WorldWideScience

Sample records for demonstrate prevention control

  1. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention Control Topics Six Basic Cholera Prevention Messages I nfection ...

  2. Prevention and Control of Cryptosporidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Address Submit Button What's this? Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention & Control Topics Prevention & Control - General Public Prevention & Control - ...

  3. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  4. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Error processing SSI file Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When a ... avoid outbreaks. Institutional outbreaks can be difficult to control and require a rapid, aggressive, and sustained response. ...

  5. HARD CHROME POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the project, five chromium emission prevention/control devices were tested tha cover the spectrum of prevention/control techniques currently in use in small- and large-size hard chromium electroplating job shops. The Project results show that some of the tested devices had ch...

  6. Body Lice Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Body lice ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of body lice: Bathe regularly and ...

  7. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  8. Ground test for vibration control demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.; Prodigue, J.; Broux, G.; Cantinaud, O.; Poussot-Vassal, C.

    2016-09-01

    In the objective of maximizing comfort in Falcon jets, Dassault Aviation is developing an innovative vibration control technology. Vibrations of the structure are measured at several locations and sent to a dedicated high performance vibration control computer. Control laws are implemented in this computer to analyse the vibrations in real time, and then elaborate orders sent to the existing control surfaces to counteract vibrations. After detailing the technology principles, this paper focuses on the vibration control ground demonstration that was performed by Dassault Aviation in May 2015 on Falcon 7X business jet. The goal of this test was to attenuate vibrations resulting from fixed forced excitation delivered by shakers. The ground test demonstrated the capability to implement an efficient closed-loop vibration control with a significant vibration level reduction and validated the vibration control law design methodology. This successful ground test was a prerequisite before the flight test demonstration that is now being prepared. This study has been partly supported by the JTI CleanSky SFWA-ITD.

  9. Demonstration and Research Pest Control. Manual 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the demonstration and research pest control category. The text discusses pesticide-organism interactions such as penetration, transport, accumulation, and biological magnification. Integrating pesticides…

  10. Remote control of an impact demonstration vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, P. F.; Craft, J. B., Jr.; Johnson, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    Uplink and downlink telemetry systems were installed in a Boeing 720 aircraft that was remotely flown from Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base and impacted into a designated crash site on the lake bed. The controlled impact demonstration (CID) program was a joint venture by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to test passenger survivability using antimisting kerosene (AMK) to inhibit postcrash fires, improve passenger seats and restraints, and improve fire-retardent materials. The uplink telemetry system was used to remotely control the aircraft and activate onboard systems from takeoff until after impact. Aircraft systems for remote control, aircraft structural response, passenger seat and restraint systems, and anthropomorphic dummy responses were recorded and displayed by the downlink stems. The instrumentation uplink and downlink systems are described.

  11. LOGY, PREVENTION & CONTROL OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Rabies is a zoonotic disease and its magnitude of problem is underestimated due to lack of surveillance. In spite of hundred percent fa tality, the optimistic view is that it is totally and absolutely preventable with the aid of effective post-exposure prophylaxis. It is prevalent mainly in the developing countries like Africa and A sia. Wild carnivorous animals act as reservoir and domestic/peridomestic warm blooded ani mals transmit the virus to the human population. It is popularly known as “Hydrophobia” in h uman and children are at particularly risk. More than 3.3 billion people live in regions w here rabies is enzootic. Dog bite is the principal mode of infection in India and lower limb i s the most common site of injury. Ineffective surveillance, shortage of TCV and Immunoglobulin ma nufacturer and its high cost, peoples ignorance of first aid measures after bite and the importance of compliance of PEP, uncontrolled street dog population etc. are the key issues which should be addressed to tackle this problem.

  12. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  13. Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

  14. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to

  15. POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF PAINT APPLICATION EQUIPMENT AND ALTERNATIVES TO METHYLENE CHLORIDE AND METHYL ETHYL KETONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of demonstrations of technologies to prevent or control emissions of hazardous air pollutant (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from processes with high solvent usage: (1) paint stripping using methylene chloride, (2) cleaning paint equipment wi...

  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to site content En español Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...

  17. Experimental active control results from the SPICES smart structure demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, David S.; Toth, G. K.; Chou, Kenneth C.; Heck, Larry P.; Nowlin, William C.; Titterton, Paul J., Sr.

    1996-05-01

    The final demonstrations of the ARPA SPICES (Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures) program test the control of two active vibration mounts manufactured from composites with embedded actuators and sensors. Both mount demonstrations address wide band control problems for real disturbances, one at low frequency and the other at high frequency. The control systems for both are two-level hierarchies, with an inner active damping augmentation loop and an outer vibration control loop. We first review the control design requirements for the demonstration and summarize our control design approach. Then we focus on presenting the experimental results of the final demonstrations. For the low frequency demonstration, two alternative control approaches were demonstrated, one involving finite impulse response modeling and the other state space modeling. For the high frequency demonstration only the finite impulse response modeling approach was used because of computational limitations due to the complex system dynamics.

  18. Prevention and treatment of ascariasis in demonstration plots of integrated control from 2006 to 2009%我国寄生虫病综合防治示范区蛔虫病3年防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸廷俊; 陈颖丹; 许隆祺

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解寄生虫病综合防治示范区蛔虫感染现状,探索蛔虫病防治措施.方法 在示范区实施健康教育、药物驱虫和改水改厕等综合干预措施,观察措施实施前后居民蛔虫感染率的变化.结果 3年中示范区累计驱虫620余万人次,服药覆盖率达81.65%,居民蛔虫感染率由2006年的17.81%降至2009年的2.52%.居民卫生知识知晓率由45.11%提高到95.99%,改水受益率达84.09%,无害化厕所覆盖率为50.30%.结论 通过3年综合防治,示范区居民蛔虫感染率下降明显.%Objective To understand the situation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in the demonstration plots and evaluate the effect of integrated intervention measures. Methods The integrated intervention measures included health education, mass chemotherapy, safe water and sanitary toilets. The changes of infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides in residents were observed before and after the intervention. Results With the 3-year' s intervention, the Ascaris lumbricoides infection rates decreased from 17.81% to 2.52%, the rate of mass chemotherapy was 81.65%, which covered more than 6.2 million person-time, the awareness rates of parasitic disease control knowledge among the residents raised from 45.11% to 95.99%, and 84.09% of local people were supplied with safe water and 50.30% of families had sanitary toilets. Conclusion The Ascaris lumbricoides infection rate decreases dramatically through the 3-year s intervention.

  19. The economics of preventing hospital falls: demonstrating ROI through a simple model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Brown, Diane S; Aydin, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cost savings associated with implementing nursing approaches to prevent in-hospital falls. Hospital rating programs often report fall rates, and performance-based payment systems force hospitals to bear the costs of treating patients after falls. Some interventions have been demonstrated as effective for falls prevention. Costs of falls-prevention programs, financial savings associated with in-hospital falls reduction, and achievable fall rate improvement are measured using published literature. Net costs are calculated for implementing a falls-prevention program as compared with not making improvements in patient fall rates. Falls-prevention programs can reduce the cost of treatment, but in many scenarios, the costs of falls-prevention programs were greater than potential cost savings. Falls-prevention programs need to be carefully targeted to patients at greatest risk in order to achieve cost savings.

  20. Fail-Safe Magnetic Bearing Controller Demonstrated Successfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch has successfully demonstrated a fail-safe controller for the Fault-Tolerant Magnetic Bearing rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The rotor is supported by two 8-pole redundant radial bearings, and coil failing situations are simulated by manually shutting down their control current commands from the controller cockpit. The effectiveness of the controller was demonstrated when only two active coils from each radial bearing could be used (that is, 14 coils failed). These remaining two coils still levitated the rotor and spun it without losing stability or desired position up to the maximum allowable speed of 20,000 rpm.

  1. 75 FR 30041 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and..., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  2. Experimental demonstration of coherent feedback control on optical field squeezing

    CERN Document Server

    Iida, Sanae; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Furusawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Coherent feedback is a non-measurement based, hence a back-action free, method of control for quantum systems. A typical application of this control scheme is squeezing enhancement, a purely non-classical effect in quantum optics. In this paper we report its first experimental demonstration that well agrees with the theory taking into account time delays and losses in the coherent feedback loop. The results clarify both the benefit and the limitation of coherent feedback control in a practical situation.

  3. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roger

    2014-11-04

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control was set up in 2005 to strengthen Europe's defences against infectious diseases. The centre is an independent agency of the European Union and is based in Stockholm, Sweden.

  4. Pressure Points: Preventing and Controlling Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Pressure Points: Preventing and Controlling Hypertension Past Issues / Summer ... turn Javascript on. May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month, a good time for many Americans ...

  5. Preventing Corrosion by Controlling Cathodic Reaction Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Progress Report for Period: 1 SEP 2015-31 MAR 2016 John Keith Department of...25 March 2016 Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Annual Summary Report: FY16 PI: John Keith, 412-624-7016,jakeith...dominate the metal’s cathodic behavior. Within an alkaline environment, we expect the following reduction reactions to be catalyzed on the oxide

  6. Thermal Performance of ATLAS Laser Thermal Control System Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Robinson, Franklin; Patel, Deepak; Ottenstein, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The second Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite mission currently planned by National Aeronautics and Space Administration will measure global ice topography and canopy height using the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System {ATLAS). The ATLAS comprises two lasers; but only one will be used at a time. Each laser will generate between 125 watts and 250 watts of heat, and each laser has its own optimal operating temperature that must be maintained within plus or minus 1 degree Centigrade accuracy by the Laser Thermal Control System (LTCS) consisting of a constant conductance heat pipe (CCHP), a loop heat pipe (LHP) and a radiator. The heat generated by the laser is acquired by the CCHP and transferred to the LHP, which delivers the heat to the radiator for ultimate rejection. The radiator can be exposed to temperatures between minus 71 degrees Centigrade and minus 93 degrees Centigrade. The two lasers can have different operating temperatures varying between plus 15 degrees Centigrade and plus 30 degrees Centigrade, and their operating temperatures are not known while the LTCS is being designed and built. Major challenges of the LTCS include: 1) A single thermal control system must maintain the ATLAS at 15 degrees Centigrade with 250 watts heat load and minus 71 degrees Centigrade radiator sink temperature, and maintain the ATLAS at plus 30 degrees Centigrade with 125 watts heat load and minus 93 degrees Centigrade radiator sink temperature. Furthermore, the LTCS must be qualification tested to maintain the ATLAS between plus 10 degrees Centigrade and plus 35 degrees Centigrade. 2) The LTCS must be shut down to ensure that the ATLAS can be maintained above its lowest desirable temperature of minus 2 degrees Centigrade during the survival mode. No software control algorithm for LTCS can be activated during survival and only thermostats can be used. 3) The radiator must be kept above minus 65 degrees Centigrade to prevent ammonia from freezing using no more

  7. Demonstration of Quantum Entanglement Control Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jing-Yi; ZHANG Jing-Fu; DENG Zhi-Wei; LU Zhi-Heng

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the two forms of the quantum entanglement control, the quantum entanglement swapping and preservation are demonstrated in a three-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer. The pseudopure state is prepared to represent the quantum entangled states through macroscopic signals. Entanglement swapping is directly realized by a swap operation. By controlling the interactions between the system and its environment,we can preserve an initial entangled state for a longer time. The experimental results are in agreement with the experiment.

  8. Pathology Laboratories and Infection Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2014-11-01

    effective since the best practices are the same for all hospitals and this helps in standardizing the policies. There are organizations which work in promoting IPAC through education, standards, and advocacy and consumer awareness. Examples of organizations working in this field are IPAC Canada, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC USA, Infection Prevention Society UK, Asia Pacific Society of Infection Control (APSIC, World Health Organization (WHO. In Nepal organizational initiation to address the issues of IPAC has been recently taken by Healthy Life Foundation Nepal (HELF Nepal which is an organization with the mission to inform, promote and implement best practices of IPAC to prevent HAIs in the patients as well as the healthcare workers in all healthcare settings in Nepal.In Nepal awareness on IPAC in Pathology Laboratories can be brought about by initiating trainings, surveillance, regular CMEs and demonstration of techniques to the Lab personnel. Administration will have to be involved in initiating the program and maintaining it with administrative resources and financial support. Before it is too late we have to address the issues of HAIs, AROs and safety in our laboratories.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11603

  9. 78 FR 11889 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National..., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of...

  10. Treatment And Prevention for female Sex workers in South Africa: protocol for the TAPS Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gabriela B; Eakle, Robyn; Mbogua, Judie; Akpomiemie, Godspower; Venter, W D Francois; Rees, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Updated guidelines from the WHO recommend antiretroviral treatment for adults with HIV at any CD4 count and daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for people at substantial risk of HIV infection. However, implementation challenges may hinder the ability of programmes to translate these recommendations into successful practice. This demonstration project is the first to integrate PrEP and immediate treatment (ITx) for female sex workers (FSWs) in South Africa to answer operational research questions. Methods and analysis This is a prospective cohort study where the main outcome is retention at 12 months. The study population is recruited into two arms across two urban sites: (1) PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs (n=400) and (2) ITx for HIV-positive FSWs with CD4 greater than national guidelines (n=300). We investigate process and other health indicators, uptake and use of PrEP and ITx through qualitative research, and evaluate cost-effectiveness analysis combined with estimates of impact through epidemiological modelling. Ethics and dissemination The Treatment And Prevention for female Sex workers in South Africa (TAPS) Project was designed as an implementation study before emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was licenced as an indication for PrEP in South Africa. Therefore, clinical trial requirements for ethical and South African Medicines Control Council approvals were followed. Results will be disseminated to participants, local health officials and other stakeholders, as well as in peer-reviewed journals and at conferences. PMID:27678533

  11. Control and prevention of emerging parasitic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B

    2008-09-01

    Emerging zoonoses have been defined as zoonoses that are newly recognised or newly evolved, or that have occurred previously but show an increase in incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range. Among parasitic zoonoses, protozoa are particularly likely to emerge. Control and prevention of emerging parasitic zoonoses are complex tasks that require an integrative and multidisciplinary approach. Reduction of parasite burden is certainly a major objective but cannot be set alone. Therefore, environmental and ecological modifications need to be implemented to reduce not only the parasitic load, but also the risk of parasite transmission. Finally, education and behavioral changes are critical for the success of both control and prevention of these diseases. However, without appropriate financial resources specifically allocated at the local and national levels as well as through international cooperation, control and prevention of these emerging parasitic diseases will not be possible.

  12. Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  13. Experimental demonstration of active vibration control for flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Douglas J.; Hyland, David C.; Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Active vibration control of flexible structures for future space missions is addressed. Three experiments that successfully demonstrate control of flexible structures are described. The first is the pendulum experiment. The structure is a 5-m compound pendulum and was designed as an end-to-end test bed for a linear proof mass actuator and its supporting electronics. Experimental results are shown for a maximum-entropy/optimal-projection controller designed to achieve 5 percent damping in the first two pendulum modes. The second experiment was based upon the Harris Multi-Hex prototype experiment (MHPE) apparatus. This is a large optical reflector structure comprising a seven-panel array and supporting truss which typifies a number of generic characteristics of large space systems. The third experiment involved control design and implementation for the ACES structure at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The authors conclude with some remarks on the lessons learned from conducting these experiments.

  14. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  15. Four experimental demonstrations of active vibration control for flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Doug; Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory experiments designed to test prototype active-vibration-control systems under development for future flexible space structures are described, summarizing previously reported results. The control-synthesis technique employed for all four experiments was the maximum-entropy optimal-projection (MEOP) method (Bernstein and Hyland, 1988). Consideration is given to: (1) a pendulum experiment on large-amplitude LF dynamics; (2) a plate experiment on broadband vibration suppression in a two-dimensional structure; (3) a multiple-hexagon experiment combining the factors studied in (1) and (2) to simulate the complexity of a large space structure; and (4) the NASA Marshall ACES experiment on a lightweight deployable 45-foot beam. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are included. The results are shown to validate the MEOP design approach, demonstrating that good performance is achievable using relatively simple low-order decentralized controllers.

  16. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Washing your hands with soap and warm water after using the toilet, changing ... should comply with good hygiene practices such as washing their hands with soap and warm water after using the toilet, changing ...

  17. [Discussion of HIV control and prevention strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, P

    2016-10-06

    Expansion of HIV testing and ART treatment are core strategies for achieving the ambitious global goal of ending the HIV epidemic by the end of 2030, and achieving the "90-90-90" target by 2020. In China, great progress in HIV control and prevention has been made; however, there is room to enhance the effectiveness of HIV-related strategies. In addition, some implemented strategies have not achieved their expected output. To confront the challenge of sexual transmission of HIV, which is the main route of transmission in China, more targeted HIV prevention strategies that lead to their expected outcomes are essential. It is important to strengthen existing strategies that have been proved effective. However, it is also critical to create innovative strategies, and there are five approaches to achieve this. First, a holistic perspective should be adopted, to better understand the current situation and problems. This means intervention strategies should give serious consideration of how to meet the sociocultural needs of target populations rather than merely carry out behavioral interventions. Second, community-based HIV prevention settings should have more important roles in providing HIV-related health care services. Moreover, to improve the effectiveness of these strategies, a problem-led working style should be integrated into HIV prevention measures overall. Third, thoroughly analyzing characteristics of the current HIV epidemic using more evidence-based considerations must be undertaken, to better control HIV sexual transmission. Fourth, continued improvement of AIDS prevention and control mechanisms is needed, to ensure their sustainable development. Last, it is necessary to involve more NGOs in HIV prevention work by strengthening their management and working capacities to provide HIV-related services. Also needed is further improvement in both technical and management capacities, so as to build a stable basis for effective response.

  18. Infection prevention and control practitioners: improving engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ann-Marie

    Every healthcare worker plays a vital part in minimising the risk of cross infection. Infection prevention and control (IPC) practitioners have the skills and competencies to assist organisations in improving engagement among staff and play a vital part in achieving this. IPC practitioners have skills in clinical practice, education, research and leadership, and these skills ensure high-quality care for patients and support strategies for engaging staff. This article highlights how IPC practitioners' skills and competencies are required for preventing infection and improving staff engagement. Engaged staff generate positive outcomes for both patients and staff, which is a welcome result for all healthcare organisations.

  19. AIDS Epidemic Trend in the Second-Round National Comprehensive AIDS Prevention and Control Demonstration Zones in Guangxi%广西第二轮全国艾滋病综合防治示范区艾滋病流行趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the epidemic status of the second-round comprehensive AIDS prevention and control demonstration zones in Guangxi from 2009 to 2013 ,and to explore the integrated control strategy and intervention measures for AIDS prevention and control in Guangxi , even the whole country .Methods The data was collected from the national comprehensive AIDS prevention and control epidemic information system . Then the database was established by Microsoft Excell.Arrangement and logical correction were performed and a descriptive analysis was carried out by SPSS 19 .0 .Results By December 31 ,2013 ,a cumulative number of 12 731 of the HIV infectors/AIDS patients was reported in 13 demonstration zones of Guangxi ,accounting for 14.14% of the whole district (12 731/89 388).It increased by 3.27% on the basis of 2008.There were 6 251 HIV infectors, accounting for 13.30%(6 251/46 986),6 480 AIDS suffers,accounting for 15.28%(6 480/42 402),and 4 592 deaths,accounting for 16.10%(4 592/28 521) of the district.Moreover,since 2011,the increasing epidemic trend in the AIDS demonstration zones slowed down .Conclusion Since 2011,the rapid growing trend of AIDS epidemics in Guangxi has slowed down ,which indicates that AIDS prevention and control has played an important role in promoting the work comprehensively in Guangxi .%目的:研究和分析2009~2013年广西第二轮艾滋病综合防治示范区艾滋病疫情流行情况,为探索更适合广西乃至全国的艾滋病综合防治策略和干预措施提供科学依据。方法从全国艾滋病综合防治数据信息系统疫情数据库收集数据,用Microsoft Excel 建立数据库,进行整理和逻辑校错,采用SPSS19.0软件进行描述性分析。结果截至2013年12月31日,广西13个示范区HIV感染者/AIDS患者累计报告数为12731例,占全区HIV感染者/AIDS患者的14.24%(12731/89388),与2008年同比增长了3.27%。其中,HIV感染者6251

  20. Tritrichomonas foetus Prevention and Control in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrak, Jeff D

    2016-07-01

    Bovine trichomoniasis has been recognized as a pathogen of the bovine reproductive tract for nearly 100 years. Although characteristics of the causative organism, Tritrichomonas foetus lend to control and there are examples of disease eradication, cattle producers are still faced with this disease. This article highlights the clinical presentation, magnitude of effect, risk factors, epidemiology, and sample collection and suggests applications in developing herd-level control measures for beef cattle producers including testing strategies for control, testing strategies for surveillance, strategies to eliminate trichomoniasis from infected herds, and strategies for prevention in uninfected herds.

  1. Experimental demonstration of a controllable electrostatic molecular beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lianzhong; Liang, Yan; Gu, Zhenxing; Hou, Shunyong; Li, Shengqiang; Xia, Yong; Yin, Jianping

    2011-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a controllable electrostatic beam splitter for guided ND3 molecules with a single Y-shaped charged wire and a homogeneous bias field generated by a charged metallic parallel-plate capacitor. We study the dependences of the splitting ratio R of the guided ND3 beam and its relative guiding efficiency η on the voltage difference between two output arms of the splitter. The influences of the molecular velocity v and the cutting position L on the splitting ratio R are investigated as well, and the guiding and splitting dynamic processes of cold molecules are simulated. Our study shows that the splitting ratio R of our splitter can be conveniently adjusted from 10% to 90% by changing ΔU from -6  kV to +6  kV, and the simulated results are consistent with our experimental ones.

  2. Micronized Coal Reburning Demonstration for NOx Control: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-15

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Micronized Coal Reburning (MCR) Demonstration for NO{sub x} Control, as described in a report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1999). The need to meet strict emissions requirements at a minimum cost prompted the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), in conjunction with Fuller Company, Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), and Fluor Daniel, to submit the proposal for this project to be sited at TVA's Shawnee Fossil Plant. In July 1992, TVA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct the study. However, because of operational and environmental compliance strategy changes, the Shawnee site became unavailable.

  3. 75 FR 30040 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 1:30... Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  4. 75 FR 39544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  5. 75 FR 7606 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  6. Pushing the Limits of Cubesat Attitude Control: A Ground Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Devon S.; Heater, Daniel L.; Peeples, Steven R.; Sules. James K.; Huang, Po-Hao Adam

    2013-01-01

    A cubesat attitude control system (ACS) was designed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to provide sub-degree pointing capabilities using low cost, COTS attitude sensors, COTS miniature reaction wheels, and a developmental micro-propulsion system. The ACS sensors and actuators were integrated onto a 3D-printed plastic 3U cubesat breadboard (10 cm x 10 cm x 30 cm) with a custom designed instrument board and typical cubesat COTS hardware for the electrical, power, and data handling and processing systems. In addition to the cubesat development, a low-cost air bearing was designed and 3D printed in order to float the cubesat in the test environment. Systems integration and verification were performed at the MSFC Small Projects Rapid Integration & Test Environment laboratory. Using a combination of both the miniature reaction wheels and the micro-propulsion system, the open and closed loop control capabilities of the ACS were tested in the Flight Robotics Laboratory. The testing demonstrated the desired sub-degree pointing capability of the ACS and also revealed the challenges of creating a relevant environment for development testin

  7. Controlled Impact Demonstration instrumented test dummies installed in plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph are seen some of dummies in the passenger cabin of the B-720 aircraft. NASA Langley Research Center instrumented a large portion of the aircraft and the dummies for loads in a crashworthiness research program. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Adimistration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive called Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK) designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the

  8. Female-controlled methods to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, C J; Coggins, C

    1996-12-01

    THE NEED FOR PREVENTION: Women throughout the world face a growing risk of infection with HIV. Consistent condom use, one cornerstone of primary prevention strategy, is not always feasible for many women. Consequently, women urgently need infection prevention technology that is within their personal control. This session will review current efforts to develop and test female-controlled methods for preventing sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted pathogens. Both physical and chemical methods will be summarized, including recent findings concerning the efficacy and acceptability of the vaginal pouch (female condom), as well as an overview of research on vaginal microbicides. Data from studies of existing over-the-counter spermicides will be reviewed. The wide range of novel microbicidal products currently being evaluated in the laboratory and early clinical trials demonstrate the breadth of possibilities presented by chemical barrier methods. However, formidible challenges face public and private sector research and development efforts. This session will conclude by highlighting several issues related to the clinical evaluation and introduction of female-controlled prevention technology.

  9. Preventing and controlling accidental gas releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.; Kalb, P. D.

    1988-07-01

    Toxic, flammable, and explosive gases may be used in photovoltaic cell research laboratories and in commercial manufacturing facilities. Accidental release of these materials can present hazards to life and property. Accidents can arise from a variety of mechanical and human related failures. These can occur from the time materials are received at the loading dock of the facility to the time treated gases are discharged to the atmosphere through a stack. Each type of initiating event may require a different control approach. These may range from the training and certification of plant workers charged with the handling of gas cylinder hookups to installation of emergency pollution control systems. Since engineering options for controlling released materials are limited, emphasis should be placed on administrative and engineering approaches for preventing such accidents. These are likely to be the most effective approaches for protecting life and property.

  10. Wind power stabilising control. Demonstration on the Nordic grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, Katherine

    2012-07-01

    When unconventional types of generators such as doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) are used in a power system, the system behaves differently under abnormal dynamic events. For example, DFIGs cause different modes of oscillation in the power system, and respond differently to changes in voltage. In order to damp oscillations in the system, it is necessary to understand the equipment causing these oscillations, and the methods of optimally damping the oscillations. Large power oscillations can occur in a power system as a result of disturbances. Ordinarily these oscillations are slow and, in principle, it is possible to damp them with the help of wind power. This suggests the use of a power oscillation damping (POD) controller for a DFIG, similar to a power system stabiliser (PSS) for a synchronous generator. Voltage stability is another important aspect of the safe operation of a power system. It has been shown that the voltage stability of a power system is affected by induction generators and also DFIGs, and we investigate some aspects of this here. In this study we develop control strategies for large wind farms comprising DFIGs, and study the impact of the wind farms on a system which is designed to reflect the dynamics of the Nordic power system. The design of multiple PODs in a wind farm is undertaken using linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The impact of the wind turbines is investigated through the use of linear and dynamic simulations. It has been demonstrated that DFIG-based wind farms can be used for damping oscillations, even when they are not producing their rated power, and that they can also improve the critical clearing time of some faults. However, they may have an adverse impact on power systems after large voltage disturbances

  11. 75 FR 18848 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Prevention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health...

  12. 78 FR 25279 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 12... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L. Baker,...

  13. 75 FR 34750 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates: 8... Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (U01), Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CE10-004,...

  14. 76 FR 10371 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: February 14,...

  15. Prevention and control of hazards in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik; Reilly, A.; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben

    2000-01-01

    are listed and discussed. It is pointed out that there are serious safety concerns related to the consumption of raw fish and shellfish due to the presence of biological (bacteria, virus, parasites) and chemical (biotoxins) hazards. These hazards are present in the fish and shellfish pre......Seafood is high on the list of foods transmitting disease. However, the food safety issues are highly focussed and more than 80% of all seafood-borne outbreaks are related to biotoxins (ciguatoxin), scombrotoxin or the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish. The safety hazards in seafood production......-harvest and are difficult or impossible to control by applying presently available preventive measures. In contrast, the hazards related to contamination, recontamination or survival of biological hazards during processing are well-defined and can be controlled by applying Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), Good Hygiene...

  16. Transverse femoral implant prominence: four cases demonstrating a preventable complication for ACL reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argintar, Evan; Scherer, Benjamin; Jordan, Tom; Klimkiewicz, John

    2010-12-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a commonly occurring injury that often demands surgical reconstruction. Although the utility of this operation is widely accepted, many specific components, including graft fixation technique, remain controversial. Many clinicians favor transverse femoral implant fixation for soft tissue ACL grafts. This technique can be accomplished successfully; however, in a minority of the cases, the femoral implant can be excessively prominent, leading to iatrogenic postoperative iliotibial band syndrome. This article presents 4 patients that developed postoperative iliotibial band syndrome resulting from transverse femoral implant prominence. Despite achievement of knee ligamentous stability, implant prominence compromised final clinical results following ACL reconstruction. Through change in Lysholm value, we reviewed the clinical outcomes of these patients following femoral implant hardware removal for treatment of iliotibial band syndrome. On hardware removal, all patients demonstrated complete symptomatic improvement, mirroring an average Lysholm value increase of 38. We believe transverse femoral implant prominence is avoidable, and subsequent iliotibial band syndrome is a preventable postoperative complication.

  17. A Decision Support Tool for Transient Stability Preventive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Weckesser, Tilman; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a decision support tool for transient stability preventive control contributing to increased situation awareness of control room operators by providing additional information about the state of the power system in terms of transient stability. A time-domain approach is used...... to assess the transient stability for potentially critical faults. Potential critical fault locations are identified by a critical bus screening through analysis of pre-disturbance steady-state conditions. The identified buses are subject to a fast critical contingency screening determining the actual....... The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a standard nine-bus and the New England test system...

  18. Probiotics for caries prevention and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S; Keller, M K

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the microbiota for restoring and maintaining health is a growing issue in medical science. A search for relevant clinical trials on the use of probiotic bacteria as a potential and clinically applicable anti-caries measure was performed. According to predetermined criteria, papers...... of heterogeneity among the included investigations hampered the analysis. Significant reductions of mutans streptococci in saliva or plaque following daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli or bifidobacteria were reported in 12 out of 19 papers, whereas 3 reported an increase of lactobacilli. Three caries trials...... in preschool children and the elderly demonstrated prevented fractions of between 21% and 75% following regular intakes of milk supplemented with L. rhamnosus. No adverse effects or potential risks were reported. The currently available literature does not exclude the possibility that probiotic bacteria can...

  19. Novel Data Acquisition and controls System (DACS) Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The combined data acquisition and controls architecture is eliminating the need of the widely popular programmable logic control (PLCs).   The system uses...

  20. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles.

  1. Caries prevention with xylitol lozenges in children related to maternal anxiety. A demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olak, J; Saag, M; Vahlberg, T; Söderling, E; Karjalainen, S

    2012-04-01

    This was to compare the effect of a prevention program between children of anxious and non-anxious mothers. Mothers (n=120) with high and low dental anxiety scores (DAS>15 and DAS 10(5)cfu/mL) were recruited at a maternity clinic of Tartu, Estonia. Two groups: 30 highly anxious, and 30 non-anxious mothers used xylitol (6 g/day) for 33 months and a non-treatment group of 60 mothers, both highly and low anxious (30 in each sub-group), acted as controls. All mothers were interviewed for oral health habits and education, and their dental health was examined. Due to discontinued participation 75% of the children (n=90) were examined at 2 and at 3 years of age. Anxious mothers brushed less frequently (p=0.014), had a longer time since their last dental visit (panxiety had no effect on children's dental health, contrary to the caries prevention program which was effective both at 2 and at 3 years of age (panxiety.

  2. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  3. 75 FR 27797 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ...: 2010-11887] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Date: 11... Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [FR Doc. 2010-11887 Filed 5-17-10; 8:45...

  4. 77 FR 46096 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... No: 2012-18852] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned committee... Science and Public Health Practice Executive Assistant, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,...

  5. 75 FR 30409 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P ...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  6. 76 FR 21749 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK11- 0010101PPHF11, Initial... Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Reducing Burden and Demonstrating Preventability,'' FOA CK11- 0010101PPHF11... for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Reducing Burden and Demonstrating Preventability,'' FOA...

  7. Reactive power control with CHP plants - A demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob; Andersen, Claus A.;

    2010-01-01

    power rating of 7.3 MW on two synchronous generators. A closed-loop control is implemented, that remote controls the CHP plant to achieve a certain reactive power flow in a near-by substation. The solution communicates with the grid operator’s existing SCADA system to obtain measurements from...

  8. Demonstrating Hormonal Control of Vertebrate Adaptive Color Changes in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mac E.; Younggren, Newell A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a short discussion of factors causing color changes in animals. Also described is an activity which may be used to demonstrate the response of amphibian skin to a melanophore stimulating hormone in high school or college biology classes. (PEB)

  9. 76 FR 64245 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and...). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to amend the date by which farms must prepare or amend, and implement their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plans to...

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ATCA BASED RF CONTROL SYSTEM AT FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Simrock, S N; Jezynski, T; Koprek, W; Butkowski, L; Jablonski, G W; Jalmuzna, W; Makowski, D R; Piotrowski, A; Czuba, K

    2009-01-01

    Future rf control systems will require simultaneous data acquisition of up to 100 fast ADC channels at sampling rates of around 100 MHz and real time signal processing within a few hundred nanoseconds. At the same time the standardization of Low-Level RF systems are common objectives for all laboratories for cost reduction, performance optimization and machine reliability. Also desirable are modularity and scalability of the design as well as compatibility with accelerator instrumentation needs including the control system. All these requirements can be fulfilled with the new telecommunication standard ATCA when adopted to the domain of instrumentation. We describe the architecture and design of an ATCA based LLRF system for the European XFEL. The operation of a prototype capable of controlling the vectorsum of 24-cavities and providing measurements of forward and reflected power are presented.

  11. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  12. Plasticity of motor control systems demonstrated by yoga training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, S; Hanumanthaiah, B H; Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R

    1994-04-01

    The static motor performance was tested in two groups with 20 subjects in each (age range 17 to 22 years, and 5 females in each group). Tests were carried out at the beginning and end of a 10 day period. The test required being able to insert and hold a metal stylus within holes of varying sizes for 15 sec. Accidental contacts between the stylus and the sides of the holes, were registered on a counter as errors. During the 10 days one group (the yoga group) practised asanas (physical postures), pranayama (voluntary regulation of breathing), meditation, devotional sessions, and tratakas (visual focussing exercises). The control group followed their usual routine. At the end of 10 days the yoga group showed a significant reduction in number of errors (Wilcoxon paired signed ranks test), while the control group did not change. Our earlier study showed a similar improvement in children (9-13 years). It was interesting to note the same degree of plasticity in motor control systems in young adults. The implications for rehabilitation programmes have been discussed.

  13. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve: Implementation and practical demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Nyeng, Preben

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in electric power systems with a high penetration of renewable generation is the provision of ancillary services. Traditionally these services have been provided by conventional generation, but as power from renewable sources (wind and PV) displaces conventional generation......, new providers of ancillary services are needed. Frequency regulation is critical because fluctuating energy sources increase the need for this service. At very high levels of renewable penetration, all available frequency regulation services will be called on, including demand-side resources. Electric...... loads that provide thermal energy services are attractive because their heat capacity allows electric power consumption to be moved in time without degrading the quality of service. This concept is being demonstrated in field tests on the island of Bornholm, Denmark....

  14. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve: Implementation and practical demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Nyeng, Preben;

    2011-01-01

    , new providers of ancillary services are needed. Frequency regulation is critical because fluctuating energy sources increase the need for this service. At very high levels of renewable penetration, all available frequency regulation services will be called on, including demand-side resources. Electric......One of the challenges in electric power systems with a high penetration of renewable generation is the provision of ancillary services. Traditionally these services have been provided by conventional generation, but as power from renewable sources (wind and PV) displaces conventional generation...... loads that provide thermal energy services are attractive because their heat capacity allows electric power consumption to be moved in time without degrading the quality of service. This concept is being demonstrated in field tests on the island of Bornholm, Denmark....

  15. Potential Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention by Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Wang, Weiqun

    Weight control via dietary caloric restriction and/or physical activity has been demonstrated in animal models for cancer prevention. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Body weight loss due to negative energy balance significantly reduces some metabolic growth factors and endocrinal hormones such as IGF-1, leptin, and adiponectin, but enhances glucocorticoids, that may be associated with anti-cancer mechanisms. In this review, we summarized the recent studies related to weight control and growth factors. The potential molecular targets focused on those growth factors- and hormones-dependent cellular signaling pathways are further discussed. It appears that multiple factors and multiple signaling cascades, especially for Ras-MAPK-proliferation and PI3K-Akt-anti-apoptosis, could be involved in response to weight change by dietary calorie restriction and/or exercise training. Considering prevalence of obesity or overweight that becomes apparent over the world, understanding the underlying mechanisms among weight control, endocrine change and cancer risk is critically important. Future studies using "-omics" technologies will be warrant for a broader and deeper mechanistic information regarding cancer prevention by weight control.

  16. RM12-2703 Advanced Rooftop Unit Control Retrofit Kit Field Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebber, I.; Dean, J.; Dominick, J.; Holland, G.

    2014-03-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This was one of several demonstrations of new and underutilized commercial energy efficiency technologies. The consistent year-round demand for air conditioning and dehumidification in Hawaii provides an advantageous demonstration location for advanced rooftop control (ARC) retrofit kits to packaged rooftop units (RTUs). This report summarizes the field demonstration of ARCs installed on nine RTUs serving a 70,000-ft2 exchange store (large retail) and two RTUs, each serving small office buildings located on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH).

  17. 77 FR 12845 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Disease, Disability, and Injury... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (CDC/ATSDR... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  18. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and... Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance date... Superfund, TRI, EPCRA, RMP and Oil Information Center at (800) 424-9346 or TDD (800) 553-7672...

  19. Bed Bug Prevention, Detection and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tips in this brochure include inspecting and cleaning second-hand furniture, inspection and prevention in hotel rooms, recognizing bites, integrated pest management, safe pesticide use, signs of infestation, and using mattress and box spring encasements.

  20. [Experiences of comprehensive control of parasitic diseases in demonstration plot of Xiangyun County, Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Bo, Wang; Yan-Hong, Li; Wen-Juan, Li; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong

    2011-10-01

    We established and perfected the system of control work, achieved the expected targets, and explored the advisable pattern for prevention and control on soil-transmitted nematode diseases. To perform the prevention and control on soil-transmitted nematodiasis, there should be the guidance of government, the multi-sectoral cooperation, community participation, paying attention to the organization and management, and highlighting the key points including education and deworming.

  1. 36 CFR 228.11 - Prevention and control of fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention and control of fire. 228.11 Section 228.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Locatable Minerals § 228.11 Prevention and control of fire. Operator shall comply...

  2. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan, May 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil.

  3. Blood Pressure Control: Stroke and Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Diener

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for primary and secondary stroke prevention.All antihypertensive drugs are effective in primary prevention: the risk reduction for stroke is 30—42%. However, not all classes of drugs have the same effects: there is some indication that angiotensin receptor blockers may be superior to other classes of antihypertensive drugs in stroke prevention.Seventy-five percent of patients who present to hospital with acute stroke have elevated blood pressure within the first 24—48 hours. Extremes of systolic blood pressure (SBP increase the risk of death or dependency. The aim of treatment should be to achieve and maintain the SBP in the range 140—160 mmHg. However, fast and drastic blood pressure lowering can have adverse consequences.The PROGRESS trial of secondary prevention with perindopril + indapamide versus placebo + placebo showed a decrease in numbers of stroke recurrences in patients given both active antihypertensive agents, more impressive for cerebral haemorrhage.There were also indications that active treatment might decrease the development of post-stroke dementia.

  4. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    production in sickle cell disease patients with acute pneumonia , Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Vol. 15, Issue 4: 340-344, 1996. PHS 398 (Rev. 5...Taylor BD, et al. The Effectiveness of personal Letters to improve the influenza Immunization Rate in Geriatric Patients . 2 4 "’FF ,Principal...Hodder, RA. Towards the Integration of Curative and Preventive Services for Internal Medicine Patients . American Public Health Association. Atlanta, GA

  5. Sand control with ceramic screens in unconsolidated reservoirs demonstrated in the mature Gaiselberg oilfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildhack, Stefanie [ESK Ceramics GmbH und Co. KG, Kempten (Germany); Muessig, Siegfried; Strahammer, Franz; Leitner, Manfred [Rohoel Aufsuchungs-AG (RAG), Vienna (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    The Oil Production in the operation centre Zistersdorf of the Rohoel-Aufsuchungs AG (RAG) looks back on a long history and a great variety of different types of completions. After the first oil-bearing well RAG-002 in 1937 the development of the RAG field started, followed by more exploration successes in the Gaiselberg oil field from 1938 onwards. The production comes primarily from the sandstone reservoirs of the Sarmat; the deeper horizons usually show a good compaction paired with reasonable permeability. The lower layers, however, are more and more unconsolidated. To prevent sand production and to protect the completion equipment metal screens in combination with gravel packs were installed. Gravel Packs, however, generate an additional pressure drop, which can lead in some cases to a production loss of up to 50% from the very beginning. In addition they are prone to abrasion and incur high completion costs. With the completion of the newly developed sand control screen based on ceramic materials, the next step towards sand control in an unconsolidated reservoir was implemented subsequent to the successful protection of well jewellery in wells after massive hydraulic frac operations. In this article the construction, deployment in the well Ga-016 below a sucker rod pump and the analysis of the production performance are all discussed. It will be demonstrated that with this application a fundamental step in sand control in unconsolidated reservoirs has been achieved. (orig.)

  6. Prevention and Control of Adolescents’ Deviant Behavior in Rural Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Firstly,an analysis is made from the point of view of sociology on traditional modeling logic of prevention and control of adolescents’ deviant behavior in rural community,and maintenance and reproduction of this model.The traditional prevention and control model of adolescents’ deviant behavior in rural community is diversity-orderly pattern prevention and control system.This system is based on natural economy,especially on agricultural economy."Supervision by public opinion and moral imitation" is the basic operation logic of this system.It contains a compensation mechanism of "bringing up children for the purpose of being looked after in old age" and "favor returning".Then,deconstruction of traditional prevention and control model for adolescents’ deviant behavior in rural community is analyzed.Along with advance in rural modern democratic management and legal construction and growing of rural market economy,function of traditional diversity-orderly pattern of prevention and control of adolescents’ deviate behavior in rural community is weak and weak in prevention and control of modern rural adolescents’ deviant behavior.Finally,modeling ideas of new(coordinative) prevention and control of rural adolescents’ deviant behavior are put forward from four aspects,namely,democracy and legal system,community,family and various rural adolescent admittance organizations.

  7. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  8. A PROPOSAL FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DELINQUENCY BY EXPANDING OPPORTUNITIES, BUDGET SUPPLEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilization for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.

    A BUDGET IS PRESENTED AS A SUPPLEMENT TO THE PROPOSAL SUBMITTED BY MOBILIZATION FOR YOUTH FOR A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY. BUDGETARY ESTIMATES FOR STAFF AND OTHER EXPENSES ARE SHOWN FOR EACH PROGRAM FOR THE FIRST 2 YEARS OF THE DEMONSTRATION. ESTIMATES FOR THE 1ST YEAR REFLECT AS A DEDUCTION THE…

  9. Features of categorization of prevention of conducting meetings, rallies, demonstrations, marches, picketing or participation in them as a crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovichenko K.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Minimum rates of applying article 149 of the RF Criminal Code, caused by crime categorization errors and technical and legal defects of article’s structure are stated. The elements of crime under this article include violating the constitutional right to freedom of meetings as a result of preventing mass actions. The commission of unlawful act by an official should be categorized as a crime according to article 149 when using prevention means stipulated in objective side of this act. Improper use of official position for illegal prevention and use of violence to people form a cumulative crime (articles 149 and 286 of the RF Criminal Code. Signs of violence and threats to use violence, specified by corpus delicti, draw a question on the amount of damage to health which does not demand additional categorization. Damage limits implies beating and slight damage to health. More serious damage forms a cumulative crime. Any threats to use violence are included in the elements of crime under study. Thus, illegal prevention of conducting public mass action can be categorized as a cumulative crime. Gross violation of public order which expresses contempt against public (committed by using means, specified in Art. 213 of the FR Criminal Code and simultaneously prevents conducting a rally, meeting, demonstration, march, picketing or participating in them (ideal cumulative crime complicates the categorization. If such prevention is accompanied with gross violation of public order, the act should be categorized as a cumulative crime according to articles 149 and 213.

  10. USAF Corrosion Prevention and Control Enterprise - Sustainability Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Headquarters U.S. Air Force 1 USAF Corrosion Prevention and Control Enterprise...00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE USAF Corrosion Prevention and Control Enterprise - Sustainability Links 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...AF Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPC) enterprise  Corrosion is a significant sustainment issue: $6.0B – 24.9% of total maintenance costs

  11. 75 FR 45572 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and... beginning operations. \\4\\ On December 5, 2008 (73 FR 74236) EPA finalized an amendment to allow a new oil..., Milk, Oil pollution, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Dated: July 28, 2010. Lisa...

  12. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  13. [China faces a challenge of breast cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B N; Chen, W Q; Zhang, X; Qiao, Y L

    2016-10-23

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer is in an increasing trend. In contrast to the global breast cancer situation, the prevention and control is challenging in China. Some suggestions are presented to the project of breast cancer prevention and control in China. Combining the global screening experiences with the epidemiological features of Chinese female breast cancer, aims to improve the population screening and early detection rate. Standardizing clinical diagnosis and treatment practice, aims to increase the efficacy and decrease the mortality. Intervening lifestyle and dietary behaviors, and intends to reduce risk exposure and incidence. Building national breast cancer registry provides preventive strategies. Great efforts should be made to carry out large sample multicenter clinical trails and translational research on the prevention and cotrol of breast cancer coordiated by health care service and science and technology administrations. Breast cancer prevention and control has a long way to go in China.

  14. [Technical guideline for human rabies prevention and control (2016)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Li, Y; Chen, R F; Tao, X Y; Yu, P C; Cao, S C; Li, L; Chen, Z H; Zhu, W Y; Yin, W W; Li, Y H; Wang, C L; Yu, H J

    2016-02-01

    In order to promote the prevention and control programs on rabies in our country, to regulate the prevention and disposition of rabies and to reduce the deaths caused by rabies, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has organized a panel of experts, in the reference with Guidelines issued by WHO, American Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, and the latest research progress from home and abroad, and compiled this document-"Technical Guidelines for Human Rabies Prevention and Control (2016)". The Guidelines conducted a systematic review on the etiology, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology of rabies and provided evidence on varieties, mechanisms, effects, side-effects and security of rabies vaccine, as well as on other preparations on passive immunity of its kind, on methods related to prevention and disposition of exposure etc, finally to have come up with the recommendation on the above mentioned various techniques. The guidelines will be used by staff working on prevention and control of rabies from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels, from the departments of outpatient and divisions of infection and emergency control in all the medical institutions. The guideline will be updated and revised, following the research progress from home and abroad.

  15. Control beliefs are related to smoking prevention in prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Meyer-Leu, Yvonne; Samochowiec, Jakub; Grob, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is one of the most important avoidable health risks for the unborn child. Gynaecologists and midwives play a fundamental role in the prevention of smoking during pregnancy. However, a large number of health care practitioners still do not address smoking in pregnant patients. We examined whether gynaecologists and midwives engage in screening and counselling of pregnant women and conducting interventions to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Further, we examined the role of gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs. Control beliefs involve efficacy expectations--the practitioner's confidence in his capacity to conduct prevention efforts adequately--and outcome expectations--the practitioner's expectation that such prevention efforts are successful in general. A total of 486 gynaecologists and 366 midwives completed a questionnaire on screening of smoking, counselling and other interventions they conduct to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Moreover, gynaecologists and midwives rated their control beliefs regarding their influence on pregnant patients' smoking habits. The majority of gynaecologists and midwives reported screening all pregnant patients regarding smoking, explaining the risks and recommending smoking cessation. By contrast, only a minority engages in more extensive prevention efforts. Strong control beliefs were predictive of a higher likelihood of screening and counselling, as well as of engaging in more extensive interventions. The findings point to the importance of strengthening gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs by professional education and training on smoking prevention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Disease Prevention and Control Plan Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Disease Prevention and Control Plan for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge provides background information on disease surveillance; an inventory of Refuge...

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Methods: To assess students' knowledge and attitudes regarding infection prevention and control and their sources of .... health on a personal level as well as on macro-levels. .... Hand Hygiene- What are the indications for the use of alcohol-.

  18. Knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among health ... Background: Health Sciences students are exposed early to hospitals and to ... There was no significant difference in scores between sexes or location of the high ...

  19. Measles prevention and control in emergency settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, M J; Steketee, R W; Waldman, R J; Nieburg, P

    1989-01-01

    Outbreaks of measles continue to be a common occurrence among refugee and famine-affected children in emergency relief camps. Extremely high measles-associated mortality rates have been reported from refugee camps--where undernutrition is common--in several countries over the past 10 years. Mortality from measles is, however, preventable, and immunization against the disease is a high priority in emergency relief programmes, second only in importance to the provision of adequate food rations. All children aged 6 months to 5 years should be immunized with measles vaccine as soon as they enter an organized camp or settlement. Should supplies of measles vaccine be inadequate, children in feeding centres, or those otherwise identified as undernourished, are the top priority for immunization. The occurrence of measles in a camp is not a contraindication to conducting an immunization campaign. Strong coordination by a designated lead agency is needed if such campaigns are to be successful; however, cooperation with the local expanded programme on immunization is essential to ensure that existing cold chain equipment, training protocols, and management manuals are used. If additional equipment is necessary, a complete immunization kit developed by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the World Health Organization, and Oxfam can be procured from Oxfam headquarters in the United Kingdom. Vitamin A supplements should be given routinely at the time of measles immunization in situations where malnutrition is severe. Mortality and morbidity in children with clinical measles can be reduced by administering high doses of vitamin A.

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Caries Prevention in Dental Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, M; O'Neill, C; Donaldson, M; Birch, S; Noble, S; Killough, S; Murphy, L; Greer, M; Brodison, J; Verghis, R; Worthington, H V

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a parallel group randomized controlled trial of children initially aged 2 to 3 y who were caries free, to prevent the children becoming caries active over the subsequent 36 mo. The setting was 22 dental practices in Northern Ireland, and children were randomly assigned by a clinical trials unit (CTU) (using computer-generated random numbers, with allocation concealed from the dental practice until each child was recruited) to the intervention (22,600-ppm fluoride varnish, toothbrush, 50-mL tube of 1,450 ppm fluoride toothpaste, and standardized, evidence-based prevention advice) or advice-only control at 6-monthly intervals. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (dmfs) in caries-active children, number of episodes of pain, and number of extracted teeth. Adverse reactions were recorded. Calibrated external examiners, blinded to the child's study group, assessed the status of the children at baseline and after 3 y. In total, 1,248 children (624 randomized to each group) were recruited, and 1,096 (549 intervention, 547 control) were included in the final analyses. Eighty-seven percent of intervention and 86% of control children attended every 6-mo visit ( P = 0.77). A total of 187 (34%) in the intervention group converted to caries active compared to 213 (39%) in the control group (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.04; P = 0.11). Mean dmfs of those with caries in the intervention group was 7.2 compared to 9.6 in the control group ( P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in the number of episodes of pain between groups ( P = 0.81) or in the number of teeth extracted in caries-active children ( P = 0.95). Ten children in the intervention group had adverse reactions of a minor nature. This well-conducted trial failed to demonstrate that the intervention kept children caries free, but there was evidence that once

  1. Information Control: Preventing a Vietnamese Spring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Reporters Without Borders indicated that the VCP blocked content from foreign news sites and from human rights organizations. 44 BBC reported...Vietnam. 45 Outside criticisms of the VCP’s control measures have continued since 2002. This past September, Reporters Without Borders stated that...anti-state activities, including bloggers whom expressed their opinion online. 51 Reporters Without Borders reports currently 35 bloggers and

  2. Zika Virus: Transmission, Detection, Control, and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshika; Lal, Sunil K.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus discovered in Uganda in the 1940s. To date, three major ZIKV outbreaks have been reported. ZIKV infections have known to be primarily asymptomatic while causing mild illness in a few cases. However, the recent emergence and spread of ZIKV in the Americas has resulted in the declaration of “Public Health Emergency of International Concern” due to the potential association between the infection and prenatal microcephaly or other brain anomalies. In Brazil, a 20-fold increase in prenatal microcephaly cases and 19% increase in Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) cases were reported in 2015, as compared to the preceding year. The probable deleterious effects of ZIKV infection prompt the urgent development of diagnostics and therapeutics. To this end, the existing evidences supporting the increasingly common prenatal microcephaly and GBS association and the current known ZIKV transmission dynamics, modes of detection (molecular and serology-based), and current control strategies are summarized in this review. This review also emphasizes the importance of understanding ZIKV transmission in order to design a sensitive yet cost and time-efficient detection technique. Development of an efficient detection technique would subsequently allow for better surveillance and control of ZIKV infection. Currently, limited literature is available on the pathogenesis of ZIKV, hence, focusing on the modes of ZIKV transmission could potentially contribute to the understanding of the disease spectrum and formulation of targeted treatment and control. PMID:28217114

  3. Prevention and control of cancers: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Bhurgri, Yasmin; Mohamud, Khalif Bile; Zoka, Natasha; Sultan, Faisal; Jafarey, Naeem A

    2004-12-01

    The National Action Plan for Non-communicable Diseases Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD) integrates prevention and control of cancers with a comprehensive NCD prevention framework with a specific emphasis on tobacco, diet and physical activity as cross-cutting risks. The programme prioritizes on sustainable institutional support for mature cancer registries in order to facilitate cancer surveillance; prevention of cancers and early detection as part of an integrated NCD behavioural change communication strategy and building capacity in the health system for cancer prevention and control. The programme's research agenda also includes appropriate studies to bridge critical gaps in evidence relating to appropriate and cost-effective strategies for preventing common cancers in Pakistan. To contain exposure to carcinogenic agents in the environment and in worksites, NAP-NCD stresses on the transparent enforcement of National Environmental Quality Standards; the institution to take proactive measures to contain potential risks to cancers in industrial settings; stricter enforcement of labour laws, stringent regulations governing chemical handling and the active incorporation of preventive health in the mandate of organizations providing health coverage for the labour workforce. It has also been deemed essential to study cancer trends in defined industrial settings at high-risk and to identify causal associations in order to delineate precise targets for preventive interventions in the native setting. NAP-NCD stresses on the development of institutional mechanisms with a regulatory function for cancer control; these include a National Cancer Control Council, with the mandate to uphold ethics and principles and guidelines on technical matters and a National Occupational Safety and Health Association. The Plan also prioritizes on pain relief and palliative care alongside prevention and control efforts and stresses on the need to integrate

  4. Renewed Global Partnerships and Redesigned Roadmaps for Rabies Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Lembo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies, responsible for most human rabies deaths, is a serious global public health concern. This zoonosis is entirely preventable, but by focusing solely upon rabies prevention in humans, this “incurable wound” persists at high costs. Although preventing human deaths through canine rabies elimination is feasible, dog rabies control is often neglected, because dogs are not considered typical economic commodities by the animal health sector. Here, we demonstrate that the responsibility of managing rabies falls upon multiple sectors, that a truly integrated approach is the key to rabies elimination, and that considerable progress has been made to this effect. Achievements include the construction of global rabies networks and organizational partnerships; development of road maps, operational toolkits, and a blueprint for rabies prevention and control; and opportunities for scaling up and replication of successful programs. Progress must continue towards overcoming the remaining challenges preventing the ultimate goal of rabies elimination.

  5. Prevention and control of weeds, pests and diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Weed control still requires major investments of money and labour in organic arable farming and field vegetable cultivation. For this reason, current research is focused to a large extent on the development of weed control strategies. These incorporate prevention as well as mechanical methods, and c

  6. [Spreading experience of demonstration plots and strengthening control of parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wang

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements and experiences of demonstration plots carrying out comprehensive control measures of parasite diseases in China, and elaborates the hard task of the control of parasitic diseases as one of main public health problems. The article also elaborates the significance of spreading the experiences of demonstration plots carrying out comprehensive control measures of parasite diseases for improving the health of people and promoting the construction of new countryside.

  7. Occupational stress and stress prevention in air traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    The paper indicates a number of preventive measures targeted to the elimination of the causes of stress, rather than the treatment of its effects, and how these measures can become an integral part of the necessary organizational development and eventually pay for themselves. The paper has seven chapters. 1. Introduction - What is stress? - The sources of stress in air traffic control - The consequences on health and well-being 2. How to prevent stress at work 3. Intervention on the external ...

  8. Demonstration of EDFA Cognitive Gain Control via GMPLS for Mixed Modulation Formats in Heterogeneous Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Juliano R.; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Magalhães, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate cognitive gain control for EDFA operation in real-time GMPLS controlled heterogeneous optical testbed with 10G/100G/200G/400G lightpaths. Cognitive control maintains the network BER below FEC-limit for up to 6 dB of induced attenuation penalty....

  9. Optimal control of tip-tilt modes on-sky adaptive optics demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelman, N.J.; Fraanje, P.R.; Breeje, R. den

    2011-01-01

    An H2-optimal control approach for Adaptive Optics has been validated in an on-sky experiment on a solar telescope. A substantial performance improvement over the integrator control approach is demonstrated for control of the tip-tilt modes. The experimental results correspond reasonably well with

  10. Variable Structure PID Control to Prevent Integrator Windup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C. E.; Hodel, A. S.; Hung, J. Y.

    1999-01-01

    PID controllers are frequently used to control systems requiring zero steady-state error while maintaining requirements for settling time and robustness (gain/phase margins). PID controllers suffer significant loss of performance due to short-term integrator wind-up when used in systems with actuator saturation. We examine several existing and proposed methods for the prevention of integrator wind-up in both continuous and discrete time implementations.

  11. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  12. Staffing and structure of infection prevention and control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Patricia W; Dick, Andrew; Pogorzelska, Monika; Horan, Teresa C; Furuya, E Yoko; Larson, Elaine

    2009-06-01

    The nature of infection prevention and control is changing; however, little is known about current staffing and structure of infection prevention and control programs. Our objectives were to provide a snapshot of the staffing and structure of hospital-based infection prevention and control programs in the United States. A Web-based survey was sent to 441 hospitals that participate in the National Healthcare Safety Network. The response rate was 66% (n = 289); data were examined on 821 professionals. Infection preventionist (IP) staffing was significantly negatively related to bed size, with higher staffing in smaller hospitals (P organization, and support in a select group of hospitals across the nation. Further research is needed to identify effective staffing levels for various hospital types as well as examine how the IP role is changing over time.

  13. Guidelines for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-03

    This document updates and replaces CDC's previously published "Guideline for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia" (Infect Control 1982;3:327-33, Respir Care 1983;28:221-32, and Am J Infect Control 1983;11:230-44). This revised guideline is designed to reduce the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia and is intended for use by personnel who are responsible for surveillance and control of infections in acute-care hospitals; the information may not be applicable in long-term-care facilities because of the unique characteristics of such settings. This revised guideline addresses common problems encountered by infection-control practitioners regarding the prevention and control of nosocomial pneumonia in U.S. hospitals. Sections on the prevention of bacterial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated and/or critically ill patients, care of respiratory-therapy devices, prevention of cross-contamination, and prevention of viral lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] and influenza infections) have been expanded and updated. New sections on Legionnaires disease and pneumonia caused by Aspergillus sp. have been included. Lower respiratory tract infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not addressed in this document. Part I, "An Overview of the Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia, 1994, provides the background information for the consensus recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) in Part II, Recommendations for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia." Pneumonia is the second most common nosocomial infection in the United States and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Most patients who have nosocomial pneumonia are infants, young children, and persons > 65 years of age; persons who have severe underlying disease, immunosuppression, depressed sensorium, and/or cardiopulmonary disease and persons who have had thoracoabdominal surgery. Although patients receiving mechanically

  14. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  15. Prevention and control of avian influenza in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Hon Keong; Goh, Cheryl S; Chew, Siang Thai; Lim, Chee Wee; Lin, Yueh Nuo; Chang, Siow Foong; Yap, Him Hoo; Chua, Sin Bin

    2008-06-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus was first detected in 1996 in Guangdong, China. Since 2003, H5N1 outbreaks have been reported in parts of Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. It is currently entrenched among poultry in parts of Asia and poses a major challenge to animal and human health. Singapore is free from HPAI. Given Singapore's need to import food, the Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) has adopted a pro-active risk management system to prevent the introduction of HPAI. AVA's approach maybe described as a multi-layered control strategy for the prevention and control of HPAI. The strategy includes control measures at source, border control measures, local control measures and emergency preparedness.

  16. Evidence-based diabetes prevention and control programs and policies in local health departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa; Elliott, Lindsay; Brownson, Ross C.; Skala, Mahree

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to: (1) assess implementation of evidence-based programs and policies (EBPPs) related to diabetes prevention and control in local health departments; (2) assess feasibility of non-implemented diabetes prevention and control EBPPs; and (3) examine individual- and organizational-level factors associated with implementation of diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Methods An online survey was administered in January 2015 to key representatives of all local health departments in Missouri. Descriptive statistics were used to describe implementation and perceived feasibility of 20 diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between individual and organizational factors and diabetes prevention and control EBPP implementation. Results One hundred local health departments participated (89% response rate) in the online survey. Most frequently implemented diabetes-related EBPPs in local health departments included: nutrition education for agency or community members; increased fruit and vegetable access in community settings; and community-wide campaigns to promote physical activity. Increased encouragement to others in the department to use evidence-based decision making and agency incentives to help employees use evidence-based decision making were positively associated with implementation of diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Conclusions Local health departments are the “front line” of public health and this study demonstrates the important role these organizations play in implementing diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Potential leverage points for more widespread adoption of diabetes-related EBPPs in local health departments include education about and encouragement of evidence-based decision making and organizational incentives for employees to integrate evidence-based decision making into their diabetes prevention and control activities. PMID:26297714

  17. Evidence-Based Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs and Policies in Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa; Elliott, Lindsay; Brownson, Ross C; Skala, Mahree

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) assess implementation of evidence-based programs and policies (EBPPs) related to diabetes prevention and control in local health departments, (2) assess feasibility of non-implemented diabetes prevention and control EBPPs, and (3) examine individual- and organizational-level factors associated with implementation of diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. An online survey was administered in January 2015 to key representatives of all local health departments in Missouri. Descriptive statistics were used to describe implementation and perceived feasibility of 20 diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between individual and organizational factors and diabetes prevention and control EBPP implementation. One hundred local health departments participated (89% response rate) in the online survey. Most frequently implemented diabetes-related EBPPs in local health departments included: nutrition education for agency or community members, increased fruit and vegetable access in community settings, and community-wide campaigns to promote physical activity. Increased encouragement to others in the department to use evidence-based decision making and agency incentives to help employees use evidence-based decision making were positively associated with implementation of diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Local health departments are on the "front line" of public health, and this study demonstrates the important role these organizations play in implementing diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Potential leverage points for more widespread adoption of diabetes-related EBPPs in local health departments include education about and encouragement of evidence-based decision making and organizational incentives for employees to integrate evidence-based decision making into their diabetes prevention and control activities. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Demonstration of Optically Controlled re-Routing in a Photonic Crystal Three-Port Switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Combrié, S.; Heuck, Mikkel; Xavier, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of optically controlled re-routing of a signal in a photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structure with 3 ports. This represents a key functionality of integrated all-optical signal processing circuits....

  19. Survey report about farmers and herdsmen in a demonstration base of Datong on Brucellosis prevention and control in Shanxi province%山西省大同市布鲁杆菌病预防控制示范基地农牧民问卷调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭曼卿; 高学萍; 李振宇; 吴文华; 刘新民; 姜正兵

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查当地群众对布鲁杆菌病(布病)常识的了解程度,探索布病感染危险因素,确定下一步进行综合干预和健康促进的关键环节.方法 选择历史上曾为布病老疫区、且近年来疫情出现反弹的阳高县和广灵县,采用二阶段分层整群抽样法进行问卷调查.问卷内容包括被调查者的人口学资料(性别、年龄、文化程度等),布病相关知识和人群布病防治行为态度3个方面.结果 2个县共调查5372人,文化程度偏低,其中,农民占62.7%(3362/5372).阳高县和广灵县布病知晓率分别为84.03%(2379/2831)和33.33%(847/2541),布病感染途径知识平均知晓率为18.60%(6001/32260).在两县布病预防常识调查中,有29%的人认为处理流产物需要戴手套,有70%的人答“不知道”.在养殖户如何处理病死畜的调查问卷中,阳高县有79.1%(664/839)选择去市场卖掉,广灵县有61.2%(267/361)的选择杀死后埋掉,两县均存在不恰当的病死畜处理方式.结论 居民对布病了解程度不够,应加强健康教育与行为干预,提高群众预防布病的意识与能力,改变不正确生活方式和认知观念,有效降低人间布病的感染与传播.%Objective To survey knowledge of the local people's understanding of Brucellosis,and to explore the risk factors for brucellosis infection,and to determine the key issue of next comprehensive health promotion intervention.Methods Two counties,Yanggao and Guangling,which are old endemic areas with Brucellosis in history,and with epidemic rebounding in recent years,were selected.The survey was carried out by two stage stratified cluster sampling method.The questionnaires included respondents' demographic data(gender,age,education level,etc.),Brucellosis (hereinafter referred to as Brucellosis) knowledge of the investigation and behavior and attitude of people toward the measure for control of Brucellosis.Results A total of 5372 people were investigated

  20. Regulatory systems for prevention and control of rabies, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, Hiromi; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2008-09-01

    Japan is one of the few rabies-free countries. Although 3 imported cases of human rabies were seen in 1970 and 2006, no other cases have been reported for approximately 50 years. The elimination of rabies in Japan is attributed to not only its geographic isolation but also to effective prevention and control measures, such as registration and vaccination of domestic dogs, required quarantine of susceptible imported animals, and national plans of action based on scientific research. Countermeasures against rabies have been upgraded; an improved management system for domestic dogs under the amended Enforcement Regulations of the Rabies Prevention Law has been in effect since April 2007. The latest regulatory systems for preventing and controlling rabies provide an effective model for elimination of the disease worldwide.

  1. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Epidemiology, Infection Prevention, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Katherine; Bardossy, Ana Cecilia; Zervos, Marcus

    2016-12-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections have acquired prominence as a leading cause of health care-associated infections. Understanding VRE epidemiology, transmission modes in health care settings, risk factors for colonization, and infection is essential to prevention and control of VRE infections. Infection control strategies are pivotal in management of VRE infections and should be based on patient characteristics, hospital needs, and available resources. Hand hygiene is basic to decrease acquisition of VRE. The effectiveness of surveillance and contact precautions is variable and controversial in endemic settings, but important during VRE outbreak investigations and control. Environmental cleaning, chlorhexidine bathing, and antimicrobial stewardship are vital in VRE prevention and control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preventive control of Scirtothrips dorsalis with biological insecticides, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study was 1) to evaluate the efficacy of the selected entomopathogens against a new invasive thrips pest, chilli thrips (CT) Scirtothrips dorsalis in pepper as a preventive control strategy, and 2) compare potential of entomopathogens with a chemical standard under greenhouse ...

  3. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...... on the relationships of the Ledermann string....

  4. 77 FR 4048 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research Sites in Puerto Rico... to ``Evaluation of Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  5. [Integrated prevention and control strategy for dengue in Mesoamerica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; San Martín, José Luis; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Dengue in the Americas is a public health problem in ascent. The control strategies have not been effective when sustained in the intensive use of insecticides and poor community participation. The Mesoamerican Initiative for the Prevention and the Integrated Control of Dengue synthesizes the works generated by the Integrated Strategy of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the risks stratification strategy designed by the countries of the Mesoamerican region. The objective is to progressively reduce the incidence of dengue cases until a 50% reduction is reached over a five years period. This document describes the elements for the risk stratification, the activities for prevention and control organized by levels of intensity and frequency and the indicators used to pursuit the objectives. To face the dispersion of the problem a concentration of efforts for control in the areas of greater risk is presented; the opportunity in the detection of cases is highlighted to tackle the fast dissemination of the infection; focus on the most productive breeding sites is proposed to battle against the vast dissemination of the breeding sites; and the severity of the infection must be addressed by capable clinical human resources. This strategy was designed along with the national representatives of the control programs to create master plans that provided the basis for the integrated prevention and control of dengue in the Mesoamerican region.

  6. Demonstrations of LSS active vibration control technology on representative ground-based testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, David C.; Phillips, Douglas J.; Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes two experiments which successfully demonstrate control of flexible structures. The first experiment involved control design and implementation for the ACES structure at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, while the second experiment was conducted using the Multi-Hex Prototype structure. The paper concludes with some remarks on the lessons learned from conducting these experiments.

  7. Vaccine-preventable diseases: the role of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarz, P; Lopalco, P L; Huitric, E; Pastore Celentano, L

    2014-05-01

    The role of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) is to strengthen the capacity of the European Union (EU) Member States to protect human health through the prevention and control of infectious diseases. The main objective of the programme on vaccine-preventable diseases and invasive bacterial infections (VPD) is to provide robust evidence and high-quality technical support to the EU Member States to help them in their efforts to prevent and control VPD. Since the establishment of ECDC, several existing VPD surveillance networks have been transferred to ECDC, namely EU-IBIS, DIPNET and EUVAC. In addition to surveillance of diseases, ECDC is collecting information and monitoring other parameters that are of crucial importance for a well-functioning immunization system, including vaccination coverage. The VPD programme also provides independent scientific opinions in the area of immunization and initiates and coordinates scientific studies in the area of vaccination to answer specific questions of public health importance, including risk perception and analysis of behaviour in different population groups. One of the overall ECDC priorities over recent years is the Centre's involvement in measles elimination. The 'Message' tool and the 'Measles Atlas' are examples of work aiming at supporting the efforts of Member States in the elimination phase.

  8. Improving disease prevention and treatment in controlled fish culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terech-Majewska Elżbieta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to evaluate long-term results of studies focusing on improving methods for preventing and treating fish diseases using selected natural and syntetic immunomodulators and vaccines in fish culture. Simultaneously, attention is drawn to infectious or environmental threats against which appropriately composed immunoprophylaxis can be used in production cycles. Fish culture is intensifying in Poland and globally, which means that the role of prevention and well-designed prophylaxis is of increasing significance to the prevention and treatment of fish diseases. Currently, 33 fish species are cultured in Poland as stocking material or for production. The primary methods for preventing diseases in controlled fish culture are ensuring the welfare of fish and other prophylactic methods, including immunoprophylaxis. Many infectious and non-infectious threats that can cause direct losses and limit fish culture are present in the aquatic environment. Fish diseases generally stem from the simultaneous action of many factors that coincide and are difficult to distinguish. Pesticides (organochlorine insecticides, organophosphorus herbicides, aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol, heavy metals, and chemotherapeutics are particularly toxic to fish. Biodegradation, which is continual in aquatic environments, is a process by which toxic and other substances that negatively affect fish become bioavailable and impact the immune system, the functioning of which is a specific bioindicator of environmental quality. Innate immunity plays a key role in the defense against disadvantageous factors, which also include pathogens. Immunomodulation methods can protect resistance mechanisms, thereby increasing disease prevention and treatment in controlled fish culture.

  9. Improving pediatric prevention via the internet: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Rivara, Frederick P; Ebel, Beth

    2006-09-01

    Innovations to improve the delivery of pediatric preventive care are needed. We enrolled children, 0 to 11 years of age, into a factorial, randomized, controlled trial of a tailored, evidence-based, Web site (MyHealthyChild) that provided information on prevention topics before a scheduled well-child visit. There were 2 components of the intervention, namely, parental Web content and provider notification. Parental Web content provided information to parents about prevention topics; provider notification communicated to physicians topics that were of interest to parents. We assigned 887 children randomly to 4 groups (usual care, content only, content and notification, or notification only). Outcomes were determined with telephone follow-up surveys conducted 2 to 4 weeks after the visit. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the independent effects of each intervention on the number of topics discussed and the number of preventive practices implemented. Parents in the notification/content group and in the notification-only group reported discussing more MyHealthyChild topics with their provider. Parents in the notification/content group and in the content-only group reported implementing more MyHealthyChild topic suggestions (such as use of a safety device). A Web-based intervention can activate parents to discuss prevention topics with their child's provider. Delivery of tailored content can promote preventive practices.

  10. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L.G.; O' Fallon, N.M.

    1977-09-01

    Progress during the quarter of January through March 1977 on ANL 189a 49622R2, Instrumentation and Process Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP) is reported. Work has been performed on updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP), on development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments for FDP, process control analysis for FDP, and organization of a symposium on instrumentation and control for FDP. Progress in these areas is described.

  11. Demonstration of active vibration control on a stirling-cycle cryocooler testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Gaffney, Monique S.; Johnson, Dean L.; Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation has demonstrated excellent vibration reduction performance using active control on the JPL Stirling-cycle cryocooler testbed. The authors address the use of classical narrowband feedback control to meet the cryocooler vibration specifications using one cryocooler in a self-cancellation configuration. Similar vibration reduction performance was obtained using a cryocooler back-to-back configuration by actively controlling a reaction mass actuator that was used to mimic the second cooler.

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  13. Turbine Engine Control Synthesis. Volume 1. Optimal Controller Synthesis and Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    stability. rolume 11 contains three Appendices. Appendix A contains the details of engine math models. The software for the wind tu reel -ontroller is...aspects of optimal control. Volume II contains primarily data concerning the NASA component engine model and software for the wind tunnel test con...PTPB.NRTTB,6) Turbine FN 275 WT WTTNPB N * PB/TB 276 PBDLTB = PB (TB - TCD) 277 ETAB - FUNI(19, PBDLTB, 35) Combustion efficiency 278 CALL PROCOM (0

  14. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  15. Dengue in the Americas: challenges for prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Willoquet, Janine Ramsey

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is the most important vector-borne disease in the Americas and threatens the lifes of millions of people in developing countries. Imprecise morbidity and mortality statistics underestimate the magnitude of dengue as a regional health problem. As a result, it is considered a low priority by the health sector with no timely steps for effective control. Dengue is perceived as a problem of 'others' (individually, collectively and institutionally), therefore responsibility for its control is passed on to others (neighbors, the community, municipality, health institutions, or other governmental agencies). With no precise risk indicators available there is little opportunity for timely diagnoses, treatment, health interventions or vector control (poor surveillance). Solutions only targeting the vector reduce the impact of interventions and there is no sustainable control. Without political commitment there are insufficient resources to face the problem. This paper discusses the challenges for prevention and control in the Americas.

  16. Malaria prevention and control in Bhutan: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobgay, Tashi; Torres, Cristina E; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2011-03-01

    This paper highlights on the current malaria situations in Bhutan and its challenges for future prevention and control strategies. In Bhutan, malaria affects more than half of the entire population, mostly residing in the southern districts bordering with Indian states of Assam and West Bengal. Over the past ten years, due to concerted efforts, the morbidity and mortality due to malaria has significantly declined. These preventive and control measures focused on the mass distribution of long lasting insecticidal treated nets, focal indoor residual spray and use of artemisinin-based combination therapies. However, considerable challenge lies ahead and research is needed to generate local evidence for sustainable elimination of malaria from Bhutan. The article should be of value and interest to planners, malaria programs and for future researchers on malaria in Bhutan.

  17. A critical assessment of vector control for dengue prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achee, Nicole L; Gould, Fred; Perkins, T Alex; Reiner, Robert C; Morrison, Amy C; Ritchie, Scott A; Gubler, Duane J; Teyssou, Remy; Scott, Thomas W

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the Vaccines to Vaccinate (v2V) initiative was reconfigured into the Partnership for Dengue Control (PDC), a multi-sponsored and independent initiative. This redirection is consistent with the growing consensus among the dengue-prevention community that no single intervention will be sufficient to control dengue disease. The PDC's expectation is that when an effective dengue virus (DENV) vaccine is commercially available, the public health community will continue to rely on vector control because the two strategies complement and enhance one another. Although the concept of integrated intervention for dengue prevention is gaining increasingly broader acceptance, to date, no consensus has been reached regarding the details of how and what combination of approaches can be most effectively implemented to manage disease. To fill that gap, the PDC proposed a three step process: (1) a critical assessment of current vector control tools and those under development, (2) outlining a research agenda for determining, in a definitive way, what existing tools work best, and (3) determining how to combine the best vector control options, which have systematically been defined in this process, with DENV vaccines. To address the first step, the PDC convened a meeting of international experts during November 2013 in Washington, DC, to critically assess existing vector control interventions and tools under development. This report summarizes those deliberations.

  18. A critical assessment of vector control for dengue prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Achee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Vaccines to Vaccinate (v2V initiative was reconfigured into the Partnership for Dengue Control (PDC, a multi-sponsored and independent initiative. This redirection is consistent with the growing consensus among the dengue-prevention community that no single intervention will be sufficient to control dengue disease. The PDC's expectation is that when an effective dengue virus (DENV vaccine is commercially available, the public health community will continue to rely on vector control because the two strategies complement and enhance one another. Although the concept of integrated intervention for dengue prevention is gaining increasingly broader acceptance, to date, no consensus has been reached regarding the details of how and what combination of approaches can be most effectively implemented to manage disease. To fill that gap, the PDC proposed a three step process: (1 a critical assessment of current vector control tools and those under development, (2 outlining a research agenda for determining, in a definitive way, what existing tools work best, and (3 determining how to combine the best vector control options, which have systematically been defined in this process, with DENV vaccines. To address the first step, the PDC convened a meeting of international experts during November 2013 in Washington, DC, to critically assess existing vector control interventions and tools under development. This report summarizes those deliberations.

  19. Community capacity domains of dengue prevention and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charuai Suwanbamrung; Ratana Somrongthong; Phechnoy Singchagchai; Luechai Srigernyaung

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the meanings and domains for giving communities the capacity to be successful in den-gue prevention and control.Methods:One hundred and twenty participants were purposely selected from 4 sub-districts of 4 provinces in Southern Thailand with a high dengue incidence.Sixty community leaders and sixty non-community leaders participated in this study.In-depth interviews (IDIs),as well as focus group dis-cussions (FGDs)with tape-recorders and note-taking,were used to collect data.All records were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by using the Colaizzi method for content analysis.Results:The findings showed that people view the creation of a sustainable dengue community program as possible only with the support of each community in its entirety:"everyone,every sector,all participating,and with continuing activities."Commu-nity capacity for dengue prevention and control was dependent on ten domains:1)stakeholder participation, 2)community leadership,3)a core-activities group,4)a problem-solving needs assessment,5)dengue in-formation transfer,6)resource mobilization,7)a sense of community for the dengue problem,8)a dengue network partnership,9)critical dengue situation-management,and 10)continuing dengue prevention and con-trol activities.Conclusion:These community capacity domains can be developed into an assessment tool for the community capacity-building process.Community capacity domains require community leaders and non-com-munity leaders to clarify dengue prevention and control assistance required.

  20. Probiotics in the prevention of eczema: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Stephen J; Jordan, Sue; Storey, Melanie; Catherine A Thornton; Gravenor, Michael B.; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Susan F; Wang, Duolao; Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a multistrain, high-dose probiotic in the prevention of eczema. Design A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. Settings Antenatal clinics, research clinic, children at home. Patients Pregnant women and their infants. Interventions Women from 36 weeks gestation and their infants to age 6 months received daily either the probiotic (Lactobacillus salivarius CUL61, Lactobacillus paracasei CUL08, Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis CUL34 a...

  1. Proceedings of the 1978 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil demonstration plants was held at Newport Beach, California, June 19--21, 1978. It was sponsored by Argonne National Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy - Fossil Energy, and the Instrument Society of America - Orange County Section. Thirty-nine papers have been entered individually into the data base. (LTN)

  2. Demonstrating multi-layered MAS in control of offshore oil and gas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Mikkelsen, Lars; Næumann, J. R.; Demazeau, Y.

    2013-01-01

    From a control perspective, offshore oil and gas production is very challenging due to the many and potentially conflicting production objectives that arise from the intrinsic complexity of the oil and gas domain. In this paper, we demonstrate how a multi-layered multi-agent system can be used...

  3. A Comparison of Types of Robot Control for Programming by Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Kerstin; Kirstein, Franziska; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2016-01-01

    Programming by Demonstration (PbD) is an efficient way for non-experts to teach new skills to a robot. PbD can be carried out in different ways, for instance, by kinesthetic guidance, teleoperation or by using external controls. In this paper, we compare these three ways of controlling a robot...... in terms of efficiency, effectiveness (success and error rate) and usability. In an industrial assembly scenario, 51 participants carried out pegin- hole tasks using one of the three control modalities. The results show that kinesthetic guidance produces the best results. In order to test whether...

  4. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention: Switching Control of the GTM Aircraft with Elevator Jam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bor-Chin; Kwatny, Harry G.; Belcastro, Christine; Belcastro, Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Switching control, servomechanism, and H2 control theory are used to provide a practical and easy-to-implement solution for the actuator jam problem. A jammed actuator not only causes a reduction of control authority, but also creates a persistent disturbance with uncertain amplitude. The longitudinal dynamics model of the NASA GTM UAV is employed to demonstrate that a single fixed reconfigured controller design based on the proposed approach is capable of accommodating an elevator jam failure with arbitrary jam position as long as the thrust control has enough control authority. This paper is a first step towards solving a more comprehensive in-flight loss-of-control accident prevention problem that involves multiple actuator failures, structure damages, unanticipated faults, and nonlinear upset regime recovery, etc.

  5. Prevention and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2009-02-01

    Recent efforts to combat infections have focused on pharmaceutical interventions. However, the global spread of antimicrobial resistance calls for the reappraisal of personal and institutional hygiene. Hygiene embodies behavioural and procedural rules that prevent bacterial transmission. Consequently, the chance of spreading bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is significantly reduced. Hygiene is part of the primacy and totality of patient care, ensuring that no harm is done. Any prevention and control strategy must be underpinned by changes in attitude, embraced by all. The major components of preventing and controlling MRSA include hand and environmental hygiene (as part of standard precautions), patient isolation, and patient\\/staff decolonization. Improving hand hygiene practice is especially important where the risk of infection is highest, e.g. in intensive care. Physical isolation has two advantages: the physical barrier interrupts transmission, and this barrier emphasizes that precautions are required. With limited isolation facilities, risk assessment should be conducted to indicate which patients should be isolated. Environmental hygiene, although important, has a lower priority than standard precautions. When a patient is ready for discharge (home) or transfer (to another healthcare facility), the overall interests of the patient should take priority. All patients should be informed of their MRSA-positive status as soon as possible. Because of increased mupirocin resistance, a selective approach to decolonization should be taken. When MRSA-positive staff are identified, restricting their professional activity will depend on the nature of their work. Finally, politicians and others need to commit to providing the necessary resources to maximize MRSA prevention and control.

  6. A Research Framework for Demonstrating Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research presented here is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report serves as an outline for planned research on the benefits of greater modernization in the main control rooms of nuclear power plants.

  7. 77 FR 3269 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Prevention (CDC) Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Data Coordinating Center for Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiologic Studies,...

  8. 76 FR 19996 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  9. 78 FR 19489 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  10. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  11. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and... Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  12. 75 FR 78999 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 11 a... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  13. 78 FR 25743 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  14. 78 FR 24751 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  15. Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room Air Handlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Greenberg, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Vita, Corinne [Vigilent, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This report documents a demonstration of the energy-efficiency improvement provided by a new control system for computer room air handling devices. It also analyzes measured and reported air handling device fan power associated with changing the fan type. A 135,000 square foot commercial data center was used for the demonstration. All air handling units were upgraded with improved efficiency fans, and a control system that automatically adjusts the fan speed for the air handling units was added. Power measurements were collected for a baseline and for a period with the fan speed control system active. Changing the fan type resulted in a savings of 47 percent of energy used by the air handling equipment and associated chiller plant energy needed to cool the air handlers themselves. The addition of the fan speed control resulted in an additional 37 percent savings in the same two categories. The combined savings for the two improvements for the same categories was 66 percent compared to the data center fitted with the original fans without a control system. The energy use reduction provided by the complete air handling device improvement program for the whole data center site is estimated to be 2.9 million kilowatt hours per year—an overall data center site savings of 8.0 percent. The reduced electrical energy use at the site provides a 1.9 million pound yearly reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This demonstration showed that fan upgrades and a control system addition provide cost-effective improvements for data centers, with a payback reported to be under two years without utility incentives. In addition to the control system providing energy savings, the data collection and visual analysis capabilities provided immediate and long-term benefits. It is recommended that data center operators consider investing in fan upgrades and/or adding fan speed control for computer room air handlers.

  16. Global tobacco prevention and control in relation to a cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention framework: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Allison J; Labarthe, Darwin R; Huffman, Mark D; Hitsman, Brian

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to emphasize the role of tobacco prevention and control in cardiovascular health (CVH) promotion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, including the importance of these endpoints for measuring the full impact of tobacco-related policies, programs, and practices. In this review, we describe an overview of tobacco control interventions that have led to substantial declines in tobacco use and the relationship between these declines with CVH and CVD. We review interventions that have had success in high-income countries (HICs) as well as those that are gaining traction in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We emphasize the challenges to comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies faced by LMICs, and highlight the special role of cardiovascular health professionals in achieving CVH promotion and CVD prevention endpoints through tobacco control. Tobacco prevention and control strategies have a strong scientific basis, yet a distinct gap remains between this evidence and implementation of tobacco control policies, particularly in LMICs. Health professionals can contribute to tobacco control efforts, especially through patient-level clinical interventions, when supported by a health care system and government that recognize and support tobacco control as a critical strategy for CVH promotion and CVD prevention. Understanding, supporting, and applying current and evolving policies, programs, and practices in tobacco prevention and control is the province of all health professionals, especially those concerned with CVH promotion and CVD prevention. A new tobacco control roadmap from the World Heart Federation provides a strong impetus to the needed interdisciplinary collaboration.

  17. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  18. [Control of Opisthorchis viverrini infection for cholangiocarcinoma prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, Y

    2017-02-01

    also involved, such as nitrosamines in fish-based dishes undercoocked or fermented, very popular in these endemic regions. Despite the effectiveness of praziquantel to successfully cure this distomatose, opisthorchiasis persists endemic in areas where the incidence of CCA tends to progress. Mass deworming campaigns are ineffective due to the frequency of reinfection in the exposed population. Repeating alternatively cures and reinfections may promote carcinogenesis. The failure of prevention programs reflects the difficulty of changing the traditional habits of consuming raw or fermented fish. Pending a vaccine prophylaxis, control strategies are based on integrated measures involving the treatment of reservoir hosts, sanitation and efforts of continuing information and education to deter the consumption of uncooked fish and to improve the sanitation in rural areas.

  19. Advanced Grid-Friendly Controls Demonstration Project for Utility-Scale PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neill, Barbara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-21

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. The availability and dissemination of actual test data showing the viability of advanced utility-scale PV controls among all industry stakeholders can leverage PV's value from being simply an energy resource to providing additional ancillary services that range from variability smoothing and frequency regulation to power quality. Strategically partnering with a selected utility and/or PV power plant operator is a key condition for a successful demonstration project. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office selected the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to be a principal investigator in a two-year project with goals to (1) identify a potential partner(s), (2) develop a detailed scope of work and test plan for a field project to demonstrate the gird-friendly capabilities of utility-scale PV power plants, (3) facilitate conducting actual demonstration tests, and (4) disseminate test results among industry stakeholders via a joint NREL/DOE publication and participation in relevant technical conferences. The project implementation took place in FY 2014 and FY 2015. In FY14, NREL established collaborations with AES and First Solar Electric, LLC, to conduct demonstration testing on their utility-scale PV power plants in Puerto Rico and Texas, respectively, and developed test plans for each partner. Both Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas expressed interest in this project because of the importance of such advanced controls for the reliable operation of their power systems under high penetration levels of variable renewable generation. During FY15, testing was completed on both plants, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of

  20. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L.G.

    1977-07-01

    Work has been performed on updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP), development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments for FDP, process control analysis for FDP, and organization of a symposium on instrumentation and control for FDP. A Solids/Gas Flow Test Facility (S/GFTF) under construction for instrument development, testing, evaluation, and calibration is described. The development work for several mass-flow and other on-line instruments is described: acoustic flowmeter, capacitive density flowmeter, neutron activation flowmeter and composition analysis system, gamma ray correlation flowmeter, optical flowmeter, and capacitive liquid interface level meter.

  1. Demographic characteristics and food choices of participants in the Special Diabetes Program for American Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Jiang, Luohua; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William G; Zhang, Lijing; Acton, Kelly J; Roubideaux, Yvette; Manson, Spero M

    2015-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) suffer a disproportionate burden of diabetes. Identifying food choices of AI/ANs at risk of type 2 diabetes, living in both rural and urban settings, is critical to the development of culturally relevant, evidence-based education strategies designed to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. At baseline, 3135 AI/AN adults participating in the Special Diabetes Program for American Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project (SDPI-DP) completed a socio-demographic survey and a 27-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The primary dietary behavior goal of SDPI-DP education sessions and lifestyle coaching is changes in food choices, i.e., increased fruits, vegetables and whole grains, decreased high sugar beverages, red meat, and processed foods. Subsequently, program assessment focuses on changes in food types. Foods were delineated using a 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' classification as defined by the educators advising participants. Urban and rural differences were examined using χ(2) tests and two sample t-tests. Multiple linear regressions and linear mixed models were used to assess the association between socio-demographic factors and food choice. Retired participants, those living in urban areas and with high income and education selected healthy foods most frequently. Young males, those with low income and education consumed unhealthy foods most frequently. Selection of unhealthy foods did not differ by urban and rural setting. The ubiquitous nature of unhealthy food choices makes them hard to avoid. Food choice differences by gender, age, income, and setting suggest that nutrition education should more effectively target and meets the needs of young AI/AN males.

  2. Skin cancer has a large impact on our public hospitals but prevention programs continue to demonstrate strong economic credentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Sophy T F; Carter, Rob; Heward, Sue; Sinclair, Craig

    2017-08-01

    While skin cancer is still the most common cancer in Australia, important information gaps remain. This paper addresses two gaps: i) the cost impact on public hospitals; and ii) an up-to-date assessment of economic credentials for prevention. A prevalence-based cost approach was undertaken in public hospitals in Victoria. Costs were estimated for inpatient admissions, using State service statistics, and outpatient services based on attendance at three hospitals in 2012-13. Cost-effectiveness for prevention was estimated from 'observed vs expected' analysis, together with program expenditure data. Combining inpatient and outpatient costs, total annual costs for Victoria were $48 million to $56 million. The SunSmart program is estimated to have prevented more than 43,000 skin cancers between 1988 and 2010, a net cost saving of $92 million. Skin cancer treatment in public hospitals ($9.20∼$10.39 per head/year) was 30-times current public funding in skin cancer prevention ($0.37 per head/year). At about $50 million per year for hospitals in Victoria alone, the cost burden of a largely preventable disease is substantial. Skin cancer prevention remains highly cost-effective, yet underfunded. Implications for public health: Increased funding for skin cancer prevention must be kept high on the public health agenda. Hospitals would also benefit from being able to redirect resources to non-preventable conditions. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Global health diplomacy for obesity prevention: lessons from tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Chantal; Dubé, Laurette

    2010-07-01

    To date the global health diplomacy agenda has focused primarily on infectious diseases. Policymakers have not dedicated the same level of attention to chronic diseases, despite their rising contribution to the global burden of disease. Negotiation of the Framework convention on tobacco control provides an apt example from global health diplomacy to tackle diet-related chronic diseases. What lessons can be learned from this experience for preventing obesity? This article looks at why a global policy response is necessary, at the actors and interests involved in the negotiations, and at the forum for diplomacy.

  4. Surgical site infection prevention and control: an emerging paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard P; Clyburn, Terry A; Moucha, Calin S; Prokuski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Examining the current state of infection in orthopaedic surgery provides tools and techniques to reduce the risks of nosocomial infections and prevent and treat infections from drug-resistant organisms. It is important for surgeons to recognize modifiable surgical risk factors and be aware of the importance of preoperative patient screening in reducing surgical site infections. The latest evidence-based data from scientific exhibits, instructional course lectures, and the Orthopaedic Knowledge Online continuing medical education module gathered during the past 5 years by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Patient Safety Committee are useful in understanding and controlling the increasing and vital problem of surgical site infection.

  5. Proceedings of the 1977 symposium on instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The 1977 Symposium on Instrumentation and Process Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants was held at Hyatt Regency O'Hare, Chicago, Illinois, July 13 to 15, 1977. It was sponsored by the Argonne National Laboratory, the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and the Instrument Society of America (Chicago Section). Seventeen papers from thee proceedings were entered individually into EDB and ERA (three papers weree entered previously). (LTN)

  6. Interactive remote control for an STS-based superfluid helium transfer demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jeff C.; Robinson, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's superfluid helium on-orbit transfer (SHOOT) experiment, which is a Shuttle-based demonstration of the technology required to service cryogenically cooled satellites in space, is described. The SHOOT Command and Monitoring System software, developed on Macintosh II, will provide a near-real-time highly interactive interface making it possible to control the experiment and to analyze and display its telemetry. User interface is discussed as well as conversion functions, and hardware.

  7. Preventive analgesia for postoperative pain control: a broader concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadivelu N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nalini Vadivelu,1 Sukanya Mitra,2 Erika Schermer,3 Vijay Kodumudi,4 Alan David Kaye,5 Richard D Urman61Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India; 3Yale College, New Haven, 4School of Liberal Arts and Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 6Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Pain from surgical procedures occurs as a consequence of tissue trauma and may result in physical, cognitive, and emotional discomfort. Almost a century ago, researchers first described a possible relationship between intraoperative tissue damage and an intensification of acute pain and long-term postoperative pain, now referred to as central sensitization. Nociceptor activation is mediated by chemicals that are released in response to cellular or tissue damage. Pre-emptive analgesia is an important concept in understanding treatment strategies for postoperative analgesia. Pre-emptive analgesia focuses on postoperative pain control and the prevention of central sensitization and chronic neuropathic pain by providing analgesia administered preoperatively but not after surgical incision. Additional research in pre-emptive analgesia is warranted to better determine good outcome measurements and a better appreciation with regard to treatment optimization. Preventive analgesia reduces postoperative pain and consumption of analgesics, and this appears to be the most effective means of decreasing postoperative pain. Preventive analgesia, which includes multimodal preoperative and postoperative analgesic therapies, results in decreased postoperative pain and less postoperative consumption of analgesics.Keywords: preventive analgesia, central

  8. Preventing deformational plagiocephaly through parent guidance: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnivala, Henri; Vuollo, Ville; Harila, Virpi; Heikkinen, Tuomo; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Valkama, A Marita

    2015-09-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) occurs frequently in otherwise healthy infants. Many infants with DP undergo physiotherapy or helmet therapy, and ample treatment-related research is available. However, the possibility of preventing DP has been left with little attention. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention in the newborn's environment, positioning, and handling on the prevalence of DP at 3 months and to investigate the causal relationship between DP and cervical imbalance. We carried out a randomized controlled trial, with healthy newborns randomized into two groups at birth. All families received standard positioning instructions to prevent SIDS. Additionally, the intervention group received detailed instructions regarding the infant's environment, positioning, and handling, with the goal of creating a nonrestrictive environment that promotes spontaneous physical movement and symmetrical motor development. Two- and three-dimensional photogrammetry served to assess cranial shape and goniometry to measure cervical motion. At 3 months, the prevalence of DP was lower in the intervention group in both 2D (11 vs 31 %) and 3D analyses (15 vs 33 %), and the asymmetry was milder in the intervention group. Infants with DP at follow-up had also developed more torticollis. An early educational intervention reduces the prevalence and severity of DP at 3 months. •Deformational plagiocephaly, often with associated torticollis, is common in healthy infants. •Parental education is frequently recommended for preventing deformational plagiocephaly, although information regarding the effectiveness of preventive strategies is scarce. •Early parent guidance effectively reduces the prevalence and severity of DP and improves the cervical range of motion at three months. •Educating both parents and professionals about proper infant positioning on a national scale could help minimize public healthcare costs.

  9. 75 FR 78997 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion,...

  10. 76 FR 24490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Program Office, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 1600 Clifton... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: April...

  11. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... and Disease Prevention Research Centers, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DP14-001, initial... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates 8...

  12. 76 FR 10908 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Director... and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  13. 76 FR 49771 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway,...

  14. 75 FR 78999 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Centers for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated:...

  15. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC..., Director, Extramural Research Program Office, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and...

  16. 76 FR 19995 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned... Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop...

  17. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...., Director, Extramural Research Program Office, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and...

  18. 76 FR 13621 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Director... and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  19. 76 FR 13414 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Blackman, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: March...

  20. 75 FR 6675 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces..., National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road,...

  1. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dana Redford, Acting Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  2. 76 FR 20355 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE., Mailstop K-92,...

  3. 76 FR 45575 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Extramural Programs, National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  4. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ..., Prevention, and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in a Malaria- Endemic Area of Malawi... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m.-3:00...

  5. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Annual technical progress report, October 1976--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L. G.; O' Fallon, N. M.

    1977-10-01

    Progress on Instrumentation and Process Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP) is reported. Work has been performed on updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for FDP, development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments for FDP, process control analysis for FDP, and organization of a symposium on instrumentation and control for FDP. A Solids/Gas Flow Test Facility (S/GFTF) under construction for instrument development, testing, evaluation, and calibration is described. The development work for several mass-flow and other on-line instruments is described: acoustic flowmeter, capacitive density flowmeter, neutron activation flowmeter, gamma ray correlation flowmeter, optical flowmeter, composition analysis system, and capacitive liquid interface level meter.

  6. Hospital infection prevention and control issues relevant to extensive floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Mundy, Linda M; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Glen Mayhall, C

    2013-02-01

    The devastating clinical and economic implications of floods exemplify the need for effective global infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies for natural disasters. Reopening of hospitals after excessive flooding requires a balance between meeting the medical needs of the surrounding communities and restoration of a safe hospital environment. Postflood hospital preparedness plans are a key issue for infection control epidemiologists, healthcare providers, patients, and hospital administrators. We provide recent IPC experiences related to reopening of a hospital after extensive black-water floods necessitated hospital closures in Thailand and the United States. These experiences provide a foundation for the future design, execution, and analysis of black-water flood preparedness plans by IPC stakeholders.

  7. Proof-of-Concept Demonstration Results for Robotic Visual Servo Controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawda, P.V.

    2004-09-22

    There is significant motivation to provide robotic systems with improved autonomy as a means to significantly accelerate deactivation and decommissioning operations while also reducing the associated costs, removing human operators from hazardous environments, and reducing the required burden and skill of human operators. To achieve improved autonomy, fundamental research is focused on the challenges of developing visual servo controllers. The challenge in developing these controllers is that a camera provides 2-dimensional image information about the 3-dimensional Euclidean-space through a perspective (range dependent) projection that can be corrupted by uncertainty in the camera calibration matrix. Disturbances in this relationship (i.e., corruption in the sensor information) propagate erroneous information to the feedback controller of the robot, leading to potentially unpredictable task execution. This technical manual describes 3 proof-of-concept demonstrations of visual servo controllers developed from fundamental research aimed at these challenges. Specifically, one section describes the implementation of a cooperative visual servo control scheme with a camera-in-hand and a fixed camera to track a moving target despite uncertainty in the camera calibration and the unknown constant distance from the camera to a target where the camera is mounted on the end-effector of a 6 degrees-of-freedom hydraulic robot manipulator. The next section describes the implementation of 2 homography-based visual servo tracking and regulation controllers for a mobile robot with a calibrated camera despite an unknown time-varying distance from the camera to a target.

  8. Nutritional patterns on prevention and control of hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Cuadrado Soto, Esther; López Sobaler, Ana M

    2016-07-12

    Objectives: Hypertension is a common health problem and with severe health impacts, underdiagnosed and modulated by dietary habits, lifestyle and intake of several nutrients, so analyze the latest data on the involvement of nutrition in preventing and control of hypertension is the subject of this review. Methods: Literature search regarding the topic. Results: Although the best known and followed patterns are the restriction in sodium intake, weight control, and moderation in alcohol consumption; improving diet (increasing consumption of cereals, vegetables, fruits...) and physical activity seem to have a major impact on the control of blood pressure, also consume less saturated fat (with increased MUFA and omega-3), adequate intake of calcium, magnesium, protein, vitamin D and fiber and improving the antioxidant capacity of the diet can have great importance in fighting the problem of hypertension. Given that the average Spanish diet does not meet the advised requirements for many of the nutrients mentioned as favorable in control of the blood pressure, an approximation of the diet to the theoretical ideal can be very helpful in the fight against this problem that has great health impact. Conclusions: Improving feeding, increasing the intake of vegetables, legumes, whole grains, dairy, fish, avoiding an inadequate supply of nutrients (especially calcium, magnesium, protein, and vitamin D) can have a greater benefit in controlling blood pressure, than most widespread monitoring restrictive guidelines in practice.

  9. National infection prevention and control programmes: Endorsing quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempliuk, Valeska; Ramon-Pardo, Pilar; Holder, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Core components Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition to pain and suffering, HAIs increase the cost of health care and generates indirect costs from loss of productivity for patients and society as a whole. Since 2005, the Pan American Health Organization has provided support to countries for the assessment of their capacities in infection prevention and control (IPC). More than 130 hospitals in 18 countries were found to have poor IPC programmes. However, in the midst of many competing health priorities, IPC programmes are not high on the agenda of ministries of health, and the sustainability of national programmes is not viewed as a key point in making health care systems more consistent and trustworthy. Comprehensive IPC programmes will enable countries to reduce the mobility, mortality and cost of HAIs and improve quality of care. This paper addresses the relevance of national infection prevention and control (NIPC) programmes in promoting, supporting and reinforcing IPC interventions at the level of hospitals. A strong commitment from national health authorities in support of national IPC programmes is crucial to obtaining a steady decrease of HAIs, lowering health costs due to HAIs and ensuring safer care.

  10. Preventing, Controlling, and Sharing Data of Arsenicosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Tong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The first case of arsenicosis was reported in China in the 1950s. That incident was associated with the so-called "black foot disease." In the late 1970s and early 1980s, arsenic specific coetaneous changes were diagnosed in the Xinjiang Autonomous Rregion and subsequently in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Shanxi Province. Recently, endemic arsenicosis was also found in Jilin, Ningxia, Qinghai, and Anhui Provinces. The prevalence of arsenicosis in China is becoming more and more serious. In order to prevent and control it, many departments and institutes have begun to work in this field. They have made a great progress including also the sharing of arsenicosis data within a limited area. But the limited nature of this data sharing is a barrier for preventing and controlling arsenicosis. Only once data sharing is realized within the whole nation, can we discover the best way of eliminating arsenicosis. With this goal in mind, we have set up a rudimentary platform of asenicosis data sharing. This gradually needs to be improved and improved.

  11. Compliance with Sport Injury Prevention Interventions in Randomised Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reijen, Miriam; Vriend, Ingrid; van Mechelen, Willem; Finch, Caroline F; Verhagen, Evert A

    2016-08-01

    Sport injury prevention studies vary in the way compliance with an intervention is defined, measured and adjusted for. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the extent to which sport injury prevention randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have defined, measured and adjusted results for compliance with an injury prevention intervention. An electronic search was performed in MEDLINE, PubMed, the Cochrane Center of Controlled Trials, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) and SPORTDiscus. English RCTs, quasi-RCTs and cluster-RCTs were considered eligible. Trials that involved physically active individuals or examined the effects of an intervention aimed at the prevention of sport- or physical activity-related injuries were included. Of the total of 100 studies included, 71.6 % mentioned compliance or a related term, 68.8 % provided details on compliance measurement and 51.4 % provided compliance data. Only 19.3 % analysed the effect of compliance rates on study outcomes. While studies used heterogeneous methods, pooled effects could not be presented. Studies that account for compliance demonstrated that compliance significant affects study outcomes. The way compliance is dealt with in preventions studies is subject to a large degree of heterogeneity. Valid and reliable tools to measure and report compliance are needed and should be matched to a uniform definition of compliance.

  12. Demonstration of a Low-Lift Heat Pump for High-Power Spacecraft Thermal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a prototype low-lift heat pump for high-power spacecraft thermal control The low-lift heat pump was designed to provide 25 kW of cooling at 303 K and transport this waste heat to a radiator for heat rejection. To accomplish this, a demonstration heat pump with an evaporation temperature of 298 K and a condensing temperature of 301 K was designed and built. HFC-227ea was the working fluid. This effort resulted in optimization of the centrifugal compressor impeller, diffuser, and shroud designs through extensive experimental testing. The detailed design of a magnetic bearing centrifugal compressor was completed. A prototype heat pump thermal control system was designed and fabricated which contained prototypical cold plate and condenser designs. This prototype system was extensively tested and demonstrated to measure performance parameters such as power consumption, cooling capacity, system size and mass, and other key parameters. Finally, the experimental performance was input into the theoretical trade study allowing for a comparison of the actual performance of the low-lift heat pump to a single-phase pumped loop. Inputting the experimental low-lift heat pump performance into the trade study showed that the low-lift heat pump still has lower system mass than the single-phase pumped loop for all space temperatures considered. The experimental results very closely match the theoretical results used in the trade study.

  13. Weight control and prevention of metabolic syndrome by green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-tan, Sudathip; Grove, Kimberly A; Lambert, Joshua D

    2011-08-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceace) is the second most popular beverage in the world and has been extensively studied for its putative disease preventive effects. Green tea is characterized by the presence of a high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) being the most abundant and most well-studied. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex condition that is defined by the presence of elevated waist circumference, dysglycemia, elevated blood pressure, decrease serum high-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol, and increased serum triglycerides. Studies in both in vitro and laboratory animal models have examined the preventive effects of green tea and EGCG against the symptoms of MetS. Overall, the results of these studies have been promising and demonstrate that green tea and EGCG have preventive effects in both genetic and dietary models of obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Various mechanisms have been proposed based on these studies and include: modulation of dietary fat absorption and metabolism, increased glucose utilization, decreased de novo lipogenesis, enhanced vascular responsiveness, and antioxidative effects. In the present review, we discuss the current state of the science with regard to laboratory studies on green tea and MetS. We attempt to critically evaluate the available data and point out areas for future research. Although there is a considerable amount of data available, questions remain in terms of the primary mechanism(s) of action, the dose-response relationships involved, and the best way to translate the results to human intervention studies.

  14. Development and demonstration of optical polarization controller; Hikari henpa seigyo sochi no kaihatsu to jissho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurono, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    If fiber transmission light can be controlled in a stabilized polarization state, realization of coherent optical communication is anticipated. In the case of adopting it to OPGW, however, it is necessary to compensate high speed polarization variation caused by lightning strike. But this was difficult in the conventional method. Accordingly, a high speed polarization control method was proposed which uses an electric effect of lithium niobate (LN) crystals. In the study, a polarization control unit was manufactured based on the method proposed and the performance was demonstrated. As a result of measuring output light with input light changed in every state of polarization, the object horizontal polarization component obtained a stabilized light intensity at {+-}0.1dB, and a light intensity of the component slipped out of the horizontal polarization was suppressed under -20dB. To cope with the polarization variation by lightning strike, it is necessary to make the control delay 10{mu}sec or below, and improvement in processing unit, etc. may make it possible since LN crystals respond below 1{mu}sec. High speed control of the infinitely continuing arbitrary polarization variation became possible. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  15. Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, E M; Barnoya, J; Pérez-Stable, E J; Glantz, S A

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope.

  16. Beyond the "hot-and-cold" game: a demonstration of computer-controlled shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F J

    1999-02-01

    Shaping, or the method of successive approximations, is widely taught in introductory psychology and the psychology of learning as a procedure for establishing new behavior. This article illustrates a computer-controlled shaping demonstration that allows the user to specify several critical parameters of the shaping process and that then shapes the user's mouse movements toward an arbitrary virtual (invisible) target on the computer screen. The relative effectiveness of different shaping parameters can be assessed by examining several dependent measures, such as the distance of the cursor from the target across time and the rate at which reinforcers were earned. This demonstration allows students to move beyond the notion that shaping is simply the application of the "hot-and-cold" game and to understand that there is a science underlying the art of shaping.

  17. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  18. Do high concentrations of microcystin prevent Daphnia control of phytoplankton?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chislock, Michael F; Sarnelle, Orlando; Jernigan, Lauren M; Wilson, Alan E

    2013-04-15

    Toxin-producing cyanobacteria have frequently been hypothesized to limit the ability of herbivorous zooplankton (such as Daphnia) to control phytoplankton biomass by inhibiting feeding, and in extreme cases, causing zooplankton mortality. Using limnocorral experiments in hyper-eutrophic ponds located in Alabama and Michigan (U.S.A.), we tested the hypothesis that high levels of cyanobacteria and microcystin, a class of hepatotoxins produced by several cyanobacterial genera, prevent Daphnia from strongly reducing phytoplankton abundance. At the start of the first experiment (Michigan), phytoplankton communities were dominated by toxic Microcystis and Anabaena (∼96% of total phytoplankton biomass), and concentrations of microcystin were ∼3 μg L⁻¹. Two weeks after adding Daphnia pulicaria from a nearby eutrophic lake, microcystin levels increased to ∼6.5 μg L⁻¹, yet Daphnia populations increased exponentially (r = 0.24 day⁻¹). By the third week, Daphnia had suppressed phytoplankton biomass by ∼74% relative to the no Daphnia controls and maintained reduced phytoplankton biomass until the conclusion of the five-week experiment. In the second experiment (Alabama), microcystin concentrations were greater than 100 μg L⁻¹, yet a mixture of three D. pulicaria clones from eutrophic lakes in southern MI increased and again reduced phytoplankton biomass, in this case by over 80%. The ability of Daphnia to increase in abundance and suppress phytoplankton biomass, despite high initial levels of cyanobacteria and microcystin, indicates that the latter does not prevent strong control of phytoplankton biomass by Daphnia genotypes that are adapted to environments with abundant cyanobacteria and associated cyanotoxins.

  19. Dental caries: strategies to control this preventable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg-Gunn, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man's most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm) metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth's resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: 'automatic', 'home care' and 'professional care': the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Dental caries is preventable - individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  20. Integrated Power and Attitude Control System Demonstrated With Flywheels G2 and D1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.

    2005-01-01

    On September 14, 2004, NASA Glenn Research Center's Flywheel Development Team experimentally demonstrated a full-power, high-speed, two-flywheel system, simultaneously regulating a power bus and providing a commanded output torque. Operation- and power-mode transitions were demonstrated up to 2000 W in charge and 1100 W in discharge, while the output torque was simultaneously regulated between plus or minus 0.8 N-m. The G2 and D1 flywheels--magnetically levitated carbon-fiber wheels with permanent magnet motors--were used for the experiment. The units were mounted on an air bearing table in Glenn's High Energy Flywheel Facility. The operational speed range for these tests was between 20,000 and 60,000 rpm. The bus voltage was regulated at 125 V during charge and discharge, and charge-discharge and discharge-charge transitions were demonstrated by changing the amount of power that the power supply provided between 300 and 0 W. In a satellite system, this would be the equivalent of changing the amount of energy that the solar array provides to the spacecraft. In addition to regulating the bus voltage, we simultaneously controlled the net torque produced by the two flywheel modules. Both modules were mounted on an air table that was restrained by a load cell. The load cell measured the force on the table, and the torque produced by the two flywheels on the table could be calculated from that measurement. This method was used to measure the torque produced by the modules, yielding net torques from -0.8 to 0.8 N-m. This was the first Glenn demonstration of the Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) at high power levels and speeds.

  1. Flywheel Single-Axis Integrated Momentum and Power Control System Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.

    2004-01-01

    On July 10, 2003, the NASA Glenn Research Center flywheel team experimentally demonstrated a two-flywheel-module system that simultaneously provided attitude control in a single axis and regulated power. The test was conducted using the D1 flywheel module and the high-speed shaft (HSS) in the High Energy Flywheel Facility (HEFF). Both of these flywheel modules consist of a magnetically levitated rotor with an integral motor/generator, a vacuum housing, and mechanical touchdown bearings. Energy is stored kinetically in the rotor. The motor/generator allows energy to be added to or withdrawn from the rotor, and magnetic bearings and a vacuum enclosure are used to minimize losses.

  2. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. (Ebasco Services, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Demonstration of a quantum controlled-NOT gate in the telecommunications band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Altepeter, Joseph B; Medic, Milja; Lee, Kim Fook; Gokden, Burc; Hadfield, Robert H; Nam, Sae Woo; Kumar, Prem

    2008-04-04

    We present the first quantum controlled-not (cnot) gate realized using a fiber-based indistinguishable photon-pair source in the 1.55 microm telecommunications band. Using this free-space cnot gate, all four Bell states are produced and fully characterized by performing quantum-state tomography, demonstrating the gate's unambiguous entangling capability and high fidelity. Telecom-band operation makes this cnot gate particularly suitable for quantum-information-processing tasks that are at the interface of quantum communication and linear optical quantum computing.

  4. 75 FR 28261 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved Diagnostics for Lyme Borreliosis, Funding Opportunity... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  5. 75 FR 13285 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... AGENCY Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in accordance with 40 CFR 2.309(c) and 2.308(h)(2). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will perform work for OPP under an Interagency Agreement...

  6. 75 FR 27561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): A Prospective Birth Cohort Study Involving Environmental Uranium... Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Date: 1 p.m.-4 p.m., July 8...

  7. INVESTIGATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF DRY CARBON-BASED SORBENT INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Hunt; Mark Fox; Lillian Stan; Sheila Haythornthwaite; Justin Smith; Jason Ruhl

    1998-10-01

    This quarterly report describes the activities that have taken place during the first full quarter of the Phase II project ''Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control''. Modifications were completed and sampling began at the 600 acfm pilot-scale particulate control module (PCM) located at the Comanche Station in Pueblo, CO. The PCM was configured as an electrostatic precipitator for these tests. A Perkin-Elmer flue gas mercury analyzer was installed on-site and operated. Initial test results using both manual sampling methodology and the mercury analyzer are presented herein. Preparations were made during this period for full-scale mercury testing of several PSCo units. A site visit was made to Arapahoe and Cherokee Generating Stations to determine sample locations and to develop a test plan.

  8. Demonstration of a Controlled-Phase Gate for Continuous-Variable One-Way Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Ukai, Ryuji; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a controlled-phase gate for continuous variables in a fully measurement-based fashion. In our scheme, the two independent input states of the gate, encoded in two optical modes, are teleported into a four-mode Gaussian cluster state. As a result, one of the entanglement links present in the initial cluster state appears in the two unmeasured output modes as the corresponding entangling gate acting on the input states. The genuine quantum character of this gate becomes manifest and is verified through the presence of entanglement at the output for a product two-mode coherent input state. By combining our controlled-phase gate with the recently reported module for universal single-mode Gaussian operations [R. Ukai et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 240504 (2011)], it is possible to implement universal Gaussian operations on arbitrary multi-mode quantum optical states in form of a fully measurement-based one-way quantum computation.

  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berríos-Torres, Sandra I; Umscheid, Craig A; Bratzler, Dale W; Leas, Brian; Stone, Erin C; Kelz, Rachel R; Reinke, Caroline E; Morgan, Sherry; Solomkin, Joseph S; Mazuski, John E; Dellinger, E Patchen; Itani, Kamal M F; Berbari, Elie F; Segreti, John; Parvizi, Javad; Blanchard, Joan; Allen, George; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Donlan, Rodney; Schecter, William P

    2017-08-01

    The human and financial costs of treating surgical site infections (SSIs) are increasing. The number of surgical procedures performed in the United States continues to rise, and surgical patients are initially seen with increasingly complex comorbidities. It is estimated that approximately half of SSIs are deemed preventable using evidence-based strategies. To provide new and updated evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of SSI. A targeted systematic review of the literature was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1998 through April 2014. A modified Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the quality of evidence and the strength of the resulting recommendation and to provide explicit links between them. Of 5759 titles and abstracts screened, 896 underwent full-text review by 2 independent reviewers. After exclusions, 170 studies were extracted into evidence tables, appraised, and synthesized. Before surgery, patients should shower or bathe (full body) with soap (antimicrobial or nonantimicrobial) or an antiseptic agent on at least the night before the operative day. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered only when indicated based on published clinical practice guidelines and timed such that a bactericidal concentration of the agents is established in the serum and tissues when the incision is made. In cesarean section procedures, antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered before skin incision. Skin preparation in the operating room should be performed using an alcohol-based agent unless contraindicated. For clean and clean-contaminated procedures, additional prophylactic antimicrobial agent doses should not be administered after the surgical incision is closed in the operating room, even in the presence of a drain. Topical antimicrobial agents should not be applied to the surgical incision. During surgery, glycemic control should be

  10. Effectiveness of programmes as part of primary prevention demonstrated on the example of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Dietl, Markus; Steinhauser, Gerlinde

    2011-04-01

    The HTA-report (HTA = Health Technology Assessment) deals with the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. In 2009 approximately 356,000 people died in Germany due to cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations about 6.3 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. The interventions that are subsidized by the public health insurance are mainly focused on sufficient physical activities, healthy nutrition, stress management and the reduction of the consumption of addictive drugs and luxury food. Which lifestyle-related measures and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are effective? To what extent will the health status be improved by these offers? To what extent will existing health resources and skills be strengthened by these offers? Are there any differences regarding the effectiveness among the interventions with respect to different settings or subgroups? Which lifestyle-related interventions and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are sustainable and cost-effective? Which outcome parameters are in the view of the contributors decisive for the evaluation of the effectiveness? In the view of the contributor are there different values between the outcome parameters? In the view of the payers and other actors are there different values between the outcome parameters? Which ethical and juridical factors have to be considered? Which social and/or socio-economic parameters influence the use of the services and effectiveness? A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. For the period 2005 to 2010, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies as well as economical evaluations which deal with primary prevention programmes regarding cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome are included. 44 publications meet the inclusion criteria. These studies confirm the effectiveness of the

  11. Effectiveness of programmes as part of primary prevention demonstrated on the example of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The HTA-report (HTA = Health Technology Assessment deals with the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. In 2009 approximately 356,000 people died in Germany due to cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations about 6.3 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. The interventions that are subsidized by the public health insurance are mainly focused on sufficient physical activities, healthy nutrition, stress management and the reduction of the consumption of addictive drugs and luxury food. Objectives: Which lifestyle-related measures and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are effective? To what extent will the health status be improved by these offers? To what extent will existing health resources and skills be strengthened by these offers? Are there any differences regarding the effectiveness among the interventions with respect to different settings or subgroups? Which lifestyle-related interventions and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are sustainable and cost-effective? Which outcome parameters are in the view of the contributors decisive for the evaluation of the effectiveness? In the view of the contributor are there different values between the outcome parameters? In the view of the payers and other actors are there different values between the outcome parameters? Which ethical and juridical factors have to be considered? Which social and/or socio-economic parameters influence the use of the services and effectiveness? Methods: A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. For the period 2005 to 2010, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies as well as economical evaluations which deal with primary prevention programmes regarding cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome are included. Results: 44 publications meet the

  12. The prevention and control of dengue after Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charito Aumentado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many of the areas in the Philippines affected by Typhoon Haiyan are endemic for dengue; therefore, dengue prevention was a priority in the initial post-disaster risk assessment. We describe the dengue prevention and response strategies applied after Haiyan. Methods: The dengue response was implemented by a wide range of national and international stakeholders. Priorities included the rapid re-establishment of an effective surveillance system to quickly identify new dengue cases, monitor trends and determine the geographical distribution of cases. Dengue rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were distributed to sentinel health facilities, and comprehensive vector control activities and entomological surveys were implemented. Several training sessions for key stakeholders and awareness campaigns for communities were organized. Results: There were RDT-positive dengue cases reported from urban and semi-urban areas where entomological surveys also confirmed a high density of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Although there was an increase in dengue cases in January 2014, the number of cases remained below the epidemic threshold throughout the remaining months of 2014. Discussion: There was no large outbreak of dengue after Typhoon Haiyan, possibly due to the targeted, multifaceted and rapid response for dengue after Haiyan. However, surveillance differed after Haiyan, making comparisons with previous years difficult. Multiple players contributed to the response that was also facilitated by close communication and coordination within the Health Cluster.

  13. [Role of vaccination in chronic disease prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoqun; Huang, Shue; Zhao, Yanfang; Zhao, Wenhua; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2015-08-01

    Chronic non-communicable disease is a major public health problem affecting the health of residents in china. Evidence shows that, in addition to four major risk factors, i.e. unreasonable dietary, lack of physical activity, smoking and drinking, epidemic and severe outcome of chronic disease is associated with many infectious diseases. Increasingly cancers have been shown to have an infectious etiology. There is also a significantly increased risk of infectious disease such as influenza, pneumonia and other infectious disease in people with pre-existing chronic non-communicable diseases like diabetes, heart disease, and lung diseases. And more than that, there is a high risk of susceptibility to death and severe outcomes among them. Epidemiological studies has confirmed, that through targeted vaccine inoculation, liver cancer, cervical cancer can be effectively prevented, while influenza or pneumonia vaccine are related to reduced risk of hospitalization or death and hospitalization expenses regarding with a variety of chronic diseases. World Health Organization and several other professional organizations have put forward recommendations on vaccine inoculation of chronic disease patients. Programs targeting infectious factors are also an important aspect of chronic diseases prevention and control, therefore, related researches need to be strengthened in the future.

  14. The Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations 2000 come into force on the 1st August 2000. They define the maximum permissible release into the environment from activities, mobile and stationary installations of a range of pollutants including sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, organic compounds and partial oxidation products, metals, metalloids and their compounds, asbestos, glass and mineral fibres; halogens and phosphorus and their compounds, and particulate matter. The Regulations apply to activities in the following industries: energy, metal, mineral, ceramics, chemical, paper, timber, rubber, carbon, bitumen, coating, printing and textiles, intensive farming and waste processing. The Regulations define procedures for permits, enforcement, appeals, information and publicity and offences, and define the Secretary of State's powers. Details are contained in Schedule 1 to 10.

  15. Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulation 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations 2000 come into force on the 1st August 2000. They define the maximum permissible release into the environment from activities, mobile and stationary installations of a range of pollutants including sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, organic compounds and partial oxidation products, metals, metalloids and their compounds, asbestos, glass and mineral fibres; halogens and phosphorus and their compounds, and particulate matter. The Regulations apply to activities in the following industries: energy, metal, mineral, ceramics, chemical, paper, timber, rubber, carbon, bitumen, coating, printing and textiles, intensive farming and waste processing. The Regulations define procedures for permits, enforcement, appeals, information and publicity and offences, and define the Secretary of State's powers. Details are contained in Schedule 1 to 10.

  16. Blood pressure control to prevent decline in cognition after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihle-Hansen H

    2015-06-01

    between achieved goal blood pressure or blood pressure reduction after 1 year and the diagnoses of MCI or dementia (P=0.32–0.56.Conclusion: Treatment of hypertension is important for primary and secondary prevention of stroke. Showing a potential beneficial effect of blood pressure control on cognitive function, however, probably needs longer follow-up. Keywords: cognitive impairment, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, risk factor management, secondary prevention

  17. A field demonstration of a modified wet scrubber for dust control in an Illinois coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Alam, M.M.; Patwardhan, A.; Thatavarthy, K.K. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Department of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A commercial wet scrubber was used in the SIU-Joy dust control laboratory to test several concepts for improving the dust control efficiency of a wet scrubber. The concepts tested included two filter-two-spray systems, hollow and full-cone sprays, horizontal and vertical sprays, different layer filters and addition of surfactant. The optimised scrubber configuration had water-only vertical sprays for pre-wetting coarse dust, and vertical surfactant-laden water sprays for wetting ultrafine particles. This scrubber configuration reduced dust concentrations from 250 mg/m{sup 3} to 1.8 mg/m{sup 3}. Upon successful testing and optimisation of parameters in the laboratory, field demonstration of the concepts was conducted at an Illinois coal mine. The optimised scrubber configuration was tested in the field with good results in terms of improved visibility in the face area and reduced respirable and quartz dust concentrations. Additional modifications in the field involved relocation of the scrubber suction inlets from the bottom to the side and changing the water spray configuration on the miner head. These additional changes were based on a conceptualised spatial dust distribution profile in the face area. The results of these laboratory development and field demonstration studies are presented in this paper. 6 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Loss of Control Prevention and Recovery: Onboard Guidance, Control, and Systems Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of control (LOC) is one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. LOC accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. These LOC hazards include vehicle impairment conditions, external disturbances; vehicle upset conditions, and inappropriate crew actions or responses. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. NASA previously defined a comprehensive research and technology development approach for reducing LOC accidents and an associated integrated system concept. Onboard technologies for improved situation awareness, guidance, and control for LOC prevention and recovery are needed as part of this approach. Such systems should include: LOC hazards effects detection and mitigation; upset detection, prevention and recovery; and mitigation of combined hazards. NASA is conducting research in each of these areas. This paper provides an overview of this research, including the near-term LOC focus and associated analysis, as well as preliminary flight system architecture.

  19. Prevention and control of bovine cysticercosis: a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandro Pruence Nickele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage (Cysticercus bovis of Taenia saginata. This study aimed to identify prevention and control measures for bovine cysticercosis indicated by experts in the fields of public and animal health. The study was conducted through three rounds of the Delphi method and had the participation of 44 experts from 13 Brazilian states in 30 educational institutions, research institutions, and sanitary inspection services. The first round comprised an open question, the answers to which formed the basis for structuring the second and third questionnaire. To reach a consensus in the second and third rounds, experts were asked to express their agreement or disagreement of each proposition on the questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed at the end of each round. Twenty-three specialists (52.27% participated in all three rounds. The first round resulted in 28 proposals categorized into six areas: health education, methods of diagnosis and treatment, sanitation measures, epidemiological studies, legislation and sanitary supervision, and intersectorality. In the second round, the experts reached a consensus on 16 propositions (57.14%. This percentage increased by 3.54% during the third round. At the end of the third round, the experts had reached a consensus on 17 of the 28 initial propositions (60.71%. The highest percentage of agreement (29.4% was observed in the category of health education. This study allowed us to identify 17 recommendations pertaining to the prevention and control of bovine cysticercosis. These measures are not mutually exclusive, and require an integrated approach to the establishment of intervention actions at various points in the life cycle of the parasite.

  20. Innovation in cervical cancer prevention and control in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Allen-Leigh, Betania

    2009-08-01

    Disparities related to cervical cancer continue to exist in Mexico, including insufficient screening coverage, problems with quality control and a resulting greater risk of mortality among women from marginalized areas. A lack of opportunities and requirements for continuing education and accreditation of healthcare personnel involved in the screening program is also an issue. HPV DNA testing and HPV vaccines are recent technological innovations that offer a potential solution to the continued negative impact of cervical cancer among Mexican women. This essay attempts to answer questions such as: Why should HPV testing be integrated into the early detection program in Mexico? How can HPV testing best be integrated into the program in Mexico? How-from a public health perspective that seeks to reduce disparities-can HPV vaccination best be implemented in Mexico? HPV testing allows increased positive predictive value while also reducing costly and unnecessary overtreatment of low-grade abnormalities, and HPV vaccines offer the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer. The strategy proposed for Mexico includes primary prevention with HPV vaccination for girls aged between 12 and 16 years (before sexual initiation), Pap testing with excellent quality control for women 24-34 years of age and high-risk HPV DNA testing for women 35 years and older. HPV samples would be either clinically collected or self-collected and women with positive HPV test results would receive follow-up high-quality Pap testing. This approach is creative and focuses on reducing disparities and providing high-quality care that is also cost effective.

  1. A national agenda for Latino cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Suarez, Lucina; Giachello, Aida L; Marti, Jose R; Medrano, Martha A; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Trapido, Edward J

    2005-06-01

    Although cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among Latinos, there is limited knowledge of cancer-related issues and priorities of greatest significance to the Latino population, the largest minority group in the nation. This information is vital in helping to guide Latino cancer research, training, and awareness efforts at national, regional, and local levels. To help identify cancer issues of greatest relevance to Latinos, Redes En Accion, The National Hispanic/Latino Cancer Network, a major network among the National Cancer Institute's Special Populations Networks, conducted a survey of 624 key opinion leaders from around the country. Respondents were asked to rank the three cancer sites most important to Latinos in their region and the five issues of greatest significance for this population's cancer prevention and control. Recommendations were prioritized for three specific areas: 1) research, 2) training and/or professional education, and 3) awareness and/or public education. Among cancers, breast carcinoma was ranked number one, followed in order by cervical and lung carcinomas. The issues of greatest significance to Latinos were 1) access to cancer screening and care, 2) tobacco use, 3) patient-doctor communication, 4) nutrition, and 5) risk communication. This survey solicited information from scientists, health care professionals, leaders of government agencies, professional and community-based organizations, and other stakeholders in Latino health. The results laid the foundation for a national Redes En Accion Latino cancer agenda, thus providing a useful tool for individuals and organizations engaged in cancer prevention and control efforts among the Hispanic-Latino population.

  2. Technical assistance as a prevention capacity-building tool: a demonstration using the getting to outcomes framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sarah B; Chinman, Matthew; Ebener, Patricia; Imm, Pam; Wandersman, Abraham; Ryan, Gery W

    2009-10-01

    Demands on community-based prevention programs for performance accountability and positive outcomes are ever increasing in the face of constrained resources. Relatively little is known about how technical assistance (TA) should be structured to benefit community-based organizations and to lead to better outcomes. In this study, data from multiple sources were used to describe an effective TA model designed to improve the capacity of community-based organizations to plan, implement, and evaluate prevention programming. This article is the first of its kind to provide detailed analyses of the TA delivered to community-based organizations to build substance abuse prevention capacity. The results of this study describe the range of TA services provided and the importance of two-way communication between the TA provider and recipient. TA recipients reported high satisfaction and an improved understanding of targeted TA activities. However, achieving these benefits requires significant program staff time, and not all skills were successfully transferred. Results from this study suggest how TA may be structured to be effective in supporting quality prevention programming in community settings.

  3. Assessment of student pharmacists' knowledge concerning folic acid and prevention of birth defects demonstrates a need for further education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Sean M

    2002-03-01

    Adequate periconceptional consumption of folic acid can prevent neural tube birth defects, and all women capable of becoming pregnant are recommended to consume 400 microg/d. Most women, however, are unaware of this recommendation and do not consume adequate amounts of folic acid. It is important, therefore, that healthcare professionals, such as pharmacists, be capable of educating women regarding folic acid. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge regarding prevention of birth defects by folic acid among student (future) pharmacists in the final year of a professional degree program. Over a 3-y period (1998-2000), students (n = 98) enrolled in a PharmD program completed a survey consisting of five multiple-choice questions concerning folic acid and birth defects. Almost all students (93.9%) correctly identified folic acid as preventing birth defects. Of these students, many also knew that supplementation should begin before pregnancy (73.9%). Fewer, however, were able to correctly identify either the recommended level of intake (55.4%) or good sources of folic acid (57.6-65.2%). These results show that although student (future) pharmacists are aware of folic acid's ability to prevent birth defects, many lack the specific knowledge needed to effectively counsel women in future clinical practice.

  4. Prevention and control of thalassemia at Saraburi Regional Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareonkul, Pichit; Kraisin, Janchay

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the program in prevention and control of thalssemia among pregnant women and their spouses, prevention of new cases by screening tests, confirmatory test, genetic counselling, prenatal diagnosis, and selective abortion. The pregnant women, attending antenatal care unit, Saraburi center hospital, as well as their spouses. 1 January 2000-31 December 2001 As part of the antenatal care assessment, pregnant women before 16 weeks gestation were screened, with pre- and post-test counselling, by osmotic fragility (OF) and dichorophenol indophenol precipitate (DCIP) tests, and confirmed by complete blood count (CBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin typing and polymerase chain reaction for alphathal1 (PCR alphathal1) if any of two screening tests was positive. The husbands of those who were carriers of severe thalassemia were encouraged to have thalassemia screening and confirmation. When both the pregnant women and their husbands were carriers of severe thalassemia, the pregnant women would voluntarily perform the prenatal diagnosis. Termination of pregnancy would be offered when the fetus had severe thalassemia. There were 3,739 from 4,214 women (88.7% of all antenatal women), who participated in the program. OF and/or DCIP were positive in 1,742 of 3,739 subjects (46.5%). Of those, 960 from 1,742 (55.1%), had husbands who were willing to have the testing, and OF and/or DCIP were positive in 443 of 960 cases (46.1%). The confirmatory tests revealed carrier and disease of thalassemia, and hemoglobinopathies in 931 of 1,742 women (53.9%), and 135 of 960 husbands (14.0%). The 20 couples who had the possibility of having severe thalassemic newborns, were strongly advised to have prenatal diagnosis. The 12 risk pregnancies had been performed cordocentesis. Finally 3 of 12 (25.0%) fetuses were documented to have severe thalassemia and all of them decided to have selective abortion. The screening model for thalassemia carriers by using the combination of OF

  5. Multivariable Control Synthesis Program - Control Aspects of the F100 Altitude Demonstration of the Multivariable Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    control modes can also reduce the sensitivity to parameter variations and sensor inaccuracies. The F100 (see Figure 2.1) engine was selected for the MVCS...FTS + A - SGB - I GTS (2.11) and by a comparable form for Eq.(2.7). The solution is calculated numerically by integration of the matrix Ricatti...latter schedules the power condition. Dominant gain elements are determined by assessing the closed-loop eigenvalue sensitivity of the system to each

  6. Advanced Instrumentation and Control Methods for Small and Medium Reactors with IRIS Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wesley Hines; Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Michael Doster; Robert M. Edwards; Kenneth D. Lewis; Paul Turinsky; Jamie Coble

    2011-05-31

    Development and deployment of small-scale nuclear power reactors and their maintenance, monitoring, and control are part of the mission under the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) program. The objectives of this NERI-consortium research project are to investigate, develop, and validate advanced methods for sensing, controlling, monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis of these reactors, and to demonstrate the methods with application to one of the proposed integral pressurized water reactors (IPWR). For this project, the IPWR design by Westinghouse, the International Reactor Secure and Innovative (IRIS), has been used to demonstrate the techniques developed under this project. The research focuses on three topical areas with the following objectives. Objective 1 - Develop and apply simulation capabilities and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis methods to address sensor deployment analysis and small grid stability issues. Objective 2 - Develop and test an autonomous and fault-tolerant control architecture and apply to the IRIS system and an experimental flow control loop, with extensions to multiple reactor modules, nuclear desalination, and optimal sensor placement strategy. Objective 3 - Develop and test an integrated monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis system for SMRs using the IRIS as a test platform, and integrate process and equipment monitoring (PEM) and process and equipment prognostics (PEP) toolboxes. The research tasks are focused on meeting the unique needs of reactors that may be deployed to remote locations or to developing countries with limited support infrastructure. These applications will require smaller, robust reactor designs with advanced technologies for sensors, instrumentation, and control. An excellent overview of SMRs is described in an article by Ingersoll (2009). The article refers to these as deliberately small reactors. Most of these have modular characteristics, with multiple units deployed at the same plant site. Additionally, the topics focus

  7. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop E-60, Atlanta... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: May 25, 2011. Elaine...

  8. 76 FR 12122 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: February 25,...

  9. 76 FR 4703 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: January 20,...

  10. 78 FR 22268 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...; Strengthening Disease Prevention Research Capacity for Public Health Action in Guatemala and the Central...; Strengthening Disease Prevention Research Capacity for Public Health Action in Guatemala and the...

  11. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  12. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  13. Innovative Adaptive Control Method Demonstrated for Active Suppression of Instabilities in Engine Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    2005-01-01

    This year, an improved adaptive-feedback control method was demonstrated that suppresses thermoacoustic instabilities in a liquid-fueled combustor of a type used in aircraft engines. Extensive research has been done to develop lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce emissions throughout the mission cycle to reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems. However, these lean-burning combustors are susceptible to thermoacoustic instabilities (high-frequency pressure waves), which can fatigue combustor components and even downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the safe operating life of the combustor and turbine. Thus, suppressing the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for meeting the low-emission goals of the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project.

  14. Prevention and control of influenza and dengue through vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David P; Robertson, Corwin A; Gordon, Daniel M

    2013-08-01

    Influenza and dengue are viral illnesses of global public health importance, especially among children. Accordingly, these diseases have been the focus of efforts to improve their prevention and control. Influenza vaccination offers the best protection against clinical disease caused by strains contained within the specific year's formulation. It is not uncommon for there to be a mismatch between vaccine strains and circulating strains, particularly with regards to the B lineages. For more than a decade, two distinct lineages of influenza B (Yamagata and Victoria) have co-circulated in the US with varying frequencies, but trivalent influenza vaccines contain only one B-lineage strain and do not offer adequate protection against the alternate B-lineage. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs), containing two A strains (H1N1 and H3N2) and two B strains (one from each lineage) have been developed to help protect against the four strains predicted to be the most likely to be circulating. The QIV section of this article discusses epidemiology of pediatric influenza, importance of influenza B in children, potential benefits of QIV, and new quadrivalent vaccines. In contrast to influenza, a vaccine against dengue is not yet available in spite of many decades of research and development. A global increase in reports of dengue fever (DF) and its more severe presentations, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), suggest that US physicians will increasingly encounter patients with this disease. Similarities of the early signs and symptoms of influenza and dengue and the differences in disease management necessitates a better understanding of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, management, and prevention of DF by US physicians, including pediatricians. The article also provides a brief overview of dengue and discusses dengue vaccine development.

  15. Probiotics in the prevention of eczema: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stephen J; Jordan, Sue; Storey, Melanie; Thornton, Catherine A; Gravenor, Michael B; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Susan F; Wang, Duolao; Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a multistrain, high-dose probiotic in the prevention of eczema. Design A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. Settings Antenatal clinics, research clinic, children at home. Patients Pregnant women and their infants. Interventions Women from 36 weeks gestation and their infants to age 6 months received daily either the probiotic (Lactobacillus salivarius CUL61, Lactobacillus paracasei CUL08, Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis CUL34 and Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20; total of 1010 organisms/day) or matching placebo. Main outcome measure Diagnosed eczema at age 2 years. Infants were followed up by questionnaire. Clinical examination and skin prick tests to common allergens were done at 6 months and 2 years. Results The cumulative frequency of diagnosed eczema at 2 years was similar in the probiotic (73/214, 34.1%) and placebo arms (72/222, 32.4%; OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.6). Among the secondary outcomes, the cumulative frequency of skin prick sensitivity at 2 years was reduced in the probiotic (18/171; 10.5%) compared with the placebo arm (32/173; 18.5%; OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.98). The statistically significant differences between the arms were mainly in sensitisation to cow's milk and hen's egg proteins at 6 months. Atopic eczema occurred in 9/171 (5.3%) children in the probiotic arm and 21/173 (12.1%) in the placebo arm (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.91). Conclusions The study did not provide evidence that the probiotic either prevented eczema during the study or reduced its severity. However, the probiotic seemed to prevent atopic sensitisation to common food allergens and so reduce the incidence of atopic eczema in early childhood. Trial registration Number ISRCTN26287422. PMID:24947281

  16. 76 FR 51985 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  17. 75 FR 29561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... No: 2010-12627] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural... Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the...

  18. 76 FR 28438 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and....S.P.H., Director, Extramural Research Program Office, National Center for Chronic Disease...

  19. 77 FR 25181 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Cholera And HIV/AIDS Response, GH12-003, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  20. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK12-002... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  1. 78 FR 15015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Activities for Avian Influenza and other Zoonotic Diseases, FOA CK13-002, initial review. Correction: The... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  2. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK12-002..., for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances...

  3. 77 FR 5257 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Emerging Vector Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), CK12-002...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time...

  4. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research Sites in Puerto Rico... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  5. 78 FR 17411 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Evaluation of Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA GH13-005, initial review. In accordance with... and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 11:00 a.m.-3:00 p.m., May...

  6. Infection Prevention and Control Programs in United States Nursing Homes: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Carolyn T. A.; Stone, Patricia W.; Castle, Nicholas; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Larson, Elaine L.; Dick, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (1) obtain a national perspective of the current state of nursing home (NH) infection prevention and control (IPC) programs and (2) examine differences in IPC program characteristics for NHs that had and had not received an infection control deficiency citation. Design A national cross-sectional survey of randomly sampled NHs was conducted and responses were linked with Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reporting (CASPER) and NH Compare data. Setting Surveys were completed and returned by 990 NHs (response rate 39%) between December 2013 and December 2014. Participants The person in charge of the IPC program at each NH completed the survey. Measurements The survey consisted of 34 items related to respondent demographics, IPC program staffing, stability of the workforce, resources and challenges, and resident care and employee processes. Facility characteristics and infection control deficiency citations were assessed using CASPER and NH Compare data. Results Most respondents had at least two responsibilities in addition to those related to infection control (54%) and had no specific IPC training (61%). While many practices and processes were consistent with infection prevention guidelines for NHs, there was wide variation in programs across the US. About 36% of responding facilities had received an infection control deficiency citation. NHs that received citations had infection control professionals with less experience (P = .01) and training (P = .02) and were less likely to provide financial resources for continuing education in infection control (P = .01). Conclusion The findings demonstrate that a lack of adequately trained infection prevention personnel is an important area for improvement. Furthermore, there is a need to identify specific evidence-based practices to reduce infection risk in NHs. PMID:26712489

  7. Evaluation of Existing Structure and Civil Protection Management Framework in Greek Local Authorities: A Questionnaire Survey Demonstrates Why Prevention Fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    In the face of a growing number of natural disasters and the increasing costs associated with them, Europe and Greece in particular, have devoted significant efforts and resources in natural hazards mitigation during the last decades. Despite the significant legislative efforts (e.g. 1998/22/EC, 2001/792/EC, 2007/60/EC Directives, 3013/2002 Act) and even though a number of steps has been taken towards improving civil protection, recent catastrophic events have illustrated the weaknesses of current approaches. In particular, in Greece, events such as the 1999 Athens earthquake, the 2007 and 2009 wildfires have shown the inadequacy of prevention and mitigation practices. Given the enhanced civil protection responsibilities, given by the Greek national law (Acts 3013/2002, 3852/2010) to local authorities in Greece, this work analyses and evaluates the existing structure and current management framework under which local authorities function and examines their risk mitigation practices. We conducted the largest questionnaire survey regarding Civil Protections issues, among the municipalities of Greece. To this aim, this work used a innovative online tool to assess current framework. Therefore, a network connecting civil protection departments of municipalities was developed, based on an Internet platform that acted also as a communication tool. Overall, we had feedback either online or offline from 125 municipalities across the country (representing more than one/third of the total municipalities of Greece). Through this network, municipal civil protection officials completed surveys designed to obtain and quantify information on several aspects of civil protection practices and infrastructure. In particular, the examined factors included: (i) personnel and equipment, (ii) inter-agency cooperation, (iii) training, (iv) compliance with existing regulations and (v) persistent problems encountered by civil protection departments, that prevent the effectiveness of current

  8. Active vibration control testing of the SPICES program: final demonstration article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, James P.; Jacobs, Jack H.

    1996-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) Program is a partnership program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The mission of the program is to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products employing active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. The two year program came to fruition in 1995 through the fabrication of the final smart components and testing of an active plate combined with two trapezoidal rails, forming an active mount. Testing of the SPICES combined active mount took place at McDonnell Douglas facilities in St. Louis, MO, in October-December 1995. Approximately 15 dB reduction in overall response of a motor mounted on the active structure was achieved. Further details and results of the SPICES combined active mount demonstration testing are outlined. Results of numerous damping and control strategies that were developed and employed in the testing are presented, as well as aspects of the design and fabrication of the SPICES active mount components.

  9. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System and Gamma Cart Data Acquisition Control System Software Configuration Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHITE, D.A.

    1999-12-29

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the AZ1101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System (DAS) and the Sludge Mobilization Cart (Gamma Cart) Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS).

  10. A randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity - Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yingting

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Design and methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse. The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. Discussion The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy

  11. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  12. Control and prevention of avian influenza in an evolving scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capua, Ilaria; Marangon, Stefano

    2007-07-26

    implementation of complex territorial strategy involving upgraded biosecurity, monitoring vaccine efficacy, identification of field exposure and the appropriate management of infected flocks, regardless of vaccination status. Granting financial support for the compensation of farmers is also a key part of this strategy. Poultry veterinarians working for the industry or for the public sector represent the first line of defence against the pandemic threat and for the prevention and control of this infection in poultry and in wild birds.

  13. [Problems of prevention and control of poliomyelitis in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowska-Magdzik, Wiesława; Bucholc, Bozenna; Janaszek-Seydlitz, Wiesława; Szkoda, Tomasz; Magdzik, Wiesław

    2010-01-01

    In the fifties and the sixties of 20th century big epidemic and increasing numbers of poliomyelitis cases were observed in Poland as well in other countries of Europe and world. Inactivated Salk's vaccine in injections as well as oral attenuated vaccine were introduced to the control and prevention of this disease. As the result of it poliomyelitis was eradicated in American, European and of West Pacific Region of WHO. Since 1984 poliomyelitis cases were not registered in Poland, VAPP were observed in small numbers. Just now new vaccines with poliomyelitis component as Boostrix Polio and Adacel Polio are convenient to use as booster doses of poliomyelitis vaccine. Actually inactivated polio vaccine is used in majority of west European countries, USA, Canada, Australia. Inactivated vaccine in basic and attenuated vaccine in booster doses were used in Central and East European countries and only attenuated vaccine are used in big African, South and Central American countries, China, India and countries, witch were the part of past Soviet Union.

  14. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter ZIKA Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Irfan A.; Kumar, Sanjay; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Lim, Jeongheui; Park, Yong-Ha

    2017-01-01

    ZIKA virus (ZIKA) has now become a global phenomenon. Since 2007, evidence of ZIKA transmission has been reported over 72 countries and territories. The transmission of ZIKA has made World Health Organization to categorize the situation under the ambit of a health emergency. This situation is serious because there appears to be a highly tangible link between infection during pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome. In the context of this emergency situation, this review article intends to discuss the prevention and control strategies such as avoiding travel to infected area, being careful from mosquito bites, take precautions to reduce the risk of sexual transmission, and seek medical care for any acute illness with rash or fever. This review is an attempt to analyze the results of those campaigns, keeping in view the variables and constants that affect any such measures. Furthermore, this article will suggest proactive measures that can be employed to effectively combat the epidemic transmission of the ZIKA. PMID:28293228

  15. Systems for prevention and control of epidemic emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, Paolo; Conte, Annamaria; Natale, Fabrizio; Possenti, Luigi; Savini, Lara; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Iannetti, Simona; Giovannini, Armando

    2013-01-01

    The development of early warning systems is fundamental for preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Data collection, however, is a costly activity and it is not possible to implement early warning systems everywhere and for all possible events. Hence, tools helping to improve the focus of surveillance efforts are of paramount importance. Risk assessment methods and other provisional modelling techniques may permit to estimate the probability of introduction and spread of infectious diseases in different geographical areas. Similarly, efficient information systems must be in place to assist the veterinary services in case of epidemic emergencies in order to support the prompt application of control measures for the containment of the infection and the reduction of the magnitude of negative consequences. This review describes two recent approaches to the estimation of the probability of introduction and spread of infectious diseases based on the use of risk maps/ spatial modelling and Social Network Analysis (SNA) techniques. The review also describes a web application developed in Italy to help official veterinary services to trace animals in case of outbreaks of infectious diseases.

  16. Review. Systems for prevention and control of epidemic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Calistri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of early warning systems is fundamental for preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Data collection, however, is a costly activity and it is not possible to implement early warning systems everywhere and for all possible events. Hence, tools helping to improve the focus of surveillance efforts are of paramount importance. Risk assessment methods and other provisional modelling techniques may permit to estimate the probability of introduction and spread of infectious diseases in different geographical areas. Similarly, efficient information systems must be in place to assist the veterinary services in case of epidemic emergencies in order to support the prompt application of control measures for the containment of the infection and the reduction of the magnitude of negative consequences. This review describes two recent approaches to the estimation of the probability of introduction and spread of infectious diseases based on the use of risk maps/spatial modelling and Social Network Analysis (SNA techniques. The review also describes a web application developed in Italy to help official veterinary services to trace animals in case of outbreaks of infectious diseases.

  17. Overcoming the obstacles of implementing infection prevention and control guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgand, G; Johansson, A; Szilagyi, E; Lucet, J-C

    2015-12-01

    Reasons for a successful or unsuccessful implementation of infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines are often multiple and interconnected. This article reviews key elements from the national to the individual level that contribute to the success of the implementation of IPC measures and gives perspectives for improvement. Governance approaches, modes of communication and formats of guidelines are discussed with a view to improve collaboration and transparency among actors. The culture of IPC influences practices and varies according to countries, specialties and healthcare providers. We describe important contextual aspects, such as relationships between actors and resources and behavioural features including professional background or experience. Behaviour change techniques providing goal-setting, feedback and action planning have proved effective in mobilizing participants and may be key to trigger social movements of implementation. The leadership of international societies in coordinating actions at international, national and institutional levels using multidisciplinary approaches and fostering collaboration among clinical microbiology, infectious diseases and IPC will be essential for success. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 'Natural experiment' demonstrates top-down control of spiders by birds on a landscape level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldre Rogers

    Full Text Available The combination of small-scale manipulative experiments and large-scale natural experiments provides a powerful approach for demonstrating the importance of top-down trophic control on the ecosystem scale. The most compelling natural experiments have come from studies examining the landscape-scale loss of apex predators like sea otters, wolves, fish and land crabs. Birds are dominant apex predators in terrestrial systems around the world, yet all studies on their role as predators have come from small-scale experiments; the top-down impact of bird loss on their arthropod prey has yet to be examined at a landscape scale. Here, we use a unique natural experiment, the extirpation of insectivorous birds from nearly all forests on the island of Guam by the invasive brown tree snake, to produce the first assessment of the impacts of bird loss on their prey. We focused on spiders because experimental studies showed a consistent top-down effect of birds on spiders. We conducted spider web surveys in native forest on Guam and three nearby islands with healthy bird populations. Spider web densities on the island of Guam were 40 times greater than densities on islands with birds during the wet season, and 2.3 times greater during the dry season. These results confirm the general trend from manipulative experiments conducted in other systems however, the effect size was much greater in this natural experiment than in most manipulative experiments. In addition, bird loss appears to have removed the seasonality of spider webs and led to larger webs in at least one spider species in the forests of Guam than on nearby islands with birds. We discuss several possible mechanisms for the observed changes. Overall, our results suggest that effect sizes from smaller-scale experimental studies may significantly underestimate the impact of bird loss on spider density as demonstrated by this large-scale natural experiment.

  19. Advanced Instrumentation and Control Methods for Small and Medium Reactors with IRIS Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wesley Hines; Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Michael Doster; Robert M. Edwards; Kenneth D. Lewis; Paul Turinsky; Jamie Coble

    2011-05-31

    Development and deployment of small-scale nuclear power reactors and their maintenance, monitoring, and control are part of the mission under the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) program. The objectives of this NERI-consortium research project are to investigate, develop, and validate advanced methods for sensing, controlling, monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis of these reactors, and to demonstrate the methods with application to one of the proposed integral pressurized water reactors (IPWR). For this project, the IPWR design by Westinghouse, the International Reactor Secure and Innovative (IRIS), has been used to demonstrate the techniques developed under this project. The research focuses on three topical areas with the following objectives. Objective 1 - Develop and apply simulation capabilities and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis methods to address sensor deployment analysis and small grid stability issues. Objective 2 - Develop and test an autonomous and fault-tolerant control architecture and apply to the IRIS system and an experimental flow control loop, with extensions to multiple reactor modules, nuclear desalination, and optimal sensor placement strategy. Objective 3 - Develop and test an integrated monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis system for SMRs using the IRIS as a test platform, and integrate process and equipment monitoring (PEM) and process and equipment prognostics (PEP) toolboxes. The research tasks are focused on meeting the unique needs of reactors that may be deployed to remote locations or to developing countries with limited support infrastructure. These applications will require smaller, robust reactor designs with advanced technologies for sensors, instrumentation, and control. An excellent overview of SMRs is described in an article by Ingersoll (2009). The article refers to these as deliberately small reactors. Most of these have modular characteristics, with multiple units deployed at the same plant site. Additionally, the topics focus

  20. Control Demonstration of Multiple Doubly-Fed Induction Motors for Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Bodson, Marc; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Hunker, Keith R.; Theman, Casey J.; Taylor, Linda M.

    2017-01-01

    The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application.The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application. DFIMs are attractive for several reasons, including but not limited to the ability to self-start, ability to operate sub- and super-synchronously, and requiring only fractionally rated power converters on a per-unit basis depending on the required range of operation. The focus of this paper is based specifically on the presentation and analysis of a novel strategy which allows for independent operation of each of the aforementioned doubly-fed induction motors. This strategy includes synchronization, soft-start, and closed loop speed control of each motor as a means of controlling output thrust; be it concurrently or differentially. The demonstration of this strategy has recently been proven out on a low power test bed using fractional horsepower machines. Simulation and hardware test results are presented in the paper.

  1. Demonstration of UAV deployment and control of mobile wireless sensing networks for modal analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Hirose, Mitsuhito; Greenwood, William; Xiao, Yong; Lynch, Jerome; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Kamat, Vineet

    2016-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can serve as a powerful mobile sensing platform for assessing the health of civil infrastructure systems. To date, the majority of their uses have been dedicated to vision and laser-based spatial imaging using on-board cameras and LiDAR units, respectively. Comparatively less work has focused on integration of other sensing modalities relevant to structural monitoring applications. The overarching goal of this study is to explore the ability for UAVs to deploy a network of wireless sensors on structures for controlled vibration testing. The study develops a UAV platform with an integrated robotic gripper that can be used to install wireless sensors in structures, drop a heavy weight for the introduction of impact loads, and to uninstall wireless sensors for reinstallation elsewhere. A pose estimation algorithm is embedded in the UAV to estimate the location of the UAV during sensor placement and impact load introduction. The Martlet wireless sensor network architecture is integrated with the UAV to provide the UAV a mobile sensing capability. The UAV is programmed to command field deployed Martlets, aggregate and temporarily store data from the wireless sensor network, and to communicate data to a fixed base station on site. This study demonstrates the integrated UAV system using a simply supported beam in the lab with Martlet wireless sensors placed by the UAV and impact load testing performed. The study verifies the feasibility of the integrated UAV-wireless monitoring system architecture with accurate modal characteristics of the beam estimated by modal analysis.

  2. [Implementation of mastitis prevention and control programmes on Flemish dairy farms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Van Brempt, H; Supré, K; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2010-01-15

    Mastitis prevention and control programmes were developed in the 1960s and have since been adopted with considerable success. Our data for a convenience sample of 45 Flemish dairy farms demonstrate that the well-known "five-point prevention and control programme" is still not, or not adequately, implemented. For example, only 18% of the dairy farmers prestripped their cows and wiped the teats using single-use dry towels before attaching the milking units. Although about 70% of the farms practised post-milking teat disinfection (dipping or spraying), 40% of the farmers did this inadequately. On only one farm were cows with clinical mastitis treated both locally and parenterally for at least 3 days, and on only 7% of the dairy farms was the udder health status of the herd systematically monitored. According to the dairy farmers, the extra labour and stress caused by udder health problems were the most troublesome aspects of mastitis. On the basis of this study, it can be concluded that bovine practitioners in the Flemish region should critically evaluate the mastitis management of their clients (farmers) and motivate them to implement an efficient mastitis prevention programme.

  3. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ..., Surveillance, and Control of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, Funding Opportunity... Control of Vector- Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, FOA CK13-001.'' Contact Person for... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  4. Business control as a way of detecting and preventing fraud actions

    OpenAIRE

    Заєць, І. В.

    2016-01-01

    Significance and place of business control in the process of detecting and preventing fraud actions have been researched. Peculiarities of applying methods of business control in the process of detecting fraud have been determined. A set of control measures on detecting and preventing fraud has been suggested

  5. Testbed Demonstration of Low Order Wavefront Sensing and Control Technology for WFIRST Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, K.; Cady, E.; Kern, B.; Lam, R.; Mandic, M.; Patterson, K.; Poberezhskiy, I.; Shields, J.; Seo, J.; Tang, H.; Truong, T.; Wilson, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA’s WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph will be capable of directly imaging and spectrally characterizing giant exoplanets similar to Neptune and Jupiter, and possibly even super-Earths, around nearby stars. To maintain the required coronagraph performance in a realistic space environment, a Low Order Wavefront Sensing and Control (LOWFS/C) subsystem is necessary. The LOWFS/C will use the rejected stellar light to sense and suppress the telescope pointing drift and jitter as well as low order wavefront errors due to the changes in thermal loading of the telescope and the rest of the observatory. The LOWFS/C uses a Zernike phase contrast wavefront sensor with the phase shifting disk combined with the stellar light rejecting occulting mask, a key concept to minimize the non-common path error. Developed as a part of the Dynamic High Contrast Imaging Testbed (DHCIT), the LOWFS/C subsystem also consists of an Optical Telescope Assembly Simulator (OTA-S) to generate the realistic line-of-sight (LoS) drift and jitter as well as low order wavefront error from WFIRST-AFTA telescope’s vibration and thermal drift. The entire LOWFS/C subsystem have been integrated, calibrated, and tested in the Dynamic High Contrast Imaging Testbed. In this presentation we will show the results of LOWFS/C performance during the dynamic coronagraph tests in which we have demonstrated that LOWFS/C is able to maintain the coronagraph contrast with the presence of WFIRST like line-of-sight drift and jitter as well as low order wavefront drifts.

  6. Guidance and Control Architecture Design and Demonstration for Low Ballistic Coefficient Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Sean

    2014-01-01

    We propose to develop a robust guidance and control system for the ADEPT (Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology) entry vehicle. A control-centric model of ADEPT will be developed to quantify the performance of candidate guidance and control architectures for both aerocapture and precision landing missions. The evaluation will be based on recent breakthroughs in constrained controllability/reachability analysis of control systems and constrained-based energy-minimum trajectory optimization for guidance development operating in complex environments.

  7. Preventive Security-Constrained Optimal Power Flow Considering UPFC Control Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful application of the unified power flow controller (UPFC provides a new control method for the secure and economic operation of power system. In order to make the full use of UPFC and improve the economic efficiency and static security of a power system, a preventive security-constrained power flow optimization method considering UPFC control modes is proposed in this paper. Firstly, an iterative method considering UPFC control modes is deduced for power flow calculation. Taking into account the influence of different UPFC control modes on the distribution of power flow after N-1 contingency, the optimization model is then constructed by setting a minimal system operation cost and a maximum static security margin as the objective. Based on this model, the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is utilized to optimize power system operating parameters and UPFC control modes simultaneously. Finally, a standard IEEE 30-bus system is utilized to demonstrate that the proposed method fully exploits the potential of static control of UPFC and significantly increases the economic efficiency and static security of the power system.

  8. Pressure mapping to prevent pressure ulcers in a hospital setting: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunningberg, Lena; Sedin, Inga-Maj; Andersson, Sara; Pingel, Ronnie

    2017-07-01

    Pressure ulcers cause suffering to patients and costs to society. Reducing pressure at the interface between the patient's body and the support surface is a valid clinical intervention for reducing the risk of pressure ulcers. However, studies have shown that knowledge of how to reduce pressure and shear and to prevent pressure ulcers is lacking. To evaluate the effect of a pressure mapping system on pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence in a hospital setting. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial. A geriatric/internal medical ward with 26 beds in a Swedish university hospital. 190 patients were recruited (intervention: n=91; control: n=99) over a period of 9 months. Patients were eligible if they were over 50 years old, admitted to the ward between Sunday 4pm and Friday 4pm, and expected to stay in the ward ≥3 days. The continuous bedside pressure mapping system displays the patient's pressure points in real-time colour imagery showing how pressure is distributed at the body-mat interface. The system gives immediate feedback to staff about the patient's pressure points, facilitating preventive interventions related to repositioning. It was used from admittance to discharge from the ward (or 14 days at most). Both intervention and control groups received standard pressure ulcer prevention care. No significant difference in the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers was shown between intervention and control groups. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in the intervention group was 24.2% on day 1 and 28.2% on day 14. In the control group the corresponding numbers were 18.2% and 23.8%. Seven of 69 patients (10.1%) in the intervention group and seven of 81 patients (8.6%) in the control group who had no pressure ulcers on admission developed category 1 and category 2 ulcers during their hospital stay. The incidence rate ratio between the intervention and control groups was 1.13 (95% CI: 0.34-3.79). This study failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of a

  9. A Multi-Layer Intelligent Loss-of-Control Prevention System (LPS) for Flight Control Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to design and develop a multi-layer intelligent Loss-of-control Prevention System (LPS) for flight control applications....

  10. 77 FR 14806 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in Ghana, Studies at the...

  11. 77 FR 4047 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in Ghana, IP12- 001, Studies at...

  12. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  13. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  14. Experimental demonstration of a classical approach for flexible space structure control: NASA CSI testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Wie

    1991-01-01

    The results of active control experiments performed for the Mini-Mast truss structure are presented. The primary research objectives were: (1) to develop active structural control concepts and/or techniques; (2) to verify the concept of robust non-minimum-phase compensation for a certain class of non-colocated structural control problems through ground experiments; (3) to verify a 'dipole' concept for persistent disturbance rejection control of flexible structures; and (4) to identify CSI (Control Structure Interaction) issues and areas of emphasis for the next generation of large flexible spacecraft. The classical SISO (Single Input and Single Output) control design approach was employed.

  15. Preventing unauthorized use of firearms by implementing use control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    A goal among many law enforcement and security professionals, and the National Institute of Justice, is to decrease the risk that an officer or security guard may encounter. One risk that officers confront is unpredictable persons who sometimes try to gain control of the officer`s firearm. The addition of user-recognizing-and-authorizing technologies to a firearm could eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing an officer`s firearm. Sandia National Laboratories has been active in the research and development of nuclear security systems that include access and use control technologies. Sandia is being sponsored by the National Institute of Justice to perform a research and development project to determine the feasibility of a user authorized firearm, or {open_quotes}smart gun.{close_quotes} The focus group for the research is law enforcement officers because of the number of firearm take aways that have occurred in the past and the severe use requirements placed on their firearms. A comprehensive look at the problem of weapon take aways in the United States was conducted using information available from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement sources. An investigation into the end user requirements for smart gun technologies has been completed. During the remainder of the project, the user requirements are being transformed into engineering requirements. which will then be used to evaluate numerous technologies that could be used in a smart gun. Demonstration models will be made of the most promising technologies. Other potential applications are remote enabling and disabling of firearms, transportation of prisoners by corrections officers, military use in operations other than war, and use by private citizens.

  16. Do guidelines for the prevention and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus make a difference?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2009-12-01

    Many countries have national guidelines for the prevention and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that are similar in approach. The evidence base for many recommendations is variable, and often, in the drafting of such guidelines, the evidence is either not analysed or not specifically reviewed. Guidelines usually recommend screening and early detection, hand hygiene, patient isolation or cohorting, and decolonization. Although many components of a prevention and control programme appear to be self-evident, e.g. patient isolation, the scientific base underpinning these is poor, and scientifically rigorous studies are required. Nonetheless, where measures, based on what evidence there is and on common sense, are implemented, and where the necessary resources are provided, MRSA can be controlled. In The Netherlands and in other low-prevalence countries, these measures have largely kept healthcare facilities MRSA-free. In MRSA-endemic countries, such as Spain and Ireland, national guidelines are often not fully implemented, owing to apparently inadequate resources or a lack of will. However, recent studies from France and Australia demonstrate what is possible in high-prevalence countries when best practice is effectively implemented, with potentially major benefits for patients, the respective health services, and society.

  17. Demonstration of An Integrated Approach to Mercury Control at Lee Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly

    2007-12-31

    General Electric (GE) has developed an approach whereby native mercury reduction on fly ash can be improved by optimizing the combustion system. This approach eliminates carbon-rich areas in the combustion zone, making the combustion process more uniform, and allows increasing carbon content in fly ash without significant increase in CO emissions. Since boiler excess O{sub 2} can be also reduced as a result of optimized combustion, this process reduces NO{sub x} emissions. Because combustion optimization improves native mercury reduction on fly ash, it can reduce requirements for activated carbon injection (ACI) when integrated with sorbent injection for more efficient mercury control. The approach can be tailored to specific unit configurations and coal types for optimal performance. This report describes results of a U.S. DOE sponsored project designed to evaluate the effect of combustion conditions on 'native' mercury capture on fly ash and integrate combustion optimization for improved mercury and NO{sub x} reduction with ACI. The technology evaluation took place in Lee Station Unit 3 located in Goldsboro, NC and operated by Progress Energy. Unit 3 burns a low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal and is a 250 MW opposed-wall fired unit equipped with an ESP with a specific collection area of 249 ft{sup 2}/kacfm. Unit 3 is equipped with SO{sub 3} injection for ESP conditioning. The technical goal of the project was to evaluate the technology's ability to achieve 70% mercury reduction below the baseline emission value of 2.9 lb/TBtu, which was equivalent to 80% mercury reduction relative to the mercury concentration in the coal. The strategy to achieve the 70% incremental improvement in mercury removal in Unit 3 was (1) to enhance 'naturally' occurring fly ash mercury capture by optimizing the combustion process and using duct humidification to reduce flue gas temperatures at the ESP inlet, and (2) to use ACI in front of the ESP to further

  18. Demonstration of Single Axis Combined Attitude Control and Energy Storage Using Two Flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Jansen, Ralph; Kascak, Peter; Dever, Timothy; Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The energy storage and attitude control subsystems of the typical satellite are presently distinct and separate. Energy storage is conventionally provided by batteries, either NiCd or NiH, and active attitude control is accomplished with control moment gyros (CMGs) or reaction wheels. An overall system mass savings can be realized if these two subsystems are combined using multiple flywheels for simultaneous kinetic energy storage and momentum transfer. Several authors have studied the control of the flywheels to accomplish this and have published simulation results showing the feasibility and performance. This paper presents the first experimental results showing combined energy storage and momentum control about a single axis using two flywheels.

  19. Effect of fluoride on gingivitis and dental caries in a preventive program based on plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, P; Lindhe, J

    1975-08-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to estimate the relative effect of fluoride on caries in a preventive program based on meticulous plaque control. The material consisted of 82 children; 41 in the test and 41 in the control group. At the start of the study the children were 13-14 years of age. In August 1973 an examination was performed to obtain baseline data for the trial. Prophylactic treatment was given to the children once every second week. A total of 18 treatments were given during a 10-month period. In the control group an abrasive paste was used containing 5% sodium monofluorophosphate (Jodka Fluor Polerpasta). In the test group an abrasive paste was used which was identical with the control paste except that it did not contain any fluoride components. Twelve months after the baseline examination the test and control groups were reexamined. The trial demonstrated that, in children, fortnightly professional cleaning of the teeth combined with meticulous toothbrushing instructions result in (1) a high standard of oral hygiene and (2) only very few new carious surfaces. Though the control group children received fortnightly topical application of F- during the prophylactic sessions and used a fluoridated dentifrice, there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding number of new carious tooth surfaces per child per year.

  20. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population: study design and demographic data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Butte, Nancy F; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Sharma, Shreela V; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H

    2015-02-01

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2-12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3-83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity.

  1. 76 FR 7217 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... research and control activities related to injury. Matters to be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss...

  2. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Hojilla, J; Koester, Kimberly A; Cohen, Stephanie E; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2016-07-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP demonstration project to assess how men who have sex with men used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was 'seasonal' and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts.

  3. Locus of control, problem-solving skills appraisal as predictors of waste prevention behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Karbalaei, S.; Abdollahi, A.; Talib, M.A.; Yaacob, S.N.; Ismail, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Given that waste generation is a devastating problem, it is necessary that we advance our knowledge about the etiology of waste prevention behaviors. Accordingly, this study sought to increase the existing literature of waste prevention behaviors by examining the relationships among the locus of control, problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, personal control style and participant’s age with waste prevention behaviors. Two hundred and forty participants (126 Women, and 114 men)...

  4. Compositions and Methods for the Control, Prevention, and Treatment of Obesity and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compositions and methods for preventing, treating or controlling conditions or disorders associated with obesity, diet, and nutrition are provided. The methods provided generally involve the administration of an amylin or an amylin agonist to a subject in order to prevent, treat or controlling condi...

  5. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... University of Alabama Birmingham, February 28, 2012 to advise and make recommendations to the Disease... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  6. 78 FR 69682 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Board of Scientific...

  7. 76 FR 77537 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Board of Scientific...

  8. 78 FR 37542 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) Correction: This notice was published in...

  9. 75 FR 1062 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the...

  10. 78 FR 35036 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) Correction: This notice was published in...

  11. 76 FR 20588 - FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: Focus on Preventive Controls for Facilities; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: Focus on... a public meeting entitled ``FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: Focus on Preventive Controls for... implementation of the preventive controls for facilities provisions of the recently enacted FDA Food Safety...

  12. Simvastatin and Vitamin D for Migraine Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Catherine; Nir, Rony-Reuven; Bertisch, Suzanne M.; Bernstein, Carolyn; Schain, Aaron; Mittleman, Murray A.; Burstein, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess efficacy and tolerability of simvastatin plus vitamin D for migraine prevention in adults with episodic migraine. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 12-week baseline period and 24-week intervention period in 57 adults with episodic migraine. Participants were randomly assigned to simvastatin 20 mg tablets twice daily plus vitamin D3 1000 international units capsules twice daily or matching placebo tablets and capsules. Results Compared to placebo, participants using simvastatin plus vitamin D3 demonstrated a greater decrease in number of migraine days from the baseline period to intervention weeks 1-12: a change of -8.0 (IQR: -15.0 to -2.0) days in the active treatment group versus +1.0 (IQR: 1.0 to +6.0) days in the placebo group, Pmigraine days at 12 weeks and 9 (29%) at 24 weeks post randomization. In comparison, only 1 patient (3%) in the placebo group (p=0.03) experienced such reduction. Adverse events were similar in both active treatment and placebo groups. Interpretation The results demonstrate that simvastatin plus vitamin D is effective for prevention of headache in adults with episodic migraine. Given statins ability to repair endothelial dysfunction, this economical approach may also reduce the increased risk for vascular diseases among migraineurs. PMID:26418341

  13. Demonstration of visualization techniques for the control room engineer in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Heussen, Kai; Strasser, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Deliverable 8.1 reports results on analytics and visualizations of real time flexibility in support of voltage and frequency control in 2030+ power system. The investigation is carried out by means of relevant control room scenarios in order to derive the appropriate analytics needed for each...

  14. Innovation in Bio-disaster Prevention and Control Mechanism after Forest Tenure Reform at County Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Zu-ren

    2012-01-01

    Taking Youxi County of Fujian Province as an example,the author introduced basic situations of new bio-disaster prevention and control mechanism for forest resource protection and social service works after the forest tenure reform.Then,the author analyzed new problems faced by bio-disaster prevention and control in forestry.Finally,the author present the existing problems of bio-disaster prevention and control at the county level from five aspects:innovating upon plant quarantine management mechanism;innovation upon survey methods and service modes of bio-disaster monitoring;strengthening and improving construction of bio-disaster monitoring and forecasting network;innovating upon management system for bio-disaster prevention and control;speeding up construction of service system for social prevention and control of bio-disasters.

  15. Legionellosis, prevention and control; Control y prevencion de la legionelosis y legionella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti Costa, S.

    2002-07-01

    Legionellosis was identified in 1976 in Philadelphia (USA). According to the National Epidemiology Centre this disease is basically associated with hot water sanitary installations (40%), cooling towers (18%) and community baths (6%). Legislation has been enacted targeting the prevention and control of legionellosis in several autonomous communities, and more generally by the RD (Royal Decree) 909/01 of 27-07 (Official State Gazette 180). The author examines this RD and also proposes some improvements in view of the practice accumulated in its enforcement, both in the legal area due to conflicts with other rules and regulations, as well as in the problems of companies in charge of controlling these installations. The article therefore refers to the aspects related to the classification of waste installations depending on health risk, sanitary inspections, risk evaluation, the registration of companies rendering services in these installations, training for the staff of these companies and the chemical products applied. (Author) 18 refs.

  16. Educational interventions to improve knowledge and skills of interns towards prevention and control of hospital-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Sandeep; Mahajan, Ruchita; Jad, Beena; Mahajan, Bella

    2015-08-01

    We believe that there is significant educational deficit amongst interns regarding up-to-date formal knowledge and skills on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) which might compromise patient safety. This urgently requires curriculum innovations to ensure their formal training on HAIs prevention and control. Education of interns to improve their knowledge and skills toward HAIs prevention and control. This pilot study was conducted in interns using a multimodal approach consisting of a combination of videos, PowerPoint presentation, and hands-on demonstration to provide applied and practical teaching on prevention and control of HAIs. Pre- and post-test assessment of knowledge, attitude, and skills was carried out by multiple choice questions, 5-point Likert scale, and Objective Structured Practical Examination respectively. Paired t-test. A statistically significant improvement in the overall score rates between pre- and post-test of intern's was seen, suggesting that educational programs have a positive effect. Intern's felt benefitted from interventions focused on HAIs prevention and control and hoped that such sessions are integrated in the regular undergraduate curriculum. A majority of the students felt that their learning style assessment matched well with their own perception of learning preference. Assessment drives learning; hence strengthening the contribution of health-care workers to HAIs prevention programs should include measures that enhance knowledge, improve skills and develop appropriate attitudes, resulting in safety and quality of patient care.

  17. Evaluating implementation of a fire-prevention injury prevention briefing in children's centres: Cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deave, Toity; Hawkins, Adrian; Kumar, Arun; Hayes, Mike; Cooper, Nicola; Watson, Michael; Ablewhite, Joanne; Coupland, Carol; Sutton, Alex; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; McDaid, Lisa; Goodenough, Trudy; Beckett, Kate; McColl, Elaine; Reading, Richard; Kendrick, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Background Many developed countries have high mortality rates for fire-related deaths in children aged 0–14 years with steep social gradients. Evidence-based interventions to promote fire safety practices exist, but the impact of implementing a range of these interventions in children’s services has not been assessed. We developed an Injury Prevention Briefing (IPB), which brought together evidence about effective fire safety interventions and good practice in delivering interventions; plus training and facilitation to support its use and evaluated its implementation. Methods We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial, with integrated qualitative and cost-effectiveness nested studies, across four study sites in England involving children’s centres in disadvantaged areas; participants were staff and families attending those centres. Centres were stratified by study site and randomised within strata to one of three arms: IPB plus facilitation (IPB+), IPB only, usual care. IPB+ centres received initial training and facilitation at months 1, 3, and 8. Baseline data from children’s centres were collected between August 2011 and January 2012 and follow-up data were collected between June 2012 and June 2013. Parent baseline data were collected between January 2012 and May 2012 and follow-up data between May 2013 and September 2013. Data comprised baseline and 12 month parent- and staff-completed questionnaires, facilitation contact data, activity logs and staff interviews. The primary outcome was whether families had a plan for escaping from a house fire. Treatment arms were compared using multilevel models to account for clustering by children’s centre. Results 1112 parents at 36 children’s centres participated. There was no significant effect of the intervention on families’ possession of plans for escaping from a house fire (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) IPB only vs. usual care: 0.93, 95%CI 0.58, 1.49; AOR IPB+ vs. usual care 1.41, 95%CI 0.91, 2

  18. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  19. Prevention and control of Hb Bart's disease in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Dongming; Chen, Shaoke; Tang, Yanqing; Chen, Qiuli; Zheng, Chenguang

    2014-07-01

    To demonstrate the performance of Hb Bart's Disease prevention in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A prenatal control program for Hb Bart's disease was conducted from January 2006 to December 2012. A total of 17,555 pregnant women were screened for α-thalassemia in our prenatal screening program. Pregnancy at-risk for Hb Bart's disease was offered the choice of direct invasive testing or the non-invasive approach with serial ultrasonography. A total of 1425 at-risk couples attended the prenatal diagnosis. Three hundred ninety couples were screened at our own hospital, and the remaining 1035 couples were referred from other hospitals. Two hundred and three pregnant women chose non-invasive approach, and 1122 chose invasive testing. A total of 365 fetuses were diagnosed with Hb Bart's disease. All cases were finally confirmed by fetal DNA analysis. Eighty-two cases (22.4%) were diagnosed by chorionic villous sampling and 194 (53.2%) by amniocentesis samples. The other 89 (24.4%) cases were performed by cordocentesis. All of the affected pregnancies were terminated. Implementation of a prevention and control program accompanying with a referral system for prenatal diagnosis is technically feasible in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Design and implementation of Geographical Information System on prevention and control of cholera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-jun; Fang, Li-qun; Wang, Duo-chun; Wang, Lu-xi; Li, Ya-pin; Li, Yan-li; Yang, Hong; Kan, Biao; Cao, Wu-chun

    2012-04-01

    To build the Geographical Information System (GIS) database for prevention and control of cholera programs as well as using management analysis and function demonstration to show the spatial attribute of cholera. Data from case reporting system regarding diarrhoea, vibrio cholerae, serotypes of vibrio cholerae at the surveillance spots and seafoods, as well as surveillance data on ambient environment and climate were collected. All the data were imported to system database to show the incidence of vibrio cholerae in different provinces, regions and counties to support the spatial analysis through the spatial analysis of GIS. The epidemic trends of cholera, seasonal characteristics of the cholera and the variation of the vibrio cholerae with times were better understood. Information on hotspots, regions and time of epidemics was collected, and helpful in providing risk prediction on the incidence of vibrio cholerae. The exploitation of the software can predict and simulate the spatio-temporal risks, so as to provide guidance for the prevention and control of the disease.

  1. Demonstration of 6DOF Arc-mim/mm Control in the FCT Using Proba-3 Metrology and Control System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Implement in FCT avionics and attitude control architecture and software that enables order of magnitude increase in control capability for next-generation formation...

  2. Demonstration of a Plug and Play Approach to Satellite Thermal Control System Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mainstream is proposing a methodology to reduce the development time and cost, and improve the reliability of future thermal control systems for the next decade of...

  3. Novel controller design demonstration for vibration alleviation of helicopter rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Fatma Demet; Nitzsche, Fred

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents an advanced controller design methodology for vibration alleviation of helicopter rotor sys- tems. Particularly, vibration alleviation in a forward ight regime where the rotor blades experience periodically varying aerodynamic loading was investigated. Controller synthesis was carried out under the time-periodic H2 and H∞ framework and the synthesis problem was solved based on both periodic Riccati and Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) formulations. The closed-loop stability was analyzed using Floquet-Lyapunov theory, and the controller's performance was validated by closed-loop high-delity aeroelastic simulations. To validate the con- troller's performance an actively controlled trailing edge ap strategy was implemented. Computational cost was compared for both formulations.

  4. Development of a learning module using a virtual environment to demonstrate EMG and telerobotic control principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P E

    2002-01-01

    A prototype system was developed for use as a teaching tool, allowing students to link EMG monitoring, data smoothing, robotic control, and neural network training within a rapid prototyping virtual environment (VE). The VE software allowed for the rapid development of scenarios and, when linked with EMG data input to a neural network, allowed the user to control an artificial world containing a virtual arm. Student teams then attempted to control the arm in the VE while performing the tasks by use of a neural network system they had specifically developed and trained using their own EMG signals. The results from their system were then translated into a form that enabled the control of a real robot. Students enjoyed the challenge and uniqueness of the module, and were enthusiastic about extending the concept to other areas of interest.

  5. Demonstration of Coherent-State Discrimination Using a Displacement-Controlled Photon-Number-Resolving Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittmann, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Takeoka, M.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a new measurement scheme for the discrimination of two coherent states. The measurement scheme is based on a displacement operation followed by a photon-number-resolving detector, and we show that it outperforms the standard homodyne detector which we, in addition...

  6. A Referential Communication Demonstration versus a Lecture-Only Control: Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, William R.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a demonstration involving active and cooperative learning, 40 students in a cognitive psychology course and 132 students in an introductory psychology course completed a brief multiple-choice pretest on referential communication. Two days later, randomly assigned students either participated in a classroom referential communication…

  7. A Referential Communication Demonstration versus a Lecture-Only Control: Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, William R.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a demonstration involving active and cooperative learning, 40 students in a cognitive psychology course and 132 students in an introductory psychology course completed a brief multiple-choice pretest on referential communication. Two days later, randomly assigned students either participated in a classroom referential communication…

  8. A New Approach for Preventive/Corrective Control Strategy to Avoid Voltage Collapse Based on FACTS Devices Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Araby, E. E.; Yorino, Naoto; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new method of optimal FACTS devices allocation to be used in the preventive/corrective control (PCC) against voltage collapse. The new formulation takes into consideration the transition states that the power system may expose such as normal state and contingency states. For the severe contingencies that drive the system to voltage collapse, the corrective control is initiated by means of fast response of FACTS and load shedding to restore the system with small positive load margin, then the preventive control is carried out using all the fast and slow devices ensuring security margin and voltage feasibility. For this control strategy, FACTS allocation are determined based on the minimum cost for the installations and the operations.. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem, which is solved using hybrid genetic algorithm/successive liner programming (GA/SLP) approach. The IEEE 57 bus system is tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Interated Intelligent Industrial Process Sensing and Control: Applied to and Demonstrated on Cupola Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; roger Haggard; Wagdy Mahmoud; Kevin Moore; Denis Clark; Eric Larsen; Paul King

    2003-02-12

    The final goal of this project was the development of a system that is capable of controlling an industrial process effectively through the integration of information obtained through intelligent sensor fusion and intelligent control technologies. The industry of interest in this project was the metal casting industry as represented by cupola iron-melting furnaces. However, the developed technology is of generic type and hence applicable to several other industries. The system was divided into the following four major interacting components: 1. An object oriented generic architecture to integrate the developed software and hardware components @. Generic algorithms for intelligent signal analysis and sensor and model fusion 3. Development of supervisory structure for integration of intelligent sensor fusion data into the controller 4. Hardware implementation of intelligent signal analysis and fusion algorithms

  10. Guideline for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Pneumonia is the second most common nosocomial infection in the United States and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Most patients with nosocomial pneumonia are those with extremes of age, severe underlying disease, immunosuppression, depressed sensorium, and cardiopulmonary disease, and those who have had thoracoabdominal surgery. Although patients with mechanically assisted ventilation do not comprise a major proportion of patients with nosocomial pneumonia, they have the highest risk of developing the infection. Most bacterial nosocomial pneumonias occur by aspiration of bacteria colonizing the oropharynx or upper gastrointestinal tract of the patient. Intubation and mechanical ventilation greatly increase the risk of nosocomial bacterial pneumonia because they alter first-line patient defenses. Pneumonias due to Legionella spp., Aspergillus spp., and influenza virus are often caused by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection usually follows viral inoculation of the conjunctivae or nasal mucosa by contaminated hands. Traditional preventive measures for nosocomial pneumonia include decreasing aspiration by the patient, preventing cross-contamination or colonization via hands of personnel, appropriate disinfection or sterilization or respiratory therapy devices, use of available vaccines to protect against particular infections, and education of hospital staff and patients. New measures under investigation involve reducing oropharyngeal and gastric colonization by pathogenic microorganisms.

  11. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  12. Precommercial Stocking Control of Coast Redwood at Caspar Creek, Jackson Demonstration State Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Lindquist

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration of coast redwood by stump sprouting often results in a stand condition that is very dense. A precommercial thinning of redwood sprouts allows managers to select trees and spacing that can best utilize the productivity of the site. The study of five thinning treatments with an unthinned control was initiated on a 19-year old third growth stand. Treatments...

  13. A Mycobacterium tuberculosis cluster demonstrating the use of genotyping in urban tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. de Vries (Gerard); R.M. van Hest (Reinier); C.C.A. Burdo (Conny); D. van Soolingen (Dick); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates offers better opportunities to study links between tuberculosis (TB) cases and can highlight relevant issues in urban TB control in low-endemic countries. Methods: A medium-sized molecular cluster of TB cases with iden

  14. Demonstration of leapfrogging for implementing nonlinear model predictive control on a heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Upasana Manimegalai; Govindarajan, Anand; Rhinehart, R Russell

    2016-01-01

    This work reveals the applicability of a relatively new optimization technique, Leapfrogging, for both nonlinear regression modeling and a methodology for nonlinear model-predictive control. Both are relatively simple, yet effective. The application on a nonlinear, pilot-scale, shell-and-tube heat exchanger reveals practicability of the techniques.

  15. Methodological demonstration of laser beam pointing control for space gravitational wave detection missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-Hui; Liu, He-Shan; Luo, Zi-Ren; Li, Yu-Qiong; Jin, Gang

    2014-07-01

    In space laser interferometer gravitational wave (G.W.) detection missions, the stability of the laser beam pointing direction has to be kept at 10 nrad/√Hz. Otherwise, the beam pointing jitter noise will dominate the noise budget and make the detection of G.W. impossible. Disturbed by the residue non-conservative forces, the fluctuation of the laser beam pointing direction could be a few μrad/√Hz at frequencies from 0.1 mHz to 10 Hz. Therefore, the laser beam pointing control system is an essential requirement for those space G.W. detection missions. An on-ground test of such beam pointing control system is performed, where the Differential Wave-front Sensing technique is used to sense the beams pointing jitter. An active controlled steering mirror is employed to adjust the beam pointing direction to compensate the jitter. The experimental result shows that the pointing control system can be used for very large dynamic range up to 5 μrad. At the interested frequencies of space G.W. detection missions, between 1 mHz and 1 Hz, beam pointing stability of 6 nrad/√Hz is achieved.

  16. Deficit Prevention: Budget Control Model for Enrollment-Dependent Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael K.

    1994-01-01

    An ongoing system of short-term budget controls that test actual performance against budget forecasts is essential for enrollment-dependent independent colleges. The budget control model presented here is a tool to inform the management continuously of changes in the all-important tuition revenue stream. (Author/MSE)

  17. Fluorides in caries prevention and control: empiricism or science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, J M

    2004-01-01

    The caries-preventive effects of fluoride are beyond any reasonable doubt! Inclusion of fluoride use in caries prevention protocols has resulted in significant reduction in caries prevalence in the majority of the population. Nevertheless, even in low-caries prevalence populations up to 20% of individuals may suffer to an unacceptable degree from caries. In the history of caries research various phases can be discerned. Starting with the initial - laboratory - studies to reveal the mode of action of fluoride, attention later shifted to intra-oral studies and in situ product testing. Currently much emphasis is given to evidence-based dentistry and guidelines for clinical practice, which trend has also focussed the research on fluoride and caries. While on some topics, such as the efficacy of fluoride toothpastes, evidence is convincing, additional research is indicated to resolve remaining questions. One such question is that of high-prevalence individuals for which a comprehensive research programme focussing both on caries aetiological and behavioural aspects should be further developed. Efforts should continue to be directed at improving our understanding of fluoride, in particular on topics where success so far has failed.

  18. [Epidemiologic surveillance for the prevention and control urban violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Eastman, A; Guerrero, R

    1999-01-01

    Violence prevention policies should be based on information, follow-up, research, and analysis, all of which increase the chances of success and make it easier to evaluate interventions. This implies, in turn, that there is a need to create surveillance, research, and prevention models for violence within the sphere of public health and epidemiology, a task that constitutes an integral part of the Pan American Health Organization's Regional Plan of Action Health and Violence. This article describes the objectives of epidemiologic surveillance systems and explains their purpose and scope, along with the barriers that stand in the way of their implementation. It also examines a number of variables and their definitions, the types of analyses and reports that should be generated, and the decisions that can be made on the basis of these reports. Finally, it discusses ethical criteria and describes the experiences of the program known as Desarrollo, Seguridad y Paz (DESEPAZ) in Cali and Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, where an epidemiologic surveillance system against violence has been implemented.

  19. Research on Modularized Design and Allocation of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yun-Dou; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Gao, Shu-Tian; Guo, Li-Jun; Sun, Li-Na

    2016-11-15

    For the prevention and control of newly emergent or sudden infectious diseases, we built an on-site, modularized prevention and control system and tested the equipment by using the clustering analysis method. On the basis of this system, we propose a modular equipment allocation method and 4 applications of this method for different types of infectious disease prevention and control. This will help to improve the efficiency and productivity of anti-epidemic emergency forces and will provide strong technical support for implementing more universal and serialized equipment in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016; page 1 of 8).

  20. Thinking of Improving Disease Control and Prevention with GIS in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yu

    2006-01-01

    DCP (Disease Control and Prevention) is one of the key works of Guangxi Public Health Bureau (GPHB). Its responsibilities are collecting relevant information concerning disease control and prevention (DCP) from all the communities in Guangxi province of China, then classifying and analysing the information, making an action plan. This paper aims to analyse the current situations and the existing problems of using information in DCPD, and then attempts to introduce a specific IT--GIS approach from the IdeA web site to improve DCP (Disease Control and Prevention) in GPHB.

  1. Study on regional stratagem for coal mine disasters control and prevention in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bao-hong; LEI Yi

    2009-01-01

    The regional strategy study was aimed at coal mine disaster control and pre-vention, which deepens and enriches the macro-strategy of coal mine disaster control and prevention, and provides an important support for the rapid and healthy development of the regional coal industry. The country was divided into 4 regions: Northeast, North, South and Xinqing. In view of the regional status of coal mine disasters, the regulation and de-velopment trend of regional coal mine disasters were analyzed, the outstanding problems and key factors were identified, and the general thoughts on regional coal mine disaster control and prevention were put forward.

  2. Normalized performance and load data for the deepwind demonstrator in controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Battisti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance and load normalized coefficients, deriving from an experimental campaign of measurements conducted at the large scale wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano (Italy, are presented with the aim of providing useful benchmark data for the validation of numerical codes. Rough data, derived from real scale measurements on a three-bladed Troposkien vertical-axis wind turbine, are manipulated in a convenient form to be easily compared with the typical outputs provided by simulation codes. The here proposed data complement and support the measurements already presented in “Wind Tunnel Testing of the DeepWind Demonstrator in Design and Tilted Operating Conditions” (Battisti et al., 2016 [1].

  3. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF TUBERCULOSIS *A.C. Okoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    *A.C. Okoh. Department of Community Health, University of Teaching Hospital Benin City,. Nigeria ... Organization. (WHO) ... Control is the reduction of the prevalence ... behavioural changes, especially in ... stimulate an acquired resistance to.

  4. Demonstration of spectral correlation control in a source of polarization entangled photon pairs at telecom wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Thomas; Jennewein, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Spectrally correlated photon pairs can be used to improve performance of long range fiber based quantum communication protocols. We present a source based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion producing polarization entangled photons without spectral filtering. In addition, the spectral correlation within the photon pair can be controlled by changing the pump pulse duration or coupled spatial modes characteristics. The spectral and polarization correlations were characterized. The generated photon pairs feature both positive spectral correlations, no correlations, or negative correlations and polarization entanglement with the fidelity as high as 0.97 (no background subtraction) with the expected Bell state.

  5. Control Demonstration of a Thin Deformable In-Plane Actuated Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    ControlDesktop saves each desired variable as a structured array. This allows all post-processing to be completed within Matlab R©. Movies of the...DAC blocks are dSpace R© coded blocks that provide analog signal to the dSpace R© signal generator. These seven blocks correspond to the seven...block: Under the rx parameters tab, set the number of bytes to 297. • In the S-function − Builder2 block: Under the data properties tab, change the

  6. Demonstration of sufficient control for two rounds of quantum error correction in a solid state ensemble quantum information processor

    CERN Document Server

    Moussa, Osama; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    We report the implementation of a 3-qubit quantum error correction code (QECC) on a quantum information processor realized by the magnetic resonance of Carbon nuclei in a single crystal of Malonic Acid. The code corrects for phase errors induced on the qubits due to imperfect decoupling of the magnetic environment represented by nearby spins, as well as unwanted evolution under the internal Hamiltonian. We also experimentally demonstrate sufficiently high fidelity control to implement two rounds of quantum error correction. This is a demonstration of state-of-the-art control in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, a leading test-bed for the implementation of quantum algorithms.

  7. Demonstration of sufficient control for two rounds of quantum error correction in a solid state ensemble quantum information processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Osama; Baugh, Jonathan; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-10-14

    We report the implementation of a 3-qubit quantum error-correction code on a quantum information processor realized by the magnetic resonance of carbon nuclei in a single crystal of malonic acid. The code corrects for phase errors induced on the qubits due to imperfect decoupling of the magnetic environment represented by nearby spins, as well as unwanted evolution under the internal Hamiltonian. We also experimentally demonstrate sufficiently high-fidelity control to implement two rounds of quantum error correction. This is a demonstration of state-of-the-art control in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, a leading test bed for the implementation of quantum algorithms.

  8. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats.

  9. Heterosexual HIV transmission dynamics: implications for prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, James; Bennett, Anthony

    2007-08-01

    Understanding the epidemiologic definition of epidemic versus non-epidemic spread of an infectious disease agent and the different patterns of heterosexual HIV transmission are needed to fully understand the low potential for heterosexual HIV epidemics in most heterosexual populations. Epidemic sexual HIV transmission can occur only in populations where there are large numbers of persons who have unprotected sex with multiple and concurrent sex partners. How high HIV prevalence may reach in these populations depends on the size and overlap of sex networks, and the prevalence of facilitating and protective factors that can greatly increase or limit the amount of infected blood and sexual fluids exchanged during intercourse. The wide difference in potentials for heterosexual HIV epidemics that exists within and between countries must be recognized, accepted and monitored in order to design and focus prevention strategies where they are most needed and most effective.

  10. Infection prevention and control during prolonged human space travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermel, Leonard A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged human spaceflight to another planet or an asteroid will introduce unique challenges of mitigating the risk of infection. During space travel, exposure to microgravity, radiation, and stress alter human immunoregulatory responses, which can in turn impact an astronaut's ability to prevent acquisition of infectious agents or reactivation of latent infection. In addition, microgravity affects virulence, growth kinetics, and biofilm formation of potential microbial pathogens. These interactions occur in a confined space in microgravity, providing ample opportunity for heavy microbial contamination of the environment. In addition, there is the persistence of aerosolized, microbe-containing particles. Any mission involving prolonged human spaceflight must be carefully planned to minimize vulnerabilities and maximize the likelihood of success.

  11. GIS and Injury Prevention and Control: History, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schuurman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intentional and unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and potential years of life lost in the first four decades of life in industrialized countries around the world. Despite surgical innovations and improved access to emergency care, research has shown that certain populations remain particularly vulnerable to the risks and consequences of injury. Recent evidence has shown that the analytical, data linkage, and mapping tools of geographic information systems (GIS technology provide can further address these determinants and identify populations in need. This paper traces the history of injury prevention and discusses current and future challenges in furthering our understanding of the determinants of injury through the use of GIS.

  12. Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Model-Predictive Automatic Recovery System to Prevent Vehicle Loss of Control on Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Liu, Yuan; Sowers, Thomas S.; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a model-predictive automatic recovery system for aircraft on the verge of a loss-of-control situation. The system determines when it must intervene to prevent an imminent accident, resulting from a poor approach. It estimates the altitude loss that would result from a go-around maneuver at the current flight condition. If the loss is projected to violate a minimum altitude threshold, the maneuver is automatically triggered. The system deactivates to allow landing once several criteria are met. Piloted flight simulator evaluation showed the system to provide effective envelope protection during extremely unsafe landing attempts. The results demonstrate how flight and propulsion control can be integrated to recover control of the vehicle automatically and prevent a potential catastrophe.

  13. A Mycobacterium tuberculosis cluster demonstrating the use of genotyping in urban tuberculosis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo Conny CA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates offers better opportunities to study links between tuberculosis (TB cases and can highlight relevant issues in urban TB control in low-endemic countries. Methods A medium-sized molecular cluster of TB cases with identical DNA fingerprints was used for the development of a visual presentation of epidemiologic links between cases. Results Of 32 cases, 17 (53% were linked to the index case, and 11 (34% to a secondary case. The remaining four (13% could not be linked and were classified as possibly caused by the index patient. Of the 21 cases related to the index case, TB developed within one year of the index diagnosis in 11 patients (52%, within one to two years in four patients (19%, and within two to five years in six patients (29%. Conclusion Cluster analysis underscored several issues for TB control in an urban setting, such as the recognition of the outbreak, the importance of reinfections, the impact of delayed diagnosis, the contribution of pub-related transmissions and its value for decision-making to extend contact investigations. Visualising cases in a cluster diagram was particularly useful in finding transmission locations and the similarities and links between patients.

  14. Relapse Prevention in Major Depressive Disorder: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Versus an Active Control Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Amanda J.; Gross, James J.; Visvanathan, Pallavi D.; Kumar, Niketa; Palfrey, Amy; Ford, Brett Q.; Dimidjian, Sona; Shirk, Stephen; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Goode, Kari M.; Cox, Erica; Chaplin, William; Mauss, Iris B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus an active control condition (ACC) for depression relapse prevention, depressive symptom reduction, and improvement in life satisfaction. Method Ninety-two participants in remission from Major Depressive Disorder with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an 8-week MBCT or a validated ACC that is structurally equivalent to MBCT and controls for non-specific effects (e.g., interaction with a facilitator, perceived social support, treatment outcome expectations). Both interventions were delivered according to their published manuals. Results Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no differences between MBCT and ACC in depression relapse rates or time to relapse over a 60-week follow-up. Both groups experienced significant and equal reductions in depressive symptoms and improvements in life satisfaction. A significant quadratic interaction (group x time) indicated that the pattern of depressive symptom reduction differed between groups. The ACC experienced immediate symptom reduction post-intervention and then a gradual increase over the 60-week follow-up. The MBCT group experienced a gradual linear symptom reduction. The pattern for life satisfaction was identical but only marginally significant. Conclusions MBCT did not differ from an ACC on rates of depression relapse, symptom reduction, or life satisfaction, suggesting that MBCT is no more effective for preventing depression relapse and reducing depressive symptoms than the active components of the ACC. Differences in trajectory of depressive symptom improvement suggest that the intervention-specific skills acquired may be associated with differential rates of therapeutic benefit. This study demonstrates the importance of comparing psychotherapeutic interventions to active control conditions. PMID:26371618

  15. [Mathematical modelling of an infectious disease in a prison setting and optimal preventative control strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Salazar, Carlos A; Toro-Zapata, Hernán D; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for modelling transmission dynamics and the evolution of an infectious disease in a prison setting, considering asymptomatic infectious people, symptomatic infectious people and isolated infectious people. The model was proposed as a nonlinear differential equation system for describing disease epidemiology. The model's stability was analysed for including a preventative control strategy which would enable finding a suitable basic reproduction number-based control protocol. A cost function related to the system of differential equations was formulated to minimise infectious populations and intervention costs; such function was minimised by using the Pontryagin maximum principle which determines optimum preventative control strategies by minimising both infectious populations and associated costs. A numerical analysis of the model was made, considering preventative control effectiveness levels and different control weighting constants. Conclusions were drawn. The basic reproduction number characterises system stability and leads to determining clear control criteria; a preventative control threshold was defined, based on the controlled basic reproduction number which enabled deducing that disease control requires uniform preventative control involving high rates of effectiveness.

  16. 77 FR 28393 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Cholera and HIV/AIDS Response, FOA GH12-001, and Research and Technical Assistance for Public Health Laboratories in Haiti to Support Post Earthquake Reconstruction, Cholera and HIV/AIDS Response, FOA...

  17. 78 FR 9055 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Activities for Avian Influenza and other Zoonotic Diseases, FOA CK13-002, initial review. In accordance with... Interface Activities for Avian Influenza and other Zoonotic Diseases, FOA CK13-002''. Contact Person for... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  18. 75 FR 7283 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Influenza and Other Zoonotic Diseases, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK10-001, Initial Review In... other Zoonotic Diseases, FOA CK10-001.'' Contact Person for More Information: Gregory Anderson, M.S., M... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  19. 76 FR 13413 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Zoonotic Diseases in Vietnam, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) IP11-005; The Incidence and Etiology... to ``Studies at the Animal-Human Interface of Influenza and Other Zoonotic Diseases in Vietnam, FOA... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  20. 76 FR 27327 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Zoonotic Diseases in Vietnam, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) IP11-005, The Incidence and Etiology... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... and Other Respiratory Diseases in Southern Hemisphere; and FOA IP11- 014, initial review....

  1. 75 FR 4406 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... site visits conducted at the University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco, October 12-14, 2009; the University of Massachusetts, Lowell, October 21, 2009; the University of West Virginia, October...

  2. A randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a novel closed-loop propofol system performs better hypnosis control than manual administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerling, Thomas M; Charabati, Samer; Zaouter, Cedrick; Minardi, Carmelo; Mathieu, Pierre A

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this randomized control trial was to determine the performance of a novel rule-based adaptive closed-loop system for propofol administration using the bispectral index (BIS(R)) and to compare the system's performance with manual administration. The effectiveness of the closed-loop system to maintain BIS close to a target of 45 was determined and compared with manual administration. After Institutional Review Board approval and written consent, 40 patients undergoing major surgery in a tertiary university hospital were allocated to two groups using computer-generated block randomization. In the Closed-loop group (n = 20), closed-loop control was used to maintain anesthesia at a target BIS of 45, and in the Control group (n = 20), propofol was administered manually to maintain the same BIS target. To evaluate each technique's performance in maintaining a steady level of hypnosis, the BIS values obtained during the surgical procedure were stratified into four clinical performance categories relative to the target BIS: 30% defined as excellent, good, poor, or inadequate control of hypnosis, respectively. The controller performance was compared using Varvel's controller performance indices. Data were compared using Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test, P performance error and the median absolute performance error were significantly lower in the Closed-loop group compared with the Control group (-1.1 +/- 5.3% vs -10.7 +/- 13.1%; P = 0.004 and 9.1 +/- 1.9% vs 15.7 +/- 7.4%; P performance than manual administration of propofol. (Clinical Trials gov. NCT 01019746).

  3. Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Butz; Terry Hunt

    2005-11-01

    Public Service Company of Colorado and ADA Technologies, Inc. have performed a study of the injection of activated carbon for the removal of vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas streams. The project was completed under contract to the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with contributions from EPRI and Public Service Company. The prime contractor for the project was Public Service Company, with ADA Technologies as the major subcontractor providing technical support to all aspects of the project. The research and development effort was conducted in two phases. In Phase I a pilot facility was fabricated and tests were performed using dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control on a coal-fired flue gas slipstream extracted from an operating power plant. Phase II was designed to move carbon injection technology towards commercial application on coal-fired power plants by addressing key reliability and operability concerns. Phase II field work included further development work with the Phase I pilot and mercury measurements on several of PSCo's coal-fired generating units. In addition, tests were run on collected sorbent plus fly ash to evaluate the impact of the activated carbon sorbent on the disposal of fly ash. An economic analysis was performed where pilot plant test data was used to develop a model to predict estimated costs of mercury removal from plants burning western coals. Testing in the pilot plant was undertaken to quantify the effects of plant configuration, flue gas temperature, and activated carbon injection rate on mercury removal. All three variables were found to significantly impact the mercury removal efficiency in the pilot. The trends were clear: mercury removal rates increased with decreasing flue gas temperature and with increasing carbon injection rates. Mercury removal was much more efficient with reverse-gas and pulse-jet baghouse configurations than with an ESP as the particulate

  4. Optimization of sand control liner designs for Leismer SAGD demonstration horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J. [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Solvoll, T.A. [StatoilHydro Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Leismer demonstration project has been planned as part of the larger Kai Kos Dehseh oilsands project owned by StatoilHydro. The project will consist initially of 23 horizontal well pairs distributed over 4 wellpads. Slotted liner and screen designs for the Leismer steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells were presented in this study. Finite element analyses were conducted to study the impact of the liner's weight and open flow area (OFA) on system performance. The model considered elastic-plastic material responses and deformations that might occur during SAGD applications. The criteria investigated in this study included collapse capacity; installation load limits; thermal strain loading; and slot or wire-spacing opening and closings. The analysis showed that liner weight and slot density have a significant impact on slotted liner performance. It was concluded that the designs provide optimized open flow areas (OFA), acceptable sand screen functionality, and enhanced structural capacities to sustain installation and operational loads over the lifetime of both producer and injector wells. 4 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L. G.; O' Fallon, N. M; Bump, T. R.; Cohn, C. E.; Doering, R. W.; Duffey, D.; Kirsch,; Lipinski, W. C.; Managan, W. W.; Porges, K. G.; Raptis, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The final report of the state-of-the-art study of instrumentation for process control and safety in large-scale coal conversion and fluidized-bed combustion systems was distributed in November. A conceptual design for the Solids/Gas Flow Test Facility has been initiated, the major components identified, and vendors located. Work on acoustic flow measurement has included theoretical feasibility studies of acoustic/ultrasonic techniques for mass-flow measurements of slurries and solid/gas media. Initial planning was conducted to establish a laboratory facility necessary to verify theoretical findings. A survey of the literature relating to capacitive measurements was begun to provide a basis for conceptual designs and preliminary bench tests of the feasibility of these designs. Conceptual design of a capacitive on-line solids density measuring device and calculations to select the type of system for initial feasibility tests were carried out. Preliminary tests of neutron capture gamma analysis for on-line elemental composition of liquid and solid streams in coal plants indicate that most coal elements can be detected quantitatively through the pipe walls. A computer program for peak-fitting in the gamma spectrum was modified for requirements of this work. A literature search was started to determine the state-of-the-art in dynamic process modeling of fossil energy system components, physical property models, and process control models. A partial review of abstracts from a computerized literature search has identified over 50 references having possible application to process analysis activities in this program.

  6. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  7. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  8. [Application of cohort study in cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Min; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Cheng, Ning; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Cancer control is a long-term work. Cancer research and intervention really need the support of cohort study. In the recent years, more and more cohort studies on cancer control were conducted in China along with the increased ability of scientific research in China. Since 2010, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, collaborated with Lanzhou University and the Worker' s Hospital of Jinchuan Group Company Limited, have carried out a large-scale cohort study on cancer, which covered a population of more than 50 000 called " Jinchang cohort". Since 2012, a National Key Public Health Project, "cancer screening in urban China" , has been conducted in Jinchang, which strengthened the Jinchang cohort study. Based on the Jinchang cohort study, historical cohort study, cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study have been conducted, which would provide a lot of evidence for the cancer control in China.

  9. Strategies for diagnosis, control, and prevention of mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Cotrino Badillo, Victor

    2010-01-01

    La diversidad en los sistemas de manejo, métodos de ordeño y aun de razas que se tienen en la producción de leche en Colombia, no permiten unificar las normas para el control de mastitis y será el veterinario quien, de acuerdo con los recursos disponibles en cada finca, establezca los procedimientos para el manejo del ordeño y el control de la mastitis. Influenciados por las diferencias de manejo, la prevalencia de cada uno de los microorganismos causantes de mastitis varía de región a reg...

  10. Locus of control, problem-solving skills appraisal as predictors of waste prevention behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbalaei, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Given that waste generation is a devastating problem, it is necessary that we advance our knowledge about the etiology of waste prevention behaviors. Accordingly, this study sought to increase the existing literature of waste prevention behaviors by examining the relationships among the locus of control, problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, personal control style and participant’s age with waste prevention behaviors. Two hundred and forty participants (126 Women, and 114 men from Putra University (Universiti Putra Malaysia completed the Locus of Control of Behavior Scale, Waste Prevention Behaviors, Problem-Solving skills Appraisal and Socio-demographic questions. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM estimated individuals with internal personal control, effective problem-solving confidence, internal locus of control and approaching styles were more likely to pursue waste prevention behaviors. In addition, men were better than women at problem-solving confidence, approaching style, while women were better than men at internal locus of control, and personal control style. Therefore, these findings reinforce the importance of personality traits in waste prevention behaviors.

  11. HIV treatment as prevention: considerations in the design, conduct, and analysis of cluster randomized controlled trials of combination HIV prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Boily

    Full Text Available The rigorous evaluation of the impact of combination HIV prevention packages at the population level will be critical for the future of HIV prevention. In this review, we discuss important considerations for the design and interpretation of cluster randomized controlled trials (C-RCTs of combination prevention interventions. We focus on three large C-RCTs that will start soon and are designed to test the hypothesis that combination prevention packages, including expanded access to antiretroviral therapy, can substantially reduce HIV incidence. Using a general framework to integrate mathematical modelling analysis into the design, conduct, and analysis of C-RCTs will complement traditional statistical analyses and strengthen the evaluation of the interventions. Importantly, even with combination interventions, it may be challenging to substantially reduce HIV incidence over the 2- to 3-y duration of a C-RCT, unless interventions are scaled up rapidly and key populations are reached. Thus, we propose the innovative use of mathematical modelling to conduct interim analyses, when interim HIV incidence data are not available, to allow the ongoing trials to be modified or adapted to reduce the likelihood of inconclusive outcomes. The preplanned, interactive use of mathematical models during C-RCTs will also provide a valuable opportunity to validate and refine model projections.

  12. Variable Cycle Engine Control System Definition Study. Turbine Engine Technology Demonstrator Component Development Program, Project 668A. Controls Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    with a contvol system was developed along with cOMUtet.-ed optimi.-ation ard conetraint proedure... to e-totlish optimal enine jam• ?a. ... O1 • j1.4St 1...self-test and diagnostic features of the controller software . It should be noted from a systems concept that failure detection applies to both the...deve’..., and validation of software for implementing the final control mode for the J.:-’on-, strator test stand running. The test program also

  13. 76 FR 67192 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal.... Matters To Be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss the recommendations provided by the expert panel...

  14. Curative and Preventive Control of Aceria aloinis (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, L E; Bethke, J A; Dahlke, B; Vander Mey, B; Corkidi, L

    2014-12-01

    The aloe mite, Aceria aloinis Keifer, causes physiological and morphological alterations in species of Aloe L. We conducted three trials to evaluate the potential of various miticides for curative and preventive control of damage caused by A. aloinis. In the first trial, the efficacy of nine miticides against aloe mite damage was assessed without the removal of infected tissue in Aloe reitziiae Reynolds. Although significant reductions in the number of mites and eggs were found due to the treatments, miticide application did not reduce the amount of plant area damaged or damage severity. Once the plants are infected, the irreversible damage by aloe mite progresses. The second trial analyzed the effects of seven miticides on aloe mite damage on Aloe 'Goliath' plants in which the damaged tissue was removed. Reduced damage severity and mite number was observed in all treated plants. To determine if aloe mite damage could be prevented, the effects of six miticides with and without surfactant were tested on uninfected plants of Aloe spinosissima A. Berger in a third trial. Except for chlorfenapyr and fenazaquin, all treatments reduced plant damaged area, damage severity, and the number of mites 60 wk following three miticide applications. The severity index in the second and third trials suggested that all treated plants would be marketable. Our study demonstrated that there were miticides that were effective by contact (carbaryl), translaminar (spiromesifen), and systemic (spirotetramat) action, which can be used to cure and to prevent aloe mite plant damage alone or in combination with cultural practices. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  15. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...

  16. Demonstration of the suitability of GPUs for AO real-time control at ELT scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitenc, Urban; Basden, Alastair G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Myers, Richard M.

    2016-07-01

    We have implemented the full AO data-processing pipeline on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), within the framework of Durham AO Real-time Controller (DARC). The wavefront sensor images are copied from the CPU memory to the GPU memory. The GPU processes the data and the DM commands are copied back to the CPU. For a SCAO system of 80x80 subapertures, the rate achieved on a single GPU is about 700 frames per second (fps). This increases to 1100 fps (1565 fps) if we use two (four) GPUs. Jitter exhibits a distribution with the root-mean-square value of 20 μs-30 μs and a negligible number of outliers. The increase in latency due to the pixel data copying from the CPU to the GPU has been reduced to the minimum by copying the data in parallel to processing them. An alternative solution in which the data would be moved from the camera directly to the GPU, without CPU involvement, could be about 10%-20% faster. We have also implemented the correlation centroiding algorithm, which - when used - reduces the frame rate by about a factor of 2-3.

  17. Prevention and control strategies for ticks and pathogen transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, J; Kocan, K M; Contreras, M

    2015-04-01

    Ticks and tick-borne pathogens have evolved together, resulting in a complex relationship in which the pathogen's life cycle is perfectly coordinated with the tick's feeding cycle, and the tick can harbour high pathogen levels without affecting its biology. Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) continue to emerge and/or spread, and pose an increasing threatto human and animal health. The disruptive impacts of global change have resulted in ecosystem instability and the future outcomes of management and control programmes for ticks and TBDs are difficult to predict. In particular, the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks has reduced the value of acaricides as a sole means of tick control. Vaccines provide an alternative control method, but the use of tick vaccines has not advanced since the first vaccines were registered in the early 1990s. An understanding of the complex molecular relationship between hosts, ticks and pathogens and the use of systems biology and vaccinomics approaches are needed to discover proteins with the relevant biological function in tick feeding, reproduction, development, immune response, the subversion of host immunity and pathogen transmission, all of which mediate tick and pathogen success. The same approaches will also be required to characterise candidate protective antigens and to validate vaccine formulations. Tick vaccines with a dual effect on tick infestations and pathogen transmission could reduce both tick infestations and their vector capacity for humans, animals and reservoir hosts. The development of integrated tick control strategies, including vaccines and synthetic and botanical acaricides, in combination with managing drug resistance and educating producers, should lead to the sustainable control of ticks and TBDs.

  18. Control Strategies for Prevention of Undesirable Traits in Cattle - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elena Ilie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle genome sequencing has a major impact on livestock breeding and provides useful information in the field biotechnology that can ultimately lead to the development of several techniques for early molecular diagnosis. These developments within molecular genetics have made possible the rapid and effective detection of lethal or mutant alleles associated with a disease-specific phenotype by DNA isolation followed by in vitro amplification techniques and enzymatic restriction. DNA tests are currently in use for the detection of heterozygotes and diagnosis of genetic diseases such as bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD, deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS and bovine citrullinemia. These genetic defects are autosomal recessive disorders which were widespread trough advanced reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination and multiple ovulation embryo transfer, as result of selection focused on desirable traits carried by elite bulls with high genetic merit. In order to prevent the risk of dissemination of inherited defects in dairy herds and to decrease the economic losses all bulls have to be tested, although the prevalence of the above mentioned recessive alleles is low. Therefore, it is advisable to use molecular markers to assess bovine health and to implement such programs for the purpose of monitoring hereditary diseases in cattle.

  19. First demonstration and performance of an injection locked continuous wave magnetron to phase control a superconducting cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.C. Dexter, G. Burt, R.G. Carter, I. Tahir, H. Wang, K. Davis, R. Rimmer

    2011-03-01

    The applications of magnetrons to high power proton and cw electron linacs are discussed. An experiment is described where a 2.45 GHz magnetron has been used to drive a single cell superconducting cavity. With the magnetron injection locked, a modest phase control accuracy of 0.95° rms has been demonstrated. Factors limiting performance have been identified.

  20. actions for legionellosis prevention and control: a challenge for public health in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gea-Izquierdo, Enrique; Cátedra de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Universidad de Málaga. Málaga, España. Biólogo doctor en Ciencias Biológicas, máster en Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, máster en Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo.; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas. Lima, Perú. médico maestro en Ciencias en Epidemiología Clínica.; Haro-García, Luis; Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México DF, México. médico especialista en Medicina Familiar y Salud en el Trabajo, doctor en Ciencias.

    2014-01-01

    Legionellosis is a respiratory disease originating in systems that produce aerosol and contain Legionella sp. In recent decades, Spain has developed a regulatory framework for prevention and control of legionellosis. This article describes the epidemiology of legionellosis and the importance of controlling the transmission of bacteria in the fight against the disease. In that regard, it becomes clear the role of reviewing critical facilities and the inclusion of new ones in the preventive ...

  1. Development of an automatic subsea blowout preventer stack control system using PLC based SCADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Zengkai; Wang, Fei; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2012-01-01

    An extremely reliable remote control system for subsea blowout preventer stack is developed based on the off-the-shelf triple modular redundancy system. To meet a high reliability requirement, various redundancy techniques such as controller redundancy, bus redundancy and network redundancy are used to design the system hardware architecture. The control logic, human-machine interface graphical design and redundant databases are developed by using the off-the-shelf software. A series of experiments were performed in laboratory to test the subsea blowout preventer stack control system. The results showed that the tested subsea blowout preventer functions could be executed successfully. For the faults of programmable logic controllers, discrete input groups and analog input groups, the control system could give correct alarms in the human-machine interface.

  2. Corrosion Prevention and Control Planning Guidebook Spiral 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    cycle value chain, employing • Lean to eliminate all types of waste, • Six Sigma to optimize process variation, and • Theory of Constraints to...personnel in the field are motivated and trained to identify and report corrosion and recognize the importance of employing prescribed corrosion control...AMSRD-AMR-PS-AM/R Herron Bldg 7103 Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 (256) 876-5061 (256) 842-1359 (fax) robert.a.herron@us.army.mil Eric Herzberg

  3. A review of trachoma history in China: research, prevention, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningli; Deng, Shijing; Tian, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Trachoma is one of the most widespread blinding eye diseases, which is harmful to human visual health. The efforts to prevent and control trachoma in China can be divided into three periods, i.e., highly epidemic period, research on pathogenesis and control of trachoma, and blinding trachoma elimination and epidemiological evaluation. In 1956, Prof. Feifan Tang and Xiaolou Zhang first discovered and isolated Chlamydia trachomatis, which clarified the cause of trachoma, and kick-started a fresh chapter in trachoma research, prevention, and control around the world. Although, the prevalence of trachoma differed in different areas, the average prevalence once exceeded 50% and was as high as 90% in some areas before and at early liberation of China. Therefore, the government-led efforts were made to comprehensively prevent and control trachoma, including development of National Plan for the Prevention and Control of Trachoma, nationwide screening and treatment of trachoma, implementation of National Patriotic Health Campaign and improvement of water supply and lavatories. After decades of effort, China reached the goal of eliminating blinding trachoma in 2015. China has gained remarkable achievements in the prevention and treatment of trachoma, making outstanding contributions toward the goal of eliminating trachoma worldwide. The research, prevention, and control of trachoma in China were reviewed in this paper.

  4. [Development of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on prevention and control of occupational diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Feng, Yuchao; Wang, Min; Su, Yiwei; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Zhi; Tang, Shihao

    2015-04-01

    To develop the knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for occupational groups, and to provide a convenient and effective tool for the survey of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the prevention and control of occupational diseases in occupational groups and the evaluation of intervention effect. The initial questionnaire which was evaluated by the experts was used to carry out a pre-survey in Guangzhou, China. The survey results were statistically analyzed by t test, identification index method, correlation analysis, and Cronbach's a coefficient method. And then the questionnaire was further modified, and the content of the questionnaire was determined finally. After modification, there were 18 items on knowledge, 16 items on attitude, and 12 items on behavior in the "Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for enterprise managers"; there were 19 items on knowledge, 10 items on attitude, and 11 items on behavior in the "Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for workers". The knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for occupational groups is developed successfully, and it is a convenient and effective tool for the survey of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the prevention and control of occupational diseases in occupational groups and the evaluation of intervention effect.

  5. Locus of control, hardiness, and emotional intelligence as predictors of waste prevention behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Given that waste generation is an economic and environmental problem for nations and governments, it is necessary that we advance our knowledge on the etiology of waste prevention behaviours. This study aimed to investigate about the relationships between the locus of control, hardiness, emotional intelligence, and waste prevention behaviours. Four hundred and forty participants (226 females and 214 males from Universiti Putra Malaysia completed a survey questionnaire. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM estimated that individuals who were high in emotional intelligence and hardiness showed better waste prevention behaviours as well as those individuals with internal locus of control. Also, the results showed that older students tend to have better waste prevention behaviours. These findings reinforce the importance of personality traits and emotional intelligence in waste prevention behaviours.

  6. [Management pattern of diabetes mellitus and prevention and control of diabetic retinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yan-nian

    2010-02-01

    The Bureau of Disease Prevention and Control, National Ministry of Health, recently released a project for the management of diabetes mellitus along with a technical operational manual. This is a landmark event in the prevention and management of ocular fundus diseases in China. This project will be carried out through collaboration of general hospitals, community health service units, and disease prevention and control organizations. It provides an excellent platform for the prevention and control of diabetic retinopathy. In order to prevent and control this disease, we should follow the patient-centered principle, which includes establishing individual health files, providing consultation for patients, performing screening of diabetic retinopathy, and providing lifelong regular examinations, follow-up and prompt treatments. We should also insist on the combination of prevention, treatment and scientific study to take advantage of a wide array of population resources for studying the pathogenesis and risk factors involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy, and making new contributions in the prevention of blindness due to diabetes.

  7. The Preventive Control of a Dengue Disease Using Pontryagin Minimum Principal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna Sari, Eminugroho; Insani, Nur; Lestari, Dwi

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour analysis for host-vector model without control of dengue disease is based on the value of basic reproduction number obtained using next generation matrices. Furthermore, the model is further developed involving a preventive control to minimize the contact between host and vector. The purpose is to obtain an optimal preventive strategy with minimal cost. The Pontryagin Minimum Principal is used to find the optimal control analytically. The derived optimality model is then solved numerically to investigate control effort to reduce infected class.

  8. Modifying sorbents in controlled release formulations to prevent herbicides pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cespedes, F.F.; Sanchez, M.V.; Garcia, S.P.; Perez, M.F. [University of Almeria, Almeria (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2007-10-15

    The herbicides chloridazon and metribuzin, identified as groundwater pollutants, were incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release properties. In this research the effect of incorporation of sorbents such as bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon in alginate basic formulation were not only studied on encapsulation efficiency but also on the release rate of herbicides which was studied using water release kinetic tests. In addition, sorption studies of herbicides with bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon were made. The kinetic experiments of chloridazon and metribuzin release in water have shown that the release rate is higher in metribuzin systems than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, it can be deduced that the use of sorbents reduces the release rate of the chloridazon and metribuzin in comparison to the technical product and to the alginate formulation without sorbents. The highest decrease in release rate corresponds to the formulations prepared with activated carbon as a sorbent. The water uptake, permeability, and time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, were calculated to compare the formulations. On the basis of a parameter of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, the release of chloridazon and metribuzin from the various formulations into water is controlled by a diffusion mechanism.

  9. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal... that will inform the development of guidance on preventive controls for food facilities that... preventive controls. Given the diversity of registered facilities and regulated foods, FDA will use...

  10. 76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal...), entitled ``Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for.... Information obtained will assist FDA in the development of guidance on preventive controls for food...

  11. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  12. Prevention from Dike Failure by Emergency Flood Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppe Baerbel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of failure of a flood protection system must always be taken into account. During flooding events, appropriate interim protection systems must be at hand and ready to be deployed to support weak and overloaded structures. Usually sandbags, eventually in combination with fascines and geotextiles, are in use to defend endangered dike stretches in case of emergency. Sandbags offer highly flexible employment, however the enormous personal, material and time consuming efforts required for installation and dismantling are problematic. Therefore, more effective constructions for emergency flood control are needed. Within the research projects HWS-Mobile, DeichSCHUTZ, and DeichKADE different constructions based on the use of flexible membranes have been developed or are in development to ensure easy and effective countermeasures to secure dike stretches, which are in risk of breakage. Successful applications of the developed systems have taken place during the catastrophic flood event at the river Elbe in Northern Germany in 2013.

  13. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  14. Modifying sorbents in controlled release formulations to prevent herbicides pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Céspedes, F; Villafranca Sánchez, M; Pérez García, S; Fernández Pérez, M

    2007-10-01

    The herbicides chloridazon and metribuzin, identified as groundwater pollutants, were incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release properties. In this research the effect of incorporation of sorbents such as bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon in alginate basic formulation were not only studied on encapsulation efficiency but also on the release rate of herbicides which was studied using water release kinetic tests. In addition, sorption studies of herbicides with bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon were made. The kinetic experiments of chloridazon and metribuzin release in water have shown that the release rate is higher in metribuzin systems than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, it can be deduced that the use of sorbents reduces the release rate of the chloridazon and metribuzin in comparison to the technical product and to the alginate formulation without sorbents. The highest decrease in release rate corresponds to the formulations prepared with activated carbon as a sorbent. The water uptake, permeability, and time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, T(50), were calculated to compare the formulations. On the basis of a parameter of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, the release of chloridazon and metribuzin from the various formulations into water is controlled by a diffusion mechanism. Sorption capacity of the sorbents for chloridazon and metribuzin, ranging from 0.53mgkg(-1) for the metribuzin sorption on bentonite to 2.03x10(5)mgkg(-1) for the sorption of chloridazon on the activated carbon, was the most important factor modulating the herbicide release.

  15. Part 2: Adaptation of Gait Kinematics in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Demonstrates Preserved Independent Neural Control of Each Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulea, Thomas C.; Stanley, Christopher J.; Damiano, Diane L.

    2017-01-01

    Motor adaptation, or alteration of neural control in response to a perturbation, is a potential mechanism to facilitate motor learning for rehabilitation. Central nervous system deficits are known to affect locomotor adaptation; yet we demonstrated that similar to adults following stroke, children with unilateral brain injuries can adapt step length in response to unilateral leg weighting. Here, we extend our analysis to explore kinematic strategies underlying step length adaptation and utilize dynamical systems approaches to elucidate how neural control may differ in those with hemiplegic CP across legs and compared to typically developing controls. Ten participants with hemiplegic CP and ten age-matched controls participated in this study. Knee and hip joint kinematics were analyzed during unilateral weighting of each leg in treadmill walking to assess adaptation and presence and persistence of after-effects. Peak joint angle displacement was used to represent changes in joint angles during walking. We examined baseline and task-specific variability and local dynamic stability to evaluate neuromuscular control across groups and legs. In contrast to controls, children with unilateral CP had asymmetries in joint angle variability and local dynamic stability at baseline, showing increased variability and reduced stability in the dominant limb. Kinematic variability increased and local stability decreased during weighting of ipsilateral and contralateral limbs in both groups compared to baseline. After weight removal both measures returned to baseline. Analogous to the temporal-spatial results, children with unilateral CP demonstrated similar capability as controls to adapt kinematics to unilateral leg weighting, however, the group with CP differed across sides after weight removal with dominant limb after-effects fading more quickly than in controls. The change in kinematics did not completely return to baseline in the non-dominant limb of the CP group, producing a

  16. Effectiveness and moderators of the preventive intervention kids in divorce situations: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelleboer-Gunnink, Hannah A; Van der Valk, Inge E; Branje, Susan J T; Van Doorn, Muriel D; Deković, Maja

    2015-10-01

    Children of divorced parents have an increased risk of a variety of problems in comparison to children from intact families. Therefore, several intervention programs have been developed directed at children of divorced parents. Yet, empirical data on the effectiveness of these interventions are limited. This study evaluated the school-based, child-directed prevention program Kids In Divorce Situations (KIDS) using a randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 156 children randomly assigned at the school level into an experimental (80 children) and control condition (76 children). In addition, 131 mothers and 76 fathers participated in the study. Four assessments took place: a pretest, a posttest, and two follow-up assessments conducted 6 months and 1 year after finishing KIDS. Latent growth analyses demonstrated that the intervention significantly reduced child-reported emotional problems and enhanced child-reported communication with the father and mother-reported communication with the child. The effect sizes ranged from .30-.63. Few moderation effects of gender, time since divorce, or perceived parental conflict on the intervention effects were found. After parental divorce, a limited school-based intervention for children can be efficacious in promoting children's emotional well-being and parent-child communication.

  17. Healthcare interventions for the prevention and control of gestational diabetes mellitus in China: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; He, Yasheng; Dainelli, Livia; Yu, Kai; Detzel, Patrick; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Volger, Sheri; Fang, Hai

    2017-06-05

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a type of diabetes which occurs during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at greater risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery, while babies born from mothers with GDM are at greater risk of post-natal complications. Using the most updated diagnosis criteria, the GDM prevalence is estimated at 9.3-25.5% worldwide and 9.3-18.9% in China. Our objective was to identify healthcare interventions aimed at GDM prevention and control in China. A best-evidence synthesis was performed based on a systematic search of literature published between 1997 and October 2015 in PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wan-fang databases using keywords "Gestational Diabetes Mellitus", "GDM", "Intervention" "Medical Intervention" "Early Medical Intervention", "Dietary Intervention", "Exercise Intervention", "Lifestyle Intervention", "Therapy", "Treatment" and "China". Inclusion criteria were studies conducted in China, reporting GDM healthcare interventions, and published in either Chinese or English. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility and quality of the studies and extracted the data. Treatment efficacy was examined with weighted pooled odds ratio (OR) meta-analyses. The search resulted in 5961 articles (published in 276 different Chinese language journals and 6 English language journals), of which 802 were included in this synthesis. While 39.4% (n = 316) failed to report the GDM diagnostic criteria used, the remaining studies classified GDM with various international (n = 5) or Chinese (n = 7) diagnostic standards. Treatment interventions were categorized into 6 types: dietary (18.6%), exercise (1.6%), medication (20.7%), health education (9.0%), psychological (2.6%) and combination (47.4%). No interventions aimed at GDM prevention were identified. Meta-analyses demonstrated a statistically significant overall benefit of GDM treatment strategies in reducing the odds of maternal and

  18. Online operations optimization of waste incineration plants. Phase 3: Control concept and demonstration; Online driftsoptimering af affaldsfyrede anlaeg. Fase 3: Reguleringskoncept og demonstration. Hovedrapport ver. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecher Poulsen, K.; Rassing Stoltze, K.; Solberg, B.; Hansen, Lars Henrik (DONG Energy (Denmark)); Cramer, J.; Andreasen, L.B. (FORCE Technology (Denmark)); Nymann Thomsen, S.; West, F. (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund (Denmark)); Clausen, S.; Fateev, A. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The long-term vision of the project is to develop a system for online optimisation of waste incineration. The fundamental idea is to base the system on advanced measuring technique, dynamic process models and advanced control technique. In the present phase 3 project the intention is to implement several of the improvement measures specified in phase 2 - both at Haderslev CHP Plant and at Reno-Nord - and not least evaluate the results from the two widely different plants. In addition to that, it is essential to test the new NIR camera system online at Reno-Nord and to carry out a complete measuring campaign where dynamic characteristics are pursued and must be compared with similar tests from phase 2 at Haderslev CHP Plant. The measuring campaign at Reno-Nord was performed differently from phase 2 at Haderslev CHP Plant, i.e. at Reno-Nord both traditional manual steps in series with input (pusher, grate, primary air) and manual control and pseudo random parallel pulse effects of all input with partly automatic control were performed. Pulse effects are made automatically from a sequence in the control room. The new method requires considerably less involvement from operating staff and engineers during the tests, and it is capable of producing good model estimation data as the control will automatically lead the incineration back to the fixed incineration point. The disadvantage is that it is difficult to follow the quality of the boiler responses in the process because of several concurrent step effects. Therefore, another data processing is necessary to be able to estimate the correct dynamic models and extract dynamic furnace characteristics. However, the potential of the new method is that it can be activated directly by the operating staff from the control room and that it is capable of operating for a long time with eg considerably different fuel types. As to modelling, both SISO (single input single output) and MIMO (multi input multi output) model estimates

  19. The development and demonstration of hybrid programmable attitude control electronics. [with adaptable analog/digital design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. S.; Kopf, E. H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    HYPACE provides an adaptable, analog/digital design approach that permits preflight and in-flight accommodation of mission changes, component performance variations, spacecraft changes, etc., through programing. This enabled broad multimission flexibility of application in a cost-effective manner. The HYPACE design, which was demonstrated in breadboard form on a single-axis gas-bearing spacecraft simulation, uses a single control channel to perform the attitude control functions sequentially, thus significantly reducing the number of component parts over hard-wired designs. The success of this effort resulted in the concept being selected for the Mariner/Jupiter/Saturn 1977 spacecraft application.

  20. The development and demonstration of hybrid programmable attitude control electronics. [with adaptable analog/digital design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. S.; Kopf, E. H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    HYPACE provides an adaptable, analog/digital design approach that permits preflight and in-flight accommodation of mission changes, component performance variations, spacecraft changes, etc., through programing. This enabled broad multimission flexibility of application in a cost-effective manner. The HYPACE design, which was demonstrated in breadboard form on a single-axis gas-bearing spacecraft simulation, uses a single control channel to perform the attitude control functions sequentially, thus significantly reducing the number of component parts over hard-wired designs. The success of this effort resulted in the concept being selected for the Mariner/Jupiter/Saturn 1977 spacecraft application.

  1. Human African trypanosomiasis prevention, treatment and control costs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Joshua O; Sutherland, C Simone; Woods, Geordie; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-10-01

    The control and eventual elimination of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) requires the expansion of current control and surveillance activities. A systematic review of the published literature on the costs of HAT prevention, treatment, and control, in addition to the economic burden, was conducted. All studies that contained primary or secondary data on costs of prevention, treatment and control were considered, resulting in the inclusion of 42 papers. The geographically focal nature of the disease and a lack of standardization in the cost data limit the usefulness of the available information for making generalizations across diverse settings. More recent information on the costs of treatment and control interventions for HAT is needed to provide accurate information for analyses and planning. The cost information contained herein can be used to inform rational decision making in control and elimination programs, and to assess potential synergies with existing vector-borne disease control programs, but programs would benefit significantly from new cost data collection.

  2. Introduction to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomkin, Joseph S; Mazuski, John; Blanchard, Joan C; Itani, Kamal M F; Ricks, Philip; Dellinger, E Patchen; Allen, George; Kelz, Rachel; Reinke, Caroline E; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common type of health-care-associated infection (HAI) and adds considerably to the individual, social, and economic costs of surgical treatment. This document serves to introduce the updated Guideline for the Prevention of SSI from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). The Core section of the guideline addresses issues relevant to multiple surgical specialties and procedures. The second procedure-specific section focuses on a high-volume, high-burden procedure: Prosthetic joint arthroplasty. While many elements of the 1999 guideline remain current, others warrant updating to incorporate new knowledge and changes in the patient population, operative techniques, emerging pathogens, and guideline development methodology.

  3. Online operations optimization of waste incineration plants. Phase 3: Control concept and demonstration; Online driftsoptimering af affaldsfyrede anlaeg. Fase 3: Reguleringskoncept og demonstration. Hovedrapport ver. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecher Poulsen, K.; Rassing Stoltze, K.; Solberg, B.; Hansen, Lars Henrik (DONG Energy (Denmark)); Cramer, J.; Andreasen, L.B. (FORCE Technology (Denmark)); Nymann Thomsen, S.; West, F. (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund (Denmark)); Clausen, S.; Fateev, A. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The long-term vision of the project is to develop a system for online optimisation of waste incineration. The fundamental idea is to base the system on advanced measuring technique, dynamic process models and advanced control technique. In the present phase 3 project the intention is to implement several of the improvement measures specified in phase 2 - both at Haderslev CHP Plant and at Reno-Nord - and not least evaluate the results from the two widely different plants. In addition to that, it is essential to test the new NIR camera system online at Reno-Nord and to carry out a complete measuring campaign where dynamic characteristics are pursued and must be compared with similar tests from phase 2 at Haderslev CHP Plant. The measuring campaign at Reno-Nord was performed differently from phase 2 at Haderslev CHP Plant, i.e. at Reno-Nord both traditional manual steps in series with input (pusher, grate, primary air) and manual control and pseudo random parallel pulse effects of all input with partly automatic control were performed. Pulse effects are made automatically from a sequence in the control room. The new method requires considerably less involvement from operating staff and engineers during the tests, and it is capable of producing good model estimation data as the control will automatically lead the incineration back to the fixed incineration point. The disadvantage is that it is difficult to follow the quality of the boiler responses in the process because of several concurrent step effects. Therefore, another data processing is necessary to be able to estimate the correct dynamic models and extract dynamic furnace characteristics. However, the potential of the new method is that it can be activated directly by the operating staff from the control room and that it is capable of operating for a long time with eg considerably different fuel types. As to modelling, both SISO (single input single output) and MIMO (multi input multi output) model estimates

  4. Neuromuscular control of trunk stability: clinical implications for sports injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazulak, Bohdanna; Cholewicki, Jacek; Reeves, N Peter

    2008-09-01

    Recent prospective evidence supports the hypothesis that impaired trunk control is a contributing factor to sports injuries of the spine as well as to segments of the kinetic chain. The current concepts regarding neuromuscular control of trunk stability are best described from a systems engineering perspective. In the analysis of current neuromuscular training protocols for sports injury prevention, these principles are applied to identify components that optimize neuromuscular control of trunk stability. Current perspectives of neuromuscular learning can be applied clinically to aid in the formulation of injury prevention strategies.

  5. Acupressure in Controlling Nausea in Young Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Acupressure wristbands may prevent or reduce nausea and caused by chemotherapy. It is not yet known whether standard care is more effective with or without acupressure wristbands in controlling acute and delayed nausea. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well acupressure wristbands work with or without standard care in controlling nausea in young patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. |

  6. 76 FR 13619 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), Initial Review The meeting... Announcement (FOA) GH11-003, and Research Activities in Support of Malaria Prevention and Control in the Republic of Uganda as Part of the President's Malaria Initiative, FOA GH11-004, initial review....

  7. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... signal to the computer where the facility is subject to a computer production control system. (5) Flow... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  8. A Review of Multicomponent Interventions to Prevent and Control Tobacco Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kirsten C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Multicomponent tobacco control programs have been implemented at the state and community levels and have led to a reduction in tobacco use. The purpose was to review the public health research literature on tobacco prevention and control programs on college campuses and derive evidence-based implications for comprehensive program…

  9. Outcomes from a School-Randomized Controlled Trial of Steps to Respect: A Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric C.; Low, Sabina; Smith, Brian H.; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of Steps to Respect: A Bullying Prevention Program conducted in 33 California elementary schools. Schools were matched on school demographic characteristics and assigned randomly to intervention or waitlisted control conditions. Outcome measures were obtained from (a) all school…

  10. 77 FR 58847 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... research and control activities related to injury. Matters To Be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss the... to the BSC. There will be 15 minutes allotted for public comments at the end of the open...

  11. 78 FR 64505 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... and Control. Matters to be Discussed: The BSC, NCIPC will discuss the recommendations provided by the... strategies needed to guide the Center's focus. The BSC members will also discuss potential topics for...

  12. Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950429 Implementation of national tuberculosis con-trol programme(focus on registration,case-manage-ment and treatment).QIAN Yuanfu(钱元福),et al.Nation Tuberc Contr Center.Public Health Ministr,Beijing,101149.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1995;18(1):16-18.The results of three nationwide epidemiological sur-veys on tuberculosis showed that the declination in theincidence of tuberculosis from 1979 to 1990 was slowThe rates of case registration and new case registrationrates within ten years(1982~1991) were graduallyincreasing year by year and came to a climax in 1988.

  13. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among Pregnant Women Resident in Urban Slums, Southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dako-Gyeke, Mavis; Kofie, Humphrey M

    2015-03-01

    Throughout Africa and particularly in Ghana, there are concerns about malaria infection during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant women residing in Chorkor and Korle-Gonno in Accra, Ghana. One hundred and twenty pregnant women between ages 18-49 were randomly recruited during antenatal sessions at a maternity facility in Accra, as participants for the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which were analysed using SPSS version16.0. It was found that in Chorkor and Korle-Gonno, 57.4% and 42.6% participants respectively reported having been infected with malaria during their current pregnancy. There was no significant relationship between religious beliefs of participants and their malaria prevention and control practices (X2 = 0.28, P = .53). However, there was a significant relationship between malaria prevention and control practices of participants and their income earning (X2 = 53.94, P = .00) and employment (X2 = 61.76, P = .00) statuses. With the exception of ethnicity (X2 = 35.62, P =.22), other socio-cultural conditions had a significant relationship with malaria prevention and control practices of the participants. The findings suggest the need to consider and integrate factors, such as poverty and poor living conditions in malaria prevention and control strategies.

  14. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015, testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.

  15. Demonstration of a semi-autonomous hybrid brain-machine interface using human intracranial EEG, eye tracking, and computer vision to control a robotic upper limb prosthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, David P; Hotson, Guy; Katyal, Kapil D; Wester, Brock A; Fifer, Matthew S; McGee, Timothy G; Harris, Andrew; Johannes, Matthew S; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Ravitz, Alan D; Anderson, William S; Thakor, Nitish V; Crone, Nathan E

    2014-07-01

    To increase the ability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to control advanced prostheses such as the modular prosthetic limb (MPL), we are developing a novel system: the Hybrid Augmented Reality Multimodal Operation Neural Integration Environment (HARMONIE). This system utilizes hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics to allow users to identify an object (via eye tracking and computer vision) and initiate (via brain-control) a semi-autonomous reach-grasp-and-drop of the object by the MPL. Sequential iterations of HARMONIE were tested in two pilot subjects implanted with electrocorticographic (ECoG) and depth electrodes within motor areas. The subjects performed the complex task in 71.4% (20/28) and 67.7% (21/31) of trials after minimal training. Balanced accuracy for detecting movements was 91.1% and 92.9%, significantly greater than chance accuracies (p system improvements implemented for the second subject. Our hybrid-BMI design prevented all but one baseline false positive from initiating the system. The novel approach demonstrated in this proof-of-principle study, using hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics, addresses limitations of current BMIs.

  16. Inventory control policy of preventive lateral transshipment between retailers in multi periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Ren He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Preventivelateral transshipment can respond to customers who will choose a substitute or to give up when the product is out of stock. Motivatedby the common practice, adecision-making model of preventive lateral transshipment with multi sellingperiods is developed. The purpose of the paper is to explore the optimal preventive lateral transshipment policy with multi selling periods.Design/methodology/approach: With adiscrete-time dynamic programming model, we take a dynamic programming approach and adopt backward induction to analyze two retailers’ preventive lateral transshipment policy.Findings: The optimal preventivelateral transshipment policy is a threshold policy which depends on both theremaining selling periods and inventory level. The above properties ensure thattwo retailers can control inventory with preventive lateral transshipment.Practical implications: The retailer can adjust inventory via the thresholdtype policy. The simple decisionrule which compares on-hand inventory level with the critical inventory level can be used to control inventory by preventive lateral transshipment.Originality/value: A discrete-timedecision-making model of preventive lateral transshipment policy isformulated. This model takes consideration of multi selling periods, whichis different from most existing researches on preventive lateraltransshipment.

  17. Confronting Fear Using Exposure and Response Prevention for Anorexia Nervosa: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinglass, Joanna E; Albano, Anne Marie; Simpson, H Blair; Wang, Yuanjia; Zou, Jingjing; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe illness with high rates of relapse. Exposure and Response Prevention for AN (AN-EXRP) is a new approach that specifically addresses maladaptive eating behavior by targeting eating-related fear and anxiety. The aim of this study was to evaluate AN-EXRP as an adjunctive strategy to improve eating behavior during weight restoration, at a pivotal moment when treatment goals shift toward relapse prevention. Method A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare AN-EXRP with a comparison condition, Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT). Hospitalized patients with AN (n=32) who had achieved weight restoration to a BMI > 18.5 kg/m2 received 12 sessions of either AN-EXRP or CRT. Outcome was assessed by change in caloric intake in an objective assessment of eating behavior. Results The average test meal caloric intake of participants who received AN-EXRP increased from 352±263 kcal at baseline to 401±215 kcal post-treatment, while that of participants who received CRT decreased from 501±232 kcal at baseline to 424±221 kcal post-treatment (t(28)=2.5, p=0.02). Improvement in intake was significantly associated with improvement in eating-related anxiety (Spearman’s ρ=0.40, p=0.03). Conclusions These data demonstrate that AN-EXRP, compared to a credible comparison intervention, is associated with better caloric intake in a laboratory meal over time in AN. Additional studies are required to determine whether incorporation of these techniques into a longer treatment program leads to enduring and clinically significant change. PMID:24488838

  18. [Vaccine might be an important means of chronic disease prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhua; Yang, Weizhong

    2015-08-01

    The vaccine has played an important role in the struggle between human and infectious disease. However, with the development of society and economy, the non-communicable chronic disease has become the biggest threat to human health. The occurrence and development of chronic diseases is related to various factors. Whether vaccines to prevent chronic disease can be developed remains exploratory, while evidence revealing that there exists an important relationship between infection factors and chronic diseases is increasing. Therefore, the vaccine to prevent infection might become one of the most important means to effectively prevent and control chronic diseases.

  19. Experimental demonstration of using divergence cost-function in SPGD algorithm for coherent beam combining with tip/tilt control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chao; Luo, Wen; Tan, Yi; Liu, Hongmei; Mu, Jinbo; Li, Xinyang

    2013-10-21

    A novel approach of tip/tilt control by using divergence cost function in stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm for coherent beam combining (CBC) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally in a seven-channel 2-W fiber amplifier array with both phase-locking and tip/tilt control, for the first time to our best knowledge. Compared with the conventional power-in-the-bucket (PIB) cost function for SPGD optimization, the tip/tilt control using divergence cost function ensures wider correction range, automatic switching control of program, and freedom of camera's intensity-saturation. Homemade piezoelectric-ring phase-modulator (PZT PM) and adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC) are developed to correct piston- and tip/tilt-type aberrations, respectively. The PIB cost function is employed for phase-locking via maximization of SPGD optimization, while the divergence cost function is used for tip/tilt control via minimization. An average of 432-μrad of divergence metrics in open loop has decreased to 89-μrad when tip/tilt control implemented. In CBC, the power in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the main lobe increases by 32 times, and the phase residual error is less than λ/15.

  20. Evaluating a selective prevention programme for binge drinking among young adolescents: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiers Reinout

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to other Europe countries, Dutch adolescents are at the top in drinking frequency and binge drinking. A total of 75% of the Dutch 12 to 16 year olds who drink alcohol also engage in binge drinking. A prevention programme called Preventure was developed in Canada to prevent adolescents from binge drinking. This article describes a study that aims to assess the effects of this selective school-based prevention programme in the Netherlands. Methods A randomized controlled trial is being conducted among 13 to 15-year-old adolescents in secondary schools. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention condition consisted of two 90 minute group sessions, carried out at the participants' schools and provided by a qualified counsellor and a co-facilitator. The intervention targeted young adolescents who demonstrated personality risk for alcohol abuse. The group sessions were adapted to four personality profiles. The control condition received no further intervention above the standard substance use education sessions provided in the Dutch national curriculum. The primary outcomes will be the percentage reduction in binge drinking, weekly drinking and drinking-related problems after three specified time periods. A screening survey collected data by means of an Internet questionnaire. Students have completed, or will complete, a post-treatment survey after 2, 6, and 12 months, also by means of an online questionnaire. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention programme. We expect that a significantly lower number of adolescents will binge drink, drink weekly, and have drinking-related problems in the intervention condition compared to the control condition, as a result of this intervention. Trial registration This trial is registered in the Dutch

  1. Malaria indicator survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN, 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, particularly at the peripheral level. Methods A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Results Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively. Moderate-severe anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusions Since mid-2005, the Ethiopian National Malaria Control Programme has considerably scaled-up its malaria prevention and control interventions, demonstrating the impact of strong political will and a committed partnership. The MIS showed, however, that besides sustaining and

  2. Dairy farmers' perceptions toward the implementation of on-farm Johne's disease prevention and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C; Jansen, J; Roth, K; Kastelic, J P; Adams, C L; Barkema, H W

    2016-11-01

    Implementation of specific management strategies on dairy farms is currently the most effective way to reduce the prevalence of Johne's disease (JD), an infectious chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). However, dairy farmers often fail to implement recommended strategies. The objective of this study was to assess perceptions of farmers participating in a JD prevention and control program toward recommended practices, and explore factors that influence whether or not a farmer adopts risk-reducing measures for MAP transmission. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 dairy farmers enrolled in a voluntary JD control program in Alberta, Canada. Principles of classical grounded theory were used for participant selection, interviewing, and data analysis. Additionally, demographic data and MAP infection status were collected and analyzed using quantitative questionnaires and the JD control program database. Farmers' perceptions were distinguished according to 2 main categories: first, their belief in the importance of JD, and second, their belief in recommended JD prevention and control strategies. Based on these categories, farmers were classified into 4 groups: proactivists, disillusionists, deniers, and unconcerned. The first 2 groups believed in the importance of JD, and proactivists and unconcerned believed in proposed JD prevention and control measures. Groups that regarded JD as important had better knowledge about best strategies to reduce MAP transmission and had more JD risk assessments conducted on their farm. Although not quantified, it also appeared that these groups had more JD prevention and control practices in place. However, often JD was not perceived as a problem in the herd and generally farmers did not regard JD control as a "hot topic" in communications with their herd veterinarian and other farmers. Recommendations regarding how to communicate with farmers and motivate various

  3. Prevention and Control of Perioperative Incision Infection in Patients Undergoing Day Cataract Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyan Yang; Aihuan Chen; Yinghuan Wang; Xiaoqun Fang; Ronghua Ye; Jingyi Lin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To explore the effects of the prevention and control of perioperative incision infection on the quality of day cataract surgery.Methods:.The nursing care and efficacy of 5087 patients un-dergoing day cataract surgery between October 2012 and Oc-tober 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The disinfection and isolation guidance was established for perioperative prevention and control of infection,.topical administration of ocular a-gents, reexamination and healthcare instruction, and alterna-tive measures were taken.Results: All 5087 patients successfully underwent day surgery of phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens im-plantation. All cases recovered without incision infection.Conclusion: Preoperative preparation, and intraoperative and postoperative prevention and control of infection serve as vital measures for effectively avoiding the incidence of incision in-fection in patients undergoing day cataract surgery. (Eye Science 2014; 29:182-185)

  4. Exploring the factors that encourage the illusions of control: the case of preventive illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Most previous research on illusions of control focused on generative scenarios, in which participants' actions aim to produce a desired outcome. By contrast, the illusions that may appear in preventive scenarios, in which actions aim to prevent an undesired outcome before it occurs, are less known. In this experiment, we studied two variables that modulate generative illusions of control, the probability with which the action takes place, P(A), and the probability of the outcome, P(O), in two different scenarios: generative and preventive. We found that P(O) affects the illusion in symmetrical, opposite directions in each scenario, while P(A) is positively related to the magnitude of the illusion. Our conclusion is that, in what concerns the illusions of control, the occurrence of a desired outcome is equivalent to the nonoccurrence of an undesired outcome, which explains why the P(O) effect is reversed depending on the scenario.

  5. Theoretical and practical exploration of vision building in human influenza pandemic prevention & control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengKong; YanKong; XuJiang; XiaohuaWang

    2010-01-01

    This article introduced the vision building concept about human influenza pandemic prevention and control. Different visions were built by creating different shapes of building blocks which also represented different organizations and physical facilities, respectively. The around-view reflection is required to be developed in the process of building so as to search for the ideal pattern. The correlation of all sectors and systems are established to combine different kinds of things, from one family to another, from communities, towns, counties, cities, rural areas, provinces to the state to handle trivial problems. These training objectives have been successfully accomplished, which has not only enriched the knowledge about prevention and control of influenza pandemic between different departments but also clarified the roles and responsibility. It lays the firm foundation for next cooperation between different departments, and make a bridge for the objective and choice of channel over human influenza pandemic prevention and control.

  6. Attitudes towards the Infection Prevention and Control Nurse: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Deborah J

    2012-07-01

    A study was undertaken involving nursing students and nurse mentors to investigate the experiences and learning needs of nursing students in relation to infection prevention. One of the objectives was to consider the views of both nursing students and mentors towards the Infection Prevention and Control Nurse (IPCN) as an important staff member in infection prevention and control. Infection prevention and control is a national and international priority but compliance with precautions can be low. One reason for this is staff attitudes. Infection Prevention and Control Nurses have an important role to play in the management of patient care through clinical staff and it is therefore important that they are seen as approachable and effective in their role. Using a qualitative approach, data were obtained through semistructured interviews with 31 nursing students and 32 nurse mentors. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using framework analysis. Three themes emerged: attitudes towards the IPCN, effects of the presence of the IPCN and preferred qualities in IPCNs. Areas for future research are identified and recommendations made to address areas where attitudes may affect both clinical practice and the education of nursing students in clinical placements. Nurse specialists or practitioners, who are often seen within a management role, need to consider how they work with clinical staff in order to foster more collaborative relationships. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 4. Recommendations on physical exercise training. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cléroux, J; Feldman, R D; Petrella, R J

    1999-01-01

    To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for health care professionals concerning the effects of regular physical activity on the prevention and control of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults...

  8. Integrated Strategies for the Control and Prevention of Dengue Vectors with Particular Reference to Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is one of the most threatening vector borne diseases, affecting both humans and animals, causing severe epidemics and has brought the world to take serious steps for its control and prevention. DF is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Unfortunately, due to unavailability of vaccine and lack of effective treatment, emphasis is given on its vector control. The only option left for its eradication is to restrict mosquito breeding. This can be achieved by chemical, biological and environment management methods. Use of botanicals is also an alternate and probably most effective approach for controlling DF vector. Community based eradication campaigns including educating people about its prevention and control meseaures and personal prophylaxis also play a vital role to prevent its occurrence. Likewise, use of nanotechnology and micro-emulsion, use of pheromones, insect sterilization techniques has also shown promising results in vector control. Utilization of only one method cannot control this dangerous disease but combination of all above interventions, discussed in the present paper, may prevent the DF vector and ultimately might help in the eradication programs of this disease.

  9. Role of the Health Department in Tuberculosis Prevention and Control-Legal and Public Health Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Carla; Lobue, Phil; Chorba, Terence; Metchock, Beverly; Kashef, Ijaz

    2017-03-01

    Because tuberculosis is caused by an infectious organism that is spread from person to person through the air, public health measures are essential to control the disease. There are three priority strategies for tuberculosis prevention and control in the United States: (i) identifying and treating persons who have tuberculosis disease; (ii) finding persons exposed to infectious tuberculosis patients, evaluating them for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease, and providing subsequent treatment, if appropriate; and (iii) testing populations at high risk for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and treating those persons who are infected to prevent progression to disease. These strategies for prevention and control of tuberculosis are discussed in a framework containing the following important topics: historical and epidemiological context of tuberculosis control, organization of public health tuberculosis control programs, legal basis for public health authority, conducting overall planning and development of policy, identifying persons who have clinically active tuberculosis, evaluation of immigrants, managing persons who have or who are suspected of having disease, medical consultation, interjurisdictional referrals, identifying and managing persons infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, providing laboratory and diagnostic services, collecting and analyzing data, and providing training and education. This chapter describes the role of the health department in the context of these components. This discussion is primarily applicable to tuberculosis prevention and control programs in the United States.

  10. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? a school based randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Peter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. Discussion A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If

  11. Control System Design Implementation and Preliminary Demonstration for a Tendon-Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik E.; Doggett, William R.; Dorsey, John T.; Debus, Thomas J.; Holub, Kris; Dougherty, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite servicing is a high priority task for NASA and the space industry, addressing the needs of a variety of missions, and potentially lowering the overall cost of missions through refurbishment and reuse. However, the ability to service satellites is severely limited by the lack of long reach manipulation capability and inability to launch new devices due the end of the Space Transport System, or Space Shuttle Program. This paper describes the design and implementation of a control system for a Tendon-Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN), including; defining the forward and inverse kinematics, endpoint velocity to motor velocity, required cable tensions, and a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The tensions and velocities necessary to maneuver and capture small and large payloads are also discussed. To demonstrate the utility of the TALISMAN for satellite servicing, this paper also describes a satellite servicing demonstration using two TALISMAN prototypes to grasp and inspect a satellite mockup. Potential avenues for improving the control system are discussed.

  12. Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full-scale transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, R. S.; Knight, V. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A study involving the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) of a transport category aircraft was conducted with the objective to improve occupant safety during survivable crash scenarios. in connection with this study, the first remotely-piloted Full-Scale Transport aircraft was purposely crashed into the California desert. The program was initated to demonstrate the effectiveness of an imisting kerosene (AMK), a fuel additive emplyed to reduce postcrash fires. The unmanned CID flight carried 73 life-like flight research dummies, multiple experiments, high-speed interior cabin cameras, and the high-environment Crash Response Data System. Attention is given to the design approach, a block diagram of the Crash Response Data System, measurements, the digital data subsystem, signal conditioning, telemetry, on-board recording, the power subsystem, preflight checkout and calibration, and aspects of system qualification.

  13. Centers for disease control and prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Katherine A; Wright, Mary E; Shadomy, Sean V; Bradley, John S; Morrow, Meredith G; Pavia, Andy T; Rubinstein, Ethan; Holty, Jon-Erik C; Messonnier, Nancy E; Smith, Theresa L; Pesik, Nicki; Treadwell, Tracee A; Bower, William A

    2014-02-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened panels of anthrax experts to review and update guidelines for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis and treatment. The panels included civilian and military anthrax experts and clinicians with experience treating anthrax patients. Specialties represented included internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, infectious disease, emergency medicine, critical care, pulmonology, hematology, and nephrology. Panelists discussed recent patients with systemic anthrax; reviews of published, unpublished, and proprietary data regarding antimicrobial drugs and anthrax antitoxins; and critical care measures of potential benefit to patients with anthrax. This article updates antimicrobial postexposure prophylaxis and antimicrobial and antitoxin treatment options and describes potentially beneficial critical care measures for persons with anthrax, including clinical procedures for infected nonpregnant adults. Changes from previous guidelines include an expanded discussion of critical care and clinical procedures and additional antimicrobial choices, including preferred antimicrobial drug treatment for possible anthrax meningitis.

  14. Demonstration of Bias-Controlled Algorithmic Tuning of Quantum Dots in a Well (DWELL) MidIR Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    In the 0018-9197/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO. Downloaded on June 5, 2009 at 23:33 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions...limited to: UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO. Downloaded on June 5, 2009 at 23:33 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 676 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM...June 5, 2009 at 23:33 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. JANG et al.: DEMONSTRATION OF BIAS-CONTROLLED ALGORITHMIC TUNING OF DWELL MIDINFRARED

  15. Impact of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of malaria on intervention coverage and health outcomes for the prevention and control of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Lassi, Zohra S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and management of malaria. We conducted a systematic review and identified 42 studies for inclusion. Twenty-five of the included studies evaluated the impact of the community-based distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), or impregnated bed sheets; 14 studies evaluated intermittent preventive therapy (IPT) delivered in community settings; two studies focused on community-based education for malaria prevention; and one study evaluated environmental management through drain cleaning. Our analysis suggests that, overall, the community-based delivery of interventions to prevent and control malaria resulted in a significant increase in ITNs ownership (RR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.86, 2.52) and usage (RR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.48, 2.11). However, usage of ITNs was limited to two-thirds of the population who owned them. Community-based strategies also led to a significant decrease in parasitemia (RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.74), malaria prevalence (RR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.73), malaria incidence (RR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.90), and anemia prevalence (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97). We found a non-significant impact on splenomegaly, birth outcomes (low birth weight, prematurity, stillbirth/miscarriage), anthropometric measures (stunting, wasting, and underweight), and mortality (all-cause and malaria-specific). The subgroup analysis suggested that community-based distribution of ITNs, impregnated bed sheets and IRS, and IPT are effective strategies. Qualitative synthesis suggests that high coverage could be achieved at a lower cost with the integration of CBIs with existing antenatal care and immunization campaigns. Community-based delivery of interventions to prevent and control malaria are effective strategies to improve coverage and access and reduce malaria burden, however, efforts should also be concerted to prevent over diagnosis and

  16. Randomised controlled trial of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: the POPI (prevention of pelvic infection) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakeshott, Pippa; Kerry, Sally; Aghaizu, Adamma; Atherton, Helen; Hay, Sima; Taylor-Robinson, David; Simms, Ian; Hay, Phillip

    2010-04-08

    To determine whether screening and treating women for chlamydial infection reduces the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease over the subsequent 12 months. Randomised controlled trial. Common rooms, lecture theatres, and student bars at universities and further education colleges in London. 2529 sexually active female students, mean age 21 years (range 16-27). Participants completed a questionnaire and provided self taken vaginal swabs, with follow-up after one year. Samples were randomly allocated to immediate testing and treatment for chlamydial infection, or storage and analysis after a year (deferred screening controls). Incidence of clinical pelvic inflammatory disease over 12 months. Baseline prevalence of chlamydia was 5.4% (68/1254) in screened women and 5.9% (75/1265) in controls. 94% (2377/2529) of women were followed up after 12 months. The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was 1.3% (15/1191) in screened women compared with 1.9% (23/1186) in controls (relative risk 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 1.22). Seven of 74 control women (9.5%, 95% confidence interval 4.7% to 18.3%) who tested positive for chlamydial infection at baseline developed pelvic inflammatory disease over 12 months compared with one of 63 (1.6%) screened women (relative risk 0.17, 0.03 to 1.01). However, most episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease occurred in women who tested negative for chlamydia at baseline (79%, 30/38). 22% (527/2377) of women reported being tested independently for chlamydia during the trial. Although some evidence suggests that screening for chlamydia reduces rates of pelvic inflammatory disease, especially in women with chlamydial infection at baseline, the effectiveness of a single chlamydia test in preventing pelvic inflammatory disease over 12 months may have been overestimated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00115388.

  17. Alendronate prevents postmenopausal bone loss in women without osteoporosis. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Alendronate Osteoporosis Prevention Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClung, M; Clemmesen, B; Daifotis, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preventing bone loss associated with menopause and aging and maintaining the normal micro-architecture of bone provide important opportunities for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of alendronate, an aminobisphosphonate......, for preventing postmenopausal bone loss. DESIGN: 3-year double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: 15 osteoporosis centers throughout the world. PARTICIPANTS: 447 women who had recently experienced menopause (6 to 36 months before study entry). INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned...

  18. Demonstrating coherent control in 85Rb2 using ultrafast laser pulses: a theoretical outline of two experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Martay, Hugo E L; England, Duncan G; Friedman, Melissa E; Petrovic, Jovana; Walmsley, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Calculations relating to two experiments that demonstrate coherent control of preformed rubidium-85 molecules in a magneto-optical trap using ultrafast laser pulses are presented. In the first experiment, it is shown that pre-associated molecules in an incoherent mixture of states can be made to oscillate coherently using a single ultrafast pulse. A novel mechanism that can transfer molecular population to more deeply bound vibrational levels is used in the second. Optimal parameters of the control pulse are presented for the application of the mechanism to molecules in a magneto-optical trap. The calculations make use of an experimental determination of the initial state of molecules photoassociated by the trapping lasers in the magneto-optical trap and use shaped pulses consistent with a standard ultrafast laser system.

  19. Impact of the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network: Accelerating the Translation of Research Into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Fernandez, Maria E; Friedman, Daniela B; Hannon, Peggy A; Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Olson, Lindsay; Ory, Marcia; Risendal, Betsy; Sheble, Laura; Taylor, Vicky M; Williams, Rebecca S; Weiner, Bryan J

    2017-03-01

    The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) is a thematic network dedicated to accelerating the adoption of evidence-based cancer prevention and control practices in communities by advancing dissemination and implementation science. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, CPCRN has operated at two levels: Each participating network center conducts research projects with primarily local partners as well as multicenter collaborative research projects with state and national partners. Through multicenter collaboration, thematic networks leverage the expertise, resources, and partnerships of participating centers to conduct research projects collectively that might not be feasible individually. Although multicenter collaboration is often advocated, it is challenging to promote and assess. Using bibliometric network analysis and other graphical methods, this paper describes CPCRN's multicenter publication progression from 2004 to 2014. Searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science in 2014 identified 249 peer-reviewed CPCRN publications involving two or more centers out of 6,534 total. The research and public health impact of these multicenter collaborative projects initiated by CPCRN during that 10-year period were then examined. CPCRN established numerous workgroups around topics such as: 2-1-1, training and technical assistance, colorectal cancer control, federally qualified health centers, cancer survivorship, and human papillomavirus. This paper discusses the challenges that arise in promoting multicenter collaboration and the strategies that CPCRN uses to address those challenges. The lessons learned should broadly interest those seeking to promote multisite collaboration to address public health problems, such as cancer prevention and control.

  20. Probiotics’ Preventive Effect on Pediatric Food Allergy:A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-yi Kong; Yi Yang; Jian Guan; Ren-zhi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the preventive effect of probiotics on pediatric food allergy. Methods From MEDLINE bibliographical database, we searched and reviewed all randomized controlled trials on the preventive effects of probiotics on pediatric food allergies up to September 2013 and excluded the studies that do not meet inclusion criteria and extracted the data. Meta-analysis for the results of homogenous studies was performed using RevMan 5.0 and the co-effect was pooled by using fixed-effects model of relative risk (RR) ratios. Results Ten trials published between 2007 and 2012 including 2701 cases were included. Meta-analysis based on included data showed that the preventive effect of prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation on food allergies was not significant with the RR=0.88 (95%CI:0.76-1.03). Conclusion Present evidences cannot show in unequivocal terms that prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation will prevent food allergic diseases.

  1. Strengthening cancer biology research, prevention, and control while reducing cancer disparities: student perceptions of a collaborative master's degree program in cancer biology, preventions, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillson, I A; Cousin, C E; Blancato, J K

    2013-09-01

    This article provides the findings of a survey of previous and current students in the UDC/GU-LCCC master's degree program. This master's degree program, Cancer Biology, Prevention, and Control is administered and taught jointly by faculty of a Minority Serving Institution, the University of the District of Columbia, and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center to incorporate the strengths of a community-based school with a research intensive medical center. The program was initiated in 2008 through agreements with both University administrations and funding from the National Cancer Institute. The master's degree program is 36 credits with a focus on coursework in biostatistics, epidemiology, tumor biology, cancer prevention, medical ethics, and cancer outreach program design. For two semesters during the second year, students work full-time with a faculty person on a laboratory or outreach project that is a requirement for graduation. Students are supported and encouraged to transition to a doctoral degree after they obtain the master's and many of them are currently in doctorate programs. Since the inception of the program, 45 students have initiated the course of study, 28 have completed the program, and 13 are currently enrolled in the program. The survey was designed to track the students in their current activities, as well as determine which courses, program enhancements, and research experiences were the least and most useful, and to discern students' perceptions of knowledge acquired on various aspects of Cancer Biology Prevention, and Control Master's Program. Thirty of the 35 individuals to whom email requests were sent responded to the survey, for a response rate of 85.7%. The results of this study will inform the strengthening of the Cancer Biology program by the Education Advisory Committee. They can also be used in the development of comparable collaborative master's degree programs designed to address the significant disparities in prevalence of

  2. A proficiency testing program of hemoglobin analysis in prevention and control of severe hemoglobinopathies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnpean, Rossarin; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Pansuwan, Anupong; Changtrakul, Duangrudee; Fucharoen, Supan

    2013-06-01

    No external quality assessment program for hemoglobin (Hb) analysis in the prevention and control of thalassemia has been established in Thailand. To improve the first line provisional diagnostics, the first proficiency testing (PT) program has been established. External Hb controls prepared at our center were sent to Hb analysis laboratories all over the country. Three cycles per year were performed in 2010 and 2011. In each cycle, two control samples with corresponding hematological parameters, designated as husband and his pregnant wife were supplied for Hb analysis. Each member analyzed the control samples in their routine practices. The results of Hb analysis, laboratory interpretation and risk assessment of the expected fetus for severe thalassemia diseases targeted for prevention and control were entered into the report form and sent back to our center. Participants reports were analyzed and classified into four different quality groups; Excellent (when all the three parameters are correct), Good (correct Hb analysis and interpretation but incorrect risk assessment), Fair (correct Hb analysis but incorrect interpretation and risk assessment) and Needs improvement (incorrect Hb analysis). It was found that most participants could report correct Hb types and quantifications but some misinterpretations and risk assessments were noted. These were clearly seen when control samples with more complexity were supplied. These results indicate a further improvement is required in the laboratory interpretation and knowledge of the laboratory diagnosis of thalassemia. The established system should facilitate the prevention and control program of thalassemia in the region.

  3. Bluetooth wireless monitoring, diagnosis and calibration interface for control system of fuel cell bus in Olympic demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jianfeng; Lin, Xinfan; Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    With the worldwide deterioration of the natural environment and the fossil fuel crisis, the possible commercialization of fuel cell vehicles has become a hot topic. In July 2008, Beijing started a clean public transportation plan for the 29th Olympic games. Three fuel cell city buses and 497 other low-emission vehicles are now serving the Olympic core area and Beijing urban areas. The fuel cell buses will operate along a fixed bus line for 1 year as a public demonstration of green energy vehicles. Due to the specialized nature of fuel cell engines and electrified power-train systems, measurement, monitoring and calibration devices are indispensable. Based on the latest Bluetooth wireless technology, a novel Bluetooth universal data interface was developed for the control system of the fuel cell city bus. On this platform, a series of wireless portable control auxiliary systems have been implemented, including wireless calibration, a monitoring system and an in-system programming platform, all of which are ensuring normal operation of the fuel cell buses used in the demonstration.

  4. A numerical model of controlled bioinduced mineralization in a porous medium to prevent corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Michael; van Paassen, Leon; Heimovaara, Timo

    2013-04-01

    influence of these couplings is investigated in numerical experiments. Finally, we investigate how, by modifying the initial and boundary conditions and biofilm parameters, we can control how and where biomineralization takes place. This study demonstrates that controlled biomineralization of protective layers is feasible. However, even this relatively simple model involves complex interactions and numerous assumptions. Further numerical and physical experiments will extend our understanding of the processes involved and the possibilities of "employing" micro-organisms to control the properties of the porous medium. Future development of the model includes multiple chemical species and reactions, multispecies biofilm that grows and detaches, varying coverage of solid grains by biofilms, and reactive solid phase. The predictive capacities of our model will be used to design experiments that will demonstrate the capacity to prevent corrosion in a porous medium by controlled bioinduced mineralization. Developing biological corrosion protection is a first step in developing the future capacity to use nature's constructive forces in assembling functioning structures.

  5. Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2000. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-14

    The purpose of this Compendium is to provide rabies information to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies prevention and control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Immunization procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II; Part III details the principles of rabies control.

  6. Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2001. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-25

    The purpose of this compendium is to provide rabies information to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies prevention and control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Vaccination procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II; Part III details the principles of rabies control.

  7. Prevention and treatment practices and implications for malaria control in Mukono District Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, A K; Bygbjerg, I C; Magnussen, P

    2008-01-01

    and used insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. Similarly, only a few households (86, 1.5%) used indoor residual spraying. Self-treatment with home-stocked drugs was high, yet there was low awareness of the effectiveness of expired drugs on malaria treatment. Self-reported malaria...... interventions for malaria control in Uganda....

  8. Summary of Guidelines for Infection Prevention and Control for Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Hookey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-quality processes to ensure infection prevention and control in the delivery of safe endoscopy services are essential. In 2010, the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG developed a Canadian guideline for the reprocessing of flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy equipment.

  9. Strand I - Physical Health; Disease Prevention and Control for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    This health curriculum guide, intended for use with children in grades four through six, sees man's struggle to discover new knowledge for the prevention and control of disease in historical perspective. The contents of the guide are presented in outline form and cover the nature of disease, the history of disease, modern approaches to disease…

  10. Educating Masters of Public Health Students on Tobacco Control and Prevention: An Integrated Curriculum Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Aquilino, Mary; Abramsohn, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive training in the area of tobacco control and prevention has not been available to public health students receiving professional degrees. This study describes findings of a project designed to develop and evaluate an integrated approach to the education of Masters of Public Health (MPH) students at the University of Iowa…

  11. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbæk, Annelli

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study performed as 'lagged intervention'. At the time of comparison, the intervention group had completed 6 months of audit including...

  12. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Chi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a system to prevent and control Cervical Cancer. This systemruns on a handheld using infrared technology from a service point to make the current process moreefficient for the staff responsible for carrying out diagnostic tests, as well as for doctors from healthclinics in communities belonging to the city of Tizimín, Yucatan, Mexico.

  13. Effortful Control, Social Information Processing, and the Prevention of Aggression in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Alan Reid

    2012-01-01

    Early aggression is a problem in its own right and a risk factor for further developmental problems. Although both effortful control and social information processing (SIP) skills are negatively associated with aggression and are targeted by aggression prevention programs, little is known about the relation between them or about their joint…

  14. Tackling wicked problems in infection prevention and control : a guideline for co-creation with stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woezik, Anne F. G.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M. A.; Kulyk, Olga; Siemons, Liseth; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E. W. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infection prevention and control can be seen as a wicked public health problem as there is no consensus regarding problem definition and solution, multiple stakeholders with different needs and values are involved, and there is no clear end-point of the problem-solving process. Co-creati

  15. Tackling wicked problems in infection prevention and control: a guideline for co-creation with stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woezik, Anne; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Tjin-Kam-Jet-Siemons, Liseth; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infection prevention and control can be seen as a wicked public health problem as there is no consensus regarding problem definition and solution, multiple stakeholders with different needs and values are involved, and there is no clear end-point of the problem-solving process. Co-creatio

  16. Treating curable sexually transmitted infections to prevent HIV in Africa - Still an effective control strategy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Richard G.; Orroth, Kate K.; Glynn, Judith R.; Freeman, Esther E.; Bakker, Roel; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Buve, Anne; Hayes, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Evidence regarding the effectiveness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment for HIV prevention in Africa is equivocal, leading some policy makers to question whether it should continue to be promoted for HIV control. We explore whether treating curable STIs remains a cost-effe

  17. Self-Efficacy and Perceived Control in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpi Ballester, Amparo; Gonzalez Navarro, Pilar; Zurriaga Llorens, Rosario; Marzo Campos, Juan Carlos; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2010-01-01

    From the Theory of Planed Behaviour (TPB), the aim of this study is to analyse the effect of self-efficacy and perceived control on intention and preventive behaviors of cardiovascular disease. To this end, 359 participants were evaluated in an empirical study. Data were analysed using the statistic

  18. Cancer and Cancer Prevention and Control Programs in the Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes cancer control activities by the Indian Health Service in North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, and Nebraska, including risk factor assessment and cancer screening using a modified Health Risk Appraisal; interventions to reduce smoking; community empowerment; development of health education materials; and clinical preventive services. (SV)

  19. 75 FR 48699 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--National Biosurveillance Advisory Subcommittee (NBAS) In... roadmap for the human health component of a national biosurveillance system. Matters to be Discussed... guidance in order to expand and strengthen the national portfolio of activities in biosurveillance...

  20. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengel, K.M.O.; Joling, C.I.; Proper, K.I.; Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program comp

  1. Studies on the prevention and control of human immune deficiency virus associated tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakezha, T.

    2014-01-01

    The overall question the thesis intended to answer was how to optimise interventions for the prevention and control of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) -associated tuberculosis (TB) in high TB and HIV burden settings such as South Africa. In these settings the incidence of and mortality from TB

  2. Tackling wicked problems in infection prevention and control: a guideline for co-creation with stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woezik, van A.F.G.; Braakman-Jansen, L.M.A.; Kulyk, O.; Siemons, L.; Gemert-Pijnen, van J.E.W.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infection prevention and control can be seen as a wicked public health problem as there is no consensus regarding problem definition and solution, multiple stakeholders with different needs and values are involved, and there is no clear end-point of the problem-solving process. Co-creatio

  3. Self-Efficacy and Perceived Control in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpi Ballester, Amparo; Gonzalez Navarro, Pilar; Zurriaga Llorens, Rosario; Marzo Campos, Juan Carlos; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2010-01-01

    From the Theory of Planed Behaviour (TPB), the aim of this study is to analyse the effect of self-efficacy and perceived control on intention and preventive behaviors of cardiovascular disease. To this end, 359 participants were evaluated in an empirical study. Data were analysed using the statistic

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Preventive Intervention for Perinatal Depression in High-Risk Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huynh-Nhu; Perry, Deborah F.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral (CBT) intervention to prevent perinatal depression in high-risk Latinas. Method: A sample of 217 participants, predominantly low-income Central American immigrants who met demographic and depression risk criteria, were randomized into usual…

  5. Implementation of a "County-Township-Village" Allied HIV Prevention and Control Intervention in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao

    2017-09-01

    In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.

  6. Cancer and Cancer Prevention and Control Programs in the Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes cancer control activities by the Indian Health Service in North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, and Nebraska, including risk factor assessment and cancer screening using a modified Health Risk Appraisal; interventions to reduce smoking; community empowerment; development of health education materials; and clinical preventive services. (SV)

  7. Prevention of brittle fracture of steel structures by controlling the local stress and strain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    Full Text Available In the article the author offers a classification of the methods to increase the cold resistance of steel structural shapes with a focus on the regulation of local fields of internal stresses and strains to prevent brittle fracture of steel structures. The need of a computer thermography is highlighted not only for visualization of temperature fields on the surface, but also to control the fields of residual stresses and strains in a controlled element.

  8. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  9. Integrated Strategies for the Control and Prevention of Dengue Vectors with Particular Reference to Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar Abbas; Rao Zahid Abbas; Junaid Ali Khan; Zafar Iqbal; Muhammad Mehmood Hayat Bhatti; Zia-u-Din Sindhu; Muhammad Anjum Zia

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is one of the most threatening vector borne diseases, affecting both humans and animals, causing severe epidemics and has brought the world to take serious steps for its control and prevention. DF is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Unfortunately, due to unavailability of vaccine and lack of effective treatment, emphasis is given on its vector control. The only option left for its eradication is to restrict mosquito breeding. This can be achieved by chemical,...

  10. Insider Threat Control: Using Plagiarism Detection Algorithms to Prevent Data Exfiltration in Near Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Insider Threat Control: Using Plagiarism Detection Algorithms to Prevent Data Exfiltration in Near Real Time Todd Lewellen George J. Silowash...algorithms used in plagiarism detection software—to search the index for bodies of text similar to the text found in the outgoing web request. If the...2. REPORT DATE October 2013 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Insider Threat Control: Using Plagiarism Detection

  11. German Contribution to the X-38 CRV Demonstrator in the Field of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppa, Uwe; Görlach, Thomas; Roenneke, Axel Justus

    2002-01-01

    As a solution to meet a safety requirement to the future full scale space station infrastructure, the Crew Return/Rescue Vehicle (CRV) was supposed to supply the return capability for the complete ISS crew of 7 astronauts back to earth in case of an emergency. A prototype of such a vehicle named X-38 has been developed and built by NASA with European partnership (ESA, DLR). An series of aerial demonstrators (V13x) for tests of the subsonic TAEM phase and the parafoil descent and landing system has been flown by NASA from 1998 to 2001. A full scale unmanned space flight demonstrator (V201) has been built at JSC Houston and although the project has been stopped for budgetary reasons in 2002, it will hopefully still be flown in near future. The X-38 is a lifting body with hypersonic lift to drag ratio about 0.9. In comparison to the Space Shuttle Orbiter, this design provides less aerodynamic maneuvrability and a different actuator layout (divided body flap and winglet rudders instead as combined aileron and elevon in addition to thrust- ers for the early re-entry phase). Hence, the guidance and control concepts used onboard the shuttle orbiter had to be adapted and further developed for the application on the new vehicle. In the frame of the European share of the X-38 project and also of the German TETRA (TEchnol- ogy for future space TRAnsportation) project different GNC related contributions have been made: First, the primary flight control software for the autonomous guidance and control of the X-38 para- foil descent and landing phase has been developed, integrated and successfully flown on multiple vehicles and missions during the aerial drop test campaign conducted by NASA. Second, a real time X-38 vehicle simulator was provided to NASA which has also been used for the validation of a European re-entry guidance and control software (see below). According to the NASA verification and validation plan this simulator is supposed to be used as an independent vali

  12. Efficacy of smoking prevention program 'Smoke-free Kids': study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Schayck Onno CP

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong increase in smoking is noted especially among adolescents. In the Netherlands, about 5% of all 10-year olds, 25% of all 13-year olds and 62% of all 17-year olds report ever smoking. In the U.S., an intervention program called 'Smoke-free Kids' was developed to prevent children from smoking. The present study aims to assess the effects of this home-based smoking prevention program in the Netherlands. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial is conducted among 9 to 11-year old children of primary schools. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention program consists of five printed activity modules designed to improve parenting skills specific to smoking prevention and parent-child communication regarding smoking. These modules will include additional sheets with communication tips. The modules for the control condition will include solely information on smoking and tobacco use. Initiation of cigarette smoking (first instance of puffing on a lighted cigarette, susceptibility to cigarette smoking, smoking-related cognitions, and anti-smoking socialization will be the outcome measures. To collect the data, telephone interviews with mothers as well as with their child will be conducted at baseline. Only the children will be examined at post-intervention follow-ups (6, 12, 24, and 36 months after the baseline. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based smoking prevention program. We expect that a significantly lower number of children will start smoking in the intervention condition compared to control condition as a direct result of this intervention. If the program is effective, it is applicable in daily live, which will facilitate implementation of the prevention protocol. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR1465

  13. On-sky demonstration of low-order wavefront sensing and control with focal plane phase mask coronagraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Garima; Guyon, Olivier; Baudoz, Pierre; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Martinache, Frantz; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Serabyn, Eugene; Kuhn, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The ability to characterize exoplanets by spectroscopy of their atmospheres requires direct imaging techniques to isolate planet signal from the bright stellar glare. One of the limitations with the direct detection of exoplanets, either with ground- or space-based coronagraphs, is pointing errors and other low-order wavefront aberrations. The coronagraphic detection sensitivity at the diffraction limit therefore depends on how well low-order aberrations upstream of the focal plane mask are corrected. To prevent starlight leakage at the inner working angle of a phase mask coronagraph, we have introduced a Lyot-based low-order wavefront sensor (LLOWFS), which senses aberrations using the rejected starlight diffracted at the Lyot plane. In this paper, we present the implementation, testing and results of LLOWFS on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system (SCExAO) at the Subaru Telescope. We have controlled thirty-five Zernike modes of a H-band vector vortex coronagraph in the laboratory and ten Z...

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about rabies prevention and control: a community survey in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, Maganga; Lembo, Tiziana; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ferguson, Heather M; Sikana, Lwitiko; Simon, Cleophas; Urassa, Honorati; Hampson, Katie

    2014-12-01

    Despite being entirely preventable, canine rabies still kills 55,000 people/year in developing countries. Information about local beliefs and practices can identify knowledge gaps that may affect prevention practices and lead to unnecessary deaths. We investigated knowledge, attitudes and practices related to rabies and its prevention and control amongst a cross-section of households (n = 5,141) in urban and rural areas of central, southern and northern Tanzania. Over 17% of respondents owned domestic dogs (average of 2.3 dogs/household),>95% had heard about rabies, and>80% knew that rabies is transmitted through dog bites. People who (1) had greater education, (2) originated from areas with a history of rabies interventions, (3) had experienced exposure by a suspect rabid animal, (4) were male and (5) owned dogs were more likely to have greater knowledge about the disease. Around 80% of respondents would seek hospital treatment after a suspect bite, but only 5% were aware of the need for prompt wound cleansing after a bite. Although>65% of respondents knew of dog vaccination as a means to control rabies, only 51% vaccinated their dogs. Determinants of dog vaccination included (1) being a male-headed household, (2) presence of children, (3) low economic status, (4) residing in urban areas, (5) owning livestock, (6) originating from areas with rabies interventions and (7) having purchased a dog. The majority of dog-owning respondents were willing to contribute no more than US$0.31 towards veterinary services. We identified important knowledge gaps related to, and factors influencing the prevention and control of rabies in Tanzania. Increasing knowledge regarding wound washing, seeking post-exposure prophylaxis and the need to vaccinate dogs are likely to result in more effective prevention of rabies; however, greater engagement of the veterinary and medical sectors is also needed to ensure the availability of preventative services.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP about rabies prevention and control: a community survey in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maganga Sambo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite being entirely preventable, canine rabies still kills 55,000 people/year in developing countries. Information about local beliefs and practices can identify knowledge gaps that may affect prevention practices and lead to unnecessary deaths.We investigated knowledge, attitudes and practices related to rabies and its prevention and control amongst a cross-section of households (n = 5,141 in urban and rural areas of central, southern and northern Tanzania. Over 17% of respondents owned domestic dogs (average of 2.3 dogs/household,>95% had heard about rabies, and>80% knew that rabies is transmitted through dog bites. People who (1 had greater education, (2 originated from areas with a history of rabies interventions, (3 had experienced exposure by a suspect rabid animal, (4 were male and (5 owned dogs were more likely to have greater knowledge about the disease. Around 80% of respondents would seek hospital treatment after a suspect bite, but only 5% were aware of the need for prompt wound cleansing after a bite. Although>65% of respondents knew of dog vaccination as a means to control rabies, only 51% vaccinated their dogs. Determinants of dog vaccination included (1 being a male-headed household, (2 presence of children, (3 low economic status, (4 residing in urban areas, (5 owning livestock, (6 originating from areas with rabies interventions and (7 having purchased a dog. The majority of dog-owning respondents were willing to contribute no more than US$0.31 towards veterinary services.We identified important knowledge gaps related to, and factors influencing the prevention and control of rabies in Tanzania. Increasing knowledge regarding wound washing, seeking post-exposure prophylaxis and the need to vaccinate dogs are likely to result in more effective prevention of rabies; however, greater engagement of the veterinary and medical sectors is also needed to ensure the availability of preventative services.

  16. 77 FR 61000 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) In accordance with... Inequities); discussion regarding organizing the workflow of the HDS going forward; and HDS membership...

  17. Medicine Sellers for Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections: Effect of a Quasi-Experimental Training Intervention in Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alam, Nazmul; Alam, Anadil; Fournier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    ...) practices and skills for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Bangladesh. The training included lectures, printed materials, and identification of referral sites...

  18. Preventive home visits to older people in Denmark: methodology of a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vass, Mikkel; Avlund, Kirsten; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preventive home visits were introduced by legislation in Denmark in 1998. This ongoing randomized controlled intervention study introduces a model where preventive home visits to elderly people are carried out in a standardized way, focusing on early signs of disability...... and on physical activity. The study includes general practitioners (GPs) in relevant parts of the assessment and endeavors coordinated interdisciplinary follow-up. Our main aim was to investigate whether this model gives enhanced active life expectancy, but the focus of the present paper is the design...

  19. [Dengue prevention and control: a review of studies on knowledge, beliefs, and practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Lenita Barreto Lorena; Tomassini, Hugo Coelho Barbosa; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to dengue control programs through a review of recent studies on knowledge, beliefs, and practices concerning dengue and dengue prevention. The results show that adequate knowledge of dengue and prevention methods are found in close association with high rates of domiciliary infestation by Aedes aegypti. This suggests that traditional education strategies, although efficient in transmitting information, have failed to change population behavior. Qualitative studies reveal two important issues that appear to explain these attitudes: representations of dengue and risks associated with mosquitoes and difficulties in avoiding infestation of household water recipients due to sanitation problems in communities.

  20. Burden of NCDs, Policies and Programme for Prevention and Control of NCDs in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncommunicable diseases and injuries account for 52% of deaths in India. Burden of noncommunicable diseases and resultant mortality is expected to increase unless massive efforts are made to prevent and control NCDs and their risk factors. Based on available evidence, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, mental disorders and trauma are the leading causes of morbidity, disability and mortality in India. Government of India had supported the States in prevention and control of NCDs through several vertical programs since 1980s. However, during the 11 th plan, there was considerable upsurge to prevent and control NCDs. New programs were started on a low scale in limited number of districts. However, there has not been any considerable change in the burden of NCDs. Based on experiences in the past, there is need to emphasize on health promotion and preventive measures to reduce exposure to risk factors. Facilities and capacity for screening, early diagnosis and effective management are required within the public health care system. Public awareness program, integrated management and strong monitoring system would be required for successful implementation of the program and making services universally accessible in the country.

  1. Optimal Control of a Spatio-Temporal Model for Malaria: Synergy Treatment and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malicki Zorom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a metapopulation model for malaria with two control variables, treatment and prevention, distributed between different patches (localities. Malaria spreads between these localities through human travel. We used the theory of optimal control and applied a mathematical model for three connected patches. From previous studies with the same data, two patches were identified as reservoirs of malaria infection, namely, the patches that sustain malaria epidemic in the other patches. We argue that to reduce the number of infections and semi-immunes (i.e., asymptomatic carriers of parasites in overall population, two considerations are needed, (a For the reservoir patches, we need to apply both treatment and prevention to reduce the number of infections and to reduce the number of semi-immunes; neither the treatment nor prevention were specified at the beginning of the control application, except prevention that seems to be effective at the end. (b For unreservoir patches, we should apply the treatment to reduce the number of infections, and the same strategy should be applied to semi-immune as in (a.

  2. Demonstration of ethylene controlled ventilation in the storage of tulip bulbs; Demonstratie Ethyleengestuurde ventilatie bij de bewaring van tulpenbollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J.; Gude, H.

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this demo was to demonstrate the operation of the ethylene sensor and the principle of ethylene controlled ventilation at tulip bulb businesses. Among other things, the demo shows the sensitive and meticulous measuring capacities of the sensor, to what extent the ventilation can be reduced, how much energy can be saved and that the quality of the bulbs improves by reducing dehydration [Dutch] Doel van deze demo was om op tulpenbollenbedrijven de werking van de ethyleensensor en het principe van ethyleengestuurde ventilatie te demonstreren. De demo laat onder meer zien dat de sensor gevoelig en nauwkeurig meet, hoeveel de ventilatie beperkt kan worden, hoeveel de energiebesparing is en dat de kwaliteit van de bollen verbetert door beperking van de uitdroging.

  3. Demonstration of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology using the Titan 2 Space Launch Vehicle Digital Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, M.; Guarro, S.; Apostolakis, G.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) is a new approach developed to integrate the modeling and analysis of the hardware and software components of an embedded system. The objective is to complement the traditional approaches which generally follow the philosophy of separating out the hardware and software portions of the assurance analysis. In this paper, the DFM approach is demonstrated using the Titan 2 Space Launch Vehicle Digital Flight Control System. The hardware and software portions of this embedded system are modeled in an integrated framework. In addition, the time dependent behavior and the switching logic can be captured by this DFM model. In the modeling process, it is found that constructing decision tables for software subroutines is very time consuming. A possible solution is suggested. This approach makes use of a well-known numerical method, the Newton-Raphson method, to solve the equations implemented in the subroutines in reverse. Convergence can be achieved in a few steps.

  4. Prevention and control system of hypokalemia in fast recovery after abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guanzhen; Yan, Qiang; Huang, Yutao; Zhong, Yan; Shi, Ping

    2013-06-01

    Blood potassium levels were very important during perioperative management of patients undergoing abdominal surgery. According to various worldwide studies on the causes of hypokalemia and fast-track surgeries, prehospital hypokalemia was ignored. The aim of this study to construct a prevention and control system of hypokalemia through proper clinical pathways and investigate the effects in terms of fast postoperative recovery of patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. A total of 104 patients were randomized to an observation group or a control group. The prevention and control system of hypokalemia was constructed; it was composed of 3 major modules: blood potassium monitoring, etiologic intervention, and treatment of hypokalemia. In the observation group, blood was sampled at scheduled time points (the blood potassium monitoring module) and interventions involved the preadmission and pre- and postoperative periods (etiologic intervention module). In the control group, blood sampling was delayed until after admission (blood potassium monitoring module) and interventions were only performed during the pre- and postoperative periods (etiologic intervention module). In terms of blood potassium, indices regarding gastrointestinal motility and postoperative complications were compared. The severity of hypokalemia, postoperative defecation time, arrhythmia, fatigue syndrome, and urine retention differed statistically between the 2 groups (P control system of hypokalemia with the starting point being before admission was more effective and allows early prevention, detection, correction, surgery, and recovery of patients undergoing open abdominal surgeries and also could be used in other specialized nursing fields.

  5. Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistant Healthcare-Associated Infections: The Microbiology Laboratory Rocks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Alexandra S.; Couto, Isabel; Toscano, Cristina; Gonçalves, Elsa; Póvoa, Pedro; Viveiros, Miguel; Lapão, Luís V.

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, each year, more than four milion patients acquire a healthcare-associated infection (HAI) and almost 40 thousand die as a direct consequence of it. Regardless of many stategies to prevent and control HAIs, they remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with a significant economic impact: a recent estimate places it at the ten billion dollars/year. The control of HAIs requires a prompt and efficient identification of the etiological agent and a rapid communication with the clinician. The Microbiology Laboratory has a significant role in the prevention and control of these infections and is a key element of any Infection Control Program. The work of the Microbiology Laboratory covers microbial isolation and identification, determination of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, epidemiological surveillance and outbreak detection, education, and report of quality assured results. In this paper we address the role and importance of the Microbiology Laboratory in the prevention and control of HAI and in Antibiotic Stewardship Programs and how it can be leveraged when combined with the use of information systems. Additionally, we critically review some challenges that the Microbiology Laboratory has to deal with, including the selection of analytic methods and the proper use of communication channels with other healthcare services. PMID:27375577

  6. Research on regional intrusion prevention and control system based on target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfei; Wang, Jieling; Jiang, Ke; He, Yanhui; Wu, Zhilin

    2017-08-01

    In view of the fact that China’s border is very long and the border prevention and control measures are single, we designed a regional intrusion prevention and control system which based on target-tracking. The system consists of four parts: solar panel, radar, electro-optical equipment, unmanned aerial vehicle and intelligent tracking platform. The solar panel provides independent power for the entire system. The radar detects the target in real time and realizes the high precision positioning of suspicious targets, then through the linkage of electro-optical equipment, it can achieve full-time automatic precise tracking of targets. When the target appears within the range of detection, the drone will be launched to continue the tracking. The system is mainly to realize the full time, full coverage, whole process integration and active realtime control of the border area.

  7. Internal control as part of prevention irregularities in accounting of budgetary institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.М. Bunda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the principles of internal control, the importance, the rationale for the essence of the system of internal control and the legislative building in budgetary institution. It describes the main challenges and problems of practical application of internal control in the normal course of business in modern enterprises. It reveals the following elements of the internal control of a budget institution as: control environment, risk assessment process of a budget institution, information systems, control procedures and control monitoring. The dependence between the effectiveness of accounting and internal control of a budget institution is determined. The paper highlights the methods of evaluation of internal control of a budget institution. This method is recommended for use in the preliminary assessment of control risk budget institution. The concept of «decision» as on the whole and also in particular in internal control is covered. The essential grouping indications of internal control decisions are defined and every type of decisions is characterized. The main directions of improvement of internal control to prevent violations in accounting of a budgetary institution is examined.

  8. Insula Demonstrates a Non-Linear Response to Varying Demand for Cognitive Control and Weaker Resting Connectivity With the Executive Control Network in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedota, John R; Matous, Allison L; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Gu, Hong; Ross, Thomas J; Stein, Elliot A

    2016-09-01

    Deficits in cognitive control processes are a primary characteristic of nicotine addiction. However, while network-based connectivity measures of dysfunction have frequently been observed, empirical evidence of task-based dysfunction in these processes has been inconsistent. Here, in a sample of smokers (n=35) and non-smokers (n=21), a previously validated parametric flanker task is employed to characterize addiction-related alterations in responses to varying (ie, high, intermediate, and low) demands for cognitive control. This approach yields a demand-response curve that aims to characterize potential non-linear responses to increased demand for control, including insensitivities or lags in fully activating the cognitive control network. We further used task-based differences in activation between groups as seeds for resting-state analysis of network dysfunction in an effort to more closely link prior inconsistencies in task-related activation with evidence of impaired network connectivity in smokers. For both smokers and non-smokers, neuroimaging results showed similar increases in activation in brain areas associated with cognitive control. However, reduced activation in right insula was seen only in smokers and only when processing intermediate demand for cognitive control. Further, in smokers, this task-modulated right insula showed weaker functional connectivity with the superior frontal gyrus, a component of the task-positive executive control network. These results demonstrate that the neural instantiation of salience attribution in smokers is both more effortful to fully activate and has more difficulty communicating with the exogenous, task-positive, executive control network. Together, these findings further articulate the cognitive control dysfunction associated with smoking and illustrate a specific brain circuit potentially responsible.

  9. The real-time control system for the CANARY multi-object adaptive optics on-sky demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipper, N. A.; Basden, A.; Looker, N. E.; Gendron, E.; Geng, D.; Gratadour, D.; Hubert, Z.; Vidal, F.; Myers, R. M.; Rousset, G.; Sevin, A.; Younger, E. J.

    2010-07-01

    CANARY is a Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) system designed to demonstrate the AO aspects of proposed EELT instruments such as the multi-object spectrograph EAGLE. The first phase of Canary will be executed on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope in 2010. We describe here the AO Real-time Control System (RTCS) for Canary. This is based on a distributed architecture of components interconnected by a fast serial fabric (sFPDP). The hardware used is a hybrid of FPGA and CPU technology. The middleware used for system data telemetry and control is based on CORBA and the publish/subscribe pattern. The system is designed to be easily modified and extended for the later, higher order, phases of CANARY. In order to provide the increase in computational power required in higher order systems, the current CPU technology can be readily replaced by acceleration hardware based on FPGA or GPU technologies. The Canary RTCS thus provides a test-bed for these new technologies that will be required for E-ELT instruments. These design concepts can be developed to provide an RTCS for E-ELT instruments and are in line with those under consideration by ESO for the E-ELT AO systems to which instruments such as EAGLE will be required to interface.

  10. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  11. New technologies in the prevention and control of healthcare-associated infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2010-06-01

    The increased interest in healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) among the public, patients and politicians has led to the development of potential new approaches to its prevention by industrial concerns and others. Such developments include better methods of assessing hospital hygiene, enhanced decontamination of the healthcare environment, biosynthetic tissue alternatives, antibiotic-impregnated medical devices and information technology that can help improve professional practice. Although promising, many of these have not been adequately evaluated in the clinical setting, highlighting the need for greater collaboration between industry and infection prevention and control practitioners to maximise the benefit of new products and to complement conventional approaches to HCAI prevention such as education, professional practice and the provision of better facilities.

  12. Using human factors engineering to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Judith; Gosbee, Laura Lin; Bessesen, Mary; Williams, Linda

    2010-08-01

    Human factors engineering is a discipline that studies the capabilities and limitations of humans and the design of devices and systems for improved performance. The principles of human factors engineering can be applied to infection prevention and control to study the interaction between the healthcare worker and the system that he or she is working with, including the use of devices, the built environment, and the demands and complexities of patient care. Some key challenges in infection prevention, such as delayed feedback to healthcare workers, high cognitive workload, and poor ergonomic design, are explained, as is how human factors engineering can be used for improvement and increased compliance with practices to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  13. The role of a company’s internal control system in fraud prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragomir Dimitrijevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of internal control over specific segments of activities has been associated with management needs for evaluation of the consistency between the actual situation and development targets. Monitoring activities should enable detection and timely reaction to possible target-related deviations. While responding to complex market needs, companies are exposed to numerous internal and external influences, some of which may cause significant damage. Companies have realized that it is safer and cheaper to establish their own internal control systems in order to prevent such influences. The aim of this work is to show how the overall quality of control and The emergence of internal control over specific segments of activities has been associated with management needs for evaluation of the consistency between the actual situation and development targets. Monitoring activities should enable detection and timely reaction to possible target-related deviations. While responding to complex market needs, companies are exposed to numerous internal and external influences, some of which may cause significant damage. Companies have realized that it is safer and cheaper to establish their own internal control systems in order to prevent such influences. The aim of this work is to show how the overall quality of control and company performance is improved through implementation of preventive methods by internal controls, and to indicate that a developed system of internal control represents a protective barrier against various kinds of data manipulation and fraud inside the companies. Special attention was paid to fraud in financial statements since it can cause the most serious damage leading to instability of the economic-financial environment.

  14. Inositol for the prevention of neural tube defects: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gay, Victoria; Burren, Katie; Mills, Kevin; Chitty, Lyn S; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-03-28

    Although peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation can prevent a proportion of neural tube defects (NTD), there is increasing evidence that many NTD are FA non-responsive. The vitamin-like molecule inositol may offer a novel approach to preventing FA-non-responsive NTD. Inositol prevented NTD in a genetic mouse model, and was well tolerated by women in a small study of NTD recurrence. In the present study, we report the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects by Inositol (PONTI) pilot study designed to gain further experience of inositol usage in human pregnancy as a preliminary trial to a future large-scale controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of inositol in NTD prevention. Study subjects were UK women with a previous NTD pregnancy who planned to become pregnant again. Of 117 women who made contact, ninety-nine proved eligible and forty-seven agreed to be randomised (double-blind) to peri-conceptional supplementation with inositol plus FA or placebo plus FA. In total, thirty-three randomised pregnancies produced one NTD recurrence in the placebo plus FA group (n 19) and no recurrences in the inositol plus FA group (n 14). Of fifty-two women who declined randomisation, the peri-conceptional supplementation regimen and outcomes of twenty-two further pregnancies were documented. Two NTD recurred, both in women who took only FA in their next pregnancy. No adverse pregnancy events were associated with inositol supplementation. The findings of the PONTI pilot study encourage a large-scale controlled trial of inositol for NTD prevention, but indicate the need for a careful study design in view of the unwillingness of many high-risk women to be randomised.

  15. Household Dengue Prevention Interventions, Expenditures, and Barriers to Aedes aegypti Control in Machala, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Heydari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control. However, relatively little is known about the economic burden of Ae. aegypti control in resource-limited communities. We surveyed residents from 40 households in a high-risk community at the urban periphery in the city of Machala, Ecuador, on dengue perceptions, vector control interventions, household expenditures, and factors influencing purchasing decisions. The results of this study show that households spend a monthly median of US$2.00, or 1.90% (range: 0.00%, 9.21% of their family income on Ae. aegypti control interventions. Households reported employing, on average, five different mosquito control and dengue prevention interventions, including aerosols, liquid sprays, repellents, mosquito coils, and unimpregnated bed nets. We found that effectiveness and cost were the most important factors that influence people’s decisions to purchase a mosquito control product. Our findings will inform the development and deployment of new Ae. aegypti control interventions by the public health and private sectors, and add to prior studies that have focused on the economic burden of dengue-like illness.

  16. Household Dengue Prevention Interventions, Expenditures, and Barriers to Aedes aegypti Control in Machala, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Naveed; Larsen, David A.; Neira, Marco; Beltrán Ayala, Efraín; Fernandez, Prissila; Adrian, Jefferson; Rochford, Rosemary; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control. However, relatively little is known about the economic burden of Ae. aegypti control in resource-limited communities. We surveyed residents from 40 households in a high-risk community at the urban periphery in the city of Machala, Ecuador, on dengue perceptions, vector control interventions, household expenditures, and factors influencing purchasing decisions. The results of this study show that households spend a monthly median of US$2.00, or 1.90% (range: 0.00%, 9.21%) of their family income on Ae. aegypti control interventions. Households reported employing, on average, five different mosquito control and dengue prevention interventions, including aerosols, liquid sprays, repellents, mosquito coils, and unimpregnated bed nets. We found that effectiveness and cost were the most important factors that influence people’s decisions to purchase a mosquito control product. Our findings will inform the development and deployment of new Ae. aegypti control interventions by the public health and private sectors, and add to prior studies that have focused on the economic burden of dengue-like illness. PMID:28212349

  17. School-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention in Chilean Children: Effective in Controlling, but not Reducing Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Kain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8 y old low-income children (N=1474. Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children’s nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA. Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant. % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2 while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7% in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24 and increased (1.22–1.35 in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P=0.024. Interaction group * time was significant for boys (P<0.0001 and girls (P=0.004. Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.

  18. Infection prevention and control measures currently applied in South African audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Katerina; Naude, Alida M

    2014-11-11

    To counter the global increase in infection-related deaths, infection control has recently developed into an active area of research. Many diseases can be prevented by infection control. In the confines of the audiology clinic, cross-contamination by micro-organisms associated with opportunistic infections remains a real concern. The primary aim of the study was to ascertain the methods that audiologists in South Africa use to prevent and control the spread of infections during and after consultation with clients. A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Fifty currently practising audiologists participated in the study. The majority (84%; n = 42) of respondents acknowledged the importance of hand hygiene for the purpose of infection control, with 76% (n = 38) making use of no-rinse hand sanitisers. Approximately a third of audiologists wear gloves during procedures such as otoscopy and immittance, and while handling hearing aids. Disinfecting audiological equipment seem to be the preferred choice of infection control, with only 60% (n = 30) of respondents sterilising audiological equipment after each individual patient consultation. Less than half of the respondents disinfected touch surfaces and toys in the reception area. Based on the results, further education and training should focus on measures implemented in infection control, awareness of possible risk factors at work settings, and vaccination as an effective means of infection control.

  19. Household Dengue Prevention Interventions, Expenditures, and Barriers to Aedes aegypti Control in Machala, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Naveed; Larsen, David A; Neira, Marco; Beltrán Ayala, Efraín; Fernandez, Prissila; Adrian, Jefferson; Rochford, Rosemary; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M

    2017-02-16

    The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control. However, relatively little is known about the economic burden of Ae. aegypti control in resource-limited communities. We surveyed residents from 40 households in a high-risk community at the urban periphery in the city of Machala, Ecuador, on dengue perceptions, vector control interventions, household expenditures, and factors influencing purchasing decisions. The results of this study show that households spend a monthly median of US$2.00, or 1.90% (range: 0.00%, 9.21%) of their family income on Ae. aegypti control interventions. Households reported employing, on average, five different mosquito control and dengue prevention interventions, including aerosols, liquid sprays, repellents, mosquito coils, and unimpregnated bed nets. We found that effectiveness and cost were the most important factors that influence people's decisions to purchase a mosquito control product. Our findings will inform the development and deployment of new Ae. aegypti control interventions by the public health and private sectors, and add to prior studies that have focused on the economic burden of dengue-like illness.

  20. Infection prevention and control measures currently applied in South African audiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ehlert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To counter the global increase in infection-related deaths, infection control has recently developed into an active area of research. Many diseases can be prevented by infection control. In the confines of the audiology clinic, cross-contamination by micro-organisms associated with opportunistic infections remains a real concern.Objective: The primary aim of the study was to ascertain the methods that audiologists in South Africa use to prevent and control the spread of infections during and after consultation with clients.Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Fifty currently practising audiologists participated in the study.Results: The majority (84%; n = 42 of respondents acknowledged the importance of hand hygiene for the purpose of infection control, with 76% (n = 38 making use of no-rinse hand sanitisers. Approximately a third of audiologists wear gloves during procedures such as otoscopy and immittance, and while handling hearing aids. Disinfecting audiological equipment seem to be the preferred choice of infection control, with only 60% (n = 30 of respondents sterilising audiological equipment after each individual patient consultation. Less than half of the respondents disinfected touch surfaces and toys in the reception area.Conclusions: Based on the results, further education and training should focus on measures implemented in infection control, awareness of possible risk factors at work settings, and vaccination as an effective means of infection control.

  1. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on

  2. Knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among health sciences students at University of Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojulong, J; Mitonga, K H; Iipinge, S N

    2013-12-01

    Health Sciences students are exposed early to hospitals and to activities which increase their risk of acquiring infections. Infection control practices are geared towards reduction of occurrence and transmission of infectious diseases. To evaluate knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among Health Science students at University of Namibia. To assess students' knowledge and attitudes regarding infection prevention and control and their sources of information, a self-administered questionnaire was used to look at standard precautions especially hands hygiene. One hundred sixty two students participated in this study of which 31 were medical, 17 were radiography and 114 were nursing students. Medical students had better overall scores (73%) compared to nursing students (66%) and radiology students (61%). There was no significant difference in scores between sexes or location of the high school being either in rural or urban setting. Serious efforts are needed to improve or review curriculum so that health sciences students' knowledge on infection prevention and control is imparted early before they are introduced to the wards.

  3. Effects of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention in physical education teachers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies.

  4. [The activity of local health units in agriculture: promotion, prevention, control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotzi, G; Ariano, E; Quercia, A

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture shows an high proportion of injuries, mostly by machineries and instruments, and the highest proportion between fatal and total injuries. The Conference of Regions has adopted the National Agriculture and Forestry Prevention Plan, in application of the "Pact for health and safety in workplaces". The plan gives priority to actions improving the safety of agricultural machines, specially if more frequently involved in serious and fatal injuries. Goal is to achieve an homogenous intervention standard all over in the country, composed by a mix of information, support and control, addressed to farms and agricultural machines traders. Public prevention organizations of Local Health Units moreover will record homogenously the happen modality of fatal and serious accidents, will collaborate in joining prevention objectives with Rural Develop Plans and in drawing up good practices. At another level in some regions have been developed prevention activities for other risk factors: definition of exposition profiles of pesticides, development of professionally exposed workers formation, control of buildings and cattle breeding, medical and epidemiological periodic survey of employees.

  5. Effects of selenium supplements on cancer prevention: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Myung, Seung-Kwon; Jeon, Young-Jee; Kim, Yeol; Chang, Yoon Jung; Ju, Woong; Seo, Hong Gwan; Huh, Bong Yul

    2011-11-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the preventive effect of selenium supplements alone on cancer as reported by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library in July 2009. Of the 461 articles searched, 8 articles on 9 RCTs, which included 152,538 total participants, 32,110 in antioxidant supplement groups, and 120,428 in placebo groups, were included. In a random-effects meta-analysis of all 9 RCTs, selenium supplementation alone was found to have an overall preventive effect on cancer incidence [relative risk (RR) = 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.99]. Among subgroup meta-analyses, the preventive effect of selenium supplementation alone on cancer was apparently observed in populations with a low baseline serum selenium level (cancer (RR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.80; I(2) = 41.5%; n = 8). The meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials indicates that there is possible evidence to support the use of selenium supplements alone for cancer prevention in the low baseline serum selenium level population and in the high-risk population for cancer.

  6. Improving preventive service delivery at adult complete health check-ups: the Preventive health Evidence-based Recommendation Form (PERFORM cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moineddin Rahim

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effectiveness of a single checklist reminder form to improve the delivery of preventive health services at adult health check-ups in a family practice setting. Methods A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted at four urban family practice clinics among 38 primary care physicians affiliated with the University of Toronto. Preventive Care Checklist Forms© were created to be used by family physicians at adult health check-ups over a five-month period. The sex-specific forms incorporate evidence-based recommendations on preventive health services and documentation space for routine procedures such as physical examination. The forms were used in two intervention clinics and two control clinics. Rates and relative risks (RR of the performance of 13 preventive health maneuvers at baseline and post-intervention and the percentage of up-to-date preventive health services delivered per patient were compared between the two groups. Results Randomly-selected charts were reviewed at baseline (n = 509 and post-intervention (n = 608. Baseline rates for provision of preventive health services ranged from 3% (fecal occult blood testing to 93% (blood pressure measurement, similar to other settings. The percentage of up-to-date preventive health services delivered per patient at the end of the intervention was 48.9% in the control group and 71.7% in the intervention group. This is an overall 22.8% absolute increase (p = 0.0001, and 46.6% relative increase in the delivery of preventive health services per patient in the intervention group compared to controls. Eight of thirteen preventive health services showed a statistically significant change (p Conclusion This simple, low cost, clinically relevant intervention improves the delivery of preventive health services by prompting physicians of evidence-based recommendations in a checklist format that incorporates existing practice patterns. Periodic updates

  7. Balanced pan-PPAR activator bezafibrate in combination with statin: comprehensive lipids control and diabetes prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All fibrates are peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs-alpha agonists with ability to decrease triglyceride and increase high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C. However, bezafibrate has a unique characteristic profile of action since it activates all three PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta at comparable doses. Therefore, bezafibrate operates as a pan-agonist for all three PPAR isoforms. Selective PPAR gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. They improve insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adipogenesis, decreasing free fatty acid levels, and reversing insulin resistance. However, selective PPAR gamma agonists also cause water retention, weight gain, peripheral edema, and congestive heart failure. The expression of PPAR beta/ delta in essentially all cell types and tissues (ubiquitous presence suggests its potential fundamental role in cellular biology. PPAR beta/ delta effects correlated with enhancement of fatty acid oxidation, energy consumption and adaptive thermogenesis. Together, these data implicate PPAR beta/delta in fuel combustion and suggest that pan-PPAR agonists that include a component of PPAR beta/delta activation might offset some of the weight gain issues seen with selective PPAR gamma agonists, as was demonstrated by bezafibrate studies. Suggestively, on the whole body level all PPARs acting as one orchestra and balanced pan-PPAR activation seems as an especially attractive pharmacological goal. Conceptually, combined PPAR gamma and alpha action can target simultaneously insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR beta/delta properties may prevent the development of overweight. Bezafibrate, as all fibrates, significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and increased HDL-C level (but considerably stronger than other major fibrates. Bezafibrate significantly decreased prevalence of small, dense low density lipoproteins particles, remnants

  8. Balanced pan-PPAR activator bezafibrate in combination with statin: comprehensive lipids control and diabetes prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2012-11-14

    All fibrates are peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs)-alpha agonists with ability to decrease triglyceride and increase high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C). However, bezafibrate has a unique characteristic profile of action since it activates all three PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta) at comparable doses. Therefore, bezafibrate operates as a pan-agonist for all three PPAR isoforms. Selective PPAR gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones) are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). They improve insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adipogenesis, decreasing free fatty acid levels, and reversing insulin resistance. However, selective PPAR gamma agonists also cause water retention, weight gain, peripheral edema, and congestive heart failure. The expression of PPAR beta/ delta in essentially all cell types and tissues (ubiquitous presence) suggests its potential fundamental role in cellular biology. PPAR beta/ delta effects correlated with enhancement of fatty acid oxidation, energy consumption and adaptive thermogenesis. Together, these data implicate PPAR beta/delta in fuel combustion and suggest that pan-PPAR agonists that include a component of PPAR beta/delta activation might offset some of the weight gain issues seen with selective PPAR gamma agonists, as was demonstrated by bezafibrate studies. Suggestively, on the whole body level all PPARs acting as one orchestra and balanced pan-PPAR activation seems as an especially attractive pharmacological goal. Conceptually, combined PPAR gamma and alpha action can target simultaneously insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR beta/delta properties may prevent the development of overweight. Bezafibrate, as all fibrates, significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and increased HDL-C level (but considerably stronger than other major fibrates). Bezafibrate significantly decreased prevalence of small, dense low density lipoproteins particles, remnants, induced

  9. ‘Natural experiment’ Demonstrates Top-Down Control of Spiders by Birds on a Landscape Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Haldre; Hille Ris Lambers, Janneke; Miller, Ross; Tewksbury, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of small-scale manipulative experiments and large-scale natural experiments provides a powerful approach for demonstrating the importance of top-down trophic control on the ecosystem scale. The most compelling natural experiments have come from studies examining the landscape-scale loss of apex predators like sea otters, wolves, fish and land crabs. Birds are dominant apex predators in terrestrial systems around the world, yet all studies on their role as predators have come from small-scale experiments; the top-down impact of bird loss on their arthropod prey has yet to be examined at a landscape scale. Here, we use a unique natural experiment, the extirpation of insectivorous birds from nearly all forests on the island of Guam by the invasive brown tree snake, to produce the first assessment of the impacts of bird loss on their prey. We focused on spiders because experimental studies showed a consistent top-down effect of birds on spiders. We conducted spider web surveys in native forest on Guam and three nearby islands with healthy bird populations. Spider web densities on the island of Guam were 40 times greater than densities on islands with birds during the wet season, and 2.3 times greater during the dry season. These results confirm the general trend from manipulative experiments conducted in other systems however, the effect size was much greater in this natural experiment than in most manipulative experiments. In addition, bird loss appears to have removed the seasonality of spider webs and led to larger webs in at least one spider species in the forests of Guam than on nearby islands with birds. We discuss several possible mechanisms for the observed changes. Overall, our results suggest that effect sizes from smaller-scale experimental studies may significantly underestimate the impact of bird loss on spider density as demonstrated by this large-scale natural experiment. PMID:22970126

  10. Fouling Issues in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs for Wastewater Treatment: Major Mechanisms, Prevention and Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros K. Gkotsis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling is one of the most important considerations in the design and operation of membrane systems as it affects pretreatment needs, cleaning requirements, operating conditions, cost and performance. Given that membrane fouling represents the main limitation to membrane process operation, it is unsurprising that the majority of membrane material and process research and development conducted is dedicated to its characterization and amelioration. This work presents the fundamentals of fouling issues in membrane separations, with specific regard to membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs and the most frequently applied preventive-control strategies. Feed pretreatment, physical and chemical cleaning protocols, optimal operation of MBR process and membrane surface modification are presented and discussed in detail. Membrane fouling is the major obstacle to the widespread application of the MBR technology and, therefore, fouling preventive-control strategies is a hot issue that strongly concerns not only the scientific community, but industry as well.

  11. An integrated ecosystem approach for sustainable prevention and control of dengue in Central Havana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Mariano; Spiegel, Jerry M; Ibarra, Ana Maria; Kouri, Gustavo; Pintre, Alfredo; Yassi, Annalee

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed and evaluated a comprehensive participatory ecosystem health approach for preventing the transmission of dengue, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in Cuba and the Latin America-Caribbean region. The integrated surveillance system central to this initiative encompassed three main subsystems (environmental; entomological; clinical-epidemiologic), relying on extensive community involvement. The study was conducted in Central Havana, Cuba. Indicators from each subsystem were selected and mapped using a GIS procedure providing instant visualization by city block in the municipality. To elucidate the factors affecting control and prevention efforts, perceived needs and risks, as well as knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to dengue, were assessed. Specific factors associated with the presence of mosquito breeding sites and risks of dengue were examined in a case-control study.

  12. Comprehensive strategies for the prevention and control of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in Africa: future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muna, Walinjom F T

    2013-01-01

    The countries of the Sub Saharan African region have insufficient resources and healthcare systems that are poorly adapted to cope with the longstanding burden associated with communicable diseases and the ongoing HIV/AIDS pandemic. In addition, the rising burden of non-communicable diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and their risk factors, poses additional challenges. These countries need to urgently develop strategies to address these challenges of disease prevention and control. These strategies will require a new vision and more relevant and 'suitable' vocabulary in dealing with healthcare design, planning and implementation (using a cross-sectorial approach). Lessons learnt from the past (e.g. primary health care) in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions of the world may equally prove useful in developing strategies for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. Any potential strategy must emphasize the crucial role of economic, social, and environmental health determinants as well as the use of appropriate health technology.

  13. Prevention and control of mental illnesses and mental health: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania; Minhas, Fareed A; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Badar, Asma; Mohamud, Khalif Bile

    2004-12-01

    As part of the National Action Plan for Non-communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD), mental illnesses have been grouped alongside non-communicable diseases (NCD) within a combined strategic framework in order to synchronize public health actions. The systematic approach for mental illnesses is centred on safeguarding the rights of the mentally ill, reducing stigma and discrimination, and de-institutionalisation and rehabilitation of the mentally ill in the community outlining roles of healthcare providers, the community, legislators and policy makers. The approach has implications for support functions in a number of areas including policy building, manpower and material development and research. Priority action areas for mental health as part of NAP-NCD include the integration of surveillance of mental illnesses in a comprehensive population-based NCD surveillance system; creating awareness about mental health as part of an integrated NCD behavioural change communication strategy; integration of mental health with primary healthcare; the development of sustainable public health infrastructure to support community mental health initiatives; building capacity of the health system in support of prevention and control activities; effective implementation of existing legislation and harmonizing working relationships with law enforcing agencies. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to integrate mental health into health services as part of a sustainable and integrated medical education programme for all categories of healthcare providers and the availability of essential psychotropic drugs at all healthcare levels. It lays emphasis on protecting the interests of special groups such as prisoners, refugees and displaced persons, women, children and individuals with disabilities. Furthermore, it promotes need-based research for contemporary mental health issues.

  14. Study on the Status Quo and Prevention-control Measures of Seawater Intrusion in Qingdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Jian-ming; LI; Jia-jia; GAO; Zong-jun

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, the general situation, influencing factors and damage of seawater intrusion in Qingdao City, Shandong Province were analyzed, and then some appropriate remedial measures were put forward, such as improving groundwater monitoring system in costal areas, exploiting groundwater reasonably, building underground cut-off walls and strengthening river management, which would provide a new approach for the prevention and control of seawater intrusion in Qingdao City.

  15. 78 FR 17410 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) In accordance...

  16. 78 FR 64504 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) Notice of...

  17. 78 FR 62635 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) In accordance...

  18. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  19. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-01-01

    This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  20. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.