WorldWideScience

Sample records for demonstrate great potential

  1. Plasma lysosphingomyelin demonstrates great potential as a diagnostic biomarker for Niemann-Pick disease type C in a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W D Welford

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C is a devastating, neurovisceral lysosomal storage disorder which is characterised by variable manifestation of visceral signs, progressive neuropsychiatric deterioration and premature death, caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. Due to the complexity of diagnosis and the availability of an approved therapy in the EU, improved detection of NP-C may have a huge impact on future disease management. At the cellular level dysfunction or deficiency of either the NPC1 or NPC2 protein leads to a complex intracellular endosomal/lysosomal trafficking defect, and organ specific patterns of sphingolipid accumulation. Lysosphingolipids have been shown to be excellent biomarkers of sphingolipidosis in several enzyme deficient lysosomal storage disorders. Additionally, in a recent study the lysosphingolipids, lysosphingomyelin (SPC and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph, appeared to be elevated in the plasma of three adult NP-C patients. In order to investigate the clinical utility of SPC and GlcSph as diagnostic markers, an in-depth fit for purpose biomarker assay validation for measurement of these biomarkers in plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed. Plasma SPC and GlcSph are stable and can be measured accurately, precisely and reproducibly. In a retrospective analysis of 57 NP-C patients and 70 control subjects, median plasma SPC and GlcSph were significantly elevated in NP-C by 2.8-fold and 1.4-fold respectively. For miglustat-naïve NP-C patients, aged 2-50 years, the area under the ROC curve was 0.999 for SPC and 0.776 for GlcSph. Plasma GlcSph did not correlate with SPC levels in NP-C patients. The data indicate excellent potential for the use of lysosphingomyelin in NP-C diagnosis, where it could be used to identify NP-C patients for confirmatory genetic testing.

  2. Great Lakes Oil-In-Ice Demonstration 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Guard, in collaboration with other Federal, state, and local agencies, private industry , and international interested parties, to gain practical...instrumented ROV were selected for demonstration. The Salvation Army was contacted and graciously provided a pier-side warming shelter, hot drinks, snacks ...structure became unstable due to high winds and snow loading. Subsequently, they were able to set up a warming station with warm beverages, snacks

  3. Helix reactor: great potential for flow chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, P.; Runstraat, A. van den; Roelands, C.P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2009-01-01

    The Helix reactor is highly suited for precise reaction control based on good hydrodynamics. The hydrodynamics are controlled by the Dean vortices, which create excellent heat transfer properties, approach plug flow and avoid turbulence. The flexibility of this reactor has been demonstrated using a

  4. NASA Solar Array Demonstrates Commercial Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Gray

    2006-01-01

    two fixed-angle solar arrays and one single-axis Sun-tracking array. One of the fixed arrays contains typical less-efficient commercial solar cells and is being used as a baseline for comparison of the other fixed array, which contains the advanced cells. The Sun-tracking array tilts to follow the Sun, using an advanced, real-time tracking device rather than customary pre-programmed mechanisms. Part of the purpose served by the demonstration is to enable determination of any potential advantage of a tracking array over a fixed array. The arrays are monitored remotely on a computer that displays pertinent information regarding the functioning of the arrays.

  5. Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is projected to have substantial impacts in the Great Lakes region of the United States. One intent of this presentation is to introduce the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments Center (GLISA), a recently-funded NOAA RISA center. The goals and unique organizational structure of GLISA will be described along with core activities that support impact and assessment studies in the region. Additionally, observed trends in temperature, precipitation including lake effect snowfall, and lake temperatures and ice cover will be summarized for the Great Lakes region, and vulnerabilities to, and potential impacts of, climate change will be surveyed for critical natural and human systems. These include forest ecosystems, water resources, traditional and specialized agriculture, and tourism/recreation. Impacts and vulnerabilities unique to the Great Lakes region are emphasized.

  6. A great potential for market power; Stort potentiale for markedsmagt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trong, Maj Dang

    2003-07-01

    In a report the competition authorities of Norway, Sweden and Denmark conclude that there is a great potential for exerting market power in the Nordic countries. Bottlenecks in the transmission grid divide the Nordic market in shifting constellations of geographic markets and the market concentration in each market may therefore become very high.

  7. Horticulture in Argentina: a productive alternative with great potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Castagnino; María Belén Rosini; Silvia Benson

    2011-01-01

    Horticulture in Argentina is an activity with great potential whose history has mainly been driven by Italian immigrants who arrived during the last two centuries. It is a valuable complement for traditional primary productions on which the country is focused with more than 30 millions of cultivated hectares and different agro-climatic conditions that characterize the different horticultural regions distributed throughout the country. The aim of this article is to give a panorama of the histo...

  8. Horticulture in Argentina: a productive alternative with great potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Castagnino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Horticulture in Argentina is an activity with great potential whose history has mainly been driven by Italian immigrants who arrived during the last two centuries. It is a valuable complement for traditional primary productions on which the country is focused with more than 30 millions of cultivated hectares and different agro-climatic conditions that characterize the different horticultural regions distributed throughout the country. The aim of this article is to give a panorama of the history, reality and perspectives in Argentina of an activity that is an opportunity for producers and entrepreneurs interested in it. Due to its characteristics, horticulture generates and dynamizes employment with great importance for regional economies. The proportion between vegetables and fruit produced and commercialized in Argentina is 63 and 34% respectively. Horticultural products for exportation largely are garlic, onion and beans. Concerning the most commercialized vegetables in Argentina, potato, tomato, onion, squash, lettuce, pepper, marrow and sweet potato stand out, whereas orange, tangerine, apple, banana, lemon, pear, grape and grapefruit may be highlighted among fruit. At present, the main challenge of the Argentinian horticultural sector is given not only by the possibilities of productive diversification and the expansion of the productive area but also of the technological level optimization, the application of quality norms and the agro-industry growth.

  9. A demonstration of position angle-only weak lensing shear estimators on the GREAT3 simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whittaker, Lee; Battye, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    We develop and apply the position angle-only shear estimator of Whittaker et al. (2014) to realistic galaxy images. This is done by demonstrating the method on the simulations of the GREAT3 challenge (Mandelbaum et al. 2014b), which include contributions from anisotropic PSFs. We measure the position angles of the galaxies using three distinct methods - the integrated light method, quadrupole moments of surface brightness, and using model-based ellipticity measurements provided by IM3SHAPE. A weighting scheme is adopted to address biases in the position angle measurements which arise in the presence of an anisotropic PSF. Biases on the shear estimates, due to measurement errors on the position angles and correlations between the measurement errors and the true position angles, are corrected for using simulated galaxy images and an iterative procedure. The properties of the simulations are estimated using the deep field images provided as part of the challenge. A method is developed to match the distributions ...

  10. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  11. Leadership conversations challenging high potential managers to become great leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Berson, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    Conversation techniques and tools that can help strong managers become great leaders Often the very same skills and traits that enable rising stars to achieve success ""tenacity, aggressiveness, self-confidence"" become liabilities when promoted into a leadership track. While managers'' conversations are generally transactional and centered on the task at hand, leaders must focus on people, asking great questions and aligning them with the vision for the future. Leadership mindsets and skills can be developed, and Leadership Conversations provides practical guidance for connecting with others

  12. Epifaunal Community Development on Great Lakes Breakwaters: An Engineering with Nature Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    the Great Lakes have typically been constructed using timber cribs, sheet piling, rubble mound stone, stacked stone, or concrete. ERDC TN-EWN-14...into sample jars for preservation with a 70% denatured ethanol solution. In the laboratory, the invertebrates present in each sample were sorted by

  13. Diatoms - nature materials with great potential for bioapplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medarević Đorđe P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms are widespread unicellular photosynthetic algae that produce unique highly ordered siliceous cell wall, called frustule. Micro- to nanoporous structure with high surface area that can be easily modified, high mechanical resistance, unique optical features (light focusing and luminescence and biocompatibility make diatom frustule as a suitable raw material for the development of devices such as bio- and gas sensors, microfluidic particle sorting devices, supercapacitors, batteries, solar cells, electroluminescent devices and drug delivery systems. Their wide availability in the form of fossil remains (diatomite or diatomaceous earth as well as easy cultivation in the artificial conditions further supports use of diatoms in many different fields of application. This review focused on the recent achievements in the diatom bioapplications such as drug delivery, biomolecules immobilization, bio- and gas sensing, since great progress was made in this field over the last several years.

  14. Potential nitrogen critical loads for northern Great Plains grassland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Smith, Anine T.; Newton, Wesley E.; Knapp, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    The National Park Service is concerned that increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion and agricultural activities could adversely affect the northern Great Plains (NGP) ecosystems in its trust. The critical load concept facilitates communication between scientists and policy makers or land managers by translating the complex effects of air pollution on ecosystems into concrete numbers that can be used to inform air quality targets. A critical load is the exposure level below which significant harmful effects on sensitive elements of the environment do not occur. A recent review of the literature suggested that the nitrogen critical load for Great Plains vegetation is 10-25 kg N/ha/yr. For comparison, current atmospheric nitrogen deposition in NGP National Park Service (NPS) units ranges from ~4 kg N/ha/yr in the west to ~13 kg N/ha/yr in the east. The suggested critical load, however, was derived from studies far outside of the NGP, and from experiments investigating nitrogen loads substantially higher than current atmospheric deposition in the region.Therefore, to better determine the nitrogen critical load for sensitive elements in NGP parks, we conducted a four-year field experiment in three northern Great Plains vegetation types at Badlands and Wind Cave National Parks. The vegetation types were chosen because of their importance in NGP parks, their expected sensitivity to nitrogen addition, and to span a range of natural fertility. In the experiment, we added nitrogen at rates ranging from below current atmospheric deposition (2.5 kg N/ha/yr) to far above those levels but commensurate with earlier experiments (100 kg N/ha/yr). We measured the response of a variety of vegetation and soil characteristics shown to be sensitive to nitrogen addition in other studies, including plant biomass production, plant tissue nitrogen concentration, plant species richness and composition, non-native species abundance, and soil inorganic

  15. Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: a globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, Laurence J; Ayling, Tony; Cappo, Mike; Choat, J Howard; Evans, Richard D; De Freitas, Debora M; Heupel, Michelle; Hughes, Terry P; Jones, Geoffrey P; Mapstone, Bruce; Marsh, Helene; Mills, Morena; Molloy, Fergus J; Pitcher, C Roland; Pressey, Robert L; Russ, Garry R; Sutton, Stephen; Sweatman, Hugh; Tobin, Renae; Wachenfeld, David R; Williamson, David H

    2010-10-26

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) provides a globally significant demonstration of the effectiveness of large-scale networks of marine reserves in contributing to integrated, adaptive management. Comprehensive review of available evidence shows major, rapid benefits of no-take areas for targeted fish and sharks, in both reef and nonreef habitats, with potential benefits for fisheries as well as biodiversity conservation. Large, mobile species like sharks benefit less than smaller, site-attached fish. Critically, reserves also appear to benefit overall ecosystem health and resilience: outbreaks of coral-eating, crown-of-thorns starfish appear less frequent on no-take reefs, which consequently have higher abundance of coral, the very foundation of reef ecosystems. Effective marine reserves require regular review of compliance: fish abundances in no-entry zones suggest that even no-take zones may be significantly depleted due to poaching. Spatial analyses comparing zoning with seabed biodiversity or dugong distributions illustrate significant benefits from application of best-practice conservation principles in data-poor situations. Increases in the marine reserve network in 2004 affected fishers, but preliminary economic analysis suggests considerable net benefits, in terms of protecting environmental and tourism values. Relative to the revenue generated by reef tourism, current expenditure on protection is minor. Recent implementation of an Outlook Report provides regular, formal review of environmental condition and management and links to policy responses, key aspects of adaptive management. Given the major threat posed by climate change, the expanded network of marine reserves provides a critical and cost-effective contribution to enhancing the resilience of the Great Barrier Reef.

  16. Review of potential EGS sites and possible EGS demonstration scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    Review of potential sites for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and development of reference scenarios for EGS demonstration projects are two sub-tasks included in the FY 1999 EGS Research and Development (R&D) Management Task (DOE Task Order Number DE-AT07-99ID60365, included in the Appendix of this report). These sub-tasks are consistent with the EGS Strategic Plan, which includes milestones relating to EGS site selection (Milestone 4, to be completed in 2004) and development of a cost-shared, pilot-scale demonstration project (Milestone 5, to be completed in 2008). The purpose of the present work is to provide some reference points for discussing what type of EGS projects might be undertaken, where they might be located, and what the associated benefits are likely to be. The review of potential EGS sites is presented in Chapter 2 of this report. It draws upon site-selection criteria (and potential project sites that were identified using those criteria) developed at a mini-workshop held at the April 1998 DOE Geothermal Program Review to discuss EGS R&D issues. The criteria and the sites were the focus of a paper presented at the 4th International Hot Dry Rock Forum in Strasbourg in September 1998 (Sass and Robertson-Tait, 1998). The selection criteria, project sites and possible EGS developments discussed in the workshop and paper are described in more detail herein. Input from geothermal operators is incorporated, and water availability and transmission-line access are emphasized. The reference scenarios for EGS demonstration projects are presented in Chapter 3. Three alternative scenarios are discussed: (1) a stand-alone demonstration plant in an area with no existing geothermal development; (2) a separate generating facility adjacent to an existing geothermal development; and (3) an EGS project that supplies an existing geothermal power plant with additional generating capacity. Furthermore, information potentially useful to DOE in framing solicitations and

  17. SOCIAL MEDIA IN POLAND – GREAT POTENTIAL UTILIZED BY FEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael SEDKOWSKI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media are very popular around the world. More and more people adopt this method of communication, as it brings instant and effective ways to stay in touch with ones relatives, coworkers, brands and products. Poland is no exception, as all major brands of the social sphere have decided to prepare localized versions of their product for the Polish market. One could say that Poland is following the global trends very accurately as Facebook has dominated the market and pushed out the indigenous services Brands and corporation utilize the medium to get in touch with their consumers. On the other side, there are public institutions like universities, local governments , that should be interested in getting in touch with people, as reaching out to one’s potential customers has never been easier. This is happening, but on a very small scale and many attempts fail. In this paper, Author explores the possible reasons behind the situation and attempts to form a prognosis for the market of social media in Poland.

  18. Great Lakes Demonstration 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    without state environmental permission. Alternatively, the antifreeze was drained into a bucket and temporarily stored onboard the tugboat. The...Under Ice Retrieval If capable, the ROV or diver would be utilized to dive under the ice with an appropriate suction hose to find and recover oil...types of skimmers. If the oil is thick enough, it can be removed using direct suction . G.3.5.2 Broken Ice Conditions – Slotting: Objective of this

  19. Mito-methyl coumarin, a novel mitochondria-targeted drug with great antitumor potential was synthesized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanan; Xu, Wenqing

    2017-07-15

    Due to higher transmembrane potential of tumor cells, enhanced accumulation of cationic drugs in tumor mitochondria has been attributed to a higher (more negative inside) mitochondrial transmembrane potential compared with normal cells, emerging researchers are focus on developing mitochondria-targeted antitumor drugs. Coumarins showed great potential on antitumor, but mitochondria-targeted coumarin derivatives have not been reported. In the present study, we synthesized mitochondria-targeted-methyl coumarin (mito-methyl coumarin) through coupling 6-methyl coumarin to TPP. We confirmed that mito-methyl coumarin inhibited HeLa cells proliferation selectively, induced ROS generation, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, promoted mitochondria Ca(2+) accumulation, decreased mitochondria mass and induced HeLa cells apoptosis, but methyl coumarin did not. These results demonstrate that we succeed in synthesizing a novel mitochondria-targeted drug, mito-methyl coumarin, which is effective in inhibiting HeLa cells proliferation and inducing HeLa cells apoptosis through promoting ROS generation and mitochondria Ca(2+) accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential Impacts of Extended Winter Navigation upon Migratory Birds of the Upper U.S. Great Lakes. Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Biological Services Program OBS-82i51 SEPTEMBER 1982 POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF EXTENDED WINTER ’It NAVIGATION UPON MIGRATORY BIRDS OF THE UPPER N"j U.S...Security Classification) Potential Impacts of Extended Winter Navigation Upon Migratory Birds of the Upper U.S. Great Lakes 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Davis...PAGE Unclassified Potential Impacts of Extended Winter Navigation upon Migratory Birds of the Upper U.S. Great Lakes ERRATA SHEET Page XVII, item F6

  1. Hydrogen sulfide:third gaseous transmitter, but with great pharmacological potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-qing CHEN; Hong XIN; Yi-zhun ZHU

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S),which is well known traditionally as a toxic gas,has been proven to be produced endogenously by 3 enzymes in mammalian tissues and plays important roles in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In the central nervous system,H2S functions as not only a neuromodulator,but also a neuroprotectant against oxidative stress. In the cardiovascular system,H2S relaxes vascular smooth muscles by the activation of KATP channels and inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation via the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. These effects are important for maintaining blood pressure and preventing vessel structural remodeling,and identifies HES as an important factor in the development of some vascular diseases,such as hypertension. H2S also shows cardioprotective effects in ischemic myocardium and septic and endotoxin shock. Recent studies have demonstrated a new mechanism to explain the motoreffect of H2S on the rat detrusor muscle,which is through the activation of the capsaicin-sensitive primary neuron. This review focuses on the recent research achievements on H2S and discloses the great potential of H2S as the third gaseous transmitter in cardiac protection.

  2. Potential for DNA-based ID of Great Lakes fauna: Species inventories vs. barcode libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers the potential to greatly reduce the need for resource-intensive morphological identification, which would be of value both to biotic condition assessment and non-native species early-detection monitoring. However the abil...

  3. Great Lakes waters: radiation dose commitments, potential health effects, and cost-benefit considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-07-01

    In 1972, a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was signed by the United States and Canadian Governments. It was stipulated that the operation and effectiveness of the agreement were to be reviewed comprehensively in 1977. Aspects of the agreement concern nondegradation of Great Lakes waters and maintenance of levels of radioactivity or other potential pollutants at levels considered as low as practicable. A refined radioactivity objective of one millirem is proposed in the Water Quality Agreement. The implications of adoption of this objective are not known fully. The Division of Environmental Impact Studies was commissioned by ERDA's Division of Technology Overview to summarize the information available on the current levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters, compute radiation-dose commitment (integrated dose over 50 years after consumption of 2.2 liters of water of one year), and to comment on the feasibility and cost-benefit considerations associated with the refined one-millirem objective. Current levels of radioactivity in the waters of Lakes Michigan, Ontario, Erie, and Huron result in dose commitments in excess of 1 mrem for whole body and 6 mrem for bone. Future projections of isotope concentrations in Great lakes water indicate similar dose commitments for drinking water in the year 2050. Reduction of the levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters is not feasible, but cost-benefit considerations support removal of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 90/Sr through interceptive technology before water consumption. Adoption of the one-millirem objective is not propitious.

  4. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes Region (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Great Lakes region.

  5. Experimental demonstration of pathogenic potential of Anisakis physeteris and Anisakis paggiae in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, María Carmen; Valero, Adela; Navarro, María Concepción; Hierro, Ignacio; Barón, Sergio David; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

    2014-12-01

    Anisakis morphotype I is the principal etiologic agent of human anisakiasis, with differences in pathogenicity found between the Anisakis simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii species; however, the role of morphotype II larvae in this illness is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to verify the ability of morphotype II larvae to invade tissues via the experimental infection of Wistar rats, an animal model which simulates infection in humans. In the in vivo assay, 7.1% (4/56 L3 morphotype II) showed pathogenic potential, defined as the capacity of the larvae to cause lesions, attach to the gastrointestinal wall or penetrate it. Two of these larvae, one of A. physeteris and one of A. paggiae, penetrated the stomach wall and were found within the abdominal cavity, with the first one producing a small lesion with blood vessel breakage. The majority of the L3 larvae of morphotype II were found in the intestine (51.8%; 29/56) with the caecum being the least frequent location (8.9%; 5/56). In contrast, 44.0% (11/25) of the morphotype I larvae demonstrated pathogenic potential. Isoenzyme electrophoresis, PCR-RFLP of ITS1-5.8 s-ITS2 and PCR-sequencing of the cox2 mitochondrial gene were used to identify these larvae as A. physeteris (42.9%), A. paggiae (30.3%) and A. brevispiculata (1.8%). Although the morphotype II larvae of A. physeteris and A. paggiae have lower pathogenic potential than morphotype I larvae of A. simplex s.s. (93 and 91% lower, respectively), they may still be implicated in human anisakiasis, as they are capable of attaching to and penetrating the gastrointestinal wall of animals, demonstrating a similar pathogenicity to that of A. pegreffii. The techniques used for the identification of species reveal a great genetic heterogeneity of A. paggiae and A. physeteris, suggesting the existence of sibling species.

  6. Using hydrogeologic data to evaluate geothermal potential in the eastern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2012-01-01

    In support of a larger study to evaluate geothermal resource development of high-permeability stratigraphic units in sedimentary basins, this paper integrates groundwater and thermal data to evaluate heat and fluid flow within the eastern Great Basin. Previously published information from a hydrogeologic framework, a potentiometric-surface map, and groundwater budgets was compared to a surficial heat-flow map. Comparisons between regional groundwater flow patterns and surficial heat flow indicate a strong spatial relation between regional groundwater movement and surficial heat distribution. Combining aquifer geometry and heat-flow maps, a selected group of subareas within the eastern Great Basin are identified that have high surficial heat flow and are underlain by a sequence of thick basin-fill deposits and permeable carbonate aquifers. These regions may have potential for future geothermal resources development.

  7. Potential distribution of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, L E; Kurath, G; Escobar-Dodero, J; Craft, M E; Phelps, N B D

    2017-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb has been responsible for large-scale fish mortality events in the Great Lakes of North America. Anticipating the areas of potential VHSV occurrence is key to designing epidemiological surveillance and disease prevention strategies in the Great Lakes basin. We explored the environmental features that could shape the distribution of VHSV, based on remote sensing and climate data via ecological niche modelling. Variables included temperature measured during the day and night, precipitation, vegetation, bathymetry, solar radiation and topographic wetness. VHSV occurrences were obtained from available reports of virus confirmation in laboratory facilities. We fit a Maxent model using VHSV-IVb reports and environmental variables under different parameterizations to identify the best model to determine potential VHSV occurrence based on environmental suitability. VHSV reports were generated from both passive and active surveillance. VHSV occurrences were most abundant near shore sites. We were, however, able to capture the environmental signature of VHSV based on the environmental variables employed in our model, allowing us to identify patterns of VHSV potential occurrence. Our findings suggest that VHSV is not at an ecological equilibrium and more areas could be affected, including areas not in close geographic proximity to past VHSV reports. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Potential distribution of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Kurath, Gael; Escobar-Dodero, Joaquim; Craft, Meggan E.; Phelps, Nicholas B.D.

    2017-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb has been responsible for large-scale fish mortality events in the Great Lakes of North America. Anticipating the areas of potential VHSV occurrence is key to designing epidemiological surveillance and disease prevention strategies in the Great Lakes basin. We explored the environmental features that could shape the distribution of VHSV, based on remote sensing and climate data via ecological niche modelling. Variables included temperature measured during the day and night, precipitation, vegetation, bathymetry, solar radiation and topographic wetness. VHSV occurrences were obtained from available reports of virus confirmation in laboratory facilities. We fit a Maxent model using VHSV-IVb reports and environmental variables under different parameterizations to identify the best model to determine potential VHSV occurrence based on environmental suitability. VHSV reports were generated from both passive and active surveillance. VHSV occurrences were most abundant near shore sites. We were, however, able to capture the environmental signature of VHSV based on the environmental variables employed in our model, allowing us to identify patterns of VHSV potential occurrence. Our findings suggest that VHSV is not at an ecological equilibrium and more areas could be affected, including areas not in close geographic proximity to past VHSV reports.

  9. Mobile Clinical Decision Support Systems in Our Hands - Great Potential but also a Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    Due to the powerful computer resources as well as the availability of today's mobile devices, a special field of mobile systems for clinical decision support in medicine has been developed. The benefits of these applications (systems) are: availability of necessary hardware (mobile phones, tablets and phablets are widespread, and can be purchased at a relatively affordable price), availability of mobile applications (free or for a "small" amount of money) and also mobile applications are tailored for easy use and save time of clinicians in their daily work. In these systems lies a huge potential, and certainly a great economic benefit, so this issue must be approached multidisciplinary.

  10. Bacteriology of the teeth from a great white shark: potential medical implications for shark bite victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J D; Spotte, S; Gadbaw, J J

    1984-11-01

    Bacteria were cultured for the first time from the teeth of a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Isolates included Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and other genera. All are common in the marine environment and some may be associated with wound infections in humans. Shark bite lacerations may serve as a source of these potentially infectious bacteria, particularly Vibrio spp., and should be treated immediately. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns are shown for representatives of Vibrio isolates and indicate that a variety of new agents may be appropriate chemotherapy for shark bite victims.

  11. Metabolomics has great potential for clinical and nutritional care and research with exotic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Alistair D M

    2013-01-01

    This essay explores the potential of metabolomics for exotic animal research in a zoological setting. Metabolomics is a suite of analytical tools aimed at gaining a holistic understanding of animal metabolism without prior knowledge of the compounds to be measured. These metabolic fingerprints can be used to define normal metabolism for an unstudied species, to characterize the metabolic deviation of diseased animals from the normal state over time, to identify biomarker compounds that best capture such deviations, and to measure the metabolic impact of clinical and nutritional interventions. Two approaches, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) provide large amounts of complimentary pure and applied biological data. Metabolomic methods hold great potential for researchers, clinicians, and nutritionists studying exotic and aquatic animals because they can produce a huge data return on research effort, and because they do not require much a priori knowledge of the animals' metabolism, which is so often then case in zoological settings.

  12. Virulence and biodegradation potential of dynamic microbial communities associated with decaying Cladophora in Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan Lan; Peller, Julie R; Shively, Dawn; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N; Whitman, Richard L; Staley, Christopher; Zhang, Qian; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Cladophora mats that accumulate and decompose along shorelines of the Great Lakes create potential threats to the health of humans and wildlife. The decaying algae create a low oxygen and redox potential environment favoring growth and persistence of anaerobic microbial populations, including Clostridium botulinum, the causal agent of botulism in humans, birds, and other wildlife. In addition to the diverse population of microbes, a dynamic chemical environment is generated, which involves production of numerous organic and inorganic substances, many of which are believed to be toxic to the sand and aquatic biotic communities. In this study, we used 16S-rDNA-based-amplicon sequencing and microfluidic-based quantitative PCR approaches to characterize the bacterial community structure and the abundances of human pathogens associated with Cladophora at different stages (up to 90days) of algal decay in laboratory microcosms. Oxygen levels were largely depleted after a few hours of incubation. As Cladophora decayed, the algal microbial biodiversity decreased within 24h, and the mat transitioned from an aerobic to anaerobic environment. There were increasing abundances of enteric and pathogenic bacteria during decomposition of Cladophora, including Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Kluyvera, Cedecea, and others. In contrast, there were no or very few sequences (Great Lakes shorelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.

    1994-01-01

    Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

  14. Metabolic Engineering of Eukaryotic Microalgae: Potential and Challenges come with great diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Gimpel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The great phylogenetic diversity of microalgae is corresponded by a wide arrange of interesting and useful metabolites. Nonetheless metabolic engineering in microalgae has been limited, since specific transformation tools must be developed for each species for either the nuclear or chloroplast genomes. Microalgae as production platforms for metabolites offer several advantages over plants and other microorganisms, like the ability of GMO containment and reduced costs in culture media, respectively. Currently, microalgae have proved particularly well suited for the commercial production of omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids. Therefore most metabolic engineering strategies have been developed for these metabolites. Microalgal biofuels have also drawn great attention recently, resulting in efforts for improving the production of hydrogen and photosynthates, particularly triacylglycerides. Metabolic pathways of microalgae have also been manipulated in order to improve photosynthetic growth under specific conditions and for achieving trophic conversion. Although these pathways are not strictly related to secondary metabolites, the synthetic biology approaches could potentially be translated to this field and will also be discussed.

  15. In Metabolic Engineering of Eukaryotic Microalgae: Potential and Challenges Come with Great Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, Javier A.; Henríquez, Vitalia; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The great phylogenetic diversity of microalgae is corresponded by a wide arrange of interesting and useful metabolites. Nonetheless metabolic engineering in microalgae has been limited, since specific transformation tools must be developed for each species for either the nuclear or chloroplast genomes. Microalgae as production platforms for metabolites offer several advantages over plants and other microorganisms, like the ability of GMO containment and reduced costs in culture media, respectively. Currently, microalgae have proved particularly well suited for the commercial production of omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids. Therefore most metabolic engineering strategies have been developed for these metabolites. Microalgal biofuels have also drawn great attention recently, resulting in efforts for improving the production of hydrogen and photosynthates, particularly triacylglycerides. Metabolic pathways of microalgae have also been manipulated in order to improve photosynthetic growth under specific conditions and for achieving trophic conversion. Although these pathways are not strictly related to secondary metabolites, the synthetic biology approaches could potentially be translated to this field and will also be discussed. PMID:26696985

  16. Predicting the vulnerability of great apes to disease: the role of superspreaders and their potential vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Disease is a major concern for the conservation of great apes, and one that is likely to become increasingly relevant as deforestation and the rise of ecotourism bring humans and apes into ever closer proximity. Consequently, it is imperative that preventative measures are explored to ensure that future epidemics do not wipe out the remaining populations of these animals. In this paper, social network analysis was used to investigate vulnerability to disease in a population of wild orang-utans and a community of wild chimpanzees. Potential 'superspreaders' of disease--individuals with disproportionately central positions in the community or population--were identified, and the efficacy of vaccinating these individuals assessed using simulations. Three resident female orang-utans were identified as potential superspreaders, and females and unflanged males were predicted to be more influential in disease spread than flanged males. By contrast, no superspreaders were identified in the chimpanzee network, although males were significantly more central than females. In both species, simulating the vaccination of the most central individuals in the network caused a greater reduction in potential disease pathways than removing random individuals, but this effect was considerably more pronounced for orang-utans. This suggests that targeted vaccinations would have a greater impact on reducing disease spread among orang-utans than chimpanzees. Overall, these results have important implications for orang-utan and chimpanzee conservation and highlight the role that certain individuals may play in the spread of disease and its prevention by vaccination.

  17. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Lenaker, Peter L.; Lutz, Michelle A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewer overflows, among other sources. Concentrations of these organic waste compounds (OWCs) in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate a high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. During 2010–13, 709 water samples were collected at 57 tributaries, together representing approximately 41% of the total inflow to the lakes. Samples were collected during runoff and low-flow conditions and analyzed for 69 OWCs, including herbicides, insecticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plasticizers, antioxidants, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, non-prescription human drugs, flavors/fragrances, and dyes. Urban-related land cover characteristics were the most important explanatory variables of concentrations of many OWCs. Compared to samples from nonurban watersheds ( 15% urban land cover) had nearly four times the number of detected compounds and four times the total sample concentration, on average. Concentration differences between runoff and low-flow conditions were not observed, but seasonal differences were observed in atrazine, metolachlor, DEET, and HHCB concentrations. Water quality benchmarks for individual OWCs were exceeded at 20 sites, and at 7 sites benchmarks were exceeded by a factor of 10 or more. The compounds with the most frequent water quality benchmark exceedances were the PAHs benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene, the detergent metabolite 4-nonylphenol, and the herbicide atrazine. Computed estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) using only nonsteroidal endocrine-active compounds indicated medium to high risk of estrogenic effects (intersex or vitellogenin induction) at 10 sites. EEQs at 3 sites were comparable to values reported in effluent. This multifaceted study is the largest, most comprehensive assessment of the

  18. Virulence and biodegradation potential of dynamic microbial communities associated with decaying Cladophora in Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan Lan; Peller, Julie R.; Shively, Dawn; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Staley, Christopher; Zhang, Qian; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Cladophora mats that accumulate and decompose along shorelines of the Great Lakes create potential threats to the health of humans and wildlife. The decaying algae create a low oxygen and redox potential environment favoring growth and persistence of anaerobic microbial populations, including Clostridium botulinum, the causal agent of botulism in humans, birds, and other wildlife. In addition to the diverse population of microbes, a dynamic chemical environment is generated, which involves production of numerous organic and inorganic substances, many of which are believed to be toxic to the sand and aquatic biotic communities. In this study, we used 16S-rDNA-based-amplicon sequencing and microfluidic-based quantitative PCR approaches to characterize the bacterial community structure and the abundances of human pathogens associated with Cladophora at different stages (up to 90 days) of algal decay in laboratory microcosms. Oxygen levels were largely depleted after a few hours of incubation. As Cladophora decayed, the algal microbial biodiversity decreased within 24 h, and the mat transitioned from an aerobic to anaerobic environment. There were increasing abundances of enteric and pathogenic bacteria during decomposition of Cladophora, including Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Kluyvera, Cedecea, and others. In contrast, there were no or very few sequences (< 0.07%) assigned to such groups in fresh Cladophora samples. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that the bacterial community structure was dynamic and changed significantly with decay time. Knowledge of microbial communities and chemical composition of decaying algal mats is critical to our further understanding of the role that Cladophora plays in a beach ecosystem's structure and function, including the algal role in trophic interactions. Based on these findings, public and environmental health concerns should be considered when decaying Cladophora mats accumulate Great Lakes shorelines.

  19. Modeling Potential Climatic Treeline of Great Basin Bristlecone Pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, J. M.; Tran, T. J.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a valuable paleoclimate resource due to the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Recent work has shown that low growing season temperatures limit tree growth at the upper treeline ecotone. The presence of precisely dated remnant wood above modern treeline shows that this ecotone shifts at centennial timescales; in some areas during the Holocene climatic optimum treeline was 100 m higher than at present. A recent model from Paulsen and Körner (2014, doi:10.1007/s00035-014-0124-0) predicts global potential treeline position as a function of climate. The model develops three parameters necessary to sustain a temperature-limited treeline; a growing season longer than 94 days, defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C, and a mean temperature of 6.4 °C across the entire growing season. While maintaining impressive global accuracy in treeline prediction, these parameters are not specific to the semi-arid Great Basin bristlecone pine treelines in Nevada. In this study, we used 49 temperature sensors arrayed across approximately one square kilometer of complex terrain at treeline on Mount Washington to model temperatures using topographic indices. Results show relatively accurate prediction throughout the growing season (e.g., July average daily temperatures were modeled with an R2 of 0.80 and an RMSE of 0.29 °C). The modeled temperatures enabled calibration of a regional treeline model, yielding different parameters needed to predict potential treeline than the global model. Preliminary results indicate that modern Bristlecone pine treeline on and around Mount Washington occurs in areas with a longer growing season length (~160 days defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C) and a warmer seasonal mean temperature (~9 °C) than the global average. This work will provide a baseline data set on treeline position in the Snake Range derived only from parameters physiologically relevant to

  20. Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

    2009-07-15

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

  1. Quantifying climate change mitigation potential in Great Plains wetlands for three greenhouse gas emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin B.; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Wein, Anne; Bliss, Norman B.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Li, Zhengpeng

    2015-01-01

    We examined opportunities for avoided loss of wetland carbon stocks in the Great Plains of the United States in the context of future agricultural expansion through analysis of land-use land-cover (LULC) change scenarios, baseline carbon datasets and biogeochemical model outputs. A wetland map that classifies wetlands according to carbon pools was created to describe future patterns of carbon loss and potential carbon savings. Wetland avoided loss scenarios, superimposed upon LULC change scenarios, quantified carbon stocks preserved under criteria of carbon densities or land value plus cropland suitability. Up to 3420 km2 of wetlands may be lost in the region by 2050, mainly due to conversion of herbaceous wetlands in the Temperate Prairies where soil organic carbon (SOC) is highest. SOC loss would be approximately 0.20 ± 0.15 megagrams of carbon per hectare per year (MgC ha−1 yr−1), depending upon tillage practices on converted wetlands, and total ecosystem carbon loss in woody wetlands would be approximately 0.81 ± 0.41 MgC ha−1 yr−1, based on biogeochemical model results. Among wetlands vulnerable to conversion, wetlands in the Northern Glaciated Plains and Lake Agassiz Plains ecoregions exhibit very high mean SOC and on average, relatively low land values, potentially creating economically competitive opportunities for avoided carbon loss. This mitigation scenarios approach may be adapted by managers using their own preferred criteria to select sites that best meet their objectives. Results can help prioritize field-based assessments, where site-level investigations of carbon stocks, land value, and consideration of local priorities for climate change mitigation programs are needed.

  2. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angly, Florent E; Pantos, Olga; Morgan, Thomas C; Rich, Virginia; Tonin, Hemerson; Bourne, David G; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Tyson, Gene W

    2016-01-01

    Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L), and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems.

  3. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent E. Angly

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L, and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems.

  4. Potential Effects of Climate Changes on Aquatic Systems: Laurentian Great Lakes and Precambrian Shield Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, J. J.; Webster, K. E.; Assel, R. A.; Bowser, C. J.; Dillon, P. J.; Eaton, J. G.; Evans, H. E.; Fee, E. J.; Hall, R. I.; Mortsch, L. R.; Schindler, D. W.; Quinn, F. H.

    1997-06-01

    The region studied includes the Laurentian Great Lakes and a diversity of smaller glacial lakes, streams and wetlands south of permanent permafrost and towards the southern extent of Wisconsin glaciation. We emphasize lakes and quantitative implications. The region is warmer and wetter than it has been over most of the last 12000 years. Since 1911 observed air temperatures have increased by about 0·11°C per decade in spring and 0·06°C in winter; annual precipitation has increased by about 2·1% per decade. Ice thaw phenologies since the 1850s indicate a late winter warming of about 2·5°C. In future scenarios for a doubled CO2 climate, air temperature increases in summer and winter and precipitation decreases (summer) in western Ontario but increases (winter) in western Ontario, northern Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Such changes in climate have altered and would further alter hydrological and other physical features of lakes. Warmer climates, i.e. 2 × CO2 climates, would lower net basin water supplies, stream flows and water levels owing to increased evaporation in excess of precipitation. Water levels have been responsive to drought and future scenarios for the Great Lakes simulate levels 0·2 to 2·5 m lower. Human adaptation to such changes is expensive. Warmer climates would decrease the spatial extent of ice cover on the Great Lakes; small lakes, especially to the south, would no longer freeze over every year. Temperature simulations for stratified lakes are 1-7°C warmer for surface waters, and 6°C cooler to 8°C warmer for deep waters. Thermocline depth would change (4 m shallower to 3·5 m deeper) with warmer climates alone; deepening owing to increases in light penetration would occur with reduced input of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from dryer catchments. Dissolved oxygen would decrease below the thermocline. These physical changes would in turn affect the phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and fishes. Annual phytoplankton production may

  5. Freshwater wrack along Great Lakes coasts harbors Escherichia coli: Potential for bacterial transfer between watershed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Spoljaric, Ashley; Shively, Dawn A.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence, persistence, and growth potential of Escherichia coli associated with freshwater organic debris (i.e., wrack) frequently deposited along shorelines (shoreline wrack), inputs from rivers (river CPOM), and parking lot runoffs (urban litter). Samples were collected from 9 Great Lakes beaches, 3 creeks, and 4 beach parking lots. Shoreline wrack samples were mainly composed of wood chips, straw, sticks, leaf litter, seeds, feathers, and mussel shells; creek and parking lot samples included dry grass, straw, seeds, wood chips, leaf/pine needle litter; soil particles were present in parking lot samples only. E. coli concentrations (most probable number, MPN) were highly variable in all sample types: shoreline wrack frequently reached 105/g dry weight (dw), river CPOM ranged from 81 to 7,916/g dw, and urban litter ranged from 0.5 to 24,952/g dw. Sequential rinsing studies showed that 61–87% of E. coli concentrations were detected in the first wash of shoreline wrack, with declining concentrations associated with 4–8 subsequent washings; viable counts were still detected even after 8 washes. E. coli grew readily in shoreline wrack and river CPOM incubated at 35 °C. At 30°C, growth was only detected in river CPOM and not in shoreline wrack or urban litter, but the bacteria persisted for at least 16 days. In summary, freshwater wrack is an understudied component of the beach ecosystem that harbors E. coli and thus likely influences estimations of water quality and the microbial community in the nearshore as a result of transfer between environments.

  6. Report on Ascertainment of Present and Potential Forest Product Uses in the Great Dismal Swamp 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report analyzed and summarized the forest of the Great Dismal Swamp in 1974 for purposes of commercial use. Aerial photography, both black and white and...

  7. Great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) as potential vectors for the dispersal of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad-Shitrit, Sivan; Lev-Ari, Tidhar; Katzir, Gadi; Sharaby, Yehonatan; Izhaki, Ido; Halpern, Malka

    2017-08-11

    Vibrio cholerae is the cause of cholera, a devastating epidemic and pandemic disease. Despite its importance, the way of its global dissemination is unknown. V. cholerae is abundant in aquatic habitats and is known to be borne by copepods, chironomids and fishes. Our aim was to determine if fish-eating birds act as vectors in the spread of V. cholerae by consuming infected fish. We determined the existence of V. cholerae in the microbiome of 5/7 wild cormorants' intestine. In three of these V. cholerae-positive wild cormorants, the presence of a gene for cholera toxin (ctxA) was detected. We subsequently tested eight captive, hand-reared cormorants, divided into two equal groups. Prior to the experiment, the feces of the cormorants were V. cholerae-negative. One group was fed exclusively on tilapias, which are naturally infected with V. cholerae, and the other was fed exclusively on goldfish or on koi that were V. cholerae-negative. We detected V. cholerae in the feces of the tilapia-fed, but not in the goldfish/koi-fed, cormorants. Hence, we demonstrate that fish-eating birds can be infected with V. cholerae from their fish prey. The large-scale movements of many fish-eating birds provide a potential mechanism for the global distribution of V. cholerae.

  8. Antenna size reduction as a strategy to increase biomass productivity: a great potential not yet realized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, de T.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Cerezo-Chinarro, O.; Mussgnug, J.H.; Kruse, O.; Ballottari, M.; Bassi, R.; Bujaldon, S.; Wollman, F.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    A major limitation in achieving high photosynthetic efficiency in microalgae mass cultures is the fact that the intensity of direct sunlight greatly exceeds the photosynthetic capacity of the cells. Due to the high pigment content of algal cells, the light absorption rate surpasses the much slower c

  9. Project to demonstrate potential energy savings from industrial customers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The full potential for electric load management was determined with respect to the industrial sector by adopting direct load management techniques. Certain options available to regulatory authorities and individual utilities to conserve energy are highlighted. By conducting a demonstration project on a representative sample of primary industrial customers, information could be obtained on the potential impact of direct load management methods and other end-use conservation programs on a system-wide basis or multi-system-wide basis. The study was conducted by the Michigan Public Service Commission in cooperation with the Detroit Edison Company.

  10. Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service (NPS) views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other NPS tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr for this tunnel to a much larger figure national

  11. Potential for DNA-based identification of Great Lakes fauna: Match and mismatch between taxa inventories and DNA barcode libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers the potential to greatly reduce the need for resource-intensive morphological identification, which would be of value both to biotic condition assessment and non-native species early-detection monitoring. However, the abi...

  12. In the transmission of information, the great potential of model-based coding with the SP theory of intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Model-based coding, described by John Pierce in 1961, has great potential to reduce the volume of information that needs to be transmitted in moving big data, without loss of information, from one place to another, or in lossless communications via the internet. Compared with ordinary compression methods, this potential advantage of model-based coding in the transmission of data arises from the fact that both the transmitter ("Alice") and the receiver ("Bob") are equipped with a grammar for t...

  13. G-FAST Early Warning Potential for Great Earthquakes in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, B.; Schmidt, D. A.; Baker, B. I.; Bodin, P.; Vidale, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    The importance of GNSS-based earthquake early warning for modeling large earthquakes has been studied extensively over the past decade and several such systems are currently under development. In the Pacific Northwest, we have developed the G-FAST GNSS-based earthquake early warning module for eventual inclusion in the US West-Coast wide ShakeAlert system. We have also created a test system that allows us to replay past and synthetic earthquakes to identify problems with both the network architecture and the algorithms. Between 2010 and 2016, there have been seven M > 8 earthquakes across the globe, of which three struck offshore Chile; the 27 February 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, the 1 April 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique, and the 16 September 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel. Subsequent to these events, the Chilean national GNSS network operated by the Centro Sismologico Nacional (http://www.sismologia.cl/) greatly expanded to over 150 continuous GNSS stations, providing the best recordings of great earthquakes with GNSS outside of Japan. Here we report on retrospective G-FAST performance for those three great earthquakes in Chile. We discuss the interplay of location errors, latency, and data completeness with respect to the precision and timing of G-FAST earthquake source alerts as well as the computational demands of the system.

  14. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  15. PAHs in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon reach potentially toxic levels from coal port activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kathryn A.

    2014-05-01

    In view of the controversy over expanding the coastal coal ports bordering the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Lagoon and the World Heritage Area, I re-evaluated the data published in Burns and Brinkman (2011). I used the US EPA procedures for the determination of Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the protection of benthic organisms (Hansen et al., 2003), and the new proposed ANZECC/ARMCANZ (2013) sediment quality guidelines (Simpson et al., 2013) and determined that the coastal sediments offshore from the Hay Point coal terminal and suspended sediments caught in sediment traps inshore and at the offshore coral reefs contained levels of PAHs that approach the estimates for toxicity to benthic and water column organisms. This result is discussed in relation to risks posed to the GBR ecosystem by the port practices and the imminent expansion of the Abbott Point, Hay Point and other coal terminals.

  16. The potential benefits of herbicide regulation: a cautionary note for the Great Barrier Reef catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A M; Lewis, S E; Brodie, J E; Benson, Ash

    2014-08-15

    Industry transitions away from traditional photosystem II inhibiting (PSII) herbicides towards an 'alternative' herbicide suite are now widely advocated as a key component of improved environmental outcomes for Australia's Great Barrier Reef and improved environmental stewardship on the part of the Queensland sugar industry. A systematic desktop risk analysis found that based on current farming practices, traditional PSII herbicides can pose significant environmental risks. Several of the 'alternatives' that can directly fill a specific pre-emergent ('soil residual') weed control function similar to regulated PSII herbicides also, however, presented a similar environmental risk profile, regardless of farming systems and bio-climatic zones being considered. Several alternatives with a pre-emergent residual function as well as alternative post-emergent (contact or 'knockdown') herbicides were, predicted to pose lower environmental risks than the regulated PSII herbicides to most trophic levels, although environmental risks could still be present. While several herbicides may well be viable alternatives in terms of weed control, they can still present equal or possibly higher risks to the environment. Imposing additional regulations (or even de-registrations) on particular herbicides could result in marginal, and possibly perverse environmental impacts in the long term, if usage shifts to alternative herbicides with similar risk profiles. Regardless of any regulatory efforts, improved environmental sustainability outcomes in pesticide practices within the Great Barrier Reef catchment area will hinge primarily on the continuing adoption of integrated, strategic pest management systems and technologies applied to both traditional and 'alternative' herbicides. One of the emerging policy challenges is ensuring the requisite technical and extension support for cane growers to ensure effective adoption of rapidly evolving farming system technologies, in a very dynamic and

  17. Demonstration of the Potential of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions for a Universal RAM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, William J.

    2000-03-01

    Over the past four years, tunnel junctions with magnetic electrodes have emerged as promising devices for future magnetoresistive sensing and for information storage. This talk will review advances in these devices, focusing particularly on the use of magnetic tunnel junctions for magnetic random access memory (MRAM). Exchange-biased versions of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) in particular will be shown to have useful properties for forming magnetic memory storage elements in a novel cross-point architecture. Exchange-biased MTJ elements have been made with areas as small as 0.1 square microns and have shown magnetoresistance values exceeding 40 The potential of exchange-biased MTJs for MRAM has been most seriously explored in a demonstration experiment involving the integration of 0.25 micron CMOS technology with a special magnetic tunnel junction "back end." The magnetic back end is based upon multi-layer magnetic tunnel junction growth technology which was developed using research-scale equipment and one-inch size substrates. For the demonstration, the CMOS wafers processed through two metal layers were cut into one-inch squares for depositions of bottom-pinned exchange-biased magnetic tunnel junctions. The samples were then processed through four additional lithographic levels to complete the circuits. The demonstration focused attention on a number of processing and device issues that were addressed successfully enough that key performance aspects of MTJ MRAM were demonstrated in 1 K bit arrays, including reads and writes in less than 10 ns and nonvolatility. While other key issues remain to be addressed, these results suggest that MTJ MRAM might simultaneously provide much of the functionality now provided separately by SRAM, DRAM, and NVRAM.

  18. Demonstrative potential of multitemporal satellite imagery in documenting urban dynamics: generalisation from the Bucharest city case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Mihaela; Petrescu, Florian; Parlow, Eberhard; Iacoboaea, Cristina; Luca, Oana; Sercaianu, Mihai; Gaman, Florian

    2016-08-01

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of multitemporal satellite imagery to be processed and used in documenting urban changes that took place over time, with limited resources involved and taking advantage of the opportunity to be able to use the satellite imagery available as open data. The possibilities to analyse and compare the written literature regarding the chronological evolution of a city with the patterns of Land Use/Land Cover obtained from the processing of satellite remotely sensed images of the respective scenery were investigated based upon a case study of a selected city. The extent of the prospects of using remote sensing based methods and multitemporal satellite imagery is also expressed as a result of this investigation.

  19. Enterococcus phages as potential tool for identifying sewage inputs in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; K.Vijayavel,; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; J. Ebdon,; ,; H. Taylor,; ,; Whitman, Richard L.; ,; D.R. Kashian,

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses living in bacteria that can be used as a tool to detect fecal contamination in surface waters around the world. However, the lack of a universal host strain makes them unsuitable for tracking fecal sources. We evaluated the suitability of two newly isolated Enterococcus host strains (ENT-49 and ENT-55) capable for identifying sewage contamination in impacted waters by targeting phages specific to these hosts. Both host strains were isolated from wastewater samples and identified as E. faecium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Occurrence of Enterococcus phages was evaluated in sewage samples (n = 15) from five wastewater treatment plants and in fecal samples from twenty-two species of wild and domesticated animals (individual samples; n = 22). Levels of Enterococcus phages, F + coliphages, Escherichia coli and enterococci were examined from four rivers, four beaches, and three harbors. Enterococcus phages enumeration was at similar levels (Mean = 6.72 Log PFU/100 mL) to F + coliphages in all wastewater samples, but were absent from all non-human fecal sources tested. The phages infecting Enterococcus spp. and F + coliphages were not detected in the river samples (detection threshold bacteriophages associated with these particular Enterococcus host strains offer potentially sensitive and human-source specific indicators of enteric pathogen risk.

  20. Lactic acid bacteria producing B-group vitamins: a great potential for functional cereals products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Dueñas, María Teresa; López, Paloma; Spano, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Wheat contains various essential nutrients including the B group of vitamins. However, B group vitamins, normally present in cereals-derived products, are easily removed or destroyed during milling, food processing or cooking. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as starter cultures for the fermentation of a large variety of foods and can improve the safety, shelf life, nutritional value, flavor and overall quality of the fermented products. In this regard, the identification and application of strains delivering health-promoting compounds is a fascinating field. Besides their key role in food fermentations, several LAB found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals are commercially used as probiotics and possess generally recognized as safe status. LAB are usually auxotrophic for several vitamins although certain strains of LAB have the capability to synthesize water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B group. In recent years, a number of biotechnological processes have been explored to perform a more economical and sustainable vitamin production than that obtained via chemical synthesis. This review article will briefly report the current knowledge on lactic acid bacteria synthesis of vitamins B2, B11 and B12 and the potential strategies to increase B-group vitamin content in cereals-based products, where vitamins-producing LAB have been leading to the elaboration of novel fermented functional foods. In addition, the use of genetic strategies to increase vitamin production or to create novel vitamin-producing strains will be also discussed.

  1. Potential vorticity and layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Oval BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1988-01-01

    Using Voyager images, layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and White Oval BC were investigated by treating potential vorticity as a conserved tracer. Fluid trajectories around the GRS and the White Oval BC were calculated assuming the flow to be frictionless, adiabatic, hydrostatic, and steady in the reference frame of the vortex. The data obtained constitute a useful diagnostic which will help to differentiate between models of Jovian vortices. Implications of the observations were studied in the context of a one-layer quasi-geostrophic model in which a thin upper weather layer, which contains the vortex, is supported hydrostatically by a much deeper lower layer.

  2. Early magnocellular loss in glaucoma demonstrated using the pseudorandomly stimulated flash visual evoked potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klistorner, A I; Graham, S L

    1999-04-01

    Components of the pseudorandomly stimulated flash visual evoked potential (VEP) have now been identified that appear to arise predominantly from each of the magnocellular (M-cell) and parvocellular (P-cell) systems. In this study, the relative damage to magnocellular and parvocellular systems at different stages of glaucoma using pseudorandomly stimulated flash VEP was investigated. Pseudorandomly stimulated flash VEP was recorded in 15 normal eyes and 28 eyes with different stages of glaucoma using the VERIS-3 recording system (Electro-Diagnostic Imaging, San Francisco, CA). Two levels of luminance contrast of the stimulus (32% and 99%) were tested. The first slice of the second-order kernel from only the central (8 degrees) stimulated area was extracted for analysis. Data recorded from normal eyes demonstrated early saturation of the response/contrast function of the first slice of the second-order kernel. The ratio of the VEP amplitude recorded at 32% and 99% of the luminance contrast was close to unity. In eyes with early glaucoma, although the amplitude of the responses to both low- and high-contrast stimulation decreased, the relative reduction of the low-contrast VEP (M-cell) was more prominent. However, the amplitude of the high-contrast response (P-cell) declined more rapidly later in the disease. These results are consistent with relatively earlier damage of the magnocellular pathway in glaucoma.

  3. Assessing the potential underestimation of sediment and nutrient loads to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon during floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jim; Karim, Fazlul; Wilkinson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Much of the sediment and nutrient load to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon happens during over bank floods, when discharge can be significantly underestimated by standard river gauges. This paper assesses the potential need for a flood load correction for 28 coastal rivers that discharge into the GBR lagoon. For each river, daily discharge was divided into flows above and below a 'flood' threshold to calculate the mean annual percentage flow above this threshold. Most GBR rivers potentially need a flood load correction as over 15% of their mean annual flow occurs above the minor flood level; only seven rivers need little/no correction as their flood flows were less than 5% of the mean annual flow. Improved assessment of the true load of materials to the GBR lagoon would be an important contribution to the monitoring and reporting of progress towards Reef Plan and associated marine load targets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-06-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr to a much larger figure nationally. Most of the energy savings in this application is attributable to the instant-restrike capability of LED products and to their high tolerance for frequent on/off switching, used here to separately control either end of the tunnel during daytime hours. Some LED luminaires rival or outperform their high-intensity discharge (HID) counterparts in terms of efficacy, but options are limited, and smaller lumen packages preclude true one-for-one equivalence. However, LED products continue to improve in efficacy and affordability at a rate unmatched by other light source technologies; the estimated simple payback period of eight years (excluding installation costs and maintenance savings) can be expected to improve with time. The proposed revisions to the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting system would require slightly increased controls complexity and significantly increased luminaire types and quantities. In exchange, substantial annual savings (from reduced maintenance and energy use) would be complemented by improved quantity and quality of illumination. Although advanced lighting controls could offer additional savings, it is unclear whether such a system would prove cost-effective; this topic may be explored in future work.

  5. Decellularized allogeneic heart valves demonstrate self-regeneration potential after a long-term preclinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iop, Laura; Bonetti, Antonella; Naso, Filippo; Rizzo, Stefania; Cagnin, Stefano; Bianco, Roberto; Dal Lin, Carlo; Martini, Paolo; Poser, Helen; Franci, Paolo; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo; Busetto, Roberto; Spina, Michel; Basso, Cristina; Marchini, Maurizio; Gandaglia, Alessandro; Ortolani, Fulvia; Gerosa, Gino

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-engineered heart valves are proposed as novel viable replacements granting longer durability and growth potential. However, they require extensive in vitro cell-conditioning in bioreactor before implantation. Here, the propensity of non-preconditioned decellularized heart valves to spontaneous in body self-regeneration was investigated in a large animal model. Decellularized porcine aortic valves were evaluated for right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction in Vietnamese Pigs (n = 11) with 6 (n = 5) and 15 (n = 6) follow-up months. Repositioned native valves (n = 2 for each time) were considered as control. Tissue and cell components from explanted valves were investigated by histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and gene expression. Most substitutes constantly demonstrated in vivo adequate hemodynamic performances and ex vivo progressive repopulation during the 15 implantation months without signs of calcifications, fibrosis and/or thrombosis, as revealed by histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, metabolic and transcriptomic profiles. Colonizing cells displayed native-like phenotypes and actively synthesized novel extracellular matrix elements, as collagen and elastin fibers. New mature blood vessels, i.e. capillaries and vasa vasorum, were identified in repopulated valves especially in the medial and adventitial tunicae of regenerated arterial walls. Such findings correlated to the up-regulated vascular gene transcription. Neoinnervation hallmarks were appreciated at histological and ultrastructural levels. Macrophage populations with reparative M2 phenotype were highly represented in repopulated valves. Indeed, no aspects of adverse/immune reaction were revealed in immunohistochemical and transcriptomic patterns. Among differentiated elements, several cells were identified expressing typical stem cell markers of embryonic, hematopoietic, neural and mesenchymal lineages in significantly higher number

  6. Decellularized allogeneic heart valves demonstrate self-regeneration potential after a long-term preclinical evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Iop

    Full Text Available Tissue-engineered heart valves are proposed as novel viable replacements granting longer durability and growth potential. However, they require extensive in vitro cell-conditioning in bioreactor before implantation. Here, the propensity of non-preconditioned decellularized heart valves to spontaneous in body self-regeneration was investigated in a large animal model. Decellularized porcine aortic valves were evaluated for right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT reconstruction in Vietnamese Pigs (n = 11 with 6 (n = 5 and 15 (n = 6 follow-up months. Repositioned native valves (n = 2 for each time were considered as control. Tissue and cell components from explanted valves were investigated by histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and gene expression. Most substitutes constantly demonstrated in vivo adequate hemodynamic performances and ex vivo progressive repopulation during the 15 implantation months without signs of calcifications, fibrosis and/or thrombosis, as revealed by histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, metabolic and transcriptomic profiles. Colonizing cells displayed native-like phenotypes and actively synthesized novel extracellular matrix elements, as collagen and elastin fibers. New mature blood vessels, i.e. capillaries and vasa vasorum, were identified in repopulated valves especially in the medial and adventitial tunicae of regenerated arterial walls. Such findings correlated to the up-regulated vascular gene transcription. Neoinnervation hallmarks were appreciated at histological and ultrastructural levels. Macrophage populations with reparative M2 phenotype were highly represented in repopulated valves. Indeed, no aspects of adverse/immune reaction were revealed in immunohistochemical and transcriptomic patterns. Among differentiated elements, several cells were identified expressing typical stem cell markers of embryonic, hematopoietic, neural and mesenchymal lineages in significantly

  7. The potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus via dynamic contacts between poultry premises in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Rowland R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses have had devastating effects on poultry industries worldwide, and there is concern about the potential for HPAI outbreaks in the poultry industry in Great Britain (GB. Critical to the potential for HPAI to spread between poultry premises are the connections made between farms by movements related to human activity. Movement records of catching teams and slaughterhouse vehicles were obtained from a large catching company, and these data were used in a simulation model of HPAI spread between farms serviced by the catching company, and surrounding (geographic areas. The spread of HPAI through real-time movements was modelled, with the addition of spread via company personnel and local transmission. Results The model predicted that although large outbreaks are rare, they may occur, with long distances between infected premises. Final outbreak size was most sensitive to the probability of spread via slaughterhouse-linked movements whereas the probability of onward spread beyond an index premises was most sensitive to the frequency of company personnel movements. Conclusions Results obtained from this study show that, whilst there is the possibility that HPAI virus will jump from one cluster of farms to another, movements made by catching teams connected fewer poultry premises in an outbreak situation than slaughterhouses and company personnel. The potential connection of a large number of infected farms, however, highlights the importance of retaining up-to-date data on poultry premises so that control measures can be effectively prioritised in an outbreak situation.

  8. Mutual Mortality of Great Horned Owl and Southern Black Racer: a Potential Risk of Raptors Preying on Snakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roger W. Perry; Raymond E. Brown; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    .... There are previous reports of intense physical struggle between Great Horned Owls (and other raptors) and large constrictors but this is the first documented report of mutual mortality between a Great Horned Owl and a snake.

  9. Digitized generalized areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially are susceptible to groundwater withdrawals in adjacent valleys, Great Basin National Park area, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Polygons delineate generalized areas in and around Great Basin National Park where surface-water resources likely or potentially are susceptible to groundwater...

  10. Multi-confocal Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy : experimental demonstration and potential applications for living cell measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Galland, Rémi; Kloster, Meike; Herbomel, Gaetan; Destaing, Olivier; Balland, Martial; Souchier, Catherine; Usson, Yves; Derouard, Jacques; Wang, Irène; Delon, Antoine; 10.2741/e263

    2011-01-01

    We report, for the first time, a multi-confocal Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (mFCS) technique which allows parallel measurements at different locations, by combining a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), with an Electron Multiplying-CCD camera (EM-CCD). The SLM is used to produce a series of laser spots, while the pixels of the EM-CCD play the roles of virtual pinholes. The phase map addressed to the SLM is calculated by using the spherical wave approximation and makes it possible to produce several diffraction limited laser spots, either aligned or spread over the field of view. To attain fast enough imaging rates, the camera has been used in different acquisition modes, the fastest of which leads to a time resolution of 100 $\\mu$s. We qualified the experimental set-up by using solutions of sulforhodamine G in glycerol and demonstrated that the observation volumes are similar to that of a standard confocal set-up. To demonstrate that our mFCS method is suitable for intracellular studies, experiments have...

  11. Multichannel somato sensory evoked potential study demonstrated abnormalities in cervical cord function in brachial monomelic amyotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brachial monomelic amyotrophy (BMMA is known to affect the central cervical cord gray matter resulting in single upper limb atrophy and weakness. Settings and Design: Case series of BMMA patients who underwent somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP studies at a tertiary referral center. Aims: We proposed to record Multichannel Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (MCSSEP from median and ulnar nerves with neck in neutral and neck fully flexed position in 17 patients with classical BMMA seen over three years. Materials and Methods: Recordings were done from both median (MN and ulnar nerves (UN. N9, P9, N13, N20 potentials were recorded and amplitudes measured. SSEPs were performed in 22 age-matched healthy men. Amplitudes of cervical response were calculated by N13/P9 ratio and compared in both positions. Results: Among the controls N13 amplitude was always normal {MN: mean N13/P9 - 0.96 in neutral; 0.95 in flexed}{UN: mean N13/P9 - 0.82 in neutral; 0.83 in flexed}, and mean amplitudes did not reveal any difference in both conditions ( P >0.05. Among 17 patients N9, P9 and N20 responses were normal in neutral position. Flexion showed no change in latency or amplitude of N9 and N20 responses ( P -0.63 whereas the N13 response was abnormal in at least one tested nerve in the affected limb (MN: P < 0.01; UN: P < 0.01. During flexion, N13 response was abnormal in 14 (82% patients after MN stimulation and in all 17(100% after UN stimulation {MN: mean N13/P9 - 0.62 in neutral; 0.38 in flexed}{UN: mean N13/P9 - 0.55 in neutral; 0.31 in flexed}. Conclusion: MCSSEP in BMMA with neck flexion caused a significant reduction of the cervical N13 response indicating segmental cervical cord dysfunction.

  12. Viral metagenomics demonstrates that domestic pigs are a potential reservoir for Ndumu virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masembe Charles

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising demand for pork has resulted in a massive expansion of pig production in Uganda. This has resulted in increased contact between humans and pigs. Pigs can act as reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Therefore identification of potential zoonotic pathogens is important for public health surveillance. In this study, during a routine general surveillance for African swine fever, domestic pigs from Uganda were screened for the presence of RNA and DNA viruses using a high-throughput pyrosequencing method. Findings Serum samples from 16 domestic pigs were collected from five regions in Uganda and pooled accordingly. Genomic DNA and RNA were extracted and sequenced on the 454 GS-FLX platform. Among the sequences assigned to a taxon, 53% mapped to the domestic pig (Sus scrofa. African swine fever virus, Torque teno viruses (TTVs, and porcine endogenous retroviruses were identified. Interestingly, two pools (B and C of RNA origin had sequences that showed 98% sequence identity to Ndumu virus (NDUV. None of the reads had identity to the class Insecta indicating that these sequences were unlikely to result from contamination with mosquito nucleic acids. Conclusions This is the first report of the domestic pig as a vertebrate host for Ndumu virus. NDUV had been previously isolated only from culicine mosquitoes. NDUV therefore represents a potential zoonotic pathogen, particularly given the increasing risk of human-livestock-mosquito contact.

  13. Potential for water borne and invertebrate transmission of West Nile virus in the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dusek, Robert; Shivers, Jan; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2017-01-01

    In November and December of 2013, a large mortality event involving 15,000 - 20,000 eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) occurred at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The onset of the outbreak in grebes was followed by a mortality event in > 86 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). During the die-off, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected by RT-PCR or viral culture in carcasses of grebes and eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center. However, no mosquito activity, the primary vector of WNV, was detected by the State of Utah's WNV monitoring program. Transmission of WNV has rarely been reported during the winter in North America in the absence of known mosquito activity; however, the size of this die-off, the habitat in which it occurred, and the species involved are unique. We experimentally investigated whether WNV could survive in water with a high saline content, as found at the GSL, and whether brine shrimp, the primary food of migrating eared grebes on the GSL, could have played a role in transmission of WNV to feeding birds. We found that WNV can survive up to 72 h at 4°C in water containing 30 — 150 ppt NaCl and brine shrimp, incubated with WNV in 30 ppt NaCl, may adsorb WNV to their cuticle and, through feeding, may infect epithelial cells of their gut. Both mechanisms may have potentiated the WNV die-off in migrating eared grebes on the GSL.

  14. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weger, Hans, Ph.D.; Kodanda, Raja Tilek Meruva; Mazumdar, Anindra; Srivastava, Rajiv Ph.D.; Ebadian, M.A. Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Four hand-held tools were tested for failed high-level waste melter decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The forces felt by the tools during operation were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer since they will be operated by a remote manipulator. The efficiency of the tools was also recorded. Melter D&D consists of three parts: (1) glass fracturing: removing from the furnace the melted glass that can not be poured out through normal means, (2) glass cleaning: removing the thin layer of glass that has formed over the surface of the refractory material, and (3) K-3 refractory breakup: removing the K-3 refractory material. Surrogate glass, from a formula provided by the Savannah River Site, was melted in a furnace and poured into steel containers. K-3 refractory material, the same material used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, was utilized for the demonstrations. Four K-3 blocks were heated at 1150 C for two weeks with a glass layer on top to simulate the hardened glass layer on the refractory surface in the melter. Tools chosen for the demonstrations were commonly used D&D tools, which have not been tested specifically for the different aspects of melter D&D. A jackhammer and a needle gun were tested for glass fracturing; a needle gun and a rotary grinder with a diamond face wheel (diamond grinder) were tested for glass cleaning; and a jackhammer, diamond grinder, and a circular saw with a diamond blade were tested for refractory breakup. The needle gun was not capable of removing or fracturing the surrogate glass. The diamond grinder only had a removal rate of 3.0 x 10-4 kg/s for K-3 refractory breakup and needed to be held firmly against the material. However, the diamond grinder was effective for glass cleaning, with a removal rate of 3.9 cm2/s. The jackhammer was successful in fracturing glass and breaking up the K-3 refractory block. The jackhammer had a glass-fracturing rate of 0.40 kg/s. The jackhammer split the K-3 refractory block into two

  15. Human Origin Lactobacillus casei Isolated from Indonesian Infants Demonstrating Potential Characteristics as Probiotics in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo .

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The aim of this experiment was to isolate and identify Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB from infant faeces and subsequent evaluation of its potential probiotics. LAB was isolated from faeces of infants who consumed breast milk as the only source of diet on L-cysteine-supplemented MRS Agar, and incubated on 37oC for 48 hours. Colonies grew on this media were then identifi ed based on morphological, physiological and molecular approaches. Morphological and physiological identifi cations based on Gram staining, shape, motility, spore formation, catalase, CO2 and NH3 production, and the ability to grow on temperature at 10oC and 45oC. Molecular identifi cation based on the amplifi cation of 16S rRNA gene. The potential application of selected isolates for probiotics was evaluated based on the ability to grow on media with low pH and the addition of 0.5% bile salts, the ability to inhibit the growth of pathogenic Bacillus cereus and Eschericia coli, and in vitroadherence ability. On the basis of morphological, physiological and molecular analysis of 16S rRNA gene, it was concluded that the selected isolate 1AF was a strain of Lactobacillus casei. Evaluation of probiotic in vitro showed that 60.4% of cells were resistant

  16. Thin Spray-on Liner - a potential application. Demonstrated at a longwall installation on Dendrobium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Roger [BHP Billiton, NSW (Australia). Dendrobium Mine; Martin, Philip [BASF AG Australia (Australia). BASF-CC Australia Ltd' s

    2008-08-21

    The paper describes a potential application of a Thin Spray-on Liner, on a longwall installation in Australia. The BHPBilliton mine, Dendrobium, is a relatively new mine in the Southern New South Wales coalfields, near to Wollongong. Normal installation and start-up operations for a new longwall face is to completely rock bolt and mesh the face. The operations use plastic/glassfibre cutable rock bolts, with steel/plastic mesh to prevent spalling. The biggest problem on face start up is the sheets of steel or plastic mesh getting wrapped around the shearer disc, which requires time consuming additional work removing the mesh. BASF Construction Chemicals Australia Pty Ltd's Underground Construction group, (UGC), proposed the use of Masterseal 845A, a fast sprayable cementitious/polymer membrane material that could be trialed and used to replace the steel mesh, as a surface support in unison with the conventional cutable rock bolts. The application took 12 h spraying to cover the 240 m long face line which averaged about 3.3 m high. The product was sprayed between 3.5 m to 4 mm thick, and according to the mine operators was at least three times quicker than mesh installation, not withstanding the savings in transport of the awkward bundles of mesh. In conclusion the Thin Spray-on Liner (TSL) performed adequately and achieved it's objective in this installation at Dendrobium mine. (orig.)

  17. Erythrocyte-based Pig-a gene mutation assay: demonstration of cross-species potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonethepswath, Souk; Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2008-12-08

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors attach specific proteins to the cell surface of hematopoietic cells. Of the genes required to form GPI anchors, only Pig-a is located on the X-chromosome. Prior work with rats suggests that the GPI anchor deficient phenotype is a reliable indicator of Pig-a mutation [Bryce et al., Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 49 (2008) 256-264]. The current report extends this line of investigation by describing simplified blood handling procedures, and by testing the assay principle in a second species, Mus musculus. With this method, erythrocytes are isolated, incubated with anti-CD24-PE, and stained with SYTO 13. Flow cytometric analyses quantify GPI anchor-deficient erythrocytes and reticulocytes. After reconstruction experiments with mutant-mimicking cells demonstrated that the analytical performance of the method is high, CD-1 mice were treated on three occasions with 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 75 mg/kg/day) or ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU, 40 mg/kg/day). Two weeks after the final treatment, DMBA-treated mice were found to exhibit markedly elevated frequencies of GPI anchor deficient erythrocytes and reticulocytes. For the ENU experiment, blood specimens were collected at weekly intervals over a 5-week period. Whereas the frequencies of mutant reticulocytes were significantly elevated 1 week after the last administration, the erythrocyte population was unchanged until the second week. Thereafter, both populations exhibited persistently elevated frequencies for the duration of the experiment (mean frequency at termination=310x10(-6) and 523x10(-6) for erythrocyte and reticulocyte populations, respectively). These data provide evidence that Pig-a mutation does not convey an appreciable positive or negative cell survival advantage to affected erythroid progenitors, although they do suggest that affected erythrocytes have a reduced lifespan in circulation. Collectively, accumulated data support the hypothesis that flow cytometric

  18. Potentials and problems of building detailed dust records using peat archives: An example from Store Mosse (the "Great Bog"), Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylander, Malin E.; Martínez-Cortizas, Antonio; Bindler, Richard; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Rauch, Sebastien

    2016-10-01

    Mineral dust deposition is a process often overlooked in northern mid-latitudes, despite its potential effects on ecosystems. These areas are often peat-rich, providing ample material for the reconstruction of past changes in atmospheric deposition. The highly organic (up to 99% in some cases) matrix of atmospherically fed mires, however, makes studying the actual dust particles (grain size, mineralogy) challenging. Here we explore some of the potentials and problems of using geochemical data from conservative, lithogenic elements (Al, Ga, Rb, Sc, Y, Zr, Th, Ti and REE) to build detailed dust records by using an example from the 8900-yr peat sequence from Store Mosse (the "Great Bog"), which is the largest mire complex in the boreo-nemoral region of southern Sweden. The four dust events recorded at this site were elementally distinct, suggesting different dominant mineral hosts. The oldest and longest event (6385-5300 cal yr BP) sees a clear signal of clay input but with increasing contributions of mica, feldspar and middle-REE-rich phosphate minerals over time. These clays are likely transported from a long-distance source (<100 km). While dust deposition was reduced during the second event (5300-4370 cal yr BP), this is the most distinct in terms of its source character with [Eu/Eu∗]UCC revealing the input of plagioclase feldspar from a local source, possibly active during this stormier period. The third (2380-2200 cal yr BP) and fourth (1275-1080 cal yr BP) events are much shorter in duration and the presence of clays and heavy minerals is inferred. Elemental mass accumulation rates reflect these changes in mineralogy where the relative importance of the four dust events varies by element. The broad changes in major mineral hosts, grain size, source location and approximated net dust deposition rates observed in the earlier dust events of longer duration agree well with paleoclimatic changes observed in northern Europe. The two most recent dust events are much

  19. Integrated spatiotemporal modelling of bioenergy production potentials, agricultural land use, and related GHG balances; demonstrated for Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hilst, Floortje; Verstegen, Judith A.; Zheliezna, Tetiana; Drozdova, Olga; Faaij, André P C

    2014-01-01

    This study shows how bioenergy potential and total greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of land-use change and agricultural intensification can be modeled in an integrated way. The modeling framework is demonstrated for first- and second-generation ethanol production in Ukraine for the timeframe 2010-2030

  20. Great Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Robert

    2000-05-01

    Spectacular and mysterious objects that come and go in the night sky, comets have dwelt in our popular culture for untold ages. As remnants from the formation of the Solar system, they are objects of key scientific research and space missions. As one of nature's most potent and dramatic dangers, they pose a threat to our safety--and yet they were the origin of our oceans and perhaps even life itself. This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of the biggest and most awe-inspiring of all comets: those that have earned the title "Great." Robert Burnham focuses on the Great comets Hyakutake in 1996 and Hale-Bopp in 1997, which gripped attention worldwide because, for many, they were the first comets ever seen. He places these two recent comets in the context of their predecessors from past ages, among them the famous Comet Halley. Great Comets explains the exciting new discoveries that have come from these magnificent objects and profiles the spaceprobes to comets due for launch in the next few years. The book even takes a peek behind Hollywood's science-fiction fantasies to assess the real risks humanity faces from potential impacts of both comets and asteroids. For everyone interested in astronomy, this exciting book reveals the secrets of the Great Comets and provides essential tools for keeping up to date with comet discoveries in the future. Robert Burnham has been an amateur astronomer since the mid-1950s. He has been a senior editor of Astronomy magazine (1986-88) and is the author of many books and CD-ROMS, including Comet Hale-Bopp: Find and Enjoy the Great Comet and Comet Explorer.

  1. Demonstration of Purkinje potential during idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia: a marker for ablation site by transient entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, M; Arita, M; Sakurada, H; Ashikaga, T; Yamawake, N; Numano, F; Hiraoka, M

    1997-12-01

    During VT of QRS morphology with right bundle branch block and left axis deviation in a patient without obvious structural heart disease, entrainment by pacing from the right ventricular outflow tract and high right atrium was demonstrated. During entrainment of VT, a Purkinje potential preceding the QRS and recorded at the left ventricular mid-septum was activated by orthodromic impulses in the reentry circuit. The interval between the Purkinje potential and the earliest left ventricular activation was decrementally prolonged with shortening of pacing cycle length. Radiofrequency energy was applied to this site, resulting in successful elimination of VT. Therefore, the Purkinje potential represented activation by an orthodromic wavefront in the reentry circuit, while the orthodromically distal site to this potential showed an area of slow conduction with decremental property.

  2. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  3. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schmidt, Justin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  4. Corrigendum to "PAHs in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon reach potentially toxic levels from coal port activities" [Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 144, 39-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kathryn A.

    2014-08-01

    Erratum with respect to the paper: Burns, K A, 2014 PAHs in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon reach potentially toxic levels from coal port activities. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 144, 39-45. DOI 10.1016/j.ecss.2014.04.001.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the radioactive waste isolation potential of the alluvium-filled valleys of the Great Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, J.R.; Crowe, B.M.; Halleck, P.M.; Reed, A.W.

    1979-08-01

    The occurrences, geologic features, hydrology, and thermal, mechanical, and mineralogical properties of the alluvium-filled valleys are compared with those of other media within the Great Basin. Computer modeling of heat conduction indicates that heat generated by the radioactive waste can be dissipated through the alluvium in a manner that will not threaten the integrity of the repository, although waste emplacement densities will be lower than for other media available. This investigation has not revealed any failure mechanism by which one can rule out alluvium as a primary waste isolation medium. However, the alluvium appears to rank behind one or more other possible media in all properties examined except, perhaps, in sorption properties. It is therefore recommended that alluvium be considered as a secondary isolation medium unless primary sites in other rock types in the Great Basin are eliminated from consideration on grounds other than those considered here.

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  7. A Model of Carbon Capture and Storage with Demonstration of Global Warming Potential and Fossil Fuel Resource Use Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebsiri, Jitsopa

    Increasing greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere influences global climate change even though the level of impact is still unclear. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly seen as an important component of broadly based greenhouse gas reduction measures. Although the other greenhouse gases are more potent, the sheer volume of CO 2 makes it dominant in term of its effect in the atmosphere. To understand the implications, CCS activities should be studied from a full life cycle perspective. This thesis outlines the successful achievement of the objectives of this study in conducting life cycle assessment (LCA), reviewing the carbon dioxide implications only, combining two energy systems, coal-fired electrical generations and CO2 used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). LCA is the primary approach used in this study to create a tool for CCS environmental evaluation. The Boundary Dam Power Station (BDPS) and the Weyburn-Midale CO 2 EOR Project in Saskatchewan, Canada, are studied and adopted as case scenarios to find the potential for effective application of CCS in both energy systems. This study demonstrates two levels of retrofitting of the BDPS, retrofit of unit 3 or retrofit of all units, combined with three options for CO 2 geological storage: deep saline aquifer, CO2 EOR, and a combination of deep saline aquifer storage and CO2 EOR. Energy output is considered the product of combining these two energy resources (coal and oil). Gigajoules (GJ) are used as the fundamental unit of measurement in comparing the combined energy types. The application of this tool effectively demonstrates the results of application of a CCS system concerning global warming potential (GWP) and fossil fuel resource use efficiency. Other environmental impacts could be analyzed with this tool as well. In addition, the results demonstrate that the GWP reduction is directly related to resource use efficiency. This means the lower the GWP of CCS, the lower resource use

  8. Constructing polyatomic potential energy surfaces by interpolating diabatic Hamiltonian matrices with demonstration on green fluorescent protein chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Rhee, Young Min

    2014-04-28

    Simulating molecular dynamics directly on quantum chemically obtained potential energy surfaces is generally time consuming. The cost becomes overwhelming especially when excited state dynamics is aimed with multiple electronic states. The interpolated potential has been suggested as a remedy for the cost issue in various simulation settings ranging from fast gas phase reactions of small molecules to relatively slow condensed phase dynamics with complex surrounding. Here, we present a scheme for interpolating multiple electronic surfaces of a relatively large molecule, with an intention of applying it to studying nonadiabatic behaviors. The scheme starts with adiabatic potential information and its diabatic transformation, both of which can be readily obtained, in principle, with quantum chemical calculations. The adiabatic energies and their derivatives on each interpolation center are combined with the derivative coupling vectors to generate the corresponding diabatic Hamiltonian and its derivatives, and they are subsequently adopted in producing a globally defined diabatic Hamiltonian function. As a demonstration, we employ the scheme to build an interpolated Hamiltonian of a relatively large chromophore, para-hydroxybenzylidene imidazolinone, in reference to its all-atom analytical surface model. We show that the interpolation is indeed reliable enough to reproduce important features of the reference surface model, such as its adiabatic energies and derivative couplings. In addition, nonadiabatic surface hopping simulations with interpolation yield population transfer dynamics that is well in accord with the result generated with the reference analytic surface. With these, we conclude by suggesting that the interpolation of diabatic Hamiltonians will be applicable for studying nonadiabatic behaviors of sizeable molecules.

  9. Nutrient cycling potential of camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz.) as a cover crop in the US Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Marisol; Samarappuli, Dulan

    2017-04-01

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize-soybean-wheat cropping systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the agronomic performance and nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina in comparison with other common cover crops. Experiments were conducted in Fargo, ND in 2015 and 2016, and in Prosper, ND in 2015. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. The main plot was the sowing date and the subplot were camelina cultivars as well as other common cover crops in the area. Sowing dates were targeted to 15 August and September 1, although the final dates varied slightly each year. Biomass yield, N content of the biomass N uptake and P uptake was evaluated. Winter camelina N and P uptake ranged between 21 and 30.5 kg N ha-1 and 3.4 to 5.3 kg P ha-1. The nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina was similar to other cover crops although slightly lower than turnip (Brassica rapa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars which had significantly higher P uptake than winter camelina and the other cover crops in the study. An evaluation of spring regrowth and cover indicated that only rye, winter camelina, and pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) survived the winter, although a few plants of triticale (x Trticosecale Witt.) and rape were found on a few plots. Because of the high variability on the plots there were no significant differences among the surviving cover crops on soil coverage. The soil coverage for rye cultivars was 25 and 35% and for camelina cv. Bison was 27%.In 2016, biomass yield was not significant for sowing date, cultivars, or their interaction. Winter camelina cultivars biomass yield fluctuated between 1.15 and 2.33 Mg dry matter ha-1 on the first sowing

  10. Potential antagonism of some Trichoderma strains isolated from Moroccan soil against three phytopathogenic fungi of great economic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa MOKHTARI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 17 Trichoderma strains were isolated from different soils (crop fields and Argan forests in Morocco. Purified monospore cultures were identified using molecular methods and tested for their potential antagonism against three phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxyxporum, verticillium dahlia and rhizoctonia solani. After DNA extraction, translation elongation factor (tef1 was amplified in extracts of 17 strains, sequenced and compared with their ex-types. As a result, three species were identified among the strains, which clustered in two different subclades of Trichoderma: the species T. afroharzianum, and T. guizhouense belong to the Harzianum clade, while T. longibrachiatum belongs to the Longibrachiatum clade. Investigation of potential antagonistic effects of these strains against the soil-borne phytopathogens F. oxysporum, R. solani and V. dahliae was conducted in a dual culture plate assay, using 17 promising Trichoderma strains that have been selected based on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR screening approach. In vitro, Trichoderma isolates showed effective antagonistic performance by decreasing soil borne pathogens mycelium radial growth. Trichoderma afroharzianum showed the highest Percentage of Radial Inhibition Growth (PRIG %. The highest PRIG% = 98% was for 8A2.3 isolate against R. solani and the lowest PRIG%= 67% for T9i10 against F. oxysporum. On the other hand, T9i12, which is T. reesei species, led to a high radial inhibition of pathogens’ mycelium.

  11. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  12. Great Concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Women of China magazine was first published in 1956. When the "cultural revolution" started in 1966 the magazine was obliged to stop publication. In 1979, when the magazine resumed publication, Mme. Soong Ching Ling, late vice chairperson of the National People’s Congress, wrote her congratulations—"Congratulations and Great Expectation."

  13. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip encount

  14. Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Cheryl

    Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions and ways to…

  15. Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration (PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from 12 equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman–Monteith equations reproduces best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the 12 PET equations from HadRM3-Q0. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen–Haise and calibrated Blaney–Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley–Taylor, Makkink, and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as, when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data, this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within

  16. Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from twelve equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman-Monteith equations reproduce best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically-based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the twelve PET equations. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen-Hense and calibrated Blaney-Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley-Taylor, Makkink and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within the range of

  17. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  18. Reducing young driver crash casualties in Great Britain - use of routine police crash data to estimate the potential benefits of graduated driver licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah J; Begg, Dorothy J; Palmer, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Crashes involving young drivers (YD) cause significant morbidity and mortality in Great Britain (GB). Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is used in some countries to address this. This study assessed potential casualty and cost savings of possible GDL programmes in GB. Police road crash data were analysed to identify YD crashes at night or while carrying passengers. These data were then used to estimate the potential effects of GDL. 314,561 casualties and 3469 fatalities occurred in YD crashes. 25.1% of YD crashes occurred between 9 pm and 6 am and 24.4% occurred with a 15- to 24-year old passenger in the car. A 'strict' form of GDL in GB (night time restriction 9 pm-6 am, no 15-24 year old passengers) with 50% compliance would prevent 114 deaths and 872 serious casualties each year. The estimated value of prevention is £424M pa. A 'less strict' form of GDL (night time restriction 10 pm-5 am, maximum of one 15-19 year old passenger) with 50% compliance would prevent 81 deaths and 538 serious injuries. The estimated value of prevention is £273M pa. Implementing GDL in GB could save significant numbers of lives. Public health organisations have a duty to advocate for such legislation.

  19. Tri-generation in the tertiary sector. Market potential in some European countries. Technical solutions and demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, R.; Smeding, S.F. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands); Critoph, R.E. [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Chwieduk, D.; Pomierny, W. [Polish Academy of Sciences, IPPT, Warsaw (Poland); Malvicino, C. [Centro Richerche Fiat, Turin (Italy); Restuccia, G.; Freni, A. [CNR-ITAE, Messina (Italy)

    2004-11-01

    The SOCOOL project is funded under the EU F5 Energy programme. It is focused on the development of a small-scale combined cold, heat and power (trigeneration) system, which utilises the engine waste heat for cold production. It will be demonstrated at the CRF Eco-Canteen in Turin, Italy. The cooling machine is made of two separate cooling systems, each of 5 kW cooling power: One to be driven by the engine cooling water and one to be driven by the engine exhaust. The system offers the possibility of saving 15-20% primary energy for cooling, heating and power demands.

  20. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport, and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.......4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (∼40-45 Mb Sanger sequencing per site) was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and....../or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G + C content) and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed...

  1. Efficient synthesis of mosquitocidal toxins in Asticcacaulis excentricus demonstrates potential of gram-negative bacteria in mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J W; Yap, W H; Thanabalu, T; Porter, A G

    1996-03-01

    The control of mosquitoes with chemical insecticides pollutes the environment and leads to resistance in mosquito populations. Bacterial control of mosquito larvae with Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, which produce protein toxins, has proved useful, safe, and nonpolluting. These bacteria do, however, suffer from disadvantages, including rapid setting, UV sensitivity, and lack of persistance of spores, proteolysis of toxins, narrow host range, and high production costs. Here we show that the Gram-negative bacterium Asticcacaulis excentricus is a promising host for delivering toxins to mosquito larvae. Plasmid-transformed A. excentricus cells expressing the binary toxin of B. sphaericus exhibited toxicity to Culex and Anopheles mosquito larvae similar to that of the high-toxicity strains of B. sphaericus which produce several toxins. A. excentricus has potential advantages as a larvicide compared with the bacilli, especially persistance in the larval feeding zone, resistance to UV light, lack of toxin-degrading proteases, and low production costs.

  2. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus;

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze, and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high......-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.......4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (∼40-45 Mb Sanger sequencing per site) was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and...

  3. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: a complex case demonstrating the potential for misdiagnosis as asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (Jeune syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keogh Steven J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differential diagnosis of a neonate or fetus presenting with a bell-shaped or long narrow thorax includes a wide range of bony dysplasia syndromes. Where this is accompanied by respiratory distress, asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD, Jeune syndrome is an important potential diagnosis. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS is widely recognised as a cause of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, short stature and bone marrow failure. It is not so well appreciated that rib and/or thoracic cage abnormalities occur in 30–50% of patients and that, in severe cases, these abnormalities may lead to thoracic dystrophy and respiratory failure in the newborn. There are, however, at least three previous case reports of children who were initially diagnosed with ATD who were subsequently shown to have SDS. Case presentation This report details the case history of a patient misdiagnosed as having ATD as a neonate following the neonatal asphyxial death of her brother. She subsequently developed progressive pancytopenia but was only diagnosed with SDS at 11 years of age after referral for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for bone marrow failure accompanied by trilineage dysplasia and clonal cytogenetic abnormalities on bone marrow examination. Subsequent testing revealed the presence of fat globules in stools, reduced faecal chymotrypsin, fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, metaphyseal dysplasia on skeletal survey and heterozygous mutations of the SBDS gene. Conclusion This report highlights the potential for diagnostic confusion between ATD and SDS. It is important to include SDS in the differential diagnosis of newborns with thoracic dystrophy and to seek expert clinical and radiological assessment of such children.

  4. RNA-Sequencing Analyses Demonstrate the Involvement of Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels in Rat Tooth Germ Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tooth development depends on multiple molecular interactions between the dental epithelium and mesenchyme, which are derived from ectodermal and ectomesenchymal cells, respectively. We report on a systematic RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptional expression levels from the bud to hard tissue formation stages of rat tooth germ development. We found that GNAO1, ENO1, EFNB1, CALM1, SIAH2, ATP6V0A1, KDELR2, GTPBP1, POLR2C, SORT1, and members of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channel family are involved in tooth germ development. Furthermore, Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK8 and Transwell migration assays were performed to explore the effects of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs on the proliferation and migration of dental pulp stem cells. Immunostaining revealed that TRPC channels are expressed at varying levels during odontogenesis. The identified genes represent novel candidates that are likely to be vital for rat tooth germ development. Together, the results provide a valuable resource to elucidate the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying mammalian tooth germ development.

  5. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of metagenome sequence from high-temperature archaeal habitats demonstrate linkages between metabolic potential and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Inskeep

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP provide an unparalled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (~40-45 Mbase Sanger sequencing per site was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and/or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G+C content and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.g., sulfide, oxygen, pH. These observations provide an ecological basis for understanding the distribution of indigenous archaeal lineages across high temperature systems of YNP.

  6. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus J; Kozubal, Mark A; Rusch, Douglas B; Tringe, Susannah G; Macur, Richard E; Jennings, Ryan deM; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R; Roberto, Francisco F

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze, and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (∼40-45 Mb Sanger sequencing per site) was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and/or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G + C content) and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport, and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.g., sulfide, oxygen, pH). These observations provide an ecological basis for understanding the distribution of indigenous archaeal lineages across high-temperature systems of YNP.

  7. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions.

  8. Estimation of potential evapotranspiration from extraterrestrial radiation, air temperature and humidity to assess future climate change effects on the vegetation of the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominique M.; Symstad, Amy J.; Ferschweiler, Ken; Hobbins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The potential evapotranspiration (PET) that would occur with unlimited plant access to water is a central driver of simulated plant growth in many ecological models. PET is influenced by solar and longwave radiation, temperature, wind speed, and humidity, but it is often modeled as a function of temperature alone. This approach can cause biases in projections of future climate impacts in part because it confounds the effects of warming due to increased greenhouse gases with that which would be caused by increased radiation from the sun. We developed an algorithm for linking PET to extraterrestrial solar radiation (incoming top-of atmosphere solar radiation), as well as temperature and atmospheric water vapor pressure, and incorporated this algorithm into the dynamic global vegetation model MC1. We tested the new algorithm for the Northern Great Plains, USA, whose remaining grasslands are threatened by continuing woody encroachment. Both the new and the standard temperature-dependent MC1 algorithm adequately simulated current PET, as compared to the more rigorous PenPan model of Rotstayn et al. (2006). However, compared to the standard algorithm, the new algorithm projected a much more gradual increase in PET over the 21st century for three contrasting future climates. This difference led to lower simulated drought effects and hence greater woody encroachment with the new algorithm, illustrating the importance of more rigorous calculations of PET in ecological models dealing with climate change.

  9. Remote video bioassays reveal the potential feeding impact of the rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus (f: Siganidae) on an inner-shelf reef of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. J.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2008-09-01

    Herbivores are widely acknowledged as key elements maintaining the health and resilience of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Understanding and quantifying the impact of herbivores in ecosystems are fundamental to our ability to manage these systems. The traditional method of quantifying the impact of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs has been to use transplanted pieces of seagrass or algae as “bioassays”. However, these experiments leave a key question unanswered, namely: Which species are responsible for the impact being quantified? This study revisits the use of bioassays and tested the assumption that the visual abundance of species reflects their role in the removal of assay material. Using remote video cameras to film removal of assay material on an inner-shelf reef of the Great Barrier Reef, the species responsible for assay-based herbivory were identified. The video footage revealed that Siganus canaliculatus, a species not previously recorded at the study site, was primarily responsible for removal of macroalgal biomass. The average percentage decrease in thallus length of whole plants of Sargassum at the reef crest was 54 ± 8.9% (mean ± SE), and 50.4 ± 9.8% for individually presented Sargassum strands (for a 4.5-h deployment). Of the 14,656 bites taken from Sargassum plants and strands across all reef zones, nearly half (6,784 bites or 46%) were taken by S. canaliculatus, with the majority of the remainder attributable to Siganus doliatus. However, multiple regression analysis demonstrated that only the bites of S. canaliculatus were removing macroalgal biomass. The results indicate that, even with detailed observations, the species of herbivore that may be responsible for maintaining benthic community structure can go unnoticed. Some of our fundamental ideas of the relative importance of individual species in ecosystem processes may be in need of re-evaluation.

  10. Organic geochemical characteristics of the Lower Cretaceous Abu Gabra Formation in the Great Moga oilfield, Muglad Basin, Sudan: Implications for depositional environment and oil-generation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeen, Yousif M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Elhassan, Osman M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Organic-rich sediments within the Abu Gabra Formation from three wells in the Great Moga oilfield were analyzed using organic geochemistry and organic petrology. The analyzed samples generally contain more than 2.0 wt.% TOC and have a very good to excellent hydrocarbon generative potential. This is supported by high bitumen extract and hydrocarbon (HCs) yields with values exceeding 4000 and 2000 ppm, respectively. The Abu Gabra also have moderate to high hydrogen index (HI) values of 287-865 mg HC/g TOC and large amounts of amorphous organic matter and alginite, consistent with oil-prone Types I and Type II kerogen. Vitrinite reflectance (0.59-0.72) %Ro and pyrolysis Tmax (430-438 °C) indicate an early oil window stage. This is supported by bitumen/TOC ratios (0.04-0.09) and biomarker thermal maturity parameters with equilibrium C32 homohopane 22S/(22S + 22R) ratios (0.50-58), moretane/hopane (0.11-018) and C29ββ/(ββ + αα) (0.53-0.73) and 20S/(20S + 20R) ratios (0.26-0.48). The biomarkers are characterized by a dominance of low to medium molecular weight n-alkane compounds with significant waxy alkanes (n-C25-n-C34), moderately high Pr/Ph ratios (1.17-2.51), high abundance of C27 regular steranes, high C27/C29 regular sterane ratios, the presence of tricyclic terpanes and relatively low sterane/hopane ratios. These data indicate that the organic-rich sediments of the Abu Gabra Formation contain a mixture of aquatic (algal and bacterial) and terrigenous organic matter, deposited in a lacustrine environment and preserved under suboxic conditions.

  11. Energy conversion, storage and balancing. Great potential of hydrogen and fuel cells; Energikonvertering, lagring og balancering. Stort potentiale i brint og braendselsceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This document is the Danish strategy for hydrogen technology research, development and demonstration. Work on a new strategy was launched in early 2012 by the Partnership for hydrogen and fuel cells. The new national strategy complements the Partnership's former national strategy ''Hydrogen Technologies - strategy for research, development and demonstration in Denmark'' from June 2005. The former strategy describes the challenges and costs by the technological development of hydrogen and fuel cells until 2016 - and is valid until 2016. The Partnership's strategy anno 2012 describes the energy technology challenges for hydrogen technology development until 2016 - and in some years thereafter. The strategy provides an updated status of hydrogen and fuel cells, describes the area's future potential, and specifies future needs for technological development. The strategy's main focus is to define how electrolysis, hydrogen and fuel cells can help to meet Denmark's future energy policy objectives. In the strategy the term ''hydrogen technologies'' overall means: Electrolysis and fuel cells as conversion technologies, and hydrogen and hydrogen-containing fuels, such as methanol, as energy carriers. (LN)

  12. Not so Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  13. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a hi

  14. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-08-30

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NO{sub x} emissions from transportation may increase.

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  17. Complete Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  20. A Phase I Dose Escalation Study Demonstrates Quercetin Safety and Explores Potential for Bioflavonoid Antivirals in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nu T; Crespi, Catherine M; Liu, Natalie M; Vu, James Q; Ahmadieh, Yasaman; Wu, Sheng; Lin, Sherry; McClune, Amy; Durazo, Francisco; Saab, Sammy; Han, Steven; Neiman, David C; Beaven, Simon; French, Samuel W

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 180 million people worldwide, with long-term consequences including liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Quercetin bioflavonoids can decrease HCV production in tissue culture, in part through inhibition of heat shock proteins. If quercetin demonstrates safety and antiviral activity in patients, then it could be developed into an inexpensive HCV treatment for third world countries or other affected populations that lack financial means to cover the cost of mainstream antivirals. A phase 1 dose escalation study was performed to evaluate the safety of quercetin in 30 untreated patients with chronic HCV infection and to preliminarily characterize quercetin's potential in suppressing viral load and/or liver injury. Quercetin displayed safety in all trial participants. Additionally, 8 patients showed a "clinically meaningful" 0.41-log viral load decrease. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.41, p = 0.03) indicating a tendency for HCV decrease in patients with a lower ratio of plasma quercetin relative to dose. No significant changes in aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were detected. In conclusion, quercetin exhibited safety (up to 5 g daily) and there was a potential for antiviral activity in some hepatitis C patients.

  1. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  2. Post-traumatic stress reactions before the advent of post-traumatic stress disorder: potential effects on the lives and legacies of Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, Philip A; Batten, Sonja V

    2008-12-01

    Evidence is presented that Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale each developed symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of repeated potentially traumatizing events of differing character. Their case histories also varied with respect to background, premorbid personality style, risk factors, clinical presentation, and course of the illness, illustrating the pleomorphic character of the disorder, as well as the special problems in diagnosing it in historical figures.

  3. Erosion Potential of a Burn Site in the Mojave-Great Basin Transition Zone: Interim Summary of One Year of Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etyemezian, V.; Shafer, D.; Miller, J.; Kavouras, I.; Campbell, S.; DuBois, D.; King, J.; Nikolich, G.; Zitzer, S.

    2010-05-18

    A historic return interval of 100 years for large fires in deserts in the Southwest U.S. is being replaced by one where fires may reoccur as frequently as every 20 to 30 years. This increase in fires has implications for management of Soil Sub-Project Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for which the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site office (NNSA/NSO) has responsibility. A series of studies has been initiated at uncontaminated analog sites to better understand the possible impacts of erosion and transport by wind and water should contaminated soil sites burn over to understand technical and perceived risk they might pose to site workers and public receptors in communities around the NTS, TTR, and NTTR; and to develop recommendations for stabilization and restoration after a fire. The first of these studies was undertaken at the Jacob fire, a lightning-caused fire approximately 12 kilometers north of Hiko, Nevada, that burned approximately 200 ha between August 6-8, 2008, and is representative of a transition zone on the NTS between the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts, where the largest number of Soil Sub-Project CAUs/CASs are located.

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  7. POSTEMBRYONIC SUBTOTIPOTENT STEM CELLS DERIVED FROM A VARIETY OF FETAL TISSUES HAVE MULTIPLE DIFFERENTIATION POTENTIAL AND GREATLY CONTRIBUTE TO STEM CELL PLASTICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and culture PSSCs from different tissues and determine their characteristics anddifferentiation potential in vitro. Methods: PSSCs were isolated and cultured from human aborted fetal bone mar-row, liver, skin, skeletal muscle, lung and pancreas. Morphology and biological activities were assessed. Pheno-types were analyzed by FACS and immunohistochemieal staining. We tested the potential of PSSCs to differentiateinto multiple cell lineages, such as bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, nerve , endothelial cell and hematopoietic progeni-tor cells. Results: PSSCs could be isolated from human aborted fetal above. PSSCs were a population of adherent cells characterized by a typical fibroblast - like morphology. PSSCs had few endoplasmic reticulum and mitochon- drias. It could be expanded by successive cycles of trypsinization, seeding, and culture ex vitro. PSSCs had a capa-bility of passaging up to 30 times without displaying significant changes in morphology, with a 2 -fold increase in cell number after each passage. Cell cycle analysis revealed that more than 90 % of cells were in the G0/G1 phases, while a small population of cells were actively engaged in proliferation. These cells were positively stained by FITC labeled CD44, CD29, CD13, but negative for CD34, HLA- DR. The culture- expanded PSSCs have multilineage differentiation potential giving rise to cells of osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, neurogenic, hematopoietic and endotielial lineages. Conclusion:PSSCs may still remain in a number of tissues after embryonic development,could be identified by their phenotypic and functional characteristics, and contribute significantly to multipotent differentiation outside the tissue of origin.

  8. Potential Effects of a Warming Climate on Water Resources within the Lehman and Baker Creek Drainages, Great Basin National Park, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, John M.

    Warming trends in near-surface air temperature across the Southwestern U.S. have been observed over the last century and are projected to continue over the 21st century. This warming trend will result in decreased snowpack and earlier snowmelt in mountainous basins throughout the West; however, predictions of future precipitation in the Southwest are much more uncertain among global climate models (GCMs). In this study, the objective was to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of projected warming on streamflow in the Lehman and Baker Creek drainages. The drainages are located in Great Basin National Park that encompasses the highest elevations in the southern part of the Snake Range in eastern Nevada. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to evaluate impacts of warming on streamflow. Calibration and validation periods had total errors between 0.6 and 12 percent in simulated streamflow. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures for a future 90-year period were used in the model to evaluate how warming temperatures may affect streamflow. Daily temperatures were statistically downscaled and bias corrected using daily projections from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 4.0 for four representative greenhouse gas concentration trajectories. A 30-year record of historical precipitation was repeated three times over the 90-year simulation. Results from the 90-year simulation were divided into three 30-year periods (water years 2009--2038, 2039--2068, and 2069--2098) and were compared among the four greenhouse gas concentration trajectories such that volumes and variations in precipitation were identical and changes could be directly related to different projected warming temperatures. The study area was sensitive to small increases in temperature; results include shifts to earlier snowmelt timing for most warming trajectories from May to April with an increase in winter streamflow. For a temperature rise of 5.5°F by

  9. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  11. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning r...

  12. Potentials and limits of the internal engine reduction of NO{sub x} for great diesel engines; Potentiale und Grenzen der innermotorischen NOx-Reduktion bei Grossdieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Jochen; Sankhla, Harsh; Ruhkamp, Ludger; Maassen, Franz [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Rajamani, Vinod [RWTH Aachen (Germany). VKA

    2011-07-01

    With the introduction of stringent emissions legislations in large bore engine sector, the reduction of NOx emissions are particularly gaining significance. New concepts are necessary in this engine class to achieve the low NOx targets. Exhaust gas recirculation and Miller valve timing are engine measures that come into consideration. Based on the 1-D engine process simulations using GT-Power, the potential and limits of both approaches shall be discussed and compared in this article. The emissions, system efficiency and the mechanical limits of the engine shall be brought under the purview of the analysis. After selection of the best approach or combination of approaches from a viewpoint of NOx reduction, an engine system layout will be determined with the aid of GT-Power simulations. Next, 3-D CFD simulations (KIVA 3V) shall be employed to gain a phenomenological understanding of the in-cylinder processes. The engine system shall be optimised in a further step using DoE (Design of Experiments). The optimisation of the chosen parameters will be performed through a coupling of 3-D CFD with the model-based optimisation tool, Pro-Cal. The simulations shall be validated at the engine test bench after the optimisation step. (orig.)

  13. Drought-tolerant Streptomyces pactum Act12 assist phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soil by Amaranthus hypochondriacus: great potential application in arid/semi-arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shumiao; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zhoufeng; Yang, Shenke; Xue, Quanhong

    2016-08-01

    Microbe-assisted phytoremediation provides an effective approach to clean up heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, severe drought may affect the function of microbes in arid/semi-arid areas. Streptomyces pactum Act12 is a drought-tolerant soil actinomycete strain isolated from an extreme environment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. In this study, pot experiments were conducted to assess the effect of Act12 on Cd tolerance, uptake, and accumulation in amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) under water deficit. Inoculated plants had higher Cd concentrations (root 8.7-33.9 %; shoot 53.2-102.1 %) and uptake (root 19.9-95.3 %; shoot 110.6-170.1 %) than non-inoculated controls in Cd-treated soil. The translocation factor of Cd from roots to shoots was increased by 14.2-75 % in inoculated plants, while the bioconcentration factor of Cd in roots and shoots was increased by 10.2-64.4 and 53.9-114.8 %, respectively. Moreover, inoculation with Act12 increased plant height, root length, and shoot biomass of amaranth in Cd-treated soil compared to non-inoculated controls. Physiochemical analysis revealed that Act12 enhanced Cd tolerance in the plants by increasing glutathione, elevating superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, as well as reducing malondialdehyde content in the leaves. The drought-tolerant actinomycete strain Act12 can enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of amaranth for Cd-contaminated soils under water deficit, exhibiting potential for application in arid and semi-arid areas.

  14. A sandwich ELISA for porcine alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (pAGP, ORM-1) and further demonstration of its use to evaluate growth potential in newborn pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperna, T J; Shannon, A E; Stoll, M; Kahl, S; Blomberg, L A; Vallet, J L; Ramsay, T G

    2017-07-01

    A simple, reproducible sandwich, ELISA was developed to measure porcine alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (pAGP, ORM-1) in pig plasma. Porcine AGP isolated from serum was purchased and a polyclonal antisera was prepared in rabbits using the whole pAGP molecule as immunogen. The antiserum was affinity purified, and a portion of the purified antibody fraction was labeled with horseradish peroxidase. Porcine AGP protein was used as a standard, whereas commercially available buffers and reagents were utilized throughout the assay. The assay was specific for pAGP, had a lower limit of detection of 3.2 ng/mL, and could be used to quantify pAGP in plasma or serum. Using this ELISA, we corroborated our previous findings obtained by RID assay, which demonstrated that the AGP concentration in newborn piglets is negatively associated with preweaning growth rate. The current data were obtained using piglets from a different geographical location and genetic background and showed that elevated AGP at birth was associated with reduced preweaning growth rate (P < 0.001, r = 0.433, n = 19 litters). In addition, litters with a greater average AGP at birth were at a growth disadvantage compared with litters with reduced average AGP plasma concentrations (P < 0.001, r = 0.708, n = 19 litters). Litter average plasma AGP was a better predictor of litter preweaning growth rate than average litter birth weight. The data represent further support for using perinatal AGP concentrations as a tool to identify potential slower growing pigs and as a plasma biomarker for predicting litter growth rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Device Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-31

    RPM, HMDS ( notched ) CAP 112 Resist erosion test resist removal xx = 20 1/26/06 100 Etch (2/23/06) 60 sec; Thicker PR; did 3.3 cP, 1K RPM, HMDS new 3...laser beam deflects. This is a simple system, but may not provide the detailed information that initially is needed. 2. Use a Michelson interferometer...deflection of membrane windows in bulge tester. 3. Use a Shearing interferometer. This technique has the potential for being simpler than a Michelson

  16. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  17. Analysis of two heterologous flowering genes in ¤Brachypodium distachyon¤ demonstrates its potential as a grass model plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Lenk, I.; Jensen, Christian S.

    2006-01-01

    including close phylogenetic relationship to the temperate grasses, vernalisation requirement, high transformation efficiency, small genome size and a rapid life cycle. These requirements are all fulfilled by the small annual grass Brachypodium distachyon. As a first step towards implementing this plant......Despite the great contribution of model organisms, such as Arabidopsis and rice to understand biological processes in plants, these models are less valuable for functional studies of particular genes from temperate grass crop species. Therefore a new model plant is required, displaying features...... generation within the first year upon transformation. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Automatic speed management systems : great safety potential ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of speed management experiments carried out in The Netherlands on four 2-lane rural roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. The experiment involved an information campaign, warning signs and a radar camera system. Fixed signs advised a speed of between 60 and 80 km/h and an automati

  19. Great Market Potential of Hydrazine Hydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Yuying

    2007-01-01

    @@ Stable consumption growth worldwide Hydrazine hydrate is an organic chemical raw material with extensive applications. The world's capacity to produce hydrazine hydrate has reached more than 200 thousand t/atoday (based on 100% hydrazine content).

  20. Ethylene: A tiny molecule with great potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Vrije, de T.

    1995-01-01

    Ethylene (C2H4) is a gaseous plant hormone produced by higher and lower (green) plants and, when grown on appropriate substrates, also by fungi, yeasts and bacteria. Ethylene is involved in many developmental processes in plants and is biologically active in trace amounts (10-100 nl/l of air) that m

  1. The Rural Tourism: Great Potential, Low Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an analysis of the European tourism. We operated during 2000-2010 time period, and we analysed the specific indicators of the tourism in Romania. Romanian tourism is low developed and depends powerfully on domestic demand. Neither the myth of the rural tourism in Romania is not real as long as the infrastructure is lamentable and the services are shoddy and expensive. Practically, the international touristic flows in the country are still low and mainly for business purposes. An optimal solution for Romanian tourism has to be focused on three elements: macroeconomic sustainable development, public financial support and a new touristic management approach, as well. The conclusions of the paper are followed by pertinent graphics, maps and diagrams.

  2. Atlas of Great Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Dunlop, Storm

    2015-01-01

    Foreword; Using this book; Part I. Introduction: Cometary beliefs and fears; Comets in art; Comets in literature and poetry; Comets in science; Cometary science today; Great comets in antiquity; Great comets of the Middle Ages; Part II. The 30 Greatest Comets of Modern Times: The Great Comet of 1471; Comet Halley 1531; The Great Comet of 1556; The Great Comet of 1577; Comet Halley, 1607; The Great Comet of 1618; The Great Comet of 1664; Comet Kirch, 1680; Comet Halley, 1682; The Great Comet of 1744; Comet Halley, 1759; Comet Messier, 1769; Comet Flaugergues, 1811; Comet Halley, 1835; The Great March Comet of 1843; Comet Donati, 1858; Comet Tebbutt, 1861; The Great September Comet of 1882; The Great January Comet of 1910; Comet Halley, 1910; Comet Arend-Roland, 1956; Comet Ikeya-Seki, 1965; Comet Bennett, 1970; Comet Kohoutek, 1973-4; Comet West, 1976; Comet Halley, 1986; Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, 1994; Comet Hyakutake, 1996; Comet Hale-Bopp, 1997; Comet McNaught, 2007; Part III. Appendices; Table of comet data; Glossary; References; Photo credits; Index.

  3. Platelet-Rich Plasma Greatly Potentiates Insulin-Induced Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Through a Serine/Threonine Kinase Akt-Dependent Mechanism and Promotes Clinical Fat Graft Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, Valerio; Scioli, Maria G.; Gentile, Pietro; Doldo, Elena; Bonanno, Elena; Spagnoli, Luigi G.

    2012-01-01

    The potential plasticity and therapeutic utility in tissue regeneration of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) isolated from adult adipose tissue have recently been highlighted. The use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) represents an alternative strategy in regenerative medicine for the local release of multiple endogenous growth factors. Here we investigated the signaling pathways and effects of PRP and human recombinant insulin on proliferation and adipogenic differentiation of ASCs in vitro. PRP stimulated proliferation (EC50 = 15.3 ± 1.3% vol/vol), whereas insulin's effect was the opposite (IC50 = 3.0 ± 0.5 μM). Although PRP alone did not increase adipogenesis, in association with insulin it prevented ASC proliferative arrest, greatly enhanced intracytoplasmic lipid accumulation, strongly increased serine/threonine kinase Akt phosphorylation and mouse monoclonal anti-sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 accumulation, and downregulated Erk-1 activity; adipogenic effects were markedly prevented by the Akt inhibitor wortmannin. PRP with insulin synergistically upregulated fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and downregulated epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB) expression; moreover, PRP in association prevented insulin-induced insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and insulin receptor downregulation. The inhibition of FGFR-1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (ErbB2) activity reduced ASC proliferation, but only that of FGFR-1 reduced adipogenesis and Akt phosphorylation, whereas the ErbB2 inhibition effects were the opposite. However, EGFR activity was needed for ErbB2-mediated inhibition of ASC adipogenesis. Clinically, the injection of insulin further ameliorated patients' 1-year PRP-induced fat graft volume maintenance and contour restoring. Our results ascertain that PRP in association with insulin greatly potentiates adipogenesis in human ASCs through a FGFR-1 and ErbB2-regulated Akt

  4. A Demonstration Project of Great Offshore Wind Energy Development --Shanghai Donghai Bridge Offshore Wind Farm%大型海上风能开发示范项目及其借鉴作用研究——以上海东海大桥风电场建设为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨太华; 任浩翰

    2012-01-01

    Wind power is a clean renewable energy,and is attached great importance by governments. This pa- per describes the offshore wind power and its development status, and the key technology of the construction of Donghai Bridge offshore wind farm project. It is a good demonstration project to the future development of offshore wind energy resources in China.%研究了海上风电场的组成、国内外风电发展的现状,以及上海东海大桥海上风电场建设的关键技术,为今后海上风能资源的大规模开发提供借鉴。

  5. Analysis of potential self-guarantee tests for demonstrating financial assurance by non-profit colleges, universities, and hospitals and by business firms that do not issue bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, P.; Dean, C.; Collier, J.; Dasappa, V.; Goldberg, W. [ICF, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on December 29, 1993, promulgated self-guarantee requirements that materials licensees may use to demonstrate financial assurance for decommissioning costs. However, nonprofit colleges and universities, nonprofit hospitals, and for-profit firms that do not issue bonds are currently precluded, by their unique accounting and financial reporting systems, or by other features of their business practices, from using the financial tests for self-guarantors adopted by the NRC. This Report evaluates several alternative financial tests that might serve as the basis for self-guarantee by these three categories of licensees.

  6. Great attractor really a great wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, A.; Turner, M.S.

    1988-11-01

    Some of the cosmological consequences are discussed of a late time phase transition which produces light domain walls. The observed peculiar velocity field of the Universe and the observed isotropy of the microwave background radiation severely constrain the wall surface density in such a scenario. The most interesting consequence of such a phase transition is the possibility that the local, coherent streaming motion reported by the Seven Samurai could be explained by the repulsive effect of a relic domain wall with the Hubble volume (the Great Wall).

  7. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  8. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  9. Nanoparticle Fullerene (C60) demonstrated stable binding with antibacterial potential towards probable targets of drug resistant Salmonella typhi - a computational perspective and in vitro investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Parveen, Asma; Garka, Shruti

    2016-11-23

    Salmonella typhi, a Gram negative bacterium, has become multidrug resistant (MDR) to wide classes of antibacterials which necessitate an alarming precaution. This study focuses on the binding potential and therapeutic insight of Nano-Fullerene C60 towards virulent targets of Salmonella typhi by computational prediction and preliminary in vitro assays. The clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi were collected and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were assessed. The drug targets of pathogen were selected by rigorous literature survey and gene network analysis by various metabolic network resources. Based on this study, 20 targets were screened and the 3D structures of few drug targets were retrieved from PDB and others were computationally predicted. The structures of nanoleads such as Fullerene C60, ZnO and CuO were retrieved from drug databases. The binding potential of these nanoleads towards all selected targets were predicted by molecular docking. The best docked conformations were screened and concept was investigated by preliminary bioassays. This study revealed that most of the isolates of Salmonella typhi were found to be MDR (p Salmonella typhi.

  10. Demonstration of the potential for energy conservation in two Midwestern pork processing plants. Final report, December 15, 1977-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, P.; Okos, M.

    1981-01-19

    Two Midwestern pork processing plants were studied to quantify present energy consumption and to determine potential energy savings with modification of existing processing equipment or adoption of alternative equipment. Process energy consumption was measured in each plant at each processing step or at each unit operation and pertinent costs obtained. Energy utilized was categorized by type such as gas, electricity, steam, etc. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, flow rates, etc., were also measured so that they could be related to energy consumption. Through measurement of operating parameters and the calculation of material and energy balances, patterns of energy loss in the major unit operations were determined. The total yearly steam and gas energy consumed by the processes studied in Plant A amounted to 133.6 billion Btu's and 207.8 billion Btu's in Plant B. Of that total, Plant A uses approximately 15.5% and Plant B uses 7.5% for sanitation and cleaning. The remaining energy is used to operate the various unit operations. The energy used in the major unit operations can be broken down into lost energy and recoverable energy. Lost energy is that energy that will not effect production if eliminated. For the processes studied in Plant A, non-productive energy amounts to 48% of the energy supplied. The nonproductive energy in Plant B amounted to 60.6% of the total process energy. On the other hand, recoverable energy is that energy that was used for some productive purpose but still has value upon completion of the process. For the processes studied in Plant A, a recoverable energy amounts to 40% of the energy supplied. The potentially recoverable energy for Plant B is 35.8% of the process energy supplied.

  11. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  12. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  13. Great ape foresight is looking great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    Suddendorf, Corballis and Collier-Baker (Anim Cogn 12: 751-754, 2009) comment on a study on great ape foresight (Osvath and Osvath, Anim Cogn 11: 661-674, 2008). That study consisted of four experiments investigating foresight in chimpanzees and orangutans, examining in particular whether the planning they exhibit is best explained by assuming an episodic cognitive system. This system has widely been regarded as exclusive to humans. Indeed, the Bischof-Köhler hypothesis explicitly states that planning for a future need is outside the abilities of non-humans. In our paper, we argued that the results implied the presence of episodic abilities and challenged the Bischof-Köhler hypothesis. Suddendorf et al. are not ready to accept this claim. They critique each experiment in detail and maintain their view that episodic cognition is unique to humans. Here, I point out the misapprehensions and weaknesses in their critique notably a lack of appreciation for how the experiments in the study are interrelated and serve as controls for each other and for the baseline experiment. I reinforce my earlier conclusions with a number of recently published findings.

  14. Enhancing the laccase production and laccase gene expression in the white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 with great potential for biotechnological applications by different metal ions and aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wei, Fuxiang; Zhuo, Rui; Fan, Fangfang; Liu, Huahua; Zhang, Chen; Ma, Li; Jiang, Mulan; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2013-01-01

    Laccase is useful for various biotechnological and industrial applications. The white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 and its laccase, isolated from the Shennongjia Nature Reserve in China by our laboratory, has great potential for practical application in environmental biotechnology. However, the original level of laccase produced by Trametes velutina 5930 was relatively low in the absence of any inducer. Therefore, in order to enhance the laccase production by Trametes velutina 5930 and make better use of this fungus in the field of environmental biotechnology, the regulation of laccase production and laccase gene expression in Trametes velutina 5930 were investigated in this study. Different metal ions such as Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) could stimulate the laccase synthesis and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Some aromatic compounds structurally related to lignin, such as tannic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and guaiacol, could also enhance the level of laccase activity and laccase gene transcription. We also found that there existed a positive synergistic effect of aromatic compound and metal ion on the laccase production and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Taken together, our study may contribute to the improvement of laccase productivity by Trametes velutina 5930.

  15. Enhancing the laccase production and laccase gene expression in the white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 with great potential for biotechnological applications by different metal ions and aromatic compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Laccase is useful for various biotechnological and industrial applications. The white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 and its laccase, isolated from the Shennongjia Nature Reserve in China by our laboratory, has great potential for practical application in environmental biotechnology. However, the original level of laccase produced by Trametes velutina 5930 was relatively low in the absence of any inducer. Therefore, in order to enhance the laccase production by Trametes velutina 5930 and make better use of this fungus in the field of environmental biotechnology, the regulation of laccase production and laccase gene expression in Trametes velutina 5930 were investigated in this study. Different metal ions such as Cu(2+ and Fe(2+ could stimulate the laccase synthesis and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Some aromatic compounds structurally related to lignin, such as tannic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and guaiacol, could also enhance the level of laccase activity and laccase gene transcription. We also found that there existed a positive synergistic effect of aromatic compound and metal ion on the laccase production and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Taken together, our study may contribute to the improvement of laccase productivity by Trametes velutina 5930.

  16. Great Zimbabwe's water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pikirayi, Innocent; Sulas, Federica; Musindo, Tendai Treddah

    2016-01-01

    in the region's well-watered granite hills and valleys, and culminating in a vast urban and trading society. Later, c.1550 AD, it is argued, drying climate, land overexploitation, and changing regional trading patterns would lead to the decline of Great Zimbabwe. A review of this model is necessary since Great...... Zimbabwe and communities living around it survive in a region constantly threatened by water crises. However, we still know very little on the forms and uses of water and how these have influenced its development and demise. This article offers a multilayered review of available information on water......, including new records on environmental sequences, modern water sources, and provisioning models from in and around Great Zimbabwe. The integration of both old and new datasets allows us to follow the history of people-water interaction from early times to the present. We argue that understanding...

  17. 'Great Power Style' in China's Economic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    China’s ascendance attracts concern, even though Beijing claims to be a responsible great power and tries to demonstrate its ‘great power style’ in economic diplomacy. This article therefore discusses the following questions: to what extent does the current notion and practice of Chinese ‘great...... power style’ in economic diplomacy comply with, or differ from, the criteria of benign hegemony; and what are the major constraining factors? Conceptually, China’s ‘great power style’ is rooted in ancient Chinese political philosophy and institution, but it highly resembles the Western notion of benign...... and economic interests....

  18. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  19. The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This introduction to the natural history of the Great Dismal Swamp is presented at a time when 50,000 acres of the Swamp are being converted from private holdings to...

  20. The Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  1. The great transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberthal, Kenneth; Lieberthal, Geoffrey

    2003-10-01

    As China's economy grows and opens further, the opportunity it presents to multinationals is changing. Foreign companies are moving to country development and new strategic choices. Now, foreign firms can actually go after the Chinese domestic market, and it's worth going after. Improvements in China's infrastructure, workforce, and regulatory environment are making it possible for companies to lower their costs to reap new competitive advantages. Multifaceted and often-shifting risks accompany this shifting opportunity. The reforms required for admission into the WTO will be politically difficult for China to implement, and its progress will be slowed by the scarcity of resources for the country's shaky banking system, the inadequacy of the social safety net, environmental problems, and local governments' cash shortage. China's breathtaking 9% average annual GDP growth rests on an unsteady foundation of overcapitalized state-owned enterprises, which have oversupplied many markets, and fiercely protectionist regional government officials pursuing growth-at-almost-all-costs policies. Frequent changes in regulations, bureaucracies, and reporting relationships will continue to make planning difficult, and, as the SARS epidemic demonstrated, there is always the potential for serious disruptions. But for at least the next ten years, multinationals should be the biggest winners in China. To reap the benefits, a multinational must properly nest its effort into its overall organization, show "one face to China" at the national level but also tailor local strategies, be wary of joint ventures, and mitigate risk, in particular the theft of intellectual property. China is a major opportunity for companies that forthrightly face its complexities. It will remain largely inscrutable--and unprofitable--for the rest.

  2. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  3. Great Zimbabwe's water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pikirayi, Innocent; Sulas, Federica; Musindo, Tendai Treddah;

    2016-01-01

    , including new records on environmental sequences, modern water sources, and provisioning models from in and around Great Zimbabwe. The integration of both old and new datasets allows us to follow the history of people-water interaction from early times to the present. We argue that understanding......Once a thriving center with commercial links to the Indian Ocean, what remains of Great Zimbabwe is its monumental architecture. Its rise and decline have long been linked to environmental changes in southern Zimbabwe, beginning in the second half of the 13th century with agropastoralists thriving...... of the local environment was vital in managing both water excesses and shortages in the past, and show that some of this knowledge survives among indigenous communities linked to the site and living in the surrounding landscape. While nearby Masvingo town has persistently lived under water-emergency conditions...

  4. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  5. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  6. Experimental demonstration of spinor slow light

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Meng-Jung; Lee, Chin-Yuan; Kudriasov, Viaceslav; Chang, Kao-Fang; Cho, Hung-Wen; Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Yu, Ite A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the developments of slow, stored and stationary light based on the electromagnetically induced transparency effect have attracted a great deal of attention, stimulated by potential applications such as low-light-level nonlinear optics and quantum information manipulation. The previous experiments all dealt with the single-component slow light. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of two-component or spinor slow light using a double tripod (DT) atom-light coupling scheme which involves two atomic ground state coherences. We observe the neutrino-type oscillations between the two slow light components controlled by the two-photon detuning. We show that the DT scheme for the light storage behaves like the two outcomes of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer enabling high precision measurements of the frequency detuning. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate a possible application of the DT scheme as quantum memory/rotator for the two-color qubits.

  7. 玉米酒糟(DDGS)——极具潜力的优质食用油新资源%Corn DDGS-A New Resource with Great Potential of High-quality Edible Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨嘉伟; 金青哲; 王正浩; 逯良忠

    2013-01-01

    玉米酒糟(DDGS)主要是生产燃料乙醇的副产品,研究比较了玉米仁油、玉米皮油、玉米胚芽油中甾醇、生育酚的不同组成及含量,综述了玉米酒糟(DDGS)油中微量成分甾醇和生育酚的含量、组成及研究进展,分析了DDGS玉米油的营养特点及其制炼油加工的经济效益,指出玉米酒糟(DDGS)油中脂肪伴随物丰富且含量很高,经济加工效益明显,是一种极具潜力的优质食用油新资源,如能合理充分制油,可得到30~50万吨优质玉米油,缓解中国目前食用油油脂资源缺乏的紧张状况.%Corn DDGS(Distillers Dried Grain with Solubles) is the major by-product of fuel ethanol production.This paper compares different compositions and contents of phytosterol and tocopherol in the oil in corn kernel,corn fiber and corn germ.It also makes a review of the content,composition and study process of micro constituents (phytosterol and tocopherol) in corn DDGS,analyzes the nutrition attributes of the DDGS corn oil and the economic benefit of the refining oil processing,and indicates that the lipid classes in corn DDGS oil are abundant and of highcontent,with significant economic benefit of processing.It is a new resource with great potential of high-quality edible oil.If we can reasonably make good use of DDGS for refining oil,we will get 300-500 thousand tons of high-quality corn oil and relieve tension of lack of edible oil resource in China currently.

  8. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  9. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  10. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  11. The Great Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  12. Europa's Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  13. Unexplored Archaeal Diversity in the Great Ape Gut Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew H.; Goodman, Andrew L.; Ochman, Howard

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Archaea are habitual residents of the human gut flora but are detected at substantially lower frequencies than bacteria. Previous studies have indicated that each human harbors very few archaeal species. However, the low diversity of human-associated archaea that has been detected could be due to the preponderance of bacteria in these communities, such that relatively few sequences are classified as Archaea even when microbiomes are sampled deeply. Moreover, the universal prokaryotic primer pair typically used to interrogate microbial diversity has low specificity to the archaeal domain, potentially leaving vast amounts of diversity unobserved. As a result, the prevalence, diversity, and distribution of archaea may be substantially underestimated. Here we evaluate archaeal diversity in gut microbiomes using an approach that targets virtually all known members of this domain. Comparing microbiomes across five great ape species allowed us to examine the dynamics of archaeal lineages over evolutionary time scales. These analyses revealed hundreds of gut-associated archaeal lineages, indicating that upwards of 90% of the archaeal diversity in the human and great ape gut microbiomes has been overlooked. Additionally, these results indicate a progressive reduction in archaeal diversity in the human lineage, paralleling the decline reported for bacteria. IMPORTANCE Our findings show that Archaea are a habitual and vital component of human and great ape gut microbiomes but are largely ignored on account of the failure of previous studies to realize their full diversity. Here we report unprecedented levels of archaeal diversity in great ape gut microbiomes, exceeding that detected by conventional 16S rRNA gene surveys. Paralleling what has been reported for bacteria, there is a vast reduction of archaeal diversity in humans. Our study demonstrates that archaeal diversity in the great ape gut microbiome greatly exceeds that reported previously and provides the basis

  14. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  15. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  16. Potential role of Thermus thermophilus and T. oshimai in high rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) production in ∼80 °C hot springs in the US Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, B P; McDonald, A I; Lam, J; Dodsworth, J A; Brown, J R; Hungate, B A

    2011-11-01

    Ambient nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from Great Boiling Spring (GBS) in the US Great Basin depended on temperature, with the highest flux, 67.8 ± 2.6 μmol N(2)O-N m(-2) day(-1) , occurring in the large source pool at 82 °C. This rate of N(2)O production contrasted with negligible production from nearby soils and was similar to rates from soils and sediments impacted with agricultural fertilizers. To investigate the source of N(2)O, a variety of approaches were used to enrich and isolate heterotrophic micro-organisms, and isolates were screened for nitrate reduction ability. Nitrate-respiring isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Thermus thermophilus (31 isolates) and T. oshimai (three isolates). All isolates reduced nitrate to N(2)O but not to dinitrogen and were unable to grow with N(2)O as a terminal electron acceptor. Representative T. thermophilus and T. oshimai strains contained genes with 96-98% and 93% DNA identity, respectively, to the nitrate reductase catalytic subunit gene (narG) of T. thermophilus HB8. These data implicate T. thermophilus and T. oshimai in high flux of N(2)O in GBS and raise questions about the genetic basis of the incomplete denitrification pathway in these organisms and on the fate of biogenic N(2)O in geothermal environments.

  17. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Leonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  18. The Pharmacology of TUG-891, a Potent and Selective Agonist of the Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120), Demonstrates Both Potential Opportunity and Possible Challenges to Therapeutic Agonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Brian D.; Shimpukade, Bharat; Mackenzie, Amanda E.; Butcher, Adrian J.; Pediani, John D.; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Heathcote, Helen; Tobin, Andrew B.; Ulven, Trond

    2013-01-01

    TUG-891 [3-(4-((4-fluoro-4′-methyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-2-yl)methoxy)phenyl)propanoic acid] was recently described as a potent and selective agonist for the long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) receptor 4 (FFA4; previously G protein–coupled receptor 120, or GPR120). Herein, we have used TUG-891 to further define the function of FFA4 and used this compound in proof of principle studies to indicate the therapeutic potential of this receptor. TUG-891 displayed similar signaling properties to the LCFA α-linolenic acid at human FFA4 across various assay end points, including stimulation of Ca2+ mobilization, β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2 recruitment, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Activation of human FFA4 by TUG-891 also resulted in rapid phosphorylation and internalization of the receptor. While these latter events were associated with desensitization of the FFA4 signaling response, removal of TUG-891 allowed both rapid recycling of FFA4 back to the cell surface and resensitization of the FFA4 Ca2+ signaling response. TUG-891 was also a potent agonist of mouse FFA4, but it showed only limited selectivity over mouse FFA1, complicating its use in vivo in this species. Pharmacologic dissection of responses to TUG-891 in model murine cell systems indicated that activation of FFA4 was able to mimic many potentially beneficial therapeutic properties previously reported for LCFAs, including stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from enteroendocrine cells, enhancing glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and inhibiting release of proinflammatory mediators from RAW264.7 macrophages, which suggests promise for FFA4 as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Together, these results demonstrate both potential but also significant challenges that still need to be overcome to therapeutically target FFA4. PMID:23979972

  19. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner {trademark}/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist{trademark}/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals.

  20. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  1. Music-of-Light Stethoscope: A Demonstration of the Photoacoustic Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitichev, D. I.; Xia, W.; Hill, E.; Mosse, C. A.; Perkins, T.; Konyn, K.; Ourselin, S.; Desjardins, A. E.; Vercauteren, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a system aimed at demonstrating the photoacoustic (PA) effect for educational purposes. PA imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that requires no contrast agent and has a great potential for spine and brain lesion characterisation, breast cancer and blood flow monitoring notably in the context of fetal surgery. It relies on…

  2. A field guide for rapid assessment of post-wildfire recovery potential in sagebrush and pinon-juniper ecosystems in the Great Basin: Evaluating resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and predicting vegetation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Miller; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant

    2015-01-01

    This field guide provides a framework for rapidly evaluating post-fire resilience to disturbance, or recovery potential, and resistance to invasive annual grasses, and for determining the need and suitability of the burned area for seeding. The framework identifies six primary components that largely determine resilience to disturbance, resistance to invasive grasses,...

  3. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  4. Links BetweenCognitive Linguistics andSecond Language Pedagogy:Corpora and its Great Potential%语料库:认知语言学与二语教学法的桥梁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隽然

    2014-01-01

    文章用认知语言学的视角来讲授动词 find 的语法特点及其在实际交流中的使用,指出学习者语料库和认知语言学“牢固深化”的概念对语法教学有积极贡献。在二语教学法中,基于学习者语料库和母语者语料库的数据分析对于解释“牢固深化”概念是必不可少。因此,在数据分析方面的成果不仅局限于中国学生对于动词 find 的使用,也包含了英语为母语者对于它的使用。%This paper aims at analyzing the uses of the verb ‘find’ in communicative activities from the perspective of cognitive linguistics .It is suggested that the concept of ‘entrenchment’ contributes significantly to grammar pedagogy .In view of the great necessity of the corpora of second language learners and that of the native speakers ,the research in the paper is not confined to the Chinese learners’ use of the verb ,but also that of the native users .

  5. Groin Swelling in a Four-Year-Old Boy: Primary Great Saphenous Vein Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Mustafa Cüneyt; Çiçek, Ömer Faruk; Yalçınkaya, Adnan; Taşoğlu, İrfan

    2015-11-01

    Primary venous aneurysm, especially in pediatric population, is a very rare clinical entity. We report a case of primary great saphenous vein aneurysm in a 4-year-old boy. He was initially suspected of suffering from inguinal hernia because the soft mass was detected at the inguinal region when the patient was in the standing position, but color Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated the swelling to be a great saphenous vein aneurysm. We decided that surgery was the best option because of potential risk for thromboembolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How users experience great products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz Nicolas, J.C.; Aurisicchio, M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports qualitative research about how users experience great products. Eighteen interviews were conducted in which participants were asked to bring along a ‘great’ product that they own. During the interviews participants explained why they consider a product great and how they experienc

  7. Great Explorers to the East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo:…

  8. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  9. Great Explorers to the East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo: Describing the World"; "By Water to India";…

  10. Rethinking China's new great wall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Zhijun; Melville, David S; Liu, Jianguo; Chen, Ying; Yang, Hongyan; Ren, Wenwei; Zhang, Zhengwang; Piersma, Theunis; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    ... enclosed by thousands of kilometers of seawalls, whose length exceeds that of China’s famous ancient “Great Wall” (see photos and map). This new “Great Wall,” covering 60% of the total length of coast-line along mainland China...

  11. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  12. The POSEIDON Demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P.J.L.J. van de

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the Poseidon demonstrator: a demonstrator that integrates the individual research results of all partners of the Poseidon project. After describing how the Poseidon demonstrator was built, deployed, and operated, we will not only show many results obtained from the demons

  13. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  14. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  15. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  16. Prospects of implant with locking plate in fixation of subtrochanteric fracture: experimental demonstration of its potential benefits on synthetic femur model with supportive hierarchical nonlinear hyperelastic finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifi Mohammed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective fixation of fracture requires careful selection of a suitable implant to provide stability and durability. Implant with a feature of locking plate (LP has been used widely for treating distal fractures in femur because of its favourable clinical outcome, but its potential in fixing proximal fractures in the subtrochancteric region has yet to be explored. Therefore, this comparative study was undertaken to demonstrate the merits of the LP implant in treating the subtrochancteric fracture by comparing its performance limits against those obtained with the more traditional implants; angle blade plate (ABP and dynamic condylar screw plate (DCSP. Materials and Methods Nine standard composite femurs were acquired, divided into three groups and fixed with LP (n = 3, ABP (n = 3 and DCSP (n = 3. The fracture was modeled by a 20 mm gap created at the subtrochanteric region to experimentally study the biomechanical response of each implant under both static and dynamic axial loading paradigms. To confirm the experimental findings and to understand the critical interactions at the boundaries, the synthetic femur/implant systems were numerically analyzed by constructing hierarchical finite element models with nonlinear hyperelastic properties. The predictions from the analyses were then compared against the experimental measurements to demonstrate the validity of each numeric model, and to characterize the internal load distribution in the femur and load bearing properties of each implant. Results The average measurements indicated that the constructs with ABP, DCPS and LP respectively had overall stiffness values of 70.9, 110.2 and 131.4 N/mm, and exhibited reversible deformations of 12.4, 4.9 and 4.1 mm when the applied dynamic load was 400 N and plastic deformations of 11.3, 2.4 and 1.4 mm when the load was 1000 N. The corresponding peak cyclic loads to failure were 1100, 1167 and 1600 N. The errors

  17. Cholera: a great global concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha Deb; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. The V. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. The O1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima. V. cholerae O1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistant V. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Demonstration of Spontaneous Chirality in a Nonlinear Microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi-Tao; Wang, Heming; Dong, Chun-Hua; Jing, Hui; Liu, Rui-Shan; Chen, Xi; Ge, Li; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Chirality is an asymmetric property widely found in nature. Here, we propose and demonstrate experimentally the spontaneous emergence of chirality in an on-chip ultrahigh-Q whispering-gallery microresonator, without broken parity or time-reversal symmetry. This counterintuitive effect arises due to the inherent Kerr-nonlinearity-modulated coupling between clockwise and counterclockwise propagating waves. Above an input threshold of a few hundred microwatts, the initial chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the counterpropagating output ratio exceeds 20 ∶1 with bidirectional inputs. The spontaneous chirality in an on-chip microresonator holds great potential in studies of fundamental physics and applied photonic devices.

  19. The Great Cacti: Ethnobotany & Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Hooper

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of The Great Cacti: Ethnobotany & Biogeography. David Yetman. 2007. The University of Arizona, Tucson. Pp. 320, 366 color photographs, 17 maps. $59.95 (cloth. ISBN 9780816524310.

  20. Juyongguan on the Great Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Juyongguan Pass on the Great Wall,one ofthe most important strategic passes of the oldcapital Beijing,is now repaired and a goodplace for tourists to see ancient Chinesemilitary and cultural facilities,as well asbeautiful local scenery.

  1. Critical Realism in Great Expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雪莲

    2014-01-01

    Great Expectations is an important work by English novelist Dickens.His novels not only reflect the life experience of a whole generation genuinely,but also disclose the social reality vividly in England in the middle 19th century.Its depth and width go beyond most of the works of his contemporaries.Great Expectations is the excellent novel of critical realism in the later period of Dickens.It describes the de-velopment of Pip’s grown-up and the disillusion of his“great expectations”.Educated by the reality,he came to realize what he pursued in the Vanity Fair was not valuable at all.So as to see clearer the great power of critical realism in Dickens’works and thus can understand the no-vel,this thesis analyzes the hero’s character development and the influential factors upon the formation of his character.

  2. "I Climbed the Great Wall"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    I finally climbed the Great Wall, A dream of my childhood; my heart is filled with pleasure at the indescribable beauty of the Wall. China’s ancient civilization is best documented by the grandeur of the Wall.

  3. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  4. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Data Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting...

  5. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  6. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  7. GREAT Process Modeller user manual

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Urko; España, Sergio; Ruiz, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    This report contains instructions to install, uninstall and use GREAT Process Modeller, a tool that supports Communication Analysis, a communication-oriented business process modelling method. GREAT allows creating communicative event diagrams (i.e. business process models), specifying message structures (which describe the messages associated to each communicative event), and automatically generating a class diagram (representing the data model of an information system that would support suc...

  8. Toy Demonstrator's "VISIT" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The role of the toy demonstrator in a home-based, mother-involved intervention effort (Verbal Interaction Project) is presented in this handbook for staff members. It is believed that the prerequisites for functioning in the toy demonstrator's role are a sense of responsibility, patience with the children and their mothers, and willingness to be…

  9. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  10. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  11. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  12. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  13. Test Demonstration on Yield-increasing Potential of Summer and Autumn Peas in Guiyang%贵阳市夏秋豌豆增产潜力试验示范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家秀; 朱小清; 田梅; 黄琴

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we carried out the test demonstration on the growth potential of summer and autumn peas from technical measures such as pea cultivar, planting density and cultivation pattern. The results showed that different pea cultivars had different productivities, while different cultivars required different densities correspondingly. The four pea cultivars in this test possessed good commercial characters, large pod and high yield, and all of them were suitable to be promoted and cultivated in high-altitude areas in Guiyang. When they were planted in summer and autumn, the suitable sowing time was in middle and late August, and the suitable seeding quantity of Zhongwan No.4 and Zhongwan No.6 was about 12.5 kg/667 m2, while that of Tengfei No.5 and Tengfei No.7 was about 10 kg/667 m2.%  从豌豆品种、种植密度、栽培方式等技术措施进行了夏秋反季节豌豆增产潜力试验示范.试验结果表明,不同豌豆品种有不同的生产力,而不同品种又要求不同的密度.参试的4个豌豆品种商品性状好,荚大,产量高,均适合在贵阳高海拔地区推广栽培.作夏秋反季节栽培时,播种期均以8月中下旬为宜,中豌4号和中豌6号的适宜播种密度为12.5 kg/667 m2左右,而腾飞5号和腾飞7号的适宜播种密度为10 kg/667 m2左右.

  14. Great potential of a panel of multiple hMTH1, SPD, ITGA11 and COL11A1 markers for diagnosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Inn-Wen; Chang, Mei-Yin; Chang, Huang-Chou; Yu, Ya-Ping; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Tsai, Jong-Rung; Hung, Jen-Yu; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Tsai, Mee-Sun; Hwang, Jhi-Jhu; Lin, Shiu-Ru

    2006-11-01

    Research on molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may provide gene targets in critical pathways valuable for improving the efficacy of therapy and survival of patients with NSCLC. However, the molecular markers highly sensitive for the prognosis and treatment evaluation of NSCLC are not yet available. To explore candidates, we conducted an oligonucleotide microarray study with three pairs of NSCLC and normal lung tissue, and determined 8 differentially expressed genes including the Human MutT homologue (hMTH1), Surfactant protein D (SPD), Human hyaluronan binding protein 2 (HABP2), Crystalline-mu (CRYM), Ceruloplasmin (CP), Integrin alpha-11 subunit (ITGA11), Collagen type XI alpha I (COL11A1), and Lung-specific X protein (Lun X). Four lung cancer-related markers MUC-1, hTERT, hnRNP B1, and CK-19 were also incorporated for further analysis. The expression profiles of the twelve genes in seventy pairs of NSCLC tumor and normal lung tissue were then detected quantitatively by using membrane array and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The data of the membrane array and qRT-PCR were compared for consistency and the potential of these mRNA markers in clinical application. The results showed that membrane array and qRT-PCR obtained consistent data for the tested genes in both sensitivity and specificity (correlation coefficient 0.921, p<0.0001). For patients' clinicopathological characteristics, the overexpression of hMTH1, SPD, HABP 2, ITGA11, COL11A1, and CK-19 was significantly correlated with the pathological stage (p<0.05). In addition, the overexpression of hMTH1, SPD, ITGA11, and COL11A1 was correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. This is the first report relating SPD to a prognosis marker for NSCLC. Moreover, the combined detection of these four mRNA markers by membrane array had a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 84% for NSCLC, significantly higher than these markers had achieved

  15. Particulate Loads Caused by Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Lawrence J.; Woodruff, Neil P.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the annual flux of suspended particulates caused by wind erosion in the Great Plains is estimated. This study demonstrated that climate causes wide variations in air pollution from wind erosion. (BT)

  16. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  17. TENCompetence tool demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2009). TENCompetence tool demonstration. Presented at Zorgacademie Parkstad (Health Academy Parkstad), Limburg Leisure Academy, Life Long Learning Limburg and a number of regional educational institutions. May, 18, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, T

  18. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  19. Pancreaticopleural fistula : CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung [Chuncheon Medical Center, ChunChon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the pancreaticopleural fistula is known to cause recurrent exudative or hemorrhagic pleural effusions. These are often large in volume and require treatment, unlike the effusions in acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis can be made either by the finding of elevated pleural fluid amylase level or, using imaging studies, by the direct demonstration of the fistulous tract. We report two cases of pancreaticopleural fistula demonstrated by computed tomography.

  20. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  1. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  2. Fitzgerald and The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利娟

    2014-01-01

    F. Scott Fitzgerald, the famous American novelist in the 1920s, is famous as the spokesman and laureate of the“The Lost Generation”. Considered one of Fitzgerald’s representative works and the finest achievement of his literary career, The Great Gatsby is widely recognized as a classic of American literature. Since its publication in 1925, it has been a continual hot sub⁃ject of critical attention,and studies on it have never stopped. This paper provides a detailed account of“the Fitzgerald revival”as well as the previous criticism on The Great Gatsby.

  3. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  4. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  5. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  6. Demonstrating Supernova Remnant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Denis A.; Williams, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    We have created a software tool to calculate at display supernova remnant evolution which includes all stages from early ejecta dominated phase to late-time merging with the interstellar medium. The software was created using Python, and can be distributed as Python code, or as an executable file. The purpose of the software is to demonstrate the different phases and transitions that a supernova remnant undergoes, and will be used in upper level undergraduate astrophysics courses as a teaching tool. The usage of the software and its graphical user interface will be demonstrated.

  7. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  8. The Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/948383.948400 American Scientist,. Computing may be the fourth great domain of science, along with the physical, life, and social sciences.

  9. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  10. Myths of the Great War

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We review some "myths" of the Great War of 1914 to 1918: that the war broke out inadvertently, that the western front saw needless slaughter, that the Allies used the food weapon to strangle Germany, and that the peace treaty that ended the war caused the rise of Hitler and the still greater war that followed.\\ud

  11. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  12. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were…

  13. The Great Goddesses of Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SheldonGosline; KatjaReinhardt; NortheastNormalUniversity

    2000-01-01

    Norman,Oklahoma:UniversityofOklahomaPress:Norman,1999.ISBN0-8061-3202-7.Pp.319.US$19.95.TheGreatGoddessesofEgyptstelltsiebenGoettinnenindenMittelpunktderagyptischenReligionsgeschichte:Nut,Neith,Nechbet,Wadjet,Hathor,MutundIsis.JederGottinisteineigenesKapitelgewidmet,zusatzlichsindeineEinfuhrung,diesichkurzmitderFnihdynastischenZeitbeschaftigt,undeinKapitelzuTempelundKultbeigefugt.EinGlossar,dasGottinnen(keineGotter)undeinigeimTexterwahnteKoniginnenauffuhrt,undeineausfuhrlicheBibliographieschlierendasBuchab....

  14. Symbols in the Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琰

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the symbols in the book"The Great Gatsby" which include some particular places, objects, characters, settings and actions. These symbols are considered to have values different from what they are symbolized and most of them are connected to the theme of the novel-the corruption of the American dream.

  15. The Great War. [Teaching Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Broadcasting Service, Washington, DC.

    This package of teaching materials is intended to accompany an eight-part film series entitled "The Great War" (i.e., World War I), produced for public television. The package consists of a "teacher's guide,""video segment index,""student resource" materials, and approximately 40 large photographs. The video series is not a war story of battles,…

  16. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  17. A Successful Small Wind Future: There Is Great Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2017-05-02

    Suzanne Tegen made this presentation at the 2017 Small Wind Conference in Bloomington, Minnesota. It provides an overview of DOE-sponsored small wind products, testing, and support; an example of a Regional Resource Center defending distributed wind; the recently published Distributed Wind Taxonomy; the dWind model and recent results; and other recent DOE and NREL publications related to small and distributed wind.

  18. China and United States have Great Potential for Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China and the United States are the top two consumers of energy resources in the worldand are thus bound to cooperate in this area. Such cooperation includes mutual study andabsorption of each other's energy policies, cooperation in related technology, includingnuclear energy, and cooperation in energy strategy. If the two countries succeed in suchcooperation, it would not only enhance strategic mutual trust between them but alsocontribute positively to global energy assurance and security.

  19. Diatoms - nature materials with great potential for bioapplications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medarević Đorđe P; Lošić Dušan; Ibrić Svetlana R

    2016-01-01

    ... (light focusing and luminescence) and biocompatibility make diatom frustule as a suitable raw material for the development of devices such as bio- and gas sensors, microfluidic particle sorting devices, supercapacitors, batteries...

  20. Isostearic Acid: A Unique Fatty Acid with Great Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedemann, S.C.C.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils and animal fats are important and established raw materials for the production of chemicals and ingredients. From its origins more than 150 years ago, the oleochemical industry has grown in scale and diversity to become an important branch of the chemical industry. With increasing

  1. Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L.; Fowler, Veronica L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analys

  2. Arctic Craft Demonstration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    it received a lot of attention from the local population. Demonstration personnel, both Coast Guard and contractors, were asked to be receptive to...www.uscg.mil/top/missions/ . Counter-Drug Interdiction and Alien Migrant Interdiction operations are currently not included. In the non-Polar regions

  3. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  4. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  5. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  6. Passive damping technology demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert E.; Spencer, Susan M.; Austin, Eric M.; Johnson, Conor D.

    1995-05-01

    A Hughes Space Company study was undertaken to (1) acquire the analytical capability to design effective passive damping treatments and to predict the damped dynamic performance with reasonable accuracy; (2) demonstrate reasonable test and analysis agreement for both baseline and damped baseline hardware; and (3) achieve a 75% reduction in peak transmissibility and 50% reduction in rms random vibration response. Hughes Space Company teamed with CSA Engineering to learn how to apply passive damping technology to their products successfully in a cost-effective manner. Existing hardware was selected for the demonstration because (1) previous designs were lightly damped and had difficulty in vibration test; (2) multiple damping concepts could be investigated; (3) the finite element model, hardware, and test fixture would be available; and (4) damping devices could be easily implemented. Bracket, strut, and sandwich panel damping treatments that met the performance goals were developed by analysis. The baseline, baseline with damped bracket, and baseline with damped strut designs were built and tested. The test results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions and demonstrated that the desired reduction in dynamic response could be achieved. Having successfully demonstrated this approach, it can now be used with confidence for future designs as a means for reducing weight and enhancing reliability.

  7. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are no

  8. Distance Learning Environment Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Distance Learning Environment Demonstration (DLED) was a comparative study of distributed multimedia computer-based training using low cost high...measurement. The DLED project provides baseline research in the effective use of distance learning and multimedia communications over a wide area ATM/SONET

  9. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  10. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  11. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  12. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesinger, K; Cuppett, D; Dyer, D

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with Kalwall building panels. An added feature of the Kalwall system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  13. Geothermal fluid genesis in the Great Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    Early theories concerning geothermal recharge in the Great Basin implied recharge was by recent precipitation. Physical, chemical, and isotopic differences between thermal and non-thermal fluids and global paleoclimatic indicators suggest that recharge occurred during the late Pleistocene. Polar region isotopic studies demonstrate that a depletion in stable light-isotopes of precipitation existed during the late Pleistocene due to the colder, wetter climate. Isotopic analysis of calcite veins and packrat midden megafossils confirm the depletion event occurred in the Great Basin. Isotopic analysis of non-thermal springs is utilized as a proxy for local recent precipitation. Contoured plots of deuterium concentrations from non-thermal and thermal water show a regional, systematic variation. Subtracting contoured plots of non-thermal water from plots of thermal water reveals that thermal waters on a regional scale are generally isotopically more depleted. Isolated areas where thermal water is more enriched than non-thermal water correspond to locations of pluvial Lakes Lahontan and Bonneville, suggesting isotopically enriched lake water contributed to fluid recharge. These anomalous waters also contain high concentrations of sodium chloride, boron, and other dissolved species suggestive of evaporative enrichment. Carbon-age date and isotopic data from Great Basin thermal waters correlate with the polar paleoclimate studies. Recharge occurred along range bounding faults. 151 refs., 62 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  15. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  16. The Majorana Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Aguayo, E; Hoppe, E W; Keillor, M E; Kephart, J D; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Merriman, J; Orrell, J L; Overman, N R; Avignone, F T; Back, H O; Combs, D C; Leviner, L E; Young, A R; Barabash, A S; Konovalov, S I; Vanyushin, I; Yumatov, V; Bergevin, M; Chan, Y-D; Detwiler, J A; Loach, J C; Martin, R D; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Vetter, K; Bertrand, F E; Cooper, R J; Radford, D C; Varner, R L; Yu, C -H; Boswell, M; Elliott, S R; Gehman, V M; Hime, A; Kidd, M F; LaRoque, B H; Rielage, K; Ronquest, M C; Steele, D; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Gusey, K; Kochetov, O; Shirchenko, M; Timkin, V; Yakushev, E; Busch, M; Esterline, J; Tornow, W; Christofferson, C D; Horton, M; Howard, S; Sobolev, V; Collar, J I; Fields, N; Creswick, R J; Doe, P J; Johnson, R A; Knecht, A; Leon, J; Marino, M G; Miller, M L; Robertson, R G H; Schubert, A G; Wolfe, B A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Hazama, R; Nomachi, M; Shima, T; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Henning, R; Howe, M A; MacMullin, S; Phillips, D G; Snavely, K J; Strain, J; Vorren, K; Guiseppe, V E; Keller, C; Mei, D -M; Perumpilly, G; Thomas, K; Zhang, C; Hallin, A L; Keeter, K J; Mizouni, L; Wilkerson, J F

    2011-01-01

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program including background reduction techniques is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% in 76Ge is given.

  17. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  18. Chemical Control of Invasive Phragmites in a Great Lakes Marsh: A Field Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Solanum dulcamara L.), which are introduced species, as well as native beggarticks, sedges ( Carex spp.), jewelweed, jointleaf rush (Juncus...plantain 0 4 Carex cryptolepis Northeastern sedge 8 0 Carex stricta Upright sedge 8 0 Carex sp. Sedge 12 0 Circium arvense I Canada thistle 12 0...Phragmites australis Phragmites 100 100 Non-Target Species Campanula aparaniodes Bluejoint grass 8 4 Carex comosa Longhair sedge 0 8 Carex

  19. Great gas plants : these five natural gas processing facilities demonstrate decades of top-flight technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-07-15

    The natural gas purification and pipeline sector is a major economic driver in Canada. Gas processing facilities are growing in number, and several large gas projects are being planned for future construction in the western provinces. This article outlined 5 gas plants in order to illustrate the sector's history and breadth in Canada. The Shell Jumping Pound gas complex was constructed in 1951 after a sulfur-rich gas discovery near Calgary in 1944. The Empress Straddle plant was built in 1971 in southeastern Alberta and is one of the largest single industrial consumers of electrical power in the province. The Fort Nelson gas processing plant is North America's largest sour gas processing facility. The Shell Caroline complex was built 1993. The Sable offshore energy project is located on the coast of Nova Scotia to handle gas produced from the Thebaud wells. A consortium is now considering the development of new gas fields in the Sable area. 5 figs.

  20. Recurrence Statistics of Great Earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, E; Johnson, P A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the sequence of great earthquakes over the past century. To examine whether the earthquake record includes temporal clustering, we identify aftershocks and remove those from the record. We focus on the recurrence time, defined as the time between two consecutive earthquakes. We study the variance in the recurrence time and the maximal recurrence time. Using these quantities, we compare the earthquake record with sequences of random events, generated by numerical simulations, while systematically varying the minimal earthquake magnitude Mmin. Our analysis shows that the earthquake record is consistent with a random process for magnitude thresholds 7.0<=Mmin<=8.3, where the number of events is larger. Interestingly, the earthquake record deviates from a random process at magnitude threshold 8.4<=Mmin<= 8.5, where the number of events is smaller; however, this deviation is not strong enough to conclude that great earthquakes are clustered. Overall, the findings are robust both qualitat...

  1. Ohlin on the Great Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Benny; Jonung, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Bertil Ohlin was a most active commentator on current economic events in the interwar period, combining his academic work with a journalistic output of an impressive scale. He published more than a thousand newspaper articles in the 1920s and 1930s, more than any other professor in economics in Sweden. Here we have collected ten articles by Ohlin, translated from Swedish and originally published in Stockholms-Tidningen, to trace the evolution of his thinking during the Great Depression of the...

  2. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  3. Great Basin geoscience data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Gary L.; Sawatzky, Don L.; Connors, Katherine A.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM serves as the archive for 73 digital GIS data set for the Great Basin. The data sets cover Nevada, eastern California, southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and western Utah. Some of the data sets are incomplete for the total area. On the CD-ROM, the data are provided in three formats, a prototype Federal Data Exchange standard format, the ESRI PC ARCVIEW1 format for viewing the data, and the ESRI ARC/INFO export format. Extensive documentation is provided to describe the data, the sources, and data enhancements. The following data are provided. One group of coverages comes primarily from 1:2,000,000-scale National Atlas data and can be assembled for use as base maps. These various forms of topographic information. In addition, public land system data sets are provided from the 1:2,500,000-scale Geologic Map of the United States and 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Geochemical data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are provided for most of the Great Basin. Geophysical data are provided for most of the Great Basin, typically gridded data with a spacing of 1 km. The geophysical data sets include aeromagnetics, gravity, radiometric data, and several derivative products. The thematic data sets include geochronology, calderas, pluvial lakes, tectonic extension domains, distribution of pre-Cenozoic terranes, limonite anomalies, Landsat linear features, mineral sites, and Bureau of Land Management exploration and mining permits.

  4. Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechle, Adam J.; Wu, Chin H.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Anderson, Eric J.; Schwab, David J.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2016-11-01

    The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The majority of the observed meteotsunamis happen from late-spring to mid-summer and are associated primarily with convective storms. Meteotsunami events of potentially dangerous magnitude (height > 0.3 m) occur an average of 106 times per year throughout the region. These results reveal that meteotsunamis are much more frequent than follow from historic anecdotal reports. Future climate scenarios over the United States show a likely increase in the number of days favorable to severe convective storm formation over the Great Lakes, particularly in the spring season. This would suggest that the convectively associated meteotsunamis in these regions may experience an increase in occurrence frequency or a temporal shift in occurrence to earlier in the warm season. To date, meteotsunamis in the area of the Great Lakes have been an overlooked hazard.

  5. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    . This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses...... of control, driven by such challenges as complying with cost goals, the need to choose a German prefab supplier, and local contractors. Energy calculations, indoor climate, issues related to square meter requirements, and the hydrogen element became problematic. The aim to obtain passive house certification...

  6. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    , and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...... encompasses both an evaluation of the design and Construction process as well as a post-occupancy evaluation. Process experiences include the use of a multidisciplinary competence group and performance measurement. The commencement of the project was enthusiastic, but it was forced into more traditional forms...

  7. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  8. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  9. Music-of-Light Stethoscope: A Demonstration of the Photoacoustic Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitichev, D.; Xia, W; Hill, E.; Mosse, C A; Perkins, T.; Konyn, K.; Ourselin, S; Desjardins, A; Vercauteren, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a system aimed at demonstrating the photoacoustic (PA) effect for educational purposes. PA imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that requires no contrast agent and has a great potential for spine and brain lesion characterisation, breast cancer and blood flow monitoring notably in the context of fetal surgery. It relies on combining light excitation with ultrasound reception. Our brief was to present and explain PA imaging in a public-friendly way suitable for a varie...

  10. Education Demonstration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A.; Lee, R. L.

    2003-10-01

    The General Atomics fusion education program ``Scientist in the Classroom" (SIC) now in its sixth year, uses scientists and engineers to present plasma as a state of matter to students in the classroom. Using hands-on equipment, students see how magnets, gas pressure changes, and different gases are turned into plasmas. A piston, sealed volume, and vacuum chamber illuminate ideal gas laws. Liquid nitrogen is used to explore thermodynamic temperature effects and changes in states of matter. Light bulbs are excited with a Tesla coil to ionize gases, thus becoming an inexpensive plasma devices and a plasma tube shows magnetic interactions with plasma. The demonstration equipment used in this program is built with simple designs and common commercial equipment keeping in mind a teacher's tight budget. The SIC program ( ˜25 school presentations per year) has become very popular and has acquired an enthusiastic group of regular teacher clientele requesting repeat visits. In addition, three very popular and successful ``Build-It" days, sponsored by the General Atomics Fusion Education Outreach Program, enables teachers to build and keep in their classroom some of this equipment. The demonstration devices will be presented along with their ``build-it" details.

  11. Inseparable phone books demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation and experiment steps are presented on how to turn a simple discrepant event into an instructional activity. Results showed the relationships between number of pages and force, as well as between amounts of interleave and force. In addition to these, the mathematical equation for the total force between all interleaved pages is derived. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that not only can phone books be used, but also ordinary books, to investigate this discrepant event. This experiment can be conducted as an example to show the agreement between theoretical and experimental results along with the confounding variables. This discrepant event can be used to create a cognitive conflict in students’ minds about the concepts of ‘force and motion’ and ‘friction force’.

  12. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  13. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  14. Industrial Hardening Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    less severe conditions than thermal cracking (850’ - 950°F and 10 to 20 psi). Zeolitic or molecular sieve- base catalysts are used. Catalytic reforming...with Potential Industrial Hardening A-1 Participants B Post-Attack Petroleum Refining (and Production) B-1 from Crude Oil V List of Figures Number Page...the Key Worker Shelter 116 viii B-1 Proportions of the Products Obtained by Distillation B-2 of Six Crude Oils B-2 Generalized Flow Chart of the

  15. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  16. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  17. Molecular screening for bacteria and protozoa in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) nesting in Slovakia, central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Víchová, Bronislava; Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Hurníková, Zuzana; Turčeková, Ĺudmila

    2016-09-01

    This study brings the data about the occurrence of bacterial and protozoan pathogens in 32 great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), representing approximately 20% of the population nesting in the surroundings of water basin Liptovská Mara (northern part of Central Slovakia). A survey revealed the presence of tick-borne bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (6.25%) and parasitic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii (3.1%). These data indicate an infectious status of the great cormorant population nesting in Slovakia; they might suggest a degree of environmental contamination by infectious agents and demonstrate the role of migratory seabirds in the circulation and dispersal of pathogens with zoonotic potential.

  18. The Heart and Great Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuka, Ekene; King, Nakesha; Heuer, Eric; Breuer, Christopher

    2017-03-13

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. We have made large strides over the past few decades in management, but definitive therapeutic options to address this health-care burden are still limited. Given the ever-increasing need, much effort has been spent creating engineered tissue to replaced diseased tissue. This article gives a general overview of this work as it pertains to the development of great vessels, myocardium, and heart valves. In each area, we focus on currently studied methods, limitations, and areas for future study. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  19. Laser Scanner Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, B.

    2005-09-06

    In the Summer of 2004 a request for proposals went out to potential vendors to offer a three-dimensional laser scanner for a number of unique metrology tasks at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Specifications were established including range, accuracy, scan density, resolution and field of view in consideration of anticipated department requirements. Four vendors visited the site to present their system and they were asked to perform three unique tests with their system on a two day visit to SLAC. Two of the three tests were created to emulate real-world applications at SLAC while the third was an accuracy and resolution series of experiments. The scope of these tests is presented and some of the vendor's results are included.

  20. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  1. Nuclear power demonstrating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, V. V.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1980-08-12

    Apparatus for demonstrating the operation of a closed loop nuclear steam electric generating plant includes a transparent boiler assembly having immersion heating elements, which may be quartz lamps or stainless steel encased resistive immersion heating units with a quartz iodide lamp providing a source of visible radiation when using the encased immersion heating units. A variable voltage autotransformer is geared to a support rod for simulated reactor control rods for controlling the energy delivered to the heating elements and arranged so that when the voltage is high, the rods are withdrawn from the boiler to produce increased heating and illumination proportional to rod position, thereby simulating nuclear reaction. A relief valve, steam outlet pipe and water inlet pipe are connected to the boiler with a small stainless steel resistive heating element in the steam outlet pipe providing superheat. This heater is connected in series with a rheostat mounted on the front panel to provide superheat adjustments and an interlock switch that prevents the superheater from being energized when the steam valve is off with with no flow through the superheater. A heavy blue plastic radiation shield surrounds the boiler inside a bell jar.

  2. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  3. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  4. Does Sympathy Motivate Prosocial Behaviour in Great Apes?

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Liebal; Amrisha Vaish; Daniel Haun; Michael Tomasello

    2014-01-01

    Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities to feel with and for someone with our closest relatives, the great apes. Although several studies demonstrated that great apes help others, little is known about their underl...

  5. The financial feasible electric energy conservation potential in brazilian public and commercial buildings - retrofit demonstrations; O potencial de conservacao de energia eletrica financeiramente viavel em edificios publicos e comerciais do Brasil: demonstracoes de retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomardon, Louise Land B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lamberts, Roberto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Thome, Mabele [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). PROCEL

    1998-12-31

    In order to help the development of energy efficiency building standard in Brazil, to demonstrate state of art technologies and to encourage the use of hourly energy simulation tools, the National Energy Conservation Program (PROCEL) has started the 6 Cities Project. The project is being developed in six cities around the country. For this project a standard methodology was developed and applied. The methodology consists of a survey in the local utilities to establish the highest energy consumers in the commercial and public sector. A data-base is being created with information on energy consumption intensity and demand intensity in 15 buildings in each city. The data-base was designed to help the standards development. Among those buildings, in each city, two were selected, one is a public building and the other a private building, for a detailed energy audit. The audit data was used to calibrate a DOE2 simulation model. Simulations were performed and state of art technologies for energy efficiency are being tested and will be implemented. An after retrofit monitoring program is planed. In this paper the results of the first buildings will be showed, whose results point for reductions of electricity consumption, financially viable, between 25% and 35%. (author) 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.; e-mail: louise at ppe.ufrj.br; lamberts at ecv.ufsc.br

  6. Smart Sensor Demonstration Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzel, John; Bracey, Andrew; Rawls, Stephen; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Figueroa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Sensors are a critical element to any monitoring, control, and evaluation processes such as those needed to support ground based testing for rocket engine test. Sensor applications involve tens to thousands of sensors; their reliable performance is critical to achieving overall system goals. Many figures of merit are used to describe and evaluate sensor characteristics; for example, sensitivity and linearity. In addition, sensor selection must satisfy many trade-offs among system engineering (SE) requirements to best integrate sensors into complex systems [1]. These SE trades include the familiar constraints of power, signal conditioning, cabling, reliability, and mass, and now include considerations such as spectrum allocation and interference for wireless sensors. Our group at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) works in the broad area of integrated systems health management (ISHM). Core ISHM technologies include smart and intelligent sensors, anomaly detection, root cause analysis, prognosis, and interfaces to operators and other system elements [2]. Sensor technologies are the base fabric that feed data and health information to higher layers. Cost-effective operation of the complement of test stands benefits from technologies and methodologies that contribute to reductions in labor costs, improvements in efficiency, reductions in turn-around times, improved reliability, and other measures. ISHM is an active area of development at SSC because it offers the potential to achieve many of those operational goals [3-5].

  7. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  8. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  9. Einstein: The Standard of Greatness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigdon, John (Washington University)

    2005-03-16

    Einstein's seven-month performance in 1905 has no equal in the history of physics. Beginning with his revolutionary paper, completed on March 17, and continuing to September 26, Einstein wrote a total of five papers that changed the infrastructure of physics and today, a century later, these papers remain part of the tectonic bedrock of the discipline. How Einstein approached his physics and what he accomplished certainly provided the basis for his world fame. But while the What? and the How? were, and remain, of primary importance, can they explain Einstein's celebrity standing after 1922 and his iconic status today, fifty years after his death? The question remains: Why is Einstein the standard of greatness?

  10. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  11. How to write a great business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, W A

    1997-01-01

    Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers - and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the venture's product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it.

  12. The Great White Guppy: Top Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopes are often used to trace the trophic level of members of an ecosystem. As part of a stable isotope biogeochemistry and forensics course at Purdue University, students are introduced to this concept by analyzing nitrogen isotopes in sea food purchased from local grocery stores. There is a systematic increase in 15N/14N ratios going from kelp to clams/shrimp, to sardines, to tuna and finally to shark. These enrichments demonstrate how nitrogen is enriched in biomass as predators consume prey. Some of the highest nitrogen isotope enrichments observed, however, are in the common guppy. We investigated a number of aquarium fish foods and find they typically have high nitrogen isotope ratios because they are made form fish meal that is produced primarily from the remains of predator fish such as tuna. From, a isotope perspective, the guppy is the top of the food chain, more ferocious than even the Great White shark.

  13. Medicare Demonstration Projects and Evaluation Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) conducts and sponsors a number of innovative demonstration projects to test and measure the effect of potential...

  14. Medicare Demonstration Projects and Evaluation Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) conducts and sponsors a number of innovative demonstration projects to test and measure the effect of potential...

  15. Recognition of two great contemporaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The common denominator in the careers of two contemporaries and great men, citizens of Austria-Hungary - Leoš Janáček and Sigmund Freud - was that, in spite of their status as outsiders, they managed to achieve well-deserved recognition. Both non-Germans, they had to surmount a number of obstacles in order to attain their professional goals. The Slavophile Janáček dreamed for a long time of success in Prague, which came at last in 1916, two years before a triumph in Vienna. Freud had serious difficulties in his academic career because of the strengthening of racial prejudices and national hatred which were especially marked at the end of the 19th century. After the dissolution of the Empire things changed for the better for the composer, whose works got an excellent reception in Austria and Germany, whereas the psychiatrist had to leave Vienna after the Anschluss. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 177004: Serbian Musical Identities within Local and Global Frameworks: Traditions, Changes, Challenges

  16. A new approach for monitoring ebolavirus in wild great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E Reed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Africa is a "hotspot" for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs of global and local importance, and a current outbreak of ebolavirus is affecting multiple countries simultaneously. Ebolavirus is suspected to have caused recent declines in resident great apes. While ebolavirus vaccines have been proposed as an intervention to protect apes, their effectiveness would be improved if we could diagnostically confirm Ebola virus disease (EVD as the cause of die-offs, establish ebolavirus geographical distribution, identify immunologically naïve populations, and determine whether apes survive virus exposure.Here we report the first successful noninvasive detection of antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV from wild ape feces. Using this method, we have been able to identify gorillas with antibodies to EBOV with an overall prevalence rate reaching 10% on average, demonstrating that EBOV exposure or infection is not uniformly lethal in this species. Furthermore, evidence of antibodies was identified in gorillas thought previously to be unexposed to EBOV (protected from exposure by rivers as topological barriers of transmission.Our new approach will contribute to a strategy to protect apes from future EBOV infections by early detection of increased incidence of exposure, by identifying immunologically naïve at-risk populations as potential targets for vaccination, and by providing a means to track vaccine efficacy if such intervention is deemed appropriate. Finally, since human EVD is linked to contact with infected wildlife carcasses, efforts aimed at identifying great ape outbreaks could have a profound impact on public health in local communities, where EBOV causes case-fatality rates of up to 88%.

  17. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  18. Bentonite mat demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.G.

    1994-12-30

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration was developed to provide the Environmental Restoration Department with field performance characteristics and engineering data for an alternative closure cover system configuration. The demonstration was initiated in response to regulatory concerns regarding the use of an alternative cover system for future design configurations. These design considerations are in lieu of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Recommended Design for Closure Cover Systems and specifically a single compacted kaolin clay layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. This alternative configuration is a composite geosynthetic material hydraulic barrier consisting from bottom to top: 2 ft compacted sandy clay layer (typical local Savannah River Site soil type) that is covered by a bentonite mat--geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and is overlaid by a 40 mil High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane--flexible membrane liner. This effort was undertaken to obtain and document the necessary field performance/engineering data for future designs and meet regulatory technical requirements for an alternative cover system configuration. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is the recommended alternative cover system configuration for containment of hazardous and low level radiological waste layers that have a high potential of subsidence to be used at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This alternative configuration mitigates subsidence effects in providing a flexible, lightweight cover system to maintain the integrity of the closure. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is recommended for the Sanitary Landfill and Low Level Radiological Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) Closures.

  19. Le Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belaidi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objet de présenter quelques problématiques d'une recherche sur la construction d’un mécanisme de valorisation sociale de la protection de l’environnement : l’ordre public écologique. Cette étude s’appuie sur une expérience récente et originale en Afrique australe : la création de Parcs pour la Paix dont relève le Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Ces parcs sont officiellement consacrés à la protection et à la conservation de la diversité biologique, des ressources naturelles et culturelles qui y sont associées, ainsi qu’à la promotion de la coopération et de la Paix qu’elle soit civile, sociale, économique ou culturelle. La logique de construction de ces parcs repose sur l’idée que l’articulation des zones de conservation facilite la résolution de conflits territoriaux – de toutes sortes – en transformant les préoccupations environnementales en objet de coopération entre des juridictions politiques diverses. C’est précisément le schéma du concept juridique objet de nos travaux : l’ordre public écologique. Aussi peut-on se demander si le GLTP, en particulier, (peut constitue(r une illustration concrète de ce mécanisme et permettre d’atteindre la Paix recherchée, favorisant ainsi les processus de développement ?This article aims to present some problems of researches on the construction of a mechanism of social valorisation of the environmental protection: ecological public order. This study leans on a recent and original experience in southern Africa: the creation of Peace Park like the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP. These parks are officially dedicated to the protection and to the preservation of biological diversity, natural and cultural resources which are associated with it, as well as in the promotion of the cooperation and the peace. The peace looked for in these parks is not only the opposite of the war but it is also social, economic and cultural peace

  20. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  1. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) from Diporeia spp. (Pontoporeiidae, Amphipoda) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohamed; Winters, Andrew D

    2011-01-06

    The mode of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) transmission in the Great Lakes basin is largely unknown. In order to assess the potential role of macroinvertebrates in VHSV transmission, Diporeia spp., a group of amphipods that are preyed upon by a number of susceptible Great Lakes fishes, were collected from seven locations in four of the Great Lakes and analyzed for the presence of VHSV. It was demonstrated that VHSV is present in some Diporeia spp. samples collected from lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan, but not from Lake Superior. Phylogenetic comparison of partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences (737 base pairs) of the five isolates to sequences of 13 other VHSV strains showed the clustering of Diporeia spp. isolates with the VHSV genotype IVb. This study reports the first incidence of a fish-pathogenic rhabdovirus being isolated from Diporeia, or any other crustacean and underscores the role macroinvertebrates may play in VHSV ecology.

  2. Detection of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV from Diporeia spp. (Pontoporeiidae, Amphipoda in the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mode of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV transmission in the Great Lakes basin is largely unknown. In order to assess the potential role of macroinvertebrates in VHSV transmission, Diporeia spp., a group of amphipods that are preyed upon by a number of susceptible Great Lakes fishes, were collected from seven locations in four of the Great Lakes and analyzed for the presence of VHSV. It was demonstrated that VHSV is present in some Diporeia spp. samples collected from lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan, but not from Lake Superior. Phylogenetic comparison of partial nucleoprotein (N gene sequences (737 base pairs of the five isolates to sequences of 13 other VHSV strains showed the clustering of Diporeia spp. isolates with the VHSV genotype IVb. This study reports the first incidence of a fish-pathogenic rhabdovirus being isolated from Diporeia, or any other crustacean and underscores the role macroinvertebrates may play in VHSV ecology.

  3. Behind every great ant, there is a great gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Sapountzis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Ants are quite possibly the most successful insects on Earth, with an estimated 10 000 species worldwide, making up at least a third of the global insect biomass, and comprising several times the biomass of all land vertebrates combined. Ant species have diverse trophic habits, including herbivory...... on the potential contribution of the ants’ gut symbionts. This issue of Molecular Ecology contains a study by Anderson et al. (2012), who take a comparative approach to explore the link between trophic levels and ant microbiomes, specifically, to address three main questions: (i) Do closely related herbivorous...... conserved gut microbiomes, suggesting symbiont functions that directly relate to dietary preference of the ant host. These findings suggest an ecological role of gut symbionts in ants, for example, in metabolism and/or protection, and the comparative approach taken supports a model of co-evolution between...

  4. Chemical Demonstrations: The Chem Demo Book. A Guide To Fun, Safe & Exciting Chemical Demonstrations. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Thomas K.

    Chemical demonstrations can and do enhance an otherwise potentially dull subjects--the properties of hazardous materials. This book contains the recipes for presenting several chemical demonstrations. Demonstrations are designed to be relatively easy to perform and present minimal hazards if done properly. The book contains an introduction, safety…

  5. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina's next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant.

  6. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongchun eHan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina’s next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, qRT-PCR was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant.

  7. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Rachel; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Williams, Brianna; Hogan, Dianna; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundCarbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting.ResultsWe modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985–2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C) coming from above-ground biomass and detritus.ConclusionsNatural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha−1/year−1 for Atlantic white cedar), the total soil carbon loss from the

  8. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  9. Preventing Falls: Great Help for Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Great Help for Older Americans ... on National Pepper Center website. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / ...

  10. Transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castela Eduardo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposition of the great arteries (TGA, also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500–5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually

  11. Cosmic Reason of Great Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Murtazov, Andrey

    The origin of long-time and global glaciations in the past of our planet, which have been named «great», is still not clear. Both the advance of glaciers and their subsequent melting must be connected with some energy consuming processes. There is a powerful energy source permanently functioning throughout the Earth’s history - the solar radiation. The equality of the incoming shortwave solar energy and the transformed long-wave energy emitted by the Earth provides for the whole ecosphere’s sustainable evolution. Great glaciations might be caused by space body falls into the world oceans. If the body is large enough, it can stir waters down to the bottom. The world waters are part of the global heat transfer from the planet’s equator to its poles (nowadays, mostly to the North Pole). The mixing of the bottom and surface waters breaks the circulation of flows and they stop. The termination of heat transfer to the poles will result in an icecap at high latitudes which in its turn will decrease the total solar heat inflow to the planet and shift the pole ice boarder to the equator. This positive feedback may last long and result in long-time glaciations. The oceanic currents will remain only near the equator. The factor obstructing the global cooling is the greenhouse effect. Volcanic eruptions supply a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When due to the increased albedo the planet receives less solar heat, plants bind less carbon oxide into biomass and more of it retains in the atmosphere. Therefore, the outflow of heat from the planet decreases and glaciations does not involve the whole planet. The balance established between the heat inflow and heat losses is unstable. Any imbalance acts as a positive feed-back factor. If the volcanic activity grows, the inflow of the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere will cause its heating-up (plants will fail to reproduce themselves quickly enough to utilize the carbonic acid). The temperature growth will lead to

  12. Laser Ceilometer CL51 Demonstration Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Victor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winston, Herb A. [Vaisala, Inc., Vantaa (Finland)

    2016-05-01

    Improvements in the measurements of clouds and the ability to support observation systems are critically important to advancing our understanding and improving global climate model performance. The purpose of a demonstration of the Vaisala CL51 ceilometer was to evaluate its high-range capabilities as a possible augmentation to data provided by the CL31 ceilometer that currently is deployed at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites. Vaisala performed a no-cost demonstration of the equipment; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supported the data analysis; and ARM provided logistical support, power, maintenance, etc. The laser ceilometer provided measurements of cloud-base height, vertical visibility, and backscatter profile at a vertical range of 15 km. The ceilometer demonstration was conducted during the Characterization of Cirrus and Aerosol Properties campaign (CCAP) to provide coincident observations of cirrus cloud heights and potential backscatter signals by aerosols. This campaign included deployment of a CL51 ceilometer at the ARM Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, co-located with the current CL31, micropulse lidar, and balloon-borne sounding system. Data collected from these sensors were analyzed to compare and contrast the data from the CL51 ceilometer.

  13. [Psychiatry and the Great War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fras, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    During the World War I, the high rate of psychiatric casualties was differently tackled according to the nations: the Central Powers carried an authoritarian approach with prevailing physical treatment methods whereas the Allies' attitude reflected their democratic background. Particularly French psychiatry demonstrated a real willingness and ability to respond to the clinical realities. The conceptual problem of what DSM IV now classified as acute stress disorder was resolved so successfully that this disorder deserves the eponym "Viovenel's Syndrome". American Military Psychiatry followed the French methods of precise diagnosis and expeditious treatment close to the front and amplified them by creating effective treatment methods : brief psychotherapy methods and group psychotherapy within a therapeutic environment. Franco-American psychiatry thereby created the foundation for modern community psychiatry.

  14. Heating of Jupiter's upper atmosphere above the Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, James; Moore, Luke; Stallard, Tom; Melin, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Measured upper-atmospheric, mid-to-low latitude temperatures of the giant planets are hundreds of degrees warmer than simulations based on solar heating alone can explain. Modelling studies, focused on additional sources of heating, have been so far unable to resolve this significant model-data discrepancy. Equatorward transport of energy from the hot auroral regions was expected to heat low latitude regions; instead, models have demonstrated that auroral energy is trapped at high latitudes, a consequence of the strong Coriolis forces on these rapidly rotating planets. Wave heating, driven from below, represents another potential source of upper-atmospheric heating. Using data taken in 2012 by the ground-based NASA IRTF, we found through observations of the H3+ ion that the upper atmosphere above Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) - the largest storm in the solar system - is hundreds of degrees hotter than anywhere else on the planet. Specifically, the result shows that the northern region of the spot was over 1600 K, and that background temperatures away from the spot are ~850 K. The hotspot, by process of elimination, must be heated from below, and this detection is therefore strong evidence for coupling between Jupiter's lower and upper atmospheres, likely the result of upward propagating acoustic and/or gravity waves. Our results indicate that the lower atmosphere may yet play an important role in resolving the giant planet 'energy crisis'.

  15. Social environment affects juvenile dispersal in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Jalvingh, Kirsten M.; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Wilson, Ken

    2012-01-01

    1. Habitat selection can affect individual fitness, and therefore, individuals are expected to assess habitat quality of potential breeding sites before settlement. 2. We investigated the role of social environment on juvenile dispersal behaviour in the great tit (Parus major). Two main contradictor

  16. Models-Based Practice: Great White Hope or White Elephant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many critical curriculum theorists in physical education have advocated a model- or models-based approach to teaching in the subject. This paper explores the literature base around models-based practice (MBP) and asks if this multi-models approach to curriculum planning has the potential to be the great white hope of pedagogical change…

  17. Models-Based Practice: Great White Hope or White Elephant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many critical curriculum theorists in physical education have advocated a model- or models-based approach to teaching in the subject. This paper explores the literature base around models-based practice (MBP) and asks if this multi-models approach to curriculum planning has the potential to be the great white hope of pedagogical change…

  18. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  19. The Great World Wide Star Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 31,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents in its first 3 years. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results from 2007—2010. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  20. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  1. The Great Lakes Regional Stroke Network Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Bray Hedworth, Angela; Smith, Cassidy S

    2006-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and the third leading cause of death among adults in the United States and in the Great Lakes states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The Great Lakes Regional Stroke Network was created to enhance collaboration and coordination among the Great Lakes states to reduce the burden of stroke and stroke-related disparities associated with race, sex, and geography. Three priorities were identified for reducing the effects of stro...

  2. A thought-provoking demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, E. Roger; Holton, Brian; Horton, George K.

    1998-01-01

    We present and discuss a physics demonstration, similar to, but distinct from, the ballistic-pendulum demonstration, one that illustrates all three conservation laws of mechanics (for energy, momentum, and angular momentum) simultaneously.

  3. Quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, D. F.; Salzman, J.; Svehla, R. A.; Gedney, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing water quality data. Remote sensing using color information must take into account (1) the existence of many different organic and inorganic species throughout the Great Lakes, (2) the occurrence of a mixture of species in most locations, and (3) spatial variations in types and concentration of species. The radiative transfer model provides a potential method for an orderly analysis of remote sensing data and a physical basis for developing quantitative algorithms. Predictions and field measurements of volume reflectances are presented which show the advantage of using a radiative transfer model. Spectral absorptance and backscattering coefficients for two inorganic sediments are reported.

  4. ASEAN and Strategic Rivalry among the Great Powers in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Fenna Egberink; Frans-Paul van der Putten

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at ASEAN’s role in the context of the three main bilateral relations among the great powers in Asia: China-US, China-Japan, and China-India. The authors argue that although ASEAN’s influence is limited in terms of geographical reach and its impact on actual security issues, Southeast Asia is potentially an important object of great power rivalry and thus the sub-region is highly relevant to Asian geopolitics. The key question with regard to geopolitical stability is how A...

  5. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  6. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka;

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  7. Herbicides: a new threat to the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen E; Brodie, Jon E; Bainbridge, Zoë T; Rohde, Ken W; Davis, Aaron M; Masters, Bronwyn L; Maughan, Mirjam; Devlin, Michelle J; Mueller, Jochen F; Schaffelke, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The runoff of pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) from agricultural lands is a key concern for the health of the iconic Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Relatively low levels of herbicide residues can reduce the productivity of marine plants and corals. However, the risk of these residues to Great Barrier Reef ecosystems has been poorly quantified due to a lack of large-scale datasets. Here we present results of a study tracing pesticide residues from rivers and creeks in three catchment regions to the adjacent marine environment. Several pesticides (mainly herbicides) were detected in both freshwater and coastal marine waters and were attributed to specific land uses in the catchment. Elevated herbicide concentrations were particularly associated with sugar cane cultivation in the adjacent catchment. We demonstrate that herbicides reach the Great Barrier Reef lagoon and may disturb sensitive marine ecosystems already affected by other pressures such as climate change.

  8. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  9. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  10. Policies and practices of beach monitoring in the Great Lakes, USA: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Beaches throughout the Great Lakes are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (typically Escherichia coli) in order to protect the public from potential sewage contamination. Currently, there is no universal standard for sample collection and analysis or results interpretation. Monitoring policies are developed by individual beach management jurisdictions, and applications are highly variable across and within lakes, states, and provinces. Extensive research has demonstrated that sampling decisions for time, depth, number of replicates, frequency of sampling, and laboratory analysis all influence the results outcome, as well as calculations of the mean and interpretation of the results in policy decisions. Additional shortcomings to current monitoring approaches include appropriateness and reliability of currently used indicator bacteria and the overall goal of these monitoring programs. Current research is attempting to circumvent these complex issues by developing new tools and methods for beach monitoring. In this review, we highlight the variety of sampling routines used across the Great Lakes and the extensive body of research that challenges comparisons among beaches. We also assess the future of Great Lakes monitoring and the advantages and disadvantages of establishing standards that are evenly applied across all beaches.

  11. Modeling stakeholder-defined climate risk on the Upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Paul; Brown, Casey

    2012-10-01

    Climate change is believed to pose potential risks to the stakeholders of the Great Lakes due to changes in lake levels. This paper presents a model of stakeholder-defined risk as a function of climate change. It describes the development of a statistical model that links water resources system performance and climate changes developed for the Great Lakes of North America. The function is used in a process that links bottom-up water system vulnerability assessment to top-down climate change information. Vulnerabilities are defined based on input from stakeholders and resource experts and are used to determine system performance thresholds. These thresholds are used to measure performance over a wide range of climate changes mined from a large (55,590 year) stochastic data set. The performance and climate conditions are used to create a climate response function, a statistical model to predict lake performance based on climate statistics. This function facilitates exploration and analysis of performance over a wide range of climate conditions. It can also be used to estimate risk associated with change in climate mean and variability resulting from climate change. Problematic changes in climate can be identified and the probability of those conditions estimated using climate projections or other sources of climate information. The function can also be used to evaluate the robustness of a regulation plan and to compare performance of alternate plans. This paper demonstrates the utility of the climate response function as applied within the context of the International Upper Great Lakes Study.

  12. Great Expectations for Middle School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    During the Great Recession, 2008 to 2010, school systems scrambled to balance budgets, and the ratio of counselors to students became even larger. To make matters worse, the Great Recession had a major impact on cuts in educational funding. Budget cutbacks tend to occur where the public will be least likely to notice. The loss of teachers and the…

  13. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...

  14. 25 Great Ideas for Hispanic Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructor, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Hispanic Heritage Month, celebrated September 15th through October 15th, is a great opportunity to kick off a whole year of cultural discovery. This article presents 25 great ideas for Hispanic heritage. These 25 fresh ideas--from Aztec math to Carnaval masks--are easy to put together, and they offer students the chance to celebrate their own…

  15. A Report from Great Smoky Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑾

    2008-01-01

    This is a report from Great Smoky Mountain. From this report, I will tell you a story about me and my team. After ten years of hardworking, we made some achievements in Branson, Missouri in America, and then we turned to Great Smoky Mountain for another business. To my group and me, itis like a legend.

  16. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the... every year, the draw need not open for vessels. If the fourth Sunday falls on a religious holiday,...

  17. Great Houses and the Sun - Astronomy of Chaco Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.; Munro, Andrew

    The primary axes of Basketmaker III pit structures at Shabik'eschee in Chaco Canyon have two orientations, one to the south and the other to the south-south-east. This architectural tradition continued with remarkable continuity throughout the San Juan Basin to the end of Pueblo III. Many of the Great Houses in Chaco, which appear to be massively enlarged front-facing unit pueblos typical of the Northern San Juan, continued this tradition. Orientations of the back walls of Great Houses to the solstice sun or standstill moon may never have been intended by the builders. Claimed inter-site alignments of Great Houses to minor or major standstill limits appear to be the results of local topography and not intended by the builders. Late Bonito phase (AD 1100-1140) Great Houses are distinguished by their planned designs, relatively short construction period, and negligible middens. Solstice sunrise or sunset horizon foresights are present at the majority of these Great Houses, which may have been designed in part to provide demonstrations of the astronomical knowledge of the Chacoan leadership.

  18. Does sympathy motivate prosocial behaviour in great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Katja; Vaish, Amrisha; Haun, Daniel; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities to feel with and for someone with our closest relatives, the great apes. Although several studies demonstrated that great apes help others, little is known about their underlying motivations. This study addresses this issue and investigates whether four species of great apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus) help a conspecific more after observing the conspecific being harmed (a human experimenter steals the conspecific's food) compared to a condition where no harming occurred. Results showed that in regard to the occurrence of prosocial behaviours, only orangutans, but not the African great apes, help others when help is needed, contrasting prior findings on chimpanzees. However, with the exception of one population of orangutans that helped significantly more after a conspecific was harmed than when no harm occurred, prosocial behaviour in great apes was not motivated by concern for others.

  19. Does sympathy motivate prosocial behaviour in great apes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Liebal

    Full Text Available Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities to feel with and for someone with our closest relatives, the great apes. Although several studies demonstrated that great apes help others, little is known about their underlying motivations. This study addresses this issue and investigates whether four species of great apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus help a conspecific more after observing the conspecific being harmed (a human experimenter steals the conspecific's food compared to a condition where no harming occurred. Results showed that in regard to the occurrence of prosocial behaviours, only orangutans, but not the African great apes, help others when help is needed, contrasting prior findings on chimpanzees. However, with the exception of one population of orangutans that helped significantly more after a conspecific was harmed than when no harm occurred, prosocial behaviour in great apes was not motivated by concern for others.

  20. SMES: Redefining the path to commerical demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, W. G.; Lighthipe, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) is an emerging technology offering tremendous potential benefits to the utility industry. San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) and Bechtel are leading a team of companies and national laboratories working towards design and construction of the world's first demonstration facility for large, commercial SMES for enhancing transmission stability in the Southwestern United States.

  1. SMES: Redefining the path to commercial demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, W.G. [Bechtel, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lighthipe, R.W. [San Diego Gas & Electric, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) is an emerging technology offering tremendous potential benefits to the utility industry. San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) and Bechtel are leading a team of companies and national laboratories working towards design and construction of the world`s first demonstration facility for large, commercial SMES for enhancing transmission stability in the Southwestern United States.

  2. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration project will advance optical communications technology, expanding industry’s capability to produce competitive,...

  3. Assessment of impact of climate change on water resources: a long term analysis of the Great Lakes of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. McBean

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the threshold of the appearance of global warming from theory to reality, extensive research has focused on predicting the impact of potential climate change on water resources using results from Global Circulation Models (GCMs. This research carries this further by statistical analyses of long term meteorological and hydrological data. Seventy years of historical trends in precipitation, temperature, and streamflows in the Great Lakes of North America are developed using long term regression analyses and Mann-Kendall statistics. The results generated by the two statistical procedures are in agreement and demonstrate that many of these variables are experiencing statistically significant increases over a seven-decade period. The trend lines of streamflows in the three rivers of St. Clair, Niagara and St. Lawrence, and precipitation levels over four of the five Great Lakes, show statistically significant increases in flows and precipitation. Further, precipitation rates as predicted using fitted regression lines are compared with scenarios from GCMs and demonstrate similar forecast predictions for Lake Superior. Trend projections from historical data are higher than GCM predictions for Lakes Michigan/Huron. Significant variability in predictions, as developed from alternative GCMs, is noted.

    Given the general agreement as derived from very different procedures, predictions extrapolated from historical trends and from GCMs, there is evidence that hydrologic changes particularly for the precipitation in the Great Lakes Basin may be demonstrating influences arising from global warming and climate change.

  4. Final report for the cryogenic retrieval demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentich, D.J.; Yokuda, E.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a demonstration of a proposed buried transuranic waste retrieval concept that uses cryogenic ground freezing and remote excavation. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), there are over 8 million ft[sup 3] of intermingled soil and transuranic (TRU) wastes in shallow land burial, and retrieval of the material is one of the options being considered by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration for the Environmental Restoration program. Cryogenically freezing contaminated soil and buried waste has been proposed as a way to greatly reduce or eliminate the climate the threat of contamination spread during retrieval activities. In support of this idea, a demonstration of an innovative ground freezing and retrieval technology was performed at the INEL. This initial demonstration was held near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at a cold test pit'' that was built in 1988 as a test bed for the demonstration of retrieval contamination control technologies. This pit is not contaminated with any radioactive or hazardous wastes. Barrels and boxes filled with metals, plastics, tools, paper, cloth, etc. configured in the same manner as expected in contaminated pits and trenches are buried at the cold test pit. After design, fabrication, and shop testing, Sonsub mobilized to the field in early July 1992 to perform the field demonstration. It was planned to freeze and extract four pits, each 9 [times] 9 [times] 10 ft. Each pit represented a different configuration of buried waste (stacked boxes, stacked barrels, random dumped barrels and boxes, and random dumped barrels). Sonsub's proposed technology consisted of driving a series of freeze pipes into the soil and waste, using liquid nitrogen to freeze the mass, and extracting the soil and debris using a series of remote operated, bridge crane mounted tools. In conjunction with the freezing and removal activities, temperature and moisture measurements, and air monitoring were

  5. Final report for the cryogenic retrieval demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentich, D.J.; Yokuda, E.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a demonstration of a proposed buried transuranic waste retrieval concept that uses cryogenic ground freezing and remote excavation. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), there are over 8 million ft{sup 3} of intermingled soil and transuranic (TRU) wastes in shallow land burial, and retrieval of the material is one of the options being considered by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration for the Environmental Restoration program. Cryogenically freezing contaminated soil and buried waste has been proposed as a way to greatly reduce or eliminate the climate the threat of contamination spread during retrieval activities. In support of this idea, a demonstration of an innovative ground freezing and retrieval technology was performed at the INEL. This initial demonstration was held near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at a ``cold test pit`` that was built in 1988 as a test bed for the demonstration of retrieval contamination control technologies. This pit is not contaminated with any radioactive or hazardous wastes. Barrels and boxes filled with metals, plastics, tools, paper, cloth, etc. configured in the same manner as expected in contaminated pits and trenches are buried at the cold test pit. After design, fabrication, and shop testing, Sonsub mobilized to the field in early July 1992 to perform the field demonstration. It was planned to freeze and extract four pits, each 9 {times} 9 {times} 10 ft. Each pit represented a different configuration of buried waste (stacked boxes, stacked barrels, random dumped barrels and boxes, and random dumped barrels). Sonsub`s proposed technology consisted of driving a series of freeze pipes into the soil and waste, using liquid nitrogen to freeze the mass, and extracting the soil and debris using a series of remote operated, bridge crane mounted tools. In conjunction with the freezing and removal activities, temperature and moisture measurements, and air monitoring were performed.

  6. Immune activation reduces sperm quality in the great tit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Losdat

    Full Text Available Mounting an immune response against pathogens incurs costs to organisms by its effects on important life-history traits, such as reproductive investment and survival. As shown recently, immune activation produces large amounts of reactive species and is suggested to induce oxidative stress. Sperm are highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which can negatively impact sperm function and ultimately male fertilizing efficiency. Here we address the question as to whether mounting an immune response affects sperm quality through the damaging effects of oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated recently in birds that carotenoid-based ornaments can be reliable signals of a male's ability to protect sperm from oxidative damage. In a full-factorial design, we immune-challenged great tit males while simultaneously increasing their vitamin E availability, and assessed the effect on sperm quality and oxidative damage. We conducted this experiment in a natural population and tested the males' response to the experimental treatment in relation to their carotenoid-based breast coloration, a condition-dependent trait. Immune activation induced a steeper decline in sperm swimming velocity, thus highlighting the potential costs of an induced immune response on sperm competitive ability and fertilizing efficiency. We found sperm oxidative damage to be negatively correlated with sperm swimming velocity. However, blood resistance to a free-radical attack (a measure of somatic antioxidant capacity as well as plasma and sperm levels of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation remained unaffected, thus suggesting that the observed effect did not arise through oxidative stress. Towards the end of their breeding cycle, swimming velocity of sperm of more intensely colored males was higher, which has important implications for the evolution of mate choice and multiple mating in females because females may accrue both direct and indirect benefits by mating with males having

  7. Cholera:a great global concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha Deb Mandal; Nishith Kumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenicVibrio cholerae (V. cholerae)to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. TheV. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. TheO1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima.V. choleraeO1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistantV. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too.

  8. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  9. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  10. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  11. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  12. Demonstrative and non-demonstrative reasoning by analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Ippoliti, Emiliano

    2008-01-01

    The paper analizes a set of issues related to analogy and analogical reasoning, namely: 1) The problem of analogy and its duplicity; 2) The role of analogy in demonstrative reasoning; 3) The role of analogy in non-demonstrative reasoning; 4) The limits of analogy; 5) The convergence, particularly in multiple analogical reasoning, of these two apparently distinct aspects and its methodological and philosophical consequences. The paper, using example from number theory, argues for an heuristc c...

  13. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  14. Environmental analysis for pipeline gas demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1978-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented programs for encouraging the development and commercialization of coal-related technologies, which include coal gasification demonstration-scale activities. In support of commercialization activities the Environmental Analysis for Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plants has been prepared as a reference document to be used in evaluating potential environmental and socioeconomic effects from construction and operation of site- and process-specific projects. Effluents and associated impacts are identified for six coal gasification processes at three contrasting settings. In general, impacts from construction of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant are similar to those caused by the construction of any chemical plant of similar size. The operation of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant, however, has several unique aspects that differentiate it from other chemical plants. Offsite development (surface mining) and disposal of large quantities of waste solids constitute important sources of potential impact. In addition, air emissions require monitoring for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and other emissions. Potential biological impacts from long-term exposure to these emissions are unknown, and additional research and data analysis may be necessary to determine such effects. Possible effects of pollutants on vegetation and human populations are discussed. The occurrence of chemical contaminants in liquid effluents and the bioaccumulation of these contaminants in aquatic organisms may lead to adverse ecological impact. Socioeconomic impacts are similar to those from a chemical plant of equivalent size and are summarized and contrasted for the three surrogate sites.

  15. Implications of hydrologic variability on the succession of plants in Great Lakes wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Primary succession of plant communities directed toward a climax is not a typical occurrence in wetlands because these ecological systems are inherently dependent on hydrology, and temporal hydrologic variability often causes reversals or setbacks in succession. Wetlands of the Great Lakes provide good examples for demonstrating the implications of hydrology in driving successional processes and for illustrating potential misinterpretations of apparent successional sequences. Most Great Lakes coastal wetlands follow cyclic patterns in which emergent communities are reduced in area or eliminated by high lake levels and then regenerated from the seed bank during low lake levels. Thus, succession never proceeds for long. Wetlands also develop in ridge and swale terrains in many large embayments of the Great Lakes. These formations contain sequences of wetlands of similar origin but different age that can be several thousand years old, with older wetlands always further from the lake. Analyses of plant communities across a sequence of wetlands at the south end of Lake Michigan showed an apparent successional pattern from submersed to floating to emergent plants as water depth decreased with wetland age. However, paleoecological analyses showed that the observed vegetation changes were driven largely by disturbances associated with increased human settlement in the area. Climate-induced hydrologic changes were also shown to have greater effects on plant-community change than autogenic processes. Other terms, such as zonation, maturation, fluctuations, continuum concept, functional guilds, centrifugal organization, pulse stability, and hump-back models provide additional means of describing organization and changes in vegetation; some of them overlap with succession in describing vegetation processes in Great Lakes wetlands, but each must be used in the proper context with regard to short- and long-term hydrologic variability.

  16. Unemployment Insurance and Disability Insurance in the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Andreas I.; Jesse Rothstein; Till M. von Wachter

    2013-01-01

    Disability insurance (DI) applications and awards are countercyclical. One potential explanation is that unemployed individuals who exhaust their Unemployment Insurance (UI) benefits use DI as a form of extended benefits. We exploit the haphazard pattern of UI benefit extensions in the Great Recession to identify the effect of UI exhaustion on DI application, using both aggregate data at the state-month and state-week levels and microdata on unemployed individuals in the Current Population Su...

  17. Crafting a Gauss Gun Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Matthew E.; Blodgett, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    A Gauss Gun launches a ferromagnetic projectile using a pulsed electromagnet. This demonstration provides a nice counterpoint to the popular Thompson's jumping ring demonstration, which launches a nonferromagnetic ring via repulsion of an induced current. The pulsed current must be short enough in duration so that the projectile is not retarded by lingering current in the launch solenoid, but also large enough to provide a suitably impressive velocity. This project involved an iterative design process, as we worked through balancing all the different design criteria. We recommend it as a very nice electronics design project which will produce a very portable and enjoyable demonstration. AAPT sponsor Earl Blodgett.

  18. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Units of Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Vicinity, Tennessee and North Carolina consists of geologic units mapped as area (polygon)...

  19. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  20. Great Progress of Drilling Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kexiang

    1994-01-01

    @@ A great progress has been made in drilling technology in China from 1986 to 1990 by popularizing research achievements and emphasizing high economic efficiency of exploration and development, high quality of drilling engineering, high drilling rate and formation damage prevention.

  1. Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Shela

    1986-01-01

    Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

  2. The Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki

    For the last couple of decades, the Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming. In particular, the magnitude of the summer surface-warming trends of the Great Lakes have been much greater than those of surrounding land (Austin and Colman, 2007). Among the Great Lakes, the deepest Lake Superior exhibited the strongest warming trend in its annual, as well as summer surface water temperature. We find that many aspects of this behavior can be explained in terms of the tendency of deep lakes to exhibit multiple regimes characterized, under the same seasonally varying forcing, by the warmer and colder seasonal cycles exhibiting different amounts of wintertime lake-ice cover and corresponding changes in the summertime lake-surface temperatures. In this thesis, we address the problem of the Great Lakes' warming using one-dimensional lake modeling to interpret diverse observations of the recent lake behavior. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  3. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  4. Great Smoky Mountains National Wetland Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. These data...

  5. The Symbolism in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯德平

    2009-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is Fitzgerald's finest novel, which was published in 1925, and Eliot considered it "to be the first step that America has taken since Henry James". It is a sensitive and symbolic treatment of themes of contemporary life related with irony and pathos to the legendry of "American dream". In this novel, Fitzgerald used many techniques: the controlled and detached point of view, the crafted structure and symbolism, all these distinguish The Great Gatsby from the style of his earlier works.However, in this paper Ⅰ want to present my ideas of the symbolism in The Great Gatsby. During my pressntation, Ⅰ have quoted some materials from critics to support my arguments. In the conclusion part, Ⅰ also repeat my own opinion: the significant symbolism made The Great Garry the "small" masterpiece of American literature

  6. Mediocrity and Romance in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯莹莹

    2014-01-01

    The Great Gatsby tells a romantic tragedy between Gatsby and Daisy. Throughout the novel romance and mediocrity are closely mingled together. The paper tries to explore the mixture of the both that lies in Gatsby and Daisy as well.

  7. How the Great Lakes Were Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, William C.

    1975-01-01

    The Great Lakes Basin Commission exhaustively studied the world's largest fresh water ecosystem. The reconnaissance-type investigation provided a broad-scale analysis of resource needs and problems in the United States portion of the Basin. (BT)

  8. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Hydro Plus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Park Hydro Plus is a value-added attribution of data produced by Great Smoky Mountains National Park and published by the USGS NHD. Not to be confused with the USGS...

  9. Aquatic Trash Prevention National Great Practices Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  10. Rights in the Great Lakes Region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-11-08

    Nov 8, 1997 ... Great Lakes region was host to some 1,253,000 refugees or about ..... North East. ..... voluntary repatriation, integration into the local community in .... Protection of Refugees and Displaced Persans in Asia, I IHL, San Renamo,.

  11. Climate change and the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the Great Basin by the mid-21st century. The following provides an overview of past and projected climate change for the globe and for the region.

  12. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Fish Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Background and History The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is the only trout native to the southern Appalachian Mountains. It was once widespread in Great Smoky...

  13. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  14. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  15. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  16. The Gothic Features in Great Expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jia-xuan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most well-known novels of Charles Dickens, it is difficult to define one single specific genre for Great Expectations. It is widely recognized as a bildungsroman and realistic fiction and social criticism. In addition to all these genres, we can also identify many intriguing features of Gothic novel. This paper is devoted to interpreting the Gothic characteristics of Great Expectations, and particularly, settings characters, and the narration of the novel are the major focuses of analysis.

  17. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  18. Status of the MAJORANA Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Greenn, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Schmitt, C; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Timkin, V; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V

    2014-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  19. Demonstration of Cauchy: Understanding Algebraic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study we present some considerations about the End of Course Work undergraduate Full Degree in Mathematics / UFMT, drafted in 2011, and by taking title "A story about Cauchy and Euler's theorem on polyhedra" that gave birth to our research project Master of Education, begun in 2012, on the approaches of Euler's theorem on polyhedra in mathematics textbooks. At work in 2011 presented some considerations about the history of Euler's theorem for polyhedra which focus the demonstration presented by Cauchy (1789-1857, who tries to generalize it, relying on assumptions not observable in Euclidean geometry. Therefore, we seek the accessible literature on the history of mathematics; relate some aspects of the demonstration Cauchy with historical events on the development of mathematics in the nineteenth century, which allowed the acceptance of such a demonstration by mathematicians of his time.Keywords: History of Mathematics. Euler's Theorem on Polyhedra. Demonstration of Cauchy.

  20. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Detwiler, Jason A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Timkin, V.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-09

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  1. Teacher Training: The Demonstration Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan C.

    1977-01-01

    A teacher training technique is discussed involving a demonstration class given by a local teacher and observed by prospective teachers. After the class a discussion is held analyzing lesson content and teaching techniques. (CHK)

  2. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  3. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  4. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  5. Orcc's Compa-Backend demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Yaset; Casseau, Emmanuel; Martin, Kevin; Bomel, Pierre; Diguet, Jean-Philippe; Yviquel, Hervé; Raulet, Mickael; Raffin, Erwan; Morin, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the implementation of a video decoding application starting from its dataflow and CAL representations. Our objective is to demonstrate the ability of the Open RVC-CAL Compiler (Orcc) to generate code for embedded systems. For the demonstration, the video application will be an MPEG-4 Part2 decoder. The targeted architecture is a multi-core heterogeneous system deployed onto the Zynq platform from Xilinx.

  6. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration: Introduction for Experimenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.

    2017-01-01

    This document provides guidance to individuals or groups considering proposing an experiment for the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) Experiment Program. For the purposes of this document, the term experiment refers to both experiments and demonstrations. The documents goals are: (1) to introduce potential experimenters to the LCRD mission, its purpose, and its system architecture; (2) to help them understand the types of experiments that are possible using LCRD; and (3) to provide an overview of the experiment proposal process and explain how and where to obtain further information about making a proposal.

  7. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.; Water, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) has the leading role for NASA s preliminary conceptual launch vehicle design and performance analysis. Over the past several years the ACO Earth-to-Orbit Team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a multitude of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). NASA plans to continue human space exploration and space station utilization. Launch vehicles used for heavy lift cargo and crew will be needed. One of the current leading concepts for future heavy lift capability is an inline one and a half stage concept using solid rocket boosters (SRB) and based on current Shuttle technology and elements. Potentially, the quickest and most cost-effective path towards an operational vehicle of this configuration is to make use of a demonstrator vehicle fabricated from existing shuttle assets and relying upon the existing STS launch infrastructure. Such a demonstrator would yield valuable proof-of-concept data and would provide a working test platform allowing for validated systems integration. Using shuttle hardware such as existing RS-25D engines and partial MPS, propellant tanks derived from the External Tank (ET) design and tooling, and four-segment SRB s could reduce the associated upfront development costs and schedule when compared to a concept that would rely on new propulsion technology and engine designs. There are potentially several other additional benefits to this demonstrator concept. Since a concept of this type would be based on man-rated flight proven hardware components, this demonstrator has the potential to evolve into the first iteration of heavy lift crew or cargo and serve as a baseline for block upgrades. This vehicle could also serve as a demonstration

  8. Comparative isotope ecology of African great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M; Fahy, Geraldine; Hohmann, Gottfried; Robbins, Martha M; Leinert, Vera; Lee, Kevin; Eshuis, Henk; Seiler, Nicole; Wessling, Erin G; Head, Josephine; Boesch, Christophe; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2016-12-01

    The isotope ecology of great apes is a useful reference for palaeodietary reconstructions in fossil hominins. As extant apes live in C3-dominated habitats, variation in isotope signatures is assumed to be low compared to hominoids exploiting C4-plant resources. However, isotopic differences between sites and between and within individuals are poorly understood due to the lack of vegetation baseline data. In this comparative study, we included all species of free-ranging African great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla sp.). First, we explore differences in isotope baselines across different habitats and whether isotopic signatures in apes can be related to feeding niches (faunivory and folivory). Secondly, we illustrate how stable isotopic variations within African ape populations compare to other extant and extinct primates and discuss possible implications for dietary flexibility. Using 701 carbon and nitrogen isotope data points resulting from 148 sectioned hair samples and an additional collection of 189 fruit samples, we compare six different great ape sites. We investigate the relationship between vegetation baselines and climatic variables, and subsequently correct great ape isotope data to a standardized plant baseline from the respective sites. We obtained temporal isotopic profiles of individual animals by sectioning hair along its growth trajectory. Isotopic signatures of great apes differed between sites, mainly as vegetation isotope baselines were correlated with site-specific climatic conditions. We show that controlling for plant isotopic characteristics at a given site is essential for faunal data interpretation. While accounting for plant baseline effects, we found distinct isotopic profiles for each great ape population. Based on evidence from habituated groups and sympatric great ape species, these differences could possibly be related to faunivory and folivory. Dietary flexibility in apes varied, but temporal variation was overall

  9. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  10. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Buuck, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y.-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); and others

    2015-10-28

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, modular, HPGe detector array with a mass of 44-kg (29 kg {sup 76}Ge and 15 kg {sup nat}Ge) to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double beta decay searches will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is envisioned to demonstrate a path forward to achieve a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value of 2039 keV. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR follows a modular implementation to be easily scalable to the next generation experiment. First, the prototype module was assembled; it has been continuously taking data from July 2014 to June 2015. Second, Module 1 with more than half of the total enriched detectors and some natural detectors has been assembled and it is being commissioned. Finally, the assembly of Module 2, which will complete MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, is already in progress.

  11. Status of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Baldenegro-Barrera, C X; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2015-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, modular, HPGe detector array with a mass of 44-kg (29 kg 76Ge and 15 kg natGe) to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76. The next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double beta decay searches will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is envisioned to demonstrate a path forward to achieve a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value of 2039 keV. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR follows a modular implementation to be easily scalable to the next generation experiment. First, the prototype module was assembled; it has been continuously taking data from July 2014 to June 2015. Second, Module 1 with more than half of the total enriched detectors and some natural detectors has been assembled and it is being commissioned. Finally, the assembly of Module 2, which will complete MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, ...

  12. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  13. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  14. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  15. SECURES: Austin, Texas demonstration results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Glynn; Shaw, Scott; Scharf, Peter; Stellingworth, Bob

    2003-09-01

    The Law Enforcement technology development community has a growing interest in the technologies associated with gunshot detection and localization. These interests revolve around community-oriented policing. Technologies of interest include those associated with muzzle blast and bullet shockwave detection and the inter-netting of these acoustic sensors with electro-optic sensors. To date, no one sensor technology has proven totally effective for a complete solution. PSI has a muzzle blast detection and localization product which is wireless, highly mobile and reconfigurable, with a user-friendly laptop processor and display unit, which completed a one-year demonstration in Austin, Texas on July 6, 2002. This demonstration was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Institute of Justice and in cooperation with the Austin Police Department. This paper will discuss the details of the demonstrations, provide a summarized evaluation, elucidate the lessons learned, make recommendations for future deployments and discuss the developmental directions indicated for the future.

  16. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  17. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions.

  18. Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

  19. Transmission parameters of the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Chis Ster

    Full Text Available Despite intensive ongoing research, key aspects of the spatial-temporal evolution of the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD epidemic in Great Britain (GB remain unexplained. Here we develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method for estimating epidemiological parameters of the 2001 outbreak for a range of simple transmission models. We make the simplifying assumption that infectious farms were completely observed in 2001, equivalent to assuming that farms that were proactively culled but not diagnosed with FMD were not infectious, even if some were infected. We estimate how transmission parameters varied through time, highlighting the impact of the control measures on the progression of the epidemic. We demonstrate statistically significant evidence for assortative contact patterns between animals of the same species. Predictive risk maps of the transmission potential in different geographic areas of GB are presented for the fitted models.

  20. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Aguayo, E; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Combs, D C; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fast, J E; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Gusev, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Hegai, A; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; MacMullin, J; MacMullin, S; Martin, R D; Meijer, S; Mertens, S; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Pushkin, K; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Ronquest, M C; Schubert, A G; Shanks, B; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Thompson, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Young, A R; Yu, C H; Yumatov, V

    2014-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  1. [The Great Ape Project--human rights for the great anthropoid apes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharmann, W

    2000-01-01

    The Great Ape Project (GAP) is an appeal of 36 scientist from different disciplines aiming at the legal equalisation of the non-human great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans) with man. The appeal is expressed by a number of essays stating zoological, genetical, ethological, anthropological, ethical and psychological knowledge and, based on these arguments, demanding the abolition of the species barrier between human beings and great apes. The central point of the initiative is the "Declaration on Great Apes", claiming the inclusion of great apes in the "community of equals" and thus securing three basic rights for all great apes: 1. The Right of Life; 2. The Protection of Individual Liberty; 3. The Prohibition of Torture. Not only experiments with great apes and their capture from the wilderness will be banned, but it is also intended to enfranchise as many great apes as possible from research laboratories and zoos. As a legal basis for the achievement of basic rights most of the authors plead for the idea of conferring the moral status of "persons" on great apes. Criticism of the GAP is due to its anthropocentrism. Rejection is especially expressed by advocates of pathocentric ethics who argue that the species barrier will not be abolished but only shifted, running then between the great apes and the remaining living beings. However, the GAP resulted in a greater retention in the use of great apes for experiments in several industrial countries. Additionally, the popular literature published by ethologists in the passed decades has supported a more responsible attitude of the public towards primates. Despite of all efforts the survival of the great apes is greatly endangered within their native countries.

  2. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0{sub 2} removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0{sub 2} emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  3. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  4. Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

  5. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  6. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  7. SunJammer Technology Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sunjammer Project is a NASA funded contract to L?Garde Inc. to fly a solar sail demonstration for a period of approximately one year. L?Garde is also partnered...

  8. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  9. Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

  10. Demonstration of melatonin in amphibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerdonk, F.C.G. van de

    1967-01-01

    The presence of melatonin in the amphibian epiphysis has been ascertained earlier by several indirect methods, demonstrating the synthesizing enzyme or precursors of the compound. This communication describes the presence of melatonin in amphibian brain in a direct way, using dextran gel chromatogra

  11. THE SOLITUDE OF LATIN AMERICA IN THE GREAT PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Barbosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is investigated the reasons why Latin America has a little qualitative and quantitative space in great press. This study is based on sociohistorical and journalistic aspects. This research demonstrates that the Latin-American continent is separated, because of historical processes, in the “official Latin America” and the “popular Latin America”. While the great press represents the “official Latin America”, the “popular Latin America” is represented by the alternative press. Thus, the myth of the impartiality is broken and it is concluded that, in order to not condemn Latin America to the solitude, it is necessary to develop and study the Latin-American social movements, including its communication processes.

  12. ["Great jobs"-also in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, H; Hübner-Liebermann, B

    2003-09-01

    Against the background of a beginning shortage of psychiatrists, results from interviews with 112 employees of an automotive company with the topic "Great Job" are presented to discuss their relevance to psychiatry. The interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis. Most employees assigned importance to great pay, constructive collaboration with colleagues, and work appealing to personal interests. Further statements particularly relevant to psychiatry were: successful career, flexible working hours, manageable job, work-life balance, well-founded training, no bureaucracy within the company, and personal status in society. The well-known economic restrictions in health care and the still negative attitude towards psychiatry currently reduce the attraction of psychiatry as a profession. From the viewpoint of personnel management, the attractors of a great job revealed in this study are proposed as important clues for the recruitment of medical students for psychiatry and the development of psychiatric staff.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in the great lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A. (ed.) [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    2006-07-01

    The environment around the Laurentian Great Lakes region has been adversely affected by agricultural runoff, urban waste, industrial discharge, landfill leachate, and atmospheric deposition. Although there have been some improvements over the last 20 years, persistent toxic organic pollutants are now a serious problem. This book brings together what is known about the major classes of these pollutants in the Great Lakes. Each chapter reviews our knowledge of the extent of contamination of the various parts of the Great Lakes ecosystem (air, water, sediment, fishes, birds, etc.), what is known about the trends over time of this contamination, and knowledge about the mechanisms by which these pollutants are mobilized in the lakes. Detailed information is presented on polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, pesticides, toxaphene, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brominated flame retardants, and perfluoroalkyl acids. These reviews make this volume an invaluable resource for all those involved in environmental research, measurements, and decision making. (orig.)

  14. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on the evening of March 1, 1979, from a distance of 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers). The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (top) and one of the white ovals than can be seen in Jupiter's atmosphere from Earth. The white ovals were seen to form in 1939, and 1940, and have remained more or less constant ever since. None of the structure and detail evident in these features have ever been seen from Earth. The Great Red Spot is three times as large as Earth. Also evident in the picture is a great deal of atmospheric detail that will require further study for interpretation. The smallest details that can be seen in this picture are about 45 miles (80 kilometers across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  15. Natural Hazard Demonstrations for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents several demonstrations that have been developed or gathered from other sources in the general area of natural hazards (e.g. landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, wildfires, tsunamis, mass movements, asteroid impacts, etc.). There are many methods of teaching, but as university lecturers, particularly for large class sizes, we find ourselves too often presenting material to students by direct speaking, or some combination of blackboard/whiteboard/slide projector/digital projector. There are certainly a number of techniques to more actively involve students, so that teaching is not just `receiving of information', including breaking up students into small group discussions, encouraging students to actively participate in class through comments and questions, and/or some combination of hands-on activities and demonstrations. It is this latter which is concentrated on here. As a teaching tool, the students themselves became much more excited about what they are learning if use is made of 5--10 minute demonstrations, even if only peripherally related to the subject at hand. The resultant discussion with questions and comments by students keeps both the students and the lecturer (in this case the author) motivated and intrigued about the subjects being discussed. Days, weeks, and months later, the students remember these `demonstrations', but to set these up takes time, effort, and resources of equipment, although not necessarily a large amount of the latter. Several natural hazards demonstrations are presented here, most inexpensive, that have been used in front of large university classes and smaller `break-out groups', and which can also be adapted for secondary-school students.

  16. Individual and population-level impacts of an emerging poxvirus disease in a wild population of great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachish, Shelly; Bonsall, Michael B; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A; Sheldon, Ben C

    2012-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife can have severe effects on host populations and constitute a pressing problem for biodiversity conservation. Paridae pox is an unusually severe form of avipoxvirus infection that has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease particularly affecting an abundant songbird, the great tit (Parus major), in Great Britain. In this study, we study the invasion and establishment of Paridae pox in a long-term monitored population of wild great tits to (i) quantify the impact of this novel pathogen on host fitness and (ii) determine the potential threat it poses to population persistence. We show that Paridae pox significantly reduces the reproductive output of great tits by reducing the ability of parents to fledge young successfully and rear those young to independence. Our results also suggested that pathogen transmission from diseased parents to their offspring was possible, and that disease entails severe mortality costs for affected chicks. Application of multistate mark-recapture modelling showed that Paridae pox causes significant reductions to host survival, with particularly large effects observed for juvenile survival. Using an age-structured population model, we demonstrate that Paridae pox has the potential to reduce population growth rate, primarily through negative impacts on host survival rates. However, at currently observed prevalence, significant disease-induced population decline seems unlikely, although pox prevalence may be underestimated if capture probability of diseased individuals is low. Despite this, because pox-affected model populations exhibited lower average growth rates, this emerging infectious disease has the potential to reduce the resilience of populations to other environmental factors that reduce population size.

  17. Individual and population-level impacts of an emerging poxvirus disease in a wild population of great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Lachish

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife can have severe effects on host populations and constitute a pressing problem for biodiversity conservation. Paridae pox is an unusually severe form of avipoxvirus infection that has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease particularly affecting an abundant songbird, the great tit (Parus major, in Great Britain. In this study, we study the invasion and establishment of Paridae pox in a long-term monitored population of wild great tits to (i quantify the impact of this novel pathogen on host fitness and (ii determine the potential threat it poses to population persistence. We show that Paridae pox significantly reduces the reproductive output of great tits by reducing the ability of parents to fledge young successfully and rear those young to independence. Our results also suggested that pathogen transmission from diseased parents to their offspring was possible, and that disease entails severe mortality costs for affected chicks. Application of multistate mark-recapture modelling showed that Paridae pox causes significant reductions to host survival, with particularly large effects observed for juvenile survival. Using an age-structured population model, we demonstrate that Paridae pox has the potential to reduce population growth rate, primarily through negative impacts on host survival rates. However, at currently observed prevalence, significant disease-induced population decline seems unlikely, although pox prevalence may be underestimated if capture probability of diseased individuals is low. Despite this, because pox-affected model populations exhibited lower average growth rates, this emerging infectious disease has the potential to reduce the resilience of populations to other environmental factors that reduce population size.

  18. Iceland as a demonstrator for a transition to low carbon economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornsson, Einar Jon; Stefansson, Hlynur; Finger, David Christian

    2017-04-01

    The energy supply in Iceland is quite unique, about 85% of the total primary energy is coming from renewable resources. Nevertheless, the ecological footprint of an average Icelander is with 6.5 worlds, one of the highest worldwide and the energy consumption per capita is about 7 times higher than the European average. Recent developments have shown that there is a great potential to reduce the footprint and develop towards low carbon economy. With its small population, well educated and governed society and clear system boundaries to the outside world, Iceland is a good research laboratory and an ideal demonstrator for a transition towards a low carbon economy. This presentation will outline how several innovative research projects at Reykjavik University could lead Iceland towards a sustainable and low carbon economy. The presentations will conclude with a visionary outlook how Iceland can become a demonstration nation towards a prosperous, low carbon and sustainable economy, helping stabilize global warming at an acceptable level.

  19. Great Wall Drilling Company Operating Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Great changes have taken place in Great Wall Drilling Company (GWDC) since the start of the new century, when GWDC conducted a profound reorganization in response to CNPC's (China National Petroleum Corporation)continuously restructuring strategy. The reorganization leads to a new top management full of youthful spirit and rich experience in international business by inviting applications for its key positions from the whole drilling sector of CNPC. Also, an effective organization structure forms with its characteristic of centering on international market development and overseas operations, aiming to raise its competitiveness internationally.

  20. Daisy Shadow upon the Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋智慧

    2016-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is a significant classic in American literature. The Great Gatsby tells the love story between young Gatsby and rich Daisy. From the moment they loved each other, they cherished their pure love; to the moment Daisy hurt Gatsby twice, fragile love and crushed American dream came into their life, which indirectly led to Gatsby's death. Daisy Shadow has swallowed Gatsby's soul and destroyed his whole life. The sarcasm of the novel also makes people try best to find a good or proper ending to Gatsby, while so many possibilities lead to nothing proper.

  1. Usage of Symbolism in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓斌

    2008-01-01

    F.Scott Fitzgerald.the famous American novelist in the 20th century,is known as the spokesman and laureate of the"Jazz Age"American.whose works give us an accurate picture of the American twenties:the prosperity of economy and the moral absence.Written in 1925.The Great Gatsby is one of the great literary documents of Fitzgerald's period,which wins many favorable praises.Fitzgerald has adopted plenty of symbols to reflect the theme of the times and the value of America in his outstanding representative works,and this thesis tries to analyze their symbolic meaning and significance.

  2. Language Features of The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢云川

    2014-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is a 1925 novel written by American author F.Scott Fitzgerald.Besides great popularity for its vivid depiction of the Ameri-can Dream,the novel also impresses the world with its skillfully used American English which is interwoven with the plots,the characters and the theme.The article is to explore how Fitzgerald analyzes the class system of the American society and what enables him to express this analysis through different types of A-merican English.

  3. Great Importance Attached to Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Intangible Cultural Heritage on Verge of Extinction? With the acceleration of globalization and modernization, dramatic changes have taken place in China's cultural ecology: intangible cultural heritage is confronted with great challenges and a lot of orally and behaviorally transmitted cultural heritage disappear one after another; a great deal of traditional craftsmanship is on the verge of extinction; a large number of precious objects and materials of historical and cultural values are destroyed,deserted or lost in foreign countries; arbitrary misuse and excessive exploitation of intangible cultural heritage occur from time to time. Therefore, the protection of intangible cultural heritage brooks no delay.

  4. THE GREAT SILK ROAD AND TURKISH WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÖZDEMİR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the great Silk Road first came from the famouse Chinese traveler Çjan Syan before the BC and is now known as Kervan Road. Later, this expression gained a new meaning between Asia, the Mediterranean and the European countries.An estimated of 20 000 km of total length of the Great Silk Road passed the Turkish peoples settled lands. The Silk Road that was considered as the Jugularvein major trade route that was connecting China and Byzantium was in Turks hands.

  5. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States); Irwin, Mark [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  6. High energy laser demonstrators for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M.; Riesbeck, Th.; Schmitz, J.; Baumgärtel, Th.; Ludewigt, K.; Graf, A.

    2017-01-01

    Rheinmetall Waffe Munition has worked since 30 years in the area of High Energy Laser (HEL) for defence applications, starting from pulsed CO2 to pulsed glass rods lasers. In the last decade Rheinmetall Waffe Munition changed to diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) technology and has successfully developed, realised and tested a variety of versatile HEL weapon demonstrators for air- and ground defence scenarios like countering rocket, artillery, mortar, missile (RAMM), unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and unexploded ordnances clearing. By employing beam superimposing technology and a modular laser weapon concept, the total optical power has been successively increased. Stationary weapon platforms, military vehicles and naval platforms have been equipped with high energy laser effectors. The contribution gives a summary of the most recent development stages of Rheinmetalls HEL weapon program. In addition to the stationary 30 kW laser weapon demonstrator, we present vehicle based HEL demonstrators: the 5 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Track V, the 20 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX and the 50 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Container L and the latest 10 kW HEL effector integrated in the naval weapon platform MLG 27. We describe the capabilities of these demonstrators against different potential targets. Furthermore, we will show the capability of the 30 kW stationary Laser Weapon Demonstrator integrated into an existing ground based air defence system to defeat saturated attacks of RAMM and UAS targets.

  7. CO2-Induced Acidification of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, G. A.; Phillips, J.; Bennington, V.; Bootsma, H. A.; Pilcher, D.; Sterner, R.; Urban, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies indicate that air-water equilibration is the dominant control on pCO2 in several Great Lakes at annual timescales or longer. Assuming this is the case across all lakes at present and into the future, we show that pH will decline by 0.3-0.4 units through 2100 under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario. In a survey of the Great Lakes scientific community, 87% of respondents indicate that CO2-driven acidification is likely. The available pH data do not support these predicted trends, but limited sampling in an environment characterized by significant spatio-temporal variability, as well as significant measurement uncertainty, cast doubt on the ability of the historical pH record to resolve the predicted trends. Evaluation of the current sampling strategy using eddy-resolving numerical models of Lake Superior and Lake Michigan are key evidence that the current monitoring strategy is inadequate. In order to track long-term pH change and assess whether atmospheric CO2 will affect the Great Lakes like the oceans, a new approach to Great Lakes pH monitoring is required. Ecological impacts of CO2 acidification have not been studied for the Great Lakes, but potential effects can be gleaned from the literature. In addition, our qualitative and quantitative survey results suggest that processes such as fish recruitment, dreissenid mussel growth, and nutrient cycling may be sensitive to pH, but there is lack of consensus about the magnitude and overall significance of these effects.

  8. The MAJORANA Demonstrator Radioassay Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P. H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Dunmore, J. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S.; Finnerty, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, Victor M.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Massarcyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan W.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, David; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, K.; Vorren, Kris R.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-05-03

    The Majorana collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope 76Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are suffciently pure is described. The resulting measurements of the radioactiveisotope contamination for a number of materials studied for use in the detector are reported.

  9. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR radioassay program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Arnquist, I.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Back, H.O. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Barabash, A.S. [National Research Center, “Kurchatov Institute” Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boswell, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, A.W. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Buuck, M. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Byram, D. [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Caldwell, A.S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, Y.-D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christofferson, C.D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chu, P.-H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); and others

    2016-08-21

    The MAJORANA collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope {sup 76}Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are sufficiently pure is described. The resulting measurements from gamma-ray counting, neutron activation and mass spectroscopy of the radioactive-isotope contamination for the materials studied for use in the detector are reported. We interpret these numbers in the context of the expected background for the experiment.

  10. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR radioassay program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, H. O.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunmore, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Finnerty, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, V. M.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, D.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-08-01

    The MAJORANA collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope 76Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are sufficiently pure is described. The resulting measurements from gamma-ray counting, neutron activation and mass spectroscopy of the radioactive-isotope contamination for the materials studied for use in the detector are reported. We interpret these numbers in the context of the expected background for the experiment.

  11. Performance demonstration by ROC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Hannelore; Nockemann, Christina; Tillack, Gerd-Rüdiger; Mattis, Arne

    1994-12-01

    The question of the efficiency of a material testing system is important, when a competing or advanced system appears at the market. The comparison of the different systems can be done partly by the comparison of the technical specification of the systems, but not all parameters can be expressed by measured values, especially not the influence of human inspectors. A testing system in the field of NDT - for example weld inspection - often consists of several different devices and components (radiographic film, its irradiation and development, conventional inspection with a light box, human inspector). The demonstration of the performance of such a system with similar or advanced methods can be done by a statistical method, the ROC method. This quantitative measure for testing performance allows the comparison of complex NDT systems which will be demonstrated in detail by the comparison of conventional weld inspection with inspection of welds using the digitised image of the radiographs.

  12. Baseline Condition of the Great Blue Heron Rookery on Shad Island 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since the potential for great blue heron displacement and vegetation decline increases as the cormorant population grows, a monitoring program needs to be...

  13. Patterns and trends of beverage consumption among children and adults in Great Britain, 1986–2009

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Shu Wen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jebb, Susan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-01-01

    ... and household food expenditure surveys to provide a picture of patterns and trends in beverage intake and purchases in Great Britain from 1986 to 2009, and estimates the potential for pricing p...

  14. The Writings of George Washington on the Great Dismal Swamp 1889

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are some published notes written by President George Washington that offer his analysis of the commercial potential of the Great Dismal Swamp in 1763.

  15. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, David L.; Mills, Raymond A.; Bowden, Mary L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) was to create a near-term Shuttle flight experiment focusing on the deployment and erection of structural truss elements. The activities of the MIT Space Systems Laboratory consist of three major areas: preparing and conducting neutral buoyancy simulation test series; producing a formal SADE Experiment plan; and studying the structural dynamics issues of the truss structure. Each of these areas is summarized.

  16. Solar heating demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonicatto, L.; Kozak, C.

    1980-01-01

    The demonstration involved a 4-panel solar collector mounted on the industrial arts building. A 120 gallon storage tank supplements a 66 gallon electric hot water heater which supplies hot water for 5 shop wash basins, girl's and boy's lavatories, and a pressure washer in the auto shop. The installation and educational uses of the system are described. (MHR)

  17. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and on affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a DOE request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. This report discusses the demonstration of ETS equipment at four member light departments.

  18. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and on affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a DOE request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. This report discusses the demonstration of ETS equipment at four member light departments.

  19. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  20. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the cinem

  1. A RARE VARIATION OF GREAT SAPHENOUS VEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhate Manisha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The venous system is more complex and variable than arterial system due to its frequent anatomical variations. This paper discusses the anatomy of the great saphenous vein and its variation observed in a male cadaver of around 60 years old.

  2. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The Great Plains! The words alone create a sense of space and a feeling of destiny a challenge. But what exactly is this special part of Western America that contains so much of our history? How did it come to be? Why is it different?

  3. Professor Witold Nowicki - a greatly spirited pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincewicz, A; Szepietowska, A; Sulkowski, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his textbook titled Anatomical Pathology, which was a basic pathology manual in pre-war Poland. Witold Nowicki - as the head of the academic pathological anatomy department and former dean of the medical faculty - was shot with other professors by Nazi Germans in the Wuleckie hills in Lvov during World War Two. Professor Nowicki was described as being "small in size but great in spirit" by one of his associates, and remains an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, a patient tutor and a great social activist to follow.

  4. The Classical Plotline of "The Great Gatsby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Dennis P.

    1975-01-01

    Argues that an understanding of the craft of fiction is furthered by a return to the original creation, concluding that "The Great Gatsby" is one of the best examples of Aristotle's description of tragedy as set forth in "The Poetics." (RB)

  5. The Technological Diegesis in "The Great Gatsby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingquan

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the technological diegesis in "The Great Gatsby." In the novel, Fitzgerald cleverly integrates the technological forces into his writing. He particularly relies on the two main props of automobile and telephone to arrange his fragmented plots into a whole. By the deliberate juxtaposition of men and women and machines…

  6. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  7. Beyond "It Was Great"? Not so Fast!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E. David

    2015-01-01

    The Forum on Education Abroad's Ninth Annual Conference in 2013 was organized around the provocative theme, "Moving Beyond It Was Great." In the opening plenary speech, Lilli Engle warned the audience of study abroad researchers, leaders, administrators, and providers that study abroad programs were not as effective as they may want to…

  8. How To Become a Great Public Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Marylaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents interviews with Fred Kent, founder of the Project for Public Spaces (PPS) and Phil Myrick, PPS's assistant vice president, about transforming libraries into desirable public spaces. Discusses qualities people value in public spaces; great library buildings and what they are doing right; the first thing library directors should do when…

  9. The Artistic Characteristics of Great Expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文玺

    2007-01-01

    The whole thesis is to study the delicate techniques of displaying arts and literature exercised by Dickens. Furthermore, the thesis is to guide readers to know about the wordings and humour of Dickens and appreciate the charm of Great Expectations through a large number of examples.

  10. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided ...

  11. Countdown to the Great American Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulco, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The Great American Total Solar Eclipse (TSE2017) will occur on August 21 this year--the first total solar eclipse in the continental United States since 1979. For many reasons, this is a scientific and educational milestone event of the highest magnitude that should not be missed by any teacher and student whether or not their school is in session…

  12. TOXAPHENE IN THE GREAT LAKES. (R825246)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the most current data for toxaphene in the water, sediments, and biota of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Concentrations in water range from 1.1 ng/L in Lake Superior to 0.17 ng/L in Lake Ontario. Lake Superior has the highest water concentrati...

  13. Financial fragility in the Great Moderation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Grydaki, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A nascent literature explores the measurement of financial fragility. This paper considers evidence for rising financial fragility during the 1984-2007 Great Moderation in the U.S. The literature suggests that macroeconomic stability combined with strong growth of credit to asset markets, in asset p

  14. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  15. A Hierarchical Grouping of Great Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Donald G.

    1977-01-01

    Great educators of history were categorized on the basis of their: aims of education, fundamental ideas, and educational theories. They were classed by Ward's method of hierarchical analysis into six groupings: Socrates, Ausonius, Jerome, Abelard; Quintilian, Origen, Melanchthon, Ascham, Loyola; Alciun, Comenius; Vittorino, Basedow, Pestalozzi,…

  16. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  17. [Psychiatric aid during the Great Patriotic War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The article presents an observe of questions of organization of psychiatric aid during the Great Patriotic War, main disadvantages of the first period of war, their dependence from circumstances of prewar period, ignoring of experience of last war. There was marked the role of famous native psychiatrists in organization of psychiatric aid to military servicemen in theatre of combat actions.

  18. Great Depression a Timely Class Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that a number of history and social studies teachers have found that because of the parallels they're able to draw between the current economic crisis and the Great Depression, their students are seeing that history is relevant. They're engaging more deeply in history lessons than they have in previous years. The teachers say…

  19. Aerospace Communications Security Technologies Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, James H.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2003-01-01

    In light of the events of September 11, 2001, NASA senior management requested an investigation of technologies and concepts to enhance aviation security. The investigation was to focus on near-term technologies that could be demonstrated within 90 days and implemented in less than 2 years. In response to this request, an internal NASA Glenn Research Center Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Aviation Security Tiger Team was assembled. The 2-year plan developed by the team included an investigation of multiple aviation security concepts, multiple aircraft platforms, and extensively leveraged datalink communications technologies. It incorporated industry partners from NASA's Graphical Weather-in-the-Cockpit research, which is within NASA's Aviation Safety Program. Two concepts from the plan were selected for demonstration: remote "black box," and cockpit/cabin surveillance. The remote "black box" concept involves real-time downlinking of aircraft parameters for remote monitoring and archiving of aircraft data, which would assure access to the data following the loss or inaccessibility of an aircraft. The cockpit/cabin surveillance concept involves remote audio and/or visual surveillance of cockpit and cabin activity, which would allow immediate response to any security breach and would serve as a possible deterrent to such breaches. The datalink selected for the demonstrations was VDL Mode 2 (VHF digital link), the first digital datalink for air-ground communications designed for aircraft use. VDL Mode 2 is beginning to be implemented through the deployment of ground stations and aircraft avionics installations, with the goal of being operational in 2 years. The first demonstration was performed December 3, 2001, onboard the LearJet 25 at Glenn. NASA worked with Honeywell, Inc., for the broadcast VDL Mode 2 datalink capability and with actual Boeing 757 aircraft data. This demonstration used a cockpitmounted camera for video surveillance and a coupling to

  20. Demonstration projects : learning by experience : the Seabird Island demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-10-15

    This article described the Seabird Island sustainable community housing demonstration project near Agassiz, British Columbia. The project provides a sustainable, affordable place for 7 families and demonstrates a new way to build and design communities using renewable energy technologies to provide residents with better quality, energy efficient housing while reducing costs and minimizing environmental impacts. The design integrates renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and geothermal energy to save on heating and lighting costs. This article noted some of the dubious design features that could have been screened out at the design stage if careful analysis had been carried out. It described features such as the solar orientation; climatic factors that influenced the form and details of the building; the high-efficiency, condensing, natural gas water heater for space heating combined with a forced-air and radiant-floor heating system; solariums that provided solar preheating of domestic hot water; ventilation air preheating; the solar roof; an earth-tube ventilation system; and 3 wind turbines to generate electricity to offset conventional electricity sources. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation has monitored several of the systems in order to evaluate the extent to which these features have influenced the performance of the dwelling units. The energy use in all 7 units was documented along with indoor air quality. An energy performance rating of EnerGuide 80 was achieved, which is comparable to R-2000. The monitoring study revealed that wind energy at this location was not sufficient to justify the installation of the wind turbines. The solar steel roof/solarium energy system did not perform as expected. In addition, the earth-tube ventilation system provided little heat and its overall contribution to ventilation was uncertain. Other deficiencies were also noted, such as leaky ductwork, non-operational dampers and poorly integrated control systems. The

  1. Ernst Chain: a great man of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Nelson; Demain, Arnold L

    2013-08-01

    This paper is a tribute to the scientific accomplishments of Ernst Chain and the influence he exerted over the fields of industrial microbiology and biotechnology. Chain is the father of the modern antibiotic era and all the benefits that these therapeutic agents have brought, i.e., longer life spans, greater levels of public health, widespread modern surgery, and control of debilitating infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, gonorrhea, syphilis, etc. Penicillin was the first antibiotic to become commercially available, and its use ushered in the age of antibiotics. The discovery of penicillin's bactericidal action had been made by Alexander Fleming in London in 1928. After publishing his observations in 1929, no further progress was made until the work was picked up in 1939 by scientists at Oxford University. The group was headed by Howard Florey, and Chain was the group's lead scientist. Chain was born and educated in Germany, and he fled in 1933 as a Jewish refugee from Nazism to England. Other important members of the Oxford research team were Norman Heatley and Edward Abraham. The team was able to produce and isolate penicillin under conditions of scarce resources and many technical challenges. Sufficient material was collected and tested on mice to successfully demonstrate penicillin's bactericidal action on pathogens, while being nontoxic to mammals. Chain directed the microbiological methods for producing penicillin and the chemical engineering methods to extract the material. This technology was transferred to US government facilities in 1941 for commercial production of penicillin, becoming an important element in the Allied war effort. In 1945, the Nobel Prize for medicine was shared by Fleming, Florey, and Chain in recognition of their work in developing penicillin as a therapeutic agent. After World War II, Chain tried to persuade the British government to fund a new national antibiotic industry with both research and production facilities. As

  2. Coral skeletons provide historical evidence of phosphorus runoff on the great barrier reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Mallela

    Full Text Available Recently, the inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef have declined rapidly because of deteriorating water quality. Increased catchment runoff is one potential culprit. The impacts of land-use on coral growth and reef health however are largely circumstantial due to limited long-term data on water quality and reef health. Here we use a 60 year coral core record to show that phosphorus contained in the skeletons (P/Ca of long-lived, near-shore Porites corals on the Great Barrier Reef correlates with annual records of fertiliser application and particulate phosphorus loads in the adjacent catchment. Skeletal P/Ca also correlates with Ba/Ca, a proxy for fluvial sediment loading, again linking near-shore phosphorus records with river runoff. Coral core records suggest that phosphorus levels increased 8 fold between 1949 and 2008 with the greatest levels coinciding with periods of high fertiliser-phosphorus use. Periods of high P/Ca correspond with intense agricultural activity and increased fertiliser application in the river catchment following agricultural expansion and replanting after cyclone damage. Our results demonstrate how coral P/Ca records can be used to assess terrestrial nutrient loading of vulnerable near-shore reefs.

  3. The 27-year decline of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De'ath, Glenn; Fabricius, Katharina E; Sweatman, Hugh; Puotinen, Marji

    2012-10-30

    The world's coral reefs are being degraded, and the need to reduce local pressures to offset the effects of increasing global pressures is now widely recognized. This study investigates the spatial and temporal dynamics of coral cover, identifies the main drivers of coral mortality, and quantifies the rates of potential recovery of the Great Barrier Reef. Based on the world's most extensive time series data on reef condition (2,258 surveys of 214 reefs over 1985-2012), we show a major decline in coral cover from 28.0% to 13.8% (0.53% y(-1)), a loss of 50.7% of initial coral cover. Tropical cyclones, coral predation by crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS), and coral bleaching accounted for 48%, 42%, and 10% of the respective estimated losses, amounting to 3.38% y(-1) mortality rate. Importantly, the relatively pristine northern region showed no overall decline. The estimated rate of increase in coral cover in the absence of cyclones, COTS, and bleaching was 2.85% y(-1), demonstrating substantial capacity for recovery of reefs. In the absence of COTS, coral cover would increase at 0.89% y(-1), despite ongoing losses due to cyclones and bleaching. Thus, reducing COTS populations, by improving water quality and developing alternative control measures, could prevent further coral decline and improve the outlook for the Great Barrier Reef. Such strategies can, however, only be successful if climatic conditions are stabilized, as losses due to bleaching and cyclones will otherwise increase.

  4. Great economic crisis in Polish agriculture - a remainder and caution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Musiał

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents chosen aspects of the course of the so-called great economic crisis which took place in 1929-1933 in economy, including agricultural sector. The results of the crisis in the sphere of agricultural production, the use of production means and concerning shaping of the price level and price relationships were discussed. Attention was paid to the state intervention measures aimed to diminish the range of crisis in agriculture and reasons of their low efficiency. It was demonstrated that the crisis was very deep and beside the economy involved also the social, cultural and political spheres.

  5. Complex & Instinct, Thematic Concerns in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田国柱

    1998-01-01

    Love,in any form, has its definite way of expressin. Every nature of love is specifically demonstrated in one way or another———selfish love and selfless love ,love for outer fair appearance and love for inner fine qualities, love out of admiration for one’s abilities and love manifest of jealous (that of Madea for Glauke~1),love sextual and love Platonic However,it is only in The Great Gatsby that love finds itself unprecedentedly expressed———in the form of psychological abnormalities.

  6. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  7. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. [CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO{sub 2} removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO{sub 2} removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20{degree}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ({del}T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO{sub 2} removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, {del}T = 20--22{degree}F, and 70% SO{sub 2} removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO{sub 2} emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  8. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. (CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO[sub 2] removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO[sub 2] removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20[degree]F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ([del]T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO[sub 2] removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, [del]T = 20--22[degree]F, and 70% SO[sub 2] removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO[sub 2] emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  9. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  10. What Makes a Great Journal Great in Economics? The Singer Not the Song.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); L. Oxley (Les)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper is concerned with analysing what makes a great journal great in economics, based on quantifiable measures. Alternative Research Assessment Measures (RAM) are discussed, with an emphasis on the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science database (hereafter ISI). The various ISI RAM that

  11. Demonstration Telescopes Using "Dollar Optics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Paul

    2008-05-01

    I propose a poster that illustrates the use of "dollar optics” for experimentation and for the creation of demonstration telescopes. Handling a variety of lenses and mirrors provides an opportunity for discovering practical optics. Some part of this path of exploration must have been traveled by Galileo as he experimented with spectacle lenses. "Dollar optics” include reading glasses (positive meniscus lenses), convex and concave mirrors, Fresnel sheets, magnifying lenses, and eye loupes. Unwanted distance spectacles (negative meniscus lenses) are available at second-hand stores. Galileo telescopes, "long” 17th century telescopes, and useful demonstration models of Newtonian reflectors can be made with "dollar” optics. The poster will illustrate practical information about "dollar optics” and telescopes: magnification, focal length, and "diopters” disassembling spectacles; creating cheap mounts for spectacle lenses; the importance of optical axes and alignment; eyepieces; and focusing. (A table would be useful with the poster to set out a hands-on display of "dollar optic” telescopes.) Educators, experimenters, and those concerned with astronomy outreach might be interested in this poster. Working with "dollar optics” requires facility with simple tools, interest in planning projects, patience, imagination, and the willingness to invest some time and effort. "Dollar optics” may help to foster creativity and hands-on enthusiasm - as did Galileo's work with simple lenses 400 years ago. "Oh! When will there be an end put to the new observations and discoveries of this admirable instrument?” - Galileo Galilei as quoted by Henry C. King, The History of the Telescope.

  12. Energy 2007. Research, development, demonstration; Energi 07. Forskning, udvikling, demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byriel, I.P.; Justesen, Helle; Beck, A.; Borup Jensen, J.; Rosenfeldt Jakobsen, Kl; Jacobsen, Steen Hartvig (eds.)

    2007-08-10

    Danish energy research is in an exciting and challenging situation. Rising oil prices, unstable energy supply, climate policy responsibilities and globalization have brought development of new environmentally friendly and more efficient energy technologies into focus. Promising international markets for newly developed energy technologies are emerging, and at the same time well established Danish positions of strength are challenged by new strong actors on the global market. The Danish government has set to work on its vision of an appreciable strengthening of public energy research funding through the recent law on the energy technological development and demonstration programme EUDP and the realization of globalization funds. The interaction between basic and applied research must be kept intact. In this report the various Danish energy research programmes administered by Energinet.dk, Danish Energy Authority, Danish Energy Association, Danish Council for Strategic Research's Programme Commission on Energy and Environment and Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, coordinate their annual reports for the first time. The aim of Energy 2007 is to give the reader an idea of how the energy research programmes collaborate on solving the major energy technology challenges - also in an international context. (BA)

  13. Background model for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Caldwell, T S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Detwiler, J A; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fullmer, A; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; Leon, J; Lopez, A M; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2016-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing a system containing 44 kg of high-purity Ge (HPGe) detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale to ~15 meV. To realize this, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials and analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements. Preliminary background results obtained during the engineering runs of the Demonstrator are pre...

  14. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS) function description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, A. J.; Bailey, D. G.; Gaabo, R. J.; Lahn, T. G.; Larson, J. C.; Peterson, E. M.; Schuck, J. W.; Rodgers, D. L.; Wroblewski, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Demonstration Advanced Avionics System, DAAS, is an integrated avionics system utilizing microprocessor technologies, data busing, and shared displays for demonstrating the potential of these technologies in improving the safety and utility of general aviation operations in the late 1980's and beyond. Major hardware elements of the DAAS include a functionally distributed microcomputer complex, an integrated data control center, an electronic horizontal situation indicator, and a radio adaptor unit. All processing and display resources are interconnected by an IEEE-488 bus in order to enhance the overall system effectiveness, reliability, modularity and maintainability. A detail description of the DAAS architecture, the DAAS hardware, and the DAAS functions is presented. The system is designed for installation and flight test in a NASA Cessna 402-B aircraft.

  15. Technologies of democracy: experiments and demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Brice

    2011-12-01

    Technologies of democracy are instruments based on material apparatus, social practices and expert knowledge that organize the participation of various publics in the definition and treatment of public problems. Using three examples related to the engagement of publics in nanotechnology in France (a citizen conference, a series of public meetings, and an industrial design process), the paper argues that Science and Technology Studies provide useful tools and methods for the analysis of technologies of democracy. Operations of experiments and public demonstrations can be described, as well as controversies about technologies of democracy giving rise to counter-experiments and counter-demonstrations. The political value of the analysis of public engagement lies in the description of processes of stabilization of democratic orders and in the display of potential alternative political arrangements.

  16. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  17. Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Arias, Leonel; Morales-Martínez, André; Zazueta-López, Rosa María; Ramírez-Dovala, Silvia; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ponce-Olivera, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    Congenital malalignment of the great toenail (CMA) is a disorder of the anatomic orientation of the ungual apparatus, in which the longitudinal axis of the nail plate is not parallel with the axis of the distal phalanx but is deflected sideways. This disorder is understood to arise from multiple factors. Although many theories have been proposed about its origin, its pathogenesis is not fully known. Besides the cosmetic impact, this disorder causes such problems in the medium and long term as onychocryptosis and difficulty in motion. Some cases may regress spontaneously, although persistent cases may require a specialized surgical approach. Congenital malalignment of the great toenail is poorly understood and described medical condition that is often treated incorrectly; thus, reviewing the subject is important. A symptombased clinical classification system is proposed to guide diagnosis and treatment modality decisions.

  18. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  19. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H; Kidd, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...... species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria-Cameroon/western and central....../eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme. Inferred effective population sizes have varied radically over time in different lineages and this appears to have a profound effect on the genetic diversity at, or close to, genes in almost...

  20. WOODEN DOOR WINGS OF ADIYAMAN GREAT MOSQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet ARSLAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodworking which is in the most important Turk art branches have been used especially in Anatolia land readily. Wooden material that is seen on architectural units such as mimbar, ambo, wings of door and window, lectern has an important particularly with its ornamental figures. Wooden composition on the north and east doors of Adıyaman Great Mosque was built by Dulkadir Principality but regulated again in the last period of Ottoman Empire, is a theme which is exemined detailedly in Turk art. In this article, it is tried to determined ornamentel and tecnical characteristics of wooden door wings of Adıyaman Great Mosque belongs to early XX. century and the place of them in Turk art.

  1. A demonstrator for bolometric interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ghribi, Adnan; Galli, Silvia; Piat, Michel; Breelle, Eric; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Spinelli, Sebastiano; Gervasi, Massimo; Zannoni, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Bolometric Interferometry (BI) is one of the most promising techniques for precise measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background polarization. In this paper, we present the results of DIBO (Demonstrateur d'Interferometrie Bolometrique), a single-baseline demonstrator operating at 90 GHz, built to proof the validity of the BI concept applied to a millimeter-wave interferometer. This instrument has been characterized in the laboratory with a detector at room temperature and with a 4 K bolometer. This allowed us to measure interference patterns in a clean way, both (1) rotating the source and (2) varying with time the phase shift among the two interferometer's arms. Detailed modelisation has also been performed and validated with measurements.

  2. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, Don T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Archiblad, Kip E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  3. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  4. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Dvorak, E; Hahn, A; Jaskierny, W; Johnson, C; Jostlein, H; Kendziora, C; Lockwitz, S; Pahlka, B; Plunkett, R; Pordes, S; Rebel, B; Schmitt, R; Stancari, M; Tope, T; Voirin, E; Yang, T

    2014-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  5. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  6. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy

  7. Contaminant analysis automation demonstration proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; Heubach, J.G.

    1993-10-01

    The nation-wide and global need for environmental restoration and waste remediation (ER&WR) presents significant challenges to the analytical chemistry laboratory. The expansion of ER&WR programs forces an increase in the volume of samples processed and the demand for analysis data. To handle this expanding volume, productivity must be increased. However. The need for significantly increased productivity, faces contaminant analysis process which is costly in time, labor, equipment, and safety protection. Laboratory automation offers a cost effective approach to meeting current and future contaminant analytical laboratory needs. The proposed demonstration will present a proof-of-concept automated laboratory conducting varied sample preparations. This automated process also highlights a graphical user interface that provides supervisory, control and monitoring of the automated process. The demonstration provides affirming answers to the following questions about laboratory automation: Can preparation of contaminants be successfully automated?; Can a full-scale working proof-of-concept automated laboratory be developed that is capable of preparing contaminant and hazardous chemical samples?; Can the automated processes be seamlessly integrated and controlled?; Can the automated laboratory be customized through readily convertible design? and Can automated sample preparation concepts be extended to the other phases of the sample analysis process? To fully reap the benefits of automation, four human factors areas should be studied and the outputs used to increase the efficiency of laboratory automation. These areas include: (1) laboratory configuration, (2) procedures, (3) receptacles and fixtures, and (4) human-computer interface for the full automated system and complex laboratory information management systems.

  8. The Great Wall for the first time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Jin Shanling is on the way of a spectacular 7 mile hike to the incredible knife-edge peaks at Simatai. From each watch-tower (67 are said to grace this section) it is like the Great Wall for the first time. It is a swaying cable bridge crosses to Simatai. Atop tours reached through steep, narrow steps are million-dollar vistas of an endless dragon’s tail. Here, the wall

  9. Work, gravitational energy and the Great Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tort, A. C.

    2015-09-01

    According to the Greek historian Herodotus, it took a task force of 100 000 men and 20 years to build up the Great Pyramid of Gizeh or Khufu’s Pyramid. In this work we discuss an analytical solution obtained in the framework of basic Newtonian mechanics that allows us to check Herodotus’s statement. Numerical estimates are compared to more detailed calculations. An estimation of the dietary energy intake necessary to accomplish the task is also discussed.

  10. Water resources in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin Watershed covers 362,600 km (140,110 mi2) and extends from the Sierra Nevada Range in California to the Wasatch Range in Utah, and from southeastern Oregon to southern Nevada (NBC Weather Plus Website). The region is among the driest in the nation and depends largely on winter snowfall and spring runoff for its water supply. Precipitation may be as much...

  11. Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    for her eternal patience and fine editing; and a special acknowl- edgement to the Puget Sound Nearshore Science Team for recognizing the Great Blue...mainland Sunshine Coast offer differing habitat op- portunities and breeding concentrations. Within the inland waters of British Columbia, 62 active...1966 and 1994 based on breeding bird survey results (Downes and Collins 1996). Observa- tions indicate that fewer herons now breed on the Sunshine

  12. Solitary nodule of the great toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Wilde, J L; Sartori, C R; Elston, D M

    2001-07-01

    We describe a 21-year-old woman with a subungual exostosis exhibiting both skin and nail findings. The patient presented with a firm, flesh-colored, nontender, subungual nodule in the distal nail bed of the great toe. Radiographic examination revealed focal calcification of the nodule, with direct communication to the underlying phalanx. Subungual exostosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any digital mass. Surgical excision, followed by curettage of the base, is the treatment of choice.

  13. Evidence for external forcing temporal clustering of great earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikyan, Galina; Zhumabayev, Beibit; Toyshiev, Nursultan; Kairatkyzy, Dina; Kaldybayev, Azamat; Nurakynov, Serik

    2016-04-01

    It is shown by Bufe and Perkins [2005, BSSA, doi:10.1785/0120040110] and Shearera and Stark [2012, PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1118525109] that clustering of great earthquakes in 1950-1965 and 2004-2011 years is highly significant, with a 0.5% probability of random occurrence. Lutikov and Rogozhin [2014, Physics of the Solid Earth] reported on a similar clustering in the end of 19th - beginning of 20ty centuries as well, when strongest earthquakes occurred in Tien Shan (1889, M=8.3; and 1911, M=8.2); Alaska (1899, M=8.0); Kashgaria (1902, M=8.2); Mongolia (1905, M=8.2); San Francisco (1906, M=8.3), China(1906, M=8.3); Columbia (1906, M=8.6). Shearera and Stark [2012] have found that clustering of great earthquakes is analogous to seismic swarms that occur for a limited time. Simultaneously, they mentioned that at present no physical mechanism has been proposed to explain possible global seismicity swarms. Our results suggest that a mechanism responsible for temporal clustering of great earthquakes could be an external one related to the processes in the whole solar system including the Sun. We pay attention that the three marked periods of great earthquake clustering are related closely to the extreme phases of the recent Solar Centennial Gleissberg Cycle, which minimums occurred around of 1913 and 2008 years, and maximum - around of 1960 year. In particular, the great earthquake clustering in 1950-1965 coincides closely with the extremely high 19th eleven year solar cycle lasting from February 1954 to October 1964, while a great earthquake clustering after 2004 year coincides closely with the recent prolonged solar minimum developing after 2000 year. Also, we demonstrate that depending on the structure and composition of the lithosphere, strongest earthquakes may prefer to occur either in high or low solar activity. In particular, data analysis for 32 strongest (M=>7.0) earthquakes occurred in 1973-2014 years in the orogeny region of Eurasia, restricted by coordinates

  14. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  15. Eutrophication of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Alfred M.

    1965-01-01

    Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior are classified as oligotrophic lakes on the basis of their biological, chemical, and physical characteristics. Lake Ontario, although rich in nutrients, is morphometrically oligotrophic or mesotrophic because of its large area of deep water. Lake Erie, the most productive of the lakes and the shallowest, is eutrophic. Several changes commonly associated with eutrophication in small lakes have been observed in the Great Lakes. These changes apparently reflect accelerated eutrophication in the Great Lakes due to man's activity. Chemical data compiled from a number of sources, dating as early as 1854, indicate a progressive increase in the concentrations of various major ions and total dissolved solids in all of the lakes except Lake Superior. The plankton has changed somewhat in Lake Michigan and the plankton, benthos, and fish populations of Lake Erie are greatly different today from those of the past. An extensive area of hypolimnetic water of Lake Erie has developed low dissolved oxygen concentrations in late summer within recent years.

  16. Moral reasoning about great apes in research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Carol Midori

    2006-04-01

    This study explored how individuals (biomedical scientists, Great Ape Project activists, lay adults, undergraduate biology and environmental studies students, and Grade 12 and 9 biology students) morally judge and reason about using great apes in biomedical and language research. How these groups perceived great apes' mental capacities (e.g., pain, logical thinking) and how these perceptions related to their judgments were investigated through two scenarios. In addition, the kinds of informational statements (e.g., biology, economics) that may affect individuals' scenario judgments were investigated. A negative correlation was found between mental attributions and scenario judgments while no clear pattern occurred for the informational statements. For the biomedical scenario, all groups significantly differed in mean judgment ratings except for the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students. For the language scenario, all groups differed except for the GAP activists, and undergraduate environmental studies and Grade 9 students. An in-depth qualitative analysis showed that although the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students had similar judgments, they produced different mean percentages of justifications under four moral frameworks (virtue, utilitarianism, deontology, and welfare). The GAP activists used more virtue reasoning while the biomedical scientists and Grade 9 students used more utilitarian and welfare reasoning, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of developing environmental/humane education curricula.

  17. Corrected transposition of the great arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Hi; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    The corrected transposition of the great arteries is an usual congenital cardiac malformation, which consists of transposition of great arteries and ventricular inversion, and which is caused by abnormal development of conotruncus and ventricular looping. High frequency of associated cardiac malformations makes it difficult to get accurate morphologic diagnosis. A total of 18 cases of corrected transposition of the great arteries is presented, in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between September 1976 and June 1981. The clinical, radiographic, and operative findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases, 13 cases have normal cardiac position, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs solitus, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs inversus and 1 case has levocardia with situs inversus. 2. Segmental sets are (S, L, L) in 15 cases, and (I, D,D) in 3 cases and there is no exception to loop rule. 3. Side by side interrelationships of both ventricles and both semilunar valves are noticed in 10 and 12 cases respectively. 4. Subaortic type conus is noted in all 18 cases. 5. Associated cardic malformations are VSD in 14 cases, PS in 11, PDA in 3, PFO in 3, ASD in 2, right aortic arch in 2, tricuspid insufficiency, mitral prolapse, persistent left SVC and persistent right SVC in 1 case respectively. 6. For accurate diagnosis of corrected TGA, selective biventriculography using biplane cineradiography is an essential procedure.

  18. Rights and great responsibilities of academic pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William O

    2013-01-01

    Abraham Jacobi, in his first address to the newly formed American Pediatric Society over 100 years ago, stated, "Questions of public hygiene and medicine are both professional and social. Thus, every physician is by destiny a citizen of the commonwealth with many rights and great responsibilities." Accordingly, pediatricians have rights and great responsibilities to advocate for children who may be at particularly high risk for adverse outcomes. Often, well-intentioned policies or interventions can have tragic unexpected consequence for these children. In many circumstances, policies are developed by providers, policymakers, and others who may act without sufficient information to understand how a particular policy might adversely affect vulnerable populations. Thus, academic pediatricians should fulfill their great responsibilities by identifying signals from the populations they serve that may indicate unintended consequences of policies, performing the highest quality research and discovery to evaluate these signals, and disseminating the information back to the appropriate decision-makers to ensure that policies and interventions result in optimal outcomes for all children.

  19. OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Denker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Temple of Bel in Palmyra was a unique edifice which had blended the well established lines of Greco-Roman architecture with the art and taste of the Orient. With the gilded bronze capitals of its 41 Corinthian columns it was the product of enormous effort and budget. It was the gem of a remarkable epoch of wealthy Palmyra and mighty Roma. With its splendidly decorated adyta ceilings it became a source of inspiration and imagination for Western architecture and decorative arts. While continuing to captivate the World, it was leveled and vanished as a grim result of conflict based vandalism. The aim of this work is to piece together this, the most eloquent and stupendous monument of the Roman East, from its ruins and reconstruct it as it was once extant. Its loss is irreplacable, but its photo-realistic reconstruction can offer some solace by waking the memories of the great temple as in the past. The lost reality of the Great Temple of Bel is revived here by digitally constructing its “ghost images".

  20. High Throughput Bent-Pipe Processor Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacco, P.; Vernucci, A.; Russo, L.; Cangini, P.; Botticchio, T.; Angeletti, P.

    2008-08-01

    The work associated to this article is a study initiative sponsored by ESA/ESTEC that responds to the crucial need of developing new Satellite payload aimed at making rapid progresses in handling large amounts of data at a competitive price with respect to terrestrial one in the telecommunication field. Considering the quite limited band allowed to space communications at Ka band, reusing the same band in a large number of beams is mandatory: therefore beam-forming is the right technological answer. Technological progresses - mainly in the digital domain - also help greatly in increasing the satellite capacity. Next Satellite payload target are set in throughput range of 50Gbps. Despite the fact that the implementation of a wideband transparent processor for a high capacity communication payload is a very challenging task, Space Engineering team in the frame of this ESA study proposed an intermediate step of development for a scalable unit able to demonstrate both the capacity and flexibility objectives for different type of Wideband Beamforming antennas designs. To this aim the article describes the features of Wideband HW (analog and digital) platform purposely developed by Space Engineering in the frame of this ESA/ESTEC contract ("WDBFN" contract) with some preliminary system test results. The same platform and part of the associated SW will be used in the development and demonstration of the real payload digital front end Mux and Demux algorithms as well as the Beam Forming and on Board channel switching in frequency domain. At the time of this article writing, despite new FPGA and new ADC and DAC converters have become available as choices for wideband system implementation, the two HW platforms developed by Space Engineering, namely WDBFN ADC and DAC Boards, represent still the most performing units in terms of analog bandwidth, processing capability (in terms of FPGA module density), SERDES (SERiliazer DESerializers) external links density, integration form