -100, 140, -142-3p, -181c, 187, -194, -214, -223 and -224. Corticosteroid studies showed that pre-treatment with dexamethasone at concentrations that inhibited TNF-α production, had no effect either alone or upon the LPS-induced miRNA expression profile. Conclusion We have shown that the LPS-induced innate immune response is associated with widespread, rapid and transient increases in miRNA expression in the mouse lung and we speculate that these changes might be involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In contrast, the lack of effect of dexamethasone in either control or challenged animals implies that the actions of glucocorticoids per se are not mediated through changes in miRNAs expression and that LPS-induced increases in miRNA expression are not mediated via classical inflammatory transcription factors.

  6. An Evaluation of Detect and Avoid Displays for UAS: The Effect of Information Level and Display Location on Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, Conrad; Fern, Lisa; Pack, Jessica; Shively, Jay; Draper, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    The pilot-in-the-loop Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) task requires the pilot to carry out three major functions: 1) detect a potential threat, 2) determine an appropriate resolution maneuver, and 3) execute that resolution maneuver via the GCS control and navigation interface(s). The purpose of the present study was to examine two main questions with respect to DAA display considerations that could impact pilots ability to maintain well clear from other aircraft. First, what is the effect of a minimum (or basic) information display compared to an advanced information display on pilot performance? Second, what is the effect of display location on UAS pilot performance? Two levels of information level (basic, advanced) were compared across two levels of display location (standalone, integrated), for a total of four displays. The results indicate that the advanced displays had faster overall response times compared to the basic displays, however, there were no significant differences between the standalone and integrated displays.

  7. Low-level detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in field water using optical microfluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Scott V.; Kwon, Hyuck-Jin; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2012-03-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a difficult-to-detect protozoan that causes diarrhea in the healthy adults and death in immunocompromised individuals. While it is easy to understand the transmission routes of Cryptosporidium, it is currently difficult to identify low concentrations of Cryptosporidium, especially when following EPA method 1623, which can easily require tens of liters of water to get a positive signal. The current detection method is unacceptable and severely inefficient when taking into account the time that goes into concentrating a sample, actual assays, and training associated with the assays. Using our method, it is possible to use only 15 μL of sample, which is an immunoagglutination assay that uses Mie scatter intensity changes to detect different Cryptosporidium concentrations. In addition to creating a standard curve using a clean sample matrix (i.e., phosphate buffered saline), field samples were collected from a chlorine treated swimming pool, a sump located on a farm, and a turtle pond. Each sample had different intensity changes but the trend represented within the data was the same. This assay has a detection limit of 100-101 oocysts/mL and can be done in as little as 10 minutes.

  8. Potentiometry at trace levels in confined samples: ion-selective electrodes with subfemtomole detection limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malon, Adam; Vigassy, Tamas; Bakker, Eric; Pretsch, Ernö

    2006-06-28

    We explore here for the first time the direct potentiometric detectability of calcium, lead, and silver ions in amounts on the order of 300 attomoles at 100 picomolar concentrations without any preconcentration, analyte recycling, or electrocatalytic signal enhancement. The results presented here place zero-current potentiometry among the most sensitive electrochemical methods available.

  9. Surface plasmon resonance sensor for phosmet of agricultural products at the ppt detection level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Liu, Ming; Wang, Shuo

    2013-03-20

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay using a PH-BSA immobilized sensor chip was developed to measure phosmet in food samples. The in-competitive inhibition assay showed highly sensitive and good specificity of the cross-reactivity with analogue structure pesticides. The biosensor exhibited a linear detection range from 8.0 to 60.0 ng/L of phosmet with a lower detection limit of 1.6 ng/L (S/N = 3). The sensitivity obtained with the present SPR affinity biosensor was significantly higher than most of the sensors reported with different measurement methodologies for phosmet. A recovery test of pesticide quantification in peaches, apples, cabbages, and rapes was also studied. Good recoveries (86.4-102.8%) and coefficients of variation (CVs) (5.1-12.6%) were obtained in all cases. The SPR biosensor assay method was compared with cd-ELISA in terms of analysis time, antibody dosage, recoveries, precision, detection limit, pretreatment, and testing costs, and clear advantages could be seen over the traditional ELISA-based detection systems. The developed SPR method was suitable for the rapid quantitative or qualitative determination of phosmet in agricultural products.

  10. System-level protection and hardware Trojan detection using weighted voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany A.M. Amin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of hardware Trojans is becoming more serious especially with the widespread of fabless design houses and design reuse. Hardware Trojans can be embedded on chip during manufacturing or in third party intellectual property cores (IPs during the design process. Recent research is performed to detect Trojans embedded at manufacturing time by comparing the suspected chip with a golden chip that is fully trusted. However, Trojan detection in third party IP cores is more challenging than other logic modules especially that there is no golden chip. This paper proposes a new methodology to detect/prevent hardware Trojans in third party IP cores. The method works by gradually building trust in suspected IP cores by comparing the outputs of different untrusted implementations of the same IP core. Simulation results show that our method achieves higher probability of Trojan detection over a naive implementation of simple voting on the output of different IP cores. In addition, experimental results show that the proposed method requires less hardware overhead when compared with a simple voting technique achieving the same degree of security.

  11. System-level protection and hardware Trojan detection using weighted voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hany A M; Alkabani, Yousra; Selim, Gamal M I

    2014-07-01

    The problem of hardware Trojans is becoming more serious especially with the widespread of fabless design houses and design reuse. Hardware Trojans can be embedded on chip during manufacturing or in third party intellectual property cores (IPs) during the design process. Recent research is performed to detect Trojans embedded at manufacturing time by comparing the suspected chip with a golden chip that is fully trusted. However, Trojan detection in third party IP cores is more challenging than other logic modules especially that there is no golden chip. This paper proposes a new methodology to detect/prevent hardware Trojans in third party IP cores. The method works by gradually building trust in suspected IP cores by comparing the outputs of different untrusted implementations of the same IP core. Simulation results show that our method achieves higher probability of Trojan detection over a naive implementation of simple voting on the output of different IP cores. In addition, experimental results show that the proposed method requires less hardware overhead when compared with a simple voting technique achieving the same degree of security.

  12. System-level protection and hardware Trojan detection using weighted voting☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hany A.M.; Alkabani, Yousra; Selim, Gamal M.I.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of hardware Trojans is becoming more serious especially with the widespread of fabless design houses and design reuse. Hardware Trojans can be embedded on chip during manufacturing or in third party intellectual property cores (IPs) during the design process. Recent research is performed to detect Trojans embedded at manufacturing time by comparing the suspected chip with a golden chip that is fully trusted. However, Trojan detection in third party IP cores is more challenging than other logic modules especially that there is no golden chip. This paper proposes a new methodology to detect/prevent hardware Trojans in third party IP cores. The method works by gradually building trust in suspected IP cores by comparing the outputs of different untrusted implementations of the same IP core. Simulation results show that our method achieves higher probability of Trojan detection over a naive implementation of simple voting on the output of different IP cores. In addition, experimental results show that the proposed method requires less hardware overhead when compared with a simple voting technique achieving the same degree of security. PMID:25685518

  13. Novel Cell-Based Assays for Detecting Low Levels of Active Ricin Following Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    of MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide], which is converted to a purple formazan dye by cellular reductive power...general decay in cell viability. Loss in cell viability is detected as loss in absorbance of formazan at 550–620 nm, resulting from the reduction of MTT

  14. [Predictive value of combination detection of tissue Pgp1 expression and preoperative serum CEA level for colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Chen, Lei; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Beihai; Su, Xiangqian

    2017-04-25

    To explore the predictive value of combination detection of Pgp1 expression in cancer tissue and serum CEA level for the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Clinicopathological data, complete 5-year follow-up data and CRC tissue samples of 153 CRC patients with stage I( to II( tumor undergoing radical operation in our department from January 2004 to August 2006 were retrospectively collected. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression level of Pgp1. The combined evaluation of staining intensity and positive cell percentage was performed to determine the expression level of Pgp1. Pgp1 staining (-) and (+) was defined as low expression; and staining (++) and (+++) as high expression. Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was used to detect the level of serum CEA. CEA > 5 μg/L was defined as positive. χ(2) and Fisher's exact test were performed to analyze the association of Pgp1 expression with CEA level and clinicopathological variables. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the survival. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to evaluate the roles of Pgp1 expression combined with serum CEA level in prognosis prediction. Of 153 patients, 105 were males and 48 females with mean age of 59 (27 to 90) years; 41 cases were rectal cancer, and 112 cases colon cancer; 23 patients were TNM stage I( tumor, and 130 patients stage II( tumor; median follow-up time was 64 months; 30 cases were dead. Positive rate of Pgp1 expression in colorectal cancer tissues was 66.0%(101/153). The expression of Pgp1 was associated with gender, tumor location, and survival during the follow-up (all Pcancer tissue indicates poor prognosis in patients with stage I( and II( tumor. Combination detection of Pgp1 expression and serum CEA can be applied to predict the prognosis of patients with stage I( and II( colorectal cancer.

  15. Human young children as well as adults demonstrate 'superior' rapid snake detection when typical striking posture is displayed by the snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masataka, Nobuo; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2010-11-30

    Humans as well as some nonhuman primates have an evolved predisposition to associate snakes with fear by detecting their presence as fear-relevant stimuli more rapidly than fear-irrelevant ones. In the present experiment, a total of 74 of 3- to 4-year-old children and adults were asked to find a single target black-and-white photo of a snake among an array of eight black-and-white photos of flowers as distracters. As target stimuli, we prepared two groups of snake photos, one in which a typical striking posture was displayed by a snake and the other in which a resting snake was shown. When reaction time to find the snake photo was compared between these two types of the stimuli, its mean value was found to be significantly smaller for the photos of snakes displaying striking posture than for the photos of resting snakes in both the adults and children. These findings suggest the possibility that the human perceptual bias for snakes per se could be differentiated according to the difference of the degree to which their presence acts as a fear-relevant stimulus.

  16. Detection of infliximab levels and anti-infliximab antibodies : a comparison of three different assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteele, N. Vande; Buurman, D. J.; Sturkenboom, M. G. G.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Vermeire, S.; Rispens, T.; van der Kleij, D.; Gils, A.; Dijkstra, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Formation of antibodies to infliximab (ATI) inversely correlates with functional drug levels and clinical outcome. Comparison of drug levels and anti-drug antibody monitoring is hampered by lack of standardisation. Aim To determine the correlation between three different assays for measur

  17. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  18. Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

    2011-11-01

    astronomical H-band (1.65 μm) are supported by its IR2 camera down to 1.5 μW/m2sr in single 2 minute exposures. In the same setting, point sources of 13 mag can be detected. Obviously, a number of large asteroids exceed this threshold. The EARTHGUARD-I study, completed in 2003 by the DLR Institute of Planetary Research and Kayser-Threde under ESA contract, proposed a dedicated steerable 020...35 cm telescope and CCD camera payload on a probe to the inner solar system, to detect Near-Earth and Inner-Earth Objects (NEOs, IEOs) in favourable opposition geometry. A ride- share on a Mercury orbiter and a dedicated low-thrust propulsion spacecraft to a heliocentric 0.5 AU orbit were studied. A similar-sized telescope is presently being developed for the ASTEROIDFINDER satellite of DLR. Therefore, the technical feasibility of a number of asteroid observation scenarios involving spacecraft and targets interior to Earth's orbit is assessed based on the latest available spacecraft information and asteroid population models. A rough estimate of the required effort in terms of ground-based spacecraft operations and on-board resources is given for selected representative scenarios.

  19. A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence in lanthanide-based magnetic hybrid nanostructure and its demonstration for the detection of latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Praveen K; Singh, Priyam; Singh, Akhilesh K; Singh, Sunil K; Rai, Shyam B; Prakash, Rajiv

    2017-04-01

    We have synthesized a novel inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructure (IOHN) composed of fluoride nanophosphor (NaGd0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4) and β-diketones complex (Eu(DBM)3Phen). The Le Bail fitting of X-ray diffraction data suggests that the nanophoshor crystallizes in a hexagonal structure (P63/m space group). The TEM studies reveal that the nanophosphor and the IOHN both have average particle size of 6-8nm. The Eu(DBM)3Phen and NaGd0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4 show characteristic down-shifting (DS) and up-conversion (UC) emission, under UV and NIR excitation, respectively. The IOHN comprises an excellent dual-mode optical features (DS and UC) of both the phases. Energy transfer from Er(3+) (doped in inorganic phase) to Eu(3+) (coordinated in organic phase) clearly demonstrates for a viable coupling between both the phases. IOHN material was found to be unique for the visualization of latent fingermarks. Because of ultrafine particle size the surface to volume ratio is relatively higher which improves the attachment of particles with the fingermarks. On the other hand, the strong paramagnetic property helps to remove excess material with magnetic wand easily. These properties provide an opportunity to probe even very weak fingermarks. Notwithstanding this, the dual-mode emission is useful for the visualization of latent fingermarks on multi-color surfaces as well.

  20. Statistical modeling and trend detection of extreme sea level records in the Pearl River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwen; Zhou, Wen

    2017-03-01

    Sea level rise has become an important issue in global climate change studies. This study investigates trends in sea level records, particularly extreme records, in the Pearl River Estuary, using measurements from two tide gauge stations in Macau and Hong Kong. Extremes in the original sea level records (daily higher high water heights) and in tidal residuals with and without the 18.6-year nodal modulation are investigated separately. Thresholds for defining extreme sea levels are calibrated based on extreme value theory. Extreme events are then modeled by peaks-over-threshold models. The model applied to extremes in original sea level records does not include modeling of their durations, while a geometric distribution is added to model the duration of extremes in tidal residuals. Realistic modeling results are recommended in all stationary models. Parametric trends of extreme sea level records are then introduced to nonstationary models through a generalized linear model framework. The result shows that, in recent decades, since the 1960s, no significant trends can be found in any type of extreme at any station, which may be related to a reduction in the influence of tropical cyclones in the region. For the longer-term record since the 1920s at Macau, a regime shift of tidal amplitudes around the 1970s may partially explain the diverse trend of extremes in original sea level records and tidal residuals.

  1. DETECTION OF SERIAL SERUM P-185 LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANCY USING ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-hui; WU Ping; LI Li; MIAO Yi-meng; LI Jun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate P-185 contents in serum of the normal person and cancer patients and it's the significance on prognosis of diseases. Methods: We used ELISA method to evaluate P-185 levels in 193 normal persons, 133 malignancies and 34 hepatocirrhosises were evaluated using ELISA method. Results: Normal person had lower expression of P-185. However, malignancy and hepatocirrhosis patients had a significantly higher expression level of P-185 than normal (P<0.05). Conclusion: ELISA method is an easy and reliable way to measure the level of P-185 in serum. Being a cancer marker, P-185 overexpression can be used for early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients.

  2. Solution-based direct readout surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) detection of ultra-low levels of thiram with dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saute, Benjamin; Narayanan, Radha

    2011-02-07

    We report the use of two different sizes of dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles as colloidal substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based detection of ultra-low levels of thiram, a dithiocarbamate fungicide. We demonstrate the ability to use a solution based, direct readout SERS method as a quantitative tool for the detection of ultra-low levels of thiram. The two different sizes of dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles are synthesized by using the seed-mediated growth method and characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The smaller dogbone shaped nanoparticles have an average size of 43 ± 13 nm. The larger dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles have an average size of 65 ± 15 nm. The nanoparticle concentration is 1.25 × 10(11) nanoparticles per mL for the smaller dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles and is 1.13 × 10(11) nanoparticles per mL for the larger dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles. Different concentrations of thiram are allowed to bind to the two different sizes of dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles and the SERS spectra are obtained. From the calibration curve, the limit of detection for thiram is 43.9 ± 6.2 nM when the smaller dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles are used as colloidal SERS substrates In the case of the larger dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles, the limit of detection for thiram is 11.8 ± 3.2 nM. The lower limit of detection obtained by using the larger dogbone shaped gold nanoparticles as colloidal substrates is due to the lightning rod effect, higher contributions from the electromagnetic enhancement effect, and larger number of surface sites for thiram to bind.

  3. Low-level detection of a bacillus anthracis simulant using Love-wave biosensors on 36 degrees YX LiTaO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Darren W; Brozik, Susan M

    2004-03-15

    We present an acoustic Love-wave biosensor for detection of the Bacillus anthracis simulant, Bacillus thuringiensis at or below inhalational infectious levels. The present work is an experimental study of 36 degrees YX cut LiTaO3 based Love-wave devices for detection of pathogenic spores in aqueous conditions. Given that the detection limit (D1) of Love-wave-based sensors is a strong function of the overlying waveguide, two waveguide materials have been investigated, which are polyimide and polystyrene. To determine the mass sensitivity of Love-wave sensor, bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein was injected into the Love-wave test cell while recording the magnitude and phase shift across each sensor. Polyimide had the lowest mass detection limit with an estimated value of 1.0-2.0 ng/cm2, as compared to polystyrene where D1 = 2.0 ng/cm2. Suitable chemistries were used to orient antibodies on the Love-wave sensor using protein G. The thickness of each biofilm was measured using ellipsometry from which the surface concentrations were calculated. The monoclonal antibody BD8 with a high degree of selectivity for anthrax spores was used to capture the non-pathogenic simulant B. thuringiensis B8 spores. Bacillus subtilis spores were used as a negative control to determine whether significant non-specific binding would occur. Spore aliquots were prepared using an optical counting method, which permitted removal of background particles for consistent sample preparation. This work demonstrates that Love-wave biosensors are promising for low-level detection for whole-cell biological pathogens.

  4. Defect Detection in Textures through the Use of Entropy as a Means for Automatically Selecting the Wavelet Decomposition Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Navarro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust method for defect detection in textures, entropy-based automatic selection of the wavelet decomposition level (EADL, based on a wavelet reconstruction scheme, for detecting defects in a wide variety of structural and statistical textures. Two main features are presented. One of the new features is an original use of the normalized absolute function value (NABS calculated from the wavelet coefficients derived at various different decomposition levels in order to identify textures where the defect can be isolated by eliminating the texture pattern in the first decomposition level. The second is the use of Shannon’s entropy, calculated over detail subimages, for automatic selection of the band for image reconstruction, which, unlike other techniques, such as those based on the co-occurrence matrix or on energy calculation, provides a lower decomposition level, thus avoiding excessive degradation of the image, allowing a more accurate defect segmentation. A metric analysis of the results of the proposed method with nine different thresholding algorithms determined that selecting the appropriate thresholding method is important to achieve optimum performance in defect detection. As a consequence, several different thresholding algorithms depending on the type of texture are proposed.

  5. Facial/License Plate Detection Using a Two-Level Cascade Classifier and a Single Convolutional Feature Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Nong Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an object detector is proposed based on a convolution/subsampling feature map and a two-level cascade classifier. First, a convolution/subsampling operation alleviates illumination, rotation and noise variances. Then, two classifiers are concatenated to check a large number of windows using a coarse-to-fine strategy. Since the sub-sampled feature map with enhanced pixels was fed into the coarse-level classifier, the checked windows were drastically reduced to a quarter of the original image. A few remaining windows showing detailed data were further checked using a fine-level classifier. In addition to improving the detection process, the proposed mechanism also sped up the training process. Some features generated from the prototypes within the small window were selected and trained to obtain the coarse-level classifier. Moreover, a feature ranking algorithm reduced the large feature pool to a small set, thus speeding up the training process without losing detection performance. The contribution of this paper is twofold: first, the coarse-to-fine scheme shortens both the training and detection processes. Second, the feature ranking algorithm reduces training time. Finally, some experimental results were achieved for evaluation. From the results, the proposed method was shown to outperform the rapidly performing Adaboost, as well as forward feature selection methods.

  6. Micrometer-level naked-eye detection of caesium particulates in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taizo Mori, Masaaki Akamatsu, Ken Okamoto, Masato Sumita, Yoshitaka Tateyama, Hideki Sakai, Jonathan P Hill, Masahiko Abe and Katsuhiko Ariga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of radioactive material were released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in Japan, contaminating the local environment. During the early stages of such nuclear accidents, iodine I-131 (half-life 8.02 d is usually detectable in the surrounding atmosphere and bodies of water. On the other hand, in the long-term, soil and water contamination by Cs-137, which has a half-life of 30.17 years, is a serious problem. In Japan, the government is planning and carrying out radioactive decontamination operations not only with public agencies but also non-governmental organizations, making radiation measurements within Japan. If caesium (also radiocaesium could be detected by the naked eye then its environmental remediation would be facilitated. Supramolecular material approaches, such as host–guest chemistry, are useful in the design of high-resolution molecular sensors and can be used to convert molecular-recognition processes into optical signals. In this work, we have developed molecular materials (here, phenols as an optical probe for caesium cation-containing particles with implementation based on simple spray-on reagents and a commonly available fluorescent lamp for naked-eye detection in the solid state. This chemical optical probe provides a higher spatial resolution than existing radioscopes and gamma-ray cameras.

  7. High taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota by ligase detection reaction--universal array approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Biagi, Elena; Castiglioni, Bianca; Vitali, Beatrice; De Bellis, Gianluca; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2010-04-19

    Affecting the core functional microbiome, peculiar high level taxonomic unbalances of the human intestinal microbiota have been recently associated with specific diseases, such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and intestinal inflammation. In order to specifically monitor microbiota unbalances that impact human physiology, here we develop and validate an original DNA-microarray (HTF-Microbi.Array) for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota. Based on the Ligase Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA) approach, the HTF-Microbi.Array enables specific detection and approximate relative quantification of 16S rRNAs from 30 phylogenetically related groups of the human intestinal microbiota. The HTF-Microbi.Array was used in a pilot study of the faecal microbiota of eight young adults. Cluster analysis revealed the good reproducibility of the high level taxonomic microbiota fingerprint obtained for each of the subject. The HTF-Microbi.Array is a fast and sensitive tool for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota in terms of presence/absence of the principal groups. Moreover, analysis of the relative fluorescence intensity for each probe pair of our LDR-UA platform can provide estimation of the relative abundance of the microbial target groups within each samples. Focusing the phylogenetic resolution at division, order and cluster levels, the HTF-Microbi.Array is blind with respect to the inter-individual variability at the species level.

  8. Strengthening the diagnostic capacity to detect Bio Safety Level 3 organisms in unusual respiratory viral outbreaks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, L. van; Lubben, M. van der; Wijngaard, C. van den; Pelt, W. van; Verheij, R.; Jacobi, A.; Overduin, P.; Meijer, A.; Luijt, D.; Claas, E.; Hermans, M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Rossen, J.; Schuurman, R.; Wolffs, P.; Bouchier, C.; Schirm, J.; Kroes, L.; Leenders, S.; Galama, J.M.D.; Peeters, M.; Loon, A. van; Stobberingh, E.E.; Schutten, M.; Koopmans, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experience with a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the Netherlands (2003) illustrated that the diagnostic demand for respiratory viruses at different biosafety levels (including BSL3), can increase unexpectedly and dramatically. OBJECTIVES: We describe the measures taken sin

  9. Strengthening the diagnostic capacity to detect Bio Safety Level 3 organisms in unusual respiratory viral outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asten, Liselotte; van der Lubben, Mariken; van den Wijngaard, Cees; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Verheij, Robert; Jacobi, Andre; Overduin, Pieter; Meijer, Adam; Luijt, Dirk; Claas, Eric; Hermans, Mirjam; Melchers, Willem; Rossen, John; Schuurman, Rob; Wolffs, Petra; Bouchier, Charles; Schirm, Jurjen; Kroes, Louis; Leenders, Sander; Galama, Joep; Peeters, Marcel; van Loon, Anton; Stobberingh, Ellen; Schutten, Martin; Koopmans, Marion D. V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Experience with a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the Netherlands (2003) illustrated that the diagnostic demand for respiratory viruses at different biosafety levels (including BSL3), can increase unexpectedly and dramatically. Objectives: We describe the measures taken sin

  10. Postoperative interleukin-6 level and early detection of complications after elective major abdominal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettig, Thijs C. D.; Verwijmeren, Lisa; Dijkstra, Ineke M.; Boerma, Djamila; Van De Garde, Ewoudt M. W.; Noordzij, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association of systemic inflammation and outcome after major abdominal surgery. Background: Major abdominal surgery carries a high postoperative morbidity and mortality rate. Studies suggest that inflammation is associated with unfavorable outcome. Methods: Levels of

  11. X-ray detection with Micromegas with background levels below 10$^{-6}$ keV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, S; Calvet, D.; Dafni, T.; Diago, A.; Druillole, F.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J.G.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gómez, H.; González-Díaz, D.; Herrera, D.C.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jourde, D.; Luzón, G.; Mirallas, H.; Mols, J.P.; Papaevangelou, T.; Rodríguez, A.; Seguí, L.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Yildiz, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Micromegas detectors are an optimum technological choice for the detection of low energy x-rays. The low background techniques applied to these detectors yielded remarkable background reductions over the years, being the CAST experiment beneficiary of these developments. In this document we report on the latest upgrades towards further background reductions and better understanding of the detectors' response. The upgrades encompass the readout electronics, a new detector design and the implementation of a more efficient cosmic muon veto system. Background levels below 10$^{-6}$keV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ have been obtained at sea level for the first time, demonstrating the feasibility of the expectations posed by IAXO, the next generation axion helioscope. Some results obtained with a set of measurements conducted in the x-ray beam of the CAST Detector Laboratory will be also presented and discussed.

  12. Postoperative Interleukin-6 Level and Early Detection of Complications After Elective Major Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, Thijs C D; Verwijmeren, Lisa; Dijkstra, Ineke M; Boerma, Djamila; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W; Noordzij, Peter G

    2016-06-01

    To assess the association of systemic inflammation and outcome after major abdominal surgery. Major abdominal surgery carries a high postoperative morbidity and mortality rate. Studies suggest that inflammation is associated with unfavorable outcome. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) were assessed in 137 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Blood samples were drawn on days 0, 1, 3, and 7, and SIRS was scored during 48 hours after surgery. Primary outcome was a composite of mortality, pneumonia, sepsis, anastomotic dehiscence, wound infection, noncardiac respiratory failure, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and reoperation within 30 days of surgery. An IL-6 level more than 432 pg/mL on day 1 was associated with an increased risk of complications (adjusted odds ratio: 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-8.5) and a longer median length of hospital stay (7 vs 12 days, P < 0.001). As a single test, an IL-6 cut-off level of 432 pg/mL on day 1 yielded a specificity of 70% and a sensitivity of 64% for the prediction of complications (area under the curve: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.56-0.77). Levels of CRP started to discriminate from day 3 onward with a specificity of 87% and a sensitivity of 58% for a cut-off level of 203 mg/L (AUC: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.63-0.83). A high IL-6 level on day 1 is associated with postoperative complications. Levels of IL-6 help distinguish between patients at low and high risk for complications before changes in levels of CRP.

  13. An investigation into soft error detection efficiency at operating system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Seyyed Amir; Kaynak, Okyay; Taheri, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Electronic equipment operating in harsh environments such as space is subjected to a range of threats. The most important of these is radiation that gives rise to permanent and transient errors on microelectronic components. The occurrence rate of transient errors is significantly more than permanent errors. The transient errors, or soft errors, emerge in two formats: control flow errors (CFEs) and data errors. Valuable research results have already appeared in literature at hardware and software levels for their alleviation. However, there is the basic assumption behind these works that the operating system is reliable and the focus is on other system levels. In this paper, we investigate the effects of soft errors on the operating system components and compare their vulnerability with that of application level components. Results show that soft errors in operating system components affect both operating system and application level components. Therefore, by providing endurance to operating system level components against soft errors, both operating system and application level components gain tolerance.

  14. A 10-minute point-of-care assay for detection of blood protein adducts resulting from low level exposure to organophosphate nerve agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDine, Robert; Babu, Uma Mahesh; Condon, Peter; Mendez, Arlene; Sambursky, Robert

    2013-03-25

    The OrganoTox test is a rapid, point-of-care assay capable of detecting clinically relevant organophosphate (OP) poisoning after low-level exposure to sarin, soman, tabun, or VX chemical nerve agents. The test utilizes either a finger stick peripheral blood sample or plasma specimen. While high-level nerve agent exposure can quickly lead to death, low-level exposure produces vague, nondescript signs and symptoms that are not easily clinically differentiated from other conditions. In initial testing, the OrganoTox test was used to detect the presence of blood protein-nerve agent adducts in exposed blood samples. In order to mimic the in vivo exposure as closely as possible, nerve agents stored in organic solvents were spiked in minute quantities into whole blood samples. For performance testing, 40 plasma samples were spiked with sarin, soman, tabun, or VX and 10 normal plasma samples were used as the negative control. The 40 nerve agent-spiked plasma samples included 10 replicates of each agent. At the clinically relevant low-level exposure of 10 ng/ml, the OrganoTox test demonstrated 100% sensitivity for soman, tabun, and VX and 80% sensitivity for sarin. The OrganoTox test demonstrated greater than 97% specificity with 150 blood samples obtained from healthy adults. No cross-reactivity or interference from pesticide precursor compounds was found. A rapid test for nerve agent exposure will help identify affected patients earlier in the clinical course and trigger more appropriate medical management in a more timely manner.

  15. Adaptive multi-level conditional random fields for detection and segmentation of small enhanced pathology in medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimaghaloo, Zahra; Arnold, Douglas L; Arbel, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Detection and segmentation of large structures in an image or within a region of interest have received great attention in the medical image processing domains. However, the problem of small pathology detection and segmentation still remains an unresolved challenge due to the small size of these pathologies, their low contrast and variable position, shape and texture. In many contexts, early detection of these pathologies is critical in diagnosis and assessing the outcome of treatment. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic Adaptive Multi-level Conditional Random Fields (AMCRF) with the incorporation of higher order cliques for detecting and segmenting such pathologies. In the first level of our graphical model, a voxel-based CRF is used to identify candidate lesions. In the second level, in order to further remove falsely detected regions, a new CRF is developed that incorporates higher order textural features, which are invariant to rotation and local intensity distortions. At this level, higher order textures are considered together with the voxel-wise cliques to refine boundaries and is therefore adaptive. The proposed algorithm is tested in the context of detecting enhancing Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions in brain MRI, where the problem is further complicated as many of the enhancing voxels are associated with normal structures (i.e. blood vessels) or noise in the MRI. The algorithm is trained and tested on large multi-center clinical trials from Relapsing-Remitting MS patients. The effect of several different parameter learning and inference techniques is further investigated. When tested on 120 cases, the proposed method reaches a lesion detection rate of 90%, with very few false positive lesion counts on average, ranging from 0.17 for very small (3-5 voxels) to 0 for very large (50+ voxels) regions. The proposed model is further tested on a very large clinical trial containing 2770 scans where a high sensitivity of 91% with an average false positive

  16. Technological demonstrators. Researches and studies on the storage and disposal of long living intermediate level and high level radioactive wastes; Les demonstrateurs technologiques. Recherches et etudes sur le stockage et l'entreposage des dechets de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This brochure presents the technological demonstrators made by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) and exhibited at Limay (Yvelines, France). These demonstrators, built at scale 1, have been an essential support to the establishment of the 'Dossier 2005' which demonstrates the feasibility of a reversible disposal of long living-intermediate level and high level radioactive wastes in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite of Meuse-Haute Marne. Two type of demonstrators were built: demonstrators of storage containers for long living-intermediate level wastes and for spent fuels, and dynamic demonstrators for containers handling. This brochure presents these different demonstrators, their characteristics and the results of their tests. (J.S.)

  17. Determinants of organochlorine levels detectable in the amniotic fluid of women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Mahtani, Vikesh; Troyano, Juan M; Alvarez de la Rosa, Margarita; Padilla-Pérez, Ana I; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida, Maira; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Boada, Carlos; Boada, Luis D

    2009-07-01

    Organochlorines (OCs) tend to accumulate in human tissues and can be measured in amniotic fluid (AF). The detection of OCs in AF samples reflects intrauterine exposure of human beings to these persistent organic pollutants. The present study was performed to evaluate the level of contamination of AF by OCs in 100 pregnant women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify the analytes, including 7 polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners and 18 OC pesticides and metabolites. The majority of the AF samples (67%) showed some detectable OC-residue, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) being the most frequently detected compound (66% of the samples) and at the highest concentration (median 0.023 ng/ml). Lindane was also detected in 28% of the samples. Inverse associations were found between previous lactation and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH) and cyclodienes in the group of younger women (p = 0.037 and p = 0.027, respectively). Unexpectedly, serum values of HCB (r = -0.414; p = 0.04), gamma-HCH (r = -0.294; p = 0.035), and SigmaOCs (r = -0.350; p = 0.014) were negatively related to age. Even more, women with detectable levels of HCH isomers were younger (33.9 +/- 4.9 years) than women with undetectable levels of them (36.1 +/- 4.9 years; p = 0.035). We conclude that approximately one in two fetuses in the Canary Islands is exposed to OCs in utero, and that, therefore, the exposure of young women from these Islands to some HCH isomers persists nowadays. Because prenatal exposure to these chemicals may be a causative factor in adverse health trends, further studies are required to enhance preventive measures.

  18. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  19. Optical Detection and Quantification of Radiocarbon Dioxide (^{14}CO_{2}) at and Below Ambient Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David A.; Fleisher, Adam J.; Liu, Qingnan; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2017-06-01

    Due to their age, fossil fuels and their byproducts are almost entirely depleted in radiocarbon (^{14}C). As a result, measurements of radiocarbon provide a unique tracer for determining the origin of products and emissions. Recent efforts at NIST have applied mid-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy to measurements of radiocarbon dioxide to allow for more rapid and less expensive measurements than are possible with traditional techniques such as accelerator mass spectrometry. I will discuss our present measurement detection limits and precision as well as discuss limiting noise sources and plans to further improve the instrument's stability and reproducibility.

  20. Optimum method of applying and removing a shaped-function signal for low-light-level image detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Longfei; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Mengjun; Lin, Ling

    2013-11-20

    This paper presents an optimum method that exploits the principle of diffuse scattering and employs the least squares method (LSM) to apply and remove a shaped-function signal for low-light-level image detection. With the help of a sawtooth-shaped-function light signal applied to an image sensor, the LSM is employed to remove the sawtooth signal from the captured images and restore the weak image signal. The experiment process and result verify that this method can not only maintain the capability of upgrading the image sensor's sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio like the previous method, but it also can improve the imaging speed in the low-light level, decrease the computation cost of the extraction process, and eliminate the influence of the environment light to satisfy the requirement of long-distance detection.

  1. Level 2 validation of a flow cytometric method for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anna J; Cooper, Willie M; Summage-West, Christine V; Sims, Lillie M; Woodruff, Robert; Christman, Jessica; Moskal, Ted J; Ramsaroop, Shawn; Sutherland, John B; Alusta, Pierre; Wilkes, Jon G; Buzatu, Dan A

    2015-12-23

    The Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method currently used by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in spinach was systematically compared to a new flow cytometry based method. This Food and Drug Administration (FDA) level 2 external laboratory validation study was designed to determine the latter method's sensitivity and speed for analysis of this pathogen in raw spinach. Detection of target cell inoculations with a low cell count is critical, since enterohemorrhagic strains of E. coli require an infective dose of as few as 10 cells (Schmid-Hempel and Frank, 2007). Although, according to the FDA, the infectious dose is unknown (Food and Drug Administration, 1993). Therefore, the inoculation level into the spinach, a total of 2.0±2.6 viable E. coli O157 cells, was specified to yield between 25% and 75% detection by the new method, out of 20 samples (10 positives and 10 negatives). This criterion was met in that the new method detected 60% of the nominally positive samples; the corresponding sensitivity of the reference method was 50%. For both methods the most likely explanation for false negatives was that no viable cells were actually introduced into the sample. In this validation study, the flow cytometry method was equal to the BAM in sensitivity and far superior in speed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The Graphene/l-Cysteine/Gold-Modified Electrode for the Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry Detection of Trace Levels of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium(II is a common water pollutant with high toxicity. It is of significant importance for detecting aqueous contaminants accurately, as these contaminants are harmful to human health and environment. This paper describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of an environment-friendly graphene (Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode to detect trace levels of cadmium (Cd by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV. The influence of hydrogen overflow was decreased and the current response was enhanced because the modified graphene extended the potential range of the electrode. The Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode showed high electrochemical conductivity, producing a marked increase in anodic peak currents (vs. the glass carbon electrode (GCE and boron-doped diamond (BDD electrode. The calculated detection limits are 1.15, 0.30, and 1.42 µg/L, and the sensitivities go up to 0.18, 21.69, and 152.0 nA·mm−2·µg−1·L for, respectively, the BDD electrode, the GCE, and the Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode. It was shown that the Gr/l-cysteine/gold-modified electrode is an effective means for obtaining highly selective and sensitive electrodes to detect trace levels of cadmium.

  3. An emetic Bacillus cereus outbreak in a kindergarten: detection and quantification of critical levels of cereulide toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbrassinne, Laurence; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Dierick, Katelijne; Denayer, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    A Bacillus cereus-related emetic outbreak was reported in a Belgian kindergarten. High levels of emetic B. cereus (>1.5E+07 colony-forming units/g) were detected in the food leftovers, and the presence of an emetic strain was confirmed in feces. Emetic toxin levels ranging up to 4.2 μg/g were also quantified in the leftovers by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)) analysis. Those levels, although moderate in comparison with earlier published intoxications, provoked profuse-vomiting episodes in 20 toddlers aged between 10 and 18 months. Few studies have focused on the levels of emetic toxin implicated in food intoxications. This publication emphasizes the importance of defining toxic doses of emetic toxin among high-risk population groups.

  4. [THE POSSIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF COLORIMETRY TECHNIQUE OF DETECTION OF LEVELS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF SERUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapojnikova, M A; Strakhova, L A; Blinova, T V; Makarov, I A; Rakhmanov, R S; Umniagina, I A

    2015-11-01

    The analysis was implemented concerning indicators of oxidative status and antioxidant capacity of serum. The indicators were received by colorimetry technique based on detection of peroxides in blood serum in examined patients of different categories: healthy persons aged from 17 to 20 years and from 30 to 60 years and patients with bronchopulmonary pathology. The low level of oxidative stress and high antioxidant capacity of serum were established in individuals ofyounger age. With increasing of age, degree of expression of oxidative stress augmented and level of antioxidant defense lowered. Almost all patients with bronchopulmonary pathology had high level of oxidative stress and low level of antioxidant defense. The analysis of quantitative data of examined indicators their conformity with health condition was established

  5. Vitamin D levels appear to be normal in Danish patients attending secondary care for low back pain and a weak positive correlation between serum level Vitamin D and Modic changes was demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jannick Vaaben; Manniche, Claus; Kjær, Per

    2013-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D has previously been reported in both the general population, in people with chronic musculoskeletal pain, and in people with low back pain (LBP). Myopathy-related symptoms such as diffuse bone and muscle pain, weakness and paresthesia in the legs, have also been observed in people...... with non-specific LBP and associations with low levels of Vitamin D have been suggested. The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) Vitamin D levels in patients seeking care for LBP in a Danish out-patient secondary care setting, and (2) their possible relationship with myopathy-related symptoms...

  6. Level-crossing spectroscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond: sensitive detection of paramagnetic defect centers

    CERN Document Server

    Anishchik, S V; Ivanov, K L

    2016-01-01

    We report a magnetic field dependence of fluorescence of diamond single crystals containing NV$^-$ centers. In such spectra, numerous sharp lines are found, which correspond to Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in coupled spins systems comprising an NV$^-$ center. Theoretical modeling of such "LAC-spectra" enables characterization of paramagnetic defect centers and determination of their magnetic resonance parameters, such as zero-field splitting and hyperfine coupling constants. The outlined method thus enables sensitive detection of paramagnetic impurities in diamond crystals.

  7. Applying accelerator mass spectrometry for low-level detection of complex engineered nanoparticles in biological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binghui; Jackson, George S; Yokel, Robert A; Grulke, Eric A

    2014-08-01

    Complex engineered nanoparticles (CENPs), which have different core and surface components, are being developed for medicinal, pharmaceutical and industrial applications. One of the key challenges for environmental health and safety assessments of CENPs is to identify and quantity their transformations in biological environments. This study reports the effects of in vivo exposure of citrate-coated nanoalumina with different rare isotope labels on each component. This CENP was dosed to the rat and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to quantify (26)Al, (14)C, and their ratio in the dosing material and tissue samples. For CENPs detected in the liver, the rare isotope ratio, (14)C/(26)Al, was 87% of the dosing material's ratio. The citrate coating on the nanoalumina in the liver was stable or, if it degraded, its metabolites were incorporated with nearby tissues. However, in brain and bone where little alumina was detected, the rare isotope ratio greatly exceeded that of the dosing material. Therefore, in the animal, citrate dissociated from CENPs and redistributed to brain and bone. Tracking both the core and surface components by AMS presents a new approach for characterizing transformations of CENPs components in biological milieu or environments.

  8. A highly selective and picomolar level photoelectrochemical sensor for PCB 101 detection in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huijie; Zhao, Jinzhi; Wang, Yingling; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-07-15

    A highly selective and sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor was fabricated for fast and convenient detection of PCB 101 in environmental water samples with a low detection limit of 1.0×10(-14)molL(-1) based on single crystalline TiO2 nanorods (NRs). By integration with molecular imprinting (MI) technique, the PEC sensor's selectivity towards PCB 101 was significantly improved, so that the interference caused by 100-fold excess of PCB 126 and PCB 77 which had similar structure with PCB 101 was below 37%, not to mention other coexisted pollutants. This high selectivity could be attributed to the high-quality expression of the molecular imprinting sites on the rigid and smooth surface of single crystalline TiO2 NRs on which PCB 101 could be selectively and preferentially adsorbed. The oriented and multiple halogen bonds formed between PCB 101 and the molecular imprinting sites played a critical role in improving the recognition ability of the PEC sensor. Meanwhile, the one dimensional nanorods structure of TiO2 was beneficial for the efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes, leading to enhanced photocurrent response and further improving the sensitivity of the PEC sensor.

  9. Progress in low light-level InAs detectors- towards Geiger-mode detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Hing; Ng, Jo Shien; Zhou, Xinxin; David, John; Zhang, Shiyong; Krysa, Andrey

    2017-05-01

    InAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) can be designed such that only electrons are allowed to initiate impact ionization, leading to the lowest possible excess noise factor. Optimization of wet chemical etching and surface passivation produced mesa APDs with bulk dominated dark current and responsivity that are comparable and higher, respectively, than a commercial InAs detector. Our InAs electron-APDs also show high stability with fluctuation of 0.1% when operated at a gain of 11.2 over 60 s. These InAs APDs can detect very weak signal down to 35 photons per pulse. Fabrication of planar InAs by Be implantation produced planar APDs with bulk dominated dark current. Annealing at 550 °C was necessary to remove implantation damage and to activate Be dopants. Due to minimal diffusion of Be, thick depletion of 8 μm was achieved. Since the avalanche gain increases exponentially with the thickness of avalanche region, our planar APD achieved high gain > 300 at 200 K. Our work suggest that both mesa and planar InAs APDs can exhibit high gain. When combined with a suitable preamplifier, single photon detection using InAs electron-APDs could be achieved.

  10. Determination of meropenem levels in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Thomas; Fiedler, Stella; Mihai, Sidonia; Parsch, Hans

    2017-05-01

    Meropenem is a β-lactam broad-spectrum antibiotic and belongs to the subgroup of carbapenems. It is primarily used in intensive care units for intravenous treatment of severe infections. To avoid bacterial resistance or toxic side effects, the determination of serum meropenem concentration is highly advisable. A simple and fast method for the quantitative determination of meropenem in human serum using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV) was developed and validated. Meropenem was determined by an isocratic HPLC using a tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer (pH 8.5; 15% methanol) as a mobile phase and UV detection at 300 nm, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and an analysis time of 10 min. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 column (5 μm, 150 × 4.6 mm). In order to remove undesired serum components, solid-phase extraction was used for sample preparation. Since meropenem is not stable in solution, sample and stock solution were stored at -80°C. After preparation, samples were stable at room temperature for at least 6 h. The calibration curve was linear from 3.5 to 200 mg/L with a correlation coefficient r(2) of 0.999. The method is accurate with an intra- and inter-assay precision <18.5%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Demonstrating Supernova Remnant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Denis A.; Williams, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    We have created a software tool to calculate at display supernova remnant evolution which includes all stages from early ejecta dominated phase to late-time merging with the interstellar medium. The software was created using Python, and can be distributed as Python code, or as an executable file. The purpose of the software is to demonstrate the different phases and transitions that a supernova remnant undergoes, and will be used in upper level undergraduate astrophysics courses as a teaching tool. The usage of the software and its graphical user interface will be demonstrated.

  12. Parametric Analysis of Surveillance Quality and Level and Quality of Intent Information and Their Impact on Conflict Detection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George E.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    A loss-of-separation (LOS) is said to occur when two aircraft are spatially too close to one another. A LOS is the fundamental unsafe event to be avoided in air traffic management and conflict detection (CD) is the function that attempts to predict these LOS events. In general, the effectiveness of conflict detection relates to the overall safety and performance of an air traffic management concept. An abstract, parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of surveillance quality, level of intent information, and quality of intent information on conflict detection performance. The data collected in this analysis can be used to estimate the conflict detection performance under alternative future scenarios or alternative allocations of the conflict detection function, based on the quality of the surveillance and intent information under those conditions.Alternatively, this data could also be used to estimate the surveillance and intent information quality required to achieve some desired CD performance as part of the design of a new separation assurance system.

  13. Postoperative interleukin-6 level and early detection of complications after elective major abdominal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettig, Thijs C. D.; Verwijmeren, Lisa; Dijkstra, Ineke M.; Boerma, Djamila; Van De Garde, Ewoudt M. W.; Noordzij, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association of systemic inflammation and outcome after major abdominal surgery. Background: Major abdominal surgery carries a high postoperative morbidity and mortality rate. Studies suggest that inflammation is associated with unfavorable outcome. Methods: Levels of C-react

  14. Levels of Evidence: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) and Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Systems (EHDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Levels of evidence differ according to the audience addressed. Implementation of universal newborn hearing screening requires responses to a complex myriad of diverse groups: the general public, families with children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the deaf and hard of hearing communities, hospital administrators, physicians (pediatricians,…

  15. Vaginal Fluid hCG Levels for Detecting Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Artimani

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any different in hCG levels of vaginal fluids from normal pregnant women, women with confirmed PROM and with suspected PROM. After irrigating the posterior vaginal fornix with 3 ml of sterile saline and procuring vaginal washing , we measured hCG levels. Samples were analyzed from 38 normal pregnant women , 31 women with confirmed PROM , 28 women with suspected PROM. The mean of vaginal fluid hCG levels of normal pregnant women were 11.2 (0.00-98.6 mIu/ml. That of women with PROM was 140.2 (0.5 , 390.1 and that of women with suspected PROM was 21.5 (0.0 , 143.9. Sensivity was 80%, specility 83% , positive predictive value 73.7% , negative predictive value 88.1% , using a cut-value 20. It was concluded that the hCG level in vaginal fluid is a marker of PROM during third trimester.

  16. [Clinical value of detecting serum soluble CD163 level in patients with atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shi-Mao; Qin, Yu-Hua; Li, Zuo-Cha; Wei, Ye-Sheng

    2016-10-20

    To investigate the relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) and serum soluble CD163. A total of 336 patients with heart valve disease were included in this study, including 167 with AF and 169 with sinus rhythm. The clinical data were compared between the two grops, and Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors associated with AF. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL - 6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and left atrial diameter (LAD) all differed significantly between the two groups (PCD163 levels in AF patients were significantly higher than those in patients with sinus rhythm (PCD163 was positively correlated with TNF (r=0.244, P=0.244), IL-6 (r=0.186, P=0.186), hs-CRP (r=0.183, P=0.183) and LAD (r=0.194, P=0.194) in patients with AF. Logistic regression analysis showed that LAD, IL-6, TNF, hs-CRP and CD163 were all associated with AF. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under curve of serum soluble CD163 was 0.861 in patients with AF (CI 95%: 0.820-0.901, PCD163 level may be a risk factor for AF, and an increased soluble CD163 level may indicate active inflammation in AF patients.

  17. Postoperative interleukin-6 level and early detection of complications after elective major abdominal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettig, Thijs C. D.; Verwijmeren, Lisa; Dijkstra, Ineke M.; Boerma, Djamila; Van De Garde, Ewoudt M. W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841528; Noordzij, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association of systemic inflammation and outcome after major abdominal surgery. Background: Major abdominal surgery carries a high postoperative morbidity and mortality rate. Studies suggest that inflammation is associated with unfavorable outcome. Methods: Levels of C-react

  18. Pulmonary Nodule Detection Model Based on SVM and CT Image Feature-Level Fusion with Rough Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huiling; Zhang, Junjie; Shi, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the detection accuracy of pulmonary nodules in CT image, considering two problems of pulmonary nodules detection model, including unreasonable feature structure and nontightness of feature representation, a pulmonary nodules detection algorithm is proposed based on SVM and CT image feature-level fusion with rough sets. Firstly, CT images of pulmonary nodule are analyzed, and 42-dimensional feature components are extracted, including six new 3-dimensional features proposed by this paper and others 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional features. Secondly, these features are reduced for five times with rough set based on feature-level fusion. Thirdly, a grid optimization model is used to optimize the kernel function of support vector machine (SVM), which is used as a classifier to identify pulmonary nodules. Finally, lung CT images of 70 patients with pulmonary nodules are collected as the original samples, which are used to verify the effectiveness and stability of the proposed model by four groups' comparative experiments. The experimental results show that the effectiveness and stability of the proposed model based on rough set feature-level fusion are improved in some degrees.

  19. Detection of Serum Interleukin-6/10/18 Levels in Sepsis and Its Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingchen; Sun, Tingting; Zhao, Yaxin; Zhang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    To explore the clinical significance of serum levels of IL-6/10/18 in sepsis. Sixty-six patients with sepsis were selected to be the case group. Additionally, 42 healthy adults were selected to be the control group. ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of IL-6/10/18, and ROC was utilized to evaluate the diagnostic values of IL-6/10/18 in sepsis. The heart rate, respiratory rate, WBC count and APACHE II score in the sepsis group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and these indexes were increased in turn in the mild sepsis group, severe sepsis group, and septic shock group (all P sepsis patients were significantly higher than those in the control group, and both of the levels were increased in turn in the mild sepsis group, severe sepsis group, and septic shock group (both P 0.05). The cut-off points of IL-6 and IL-18 were 109.19 pg/ml (sensitivity: 94.4%; specificity: 83.3%) and 116.01 pg/ml (sensitivity: 77.8%; specificity: 83.3%), respectively. Serum IL-6 levels were positively correlated with the APACHE II score and heart rate (both P sepsis patients. Additionally, IL-6 has a greater sensitivity than IL-18. Serum IL-6 levels were positively correlated with the APACHE II score and heart rate, indicating that IL-6 could be used as a potential biomarker for sepsis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An electrical test method for quality detecting of wafer level eutectic bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lemin; Jiao, Binbin; Ku, Will; Tseng, Li-Tien; Kong, Yanmei; Chien, Yu-Hao; Yun, Shichang; Chen, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    As the costs of packaging and testing account for a substantial portion of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices, an effective and convenient characterization method is urgent to be investigated to lower the cost. In this paper, an electrical test method was utilized, and the test key used for a four-probe current-voltage test was designed to monitor the quality of the AuSn eutectic bonding. The electrical test can directly detect whether or not voids existed in the bonding layer. The difference in alloy state, for example, the existence of the (Au, Ni) 3Sn2 phase confirmed by the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy test, can also be reflected by resistivity variation. The electrical test can be implemented automatically and conveniently unlike other characterization methods. Therefore, it is suitable to be applied in quality inspection in industrial production.

  1. Analysis and Implementation of Kidney Stone Detection by Reaction Diffusion Level Set Segmentation Using Xilinx System Generator on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalannagari Viswanath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound imaging is one of the available imaging techniques used for diagnosis of kidney abnormalities, which may be like change in shape and position and swelling of limb; there are also other Kidney abnormalities such as formation of stones, cysts, blockage of urine, congenital anomalies, and cancerous cells. During surgical processes it is vital to recognize the true and precise location of kidney stone. The detection of kidney stones using ultrasound imaging is a highly challenging task as they are of low contrast and contain speckle noise. This challenge is overcome by employing suitable image processing techniques. The ultrasound image is first preprocessed to get rid of speckle noise using the image restoration process. The restored image is smoothened using Gabor filter and the subsequent image is enhanced by histogram equalization. The preprocessed image is achieved with level set segmentation to detect the stone region. Segmentation process is employed twice for getting better results; first to segment kidney portion and then to segment the stone portion, respectively. In this work, the level set segmentation uses two terms, namely, momentum and resilient propagation (Rprop to detect the stone portion. After segmentation, the extracted region of the kidney stone is given to Symlets, Biorthogonal (bio3.7, bio3.9, and bio4.4, and Daubechies lifting scheme wavelet subbands to extract energy levels. These energy levels provide evidence about presence of stone, by comparing them with that of the normal energy levels. They are trained by multilayer perceptron (MLP and back propagation (BP ANN to classify and its type of stone with an accuracy of 98.8%. The prosed work is designed and real time is implemented on both Filed Programmable Gate Array Vertex-2Pro FPGA using Xilinx System Generator (XSG Verilog and Matlab 2012a.

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the remote detection of explosives at level of fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Palucci, A.; Lazic, V.; Menicucci, I.; Nuvoli, M.; Pistilli, M.; De Dominicis, L.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of the application of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection of some common military explosives and theirs precursors deposited on white varnished car's external and black car's internal or external plastic. The residues were deposited by an artificial silicon finger, to simulate material manipulation by terrorists when preparing a car bomb, leaving traces of explosives on the parts of a car. LIBS spectra were acquired by using a first prototype laboratory stand-off device, developed in the framework of the EU FP7 313077 project EDEN (End-user driven DEmo for CBRNe). The system operates at working distances 8-30 m and collects the LIBS in the spectral range 240-840 nm. In this configuration, the target was moved precisely in X-Y direction to simulate the scanning system, to be implemented successively. The system is equipped with two colour cameras, one for wide scene view and another for imaging with a very high magnification, capable to discern fingerprints on a target. The spectral features of each examined substance were identified and compared to those belonging to the substrate and the surrounding air, and those belonging to possible common interferents. These spectral differences are discussed and interpreted. The obtained results show that the detection and discrimination of nitro-based compounds like RDX, PETN, ammonium nitrate (AN), and urea nitrate (UN) from organic interfering substances like diesel, greasy lubricants, greasy adhesives or oils in fingerprint concentration, at stand-off distance of some meters or tenths of meters is feasible.

  3. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments

    OpenAIRE

    Marcano,Eunice; Labady,Mary; Gomes,Clara; Aguiar,Guillermina; Laine,Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela) were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon ...

  4. 3D printing cybersecurity: detecting and preventing attacks that seek to weaken a printed object by changing fill level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Prior work by Zeltmann, et al. has demonstrated the impact of small defects and other irregularities on the structural integrity of 3D printed objects. It posited that such defects could be introduced intentionally. The current work looks at the impact of changing the fill level on object structural integrity. It considers whether the existence of an appropriate level of fill can be determined through visible light imagery-based assessment of a 3D printed object. A technique for assessing the quality and sufficiency of quantity of 3D printed fill material is presented. It is assessed experimentally and results are presented and analyzed.

  5. Detection of serum IgG4 levels in patients with IgG4-related disease and other disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Su

    Full Text Available Elevated serum IgG4 levels are an important hallmark for diagnosing IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD, but can also be observed in other diseases. This study aimed to compare two different testing methods for IgG4: ELISA and nephelometric assay. Both assays were used to measure serum IgG4 concentrations, and to assess the prevalence of high serum IgG4 levels in both IgG4-RD and non-IgG4-RD diseases.A total of 80 serum samples were tested using the nephelometric assay and ELISA method that we established. Serum IgG4 concentrations were determined by ELISA for 957 patients with distinct diseases, including 12 cases of IgG4-RD and 945 cases of non-IgG4-RD.IgG4 levels from 80 selected serum samples examined by ELISA were in agreement with those detected using the nephelometry assay. Meanwhile, the serum IgG4 concentrations measured by ELISA were also consistent with the clinical diagnoses of patients with IgG4-RD during the course of disease. The Elevated levels of serum IgG4 (>1.35 g/L were detected in all IgG4-RD (12/12 patients, and the prevalence of high IgG4 serum levels was 3.39% in non-IgG4-RD cases. Among them, the positive rates of serum IgG4 were 2.06% in patients with carcinoma and 6.3% in patients with other non-IgG4 autoimmune diseases.Our established ELISA method is a reliable and convenient technique, which could be extensively used in the clinic to measure serum IgG4 levels. High levels of IgG4 were observed in IgG4-RD. However, this phenomenon could also be observed in other diseases, such as carcinomas and other autoimmune diseases. Thus, a diagnosis of IgG4 disease cannot only be dependent on the detection of elevated serum IgG4 levels.

  6. Highly specific fiber optic immunosensor coupled with immunomagnetic separation for detection of low levels of Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and immunoassays are widely used for pathogen detection. However, novel technology platforms with highly selective antibodies are essential to improve detection sensitivity, specificity and performance. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Internalin A (InlA) and p30 were generated and used on paramagnetic beads of varying diameters for concentration, as well as on fiber-optic sensor for detection. Results Anti-InlA MAb-2D12 (IgG2a subclass) was specific for Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, and p30-specific MAb-3F8 (IgM) was specific for the genus Listeria. At all bacterial concentrations (103–108 CFU/mL) tested in the IMS assay; the 1-μm diameter MyOne beads had significantly higher capture efficiency (P Listeria antibody (9 %). Furthermore, capture efficiency for MyOne-2D12 was highly specific for L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii. Subsequently, we captured L. monocytogenes by MyOne-2D12 and MyOne-3F8 from hotdogs inoculated with mono- or co-cultures of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua (10–40 CFU/g), enriched for 18 h and detected by fiber-optic sensor and confirmed by plating, light-scattering, and qPCR assays. The detection limit for L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii by the fiber-optic immunosensor was 3 × 102 CFU/mL using MAb-2D12 as capture and reporter antibody. Selective media plating, light-scattering, and qPCR assays confirmed the IMS and fiber-optic results. Conclusions IMS coupled with a fiber-optic sensor using anti-InlA MAb is highly specific for L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii and enabled detection of these pathogens at low levels from buffer or food. PMID:23176167

  7. Monitoring of sulphites levels in shrimps samples collected in Puglia (Italy) by ion-exchange chromatography with conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iammarino, Marco; Di Taranto, Aurelia; Ientile, Anna Rita

    2014-01-01

    In shrimps the treatment with sulphiting agents is currently the best option for controlling Melanosis, which is a visual defect of the products that compromises marketability. However, sulphites may cause pseudo-allergic reactions in humans. In this study, 210 samples of shrimps were analysed in order to assess the residual levels of sulphiting agents. A quantifiable sulphites concentration was detected in 76 samples, and these concentrations were higher than the legal limits in eight samples. Considering the important pseudo-allergenic effects caused by these food additives, the non-negligible percentage of 3.8% and the high levels registered in non-compliant samples (up to 1174.1 mg kg(-1)), a strong contrast action based on permanent controls is necessary. Moreover, the levels measured in whole samples were up to four times higher than in the edible parts. These results suggest to consider the introduction of legal limits, related to sulphurous anhydride in the whole product.

  8. Fault Diagnosis and Detection in Industrial Motor Network Environment Using Knowledge-Level Modelling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud Altaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, broken rotor bar (BRB fault is investigated by utilizing the Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA method. In industrial environment, induction motor is very symmetrical, and it may have obvious electrical signal components at different fault frequencies due to their manufacturing errors, inappropriate motor installation, and other influencing factors. The misalignment experiments revealed that improper motor installation could lead to an unexpected frequency peak, which will affect the motor fault diagnosis process. Furthermore, manufacturing and operating noisy environment could also disturb the motor fault diagnosis process. This paper presents efficient supervised Artificial Neural Network (ANN learning technique that is able to identify fault type when situation of diagnosis is uncertain. Significant features are taken out from the electric current which are based on the different frequency points and associated amplitude values with fault type. The simulation results showed that the proposed technique was able to diagnose the target fault type. The ANN architecture worked well with selecting of significant number of feature data sets. It seemed that, to the results, accuracy in fault detection with features vector has been achieved through classification performance and confusion error percentage is acceptable between healthy and faulty condition of motor.

  9. Detection and Resolution of Deadlocks in Multi-Level Secure Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Sapra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the sharing of databases leads to the increase in the concurrency errors, which are termed as deadlocks. Many concurrency control techniques result in deadlocks, because these techniques require the transactions in the system to wait for one another. At this situation, an outside intervention is often required to resume the normal working. Therefore, some special procedures are needed to resolve the deadlock situation. A multilevel secure database protects the classified information from unauthorized users based on the classification of the data and clearance of the users. If we addmultilevel security to databases then the system becomes more complicated and it becomes mandatory for us to resolve the problem like deadlock and concurrency. In these systems, there should be no covert channel and starvation during the coordination of transaction in secure databases. Here we present an algorithm for deadlock detection and recovery in multilevel secure database. The proposed algorithm takes into consideration the requirements and terminates the youngest transaction possible according to the security classes available.

  10. Low level detection of Benzene in Food Grade Hexane by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmandi, R; Sastry, M I S; Patel, M B

    2014-10-15

    A simple, sensitive, and accurate Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the determination of Benzene in Food Grade Hexane. Benzene in spectroscopic grade Hexane shows vibrational fine structure having four well resolved peaks. In the wavelength range 240-270nm, peak at 255nm is considered for the method development. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 0.6-10.0μLL(-1), with correlation coefficient, 0.9999, detection limit 0.2μLL(-1) and quantitation limit 0.6μLL(-1) are established. Percentage recovery studies showed that the method was not affected by the presence of other solvents having the similar boiling range with Hexane. The method was validated by determining its accuracy and precision which proves suitability of the developed method for the routine determination of Benzene in Food Grade Hexane. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the analysis of the Food Grade Hexane.

  11. Artifactual mutations resulting from DNA lesions limit detection levels in ultrasensitive sequencing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeithuber, Barbara; Makova, Kateryna D; Tiemann-Boege, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The need in cancer research or evolutionary biology to detect rare mutations or variants present at very low frequencies (DNA lesions introduce important error sources in ultrasensitive technologies such as single molecule PCR (smPCR) applications (e.g. droplet-digital PCR), or next-generation sequencing (NGS) based methods. Using templates with known amplifiable lesions (8-oxoguanine, deaminated 5-methylcytosine, uracil, and DNA heteroduplexes), we assessed with smPCR and duplex sequencing that templates with these lesions were amplified very efficiently by proofreading polymerases (except uracil), leading to G->T, and to a lesser extent, to unreported G->C substitutions at 8-oxoguanine lesions, and C->T transitions in amplified uracil containing templates. Long heat incubations common in many DNA extraction protocols significantly increased the number of G->T substitutions. Moreover, in ∼50-80% smPCR reactions we observed the random amplification preference of only one of both DNA strands explaining the known 'PCR jackpot effect', with the result that a lesion became indistinguishable from a true mutation or variant. Finally, we showed that artifactual mutations derived from uracil and 8-oxoguanine could be significantly reduced by DNA repair enzymes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  12. Evaluation of the reporting level to detect triamcinolone acetonide misuse in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matabosch, Xavier; Pozo, Oscar J; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Papaseit, Esther; Marcos, Josep; Segura, Jordi; Ventura, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is prohibited in sport competitions using systemic administrations (e.g., intramuscular, IM), and it is allowed by other routes (e.g., intranasal, IN, or topical, TOP). A reporting level of 30 ng/mL is used to discriminate between forbidden and allowed administrations. We examined urinary profiles of TA metabolites after TOP, IN and IM administrations to evaluate the suitability of the current reporting level and to define the best criteria to discriminate between these administrations. TA was administered to healthy volunteers by different routes: a single IM dose (n=2), IN doses for three days (n=6), and TOP doses for five days followed by a single IM dose (n=8). Urine samples were collected at different time intervals and they were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure TA and eight metabolites. After TOP and IN administrations, concentrations of the metabolites were significantly lower (pdrug or the use of specific metabolites could discriminate IM from TOP or IN administrations.

  13. An elevated 1-h post- load glucose level during the oral glucose tolerance test detects prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysschaert, Martin; Bergman, Michael; Yanogo, Donald; Jagannathan, Ram; Buysschaert, Benoit; Preumont, Vanessa

    The objective of the study was to compare the diagnosis of dysglycemic states by conventional oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) criteria (fasting and 2-h plasma glucose) with the 1-h post-load plasma glucose level. 34 individuals (mean age: 55±13years; BMI: 27.7±6.3kg/m(2)) at risk for prediabetes were administered a 75g OGTT. Individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes were identified according to fasting and/or 2-h plasma glucose (PG) concentrations. Subsequently, subjects were divided in 2 groups: group 1 (n=21) with a 1-h PGh PG≥155mg/dl. HOMA was performed to assess β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. NGT or prediabetes based on conventional criteria correlated with the 1-h PGh PG≥155mg/dl was associated with higher HbA1c levels (6.1±0.5 vs. 5.5±0.3%, ph PGh post-load plasma glucose value ≥155mg/dl is strongly associated with conventional criteria for (pre)diabetes and alterations of β-cell function. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of wafer-level bonded hermetic packages using optical leak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ani; Wang, Kaiying; Aasmundtveit, Knut; Hoivik, Nils

    2009-07-01

    For MEMS devices required to be operated in a hermetic environment, one of the main reliability issues is related to the packaging methods applied. In this paper, an optical method for testing low volume hermetic cavities formed by anodic bonding between glass and SOI (silicon on insulator) wafer is presented. Several different cavity-geometry structures have been designed, fabricated and applied to monitor the hermeticity of wafer level anodic bonding. SOI wafer was used as the cap wafer on which the different-geometry structures were fabricated using standard MEMS technology. The test cavities were bonded using SOI wafers to glass wafers at 400C and 1000mbar pressure inside a vacuum bonding chamber. The bonding voltage varies from 200V to 600V. The bonding strength between glass and SOI wafer was mechanically tested using shear tester. The deformation amplitudes of the cavity cap surface were monitored by using an optical interferometer. The hermeticity of the glass-to-SOI wafer level bonding was characterized through observing the surface deformation in a 6 months period in atmospheric environment. We have observed a relatively stable micro vacuum-cavity.

  15. Static Application-Level Race Detection in STM Haskell using Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Demeyer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Writing concurrent programs is a hard task, even when using high-level synchronization primitives such as transactional memories together with a functional language with well-controlled side-effects such as Haskell, because the interferences generated by the processes to each other can occur at different levels and in a very subtle way. The problem occurs when a thread leaves or exposes the shared data in an inconsistent state with respect to the application logic or the real meaning of the data. In this paper, we propose to associate contracts to transactions and we define a program transformation that makes it possible to extend static contract checking in the context of STM Haskell. As a result, we are able to check statically that each transaction of a STM Haskell program handles the shared data in a such way that a given consistency property, expressed in the form of a user-defined boolean function, is preserved. This ensures that bad interference will not occur during the execution of the concurrent program.

  16. From Remotely Sensed Vegetation Onset to Sowing Dates: Aggregating Pixel-Level Detections into Village-Level Sowing Probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marinho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the start of the crop season in Sahel provides decision makers with valuable information for an early assessment of potential production and food security threats. Presently, the most common method for the estimation of sowing dates in West African countries consists of applying given thresholds on rainfall estimations. However, the coarse spatial resolution and the possible inaccuracy of these estimations are limiting factors. In this context, the remote sensing approach, which consists of deriving green-up onset dates from satellite remote sensing data, appears as an interesting alternative. It builds upon a novel statistic model that translates vegetation onset detections derived from MODIS time series into sowing probabilities at the village level. Results for Niger show that this approach outperforms the standard method adopted in the region based on rainfall thresholds.

  17. Highly selective amperometric sensor for the trace level detection of hydrazine at bismuth nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Mani, Veerappan; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    A highly selective amperometric sensor was developed for the trace level determination of hydrazine at bismuth nanoparticles (Bi) decorated graphene nanosheets (GR) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). GR-Bi nanocomposite has been successfully prepared via simple and facile chemical reduction approach and its structure was characterized by various techniques. Surface morphological and X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation and high loading of Bi nanoparticles on graphene sheets. GR-Bi nanocomposite modified GCE exhibited greatly enhanced electrocatalytic performance towards electro-oxidation of hydrazine in terms of decrease in overpotential and increase in oxidation peak current (Ip). The kinetic parameters such as electron transfer coefficient (α) and diffusion coefficient (Do) of the hydrazine oxidation were determined to be 0.70 and 2.65×10(-5) cm(2) s(-1), respectively. An amperometric sensor has been fabricated which detects trace level concentration of hydrazine. The sensor exhibited a wide linear range from 20 nM to 0.28 mM and a very low detection limit (LOD) of 5 nM. Remarkably, this is the lowest LOD achieved for the determination of hydrazine in neutral pH among other reported electrochemical hydrazine sensors. In addition, the sensor selectively detects hydrazine even in the presence of 1000 fold excess quantity of common interferrants. The practical feasibility of the sensor has been assessed in water and urine samples with good recoveries. Furthermore, the sensor exhibited appreciable stability, repeatability and reproducibility results.

  18. The Polypyrrole/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Modified Au Microelectrode for Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Trace Levels of Pb2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuxing Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensitive detection of trace levels of heavy metal ions such as Pb2+ is of significant importance due to the health hazard they pose. In this paper, we present a polypyrrole (PPy/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-modified Au microelectrode. The PPy/MWCNT composite film was electrochemically deposited on the microelectrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV. The composite film was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, CV, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and the results show that this film presents a uniformly distributed and web-like entangled structure and good conductivity. Differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV was applied to determine trace levels of Pb2+. Experimental conditions including accumulation time and deposition potential were optimized. In optimal conditions, the PPy/MWCNT-modified microelectrode performed sensitive detection of Pb2+ within a concentration range from 1 to 100 μg·L−1, and the limit of detection was 0.65 μg·L−1 at the signal-to-noise ratio of three.

  19. Detection of Low-Level Activities in Solar-Analog Stars from the Emission Strengths of Ca II 3934 Line

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi; Honda, Satoshi; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Ando, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Activity studies of solar-type stars, especially with reference to the status of our current Sun among them, have exposed the importance of (1) homogeneously selecting the sample stars and (2) reliably evaluating their activities down to a considerably low level. Motivated by these requirements, we conducted an extensive study on the activities of 118 solar-analog stars (of sufficiently similar properties to each other) by measuring the emission strength at the core of Ca II 3933.663 line (K line) on the high-dispersion spectrogram obtained by Subaru/HDS, where special attention was paid to correctly detecting the chromospheric emission by removing the wing-fitted photospheric profile calculated from the classical solar model atmosphere. This enabled us to detect low-level activities down to log R' ~ -5.4 (R' is the ratio of the chromospheric core emission flux to the total bolometric flux), by which we could detect subtle activity differences which were indiscernible in previous studies. Regarding the Sun, w...

  20. Detecting the Sea-Level Fingerprint of Polar Ice Mass Changes: Testing a New Method for Estimating the Sources of Global Sea Level Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, C.; Morrow, E.; Kopp, R. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2011-12-01

    Twentieth and 21st century rates of globally averaged sea level (SL) change have commonly been estimated using subsets of tide gauge records and satellite altimetry data. However, these estimates ignore the information embedded in the geographic variability of the measurements. It is now well known, for example, that the rapid melting of an individual ice sheet or glacier will produce a unique geometry, or fingerprint, of SL change. In principle, a suite of such fingerprints, together with a network of modern SL observations with sufficient geographic distribution and signal-to-noise properties, may be used to infer recent sources of meltwater flux. We outline a new formalism based on a Kalman filter for estimating the individual SL contributions to global SL change using tide gauge and satellite altimetry measurements. The Kalman filter is well-suited to such an estimate because: 1) it naturally accommodates missing data, a significant factor for sparse sections of the tide gauge record; 2) it is able to optimally estimate non-stationary trends and the associated uncertainty; and 3) its recursive nature reduces the potentially onerous computational memory requirements caused by large volumes of tide gauge or satellite altimetry data. We first explore the feasibility of extracting source information from SL records by applying the new methodology in a series of detection experiments with synthetic tide gauge and altimetry data sets. Our synthetic data sets are constructed by combining de-trended tide gauge or satellite altimetry records with sea-level fingerprints computed for a variety of Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) and West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) melt scenarios. Additional contributions to SL change, such as the signal due to on-going glacial isostatic adjustment in response to the last ice age and dynamic sea level changes due to thermal expansion of the ocean are also included in the synthetics. We apply our modified Kalman filter to various subsets of

  1. Rapid Detection of Polychlorinated Biphenyls at Trace Levels in Real Environmental Samples by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Zhang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in soil and distilled spirit samples by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique using Ag nanorod arrays as substrates. By this method, polychlorinated biphenyls can be detected to a concentration of 5 μg/g in dry soil samples within 1 minute. Furthermore, based on simulation and understanding of the Raman characteristics of PCBs, we recognized homologues of tetrachlorobiphenyl by using the surface-enhance Raman scattering method even in trace amounts in acetone solutions, and their characteristic Raman peaks still can be distinguished at a concentration of 10-6 mol/L. This study provides a fast, simple and sensitive method for the detection and recognition of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls.

  2. The Capacity to Detect Change Stream Fish Communities Characteristics at the Site-Level in the Lake Ontario Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicholas Edward; Petreman, Ian Charles

    2012-07-01

    We investigate natural inter-annual variability of fish community measures within streams of the Lake Ontario basin. Given this variability, we examined coefficients of variation (CV) among the community measures and three scenarios pertaining to the capacity of biologists to detect changes in the fish community at the stream site level. Results indicate that Ontario's stream fish communities are highly variable in time. Young-of-the-year rainbow trout growth was the least variable whereas biomass density scored the highest CV of 0.50 among streams (range 0.22-0.99). Given the CVs and relatively equal sample sizes, our measures of the fish community can be ranked from least to most powerful: biomass, density, richness, diversity, and growth of young-of-the-year rainbow trout. Only large changes in measures can typically be detected. For instance, it would take 4-6 years of monitoring before and after a pulse perturbation to detect a 50 % change in species richness or diversity. We suggest that monitoring abundance is unlikely to result in the detection of small impacts within a short period of time and that large effects can be masked by low statistical power. This evidence voices the need for more research into better sampling methods, experimental designs, and choice of indicators to support monitoring programs for flowing waters.

  3. The effect of presentation level and stimulation rate on speech perception and modulation detection for cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, Tim; McDermott, Hugh J; McKay, Colette M

    2017-06-01

    In order to improve speech understanding for cochlear implant users, it is important to maximize the transmission of temporal information. The combined effects of stimulation rate and presentation level on temporal information transfer and speech understanding remain unclear. The present study systematically varied presentation level (60, 50, and 40 dBA) and stimulation rate [500 and 2400 pulses per second per electrode (pps)] in order to observe how the effect of rate on speech understanding changes for different presentation levels. Speech recognition in quiet and noise, and acoustic amplitude modulation detection thresholds (AMDTs) were measured with acoustic stimuli presented to speech processors via direct audio input (DAI). With the 500 pps processor, results showed significantly better performance for consonant-vowel nucleus-consonant words in quiet, and a reduced effect of noise on sentence recognition. However, no rate or level effect was found for AMDTs, perhaps partly because of amplitude compression in the sound processor. AMDTs were found to be strongly correlated with the effect of noise on sentence perception at low levels. These results indicate that AMDTs, at least when measured with the CP910 Freedom speech processor via DAI, explain between-subject variance of speech understanding, but do not explain within-subject variance for different rates and levels.

  4. Detection of peroxyacetyl nitrate at phytotoxic level and its effects on vegetation in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, En-Jang; Huang, Ming-Huei

    Symptoms of toxicity of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), namely bronzing and silvering, were initially discovered on lettuce plants in the Taipei area in 1989. The cause and effect relationship was established by the detection of large ambient concentrations of PAN and by reproduction of the symptoms upon exposure to PAN. In the following years, several other plants including spinach, Solanum nigrum, Nicotiana excelsior, and Galinsoga parvifiora were also found with symptoms of a similar nature. Symptoms were artificially reproduced in these plants on exposure to PAN proving that they were also sensitive to PAN. These PAN-type symptoms were prominently different from those caused by ozone or other general pollutants described in the literature. Based on these symptoms, PAN is believed to occur in all three major urban areas of Taiwan, namely Taipei in the north, Taichung in the center, and Kaohsiung in the south. Hydrocarbons emitted from numerous motorcycles are believed to be the principal precursor of this photochemical pollutant. Ambient measurements of PAN in the Taipei area showed that on calm sunny days, PAN typically exceeded 4-12 ppb, and native Sword-leaf lettuce began to show the symptoms the next morning. From July 1992 to April 1993 there were at least 34 d with PAN at significantly phytotoxic concentrations that affected lettuce and other plants. The concentration of PAN was highly correlated with that of ozone according to the regression equation Y(ozone/ppbv) = 16.9X(PAN/ppbv) + 13.5 in warm seasons, and Y(ozone/ppbv) = 3.OX(PAN/ppbv) + 11.1 in cooler seasons, indicating the co-occurrence but distinct ratios of these pollutants.

  5. A Possible Detection of Solar Gamma-Rays by the Ground Level Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Muraki, Y; Gonzalez, L X; Koga, K; Matsumoto, H; Masuda, S; Matsubara, Y; Nagai, Y; Tanaka, Y; Sakai, T; Sako, T; Shibata, S; Watanabe, K

    2013-01-01

    On March 7, 2011 from 19:48:00 to 20:03:00 UT, the solar neutron telescope located at Mt. Sierra Negra, Mexico (4,600m) observed a 8.8sigma enhancement. In this paper, we would like to try to explain this enhancement by a hypothesis that a few GeV gamma-rays arrived at the top of the mountain produced by the Sun. We postulate that protons were accelerated at the shock front. They precipitate at the solar surface and produced those gamma-rays. If hypothesis is confirmed, this enhancement is the first sample of GeV gamma-rays observed by a ground level detector.

  6. Low-level mixing height detection in coastal locations with a scanning Doppler lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vakkari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixing height is one of the key parameters in describing lower tropospheric dynamics, and capturing the diurnal variability is crucial, especially in interpreting surface observations. In this paper we introduce a method for identifying mixing heights below the vertical minimum range of a scanning Doppler lidar. The method we propose is based on velocity variance in low elevation angle conical scanning, and is applied to measurements in two very different coastal environments: Limassol, Cyprus during summer; and Loviisa, Finland during winter. At both locations, the new method agrees well with mixing heights derived from turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate profiles obtained from vertically-pointing measurements. The low-level scanning routine frequently indicated non-zero mixing heights less than 100 m above the surface. Such low mixing heights were more common at wintertime Loviisa on the Baltic Sea coast than during summertime in Mediterranean Limassol.

  7. A screening method for detection of hexavalent chromium levels in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora V Franco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and low cost method to determine Cr(VI in soils based upon alkaline metal extraction at room temperature is proposed as a semi-quantitative procedure to be performed in the field. A color comparison with standards with contents of Cr(VI in the range of 10 to 150 mg kg-1 was used throughout. For the different types of soils studied, more than 75% of the fortified soluble Cr(VI were recovered for all levels of spike tested for both the proposed and standard methods. Recoveries of 83 and 99% were obtained for the proposed and the standard methods, respectively, taking into account the analysis of a heavily contaminated soil sample.

  8. An Automatic Optic Disk Detection and Segmentation System using Multi-level Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARASULU, B.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optic disk (OD boundary localization is a substantial problem in ophthalmic image processing research area. In order to segment the region of OD, we developed an automatic system which involves a multi-level thresholding. The OD segmentation results of the system in terms of average precision, recall and accuracy for DRIVE database are 98.88%, 99.91%, 98.83%, for STARE database are 98.62%, 97.38%, 96.11%, and for DIARETDB1 database are 99.29%, 99.90%, 99.20%, respectively. The experimental results show that our system works properly on retinal image databases with diseased retinas, diabetic signs, and a large degree of quality variability.

  9. An evaluation of supervised classifiers for indirectly detecting salt-affected areas at irrigation scheme level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Sybrand Jacobus; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    Soil salinity often leads to reduced crop yield and quality and can render soils barren. Irrigated areas are particularly at risk due to intensive cultivation and secondary salinization caused by waterlogging. Regular monitoring of salt accumulation in irrigation schemes is needed to keep its negative effects under control. The dynamic spatial and temporal characteristics of remote sensing can provide a cost-effective solution for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This study evaluated a range of pan-fused SPOT-5 derived features (spectral bands, vegetation indices, image textures and image transformations) for classifying salt-affected areas in two distinctly different irrigation schemes in South Africa, namely Vaalharts and Breede River. The relationship between the input features and electro conductivity measurements were investigated using regression modelling (stepwise linear regression, partial least squares regression, curve fit regression modelling) and supervised classification (maximum likelihood, nearest neighbour, decision tree analysis, support vector machine and random forests). Classification and regression trees and random forest were used to select the most important features for differentiating salt-affected and unaffected areas. The results showed that the regression analyses produced weak models (<0.4 R squared). Better results were achieved using the supervised classifiers, but the algorithms tend to over-estimate salt-affected areas. A key finding was that none of the feature sets or classification algorithms stood out as being superior for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This was attributed to the large variations in the spectral responses of different crops types at different growing stages, coupled with their individual tolerances to saline conditions.

  10. Effect of population size on genetic variation levels in Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae detected by RAPDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Nosrati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population size of plants affects on population genetic variation. Materials and Methods: We studied the impact of population size on genetic variation in populations of Capparis spinosa (caper, Capparaceae using RAPDs in East Azerbaijan (Iran. Within-population genetic diversity was estimated based on Nei`s and Shanonn`s diversity using Popgen, and genetic similarity among the populations was studied from a UPGMA dendrogram based the matrix of Nei’s distances obtained through SHAN. Difference in the level genetic variation between small-sized and large-sized populations was tested using Mann-Whitney U test, and correlation between geographical and genetic distances among populations was examined by Pearson test (SPSS, 11.3. Total genetic variation was partitioned into within and among populations based on AMOVA using Arlequin. Results: The polymorphism levels of RAPDs bands among the populations ranged from 48.8% to 81.4%, and within-population Nei’s diversity varied from 0.1667 to 0.2630. Genetic variation in small-sized populations (0.1667 to 0.1809 was significantly lower than the variations in large-sized populations (0.2158 -0.2630 (N= 7, P0.674, Pearson correlation test. Conclusions: Population size has a dramatic impact on its genetic diversity. The results revealed that fragmentation of caper population in the study region has most likely occurred recently. The low genetic diversity revealed within caper populations indicates high risk of extinction and suggests that urgent conservation action is needed to recover diversity in these populations.

  11. Evaluation of an Improved Branch-Site Likelihood Method for Detecting Positive Selection at the Molecular Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianzhi; Nielsen, Rasmus; Yang, Ziheng

    2005-01-01

    Detecting positive Darwinian selection at the DNA sequence level has been a subject of considerable interest. However, positive selection is difficult to detect because it often operates episodically on a few amino acid sites, and the signal may be masked by negative selection. Several methods have...... of interest, while test 2 had acceptable false-positive rates and appeared robust against violations of model assumptions. As test 2 is a direct test of positive selection on the lineages of interest, it is referred to as the branch-site test of positive selection and is recommended for use in real data...... applied the new tests to reanalyze several real data sets and used computer simulation to examine the performance of the two tests by examining their false-positive rate, power, and robustness. We found that test 1 was unable to distinguish relaxed constraint from positive selection affecting the lineages...

  12. Field testing of component-level model-based fault detection methods for mixing boxes and VAV fan systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip

    2002-05-16

    An automated fault detection and diagnosis tool for HVAC systems is being developed, based on an integrated, life-cycle, approach to commissioning and performance monitoring. The tool uses component-level HVAC equipment models implemented in the SPARK equation-based simulation environment. The models are configured using design information and component manufacturers' data and then fine-tuned to match the actual performance of the equipment by using data measured during functional tests of the sort using in commissioning. This paper presents the results of field tests of mixing box and VAV fan system models in an experimental facility and a commercial office building. The models were found to be capable of representing the performance of correctly operating mixing box and VAV fan systems and detecting several types of incorrect operation.

  13. Detection of stanozolol in the urine of athletes at a pg level: The possibility of passive exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.

    2016-01-01

    Stanozolol is a synthetic heterocyclic steroid with anabolic and androgenic properties, which has been abused by several high-profile professional athletes. Stanozolol is also used in veterinary medicine to increase appetite, cause weight gain and treat certain types of anemia. The detection of stanozolol metabolites in human urine for doping control purposes depends on the analytical method applied. The most commonly applied methods in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited doping control laboratories are gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Recently, a new method has been published and validated that makes the detection of 3′-hydroxystanozolol glucuronide in urine possible in a concentration >50-fold less compared to the above-mentioned commonly used methods. It is common practice to administer breeding animals with steroid hormones in order to enhance their growth. Athletes who consume meat containing such hormone residues may be at risk of failing a sports drug test. A randomized study in the general population consuming meat should be conducted, monitoring the levels of 3′-OH-stanozolol glucoronide in human urine, in order to determine the threshold levels of passive exposure, if any, and therefore guarantee that any adverse analytical findings reported in the urine of athlete at a pg level correspond to stanozolol abuse for enhancing performance. PMID:28105335

  14. Computer-aided stenosis detection at coronary CT angiography: effect on performance of readers with different experience levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thilo, Christian [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Herzzentrum Augsburg-Schwaben, Department of Cardiology, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Gebregziabher, Mulugeta [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G.; Arnoldi, Elisabeth M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Goldenberg, Roman [Rcadia Medical Imaging, Haifa (Israel); Nance, John W.; Soma, Lashonda D.; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Blanke, Philip; Coursey, Richard L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Rosenblum, Michael A.; Zwerner, Peter L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the effect of a computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm for coronary CT angiography (cCTA) on the performance of readers with different experience levels. We studied 50 patients (18 women, 58 ± 11 years) who had undergone cCTA and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Eight observers with varying experience levels evaluated all studies for ≥50 % coronary artery stenosis. After 3 months, the same observers re-evaluated all studies, this time guided by a CAD system. Their performance with and without the CAD system (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value) was assessed using the Likelihood Ratio Χ{sup 2} test both at the per-patient and per-vessel levels. The sensitivity of the CAD system alone for stenosis detection was 71 % per-vessel and 100 % per-patient. There were 54 false positive (FP) findings within 199 analyzed vessels, most of them associated with non-obstructive (<50 %) lesions. With CAD, one (out of three, 33 %) inexperienced reader's per-patient sensitivity and negative predictive value significantly improved from 79 % to 100 % (P = 0.046) and from 90 % to 100 % (P = 0.034), respectively. Other readers' performance indices showed no statistically significant change. Our results suggest that CAD can improve some inexperienced readers' sensitivity for diagnosing coronary artery stenosis at cCTA. (orig.)

  15. The ability of the BANA test to detect different levels of P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre de Andrade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the BANA Test to detect different levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia or their combinations in subgingival samples at the initial diagnosis and after periodontal therapy. Periodontal sites with probing depths between 5-7 mm and clinical attachment level between 5-10 mm, from 53 subjects with chronic periodontitis, were sampled in four periods: initial diagnosis (T0, immediately (T1, 45 (T2 and 60 days (T3 after scaling and root planing. BANA Test and Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization identified red complex species in the subgingival biofilm. In all experimental periods, the highest frequencies of score 2 (Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization for P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia were observed when strong enzymatic activity (BANA was present (p < 0.01. The best agreement was observed at initial diagnosis. The BANA Test sensitivity was 95.54% (T0, 65.18% (T1, 65.22% (T2 and 50.26% (T3. The specificity values were 12.24% (T0, 57.38% (T1, 46.27% (T2 and 53.48% (T3. The BANA Test is more effective for the detection of red complex pathogens when the bacterial levels are high, i.e. in the initial diagnosis of chronic periodontitis.

  16. [Development of highly sensitive assay for detection of low serum level of PIVKA-II and its clinical usefulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizono, K; Oita, T; Kuroda, M; Kasakura, S

    1996-09-01

    PIVKA-II is well known as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma. We describe the adaptations to render a commercially available PIVKA-II immunoassay kit (Eitest MONO P-II: Eisai Co., Ltd, Tokyo) more sensitive and evaluated clinical usefulness of this highly sensitive assay for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. We measured serum PIVKA-II concentrations with the Eitest kit as described for the kit. To measure serum PIVKA-II concentrations below the sensitivity limit of the Eitest kit (0.0625AU/ml), linearity was determined using a series of dilutions of standard antigen diluted in standard diluent, including PIVKA-II concentrations of 0.002, 0.004, 0.008, 0.016, 0.031, 0.0625AU/ml. The assay was found to be liner from 0.004AU/ml. In this way, one can detect as low PIVKA-II concentrations as 0.004AU/ml. The repeatability-assay coefficients of variation (CV%) obtained from sixteen repeated assays of four sera were distributed between 3.63 and 18.75% and the reproducibility-assay coefficients of variation (CV%) obtained from ten repeated assays of four sera were distributed between 6.27 and 14.04%. We determined the serial changes in serum PIVKA-II levels of two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after the resection of hepatic tumor. In these patients, elevation of serum PIVKA-II level determined by the highly sensitive assay preceded the detection of relapse by imaging diagnostic procedures. In summary, the assay system we developed has good accuracy and reproducibility for assaying low concentrations of PIVKA-II in serum and is suitable for detecting small increases in PIVKA-II concentrations. This assay system may be useful to earlier detect a relapse of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Comparison of Methodologies to Detect Low Levels of Hemolysis in Serum for Accurate Assessment of Serum microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jaynish S; Soon, Patsy S; Marsh, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs have emerged as powerful regulators of many biological processes, and their expression in many cancer tissues has been shown to correlate with clinical parameters such as cancer type and prognosis. Present in a variety of biological fluids, microRNAs have been described as a 'gold mine' of potential noninvasive biomarkers. Release of microRNA content of blood cells upon hemolysis dramatically alters the microRNA profile in blood, potentially affecting levels of a significant number of proposed biomarker microRNAs and, consequently, accuracy of serum or plasma-based tests. Several methods to detect low levels of hemolysis have been proposed; however, a direct comparison assessing their sensitivities is currently lacking. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivities of four methods to detect hemolysis in serum (listed in the order of sensitivity): measurement of hemoglobin using a Coulter® AcT diff™ Analyzer, visual inspection, the absorbance of hemoglobin measured by spectrophotometry at 414 nm and the ratio of red blood cell-enriched miR-451a to the reference microRNA miR-23a-3p. The miR ratio detected hemolysis down to approximately 0.001%, whereas the Coulter® AcT diff™ Analyzer was unable to detect hemolysis lower than 1%. The spectrophotometric method could detect down to 0.004% hemolysis, and correlated with the miR ratio. Analysis of hemolysis in a cohort of 86 serum samples from cancer patients and healthy controls showed that 31 of 86 (36%) were predicted by the miR ratio to be hemolyzed, whereas only 8 of these samples (9%) showed visible pink discoloration. Using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, we identified absorbance cutoffs of 0.072 and 0.3 that could identify samples with low and high levels of hemolysis, respectively. Overall, this study will assist researchers in the selection of appropriate methodologies to test for hemolysis in serum samples prior to quantifying expression of microRNAs.

  18. DETECTING LOW-LEVEL SYNTHESIS IMPURITIES IN MODIFIED PHOSPHOROTHIOATE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikcevic, Irena; Wyrzykiewicz, Tadeusz K; Limbach, Patrick A

    2011-07-01

    An LC-MS method based on the use of high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTIRCMS) for profiling oligonucleotides synthesis impurities is described.Oligonucleotide phosphorothioatediesters (phosphorothioate oligonucleotides), in which one of the non-bridging oxygen atoms at each phosphorus center is replaced by a sulfur atom, are now one of the most popular oligonucleotide modifications due to their ease of chemical synthesis and advantageous pharmacokinetic properties. Despite significant progress in the solid-phase oligomerization chemistry used in the manufacturing of these oligonucleotides, multiple classes of low-level impurities always accompany synthetic oligonucleotides. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful technique for the identification of these synthesis impurities. However, impurity profiling, where the entire complement of low-level synthetic impurities is identified in a single analysis, is more challenging. Here we present an LC-MS method based the use of high resolution-mass spectrometry, specifically Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTIRCMS or FTMS). The optimal LC-FTMS conditions, including the stationary phase and mobile phases for the separation and identification of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides, were found. The characteristics of FTMS enable charge state determination from single m/z values of low-level impurities. Charge state information then enables more accurate modeling of the detected isotopic distribution for identification of the chemical composition of the detected impurity. Using this approach, a number of phosphorothioate impurities can be detected by LC-FTMS including failure sequences carrying 3'-terminal phosphate monoester and 3'-terminal phosphorothioate monoester, incomplete backbone sulfurization and desulfurization products, high molecular weight impurities, and chloral, isobutyryl, and N(3) (2-cyanoethyl) adducts of the full

  19. Six-wave mixing phase-dispersion by optical heterodyne detection in dressed reverse N-type four-level system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Chen-Li; Nie Zhi-Qiang; Li Ling; Shen Lei-Jian; Zhang Yan-Peng; Song Jian-Ping; Li Yuan-Yuan; Zhang Xiang-Chen; Lu Ke-Qing

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the dressed effects of non-degenerate four-wave mixing (NDFWM) and demonstrated a phase-sensitive method of studying the fifth-order nonlinear susceptibility due to atomic coherence in RN-type four-level system. In the presence of a strong coupling field, NDFWM spectrum exhibits Autler-Townes splitting, accompanied by either suppression or enhancement of the NDFWM signal, which is directly related to the competition between the absorption and dispersion contributions. The heterodyne-detected nonlinear absorption and dispersion of six-wave mixing signal in the RN-type system show that the hybrid radiation-matter detuning damping oscillation is in the THz range and can be controlled and modified through the colour-locked correlation of twin noisy fields.

  20. Detecting the effects of selection at the population level in six bovine immune genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Caitriona

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The capacity of a species or population to respond to and survive novel infectious disease challenge is one of the most significant selective forces shaping genetic diversity and the period following animal domestication was likely one of the most important in terms of newly emerging diseases. Inter-specific genome-wide comparison has suggested that genes, including cluster of differentiation 2 (CD2, ADP-ribosyltransferase 4 (ART4, tyrosine kinase binding protein (TYROBP and interleukins IL2, IL5, IL13, may have undergone positive selection during the evolution of the bovine lineage. Past adaptive change implies that more recent variation may have also been subject to selective forces. Results In this paper, we re-sequence each of these genes in cattle cohorts from Europe, Africa and Asia to investigate patterns of polymorphism at the population level. Patterns of diversity are higher within Bos indicus suggesting different demographic history to that of Bos taurus. Significant coding polymorphism was observed within each of the cell-surface receptors. In particular, CD2 shows two divergent haplotypes defined by a series of six derived nonsynonymous substitutions that are significantly clustered on the extracellular surface of the protein and give significant values for Fay and Wu's H, strongly suggesting a recent adaptive history. In contrast, the signaling molecules (especially IL13 display outlying allele frequency spectra which are consistent with the effects of selection, but display negligible coding polymorphism. Conclusion We present evidence suggestive of recent adaptive history in bovine immune genes; implying some correspondence between intra- and inter-specific signals of selection. Interestingly, three signaling molecules have negligible nonsynonymous variation but show outlying test statistics in contrast to three receptors, where it is protein sequence diversity that suggests selective history.

  1. Hermitian hat wavelet design for singularity detection in the Paraguay river-level data analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.; Sa, Leonardo D.; Li, Weigang

    1997-04-01

    The direct differentiation of a noisy signal ds/dt is known to be inaccurate. Differentiation can be improved by employing the Dirac (delta) -function introduced into a convolution product denoted by (direct product) and then integrated by parts: ds/dt equals ds/dt (direct product) (delta) equals - s (direct product) d(delta) /dt. The Schwartz Gaussian representation of the delta function is then explicitly used in the differentiation. It turns out that such a convolution approach to the first and the second derivatives produces a pair of mother wavelets the combination of which is the complex generalization of the Mexican hat called a Hermitian hat wavelet. It is shown that the Hermitian filter is a single oscillation wavelet having much lower frequency bandwidth than the Mortlet or Gabor wavelet. As a result of Nyquist theorem, a fewer number of grid points would be needed for the discrete convolution operation. Therefore, the singularity characteristic will not be overly smeared and the noise can be smoothed away. The phase plot of the Hermitian wavelet transform in terms of the time scale and frequency domains reveal a bifurcation discontinuity of a noisy cusp singularity at the precise location of the singularity as well as the scale nature of the underlying dynamics. This phase plot is defined as (theta) (t/a) equals tan-1 [(ds/dt)/(-d2s/dt2] equals tan-1 [((d(delta) (t/a)dt) (direct product) s)/((d2(delta) (t/a)/dt2) (direct product) s)] applied to a real world data of the Paraguay river levels.

  2. Comparison of level discrimination, increment detection, and comodulation masking release in the audio- and envelope-frequency domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Ewert, Stephan; Carney, Laurel H.;

    2007-01-01

    -frequency domain. Pure-tone carrier amplitude-modulation (AM) depth-discrimination thresholds were found to be similar using both traditional gated stimuli and using a temporally modulated fringe for a fixed standard depth (ms=0.25) and a range of AM frequencies (4-64 Hz). In a second experiment, masked sinusoidal......In general, the temporal structure of stimuli must be considered to account for certain observations made in detection and masking experiments in the audio-frequency domain. Two such phenomena are (1) a heightened sensitivity to amplitude increments with a temporal fringe compared to gated level...

  3. Fifth-order phase-sensitive detection of ultrafast polarization beats in cascade four-level system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Zhi-Qiang; Song Jian-Ping; Lu Ke-Qing; Li Pei-Zhe; Yu Xiao-Jun; Zhang Yan-Peng; Jiang Tong; Li Ling; Gan Chen-Li; Zuo Cui-Cui; Zhang Peng-Fei

    2008-01-01

    We study the colour-locked twin-noisy-field correlation effects in the fifth-order nonlinear susceptibility of ultrafast polarization beats in a cascade four-level system. More importantly, the fifth-order phase-sensitive heterodyne detection of ultrafast polarization beats has been exploited. The fifth-order nonlinear optical response can be controlled and modified through the colour-locked correlation of twin noisy fields.Thus, this method with the phase dispersion information is a good way to measure the real and imaginary parts of the fifth-order nonlinear susceptibility.

  4. Detection of Helicobacter pylori carriers by discriminant analysis of urea and pH levels in gastric juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameglio, F; Abbolito, M R; Giannarelli, D; Citarda, F; Grassi, A; Gandolfo, G M; Casale, V

    1991-08-01

    An alternative approach to the problems inherent in current methods for detecting Helicobacter pylori carriers--that of being generally time-consuming, expensive, and not sufficiently sensitive--was devised by using the urea concentration and pH levels of gastric juices. A linear discriminant analysis of these variables, measured in 54 patients submitted to digestive endoscopy for gastritis, provided a mathematical formula for assigning the subjects (previously classified by other standard methods) to groups of either positive or negative H pylori carriers. The results obtained showed a correct classification in 52 out of 54 cases with only one false negative and one false positive case.

  5. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  6. Preliminary Results on Simulations of Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) detected by The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez Rivera, O.; Lara, A.

    2014-12-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is currently under construction at the Sierra Negra Volcano, Puebla in Mexico. Located 4100 m above sea level, this large array is mainly designed to observe high energy gamma rays (TeV). However, by recording scaler data that correspond to the rates of individual photomultiplier tubes, the detection and study of solar energetic particles (known as Ground Level Enhancements) as well as the decrease of the cosmic ray flux due to solar transients (known as Forbush decreases) will also be possible. In order to determine the response of the array to solar transients, we have performed simulations of the scaler output using different sub-array configurations. We present here our preliminary results of such simulations and their comparison with observed Forbush decreases.

  7. Detection of femtomolar level osteosarcoma-related gene via a chronocoulometric DNA biosensor based on nanostructure gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guangxian; Liu, Ailin; Xu, Xiongwei; Sun, Zhouliang; Chen, Jinyuan; Wang, Kun; Liu, Qicai; Lin, Xinhua; Lin, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a sensitive chronocoulometric deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biosensor based on a nanostructure gold electrode was fabricated for detection of the femtomolar level survivin gene which was correlated with osteosarcoma by using hexaamine-ruthenium III complexes, [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+), as the electrochemical indicator. The effect of different frequencies on the real surface area of the nanostructure gold electrode obtained by repetitive square-wave oxidation reduction cycle was investigated. At the optimal frequency of 8000 Hz, the real surface of the developed nanostructure gold electrode was about 42.5 times compared with that of the bare planar gold electrode. The capture probe DNA was immobilized on the nanostructure gold electrode and hybridized with target DNA. Electrochemical signals of hexaamine-ruthenium III bound to the anionic phosphate of DNA strands via electrostatic interactions were measured by chronocoulometry before and after hybridization. The increase of the charges of hexaamine-ruthenium III was observed upon hybridization of the probe with target DNA. Results indicate that this DNA biosensor could detect the femtomole (fM) concentration of the DNA target quantitatively in the range of 50 fM to 250 fM; the detection limit of this DNA biosensor was 5.6 fM (signal to noise = 3). This new biosensor exhibits excellent sensitivity and selectivity and has been used for an assay of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a satisfactory result.

  8. Newly designed silver coated-magnetic, monodisperse polymeric microbeads as SERS substrate for low-level detection of amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibar, Güneş; Topal, Ahmet Emin; Dana, Aykutlu; Tuncel, Ali

    2016-09-01

    We report the preparation of silver-coated magnetic polymethacrylate core-shell nanoparticles for use in surface-enhanced Raman scattering based drug detection. Monodisperse porous poly (mono-2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl succinate-co-glycerol dimethacrylate), poly (MMES-co-GDMA) microbeads of ca. 5 μm diameter were first synthesized through a multistage microsuspension polymerization technique to serve as a carboxyl-bearing core region. Microspheres were subsequently magnetized by the co-precipitation of ferric ions, aminated through the surface hydroxyl groups and decorated with Au nanoparticles via electrostatic attraction. An Ag shell was then formed on top of the Au layer through a seed-mediated growth process, resulting in micron-sized monodisperse microbeads that exhibit Raman enhancement effects due to the roughness of the Ag surface layer. The core-shell microspheres were used as a new substrate for the detection of amoxicillin at trace concentrations up to 10-8 M by SERS. The proposed SERS platform can be evaluated as a useful tool for the follow-up amoxicillin pollution and low-level detection of amoxicillin in aqueous media.

  9. A unified methodology based on sparse field level sets and boosting algorithms for false positives reduction in lung nodules detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saien, Soudeh; Moghaddam, Hamid Abrishami; Fathian, Mohsen

    2017-08-09

    This work aims to develop a unified methodology for the false positives reduction in lung nodules computer-aided detection schemes. The 3D region of each detected nodule candidate is first reconstructed using the sparse field method for accurately segmenting the objects. This technique enhances the level set modeling by restricting the computations to a narrow band near the evolving curve. Then, a set of 2D and 3D relevant features are extracted for each segmented candidate. Subsequently, a hybrid undersampling/boosting algorithm called RUSBoost is applied to analyze the features and discriminate real nodules from non-nodules. The performance of the proposed scheme was evaluated by using 70 CT images, randomly selected from the Lung Image Database Consortium and containing 198 nodules. Applying RUSBoost classifier exhibited a better performance than some commonly used classifiers. It effectively reduced the average number of FPs to only 3.9 per scan based on a fivefold cross-validation. The practical implementation, applicability for different nodule types and adaptability in handling the imbalanced data classification insure the improvement in lung nodules detection by utilizing this new approach.

  10. Application of Factorial Designs and Simplex Optimisation in the Development of Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Procedures as Demonstrated for the Determination of Trace Levels of Germanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilligsøe, Bo; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1997-01-01

    The optimisation of a volume-based FI-HG-GFAAS procedure is described for the trace determination of Ge, comprising in situ collection of the generated germane in the graphite furnace. The response function is the peak area readout (A*s). Based on a preliminary study, where factorial designs were...... at a sampling frequency of 22 h-1. The sensitivity, in terms of the characteristic mass, m0, was 26 pg/0.0044 A*s, with a detection limit of 0.21 mu-g/L (3 sigma). The precision (relative standard deviation) was 2.0% (n=10) at the 1 mu-g/L level....

  11. Estimated pressure source and vertical deformation in Tatun volcano group, Taiwan, detected by precise leveling in June 2006-August 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, M.; Ishikawa, K.; Lin, C.; Lin, J.; Pu, H.; Kimata, F.; Miyajima, R.; Nakamichi, H.; Suzuki, A.

    2007-12-01

    Tatun volcano group including more than 20 volcanoes is located in the 15 km northeastward from Taipei, Taiwan. Although Chihsing-shan, the highest peak of the Tatun volcano group, has no record of volcano eruption in history, it has a hydrothermal activity characterized by some strenuous fumarolic activities and hot springs. Seismological network installed in 2003 detects a micro-seismic activity such as the volcano-tectonic earthquakes, tremors, monochromatic events and long-period earthquakes in and around Chihsing-shan (Lin et al., 2005; Konstantinou et al., 2007). Since those volcano-seismic swarm occur just around some fumaroles, it strongly suggests that the micro- seismic activity and the hydrothermal activity are closely related. It is generally accepted that the swarm activity around volcano is often accompanied by vertical deformation (Hill et al.,2003; Oris et al.,1999; Kimata et al., 2004). The relationship between the micro-seismic activity and hydrothermal activity is an important consideration and can be investigated by using precise leveling data. In this study, therefore, we established 10km leveling route from south part to north part of the Chihsing-shan volcano to detect the vertical deformation and the leveling surveys were conducted in June 2006, March 2007 and August 2007. We detected the deformation with the maximum subsidence of 5 mm in the east part of the Chihsing-shan volcano for 9 months from June 2006 to March 2007. The result of the observation between March-August 2007 is similar to the preceding observation and the total subsidence of 10mm was detected for 14 months from June 2006 to August 2007. It suggested same mechanism is continued throughout the year and it also shows the high accuracy of our observation. Since seismic activity was low in the period of our precise leveling, we believe that volcanic fluid was not supplied to the shallow portion around the volcano in this period. The distribution of the leveling route is not

  12. The relationship between particulate pollution levels in Australian cities, meteorology, and landscape fire activity detected from MODIS hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F; Williamson, Grant J; Henderson, Sarah B; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M J S

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as "hotspots"), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data.

  13. STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONING OF SEA LEVEL GAUGES TO AID IN EARLY DETECTION OF TSUNAMIS IN THE INTRA-AMERICAS SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua I. Henson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of past Caribbean tsunamis generated by earthquakes and/or massive submarine slides/slumps, as well as the tsunamigenic potential and population distribution within the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS is examined to help define the optimal location for coastal sea level gauges intended to serve as elements of a regional tsunami warning system. The goal of this study is to identify the minimum number of sea level gauge locations to aid in tsunami detection and provide the most warning time to the largest number of people. We identified 12 initial, prioritized locations for coastal sea level gauge installation. Our study area approximately encompasses 7oN, 59oW to 36oN, 98oW. The results of this systematic approach to assess priority locations for coastal sea level gauges will assist in developing a tsunami warning system (TWS for the IAS by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA and the Regional Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE-GOOS.

  14. Highly specific fiber optic immunosensor coupled with immunomagnetic separation for detection of low levels of Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Marcelo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunomagnetic separation (IMS and immunoassays are widely used for pathogen detection. However, novel technology platforms with highly selective antibodies are essential to improve detection sensitivity, specificity and performance. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against Internalin A (InlA and p30 were generated and used on paramagnetic beads of varying diameters for concentration, as well as on fiber-optic sensor for detection. Results Anti-InlA MAb-2D12 (IgG2a subclass was specific for Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, and p30-specific MAb-3F8 (IgM was specific for the genus Listeria. At all bacterial concentrations (103–108 CFU/mL tested in the IMS assay; the 1-μm diameter MyOne beads had significantly higher capture efficiency (P 5 CFU/mL was significantly higher (P Listeria antibody (9 %. Furthermore, capture efficiency for MyOne-2D12 was highly specific for L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii. Subsequently, we captured L. monocytogenes by MyOne-2D12 and MyOne-3F8 from hotdogs inoculated with mono- or co-cultures of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua (10–40 CFU/g, enriched for 18 h and detected by fiber-optic sensor and confirmed by plating, light-scattering, and qPCR assays. The detection limit for L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii by the fiber-optic immunosensor was 3 × 102 CFU/mL using MAb-2D12 as capture and reporter antibody. Selective media plating, light-scattering, and qPCR assays confirmed the IMS and fiber-optic results. Conclusions IMS coupled with a fiber-optic sensor using anti-InlA MAb is highly specific for L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii and enabled detection of these pathogens at low levels from buffer or food.

  15. Deterioration of R-Wave Detection in Pathology and Noise: A Comprehensive Analysis Using Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Jonas, Stephan M; Deserno, Thomas M

    2017-09-01

    For long-term electrocardiography (ECG) recordings, accurate R-wave detection is essential. Several algorithms have been proposed but not yet compared on large, noisy, or pathological data, since manual ground-truth establishment is impossible on such large data. We apply the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) method to ECG signals comparing nine R-wave detectors: Pan and Tompkins (1985), Chernenko (2007), Arzeno et al. (2008), Manikandan et al. (2012), Lentini et al. (2013), Sartor et al. (2014), Liu et al. (2014), Arteaga-Falconi et al. (2015), and Khamis et al. (2016). Experiments are performed on the MIT-BIH database, TELE database, PTB database, and 24/7 Holter recordings of 60 multimorbid subjects. Existing approaches on R-wave detection perform excellently on healthy subjects (F-measure above 99% for most methods), but performance drops to a range of F = 90.10% (Khamis et al.) to F = 30.10% (Chernenko) when analyzing the 37 million R-waves of multimorbid subjects. STAPLE improves existing approaches (ΔF = 0.04 for the MIT-BIH database and ΔF = 0.95 for the TELE database) and yields a relative (not absolute) scale to compare algorithms' performances. More robust R-wave detection methods or flexible combinations are required to analyze continuous data captured from pathological subjects or that is recorded with dropouts and noise. STAPLE algorithm has been adopted from image to signal analysis to compare algorithms on large, incomplete, and noisy data without manual ground truth. Existing approaches on R-wave detection weakly perform on such data.

  16. Multiple kernel based feature and decision level fusion of iECO individuals for explosive hazard detection in FLIR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stanton R.; Murray, Bryce; Hu, Lequn; Anderson, Derek T.; Havens, Timothy C.; Luke, Robert H.; Keller, James M.

    2016-05-01

    A serious threat to civilians and soldiers is buried and above ground explosive hazards. The automatic detection of such threats is highly desired. Many methods exist for explosive hazard detection, e.g., hand-held based sensors, downward and forward looking vehicle mounted platforms, etc. In addition, multiple sensors are used to tackle this extreme problem, such as radar and infrared (IR) imagery. In this article, we explore the utility of feature and decision level fusion of learned features for forward looking explosive hazard detection in IR imagery. Specifically, we investigate different ways to fuse learned iECO features pre and post multiple kernel (MK) support vector machine (SVM) based classification. Three MK strategies are explored; fixed rule, heuristics and optimization-based. Performance is assessed in the context of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves on data from a U.S. Army test site that contains multiple target and clutter types, burial depths and times of day. Specifically, the results reveal two interesting things. First, the different MK strategies appear to indicate that the different iECO individuals are all more-or-less important and there is not a dominant feature. This is reinforcing as our hypothesis was that iECO provides different ways to approach target detection. Last, we observe that while optimization-based MK is mathematically appealing, i.e., it connects the learning of the fusion to the underlying classification problem we are trying to solve, it appears to be highly susceptible to over fitting and simpler, e.g., fixed rule and heuristics approaches help us realize more generalizable iECO solutions.

  17. Detection of sub micro Gray dose levels using OSL phosphor LiMgPO{sub 4}:Tb,B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawat, N.S., E-mail: naru@barc.gov.in [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Dhabekar, Bhushan [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Muthe, K.P. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Koul, D.K.; Datta, D. [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • LiMgPO4:Tb,B has been studied and shown to possesses minimum measurable dose (MMD) in sub micro Gray region. • MMD as low as 0.49 µGy in readout time of less than 1 s at stimulation intensity of 32 mW/cm{sup 2} has been achieved. • The OSL measurements for low doses has strengthened and validated this claim. • OSL spectrum shows several emission peaks and the prominent peak around 380 nm. - Abstract: Detection of sub micro Gray doses finds application in personnel and environmental monitoring, and nuclear forensics. Recently developed LiMgPO{sub 4}:Tb,B (LMP) is highly sensitive Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) phosphor with excellent dosimetric properties. The OSL emission spectrum of LMP consists of several peaks attributed to characteristic Tb{sup 3+} emission. The OSL emission peak at 380 nm is favorable for bi-alkali PMT used in RISO reader system. It is demonstrated that significant improvement in dose detection threshold can be realized for LMP by optimization of continuous wave (CW–) OSL parameters like stimulation intensity and readout time. The minimum measurable dose (MMD) as low as 0.49 µGy in readout time of less than 1 s at stimulation intensity of 32 mW/cm{sup 2} has been achieved using this phosphor. The recommendations for choice of parameters for personnel and environmental monitoring are also discussed.

  18. A computational method for the detection of activation/deactivation patterns in biological signals with three levels of electric intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J A; Macías-Díaz, J E

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, we develop a computational technique to approximate the changes of phase in temporal series associated to electric signals of muscles which perform activities at three different levels of intensity. We suppose that the temporal series are samples of independent, normally distributed random variables with mean equal to zero, and variance equal to one of three possible values, each of them associated to a certain degree of electric intensity. For example, these intensity levels may represent a leg muscle at rest, or active during a light activity (walking), or active during a highly demanding performance (jogging). The model is presented as a maximum likelihood problem involving discrete variables. In turn, this problem is transformed into a continuous one via the introduction of continuous variables with penalization parameters, and it is solved recursively through an iterative numerical method. An a posteriori treatment of the results is used in order to avoid the detection of relatively short periods of silence or activity. We perform simulations with synthetic data in order to assess the validity of our technique. Our computational results show that the method approximates well the occurrence of the change points in synthetic temporal series, even in the presence of autocorrelated sequences. In the way, we show that a generalization of a computational technique for the change-point detection of electric signals with two phases of activity (Esquivel-Frausto et al., 2010 [40]), may be inapplicable in cases of temporal series with three levels of intensity. In this sense, the method proposed in the present manuscript improves previous efforts of the authors.

  19. Bovine immunoglobulin G does not have an inhibitory effect on diagnostic polymerase chain reaction utilizing magnetic bead extraction methods as demonstrated on the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Crossley, Beate M

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate if the presence of colostral-derived immunoglobulin G (IgG) in blood is an inhibitor of diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Eleven precolostral and 11 postcolostral blood samples in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant as well as serum samples were collected from 11 Holstein bull calves. Calves were fed 3 liters of colostrum once, by oroesophageal tubing. Postcolostral, blood, and serum samples were collected at 48 hr of age. Serum IgG concentrations were determined in the precolostral and postcolostral serum samples using radial immunodiffusion. The blood samples (precolostral and postcolostral) were spiked with BVDV, and 2 diagnostic PCR extraction methods were applied to each sample. The extraction and amplification efficiencies of the 2 PCR methods on the precolostral and postcolostral EDTA blood samples were evaluated. Two of the 11 calves had inadequate passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins at 48 hr of age based on the serum IgG concentrations. All blood samples from calves were negative for BVDV prior to the spiking with the virus. Evaluation of the 2 different methods among 3 different virus concentrations demonstrated that there was no difference in extraction or amplification efficiency in precolostral and postcolostral samples. The results of this study suggest that bovine IgG is not an inhibitor of PCR used for detection of BVDV in cattle. The methods used in the current study are acceptable for PCR detection of BVDV in cattle.

  20. Hair Mercury Levels Detection in Fishermen from Sicily (Italy) by ICP-MS Method after Microwave-Assisted Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Macaluso, Andrea; Vella, Antonio; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Graci, Stefania; Lo Dico, Gianluigi Maria; Galvano, Fabio; Giangrosso, Margherita; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of ninety-six hair samples from Sicilian fishermen were examined for total mercury detection by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The mercury levels obtained were compared with mercury levels of 96 hair samples from a control group, in order to assess potential exposure to heavy metals of Sicilian fishermen due to fish consumption and closeness to industrial activities. Furthermore, the mercury levels obtained from hair samples were sorted by sampling area in order to verify the possible risks linked to the different locations. The overall mean concentration in the hair of the population of fishermen was 6.45 ± 7.03 μg g−1, with a highest value in a fisherman of Sciacca (16.48 μg g−1). Hair mercury concentration in fishermen group was significantly higher than in control group (p 0.05). The results of this study indicate a greater risk of exposure to mercury in Sicilian fishermen, in comparison to the control population, due to the high consumption of fish and the close relationship with sources of exposure (ports, dumps, etc.). PMID:27127456

  1. SECURES: Austin, Texas demonstration results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Glynn; Shaw, Scott; Scharf, Peter; Stellingworth, Bob

    2003-09-01

    The Law Enforcement technology development community has a growing interest in the technologies associated with gunshot detection and localization. These interests revolve around community-oriented policing. Technologies of interest include those associated with muzzle blast and bullet shockwave detection and the inter-netting of these acoustic sensors with electro-optic sensors. To date, no one sensor technology has proven totally effective for a complete solution. PSI has a muzzle blast detection and localization product which is wireless, highly mobile and reconfigurable, with a user-friendly laptop processor and display unit, which completed a one-year demonstration in Austin, Texas on July 6, 2002. This demonstration was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Institute of Justice and in cooperation with the Austin Police Department. This paper will discuss the details of the demonstrations, provide a summarized evaluation, elucidate the lessons learned, make recommendations for future deployments and discuss the developmental directions indicated for the future.

  2. Stretchable Complementary Split Ring Resonator (CSRR-Based Radio Frequency (RF Sensor for Strain Direction and Level Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyun Eom

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a stretchable radio frequency (RF sensor to detect strain direction and level. The stretchable sensor is composed of two complementary split ring resonators (CSRR with microfluidic channels. In order to achieve stretchability, liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium, EGaIn and Ecoflex substrate are used. Microfluidic channels are built by Ecoflex elastomer and microfluidic channel frames. A three-dimensional (3D printer is used for fabrication of microfluidic channel frames. Two CSRR resonators are designed to resonate 2.03 GHz and 3.68 GHz. When the proposed sensor is stretched from 0 to 8 mm along the +x direction, the resonant frequency is shifted from 3.68 GHz to 3.13 GHz. When the proposed sensor is stretched from 0 to 8 mm along the −x direction, the resonant frequency is shifted from 2.03 GHz to 1.78 GHz. Therefore, we can detect stretched length and direction from independent variation of two resonant frequencies.

  3. Method for selective detection of explosives in mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at parts-per-quadrillion level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Clowers, Brian H.

    2015-09-01

    A method for selective detection of volatile and non-volatile explosives in a mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at a parts-per-quadrillion level without preconcentration is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of ionizing a carrier gas with an ionization source to form reactant ions or reactant adduct ions comprising nitrate ions (NO.sub.3.sup.-); selectively reacting the reactant ions or reactant adduct ions with at least one volatile or non-volatile explosive analyte at a carrier gas pressure of at least about 100 Ton in a reaction region disposed between the ionization source and an ion detector, the reaction region having a length which provides a residence time (tr) for reactant ions therein of at least about 0.10 seconds, wherein the selective reaction yields product ions comprising reactant ions or reactant adduct ions that are selectively bound to the at least one explosive analyte when present therein; and detecting product ions with the ion detector to determine presence or absence of the at least one explosive analyte.

  4. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Heidegger

    Full Text Available To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa early detection program.The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178, 50-59 years (n = 597, 60-69 years (n = 962 and ≥70 years (n = 488. We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values.PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%. We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5% when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the "new" cut-off values instead of the "old" ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years and 17.4 (50-59 years.With "new", fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the "old" cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program.

  5. Raman spectroscopy for clinical-level detection of heparin in serum by partial least-squares analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfared, Ali Momenpour T.; Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Tripathi, Markandey M.; Anis, Hanan

    2013-02-01

    Heparin is the most widely used anti-coagulant for the prevention of blood clots in patients undergoing certain types of surgeries including open heart surgeries and dialysis. The precise monitoring of heparin amount in patients' blood is crucial for reducing the morbidity and mortality in surgical environments. Based upon these considerations, we have used Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with partial least squares (PLS) analysis to measure heparin concentration at clinical level which is less than 10 United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in serum. The PLS calibration model was constructed from the Raman spectra of different concentrations of heparin in serum. It showed a high coefficient of determination (R2>0.91) between the spectral data and heparin level in serum along with a low root mean square error of prediction ˜4 USP/ml. It enabled the detection of extremely low concentrations of heparin in serum (˜8 USP/ml) as desirable in clinical environment. The proposed optical method has the potential of being implemented as the point-of-care testing procedure during surgeries, where the interest is to rapidly monitor low concentrations of heparin in patient's blood.

  6. MegaSNPHunter: a learning approach to detect disease predisposition SNPs and high level interactions in genome wide association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Hong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are highly hypothesized to affect an individual's susceptibility to complex diseases. Although many works have been done to identify and quantify the importance of multi-SNP interactions, few of them could handle the genome wide data due to the combinatorial explosive search space and the difficulty to statistically evaluate the high-order interactions given limited samples. Results Three comparative experiments are designed to evaluate the performance of MegaSNPHunter. The first experiment uses synthetic data generated on the basis of epistasis models. The second one uses a genome wide study on Parkinson disease (data acquired by using Illumina HumanHap300 SNP chips. The third one chooses the rheumatoid arthritis study from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC using Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set. MegaSNPHunter outperforms the best solution in this area and reports many potential interactions for the two real studies. Conclusion The experimental results on both synthetic data and two real data sets demonstrate that our proposed approach outperforms the best solution that is currently available in handling large-scale SNP data both in terms of speed and in terms of detection of potential interactions that were not identified before. To our knowledge, MegaSNPHunter is the first approach that is capable of identifying the disease-associated SNP interactions from WTCCC studies and is promising for practical disease prognosis.

  7. Detection of Low Level Microwave Radiation Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Vis-à-vis Genotoxicity in Brain of Fischer Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao; Megha, Kanu; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Ahmed, Rafat Sultana; Chandna, Sudhir; Abegaonkar, Mahesh Pandurang; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-ionizing radiofrequency radiation has been increasingly used in industry, commerce, medicine and especially in mobile phone technology and has become a matter of serious concern in present time. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the possible deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damaging effects of low-level microwave radiation in brain of Fischer rats. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on male Fischer rats exposed to microwave radiation for 30 days at three different frequencies: 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz. Animals were divided into 4 groups: Group I (Sham exposed): Animals not exposed to microwave radiation but kept under same conditions as that of other groups, Group II: Animals exposed to microwave radiation at frequency 900 MHz at specific absorption rate (SAR) 5.953 × 10−4 W/kg, Group III: Animals exposed to 1800 MHz at SAR 5.835 × 10−4 W/kg and Group IV: Animals exposed to 2450 MHz at SAR 6.672 × 10−4 W/kg. At the end of the exposure period animals were sacrificed immediately and DNA damage in brain tissue was assessed using alkaline comet assay. Results: In the present study, we demonstrated DNA damaging effects of low level microwave radiation in brain. Conclusion: We concluded that low SAR microwave radiation exposure at these frequencies may induce DNA strand breaks in brain tissue. PMID:23833433

  8. Coupled sensor/platform control design for low-level chemical detection with position-adaptive micro-UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Carr, Ryan; Mitra, Atindra K.; Selmic, Rastko R.

    2009-05-01

    Commercialization of Advanced Sensor Technologies), and autonomous positionadaptive chem/bio tests and demos in the MAV Lab at AFRL Air Vehicles Directorate. For this particular MAV implementation of chem/bio sensors, we selected miniature Methane, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide sensors. To safely simulate the behavior of chem/bio substances in our laboratory environment, we used either cigarette smoke or incense. We present a set of concise parametric results along with visual demonstration of our new position-adaptive sensor capability. Two types of experiments were conducted: with sensor nodes screening the chemical contaminant (cigarette smoke or incense) without MAVs, and with a sensor node integrated with the MAV. It was shown that the MOS-based chemical sensors could be used for chemical leakage detection, as well as for position-adaptive sensors on air/ground vehicles as sniffers for chemical contaminants.

  9. Water-level variations and their effects on tree growth and mortality and on the biogeochemical system at the phytoremediation demonstration site in Fort Worth, Texas, 1996-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Eberts, Sandra M.; Jones, Sonya A.; Harvey, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, a field-scale phytoremediation demonstration project was initiated and managed by the U.S. Air Force at a site in western Fort Worth, Texas, using a plantation of 1-year-old stems harvested from branches of eastern cottonwoods during the dormant season (whips) and a plantation of 1-year-old eastern cottonwood seedlings (calipers). The primary objective of the demonstration project was to determine the effectiveness of eastern cottonwoods at reducing the mass of dissolved trichloroethene transported within an alluvial aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to determine water-level variations and their effects on tree growth and mortality and on the biogeochemical system at the phytoremediation site. As part of the study, water-level and water-quality data were collected throughout the duration of the project. This report presents water-level variations at periodic sampling events; data from August 1996 to January 2003 are presented in this report. Water levels are affected by aquifer properties, precipitation, drawdown attributable to the trees in the study area, and irrigation. This report also evaluates the effects of ground-water depth on tree growth and mortality rates and on the biogeochemical system including subsurface oxidation-reduction processes. Overall, both whips and calipers showed a substantial increase in height, canopy diameter, and trunk diameter over the first 3 years of the study. By the fifth growing season (September 2000), the height of the calipers varied predictably with height decreasing with increasing depth to ground water. Percent mortality was relatively constant at about 25 percent in the whip plantation in January 2003 where ground-water levels were less than 10 feet below land surface during the drought in September 2000. The mortality rate increased where the ground-water levels were greater than 10 feet below land surface and approached 90 percent where ground

  10. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Testing Strategies that Use Antibody Levels to Detect Chronic Hepatitis C in Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-García, Víctor; Contreras, Ana M; García-Peña, Carmen; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Thein, Hla-Hla; Flores, Yvonne N

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of seven hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing strategies in blood donors. Three of the seven strategies were based on HCV diagnosis and reporting guidelines in Mexico and four were from previous and current recommendations outlined by the CDC. The strategies that were evaluated determine antibody levels according to the signal-to-cut-off (S/CO) ratio and use reflex Immunoblot (IMB) or HCV RNA tests to confirm true positive (TP) cases of chronic HCV infection. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). A decision tree model was developed to estimate the expected number of true positive cases and costs for the base-case scenarios and for the sensitivity analyses. Base-case findings indicate an extended dominance of the CDC-USA2 and CDC-USA4 options by the IMSS Mexico3 and IMSS-Mexico1 alternatives. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses results suggest that for a willingness-to-pay (WTP) range of $0-9,000 USD the IMSS-Mexico1 strategy is the most cost-effective of all strategies ($5,000 USD per TP). The IMSS-Mexico3, IMSS-Mexico2, and CDC-USA3 strategies are also cost-effective strategies that cost between $7,800 and $8,800 USD per TP case detected. The CDC-USA1 strategy was very expensive and not cost-effective. HCV antibody testing strategies based on the classification of two or three levels of the S/CO are cost-effective procedures to identify patients who require reflex IMB or HCV RNA testing to confirm chronic HCV infection.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Testing Strategies that Use Antibody Levels to Detect Chronic Hepatitis C in Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-García, Víctor; Contreras, Ana M.; García-Peña, Carmen; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Thein, Hla-Hla; Flores, Yvonne N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of seven hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing strategies in blood donors. Methods. Three of the seven strategies were based on HCV diagnosis and reporting guidelines in Mexico and four were from previous and current recommendations outlined by the CDC. The strategies that were evaluated determine antibody levels according to the signal-to-cut-off (S/CO) ratio and use reflex Immunoblot (IMB) or HCV RNA tests to confirm true positive (TP) cases of chronic HCV infection. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). A decision tree model was developed to estimate the expected number of true positive cases and costs for the base-case scenarios and for the sensitivity analyses. Results. Base-case findings indicate an extended dominance of the CDC-USA2 and CDC-USA4 options by the IMSS Mexico3 and IMSS-Mexico1 alternatives. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses results suggest that for a willingness-to-pay (WTP) range of $0–9,000 USD the IMSS-Mexico1 strategy is the most cost-effective of all strategies ($5,000 USD per TP). The IMSS-Mexico3, IMSS-Mexico2, and CDC-USA3 strategies are also cost-effective strategies that cost between $7,800 and $8,800 USD per TP case detected. The CDC-USA1 strategy was very expensive and not cost-effective. Conclusions. HCV antibody testing strategies based on the classification of two or three levels of the S/CO are cost-effective procedures to identify patients who require reflex IMB or HCV RNA testing to confirm chronic HCV infection. PMID:27159320

  13. Multi-residue method for detecting coccidiostats at carry-over level in feed by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaut, Ph; Pierret, G; Ralet, N; Dubois, M; Gillard, N

    2010-06-01

    A multi-residue HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous extraction, detection and confirmation of the 11 coccidiostats referenced by Regulation 2009/8/EC (lasalocid sodium, narasin, salinomycin sodium, monensin sodium, semduramicin sodium, maduramicin ammonium alpha, robenidine hydrochloride, decoquinate, halofuginone hydrobromide, nicarbazin, and diclazuril) in feedstuffs at carry-over level. The sensitivity of the method allows quantification and confirmation for all coccidiostats below target concentration. The method was in-house validated and meets all criteria of European legislation (2002/657/EC). The precision of the method was determined under repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility conditions; RSD(r) and RSD(R) were below the maximum permitted values for every tested concentration. The specificity was checked by analysing representative blank samples and blank samples fortified with potentially interfering substances (benzimidazoles, corticosteroides, triphenylmethane dyes, quinolones, nitrofurans, nitroimidazoles, phenicols); no interference were found. Concerning quantification, a quadratic regression model was fitted to every calibration curve with a regression coefficient r2 above 0.99 on each data set. Finally, the expanded uncertainty U was calculated with data obtained within the laboratory while applying the method during validation and in routine tests.

  14. Improving low-level plasma protein mass spectrometry-based detection for candidate biomarker discovery and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Jason S.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-09-01

    Methods. To improve the detection of low abundance protein candidate biomarker discovery and validation, particularly in complex biological fluids such as blood plasma, increased sensitivity is desired using mass spectrometry (MS)-based instrumentation. A key current limitation on the sensitivity of electrospray ionization (ESI) MS is due to the fact that many sample molecules in solution are never ionized, and the vast majority of the ions that are created are lost during transmission from atmospheric pressure to the low pressure region of the mass analyzer. Two key technologies, multi-nanoelectrospray emitters and the electrodynamic ion funnel have recently been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to greatly improve the ionization and transmission efficiency of ESI MS based analyses. Multi-emitter based ESI enables the flow from a single source (typically a liquid chromatography [LC] column) to be divided among an array of emitters (Figure 1). The flow rate delivered to each emitter is thus reduced, allowing the well-documented benefits of nanoelectrospray 1 for both sensitivity and quantitation to be realized for higher flow rate separations. To complement the increased ionization efficiency afforded by multi-ESI, tandem electrodynamic ion funnels have also been developed at PNNL, and shown to greatly improve ion transmission efficiency in the ion source interface.2, 3 These technologies have been integrated into a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of probable biomarker candidates in blood plasma and show promise for the identification of new species even at low level concentrations.

  15. An investigation of the trade-off between the count level and image quality in myocardial perfusion SPECT using simulated images: the effects of statistical noise and object variability on defect detectability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xin; Links, Jonathan M; Frey, Eric C [Department of Radiology, Division of Medical Imaging Physics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore MD 21287 (United States)

    2010-09-07

    Quantum noise as well as anatomic and uptake variability in patient populations limits observer performance on a defect detection task in myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). The goal of this study was to investigate the relative importance of these two effects by varying acquisition time, which determines the count level, and assessing the change in performance on a myocardial perfusion (MP) defect detection task using both mathematical and human observers. We generated ten sets of projections of a simulated patient population with count levels ranging from 1/128 to around 15 times a typical clinical count level to simulate different levels of quantum noise. For the simulated population we modeled variations in patient, heart and defect size, heart orientation and shape, defect location, organ uptake ratio, etc. The projection data were reconstructed using the OS-EM algorithm with no compensation or with attenuation, detector response and scatter compensation (ADS). The images were then post-filtered and reoriented to generate short-axis slices. A channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was applied to the short-axis images, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) was computed. For each noise level and reconstruction method, we optimized the number of iterations and cutoff frequencies of the Butterworth filter to maximize the AUC. Using the images obtained with the optimal iteration and cutoff frequency and ADS compensation, we performed human observer studies for four count levels to validate the CHO results. Both CHO and human observer studies demonstrated that observer performance was dependent on the relative magnitude of the quantum noise and the patient variation. When the count level was high, the patient variation dominated, and the AUC increased very slowly with changes in the count level for the same level of anatomic variability. When the count level was low, however, quantum noise dominated, and changes in the count level

  16. An investigation of the trade-off between the count level and image quality in myocardial perfusion SPECT using simulated images: the effects of statistical noise and object variability on defect detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric C.

    2010-09-01

    Quantum noise as well as anatomic and uptake variability in patient populations limits observer performance on a defect detection task in myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). The goal of this study was to investigate the relative importance of these two effects by varying acquisition time, which determines the count level, and assessing the change in performance on a myocardial perfusion (MP) defect detection task using both mathematical and human observers. We generated ten sets of projections of a simulated patient population with count levels ranging from 1/128 to around 15 times a typical clinical count level to simulate different levels of quantum noise. For the simulated population we modeled variations in patient, heart and defect size, heart orientation and shape, defect location, organ uptake ratio, etc. The projection data were reconstructed using the OS-EM algorithm with no compensation or with attenuation, detector response and scatter compensation (ADS). The images were then post-filtered and reoriented to generate short-axis slices. A channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was applied to the short-axis images, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) was computed. For each noise level and reconstruction method, we optimized the number of iterations and cutoff frequencies of the Butterworth filter to maximize the AUC. Using the images obtained with the optimal iteration and cutoff frequency and ADS compensation, we performed human observer studies for four count levels to validate the CHO results. Both CHO and human observer studies demonstrated that observer performance was dependent on the relative magnitude of the quantum noise and the patient variation. When the count level was high, the patient variation dominated, and the AUC increased very slowly with changes in the count level for the same level of anatomic variability. When the count level was low, however, quantum noise dominated, and changes in the count level

  17. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  18. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  19. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  20. Real-time selective visual monitoring of Hg(2+) detection at ppt level: An approach to lighting electrospun nanofibers using gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamizhan, Anitha; Celebioglu, Asli; Uyar, Tamer

    2015-05-28

    In this work, fluorescent gold nanocluster (AuNC) decorated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers (AuNC*PCL-NF) for real time visual monitoring of Hg(2+) detection at ppt level in water is demonstrated. The resultant AuNC*PCL-NF exhibiting remarkable stability more than four months at ambient environment and facilitates increased accessibility to active sites resulting in improved sensing performance with rapid response time. The fluorescence changes of AuNC*PCL-NF and their corresponding time dependent spectra, upon introduction of Hg(2+), led to the visual identification of the sensor performance. It is observed that the effective removal of excess ligand (bovine serum albumin (BSA) greatly enhances the surface exposure of AuNC and therefore their selective sensing performance is achieved over competent metal ions such as Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+) present in the water. An exceptional interaction is observed between AuNC and Hg(2+), wherein the absence of excess interrupting ligand makes AuNC more selective towards Hg(2+). The underlying mechanism is found to be due to the formation of Au-Hg amalgam, which was further investigated with XPS, TEM and elemental mapping studies. In short, our findings may lead to develop very efficient fluorescent-based nanofibrous mercury sensor, keeping in view of its stability, simplicity, reproducibility, and low cost.

  1. Real-time selective visual monitoring of Hg2+ detection at ppt level: An approach to lighting electrospun nanofibers using gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamizhan, Anitha; Celebioglu, Asli; Uyar, Tamer

    2015-05-01

    In this work, fluorescent gold nanocluster (AuNC) decorated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers (AuNC*PCL-NF) for real time visual monitoring of Hg2+ detection at ppt level in water is demonstrated. The resultant AuNC*PCL-NF exhibiting remarkable stability more than four months at ambient environment and facilitates increased accessibility to active sites resulting in improved sensing performance with rapid response time. The fluorescence changes of AuNC*PCL-NF and their corresponding time dependent spectra, upon introduction of Hg2+, led to the visual identification of the sensor performance. It is observed that the effective removal of excess ligand (bovine serum albumin (BSA) greatly enhances the surface exposure of AuNC and therefore their selective sensing performance is achieved over competent metal ions such as Cu2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ present in the water. An exceptional interaction is observed between AuNC and Hg2+, wherein the absence of excess interrupting ligand makes AuNC more selective towards Hg2+. The underlying mechanism is found to be due to the formation of Au-Hg amalgam, which was further investigated with XPS, TEM and elemental mapping studies. In short, our findings may lead to develop very efficient fluorescent-based nanofibrous mercury sensor, keeping in view of its stability, simplicity, reproducibility, and low cost.

  2. SU-F-207-14: Low Contrast Detectability (LCD) at Different Diagnostic Reference Levels for Adult Abdominal CT Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y [Mem Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Using diagnostic reference levels (DRL) to optimize CT protocols has potential to reduce radiation dose and meet regulatory requirements. However, DRL’s tend to be misconstrued as dose limits, are typically designed for specific patient populations, and are assumed to have acceptable image quality (AIQ) associated with them. To determine the image quality that is associated with established DRL’s for adult abdominal CT studies, a LCD phantom study was employed. Methods: A CT phantom (CIRS) containing three columns of 7 spherical targets, ranging from 10mm to 2.4 mm, that are 5, 10, and 20 HU below the background (HUBB) matrix was scanned with a GE HD750 64 slice scanner. The phantom was scanned at the NEXT 2006 25th CTDIvol of 12 mGy, the NCRP 172 achievable dose (AD) CTDIvol of 17 mGy and 75th CTDIvol of 25 mGy and at the ACR recommended CTDIvol of 25 mGy. It was also scanned at a CTDIvol 20% greater than the AD at 20 mGy and the ACR maximum threshold of 30 mGy. Results: At the NEXT 2006 25th percentile CTDIvol of 12 mGy, a 6.3 mm low contrast lesion was detectable in the 20 HUBB; 6.3 mm in the 10 HUBB and 10 mm in the 5 HUBB column. Increasing the CTDIvol to the NCRP 172 AD of 17 mGy, an additional 4.8 mm lesion was visualized in the 20 HUBB column. At 20 mGy, an additional 4.8 mm lesion was detectable in the 10 HUBB column. No further lesions were visible between 20 and 30 mGy. However, conspicuity of all lesions increased with each additional step up in CTDI. Conclusion: Optimizing radiation dose to achieve AIQ is a critical aspect of any dose optimization committee. Hence, judicious monitoring of radiation exposure to patients has to be balanced with diagnostic image quality.

  3. The POSEIDON Demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P.J.L.J. van de

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the Poseidon demonstrator: a demonstrator that integrates the individual research results of all partners of the Poseidon project. After describing how the Poseidon demonstrator was built, deployed, and operated, we will not only show many results obtained from the demons

  4. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  5. Prostate cancer detection upon transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen level: what to expect in the Chinese population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy YC Teoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prostate cancer detection rates upon transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination (DRE and prostate-specific antigen (PSA, and risk factors of prostate cancer detection in the Chinese population. Data from all consecutive Chinese men who underwent first TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from year 2000 to 2013 was retrieved from our database. The prostate cancer detection rates with reference to DRE finding and PSA level of 50 ng ml−1 were investigated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate for potential risk factors of prostate cancer detection. A total of 2606 Chinese men were included. In patients with normal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 8.6%, 13.4%, 21.8%, 41.7% and 85.2% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. In patients with abnormal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 12.4%, 30.2%, 52.7%, 80.6% and 96.4% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. Older age, smaller prostate volume, larger number of biopsy cores, presence of abnormal DRE finding and higher PSA level were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer detection upon multivariate logistic regression analyses (P < 0.001. Chinese men appeared to have lower prostate cancer detection rates when compared to the Western population. Taking the different risk factors into account, an individualized approach to the decision of TRUS-guided biopsy can be adopted.

  6. Research on Experimental Demonstration Device of Photovoltaic System Based on Three Level Inverter%基于三电平逆变器的光伏系统实验演示装置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭思雯; 任家敏; 段迎娟; 王义; 马骥; 张斌; 王聪

    2016-01-01

    讨论了一种用于辅助电力电子技术理论教学的光伏发电系统实验演示装置的研制,重点分析了中点钳位三电平光伏逆变器的设计。该逆变电路通过SPWM控制方法,将直流电压转换成负载所需的交流电压,具有谐波少、效率高等一系列优点。基于光伏发电实验演示装置通过模块化的形式,将光伏发电的过程清晰地呈现出来,同时通过改变光伏板的倾斜程度可以完成各种演示实验,使理论教学过程更直观,更富有活力。%This paper discusses the development of an experimental demonstration device for the power electronic technology theory teaching, focusing on the design of the neutral point clamped three level photovoltaic inverter. The inverter circuit through the SPWM control method, the DC voltage is converted into the AC voltage required to load, with a series of advantages of low harmonic and high efifciency. Based on the discussion of photovoltaic power generation experimental demonstration device through the modular form, the process of photovoltaic power generation is clear, and the degree of tilt of the PV panels can be completed by various experiments, the theory teaching process is more intuitive, more dynamic.

  7. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  8. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  9. Computer-aided detection of lung cancer on chest radiographs: effect of machine CAD true positive/false negative detections on radiologists' confidence level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Matthew T.; Osicka, Teresa; Lo, Shih-Chung Benedict; Lure, Fleming; Xu, Xin-Wei; Lin, Jesse; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Ron

    2004-05-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of Computer-Aided Detection prompts on the confidence and detection of cancer on chest radiographs. Expected findings included an increase in confidence rating and a decrease in variance in confidence when radiologists interacted with a computer prompt that confirmed their initial decision or induced them to switch from an incorrect to a correct decision. Their confidence rating decreased and the variance of confidence rating increased when the computer failed to confirm a correct or incorrect decision. A population of cases was identified that changed among reading modalities. This unstable group of cases differed between the Independent and Sequential without CAD modalities in cancer detection by radiologists and cancer detection by machine. CAD prompts induced the radiologists to make two types of changes in cases: changes on the sequential modality with CAD that restored an initial diagnosis made in the Independent read and new changes that were not present in the Independent or Sequential reads without CAD. This has implications for double reading of cases. The effects of intra-observer variability and inter-observer variability are suggested as potential causes for differences in statistical significance of the Independent and Sequential Design approaches to ROC studies.

  10. A reusable robust radio frequency biosensor using microwave resonator by integrated passive device technology for quantitative detection of glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N Y; Dhakal, R; Adhikari, K K; Kim, E S; Wang, C

    2015-05-15

    A reusable robust radio frequency (RF) biosensor with a rectangular meandered line (RML) resonator on a gallium arsenide substrate by integrated passive device (IPD) technology was designed, fabricated and tested to enable the real-time identification of the glucose level in human serum. The air-bridge structure fabricated by an IPD technology was applied to the RML resonator to improve its sensitivity by increasing the magnitude of the return loss (S21). The resonance behaviour, based on S21 characteristics of the biosensor, was analysed at 9.20 GHz with human serum containing different glucose concentration ranging from 148-268 mg dl(-1), 105-225 mg dl(-1) and at a deionised (D) water glucose concentration in the range of 25- 500 mg dl(-1) for seven different samples. A calibration analysis was performed for the human serum from two different subjects and for D-glucose at a response time of 60 s; the reproducibility, the minimum shift in resonance frequency and the long-term stability of the signal were investigated. The feature characteristics based on the resonance concept after the use of serum as an analyte are modelled as an inductor, capacitor and resistor. The findings support the development of resonance-based sensing with an excellent sensitivity of 1.08 MHz per 1 mg dl(-1), a detection limit of 8.01 mg dl(-1), and a limit of quantisation of 24.30 mg dl(-1). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of Liquid Level Measurement System Using Multi Sensor Data Fusion for Improved Characteristics and Fault Detection

    OpenAIRE

    SANTHOSH K V Shashank Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Online validation of multi sensor data fusion based liquid level measurement technique using capacitance level sensor and ultrasonic level sensor is implemented in this work. The objectives of the proposed work is to calibrate level measurement system by fusing the outputs of fuzzy sets of Capacitive Level Sensor (CLS) and Ultrasonic Level Sensor (ULS) such that (i) sensitivity and linearity should be improved as compared to ULS, (ii) reduction of nonlinear characteristics like offset and sat...

  12. 县级土壤环境功能区划研究与示范 ——以登封市为例%STUDY ON THE SOIL ENVIRONMENTAL FUNCTION ZONING AND DEMONSTRATION AT COUNTY-LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞; 王伟; 廖顺宝; 张胜田; 林玉锁

    2016-01-01

    土壤是人类赖以生存与发展的物质基础,土壤环境功能区划是合理开发利用与有效保护管理的重要基础性工作.土壤环境功能区划工作亟须详细展开,且区划方案因尺度不同而异.县级土壤环境功能区划结果要求更具体、 可操作性更强.文章深入分析了县级土壤环境功能区划的区划思路、 区划原则、 区划方法、 区划依据与指标体系等区划方案,并以河南省登封市为例进行县级土壤环境功能区划示范研究.登封市土壤环境功能区划分为4级:一级区划分为生产功能区、 生活功能区、 生态功能区等3类;二级区划分为基本农田种植区、 一般农业发展区、 商品林生产种植区、 农村居民区、 城镇建设区、 独立工矿区、 港口与交通用地区、 生态公益林种植区、 生态安全控制区、 自然景观与文化遗产保护区、 湿地保护区、 草地保护区等12类;三、 四级区划分别根据土壤环境质量现状、 潜在风险等进行空间100m格网大小评价并各划分为5个等级.该研究关于县级土壤环境功能区划方案与示范应用,为土壤环境保护与可持续利用提供科学参考,也可为其他地区县级土壤环境功能区划提供科学借鉴.%Soil is the material basis for human survival and development, soil environmental function zoning is the important and basal work for the rational exploitation and effective protection and management. Soil environmental function zoning should be set to work. The county-level soil environmental function zoning should be more specif-ic. This paper deeply analyzed the soil environmental function zoning at the county scale, and taking Dengfeng city of Henan province as an example for demonstration of county-level soil environmental function zoning. In Deng-feng county, soil environment function zone were divided into four levels. The first level zoning included 3 classes of producing function area

  13. Silicon photomultiplier (SPM) detection of low-level bioluminescence for the development of deployable whole-cell biosensors: Possibilities and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huaqing; Lopes, Nicholas; Moser, Scott; Sayler, Gary; Ripp, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Whole-cell bacterial bioreporters await miniaturized photon counting modules with high sensitivity and robust compatible hardware to fulfill their promise of versatile, on-site biosensor functionality. In this study, we explore the photon counting readout properties of the silicon photomultiplier (SPM) with a thermoelectric cooler and the possibilities of detecting low-level bioluminescent signals. Detection performance was evaluated through a simulated LED light source and the bioluminescenc...

  14. RNA interference of LIN5 in tomato confirms its role in controlling Brix content, uncovers the influence of sugars on the levels of fruit hormones, and demonstrates the importance of sucrose cleavage for normal fruit development and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanor, María Inés; Osorio, Sonia; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Carrari, Fernando; Lohse, Marc; Usadel, Björn; Kühn, Christina; Bleiss, Wilfrid; Giavalisco, Patrick; Willmitzer, Lothar; Sulpice, Ronan; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2009-07-01

    It has been previously demonstrated, utilizing intraspecific introgression lines, that Lycopersicum Invertase5 (LIN5), which encodes a cell wall invertase, controls total soluble solids content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The physiological role of this protein, however, has not yet been directly studied, since evaluation of data obtained from the introgression lines is complicated by the fact that they additionally harbor many other wild species alleles. To allow a more precise comparison, we generated transgenic tomato in which we silenced the expression of LIN5 using the RNA interference approach. The transformants were characterized by an altered flower and fruit morphology, displaying increased numbers of petals and sepals per flower, an increased rate of fruit abortion, and a reduction in fruit size. Evaluation of the mature fruit revealed that the transformants were characterized by a reduction of seed number per plant. Furthermore, detailed physiological analysis revealed that the transformants displayed aberrant pollen morphology and a reduction in the rate of pollen tube elongation. Metabolite profiling of ovaries and green and red fruit revealed that metabolic changes in the transformants were largely confined to sugar metabolism, whereas transcript and hormone profiling revealed broad changes both in the hormones themselves and in transcripts encoding their biosynthetic enzymes and response elements. These results are discussed in the context of current understanding of the role of sugar during the development of tomato fruit, with particular focus given to its impact on hormone levels and organ morphology.

  15. Detection of silver nanoparticles in seawater at ppb levels using UV-visible spectrophotometry with long path cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeiro, Pablo; Achterberg, Eric P; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are emerging contaminants that are difficult to detect in natural waters. UV-visible spectrophotometry is a simple technique that allows detection of AgNPs through analysis of their characteristic surface plasmon resonance band. The detection limit for nanoparticles using up to 10cm path length cuvettes with UV-visible spectrophotometry is in the 0.1-10ppm range. This detection limit is insufficiently low to observe AgNPs in natural environments. Here we show how the use of capillary cells with an optical path length up to 200cm, forms an excellent technique for rapid detection and quantification of non-aggregated AgNPs at ppb concentrations in complex natural matrices such as seawater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Express immunochromatographic detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus in cattle sera based on quantitative photometric registration and modulated cut-off level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, Dmitriy V; Byzova, Nadezhda A; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Eskendirova, Saule Z; Baltin, Kairat K; Mukanov, Kasim K; Ramankulov, Erlan M; Sadykhov, Elchin G; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    An immunochromatographic test system was developed for rapid detection of the levels of specific IgG antibodies to Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide, as a tool for diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle. The pilot test strips were examined using blood sera from sick (78 samples) and healthy (35 samples) cows. The results obtained by immunochromatographic assay, using a portable optical densitometer for digital video detection, correlate well with the results obtained by immunoenzyme assay and are in agreement with the results of the disease diagnosis. The new test system allows detection of antibodies within 10 min and can be proposed as an alternative to the methods available for serodiagnosis of brucellosis.

  17. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  18. New approach for monitoring fish stress: A novel enzyme-functionalized label-free immunosensor system for detecting cortisol levels in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyun; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Ota, Shirei; Murata, Masataka; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Endo, Hideaki

    2017-07-15

    Fishes display a wide variation in their physiological responses to stress, which is clearly evident in the plasma corticosteroid changes, chiefly cortisol levels in fish. As a well-known indicator of fish stress, a simple and rapid method for detecting cortisol changes especially sudden increases is desired. In this study, we describe an enzyme-functionalized label-free immunosensor system for detecting fish cortisol levels. Detection of cortisol using amperometry was achieved by immobilizing both anti-cortisol antibody (selective detection of cortisol) and glucose oxidase (signal amplification and non-toxic measurement) on an Au electrode surface with a self-assembled monolayer. This system is based on the maximum glucose oxidation output current change induced by the generation of a non-conductive antigen-antibody complex, which depends on the levels of cortisol in the sample. The immunosensor responded to cortisol levels with a linear decrease in the current in the range of 1.25-200ngml(-1) (R=0.964). Since the dynamic range of the sensor can cover the normal range of plasma cortisol in fish, the samples obtained from the fish did not need to be diluted. Further, electrochemical measurement of one sample required only ~30min. The sensor system was applied to determine the cortisol levels in plasma sampled from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which were then compared with levels of the same samples determined using the conventional method (ELISA). Values determined using both methods were well correlated. These findings suggest that the proposed label-free immunosensor could be useful for rapid and convenient analysis of cortisol levels in fish without sample dilution. We also believe that the proposed system could be integrated in a miniaturized potentiostat for point-of-care cortisol detection and useful as a portable diagnostic in fish farms in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Toy Demonstrator's "VISIT" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The role of the toy demonstrator in a home-based, mother-involved intervention effort (Verbal Interaction Project) is presented in this handbook for staff members. It is believed that the prerequisites for functioning in the toy demonstrator's role are a sense of responsibility, patience with the children and their mothers, and willingness to be…

  20. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  1. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  2. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  3. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  4. Suppression of Shubnikov–de Haas resistance oscillations due to selective population or detection of Landau levels : Absence of inter-Landau-level scattering on macroscopic length scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, B.J. van; Willems, E.M.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Williamson, J.G.; Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Shubnikov–de Haas resistance oscillations of a wide two-dimensional electron gas are suppressed dramatically when current is injected with a quantum point contact which does not populate the upper Landau level. A similar suppression is observed when a quantum point contact is used as a voltage p

  5. Detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B at sub mouse LD(50 levels by a sandwich immunoassay and its application to toxin detection in milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles C Scotcher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT, the causative agent of botulism, a serious neuroparylatic disease, is produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum and consists of a family of seven serotypes (A-H. We previously reported production of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies to BoNT serotype A. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Recombinant peptide fragments of the light chain, the transmembrane and receptor-binding domains of the heavy chain of botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B were expressed in Escherichia coli as GST-fusion proteins and purified. These proteins were used to immunize BALB/cJ mice for the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. Antibody-producing hybridomas were detected using either a direct binding ELISA binding to plate-immobilized BoNT/B, or with a capture-capture ELISA whereby the capacity of the antibody to capture BoNT/B from solution was tested. A total of five mAbs were selected, two of which bound the toxin light chain and three bound the receptor-binding domain of BoNT/B heavy chain. MAb MCS6-27 was identified via capture-capture ELISA and was the only mAb able to bind BoNT/B in solution under physiological conditions. MAbs F24-1, F26-16, F27-33 and F29-40 were identified via direct binding ELISA, and were able to capture BoNT/B in solution only in the presence of 0.5-0.9 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS. MAb MCS6-27 and an anti-BoNT/B polyclonal antibody were incorporated into a sandwich ELISA that did not require SDS. CONCLUSIONS: We report here the generation of monoclonal antibodies to serotype B and the subsequent development of a sensitive sandwich immunoassay. This immunoassay has a detection limit of 100 fg BoNT/B, fifty times more sensitive than the mouse bioassay detection limit of 5 pg BoNT/B. Additionally, this assay detected as little as 39 pg/mL of toxin in skim, 2% and whole milk.

  6. Characteristic of state-level clinical skill experiment teaching demonstration center.%"国家级临床技能实验教学示范中心"的特色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红秀; 陈志斌; 陈路; 张建中

    2011-01-01

    建设一流的临床技能实验教学中心是各医学院校坚持不懈地努力方向,它对加快实验教学改革,提高教学质量有着极大地推动作用.海南医学院"国家级临床技能实验教学示范中心"在临床技能实验教学改革和临床技能实验教学体系建设模式上具有鲜明特色,通过服务地方,获得自身持续发展的"双赢"建设经验,为地方医学院校临床技能实验教学中心的发展提供了可借鉴的模式.%To construct the first-class experiment teaching clinical skills center is the direction that needs all medical colleges or universities getting through unremitting efforts. And it can speed up the teaching reform,improve the quality of teaching effectively. Hainan Medical College approved ‘the state-level clinical skill experiment teaching demonstration center’, expresses distinct characteristics in clinical skills teaching and clinical skills test experimental teaching system models, and achieves their own sustainable development and ‘double win’ experience through the service areas, and hence provides a reference model for the local medical colleges experimental teaching of clinical skills.

  7. Detection of low-level PTFE contamination: An application of solid-state NMR to structure elucidation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tran N; Day, Caroline J; Edwards, Andrew J; Wood, Helen R; Lynch, Ian R; Watson, Simon A; Bretonnet, Anne-Sophie Z; Vogt, Frederick G

    2011-01-25

    We report a novel use of solid-state ¹⁹F nuclear magnetic resonance to detect and quantify polytetrafluoroethylene contamination from laboratory equipment, which due to low quantity (up to 1% w/w) and insolubility remained undetected by standard analytical techniques. Solid-state ¹⁹F NMR is shown to be highly sensitive to such fluoropolymers (detection limit 0.02% w/w), and is demonstrated as a useful analytical tool for structure elucidation of unknown solid materials.

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of 24-hour urine chemistry levels for detecting elevated calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M. Adrian; Singer, Eric A; Golijanin, Dragan J; Monk, Rebeca D; Erturk, Erdal; Bushinsky, David A

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The gold standard for determining likelihood of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaPhos) stone formation in urine is supersaturation of CaOx and CaPhos. Our objective was to investigate whether traditional measurement of total calcium, oxalate and phosphate in a 24-hour urine collection is sufficiently sensitive and specific for detecting elevated supersaturation to preclude the more expensive supersaturation test. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 150 consecutive patients with nephrolithiasis who underwent measurement of CaOx supersaturation (CaOxSS) and CaPhos supersaturation (CaPhosSS), as well as total calcium, oxalate and phosphate in a 24-hour urine collection. We used various cut-off values to determine sensitivity and specificity of 24-hour urine measurements for detecting elevated CaOxSS and CaPhosSS. Results In men and women, the sensitivity of 24-hour calcium for detecting elevated CaOxSS was 71% and 79%, respectively; for oxalate, sensitivity was 59% and 36%, respectively. In men and women, the sensitivity of 24-hour calcium for detecting elevated CaPhosSS was 74% and 88%, respectively; for phosphate, sensitivity was 57% and 8%, respectively. In men and women, the specificity of 24-hour calcium for detecting elevated CaOxSS was 55% and 48%, respectively; it was 60% for detecting elevated CaPhosSS in both men and women. Conclusion Traditional 24-hour urine analysis is sensitive, but not specific, for detecting elevated CaOxSS and CaPhosSS. Most patients with abnormal 24-hour urine analysis have normal supersaturation, and treatment decisions based on traditional urine analysis would lead to overtreatment in these patients. PMID:18542745

  9. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  10. TENCompetence tool demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2009). TENCompetence tool demonstration. Presented at Zorgacademie Parkstad (Health Academy Parkstad), Limburg Leisure Academy, Life Long Learning Limburg and a number of regional educational institutions. May, 18, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, T

  11. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  12. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  13. Detection of Residual Levels and Associated Health Risk of Seven Pesticides in Fresh Eggplant and Tomato Samples from Narayanganj District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual levels of seven frequently used pesticides were investigated in 140 samples of two common vegetables, eggplants and tomatoes, from agricultural fields in the Narayanganj district of Bangladesh. The analysis of pesticide residues was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. A large percentage of the eggplants (50% and tomatoes (60% from the Narayanganj district were contaminated with pesticides, and all of the levels were above the maximum residual limit (MRL proposed by the EC regulation. Diazinon was the most common (35% pesticide detected in the vegetable samples at a concentration of 45–450 times higher than the MRL. The health risk index for diazinon was highest for both eggplant and tomato samples, which may be due to its physiochemical properties. Fenitrothion and linuron are the two second most common types of pesticides detected in the vegetable samples. Regular monitoring of the use of common pesticides on vegetables should be conducted.

  14. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  15. High-sensitivity remote detection of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases at low ppm levels using near-infrared tunable diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Chakraborty, Arup Lal

    2016-05-01

    The concentration of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases needs to be precisely monitored for sustainable industrial development and to predict the climate shifts caused by global warming. Such measurements are made on a continuous basis in ecologically sensitive and urban areas in the advanced countries. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is the most versatile non-destructive technology currently available for remote measurements of multiple gases with very high selectivity (low cross-sensitivity), very high sensitivity (on the order of ppm and ppb) and under hazardous conditions. We demonstrate absolute measurements of acetylene, methane and carbon dioxide using a fielddeployable fully automated TDLS system that uses calibration-free 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy (2f WMS) techniques with sensitivities of low ppm levels. A 40 mW, 1531.52 nm distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser, a 10 mW, 1650 nm DFB laser and a 1 mW, 2004 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) are used in the experiments to probe the P9 transition of acetylene, R4 transition of methane and R16 transition of carbon dioxide respectively. Data acquisition and on-board analysis comprises a Raspberry Pi-based embedded system that is controllable over a wireless connection. Gas concentration and pressure are simultaneously extracted by fitting the experimental signals to 2f WMS signals simulated using spectroscopic parameters obtained from the HITRAN database. The lowest detected concentration is 11 ppm for acetylene, 275 ppm for methane and 285 ppm for carbon dioxide using a 28 cm long single-pass gas cell.

  16. Farm-level prevalence and risk factors for detection of hepatitis E virus, porcine enteric calicivirus, and rotavirus in Canadian finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Leblanc, Danielle; Leger, David; Gow, Sheryl; Deckert, Anne; Pearl, David L; Friendship, Robert; Rajić, Andrijana; Houde, Alain; McEwen, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV) are all hypothesized to infect humans zoonotically via exposure through swine and pork. Our study objectives were to estimate Canadian farm-level prevalence of HEV, NoV [specifically porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC)], and RV in finisher pigs, and to study risk factors for farm level viral detection. Farms were recruited using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) and FoodNet Canada on-farm sampling platforms. Six pooled groups of fecal samples were collected from participating farms, and a questionnaire capturing farm management and biosecurity practices was completed. Samples were assayed using validated real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We modeled predictors for farm level viral RNA detection using logistic and exact logistic regression. Seventy-two herds were sampled: 51 CIPARS herds (15 sampled twice) and 21 FoodNet Canada herds (one sampled twice). Hepatitis E virus was detected in 30/88 farms [34.1% (95% CI 25.0%, 44.5%)]; PEC in 18 [20.5% (95% CI: 13.4%, 30.0%)], and RV in 6 farms [6.8% (95% CI: 3.2%, 14.1%)]. Farm-level prevalence of viruses varied with province and sampling platform. Requiring shower-in and providing boots for visitors were significant predictors (P < 0.05) in single fixed effect mixed logistic regression analysis for detection of HEV and PEC, respectively. In contrast, all RV positive farms provided boots and coveralls, and 5 of 6 farms required shower-in. We hypothesized that these biosecurity measures delayed the mean age of RV infection, resulting in an association with RV detection in finishers. Obtaining feeder pigs from multiple sources was consistently associated with greater odds of detecting each virus.

  17. Farm-level prevalence and risk factors for detection of hepatitis E virus, porcine enteric calicivirus, and rotavirus in Canadian finisher pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Leblanc, Danielle; Leger, David; Gow, Sheryl; Deckert, Anne; Pearl, David L.; Friendship, Robert; Rajić, Andrijana; Houde, Alain; McEwen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV) are all hypothesized to infect humans zoonotically via exposure through swine and pork. Our study objectives were to estimate Canadian farm-level prevalence of HEV, NoV [specifically porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC)], and RV in finisher pigs, and to study risk factors for farm level viral detection. Farms were recruited using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) and FoodNet Canada on-farm sampling platforms. Six pooled groups of fecal samples were collected from participating farms, and a questionnaire capturing farm management and biosecurity practices was completed. Samples were assayed using validated real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We modeled predictors for farm level viral RNA detection using logistic and exact logistic regression. Seventy-two herds were sampled: 51 CIPARS herds (15 sampled twice) and 21 FoodNet Canada herds (one sampled twice). Hepatitis E virus was detected in 30/88 farms [34.1% (95% CI 25.0%, 44.5%)]; PEC in 18 [20.5% (95% CI: 13.4%, 30.0%)], and RV in 6 farms [6.8% (95% CI: 3.2%, 14.1%)]. Farm-level prevalence of viruses varied with province and sampling platform. Requiring shower-in and providing boots for visitors were significant predictors (P < 0.05) in single fixed effect mixed logistic regression analysis for detection of HEV and PEC, respectively. In contrast, all RV positive farms provided boots and coveralls, and 5 of 6 farms required shower-in. We hypothesized that these biosecurity measures delayed the mean age of RV infection, resulting in an association with RV detection in finishers. Obtaining feeder pigs from multiple sources was consistently associated with greater odds of detecting each virus. PMID:27127336

  18. Novel Helmholtz-based photoacoustic sensor for trace gas detection at ppm level using GaInAsSb/GaAlAsSb DFB lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Mario; Niklès, Marc; Schilt, Stéphane; Thévenaz, Luc; Salhi, Abdelmajid; Barat, David; Vicet, Aurore; Rouillard, Yves; Werner, Ralph; Koeth, Johannes

    2006-04-01

    A new and compact photoacoustic sensor for trace gas detection in the 2-2.5 microm atmospheric window is reported. Both the development of antimonide-based DFB lasers with singlemode emission in this spectral range and a novel design of photoacoustic cell adapted to the characteristics of these lasers are discussed. The laser fabrication was made in two steps. The structure was firstly grown by molecular beam epitaxy then a metallic DFB grating was processed. The photoacoustic cell is based on a Helmholtz resonator that was designed in order to fully benefit from the highly divergent emission of the antimonide laser. An optimized modulation scheme based on wavelength modulation of the laser source combined with second harmonic detection has been implemented for efficient suppression of wall noise. Using a 2211 nm laser, sub-ppm detection limit has been demonstrated for ammonia.

  19. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  20. Effects of stop-level habitat change on cerulean warbler detections along breeding bird survey routes in the central appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhone, P.M.; Wood, P.B.; Dawson, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of habitat change on Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) populations at stops along Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes in the central Appalachians. We used aerial photographs to compare early (1967/1971), middle (1982/1985), and late (2000/2003) periods and compared 1992 and 2001 National Land Cover Data (NLCD). Mean Cerulean Warbler detections per stop decreased at 68 BBS stops between the early (0.05) and middle (0.01) time periods and their distribution became more restricted (15 vs. 3% of stops), but the amount of deciduous/mixed forest increased. Mean detections at 240 stops decreased from the middle (0.09) to the late (0.06) time periods, but the deciduous/mixed forest land cover and fragmentation metrics did not change. The amounts of deciduous/mixed forest, core forest area, and edge density in the NLCD analysis decreased from 1992 to 2001, whereas the amount of non-forest land cover increased. The number of Cerulean Warbler detections did not change (1992 ?=? 0.08, 2001 ?=? 0.10; P ?=? 0.11). The lack of concordance between Cerulean Warbler detections and broad habitat features suggests that smaller, microhabitat features may be most important in affecting Cerulean Warbler breeding habitat suitability. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.