WorldWideScience

Sample records for demonstrate continuous growth

  1. Quest for Continual Growth Takes Root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdey, Mary M.; Hashey, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how the quest for continual growth has taken its root at Vestal Central School district. Located at the heart of upstate New York, educators at Vestal Central School district have created a spirit of "kaizen," a Japanese word meaning the relentless quest for continual improvement and higher-quality…

  2. A continuous growth model for plant tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorg, Behruz; Krupinski, Pawel; Jönsson, Henrik

    2016-12-01

    Morphogenesis in plants and animals involves large irreversible deformations. In plants, the response of the cell wall material to internal and external forces is determined by its mechanical properties. An appropriate model for plant tissue growth must include key features such as anisotropic and heterogeneous elasticity and cell dependent evaluation of mechanical variables such as turgor pressure, stress and strain. In addition, a growth model needs to cope with cell divisions as a necessary part of the growth process. Here we develop such a growth model, which is capable of employing not only mechanical signals but also morphogen signals for regulating growth. The model is based on a continuous equation for updating the resting configuration of the tissue. Simultaneously, material properties can be updated at a different time scale. We test the stability of our model by measuring convergence of growth results for a tissue under the same mechanical and material conditions but with different spatial discretization. The model is able to maintain a strain field in the tissue during re-meshing, which is of particular importance for modeling cell division. We confirm the accuracy of our estimations in two and three-dimensional simulations, and show that residual stresses are less prominent if strain or stress is included as input signal to growth. The approach results in a model implementation that can be used to compare different growth hypotheses, while keeping residual stresses and other mechanical variables updated and available for feeding back to the growth and material properties.

  3. Dynamic Demonstration of Ceramic Grain Growth in Three Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Microstructural evolutions of ceramic grain growth we re dynamically demonstrated with 3D graphical display techniques. Based on the p rinciples of grain growth in ceramics, the data of coordination in different ato ms were calculated with Monte-Carlo method at atomistic scale. Realistic images in three-dimension were displayed onto two-dimension monitor by projection, i llumination and atomization, using Visual C++ and OpenGL languages. Different small spheres were used to model different kind of atoms,...

  4. 40 CFR 63.9808 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance? 63.9808 Section 63.9808 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... include out of control continuous monitoring systems (CMS), such as a CPMS. Any averaging period for...

  5. Crystallization Growth of Single Crystal Cu by ContinuousCasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Crystallization growth of single-crystal Cu by continuous casting has been investigated using selfdesigned horizontal continuous casting equipment and XRD. Experimental results showed that the crystallization plane of (311), (220) and (111) were eliminated sequentially in evolutionary process. The final growth plane of crystal was (200), the direction of crystallization was [100],the growth direction of both sides of the rod inclined to axis, and the degree of deviation of direction [100] from the crystal axis was less than 10. In order to produce high quality single crystal, the solid-liquid interface morphology must be smooth, even be planar.

  6. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone.

  7. Experimental demonstration of continuous variable cloning with phase-conjugate inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of continuous variable cloning of phase-conjugate coherent states as proposed by Cerf and Iblisdir [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247903 (2001)]. In contrast to this proposal, the cloning transformation is accomplished using only linear optical components......, homodyne detection, and feedforward. As a result of combining phase conjugation with a joint measurement strategy, superior cloning is demonstrated with cloning fidelities reaching 89%....

  8. Demonstration of Cluster State Shaping and Quantum Erasure for Continuous Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Miwa, Yoshichika; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Filip, Radim; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally how to remove an arbitrary node from a continuous-variable cluster state and how to shorten any quantum wires of such a state. These two basic operations, performed in an unconditional fashion, are a manifestation of quantum erasure and can be employed to obtain various graph states from an initial cluster state. Starting with a sufficiently large cluster, the resulting graph states can then be used for universal quantum information processing. In the experiment, all variations of this cluster-shaping are demonstrated on a four-mode linear cluster state through homodyne measurements and feedforward.

  9. Continuous Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman de Villoria, Roberto; Wardle, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes are one of the most promising materials due their numerous applications in flexible electronic devices, biosensors and multifunctional aircraft materials, among others. However, the costly production of aligned carbon nanotubes, generally in a batch process, prevents their commercial use. For the first time, a controlled process to grow aligned carbon nanotubes in a continuous manner is presented. Uniform growth is achieved using 2D and 3D substrates. A sig...

  10. Population priorities: the challenge of continued rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Adair

    2009-10-27

    Rapid population growth continues in the least developed countries. The revisionist case that rapid population could be overcome by technology, that population density was advantageous, that capital shallowing is not a vital concern and that empirical investigations had not proved a correlation between high population growth and low per capita income was both empirically and theoretically flawed. In the modern world, population density does not play the role it did in nineteenth-century Europe and rates of growth in some of today's least developed nations are four times than those in nineteenth-century Europe, and without major accumulation of capital per capita, no major economy has or is likely to make the low- to middle-income transition. Though not sufficient, capital accumulation for growth is absolutely essential to economic growth. While there are good reasons for objecting to the enforced nature of the Chinese one-child policy, we should not underestimate the positive impact which that policy has almost certainly had and will have over the next several decades on Chinese economic performance. And a valid reticence about telling developing countries that they must contain fertility should not lead us to underestimate the severely adverse impact of high fertility rates on the economic performance and prospects of many countries in Africa and the Middle East.

  11. Growth Model System for National Continuous Forest Inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Hongli; Meng Xianyu; Tang Xiaoming

    2006-01-01

    A Growth Model System is developed for data updating and forecasting of the national continuous forest inventory.Its design is based on the inherent forest growth laws,and its parameters are estimated by modern regression methods.It is composed of an age-implicit tree model,a diameter-related survival rate model,a recruitment model based on age and number of plots,and an area model.It is suitable for forest resource information updating and forecasting for a large region,e.g.,a province.Data of remeasured plots and trees are needed for development of the system.A study case of Jiangxi Province with detailed error analyses is provided.

  12. Continuous growth of the motor system in the axolotl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holder, N.; Clarke, J.D.; Stephens, N.; Wilson, S.W.; Orsi, C.; Bloomer, T.; Tonge, D.A. (King' s College, London (England))

    1991-01-22

    During growth of the axolotl, motor neurons, and muscle fibres are added to the motor system. By double labelling neurons with tritiated thymidine and retrogradely transported HRP, we show that some motor neurons are born at postembryonic stages. Further analysis of motor neurons with the aid of HRP reveals this population of newly born cells relatively frequently in small (5-7 cm long) axolotls, but only rarely in large (7-13 cm long) axolotls. Evidence is presented that suggests that these immature cells are in the process of migrating from close to the ependyma out to the ventral horn. HRP transport also reveals growth cones of advancing axons within spinal nerves in animals up to 6 cm in length. Cell counts by light and electron microscopic methods show that muscle fibres are generated throughout larval life in the iliotibialis, a typical limb muscle. This analysis provides data consistent with the notion that new muscle fibres are added from a localised growth zone situated at the superficial edge of the muscle. These results are discussed in terms of the correlation between continuous growth of the motor system and the ability of the axolotl to functionally repair lesions to the peripheral nervous system.

  13. Demonstration of a Controlled-Phase Gate for Continuous-Variable One-Way Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Ukai, Ryuji; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a controlled-phase gate for continuous variables in a fully measurement-based fashion. In our scheme, the two independent input states of the gate, encoded in two optical modes, are teleported into a four-mode Gaussian cluster state. As a result, one of the entanglement links present in the initial cluster state appears in the two unmeasured output modes as the corresponding entangling gate acting on the input states. The genuine quantum character of this gate becomes manifest and is verified through the presence of entanglement at the output for a product two-mode coherent input state. By combining our controlled-phase gate with the recently reported module for universal single-mode Gaussian operations [R. Ukai et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 240504 (2011)], it is possible to implement universal Gaussian operations on arbitrary multi-mode quantum optical states in form of a fully measurement-based one-way quantum computation.

  14. Non-unity molecular heritability demonstrated by continuous evolution in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, T.; Lehman, N.

    1999-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When catalytic RNA is evolved in vitro, the molecule's chemical reactivity is usually the desired selection target. Sometimes the phenotype of a particular RNA molecule cannot be unambiguously determined from its genotype, however. This can occur if a nucleotide sequence can adopt multiple folded states, an example of non-unity heritability (i.e. one genotype gives rise to more than one phenotype). In these cases, more rounds of selection are required to achieve a phenotypic shift. We tested the influence of non-unity heritability at the molecular level by selecting for variants of a ligase ribozyme via continuous evolution. RESULTS: During 20 bursts of continuous evolution of a 152-nucleotide ligase ribozyme in which the Mg2+ concentration was periodically lowered, a nine-error variant of the starting 'wild-type' molecule became dominant in the last eight bursts. This variant appears to be more active than the wild type. Kinetic analyses of the mutant suggest that it may not possess a higher first-order catalytic rate constant, however. Examination of the multiple RNA conformations present under the continuous evolution conditions suggests that the mutant is superior to the wild type because it is less likely to misfold into inactive conformers. CONCLUSIONS: The evolution of genotypes that are more likely to exhibit a particular phenotype is an epiphenomenon usually ascribed only to complex living systems. We show that this can occur at the molecular level, demonstrating that in vitro systems may have more life-like characteristics than previously thought, and providing additional support for an RNA world.

  15. Non-unity molecular heritability demonstrated by continuous evolution in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, T.; Lehman, N.

    1999-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When catalytic RNA is evolved in vitro, the molecule's chemical reactivity is usually the desired selection target. Sometimes the phenotype of a particular RNA molecule cannot be unambiguously determined from its genotype, however. This can occur if a nucleotide sequence can adopt multiple folded states, an example of non-unity heritability (i.e. one genotype gives rise to more than one phenotype). In these cases, more rounds of selection are required to achieve a phenotypic shift. We tested the influence of non-unity heritability at the molecular level by selecting for variants of a ligase ribozyme via continuous evolution. RESULTS: During 20 bursts of continuous evolution of a 152-nucleotide ligase ribozyme in which the Mg2+ concentration was periodically lowered, a nine-error variant of the starting 'wild-type' molecule became dominant in the last eight bursts. This variant appears to be more active than the wild type. Kinetic analyses of the mutant suggest that it may not possess a higher first-order catalytic rate constant, however. Examination of the multiple RNA conformations present under the continuous evolution conditions suggests that the mutant is superior to the wild type because it is less likely to misfold into inactive conformers. CONCLUSIONS: The evolution of genotypes that are more likely to exhibit a particular phenotype is an epiphenomenon usually ascribed only to complex living systems. We show that this can occur at the molecular level, demonstrating that in vitro systems may have more life-like characteristics than previously thought, and providing additional support for an RNA world.

  16. Analysis of occludin trafficking, demonstrating continuous endocytosis, degradation, recycling and biosynthetic secretory trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Fletcher

    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs link adjacent cells and are critical for maintenance of apical-basolateral polarity in epithelial monolayers. The TJ protein occludin functions in disparate processes, including wound healing and Hepatitis C Virus infection. Little is known about steady-state occludin trafficking into and out of the plasma membrane. Therefore, we determined the mechanisms responsible for occludin turnover in confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial monolayers. Using various biotin-based trafficking assays we observed continuous and rapid endocytosis of plasma membrane localised occludin (the majority internalised within 30 minutes. By 120 minutes a significant reduction in internalised occludin was observed. Inhibition of lysosomal function attenuated the reduction in occludin signal post-endocytosis and promoted co-localisation with the late endocytic system. Using a similar method we demonstrated that ∼20% of internalised occludin was transported back to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, significant co-localisation between internalised occludin and recycling endosomal compartments was observed. We then quantified the extent to which occludin synthesis and transport to the plasma membrane contributes to plasma membrane occludin homeostasis, identifying inhibition of protein synthesis led to decreased plasma membrane localised occludin. Significant co-localisation between occludin and the biosynthetic secretory pathway was demonstrated. Thus, under steady-state conditions occludin undergoes turnover via a continuous cycle of endocytosis, recycling and degradation, with degradation compensated for by biosynthetic exocytic trafficking. We developed a mathematical model to describe the endocytosis, recycling and degradation of occludin, utilising experimental data to provide quantitative estimates for the rates of these processes.

  17. Model for the feedback control system of bacterial growth. II. Growth in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleecken, S

    1989-12-07

    A mathematical model is developed that describes substrate limited bacterial growth in a continuous culture and that is based upon the conceptual framework elaborated in a previous paper for describing the feedback control system of cell growth [S. Bleecken, (1988). J. theor. Biol. 133, 37.] Central to the theory are the ideas that the limiting substrate is converted into low molecular weight building blocks of macromolecular synthesis which again are converted into biomass (RNA and protein) and that the rates of RNA and protein synthesis are controlled by the intracellular concentration of building blocks. It is shown that a continuous culture can be simulated by two interconnected feedback control systems the actuating signals of which are limiting substrate concentration and the intracellular concentration of building blocks, respectively. Three types of steady-states are found to appear in a continuous culture, besides the well-known stable steady-state of the whole culture there exist two batchlike steady-states of the biotic part of the culture which are metastable. The model is used to analyse the steady-states and their stability properties as well as the dynamic responses of biomass, RNA, protein, building block and substrate concentrations to changes in environmental conditions. Especially the inoculation of a continuous culture and the effects of step changes in dilution rate, inlet substrate concentration and growth temperature are studied in detail. Relations between the growth behaviour of a single cell and that of a continuous culture are derived. The RNA to protein ratio is introduced as a rough measure of the physiological state of cells and it is shown that a cell reacts to environmental changes with a simple pattern of basic responses in growth rate and physiological state. There are reasons to assume that the model presented is the minimal version of a structured model of bacterial growth and represents an optimum compromise between biological

  18. Continuation of growth hormone therapy versus placebo in transition-phase patients with growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens; Nørrelund, Helene; Vahl, Nina

    2002-01-01

    In a placebo-controlled, parallel study of 18 patients with a mean age of 20 years who had confirmed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, we evaluated body composition, insulin sensitivity, and glucose turnover at baseline (when all were receiving GH replacement); after 12 months of continued GH therapy...

  19. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in laryngeal carcinomas demonstrated by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) using immunohistochemical methods. In a recent study the same material was characterized for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF recep...

  20. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel, E-mail: juand.martinez@upb.edu.co [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales, Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 N°70-01, Bloque 11, piso 2, Medellín (Colombia); Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW{sub th}. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  1. Intermittent versus continuous administration of growth hormone treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hakeem, V; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment given by daily injection was compared with growth hormone given for three weeks of every four. All children had received recombinant human growth hormone for two years before randomisation. Growth velocity decreased in both groups in years one and two of the study but the effect was significantly greater in the group receiving intermittent growth hormone.

  2. Continuation of growth hormone therapy versus placebo in transition-phase patients with growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens; Nørrelund, Helene; Vahl, Nina

    2002-01-01

    In a placebo-controlled, parallel study of 18 patients with a mean age of 20 years who had confirmed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, we evaluated body composition, insulin sensitivity, and glucose turnover at baseline (when all were receiving GH replacement); after 12 months of continued GH therapy...... or placebo; and after a 12-month open phase of GH therapy. In the placebo group, insulin sensitivity and fat mass increased and lipid oxidation decreased, whereas glucose oxidation increased (p...

  3. Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal in a Membrane-Aerated Biofilm Reactor Under Continuous Aeration: A Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilmore, Kevin R.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the successful coupling of partial nitrification (nitritation) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) with continuous aeration. Controlling the relative surface loadings of oxygen versus ammonium prevented complete nitrite oxidation and a...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5890 - How do I calculate an organic HAP emissions factor to demonstrate compliance for continuous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions factor to demonstrate compliance for continuous lamination/casting operations? 63.5890 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Testing and Initial...

  5. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Thomas D; Moore, Murray E; Justus, Alan L; Hudston, Jonathan A; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. The Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch's minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The measured alpha activity increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. Data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source has been used to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  6. Suitability Analysis of Continuous-Use Reliability Growth Projection Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    exists for all types, shapes, and sizes. The primary focus of this study is a comparison of reliability growth projection models designed for...requirements to use reliability growth models, recent studies have noted trends in reliability failures throughout the DoD. In [14] Dr. Michael Gilmore...so a strict exponential distribu- tion was used to stay within their assumptions. In reality, however, reliability growth models often must be used

  7. Epitaxial Growth of Aligned and Continuous Carbon Nanofibers from Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Wenbin; Liu, Peng; Luo, Shu; Wei, Haoming; Yang, Guangzhi; Yang, Junhe; Cui, Jie; Yu, Richeng; Zhang, Lina; Wang, Jiaping; Li, Qunqing; Zhou, Weiya; Zhao, Weisheng; Fan, Shoushan; Jiang, Kaili

    2017-02-28

    Exploiting the superior properties of nanomaterials at macroscopic scale is a key issue of nanoscience. Different from the integration strategy, "additive synthesis" of macroscopic structures from nanomaterial templates may be a promising choice. In this paper, we report the epitaxial growth of aligned, continuous, and catalyst-free carbon nanofiber thin films from carbon nanotube films. The fabrication process includes thickening of continuous carbon nanotube films by gas-phase pyrolytic carbon deposition and further graphitization of the carbon layer by high-temperature treatment. As-fabricated nanofibers in the film have an "annual ring" cross-section, with a carbon nanotube core and a graphitic periphery, indicating the templated growth mechanism. The absence of a distinct interface between the carbon nanotube template and the graphitic periphery further implies the epitaxial growth mechanism of the fiber. The mechanically robust thin film with tunable fiber diameters from tens of nanometers to several micrometers possesses low density, high electrical conductivity, and high thermal conductivity. Further extension of this fabrication method to enhance carbon nanotube yarns is also demonstrated, resulting in yarns with ∼4-fold increased tensile strength and ∼10-fold increased Young's modulus. The aligned and continuous features of the films together with their outstanding physical and chemical properties would certainly promote the large-scale applications of carbon nanofibers.

  8. Continuous recycling of enzymes during production of lignocellulosic bioethanol in demonstration scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haven, Mai Østergaard; Lindedam, Jane; Jeppesen, Martin D.;

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of enzymes in production of lignocellulosic bioethanol has been tried for more than 30 years. So far, the successes have been few and the experiments have been carried out at conditions far from those in an industrially feasible process. Here we have tested continuous enzyme recycling a...

  9. 40 CFR 63.8615 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... periods of monitor malfunctions, associated repairs, and required quality assurance or control activities... monitoring malfunctions, associated repairs, out-of-control periods, or required quality assurance or control... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Clay Ceramics...

  10. Continuous Theta-Burst Stimulation Demonstrates a Causal Role of Premotor Homunculus in Action Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John; Sandberg, Kristian; Skewes, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well established that regions of premotor cortex (PMC) are active during action observation, it remains controversial whether they play a causal role in action understanding. In the experiment reported here, we used offline continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to investigate...

  11. Continuous Theta-Burst Stimulation Demonstrates a Causal Role of Premotor Homunculus in Action Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John; Sandberg, Kristian; Skewes, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well established that regions of premotor cortex (PMC) are active during action observation, it remains controversial whether they play a causal role in action understanding. In the experiment reported here, we used offline continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to investigate t...

  12. 40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Continuous Compliance Demonstration Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements 4 Table 4 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate continuous...) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less Using one of the following monitoring methods:a. A...

  13. STRONGLY CONTINUOUS INTEGRATED COSINE OPERATOR FUNCTIONS WITH GROWTH ω

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiying Wang; Guoxiang Chen

    2007-01-01

    For a continuous increasing function ω: [0, ∞) → (0, ∞) of finite exponetial type, we establish a Hille-Yosida type theorem for strongly continuous integrated cosine operator functions with O(ω). It includes the well-known polynomially bounded and exponentially bounded cases.

  14. Development of advanced methods for continuous Czochralski growth. Silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, R. G.; Sibley, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    The three components required to modify the furnace for batch and continuous recharging with granular silicon were designed. The feasibility of extended growth cycles up to 40 hours long was demonstrated by a recharge simulation experiment; a 6 inch diameter crystal was pulled from a 20 kg charge, remelted, and pulled again for a total of four growth cycles, 59-1/8 inch of body length, and approximately 65 kg of calculated mass.

  15. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

    2000-02-01

    One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required.

  16. Feasibility and design study of continuously variable capacity refrigeration plant. A demonstration at Safeway plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report concerns a feasibility and design study carried out on a new type of high efficiency refrigeration system for use in supermarkets. The study compared the performance of Margaux Continuously Variable Capacity (CVC) refrigeration equipment with conventional supermarket plant. The tests were carried out at a Presto store in Stanley near Newcastle-upon-Tyne from August 1988 to February 1989. They involved assessment of systems for both chilled food (HT) and frozen food (LT). Significant energy savings were achieved by the CVC equipment. The HT system reduced energy consumption by 56% compared with conventional plant. Measured LT savings were only 13%, although adjustments made for monitoring problems and improved temperature control indicate savings of around 30%. (author)

  17. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  18. Demonstration of a GaAs-based 1550-nm continuous wave photomixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.-D., E-mail: weidong.zhang@wright.edu; Brown, E. R. [Terahertz Sensor Laboratory, Departments of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Middendorf, J. R. [Mound Laser and Photonics Center, Inc., Kettering, Ohio 45420 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    An Er:GaAs-based 1550-nm CW photomixer is demonstrated. The related mechanism is extrinsic photoconductivity with optical absorption between the localized deep levels created by the Er and the extended states above the conduction band edge of GaAs. With the power boost made possible by a fiber-coupled erbium-doped-fiber amplifier, the Er:GaAs photomixers, operating at 1550 nm, radiate THz power levels easily measured by a Golay cell, and display a power spectrum having a −3 dB roll-off frequency of 307 GHz. This corresponds to a photocarrier lifetime of 520 fs, in good agreement with a previous measurement of the bandwidth of the same material in a photoconductive switch.

  19. Talin Is Required Continuously for Cardiomyocyte Remodeling during Heart Growth in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina Bogatan

    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction of tension can govern the remodeling of cardiomyocytes during growth or cardiomyopathy. Tension is signaled through the integrin adhesion complexes found at muscle insertions and costameres but the relative importance of signalling during cardiomyocyte growth versus remodelling has not been assessed. Employing the Drosophila cardiomyocyte as a genetically amenable model, we depleted the levels of Talin, a central component of the integrin adhesion complex, at different stages of heart growth and remodeling. We demonstrate a continuous requirement for Talin during heart growth to maintain the one-to-one apposition of myofibril ends between cardiomyocytes. Retracted myofibrils cannot regenerate appositions to adjacent cells after restoration of normal Talin expression, and the resulting deficit reduces heart contraction and lifespan. Reduction of Talin during heart remodeling after hatching or during metamorphosis results in pervasive degeneration of cell contacts, myofibril length and number, for which restored Talin expression is insufficient for regeneration. Resultant dilated cardiomyopathy results in a fibrillating heart with poor rhythmicity. Cardiomyocytes have poor capacity to regenerate deficits in myofibril orientation and insertion, despite an ongoing capacity to remodel integrin based adhesions.

  20. Constraining the Size Growth of the Task Space with Socially Guided Intrinsic Motivation using Demonstrations

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Sao Mai; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for learning a highly redundant inverse model in continuous and non-preset environments. Our Socially Guided Intrinsic Motivation by Demonstrations (SGIM-D) algorithm combines the advantages of both social learning and intrinsic motivation, to specialise in a wide range of skills, while lessening its dependence on the teacher. SGIM-D is evaluated on a fishing skill learning experiment.

  1. Growth of Preferential Attachment Random Graphs Via Continuous-Time Branching Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna B Athreya; Arka P Ghosh; Sunder Sethuraman

    2008-08-01

    Some growth asymptotics of a version of `preferential attachment’ random graphs are studied through an embedding into a continuous-time branching scheme. These results complement and extend previous work in the literature.

  2. In-vivo experimental demonstration that hyperhistaminism counteracts tumor-growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarovere, F; Broccio, G; Granata, A; Fimiani, V

    1994-01-01

    Induction of hyperhistaminism in peritoneum of rats by daily intraperitoneal supply of 0.005 mu g of histamine, counteracts the growth of 10(3) Yoshida ascite sarcoma cells only if administration precedes inoculation of tumor cells and has a long duration. Treating animals for two weeks before tumor cell inoculation we observed significant 70% survival, that was increased to 80% continuing the supply for 20-days after the inoculation; treatment for 3 days before or 20 days after the inoculation did not show significant results. The condition created in rat peritoneum is similar to that in allergic people, and our data in animals confirm statistical data observed in allergic people showing decreased incidence of neoplastic disease due to histamine, that appears to be integrated in a highly potent immunoregulatory circuit.

  3. Continuous growth reference from 24th week of gestation to 24 months by gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertsson-Wikland Kerstin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth charts and child growth assessment have become prime global instruments in child health practice over the 30 years. An updated, continuous growth standard that bridges size at birth values with postnatal growth values can improve child growth screening and monitoring. Methods This novel growth chart was constructed from two sources of information. Size at birth (weight, length and head circumference reference values were updated based on information of normal deliveries (i.e. singleton live births without severe congenital malformation, with healthy mothers and born vaginally from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, 1990–1999 (n = 810393. Weight was evaluated using logarithmic transformation as for postnatal weight. Standard deviations were estimated from data within the empirical mean ± 1.0 SD for each gestational week and gender. These values were smoothed by empirical curve-fitting together with values from our recently published postnatal growth reference including 3650 longitudinally followed children from birth to final height 9. Timescale and weight axes were made logarithmic in order to magnify the early time part of the graph. Results This study presents the first continuous gender specific growth chart from birth irrespective of gestational age at birth until 2 years of age for weight, length and head circumference. Birth weight at 40 weeks of gestation increased approximately 100 gram and length increased only 1 mm compared with earlier Swedish reference from 1977–81. The curve is now less S-shaped as compared with earlier curves and compared with 4 curves from other countries and with more constant variation over the whole range. Conclusion Our values picture the unrestricted pattern of growth improving the detection of a deviating growth pattern, when the growth of an individual infant is plotted on the charts. Especially for very preterm infants age corrected growth can be more easily evaluated

  4. Different effects of continuous and intermittent patterns of growth hormone administration on lipoprotein levels in growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Lemming, Lone; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    1998-01-01

    with acromegaly. Studies in rats have demonstrated differential effects of constant and intermittent GH patterns on levels of certain lipoproteins. The aim of the present studies was to describe the impact of intermittent and continuous patterns of GH delivery to GHD patients on serum levels of Lp(a) and other...

  5. Demonstration of the BNL Continuous Dual Trap Analyzer to Detect Perfluorocarbon Tracers for the Tag, Track and Location Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser,J.H.; Adams, J.; Dietz, R..; Milian, L.; Watson, T.

    2008-10-07

    The Tag, Track and Location System (TTL) Program is investigating methods of tracking an asset using perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT). The success of any TTL method requires sound detection/location instrumentation. Tracer Detection Technologies Corp (TDT), through a contract with the Office of Naval Research (ONR), is investigating different detection systems. The detections systems generally fall into two categories; proximity detectors and standoff detectors. Proximity detectors, as the name implies, need to be in close proximity (e.g., meter to 10's of meters) to the PFT source. Standoff detection searches for the PFT from a greater distance away from the source (e.g., 100's of meters to kilometers). Gas Chromatographs (GC) are generally considered a proximity detection systems, but in the case of PFTs should be considered for both proximity and standoff detection with the caveat that in standoff use the GC needs to be somewhere in the PFT plume, i.e., generally downwind of the source. With a properly sized PFT source, the right GC can afford fairly large standoff (distance from the source) distances; 100's of meters to kilometers downwind. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has such a GC system and offered to demonstrate the CDTA for TTL as a no cost addition to the TDTTTL project, of which BNL was a participant. BNL is a leading authority on the sampling, collection, release and detection of PFTs. In addition, the BNL team has extensive background in atmospheric dispersion, the application of PFTs to such studies and the development of applications utilizing PFTs such as building infiltration measurements, control room integrity determination, leak location and environmental investigations. This experience and expertise is essential in developing any PFT application were dispersion, dilution and overcoming environmental conditions and interferences are integral to success. BNL has developed sophisticated gas chromatography methods and

  6. A Marketing approach on how continuous processes improvement can contribute to hotel business Organic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Simona IVASCIUC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generating sustainable growth and profits is like finding a unicorn for most managers. Organic growth should be considered as an alternative for long-term growth in the hotel business. Designing the service process to deliver what customers expect from the hotel offer is a crucial component of encounter marketing. Hotels need to embrace the changes and ensure that their internal processes are aligned not just to current trends, but also to the expected future changes. Keeping up with global changes and trends of any kind, evaluating their impact on your business, continuous improving of the services using PDCA cycle, Six Sigma or Lean principles, are the keys to long-term organic growth.

  7. Continuous monitoring of plant growth using fiber-optic interferrometric sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Julius; Grossman, Barry G.

    2011-06-01

    Dendrometers, dendrographs and dry weight measurements have been successfully used for measurements of plant growth. These sensors have been used with Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) based data logging systems for continuous monitoring. In this paper the preliminary results for a prototype technique is presented as a proof of concept for the continuous monitoring of plant growth using an approach based on fiber-optic interferrometric sensing. The advantage of this sensing technique over the others is the ability to measure and analyze with very high sensitivities such as micron changes in dimensions allowing measurements over short time spans. The sensor was mounted on a Dracaena Sanderiana (Lucky Bamboo) shoot and the change in shoot length dimensions resulted in changes in the output signal display which is in the form of interferrometric fringes. The data acquisition is performed over a long duration using labVIEW based data logging. Filtered output of the data has been presented where an attempt has been made to relate the fringes to length changes. The sensing system is nondestructive and noninvasive and has been targeted to respond to changes in stem length due to changes in plant growth parameters. The objective is to provide a measurement system to do research in optimizing plant growth in greatly reduced time spans. This form of sensing application is also applicable for monitoring the growth of plants growing at much slower rates.

  8. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    operating large fleets. As a long-standing lift truck dealership, LiftOne was able to introduce the fuel cells to such companies in the demanding applications. Accomplishments vs Objectives: We were successful in respect to the stated objectives. The Education Segment's H2 Education Sessions were able to introduce fuel cell technology to many companies and reached the intended broad audience. Also, demos of the lift truck at the sessions as well as the conferences; expos and area events provided great additional exposure. The Deployments were successful in allowing the 6 participating companies to test the 2 fuel cell powered lift trucks in their demanding applications. One of the 6 sites (BMW) eventually adopted over 80 fuel cells from Plug Power. LiftOne was one of the 3 fuel cell demonstrators at BMW for this trial and played a major role in helping to prove the viability and efficiency of this alternative form of energy for BMW. The other 5 companies that participated in the project's deployments were encouraged by the trials and while not converting over to fuel cell power at this time, expressed the desire to revisit acquisition scenarios in the near future as the cost of fuel cells and infrastructure continue to improve. The Education sessions began in March of 2009 at the 7 LiftOne Branches and continued throughout the duration of the project. Attendees came from a large base of lift truck users in North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. The sessions were free and invitations were sent out to potential users and companies with intrigue. In addition to the Education content at the sessions (which was offered in a 'H2 101' format), LiftOne was able to demonstrate a working fuel cell powered lift truck, which proved to be a big draw with the 'hands on' experience. LiftOne also demo'd the fuel cell lift trucks at many conferences, expos, professional association meetings, trade shows and 'Green' events in major cities

  9. Different effects of continuous and intermittent patterns of growth hormone administration on lipoprotein levels in growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Lemming, Lone; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    1998-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) is a risk marker for the development of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Growth hormone (GH) administration to GH-deficient (GHD) adults increases serum Lp(a) concentrations, and the levels of Lp(a) and GH are correlated in patients...... received GH in random order as: (1) continuous subcutaneous (s.c.) infusion, and (2) daily s.c. injections in the evening for 1 month each. The patients were studied during steady-state conditions at the end of each treatment period. RESULTS: In study A Lp(a) levels increased significantly following...

  10. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    operating large fleets. As a long-standing lift truck dealership, LiftOne was able to introduce the fuel cells to such companies in the demanding applications. Accomplishments vs Objectives: We were successful in respect to the stated objectives. The Education Segment's H2 Education Sessions were able to introduce fuel cell technology to many companies and reached the intended broad audience. Also, demos of the lift truck at the sessions as well as the conferences; expos and area events provided great additional exposure. The Deployments were successful in allowing the 6 participating companies to test the 2 fuel cell powered lift trucks in their demanding applications. One of the 6 sites (BMW) eventually adopted over 80 fuel cells from Plug Power. LiftOne was one of the 3 fuel cell demonstrators at BMW for this trial and played a major role in helping to prove the viability and efficiency of this alternative form of energy for BMW. The other 5 companies that participated in the project's deployments were encouraged by the trials and while not converting over to fuel cell power at this time, expressed the desire to revisit acquisition scenarios in the near future as the cost of fuel cells and infrastructure continue to improve. The Education sessions began in March of 2009 at the 7 LiftOne Branches and continued throughout the duration of the project. Attendees came from a large base of lift truck users in North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. The sessions were free and invitations were sent out to potential users and companies with intrigue. In addition to the Education content at the sessions (which was offered in a 'H2 101' format), LiftOne was able to demonstrate a working fuel cell powered lift truck, which proved to be a big draw with the 'hands on' experience. LiftOne also demo'd the fuel cell lift trucks at many conferences, expos, professional association meetings, trade shows and 'Green' events in major cities

  11. Batch Growth of Chlorella Vulgaris CCALA 896 versus Semi-Continuous Regimen for Enhancing Oil-Rich Biomass Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigita Vaičiulytė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to induce lipid accumulation in Chlorella cells by creating stressful growth conditions. Chlorella vulgaris CCALA 896 was grown under various batch growth modes in basal and modified BG-11 and Kolkwitz culture broths, using a continuous light regimen of 150 µE/m2/s, at 30 °C. In order to perform the experiments, two indoor photobioreactor shapes were used: a cylindrical glass photobioreactor (CGPBR with a working volume of 350 mL, and a flat glass photobioreactor (FGPBR with a working volume of 550 mL. Stress-eliciting conditions, such as nitrogen and phosphorous starvation, were imposed in order to induce lipid accumulation. The results demonstrated that more than 56% of the lipids can be accumulated in Chlorella biomass grown under two-phase batch growth conditions. The highest biomass productivity of 0.30 g/L/d was obtained at the highest nominal dilution rate (0.167 day−1 during a semi-continuous regimen, using a modified Kolkwitz medium. During the pH-stress cycles, the amount of lipids did not increase significantly and a flocculation of Chlorella cells was noted.

  12. Continuous monitoring of bacterial biofilm growth using uncoated Thickness-Shear Mode resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, P.; Resa, P.; Durán, C.; Maestre, J. R.; Mateo, M.; Elvira, L.

    2012-12-01

    Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) were used to nondestructively monitor in real time the microbial growth of the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) in a liquid broth. QCM, sometimes referred to as Thickness-Shear Mode (TSM) resonators, are highly sensitive sensors not only able to measure very small mass, but also non-gravimetric contributions of viscoelastic media. These devices can be used as biosensors for bacterial detection and are employed in many applications including their use in the food industry, water and environment monitoring, pharmaceutical sciences and clinical diagnosis. In this work, three strains of S. epidermidis (which differ in the ability to produce biofilm) have been continuously monitored using an array of piezoelectric TSM resonators, at 37 °C in a selective culturing media. Microbial growth was followed by measuring the changes in the crystal resonant frequency and bandwidth at several harmonics. It was shown that microbial growth can be monitored in real time using multichannel and multiparametric QCM sensors.

  13. Ontogenetic variations and structural adjustments in mammals evolving prolonged to continuous dental growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Lefebvre, Rémi; Fernández-Monescillo, Marcos; Mamani Quispe, Bernardino; Billet, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Studying dental ontogeny in mammals can provide valuable insight on the evolution of their masticatory apparatus and their related adaptations. The multiple acquisitions of a prolonged to continuous growth of teeth in herbivorous mammals in response to high abrasion represent an intensively investigated issue. However, the ontogenetic and architectural patterns associated with these repeated dental innovations remain poorly known. Here, we focused on two case studies corresponding to distant mammalian clades, the extinct Mesotheriidae (Notoungulata), which shared some striking dental features with the extant Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia). We studied the impact of prolonged to continuous growth of molars on their occlusal complexity, their relative size and their dynamics in the jaw. We found that variations of occlusal complexity patterns are the result of paedomorphic or peramorphic heterochronic processes impacting dental crown. We showed that variations in both upper and lower molar proportions generally follow the inhibitory developmental cascade model. In that context, prolonged dental growth implies transitory adjustments due to wear, and also involves dental migration and loss when combined with molar lengthening. Interestingly, these features may be present in many mammals having prolonged dental growth, and emphasize the crucial need of considering these aspects in future evolutionary and developmental studies. PMID:28791172

  14. Ontogenetic variations and structural adjustments in mammals evolving prolonged to continuous dental growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Lefebvre, Rémi; Fernández-Monescillo, Marcos; Mamani Quispe, Bernardino; Billet, Guillaume

    2017-07-01

    Studying dental ontogeny in mammals can provide valuable insight on the evolution of their masticatory apparatus and their related adaptations. The multiple acquisitions of a prolonged to continuous growth of teeth in herbivorous mammals in response to high abrasion represent an intensively investigated issue. However, the ontogenetic and architectural patterns associated with these repeated dental innovations remain poorly known. Here, we focused on two case studies corresponding to distant mammalian clades, the extinct Mesotheriidae (Notoungulata), which shared some striking dental features with the extant Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia). We studied the impact of prolonged to continuous growth of molars on their occlusal complexity, their relative size and their dynamics in the jaw. We found that variations of occlusal complexity patterns are the result of paedomorphic or peramorphic heterochronic processes impacting dental crown. We showed that variations in both upper and lower molar proportions generally follow the inhibitory developmental cascade model. In that context, prolonged dental growth implies transitory adjustments due to wear, and also involves dental migration and loss when combined with molar lengthening. Interestingly, these features may be present in many mammals having prolonged dental growth, and emphasize the crucial need of considering these aspects in future evolutionary and developmental studies.

  15. Integrated LED/Imaging Illumination Panels Demonstrated within a Small Plant Growth Chamber Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LED light sources are ideal for plant growth systems. However, commercially available multi-color LED illumination panels are designed and manufactured to produce a...

  16. [Effects of nutrition medium on cucumber growth and soil microenvironment in greenhouse under continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Cheng; Li, Tian-Lai; Cao, Xia; Meng, Si-Da; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Yang, Li-Juan

    2014-05-01

    An experiment of continuous cropping of cucumber in nutrition medium (composted with straw, rural soil and puffed chicken manure) or soil was conducted in greenhouse in order to study the effects of medium type on the cucumber growth and soil microenvironment, respectively. The results showed that the two treatments both displayed different levels of obstacles resulted from continuous cropping. In the same cropping season, the nutrient content, soil invertase and urease activities and B/F (bacteria/fungi) ratio in the nutrition medium were obviously higher but fungi quantity was lower than in the soil medium, suggesting the use of nutrition medium changed the bacterial population structure as to improve the cucumber growth and yield. Under continuous cropping, correlation analysis showed that the bacterial quantity was significantly positively related with plant height and root dry mass, and markedly significantly positive correlation exited between the aboveground dry mass and yield of cucumber. The urease activity was also significantly positively related with the cucumber yield. Compared with the soil medium, the nutrition medium could greatly improve soil microenvironment and alleviate the continuous cropping obstacle.

  17. Ultrafast growth of single-crystal graphene assisted by a continuous oxygen supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Zhihong; Qiu, Lu; Zhuang, Jianing; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Huan; Liao, Chongnan; Song, Huading; Qiao, Ruixi; Gao, Peng; Hu, Zonghai; Liao, Lei; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng; Wang, Enge; Ding, Feng; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Kaihui

    2016-11-01

    Graphene has a range of unique physical properties and could be of use in the development of a variety of electronic, photonic and photovoltaic devices. For most applications, large-area high-quality graphene films are required and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesis of graphene on copper surfaces has been of particular interest due to its simplicity and cost effectiveness. However, the rates of growth for graphene by CVD on copper are less than 0.4 μm s-1, and therefore the synthesis of large, single-crystal graphene domains takes at least a few hours. Here, we show that single-crystal graphene can be grown on copper foils with a growth rate of 60 μm s-1. Our high growth rate is achieved by placing the copper foil above an oxide substrate with a gap of ∼15 μm between them. The oxide substrate provides a continuous supply of oxygen to the surface of the copper catalyst during the CVD growth, which significantly lowers the energy barrier to the decomposition of the carbon feedstock and increases the growth rate. With this approach, we are able to grow single-crystal graphene domains with a lateral size of 0.3 mm in just 5 s.

  18. Maximum growth rate of Mycobacterium avium in continuous culture or chronically infected BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, C M; Taylor, M A; Dennis, M W

    1987-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium is a human pathogen which may cause either chronic or disseminated disease and the organism exhibits a slow rate of growth. This study provides information on the growth rate of the organism in chronically infected mice and its maximal growth rate in vitro. M. avium was grown in continuous culture, limited for nitrogen with 0.5 mM ammonium chloride and dilution rates that ranged from 0.054 to 0.153 h-1. The steady-state concentration of ammonia nitrogen and M. avium cells for each dilution rate were determined. The bacterial saturation constant for growth-limiting ammonia was 0.29 mM (4 micrograms nitrogen/ml) and, from this, the maximal growth rate for M. avium was estimated to be 0.206 h-1 or a doubling time of 3.4 h. BALB/c mice were infected intravenously with 3 x 10(6) colony-forming units and a chronic infection resulted, typical of virulent M. avium strains. During a period of 3 months, the number of mycobacteria remained constant in the lungs, but increased 30-fold and 8,900-fold, respectively, in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. The latter increase appeared to be due to proliferation in situ. The generation time of M. avium in the mesenteric lymph nodes was estimated to be 7 days.

  19. Labour-based construction, testing and monitoring of proof-of-concept ultrathin continuously reinforced concrete pavement technology demonstrators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available presentation to the RRA board of directors that outlined the advantages of Ultrathin Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements (UTCRCP). From this presentation the board initiated a meeting between the members of the RRA namely SIRDC, CSIR and BOTEC. Aurecon...

  20. 76 FR 12081 - Notice of Two-Year Continuation of Disease Management Demonstration Project for TRICARE Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... failure, diabetes, COPD, depression, anxiety, and cancer, have been included in the current program... identified with the disease states of asthma, heart failure, and diabetes. TMA now intends to continue the... have included, but have not been limited to: Clinical preventive examinations, patient education...

  1. Growth of epitaxial semiconductor alloys and superlattices with continuously variable composition by pulsed-laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamy, J.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science; Lowndes, D.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    We describe a new method to grow epitaxial semiconductor alloys with continuously variable composition, while using a single pulsed laser ablation target of fixed composition. Epitaxial ZnSe{sub 1{minus}x}S{sub x} films with continuously variable sulfur content ``x`` were grown by ablating a ZnSe target through low-pressure ambient H{sub 2}S gas. The sulfur content was easily controlled by varying the H{sub 2}S partial pressure. The composition of ZnSe{sub 1{minus}x}S{sub x} films differs by as much as x = 0.52 from the pure ZnSe target. We have used this method to grow heteroepitaxial structures with either continuously graded or periodically repeating, abrupt compositional changes (compositional superlattices). Structures that simultaneously incorporate both types of compositional modulation also have been grown. This development removes the principal barrier to convenient pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) growth of compositionally graded semiconductor thin-film materials, namely that the film and target normally have the same composition. The method appears to have broad application for PLA growth of other compound semiconductor films and heterostructures, as well as for doping individual layers.

  2. Growth and enzyme production during continuous cultures of a high amylase-producing variant of Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangirolami, Teresa; Carlsen, M.; Nielsen, J.;

    2002-01-01

    Growth and product formation by a selected variant of Aspergillus oryzae showing high alpha-amylase production was studied in continuous cultivations carried out at six different specific growth rates, using glucose as the growth-limiting nutrient. The analysis of the steady-state data revealed t...

  3. Growth of Geobacter sulfurreducens under nutrient-limiting conditions in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Rothermich, Mary; Sharma, Manju; Lovley, Derek

    2005-05-01

    A system for growing Geobacter sulfurreducens under anaerobic conditions in chemostats was developed in order to study the physiology of this organism under conditions that might more closely approximate those found in the subsurface than batch cultures. Geobacter sulfurreducens could be cultured under acetate-limiting conditions with fumarate or Fe(III)-citrate as the electron acceptor at growth rates between 0.04 and 0.09 h(-1). The molar growth yield was threefold higher with fumarate as the electron acceptor than with Fe(III), despite the lower mid-point potential of the fumarate/succinate redox couple. When growth was limited by availability of fumarate, high steady-state concentrations were detected, suggesting that fumarate is unlikely to be an important electron acceptor in sedimentary environments. The half-saturation constant, Ks, for acetate in Fe(III)-grown cultures (10 microM) suggested that the growth of Geobacter species is likely to be acetate limited in most subsurface sediments, but that when millimolar quantities of acetate are added to the subsurface in order to promote the growth of Geobacter for bioremediation applications, this should be enough to overcome any acetate limitations. When the availability of electron acceptors, rather than acetate, limited growth, G. sulfurreducens was less efficient in incorporating acetate into biomass but had higher respiration rates, a desirable physiological characteristic when adding acetate to stimulate the activity of Geobacter species during in situ uranium bioremediation. These results demonstrate that the ability to study the growth of G. sulfurreducens under steady-state conditions can provide insights into its physiological characteristics that have relevance for its activity in a diversity of sedimentary environments.

  4. A study of tumour growth based on stoichiometric principles: a continuous model and its discrete analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M; Agrawal, Tanuja; Anees, Afzal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a continuous mathematically tractable model and its discrete analogue for the tumour growth. The model formulation is based on stoichiometric principles considering tumour-immune cell interactions in potassium (K (+))-limited environment. Our both continuous and discrete models illustrate 'cancer immunoediting' as a dynamic process having all three phases namely elimination, equilibrium and escape. The stoichiometric principles introduced into the model allow us to study its dynamics with the variation in the total potassium in the surrounding of the tumour region. It is found that an increase in the total potassium may help the patient fight the disease for a longer period of time. This result seems to be in line with the protective role of the potassium against the risk of pancreatic cancer as has been reported by Bravi et al. [Dietary intake of selected micronutrients and risk of pancreatic cancer: An Italian case-control study, Ann. Oncol. 22 (2011), pp. 202-206].

  5. On the Space of Functions with Growths Tempered by a Modulus of Continuity and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Banaś

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are going to study the space of real functions defined on a bounded metric space and having growths tempered by a modulus of continuity. We prove also a sufficient condition for the relative compactness in the mentioned function space. Using that condition and the classical Schauder fixed point theorem, we show the existence theorem for some quadratic integral equations of Fredholm type in the space of functions satisfying the Hölder condition. An example illustrating the mentioned existence result is also included.

  6. Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. J.; And Others

    A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

  7. First demonstration and performance of an injection locked continuous wave magnetron to phase control a superconducting cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.C. Dexter, G. Burt, R.G. Carter, I. Tahir, H. Wang, K. Davis, R. Rimmer

    2011-03-01

    The applications of magnetrons to high power proton and cw electron linacs are discussed. An experiment is described where a 2.45 GHz magnetron has been used to drive a single cell superconducting cavity. With the magnetron injection locked, a modest phase control accuracy of 0.95° rms has been demonstrated. Factors limiting performance have been identified.

  8. Interfacing VPSC with finite element codes. Demonstration of irradiation growth simulation in a cladding tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Anirban [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-23

    This Milestone report shows good progress in interfacing VPSC with the FE codes ABAQUS and MOOSE, to perform component-level simulations of irradiation-induced deformation in Zirconium alloys. In this preliminary application, we have performed an irradiation growth simulation in the quarter geometry of a cladding tube. We have benchmarked VPSC-ABAQUS and VPSC-MOOSE predictions with VPSC-SA predictions to verify the accuracy of the VPSCFE interface. Predictions from the FE simulations are in general agreement with VPSC-SA simulations and also with experimental trends.

  9. Down regulation of epidermal growth factor receptors: direct demonstration of receptor degradation in human fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of the receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been measured by labeling the receptor in vivo with radioactive amino acid precursors and then determining, by immunoprecipitation with specific anti-EGF receptor antisera, the rate of degradation of the receptor when the cells are placed in a nonradioactive medium. In human fibroblasts the rate of EGF receptor degradation (t1/2 = 10.1 h) was faster than the rate of degradation of total cell protein. When EGF was added to th...

  10. Growth of Myxococcus xanthus in continuous-flow-cell bioreactors as a method for studying development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Gregory T; Jin, Yujie; Whitfield, Damion L; Mu, Andrew Y; Wong, Edward C; Wuertz, Stefan; Singer, Mitchell

    2014-04-01

    Nutrient sensors and developmental timers are two classes of genes vital to the establishment of early development in the social soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. The products of these genes trigger and regulate the earliest events that drive the colony from a vegetative state to aggregates, which ultimately leads to the formation of fruiting bodies and the cellular differentiation of the individual cells. In order to more accurately identify the genes and pathways involved in the initiation of this multicellular developmental program in M. xanthus, we adapted a method of growing vegetative populations within a constant controllable environment by using flow cell bioreactors, or flow cells. By establishing an M. xanthus community within a flow cell, we are able to test developmental responses to changes in the environment with fewer concerns for effects due to nutrient depletion or bacterial waste production. This approach allows for greater sensitivity in investigating communal environmental responses, such as nutrient sensing. To demonstrate the versatility of our growth environment, we carried out time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize M. xanthus biofilm growth and fruiting body development, as well as fluorescence staining of exopolysaccharides deposited by biofilms. We also employed the flow cells in a nutrient titration to determine the minimum concentration required to sustain vegetative growth. Our data show that by using a flow cell, M. xanthus can be held in a vegetative growth state at low nutrient concentrations for long periods, and then, by slightly decreasing the nutrient concentration, cells can be allowed to initiate the developmental program.

  11. Continuous assessment of land mapping accuracy at High Resolution from global networks of atmospheric and field observatories -concept and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Martin-lauzer, François-regis

    2017-04-01

    In the context of global climate change and adjustment/resilience policies' design and implementation, there is a need not only i. for environmental monitoring, e.g. through a range of Earth Observations (EO) land "products" but ii. for a precise assessment of uncertainties of the aforesaid information that feed environmental decision-making (to be introduced in the EO metadata) and also iii. for a perfect handing of the thresholds which help translate "environment tolerance limits" to match detected EO changes through ecosystem modelling. Uncertainties' insight means precision and accuracy's knowledge and subsequent ability of setting thresholds for change detection systems. Traditionally, the validation of satellite-derived products has taken the form of intensive field campaigns to sanction the introduction of data processors in Payload Data Ground Segments chains. It is marred by logistical challenges and cost issues, reason why it is complemented by specific surveys at ground-based monitoring sites which can provide near-continuous observations at a high temporal resolution (e.g. RadCalNet). Unfortunately, most of the ground-level monitoring sites, in the number of 100th or 1000th, which are part of wider observation networks (e.g. FLUXNET, NEON, IMAGINES) mainly monitor the state of the atmosphere and the radiation exchange at the surface, which are different to the products derived from EO data. In addition they are "point-based" compared to the EO cover to be obtained from Sentinel-2 or Sentinel-3. Yet, data from these networks, processed by spatial extrapolation models, are well-suited to the bottom-up approach and relevant to the validation of vegetation parameters' consistency (e.g. leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation). Consistency means minimal errors on spatial and temporal gradients of EO products. Test of the procedure for land-cover products' consistency assessment with field measurements delivered by worldwide

  12. Probability, plausibility, and adequacy evaluations of the Oriente Study demonstrate that supplementation improved child growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-02-01

    This article presents evidence that the high-nutrient supplement in the Oriente study (Atole) improved child growth. The evidence is presented at 4 levels. There was a causal effect of the intervention on child length, as assessed by probability analyses of the randomized, controlled trial (P < 0.05). The plausibility analyses, which included an examination of wasting, showed that the nutritional impact was due to the Atole, especially in those who were <3 y old and who suffered from diarrhea. The adequacy analyses revealed excellent biological efficacy of the Atole at the individual level. At the level of the whole population, the efficacy of impact was much less, because many children did not participate fully in the supplementation program. The external validity of the biological impact is likely to be good for populations with similar diets and medical care.

  13. Continuous Measurements of Recrystallization and Grain Growth in Cobalt Super Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvani, Mahsa; Garcin, Thomas; Fabrègue, Damien; Militzer, Matthias; Yamanaka, Kenta; Chiba, Akihiko

    2017-02-01

    L605 (20Cr-15W-10Ni wt pct) and CCM (28Cr-6Mo wt pct) cobalt-based superalloys are candidates for a wide range of applications, from gas turbine components to biomedical implants. Attention is currently focused on the optimization of grain structure as an appropriate approach to increase yield stress without affecting significantly the ductility. In this study, the Laser Ultrasonics for Metallurgy (LUMet) technology is used to examine in situ the evolution of the mean grain size associated with recrystallization and grain growth during heat treatments from the cold-rolled state. The recrystallization process is completed at 1373 K (1100 °C) for L605 and 1273 K (1000 °C) for CCM. The subsequent grain growth rate in L605 is larger compared to CCM. Continuous measurements of the grain size evolution are found to be consistent with grain growth affected by solute drag. Through in situ measurements, the laser ultrasonic technology significantly accelerates the determination of metallurgical parameters allowing for fast optimization of process parameters required to meet specific applications.

  14. Comparison of pulsatile vs. continuous administration of human placental growth hormone in female C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shutan; Vickers, Mark H; Evans, Angharad; Stanley, Joanna L; Baker, Philip N; Perry, Jo K

    2016-10-01

    Exogenous growth hormone has different actions depending on the method of administration. However, the effects of different modes of administration of the placental variant of growth hormone on growth, body composition and glucose metabolism have not been investigated. In this study, we examined the effect of pulsatile vs. continuous administration of recombinant variant of growth hormone in a normal mouse model. Female C57BL/6J mice were randomized to receive vehicle or variant of growth hormone (2 or 5 mg/kg per day) by daily subcutaneous injection (pulsatile) or osmotic pump for 6 days. Pulsatile treatment with 2 and 5 mg/kg per day significantly increased body weight. There was also an increase in liver, kidney and spleen weight via pulsatile treatment, whereas continuous treatment did not affect body weight or organ size. Pulsatile treatment with 5 mg/kg per day significantly increased fasting plasma insulin concentration, whereas with continuous treatment, fasting insulin concentration was not significantly different from the vehicle-treated control. However, a dose-dependent increase in fasting insulin concentration and decrease in insulin sensitivity, as assessed by HOMA, was observed with both modes of treatment. At 5 mg/kg per day, hepatic growth hormone receptor expression was increased compared to vehicle-treated animals, by both modes of administration. Pulsatile variant of growth hormone did not alter the plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration, whereas a slight decrease was observed with continuous variant of growth hormone treatment. Neither pulsatile nor continuous treatment affected hepatic insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that pulsatile variant of growth hormone treatment was more effective in stimulating growth but caused marked hyperinsulinemia in mice.

  15. Refixation of the supraspinatus tendon in a rat model—influence of continuous growth factor application on tendon structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buchmann, Stefan; Sandmann, Gunther H; Walz, Lars; Hoppe, Henriette; Beitzel, Knut; Wexel, Gabriele; Tian, Weiwei; Winter, Gerhard; Imhoff, Andreas B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate histological changes of the supraspinatus tendon (SSP) after refixation under continuous growth factor application over 20 days in comparison to the native healing process...

  16. Evaluating a Program Designed to Demonstrate Continuous Improvement in Teaching at an AACSB-Accredited College of Business at a Regional University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Robert E.; Saccucci, Michael S.; Potter, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a detailed statistical analysis of a process intended to demonstrate continuous improvement in teaching at an AACSB accredited college of business. The Educational Testing Service's SIR II student evaluation instrument was used to measure teaching effectiveness. A six-year longitudinal analysis of the SIR II results does not…

  17. Model for tumour growth with treatment by continuous and pulsed chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, F S; Iarosz, K C; Ren, H P; Batista, A M; Baptista, M S; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R; Grebogi, C

    2014-02-01

    In this work we investigate a mathematical model describing tumour growth under a treatment by chemotherapy that incorporates time-delay related to the conversion from resting to hunting cells. We study the model using values for the parameters according to experimental results and vary some parameters relevant to the treatment of cancer. We find that our model exhibits a dynamical behaviour associated with the suppression of cancer cells, when either continuous or pulsed chemotherapy is applied according to clinical protocols, for a large range of relevant parameters. When the chemotherapy is successful, the predation coefficient of the chemotherapic agent acting on cancer cells varies with the infusion rate of chemotherapy according to an inverse relation. Finally, our model was able to reproduce the experimental results obtained by Michor and collaborators [Nature 435 (2005) 1267] about the exponential decline of cancer cells when patients are treated with the drug glivec.

  18. Growth hormone, exercise, and athletic performance: a continued evolution of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Clark, James E; Nindl, Bradley C

    2010-01-01

    Growth hormone (hGH) presents pleiotropic effects in many tissues encompassing a diverse range of physiological actions. Its complexity as a family of hormones with different isoforms and different somatotroph molecular functions continues to challenge the status quo of our understanding of its release, function, and signaling. Owing to the fact that the majority of the literature has viewed hGH from the perspective of the primary 22 kD monomer, further investigation is needed as to the influence and biological activity of other aggregate and splice variant isoforms that are released into circulation. Its role over the life span and with supplementation yields equivocal results with more study needed. Testing for the use of hGH has progressed, and the first positive test was recently documented. Understanding of pituitary function and physiology will remain complex until the use of a broader range of analytical techniques, including assays, becomes mainstream.

  19. Preservation of the Pt(100) surface reconstruction after growth of a continuous layer of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Louis; Andersen, Mie; Bjerre, Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy shows that a layer of graphene can be grown on the hex-reconstructed Pt(100) surface and that the reconstruction is preserved after growth. A continuous sheet of graphene can be grown across domain boundaries and step edges without loss of periodicity or change...... to accommodation of edge dislocations. The defect formation energy and the induced buckling of the graphene have been characterized by DFT calculations....... in direction. Density functional theory calculations on a simple model system support the observation that the graphene can have different rotation angles relative to the hex-reconstructed Pt surface. The graphene sheet direction can be changed by incorporating pentagon-heptagon defects giving rise...

  20. Growth and genetic responses of Salmonella Typhimurium to pH-shifts in an anaerobic continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella infection of chickens that leads to potential human foodborne salmonellosis continues to be a concern. Changes in the pH of poultry gastrointestinal tract could influence Salmonella growth and virulence response. In the current study, growth responses of a chicken isolate Salmonella ent...

  1. Temporal proteomic analysis reveals continuous impairment of intestinal development in neonatal piglets with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Weizong; Lin, Gang; Li, Defa; Wu, Guoyao; Wang, Junjun

    2010-02-01

    Efficiency of nutrient utilization is reduced in neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) compared with those with a normal birth weight (NBW). However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we applied temporal proteomic approach, coupled with histological and biochemical analyses, to study dynamic changes of the proteome in the small intestinal mucosa of IUGR piglets during the nursing period (Days 1, 7 and 21). We identified 56 differentially expressed protein spots between IUGR and NBW piglets. These proteins participate in key biological processes, including (1) absorption, digestion and transport of nutrients; (2) cell structure and motility; (3) glucose and energy metabolism; (4) lipid metabolism; (5) amino acid metabolism; (6) mineral and vitamin metabolism; (7) cellular redox homeostasis; (8) stress response; and (9) apoptosis. The results of our temporal proteomics analysis reveal continuous impairment of intestinal development in neonatal piglets with IUGR. The findings have important implications for understanding metabolic defects in the small intestine of IUGR neonates and are expected to provide new strategies to improve their survival and growth.

  2. The Continuing Growth of Global Cooperation Networks in Research: A Conundrum for National Governments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Wagner

    Full Text Available Global collaboration continues to grow as a share of all scientific cooperation, measured as coauthorships of peer-reviewed, published papers. The percent of all scientific papers that are internationally coauthored has more than doubled in 20 years, and they account for all the growth in output among the scientifically advanced countries. Emerging countries, particularly China, have increased their participation in global science, in part by doubling their spending on R&D; they are increasingly likely to appear as partners on internationally coauthored scientific papers. Given the growth of connections at the international level, it is helpful to examine the phenomenon as a communications network and to consider the network as a new organization on the world stage that adds to and complements national systems. When examined as interconnections across the globe over two decades, a global network has grown denser but not more clustered, meaning there are many more connections but they are not grouping into exclusive 'cliques'. This suggests that power relationships are not reproducing those of the political system. The network has features an open system, attracting productive scientists to participate in international projects. National governments could gain efficiencies and influence by developing policies and strategies designed to maximize network benefits-a model different from those designed for national systems.

  3. Scale-up of counter-current chromatography: demonstration of predictable isocratic and quasi-continuous operating modes from the test tube to pilot/process scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2009-12-11

    Predictable scale-up from test tube derived distribution ratios and analytical-scale sample loading optimisation is demonstrated using a model sample system of benzyl alcohol and p-cresol in a heptane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water phase system with the new 18 L Maxi counter-current chromatography centrifuge. The versatility of having a liquid stationary phase with its high loading capacity and flexible operating modes is demonstrated at two different scales by separating and concentrating target compounds using a mixture of caffeine, vanillin, naringenin and carvone using a quasi-continuous technique called intermittent counter-current extraction.

  4. Posttraumatic tibia valga: a case demonstrating asymmetric activity at the proximal growth plate on technetium bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zionts, L.E.; Harcke, H.T.; Brooks, K.M.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Posttraumatic tibia valga is a well-recognized complication following fracture of the upper tibial metaphysis in young children. We present a case of a child who developed a valgus deformity following fracture of the proximal tibia and fibula in which quantitative bone scintigraphy at 5 months after injury demonstrated increased uptake at the proximal tibial growth plate with proportionally greater uptake on the medial side. This finding suggests that the valgus deformity in this patient was due to a relative increase in vascularity and consequent overgrowth of the medial portion of the proximal tibial physis.

  5. Continuous Czochralski growth. Development of advanced Czochralski growth process to produce low cost 150 kg silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The improvement of growth rates using radiation shielding and investigation of the crucible melt interaction for improved yields were emphasized. Growth runs were performed from both 15 and 16 inch diameter crucibles, producing 30 and 37 kg ingots respectively. Efforts to increase the growth rate of 150 mm diameter ingots were limited by temperature instabilities believed to be caused by undesirable thermal convections in the larger melts. The radiation shield improved the growth rate somewhat, but the thermal instability was still evident, leading to nonround ingots and loss of dislocation-free structure. A 38 kg crystal was grown to demonstrate the feasibility of producing 150 kg with four growth cycles. After the grower construction phase, the Hamco microprocessor control system was interfaced to the growth facility, including the sensor for automatic control of seeding temperature, and the sensor for automatic shouldering. Efforts focused upon optimization of the seeding, necking, and shoulder growth automation programs.

  6. Improved growth and development in premature infants managed with nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesher, Susan Lee; Domanico, Renee S

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to assess the association between the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) vs. conventional ventilation (CV) in premature infants and its effects on: 1) growth in the NICU and at follow up visits 2) neurodevelopmental outcomes measured by Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS) 3) the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and chronic lung disease (CLD). A retrospective chart review of two groups of NICU patients was conducted. The first group was from 1/1999-12/2000 (n = 140) and was managed by CV. The second group (n = 168) was from 1/2003-12/2004 and was managed primarily by NCPAP. Categorical variables were analyzed using Pearson Chi Square. Mean numerical values were analyzed with the student t-test. There was no statistical difference between the groups in regard to 15 demographic and interventional variables. There were significant differences between the two groups in CLD (p < 0.05) and ROP (p < 0.01), mean weight at one month (p < 0.05), 9-12 months (p < 0.01) and 15-18 months (p < 0.01), length at 4-6 months (p < 0.05), 9-12 months (p < 0.05), 15-18 months (p < 0.01), and 2 years (p = .05), and in BINS scores at 9-12 months (p < 0.01) and 15-18 months (p < 0.01). Managing babies with NCPAP therapy when compared with CV, significantly increased the weight at one month which was sustained at the 9-12 month and 15-18 month visits, increased length at all follow up visits, increased BINS scores at the 9-12 month and 15-18 month visits, and decreased the incidence of ROP and CLD.

  7. A Marketing approach on how continuous processes improvement can contribute to hotel business Organic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana-Simona IVASCIUC; EPURAN Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    Generating sustainable growth and profits is like finding a unicorn for most managers. Organic growth should be considered as an alternative for long-term growth in the hotel business. Designing the service process to deliver what customers expect from the hotel offer is a crucial component of encounter marketing. Hotels need to embrace the changes and ensure that their internal processes are aligned not just to current trends, but also to the expected future changes. Keeping u...

  8. A Marketing approach on how continuous processes improvement can contribute to hotel business Organic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana-Simona IVASCIUC; Gheorghe EPURAN

    2015-01-01

    Generating sustainable growth and profits is like finding a unicorn for most managers. Organic growth should be considered as an alternative for long-term growth in the hotel business. Designing the service process to deliver what customers expect from the hotel offer is a crucial component of encounter marketing. Hotels need to embrace the changes and ensure that their internal processes are aligned not just to current trends, but also to the expected future changes. Keeping u...

  9. Dose-response regressions for algal growth and similar continuous endpoints: Calculation of effective concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik R.; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Nyholm, Niels

    2009-01-01

    % inhibition). For illustration, data from closed, freshwater algal assays are analyzed using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata with growth rate as the response parameter. Dose-response regressions for four test chemicals (tetraethylammonium bromide, musculamine, benzonitrile, and 4...

  10. Growth energetics of an alkaline serine protease-producing strain of Bacillus clausii during continuous cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    the theoretical co-factor and building block requirements needed for biomass formation were calculated. Using the stoichiometric models and data for growth on glucose and citrate the amount of ATP needed for biomass synthesis was estimated to 42.0 mmol ATP/gDW, the P/O ratio to 0.68 and the ATP maintenance to 2......Glucose-limited chemostats were used to determine the growth yields of biomass of Bacillus clausii PP 473-8 producing an alkaline serine protease Savinase (Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) and a low yield of biomass on oxygen was observed. The energy metabolism was investigated further by setting...... up simple stoichiometric models for growth on glucose and citrate. In order to determine the parameters in the models, a macromolecular biomass composition was determined based on measured values of protein and RNA combined with literature data. From the macromolecular composition of the biomass...

  11. Effects and Mechanisms of Oil Cakes on the Growth of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) Under Continuous Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Wei-bin; LIU Mo-han; PAN Jie; Wang Jing; LU Wen-long; MA Cheng-cang; WANG Jing-guo; SHEN Yue; GAO Yu-bao

    2003-01-01

    Fxperiments on the effect of soil amendment with rape (Brassica chinensis L. ) seed cake, cot-ton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) seed or sesame (Sesamum indieum L. ) seed cake on the growth of cucumberseedlings under a continuous cropping system were conducted in a greenhouse environment. The results indica-ted that two applications of sesame seed cake (0.1 and 0.5 %, w/w) increased the growth of cucumber, but therape oil cake showed a negative effect at a rate of 1.5% (w/w). The sesame seed cake was separated into four fractious(Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ) according to the polarity, and all four fractious had a positive effect on the growth of cucumbers un-der a continuous cropping system. Fraction number Ⅲii was isolated into 25 proportions by silicon column, and only ole-ic acid, palmitic acid and octadecanoic acid were identified in proportion 10 by GC-MS in which 93.3% was oleic acidand palmitic acid. The oleic acid had a significant and positive effect on cucumber growth under salt stress at the level30 mmol and showed slight resistance to several pathogenic fungi.

  12. The inevitable and continuing growth of regulations for planning and building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobma, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at answering the question: How can we explain the evidently unstoppable growth of regulations for planning and building? The answer to this question is of relevance, since we have been (and still are) confronted with the negative consequences of an overly complex and comprehensive

  13. The inevitable and continuing growth of regulations for planning and building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobma, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at answering the question: How can we explain the evidently unstoppable growth of regulations for planning and building? The answer to this question is of relevance, since we have been (and still are) confronted with the negative consequences of an overly complex and comprehensive le

  14. Should we start and continue growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults has been described as a clinical syndrome. Central features of this entity include increased fat mass, reduced muscle and bone mass, as well as impaired exercise capacity and quality of life. GH replacement therapy has been initiated

  15. Inflammatory and growth factor response to continuous and intermittent exercise in youth with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh Nguyen, [No Value; Obeid, Joyce; Ploeger, Hilde E.; Takken, Tim; Pedder, Linda; Timmons, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) tend to suffer from chronic systemic inflammation and may have impaired growth associated with muscle catabolism. Therefore, investigating which type of exercise can elicit an anabolic response with minimal inflammation is of clinical value. Methods: Tw

  16. Use of 13C Labeled Carbon Tetrachloride to Demonstrate the Transformation to Carbon Dioxide under Anaerobic Conditions in a Continuous Flow Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.

    2012-12-01

    The demonstration of transformation of chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CAHs) in the subsurface is a challenge, especially when the products are carbon dioxide (CO2) and chloride ion. The groundwater contaminant carbon tetrachloride (CT) is of particular interest since a broad range of transformation products can be potentially formed under anaerobic conditions. The ability to demonstrate the transformation of CT to CO2 as a non toxic endproduct, is also of great interest. Results will be presented from a continuous flow column study where 13C labeled CT was used to demonstrate its transformation to CO2. The column was packed with a quartz sand and bioaugmented the Evanite Culture (EV) that is capable of transforming tetrachloroethene (PCE) to ethene. The column was continously fed a synthetic groundwater that was amended with PCE (0.10 mM) and either formate (1.5 mM) or lactate (1.1 mM), which ferments to produce hydrogen (H2) as the ultimate electron donor. Earlier CT transformation studies with the column, in the absence of sulfate reduction, and with formate added as a donor found CT (0.015 mM) was over 98% transformed with about 20% converted to chloroform (CF) (0.003 mM) and with a transient detection of chloromethane (CM). Methane and carbon disulfide, as potential products, were not detected. Neither CT nor CF inhibited the reductive dehalogenation of PCE to ethene. A series of transient studies conducted after these initial CT transformation tests, but in the absence of CT, showed formate remained an effective substrate for maintaining sulfate reduction and PCE transformation. Lactate, which was effectively fermented prior to CT addition, was not effectively fermented, with propionate accumulating as a fermentation product. When lactate was added, PCE was mainly transformed to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and VC, and sulfate reduction did not occur. In order to restore effective lactate fermentation the column was then bioaugmented with an EV culture that

  17. H(o)lder Continuity of Weak Solutions for Parabolic Equations with Nonstandard Growth Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng XU; Ya Zhe CHEN

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the interior regularity including the local boundedness and the interior H(o)lder continuity of weak solutions for parabolic equations of the p(x,t)-Laplacian type. We improve the Moser iteration technique and generalize the known results for the elliptic problem to the corresponding parabolic problem.

  18. Kinetic and stoichiometric characterization of organoautotrophic growth of Ralstonia eutropha on formic acid in fed-batch and continuous cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Stephan; Mottet, Alexis; Grousseau, Estelle; Plassmeier, Jens K; Popović, Milan K; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Gorret, Nathalie; Guillouet, Stéphane E; Sinskey, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Formic acid, acting as both carbon and energy source, is a safe alternative to a carbon dioxide, hydrogen and dioxygen mix for studying the conversion of carbon through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle into value-added chemical compounds by non-photosynthetic microorganisms. In this work, organoautotrophic growth of Ralstonia eutropha on formic acid was studied using an approach combining stoichiometric modeling and controlled cultures in bioreactors. A strain deleted of its polyhydroxyalkanoate production pathway was used in order to carry out a physiological characterization. The maximal growth yield was determined at 0.16 Cmole Cmole(-1) in a formate-limited continuous culture. The measured yield corresponded to 76% to 85% of the theoretical yield (later confirmed in pH-controlled fed-batch cultures). The stoichiometric study highlighted the imbalance between carbon and energy provided by formic acid and explained the low growth yields measured. Fed-batch cultures were also used to determine the maximum specific growth rate (μmax  = 0.18 h(-1) ) and to study the impact of increasing formic acid concentrations on growth yields. High formic acid sensitivity was found in R eutropha since a linear decrease in the biomass yield with increasing residual formic acid concentrations was observed between 0 and 1.5 g l(-1) .

  19. Low power continuous wave-laser seed irradiation effect on Moringa oleifera germination, seedling growth and biochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urva; Shafique, Hina; Jamil, Yasir; Haq, Zia Ul; Mujahid, Tamveel; Khan, Aman Ullah; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    2017-05-01

    Recently, laser application in agriculture has gained much attention since plant characteristics were improved significantly in response of pre-sowing seed treatment. Pre-sowing laser seed treatment effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile were studied in Moringa olifera. M. olifera healthy seeds were exposed to 25, 50, 75mJ low power continuous wave laser light and grown under greenhouse conditions. The seedling growth and biochemical attributes were evaluated from 10-day-old seedlings. The germination parameters (percentage, mean germination time), vigor index, seedling growth (root length, seedling length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight) enhanced considerably. The laser energy levels used for seed irradiation showed variable effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile. The mineral contents were recorded to be higher in seedling raised from laser treated seeds, which were higher in roots versus shoots and leaves. The effect of laser treatment on seedling fat, nitrogen and protein content was insignificant and at higher energy level both nitrogen and protein contents decreased versus control. Results revealed that M. olifera germination, seedling growth and mineral contents were enhanced and optimum laser energy level has more acceleratory effect since at three laser energy levels the responses were significantly different. Overall the laser energy levels effect on germination and seedling growth was found in following order; 75mJ>50mJ>25mJ, where as in case of fat, protein and nitrogen contents the trend was as; 25mJ>50mJ and 75mJ. However, this technique could possibly be used to improve the M. olifera germination, seedling growth, and minerals contents where germination is low due to unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PHOSPHATE-LIMITED GROWTH OF CHROMATIUM-VINOSUM IN CONTINUOUS CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAS, J; VANGEMERDEN, H

    1992-01-01

    Chromatium vinosum DSM 185 was grown in continuous culture at a constant dilution rate of 0.071 h-1 with sulfide as the only electron donor. The organism was subjected to conditions ranging from phosphate limitation (S(R-phosphate) = 2.7-mu-M and S(R-sulfide) = 1.8 mM) to sulfide limitation (S(R-pho

  1. Shanghai's Trade, China's Growth: Continuity, Recovery, and Change since the Opium Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Keller; Ben Li; Shiue, Carol H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of China's trade performance from the 1840s to the present. Its focus is on Shanghai, the world's largest port, which began direct trade relations with Western nations starting in 1843. The paper finds that Shanghai had, and continues to have, an important role in China's trade structure. Applying the well-known gravity equation of trade for Shanghai's treaty port period, the paper shows that this relationship fits today's actual trade quite well when projected...

  2. Continuous Czochralski growth: Silicon sheet growth development of the large area silicon sheet task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The primary objective of this contract is to develop equipment and methods for the economic production of single crystal ingot material by the continuous Czochralski (CZ) process. Continuous CZ is defined for the purpose of this work as the growth of at least 100 kilograms of ingot from only one melt container. During the reporting period (October, 1977 - September, 1978), a modified grower was made fully functional and several recharge runs were performed. The largest run lasted 44 hours and over 42 kg of ingot was produced. Little, if any, degradation in efficiency was observed as a result of pulling multiple crystals from one crucible. Solar efficiencies observed were between 9.3 and 10.4% AMO (13.0 and 14.6% AMI) compared to 10.5% (14.7% AMI) for optimum CZ material control samples. Using the SAMICS/IPEG format, economic analysis of continuous CZ suggests that 1986 DoE cost goals can only be met by the growth of large diameter, large mass crystals.

  3. In Situ Observation of Austenite Growth During Continuous Heating in Very-Low-Carbon Fe-Mn and Ni Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, M.; Wan, X. L.

    2017-02-01

    The growth of austenite during continuous heating was observed in situ under a confocal scanning laser microscope in Fe-Mn and Ni alloys containing less than 0.01 mass pct C. The advancements of the α/γ boundary were measured in the temperature range of ca. 40 K, which encompassed the Ae3 line of the alloys. Below Ae3, the growth rates were of the same order of magnitude as those predicted from the carbon diffusion-controlled negligible partition local equilibrium in the (α + γ) two-phase region, whereas those observed near and above the Ae3 were ca. two orders of magnitude greater. The α/γ boundary mobilities evaluated therefrom were somewhat smaller than those obtained previously in massive ferrite transformation during continuous cooling in the same alloys, albeit the experimental scatter was large and fell near the mobilities proposed in the literature. The α/γ boundary migrated probably with a carbon diffusion spike ahead of the boundary and the solute drag of the carbon or alloy element is unlikely to be operative during the growth of austenite.

  4. Continuous Czochralski growth: Silicon sheet growth development of the large area sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The growth of 100 kg of silicon single crystal material, ten cm in diameter or greater, and 150 kg of silicon single crystal material 15 cm or greater utilizing one common silicon container material (one crucible) is investigated. A crystal grower that is recharged with a new supply of polysilicon material while still under vacuum and at temperatures above the melting point of silicon is developed. It accepts large polysilicon charges up to 30 kg, grows large crystal ingots (to 15 cm diameter and 25 kg in weight), and holds polysilicon material for recharging (rod or lump) while, at the same time, growing crystal ingots. Special equipment is designed to recharge polysilicon rods, recharge polysilicon lumps, and handle and store large, hot silicon crystal ingots. Many continuous crystal growth runs were performed lasting as long as 109 hours and producing as many as ten crystal ingots, 15 cm with weights progressing to 27 kg.

  5. Continuous infusion versus daily injections of growth hormone (GH) for 4 weeks in GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Jakobsen, Grethe

    1995-01-01

    infusion by means of a portable pump for 1 month and as daily sc injections (at 1900 h) for another month. An average daily GH dosage (+/- SEM) of 3.15 +/- 0.27 IU was administered during both periods. Steady state 24-h profiles of GH, IGF-I, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), insulin, glucose, lipid......Abstract Endogenous GH secretion is pulsatile. Animal studies indicate that GH administered in a pulsatile manner induces growth and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) generation more effectively than continuous administration. Short term human studies, however, have reported similar metabolic.......5 +/- 50.2 (injection) and 334.6 +/- 46.6 (infusion)]. Similarly, constant GH delivery induced higher IGFBP-3 levels (P insulin levels (P

  6. Control of heat transfer in continuous-feeding Czochralski-silicon crystal growth with a water-cooled jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhan; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    The continuous-feeding Czochralski method is an effective method to reduce the cost of single crystal silicon. By promoting the crystal growth rate, the cost can be reduced further. However, more latent heat will be released at the melt-crystal interface under a high crystal growth rate. In this study, a water-cooled jacket was applied to enhance the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Quasi-steady-state numerical calculation was employed to investigate the impact of the water-cooled jacket on the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Latent heat released during the crystal growth process at the melt-crystal interface and absorbed during feedstock melting at the feeding zone was modeled in the simulations. The results show that, by using the water-cooled jacket, heat transfer in the growing crystal is enhanced significantly. Melt-crystal interface deflection and thermal stress increase simultaneously due to the increase of radial temperature at the melt-crystal interface. With a modified heat shield design, heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface is well controlled. The crystal growth rate can be increased by 20%.

  7. Growth and nutrient removal in free and immobilized green algae in batch and semi-continuous cultures treating real wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Marin, Alejandro; Mendoza-Espinosa, Leopoldo G; Stephenson, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Two species of microalgae growing as immobilized and free-cells were compared to test its ability to remove N and P in batch cultures of urban wastewater. The best microalgae-cell growth configuration was selected to be tested in bioreactor operated in semi-continuous mode. Scenedesmus obliquus showed a higher N and P uptake rate in urban wastewater than Chlorella vulgaris. When tested in semi-continuous mode and with the re-calcification of beads, S. obliquus was more effective in removing N and P for longer periods (181 h) than batch cultures; fecal coliforms removal was good (95%) although the final concentration was still unsuitable for discharge to natural water bodies. Protein and lipids content analysis suggest that, from a practical point of view, immobilized systems could facilitate the separation of the biomass from the treated wastewater although in terms of nutritional value of the biomass, immobilized systems do not represent an advantage over free-cell systems.

  8. Some observations on oscillatory changes in the growth rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic continuous undisturbed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzani, W; Gregori, R E; Vairo, M L

    1977-09-01

    Oscillatory changes in the growth rate were observed in undisturbed continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sugar-cane molasses media when nitrogen sources (2.56 to 6.17 g/liter of ammonium sulfate or 1.22 g/liter of urea) were added to the feeding mash and when the air rate was 1.3 to 1.6 v/v/m. The oscillations were not affected by the addition of yeast extract. The suppression of the nitrogen source during the continous test leads to a nonoscillatory transient state. No oscillations occured at all when no nitrogen source was added to the medium and/or the air rate was equal to zero or equal to about 3.3 v/v/m. The oscillatory responses of the system were affected by a previous anaerobic continuous cultivation of the yeast.

  9. Continuous-wave four-wave mixing with linear growth based on electromagnetically dual induced transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua Li(李家华); Wenxing Yang(杨文星); Jucun Peng(彭菊村)

    2004-01-01

    Using Schrodinger-Maxwell formalism, we propose and analyze a continuous-wave four-wave mixing (FWM) scheme for the generation of coherent light in a six-level atomic system based on electromagnetically dual induced transparency. We derive the corresponding explicit analytical expressions for the generated mixing field. We find that the scheme greatly enhances FWM production efficiency and is also capable of inhibiting and delaying the onset of the detrimental three-photon destructive interference by choosing the proper decay rate in the second electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) process.In addition, such an optical process also provides possibilities for producing short-wave-length coherent radiation at low pump intensities.

  10. Continued Growth of the Impact Factors of MDPI Open Access Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Rordorf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to report the continued increase of the Impact Factors of MDPI journals in 2009 (see Table 1 and Figure 1. As noted in a similar Editorial published in June 2009, the Impact Factors of MDPI journals have been steadily recovering since the inception of the full Open Access publishing policy in early 2007 [1]. We are pleased to see that all journals now have an Impact Factor much higher than 1. In 2011 the Journal Citation Report (JCR will include the first official Impact Factor of Entropy , and in 2012, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health will be included for the first time. Nevertheless, we are already able to compute a preliminary impact factor of approximately 1.4 for Entropy [2]. [...

  11. Mixotrophic growth of Phaeodactylum tricornutum on fructose and glycerol in fed-batch and semi-continuous modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-García, M C; Fernández-Sevilla, J M; Sánchez-Mirón, A; García-Camacho, F; Contreras-Gómez, A; Molina-Grima, E

    2013-11-01

    Mixotrophic cultures of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were carried out in bubble columns using fructose and glycerol in indoor fed-batch and semi-continuous modes. In the fed-batch cultures, different nutrient-addition strategies, combined with stepwise increments in the light intensity, were assayed. It was found that glycerol promoted significantly higher biomass productivity than fructose. A glycerol-induced photoinhibition that arrested the growth of P. tricornutun was also observed. As this was considered a limitation as regards transferring the fed-batch mode to outdoor conditions, this information was used to culture P. tricornutum in semi-continuous mode. Similar glycerol-induced photoinhibition was not observed in these cultures, even at highest dilution rates. Although the highest biomass (1.5 g L(-1) d(-1)) and EPA (40 mg L(-1) d(-1)) productivities found in the semi-continuous cultures were lower than those obtained photoautotrophically in outdoor photobioreactors, the findings showed that semi-continuous mode was an excellent candidate for transferring mixotrophic culture to an outdoor setting.

  12. Solving the Sustainable Growth Rate formula conundrum continues steps toward cost savings and care improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschovsky, James D; Converse, Larisa; Rich, Eugene C

    2015-04-01

    Congress is again attempting to repeal the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) formula. The formula is a failed mechanism intended to constrain Medicare Part B physician spending by adjusting annual physician fee updates. Congress has averted formula-driven physician fee cuts each year beginning in 2003 by overriding the SGR, usually accompanied with last-minute disputes about how these overrides should be paid for. Last year Congress achieved bipartisan and bicameral agreement on legislation to replace the SGR—the SGR Repeal and Medicare Provider Payment Modernization Act of 2014, which we refer to as the "2014 SGR fix"—but was unable to find a way to pay for the legislation under current budget rules. Current congressional deliberations appear focused on how to pay for the fix, with wide consensus that the 2014 legislation should remain the basic model for reform. We describe key features of the 2014 SGR fix, place it in the context of both past and ongoing Medicare health policy, assess its strengths and weaknesses as a mechanism to foster improved care and lower costs in Medicare, and suggest further actions to ensure success in meeting these goals.

  13. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  14. Effects of continuous stray voltage on health, growth and welfare of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, S; Matte, J J; Bertin-Mahieux, J; Martineau, G P

    1991-10-01

    The effects of continuous stray voltage were evaluated on growing-finishing pigs between the ages of 8 and 21 weeks. Seventy-two pigs were assigned to six blocks of 12 animals each. The following treatments were randomly distributed in each block according to a 2 x 3 factorial design: feeding level (restricted or ad libitum) and voltage level (0, 2 or 5 volts (V) as a difference of potential between feeder or drinker and the metallic floor). During daytime, stray voltage at 5 V decreased (p less than 0.05) the eating frequency in both feeding groups and the drinking frequency in restricted-fed pigs. The mean duration of drinking bouts and the total time spent at the drinker were also lower (p less than 0.05) in this last group during the hour following meal distribution. Daily feed intake and average daily gain were lower (p less than 0.05 and less than or equal to 0.08, respectively) in the 5 V group than in the 2 V and the control groups from 17 to 21 weeks of age. Finally, gastric lesions, hematological and biochemical variables were not affected (p greater than 0.05) by stray voltage.

  15. First Demonstration of Direct Growth of Planar High-In-Composition InGaN Layers on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Rodriguez, Paul E. D. Soto; Gómez, Victor J.; Alvi, Naveed H.; Calleja, Enrique; Nötzel, Richard

    2013-03-01

    We report on the direct growth of high-In-composition InGaN layers on Si(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy without any buffer layers. In a narrow window of growth conditions, laterally extended, micrometer-sized planar areas are formed together with trenches and holes. Detailed structural and optical analyses reveal that the planar areas comprise the InGaN layer with high and uniform In composition, while the trenches and holes are associated with pure GaN and low-In-composition InGaN. Photoluminescence at low temperature is observed from the high-In-composition InGaN layer, which forms an ohmic contact with a p-Si substrate.

  16. GROWTH AND ENZYME PRODUCTION DURING CONTINUOUS CULTURES OF A HIGH AMYLASE-PRODUCING VARIANT OF Aspergillus Oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Zangirolami

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth and product formation by a selected variant of Aspergillus oryzae showing high alpha-amylase production was studied in continuous cultivations carried out at six different specific growth rates, using glucose as the growth-limiting nutrient. The analysis of the steady-state data revealed that the variant and wild-type strains were similar with respect to glucose uptake system and stoichiometric coefficients. However, the variant was capable of maintaining an enzyme production as high as 40 FAUgDW-1h-1 at a dilution rate of 0.2 h-1, while the wild-type strain reached a maximum specific alpha-amylase production rate of 17 FAUgDW-1h-1 at a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1. Using a morphologically structured model originally proposed for the wild-type strain, it was possible to describe enzyme production, biomass formation and glucose consumption after modification of a few parameters to adjust the model to the characteristics of the selected variant.

  17. The effect of growth-mimicking continuous strain on the early stages of skeletal development in micromass culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpers, Darinka D; Smit, Theo H; Mooney, David J

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic skeletogenesis involves proliferation, condensation and subsequent chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells, and the strains and stresses inherent to these processes have been hypothesized to influence skeletal development. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of growth-mimicking strain on the process of early skeletal development in vitro. To this end, we applied continuous uniaxial strain to embryonic skeletal precursor cells in micromass culture. Strain was applied at different times of culture to specifically address the effect of mechanical loading on the sequential stages of cellular proliferation, condensation and differentiation. We found that growth-mimicking strain at all three times did not affect proliferation or chondrogenic differentiation under the tested conditions. However, the timing of the applied strain did play a role in the density of mesenchymal condensations. This finding suggests that a mechanically dynamic environment, and specifically strain, can influence skeletal patterning. The growth-mimicking micromass model presented here may be a useful tool for further studies into the role of mechanical loading in early skeletal development.

  18. Growth parameters of microalgae tolerant to high levels of carbon dioxide in batch and continuous-flow photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Hu, Qiang; Esparza-Soto, Mario; Vermaas, Wim

    2010-04-14

    Microalgae can be cultured in photobioreactors to sequester carbon dioxide and produce potentially valuable biomaterials. The goal of the present study was to identify and utilize microalgal strains that are capable of tolerating up to 20% CO2 (gas phase) concentrations under variable light or flue-gas blend conditions and reactor configurations to produce biomass. Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp., both cultured from a Sonoran desert mineral spring, grew well and tolerated exposure to a gas mixture containing up to 20% CO2 applied continuously in batch reactors to the culture. Experiments were conducted with simulated coal-powered acidic flue gases containing SOx/NOx at concentrations of 200 to 350 ppmV. Microalgae did not grow well without pH control, and high levels (>250 mM) of nitrite or sulphite in the liquid media inhibited algal growth. Pseudo steady-state experiments were also conducted using helical tubular and flat-plate photobioreactors with continuous flow (water and gas) and with artificial or natural sunlight. With a 2 d hydraulic residence time (HRT), the helical tubular photobioreactor produced 0.50 +/- 0.11 g C d(-1) (0.056 +/- 0.012 g C L(-1) d(-1)) dry-weight cell mass during continuous fluorescent-lamp irradiance and 0.048 +/- 0.018 g C L(-1) d(-1) during 12 h light/darkness cycling. The flat-plate photobioreactor (2 d HRT) produced 0.42 +/- 0.28 g C L(-1) d(-1) with artificial lighting and with natural sunlight; a 4 d HRT produced 0.14 +/- 0.02 g C L(-1) d(-1). Reactor modelling indicated that a threshold of reactor size (i.e., HRT) an d reactor depth (path-length of light) exists based upon the optical density of the cells in the water column and their growth rates.

  19. Continuous intrathecal fluid infusions elevate nerve growth factor levels and prevent functional deficits after spinal cord ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, M; Tuszynski, M H; Conner, J; Zivin, J A

    2000-11-17

    Continuous intracerebroventricular or intrathecal infusions of neurotrophic factors have been reported to prevent neuronal degeneration, stimulate axonal sprouting and ameliorate behavioral deficits in various models of CNS injury and aging. In the present study, the ability of intrathecal infusions of recombinant human nerve growth factor (NGF) to reduce functional deficits following spinal cord ischemia was investigated. Adult rabbits underwent intrathecal cannulation and continuous infusions of either 300 microg/ml recombinant human NGF or artificial CSF (vehicle) at a rate of 143 microl/day for 7 days prior to induction of spinal cord ischemia. Continuous infusions were maintained after induction of ischemia. Four days later, both NGF-treated and vehicle-infused subjects showed a significant amelioration of functional motor deficits compared to lesioned, non-infused subjects (PNGF-infused subjects (mean+/-S.E.M.). Significantly elevated NGF protein levels were attained within the spinal cords of both NGF-treated subjects and artificial CSF-infused subjects, although levels were substantially higher in NGF-treated subjects (9.8+/-3.8 ng/g in NGF-infused vs. 2.0+/-0.4 ng/g in vehicle-infused and only 0.4+/-0.2 ng/g in lesioned, non-infused animals). These findings indicate that the process of intrathecal cannulation and fluid infusion elicits alterations in the spinal cord environment that are neuroprotective, including spontaneous elevations in NGF levels.

  20. Phosphoproteome analysis demonstrates the potential role of THRAP3 phosphorylation in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Yoko; Arakawa, Noriaki; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Hirano, Hisashi; Toda, Tosifusa

    2016-04-01

    Elucidating the androgen-independent growth mechanism is critical for developing effective treatment strategies to combat androgen-independent prostate cancer. We performed a comparative phosphoproteome analysis using a prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, and an LNCaP-derived androgen-independent cell line, LNCaP-AI, to identify phosphoproteins involved in this mechanism. We performed quantitative comparisons of the phosphopeptide levels in tryptic digests of protein extracts from these cell lines using MS. We found that the levels of 69 phosphopeptides in 66 proteins significantly differed between LNCaP and LNCaP-AI. In particular, we focused on thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 3 (THRAP3), which is a known transcriptional coactivator of the androgen receptor. The phosphorylation level of THRAP3 was significantly lower at S248 and S253 in LNCaP-AI cells. Furthermore, pull-down assays showed that 32 proteins uniquely bound to the nonphosphorylatable mutant form of THRAP3, whereas 31 other proteins uniquely bound to the phosphorylation-mimic form. Many of the differentially interacting proteins were identified as being involved with RNA splicing and processing. These results suggest that the phosphorylation state of THRAP3 at S248 and S253 might be involved in the mechanism of androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth by changing the interaction partners.

  1. Influence of pH and lactic acid concentration on Clostridium tyrobutyricum during continuous growth in a pH-auxostat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thylin, I; Schuisky, P; Lindgren, S; Gottschal, J.C

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this project was to establish the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lactic acid for growth of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. A pH-auxostat was used to maintain a constant pH and to allow continuous growth at the highest possible rates at fixed, but adjustable concentrations of

  2. Influence of pH and lactic acid concentration on Clostridium tyrobutyricum during continuous growth in a pH-auxostat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thylin, I; Schuisky, P; Lindgren, S; Gottschal, J.C

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this project was to establish the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lactic acid for growth of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. A pH-auxostat was used to maintain a constant pH and to allow continuous growth at the highest possible rates at fixed, but adjustable concentrations of lactate

  3. In vivo virus growth competition assays demonstrate equal fitness of fish rhabdovirus strains that co-circulate in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, R.M.; Garver, K.A.; Ranson, J.C.; Wargo, A.R.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    A novel virus growth competition assay for determining relative fitness of RNA virus variants in vivo has been developed using the fish rhabdovirus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We have conducted assays with IHNV isolates designated B, C, and D, representing the three most common genetic subtypes that co-circulate in Idaho trout farm aquaculture. In each assay, groups of 30 fish were immersed in a 1:1 mixture of two genotypes of IHNV, and then held in individual beakers for a 72 h period of in vivo competitive virus replication. Progeny virus populations in each fish were analyzed for the presence and proportion of each viral genotype. In two independent assays of the B:C isolate pair, and two assays of the B:D pair, all fish were co-infected and there was a high level of fish-to-fish variation in the ratio of the two competing genotypes. However, in each assay the average ratio in the 30-fish group was not significantly different from the input ratio of 1:1, indicating equal or nearly equal viral fitness on a host population basis, under the conditions tested. ?? 2008.

  4. In vivo virus growth competition assays demonstrate equal fitness of fish rhabdovirus strains that co-circulate in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Ryan M; Garver, Kyle A; Ranson, Judith C; Wargo, Andrew R; Kurath, Gael

    2008-11-01

    A novel virus growth competition assay for determining relative fitness of RNA virus variants in vivo has been developed using the fish rhabdovirus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We have conducted assays with IHNV isolates designated B, C, and D, representing the three most common genetic subtypes that co-circulate in Idaho trout farm aquaculture. In each assay, groups of 30 fish were immersed in a 1:1 mixture of two genotypes of IHNV, and then held in individual beakers for a 72h period of in vivo competitive virus replication. Progeny virus populations in each fish were analyzed for the presence and proportion of each viral genotype. In two independent assays of the B:C isolate pair, and two assays of the B:D pair, all fish were co-infected and there was a high level of fish-to-fish variation in the ratio of the two competing genotypes. However, in each assay the average ratio in the 30-fish group was not significantly different from the input ratio of 1:1, indicating equal or nearly equal viral fitness on a host population basis, under the conditions tested.

  5. Research Update: Nickel filling in nanofeatures using supercritical fluid and its application to fabricating a novel catalyst structure for continuous growth of nanocarbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Watanabe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel catalyst structure for continuous growth of nanocarbon fibers is proposed. In this structure, catalyst nanofibers are embedded in a membrane that separates the growth ambient into carbon-supplying and carbon-precipitating environments. The catalyst nanofibers pierce through the membrane so that carbon source gas is supplied only to one end of the catalyst fibers and nanocarbon fibers grow continuously at the other end. To realize this structure, self-supporting anodized alumina was used as a membrane, and its nano-through-holes were filled with catalyst Ni in supercritical CO2 fluid. Direct carbon growth from the Ni nanofibers was confirmed using this catalyst structure.

  6. IDegLira Improves Both Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Control as Demonstrated Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring and a Standardized Meal Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J; Buse, John B; Rodbard, Helena W

    2016-01-01

    : In this substudy, 260 (15.6%) of the original 1663 patients with inadequate glycemic control participating in a 26-week, open-label trial (DUAL I) were randomized 2:1:1 to once-daily IDegLira, insulin degludec or liraglutide. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for 72 hours and a meal test were performed. RESULTS......: At week 26, IDegLira produced a significantly greater decrease from baseline in mean PPG increment (normalized iAUC0-4h) than insulin degludec (estimated treatment difference [ETD] -12.79 mg/dl [95% CI: -21.08; -4.68], P = .0023) and a similar magnitude of decrease as liraglutide (ETD -1.62 mg/dl [95% CI......: -10.09; 6.67], P = .70). CGM indicated a greater reduction in change from baseline in PPG increment (iAUC0-4h) for IDegLira versus insulin degludec over all 3 main meals (ETD -6.13 mg/dl [95% CI: -10.27, -1.98], P = .0047) and similar reductions versus liraglutide (ETD -1.80 mg/dl [95% CI: -2.52, 5...

  7. Continuous blood pressure monitoring via non-invasive radial artery applanation tonometry and invasive arterial catheter demonstrates good agreement in patients undergoing colon carcinoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Chen, Hanjian; Zheng, Jun; Mao, Bin; Zhu, Shengmei; Feng, Jingyi

    2016-12-20

    Radial artery applanation tonometry (RAAT) has been developed and utilized for continuous arterial pressure monitoring. However, evidence is lacking to clinically verify the RAAT technology and identify appropriate patient groups before routine clinical use. This study aims to evaluate the RAAT technology by comparing systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values in patients undergoing colon carcinoma surgery. Blood Pressure (BP) values obtained via RAAT (TL-300, Tensys Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) and conventional arterial catheterization from 30 colon carcinoma surgical patients were collected and compared via Bland-Atman method, linear regression and 4-quadrant plot concordance analysis. For SBPs, MBPs and DBPs, means of the differences (±standard deviation; 95% limits of agreement) were -0.9 (±7.6; -15.7 to 13.9) mmHg, 3.1 (±6.5; -9.6 to 15.8) mmHg and 4.3 (±7.4; -10.3 to 18.8) mmHg, respectively. Linear regression coefficients of determination were 0.8706 for SBPs, 0.8353 for MBPs and 0.6858 for DBPs. Four-quadrant concordance correlation coefficients were 0.8740, 0.8522 and 0.7108 for SBPs, MBPs and DBPs, respectively. A highly selected patient collective undergoing colon carcinoma surgery was studied. BP measurements obtained via the TL-300 had clinically acceptable agreement with that acquired invasively using an arterial catheter. For use in clinical routine, it is necessary to take measures for improvement regarding movement artifacts and dilution of noise. A large sample size of patients under various conditions is also needed to further evaluate the RAAT technology before clinically routine use.

  8. Analysis of different strategies adapted by two cassava cultivars in response to drought stress: ensuring survival or continuing growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pingjuan; Liu, Pei; Shao, Jiaofang; Li, Chunqiang; Wang, Bin; Guo, Xin; Yan, Bin; Xia, Yiji; Peng, Ming

    2015-03-01

    Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, however, the underlying mechanism for its ability to survive and produce under drought remains obscure. In this study, two cassava cultivars, SC124 and Arg7, were treated by gradually reducing the soil water content. Their responses to the drought stress were examined through their morphological and physiological traits and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis. SC124 plants adapted a 'survival' mode under mild drought stress as evidenced by early stomatal closure and a reduction in the levels of various photosynthetic proteins and photosynthetic capacity, resulting in early growth quiescence. In contrast, Arg7 plants underwent senescence of older leaves but continued to grow, although at a reduced rate, under mild drought. SC124 plants were more capable of surviving prolonged severe drought than Arg7. The iTRAQ analysis identified over 5000 cassava proteins. Among the drought-responsive proteins identified in the study were an aquaporin, myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthases, and a number of proteins involved in the antioxidant systems and secondary metabolism. Many proteins that might play a role in signalling or gene regulation were also identified as drought-responsive proteins, which included several protein kinases, two 14-3-3 proteins, several RNA-binding proteins and transcription factors, and two histone deacetylases. Our study also supports the notion that linamarin might play a role in nitrogen reallocation in cassava under drought.

  9. Short-term and continuing stresses differentially interplay with multiple hormones to regulate plant survival and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cangjing; Liu, Jingjing; Dong, Xinran; Cai, Zhenying; Tian, Weidong; Wang, Xuelu

    2014-05-01

    The stress phytohormone, abscisic acid (ABA), plays important roles in facilitating plants to survive and grow well under a wide range of stress conditions. Previous gene expression studies mainly focused on plant responses to short-term ABA treatment, but the effect of sustained ABA treatment and their difference are poorly studied. Here, we treated plants with ABA for 1 h or 9 d, and our genome-wide analysis indicated the differentially regulated genes under the two conditions were tremendously different. We analyzed other hormones' signaling changes by using their whole sets of known responsive genes as reporters and integrating feedback regulation of their biosynthesis. We found that, under short-term ABA treatment, signaling outputs of growth-promoting hormones, brassinosteroids and gibberellins, and a biotic stress-responsive hormone, jasmonic acid, were significantly inhibited, while auxin and ethylene signaling outputs were promoted. However, sustained ABA treatment repressed cytokinin and gibberellin signaling, but stimulated auxin signaling. Using several sets of hormone-related mutants, we found candidates in corresponding hormonal signaling pathways, including receptors or transcription regulators, are essential in responding to ABA. Our findings indicate interactions of ABA-dependent stress signals with hormones at different levels are involved in plants to survive under transient stress and to adapt to continuing stressful environments.

  10. Application of PCR-denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to examine microbial community structure in asparagus fields with growth inhibition due to continuous cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashima, Yasufumi; Sonoda, Takahiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uragami, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    Growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus is a major problem; the yield of asparagus in replanted fields is low compared to that in new fields, and missing plants occur among young seedlings. Although soil-borne disease and allelochemicals are considered to be involved in this effect, this is still controversial. We aimed to develop a technique for the biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping. Therefore, in this study, fungal community structure and Fusarium community structure in continuously cropped fields of asparagus were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Soil samples were collected from the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Soil samples were taken from both continuously cropped fields of asparagus with growth inhibition and healthy neighboring fields of asparagus. The soil samples were collected from the fields of 5 sets in 2008 and 4 sets in 2009. We were able to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium by using Alfie1 and Alfie2GC as the second PCR primers and PCR-DGGE. Fungal community structure was not greatly involved in the growth inhibition of asparagus due to continuous cropping. By contrast, the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in growth-inhibited fields were higher than those in neighboring healthy fields. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and the ratios of missing asparagus plants. We showed the potential of biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus using PCR-DGGE.

  11. A sandwich ELISA for porcine alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (pAGP, ORM-1) and further demonstration of its use to evaluate growth potential in newborn pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperna, T J; Shannon, A E; Stoll, M; Kahl, S; Blomberg, L A; Vallet, J L; Ramsay, T G

    2017-07-01

    A simple, reproducible sandwich, ELISA was developed to measure porcine alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (pAGP, ORM-1) in pig plasma. Porcine AGP isolated from serum was purchased and a polyclonal antisera was prepared in rabbits using the whole pAGP molecule as immunogen. The antiserum was affinity purified, and a portion of the purified antibody fraction was labeled with horseradish peroxidase. Porcine AGP protein was used as a standard, whereas commercially available buffers and reagents were utilized throughout the assay. The assay was specific for pAGP, had a lower limit of detection of 3.2 ng/mL, and could be used to quantify pAGP in plasma or serum. Using this ELISA, we corroborated our previous findings obtained by RID assay, which demonstrated that the AGP concentration in newborn piglets is negatively associated with preweaning growth rate. The current data were obtained using piglets from a different geographical location and genetic background and showed that elevated AGP at birth was associated with reduced preweaning growth rate (P < 0.001, r = 0.433, n = 19 litters). In addition, litters with a greater average AGP at birth were at a growth disadvantage compared with litters with reduced average AGP plasma concentrations (P < 0.001, r = 0.708, n = 19 litters). Litter average plasma AGP was a better predictor of litter preweaning growth rate than average litter birth weight. The data represent further support for using perinatal AGP concentrations as a tool to identify potential slower growing pigs and as a plasma biomarker for predicting litter growth rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Continuous and low-energy 125I seed irradiation changes DNA methyltransferases expression patterns and inhibits pancreatic cancer tumor growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Yan-fang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine 125 (125I seed irradiation is an effective treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancers. However, the radiobiological mechanisms underlying brachytherapy remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the influence of continuous and low-energy 125I irradiation on apoptosis, expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs and cell growth in pancreatic cancers. Materials and methods For in vitro 125I seed irradiation, SW-1990 cells were divided into three groups: control (0 Gy, 2 Gy, and 4 Gy. To create an animal model of pancreatic cancer, the SW 1990 cells were surgically implanted into the mouse pancreas. At 10 d post-implantation, the 30 mice with pancreatic cancer underwent 125I seed implantation and were separated into three groups: 0 Gy, 2 Gy, and 4 Gy group. At 48 or 72 h after irradiation, apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry; changes in DNMTs mRNA and protein expression were assessed by real-time PCR and western blotting analysis, respectively. At 28 d after 125I seed implantation, in vivo apoptosis was evaluated with TUNEL staining, while DNMTs protein expression was detected with immunohistochemical staining. The tumor volume was measured 0 and 28 d after 125I seed implantation. Results 125I seed irradiation induced significant apoptosis, especially at 4 Gy. DNMT1 and DNMT3b mRNA and protein expression were substantially higher in the 2 Gy group than in the control group. Conversely, the 4 Gy cell group exhibited significantly decreased DNMT3b mRNA and protein expression relative to the control group. There were substantially more TUNEL positive in the 125I seed implantation treatment group than in the control group, especially at 4 Gy. The 4 Gy seed implantation group showed weaker staining for DNMT1 and DNMT3b protein relative to the control group. Consequently, 125I seed implantation inhibited cancer growth and reduced cancer volume. Conclusion 125I seed implantation kills pancreatic cancer cells, especially

  13. Transient mTOR inhibition facilitates continuous growth of liver tumors by modulating the maintenance of CD133+ cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojuan Yang

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR pathway, which drives cell proliferation, is frequently hyperactivated in a variety of malignancies. Therefore, the inhibition of the mTOR pathway has been considered as an appropriate approach for cancer therapy. In this study, we examined the roles of mTOR in the maintenance and differentiation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs, the conversion of conventional cancer cells to CSCs and continuous tumor growth in vivo. In H-Ras-transformed mouse liver tumor cells, we found that pharmacological inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin greatly increased not only the CD133+ populations both in vitro and in vivo but also the expression of stem cell-like genes. Enhancing mTOR activity by over-expressing Rheb significantly decreased CD133 expression, whereas knockdown of the mTOR yielded an opposite effect. In addition, mTOR inhibition severely blocked the differentiation of CD133+ to CD133- liver tumor cells. Strikingly, single-cell culture experiments revealed that CD133- liver tumor cells were capable of converting to CD133+ cells and the inhibition of mTOR signaling substantially promoted this conversion. In serial implantation of tumor xenografts in nude BALB/c mice, the residual tumor cells that were exposed to rapamycin in vivo displayed higher CD133 expression and had increased secondary tumorigenicity compared with the control group. Moreover, rapamycin treatment also enhanced the level of stem cell-associated genes and CD133 expression in certain human liver tumor cell lines, such as Huh7, PLC/PRC/7 and Hep3B. The mTOR pathway is significantly involved in the generation and the differentiation of tumorigenic liver CSCs. These results may be valuable for the design of more rational strategies to control clinical malignant HCC using mTOR inhibitors.

  14. Effects of octane on the fatty acid composition and transition temperature of Pseudomonas oleovorans membrane lipids during growth in two-liquid-phase continuous cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Qi; Nijenhuis, Atze; Preusting, Hans; Dolfing, Jan; Janssen, Dick B.; Witholt, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Growth of Pseudomonas oleovorans GPol in continuous culture containing a bulk n-octane phase resulted in changes of the fatty acid composition of the membrane lipids. Compared to citrate-grown cells, the ratio of C-18 to C-16 fatty acids and the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids increase

  15. Effects of octane on the fatty acid composition and transition temperature of Pseudomonas oleovorans membrane lipids during growth in two-liquid-phase continuous cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Qi; Nijenhuis, Atze; Preusting, Hans; Dolfing, Jan; Janssen, Dick B.; Witholt, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Growth of Pseudomonas oleovorans GPol in continuous culture containing a bulk n-octane phase resulted in changes of the fatty acid composition of the membrane lipids. Compared to citrate-grown cells, the ratio of C18 to C16 fatty acids and the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids increased

  16. Effects of continuous peripheral nerve block by tetrodotoxin on growth associated protein-43 expression during neuropathic pain development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wang; Xiaoyu Huang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury may lead to neuropathic pain and cause a markedly increase expression of growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion, local anesthetics blocking electrical impulse propagation of nerve fibers may also affect the expression of GAP-43 in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of continuous peripheral nerve block by tetrodotoxin before and after nerve injury on GAP-43 expression in the dorsal root ganglion during the development of neuropathic pain.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTINGS: Department of Anesthesiology, the Second Hospital of Xiamen City; Department of Anesthesiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College. MATERIALS: Thirty-five Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 200 - 250 g, were randomly divided into four groups: control group (n =5), simple sciatic nerve transection group (n =10), peripheral nerve block before and after sciatic nerve transection groups (n =10). All the sciatic nerve transection groups were divided into two subgroups according to the different postoperative survival periods: 3 and 7 days (n =5) respectively. Mouse anti-GAP-43 monoclonal antibody (Sigma Co., Ltd.), supervision TM anti-mouse reagent (HRP, Changdao antibody diagnosis reagent Co., Ltd., Shanghai), and HMIAS-100 image analysis system (Qianping Image Engineering Company, Tongji Medical University) were employed in this study. METHODS: This experiment was carried out hi the Department of Surgery and Pathological Laboratory, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College from April 2005 to April 2006.①The animals were anesthetized and the right sciatic nerve was exposed and transected at 1 cm distal to sciatic notch.②Tetrodotoxin 10 μg/kg was injected percutaneously between the greater trochanter and the posterior superior iliac spine of right hind limb to block the sciatic nerve proximally

  17. A study of the preparation of epitaxy-ready polished surfaces of (100) Gallium Antimonide substrates demonstrating ultra-low surface defects for MBE growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rebecca; Tybjerg, Marius; Flint, Patrick; Fastenau, Joel; Lubyshev, Dmitri; Liu, Amy W. K.; Furlong, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Gallium Antimonide (GaSb) is an important Group III-V compound semiconductor which is suitable for use in the manufacture of a wide variety of optoelectronic devices such as infra-red (IR) focal plane detectors. A significant issue for the commercialisation of these products is the production of epitaxy ready GaSb, which remains a challenge for the substrate manufacturer, as the stringent demands of the MBE process, requires a high quality starting wafer. In this work large diameter GaSb crystals were grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method and wafers prepared for chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP). Innovative epi-ready treatments and novel post polish cleaning methodologies were applied. The effect of these modified finishing chemistries on substrate surface quality and the performance of epitaxially grown MBE GaSb IR detector structures were investigated. Improvements in the lowering of surface defectivity, maintaining of the surface roughness and optimisation of all flatness parameters is confirmed both pre and post MBE growth. In this paper we also discuss the influence of bulk GaSb quality on substrate surface performance through the characterisation of epitaxial structures grown on near zero etch pit density (EPD) crystals. In summary progression and development of current substrate polishing techniques has been demonstrated to deliver a consistent improved surface on GaSb wafers with a readily desorbed oxide for epitaxial growth.

  18. NMR metabolomics demonstrates phenotypic plasticity of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries with respect to growth conditions in Finland and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki

    2017-03-15

    The berries of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) cultivars 'Terhi' and 'Tytti' were studied with respect to their growth location, 60° and 68°N latitude in Finland and 46°N in Canada, using (1)H NMR metabolomics. The berries of 'Terhi' were characterised by stronger signals of quinic acid, while 'Tytti' had higher levels of O-ethyl β-d-glucopyranoside. The metabolic profile of the northernmost berries was distinctly different from those grown in southern Finland or Canada. Berries from northern Finland had relatively higher levels of quinic acid, glucose, l-quebrachitol and ascorbic acid. Ethyl glucoside was shown to accumulate by several fold at the late stage of maturation in the south as it correlated with degree days (r=0.63) and global radiation (r=0.59), but not in the north. The variance in the composition of the sea buckthorn berries demonstrates plasticity in the acclimatisation to growth environments.

  19. A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

  20. Continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus: Growth yields and morphological characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Lettier, G.; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    The growth stoichiometry of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was determined in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations using a chemically defined medium. This strain produces adipoyl-7-aminocleacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) when...

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  2. Reduction of a single granule drying model: An essential step in preparation of a population balance model with a continuous growth term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Daele, Timothy, Van; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a Population Balance Model (PBM) for a pharmaceutical granule drying process requires a continuous growth term; the latter actually represents the drying process as the moisture content is the internal coordinate of the PBM. To establish such a PBM, a complex drying model for a...... the drying behavior of a population of granules. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 59: 1127–1138, 2013...

  3. Growth model and metabolic activity of brewing yeast biofilm on the surface of spent grains: a biocatalyst for continuous beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A; Kuncová, Gabriela; Podrazký, Ondrej; Dostálek, Pavel; Teixeira, José A

    2004-01-01

    In the continuous systems, such as continuous beer fermentation, immobilized cells are kept inside the bioreactor for long periods of time. Thus an important factor in the design and performance of the immobilized yeast reactor is immobilized cell viability and physiology. Both the decreasing specific glucose consumption rate (q(im)) and intracellular redox potential of the cells immobilized to spent grains during continuous cultivation in bubble-column reactor implied alterations in cell physiology. It was hypothesized that the changes of the physiological state of the immobilized brewing yeast were due to the aging process to which the immobilized yeast are exposed in the continuous reactor. The amount of an actively growing fraction (X(im)act) of the total immobilized biomass (X(im)) was subsequently estimated at approximately X(im)act = 0.12 g(IB) g(C)(-1) (IB = dry immobilized biomass, C = dry carrier). A mathematical model of the immobilized yeast biofilm growth on the surface of spent grain particles based on cell deposition (cell-to-carrier adhesion and cell-to-cell attachment), immobilized cell growth, and immobilized biomass detachment (cell outgrowth, biofilm abrasion) was formulated. The concept of the active fraction of immobilized biomass (X(im)act) and the maximum attainable biomass load (X(im)max) was included into the model. Since the average biofilm thickness was estimated at ca. 10 microm, the limitation of the diffusion of substrates inside the yeast biofilm could be neglected. The model successfully predicted the dynamics of the immobilized cell growth, maximum biomass load, free cell growth, and glucose consumption under constant hydrodynamic conditions in a bubble-column reactor. Good agreement between model simulations and experimental data was achieved.

  4. Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: identification of predictors for continued tumor growth and the influence of documented tumor growth preceding radiation treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, F.C.A.; Mulder, J.J.S.; Hanssens, P.E.; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Donders, R.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Graamans, K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has become an important treatment modality for vestibular schwannomas. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether tumor growth at the moment of GKRS has any correlation with the outcome. The secondary aim was to identify clinical p

  5. Effects of a 7-day continuous infusion of octreotide on circulating levels of growth factors and binding proteins in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Fisker, Sanne

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In patients with acromegaly, clinical improvement has been reported after octreotide (OCT) treatment, even in cases of only a moderate suppression of growth hormone (GH) levels. In rats, OCT suppresses IGF-I mRNA expression and generation of serum and tissue IGF-I levels. A direct effect...

  6. Effects of a 7-day continuous infusion of octreotide on circulating levels of growth factors and binding proteins in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Fisker, Sanne;

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In patients with acromegaly, clinical improvement has been reported after octreotide (OCT) treatment, even in cases of only a moderate suppression of growth hormone (GH) levels. In rats, OCT suppresses IGF-I mRNA expression and generation of serum and tissue IGF-I levels. A direct effect...

  7. Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: identification of predictors for continued tumor growth and the influence of documented tumor growth preceding radiation treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, F.C.A.; Mulder, J.J.S.; Hanssens, P.E.; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Donders, R.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Graamans, K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has become an important treatment modality for vestibular schwannomas. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether tumor growth at the moment of GKRS has any correlation with the outcome. The secondary aim was to identify clinical

  8. Continuation of growth hormone (GH) therapy in GH-deficient patients during transition from childhood to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelund, Helene; Vahl, N; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    fat and increased fat-free mass [M-value (mg/kg x min), 5.1 +/- 0.7 (placebo) vs. 3.4 +/- 1.0 (open), P = 0.09]. In the group randomized to continued GH treatment almost all hormonal and metabolic parameters remained unchanged during the study. In conclusion, 1) discontinuation of GH therapy for 1 yr...... in adolescent patients induces fat accumulation without compromising insulin sensitivity; and 2) the beneficial effects of continued GH treatment on body composition in terms of decrease in fat mass and increase in fat-free mass does not fully balance the direct insulin antagonistic effects....

  9. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  12. Complete Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  15. Application of piecewise hierarchical linear growth modeling to the study of continuity in behavioral development of baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Lloreda, María Victoria; Colmenares, Fernando; Martínez-Arias, Rosario

    2004-09-01

    In behavioral science, developmental discontinuities are thought to arise when the association between an outcome measure and the underlying process changes over time. Sudden changes in behavior across time are often taken to indicate that a reorganization in the outcome-process relationship may have occurred. The authors proposed in this article the use of piecewise hierarchical linear growth modeling as a statistical methodology to search for discontinuities in behavioral development and illustrated its possibilities by applying 2-piece hierarchical linear models to the study of developmental trajectories of baboon (Papio hamadryas) mothers' behavior during their infants' 1st year of life. The authors provided empirical evidence that piecewise growth modeling can be used to determine whether abrupt changes in development trajectories are tied to changes in the underlying process. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Growth of micro-crystals in solution by in-situ heating via continuous wave infrared laser light and an absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shashank; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Mathur, Deepak; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on growth of micro-crystals such as sodium chloride (NaCl), copper sulphate (CuSO4), potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) and glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in solution by in-situ heating using continuous wave Nd:YVO4 laser light. Crystals are grown by adding single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The SWNTs absorb 1064 nm light and act as an in-situ heat source that vaporizes the solvent producing microcrystals. The temporal dynamics of micro-crystal growth is investigated by varying experimental parameters such as SWNT bundle size and incident laser power. We also report crystal growth without SWNT in an absorbing medium: copper sulphate in water. Even though the growth dynamics with SWNT and copper sulphate are significantly different, our results indicate that bubble formation is necessary for nucleation. Our simple method may open up new vistas for rapid growth of seed crystals especially for examining the crystallizability of inorganic and organic materials.

  17. Continuation of growth hormone (GH) therapy in GH-deficient patients during transition from childhood to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelund, Helene; Vahl, N; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    -controlled, parallel study. Measurements were made at baseline, where all patients were on their regular GH replacement, after 12 months of either continued GH (0.018 +/- 0.001 mg/kg day) or placebo, and finally after 12 months of open phase GH therapy (0.016 mg/kg x day). Before study entry GH deficiency...... fat and increased fat-free mass [M-value (mg/kg x min), 5.1 +/- 0.7 (placebo) vs. 3.4 +/- 1.0 (open), P = 0.09]. In the group randomized to continued GH treatment almost all hormonal and metabolic parameters remained unchanged during the study. In conclusion, 1) discontinuation of GH therapy for 1 yr...

  18. Continuous infusion versus daily injections of growth hormone (GH) for 4 weeks in GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Jakobsen, Grethe;

    1995-01-01

    effects with constant and pulsatile GH delivery. This study was carried out to compare the metabolic effects of longer term continuous infusion vs. daily injections of GH. Thirteen GH-deficient patients were studied in a cross-over design. The patients were randomized to receive GH as a continuous sc...... infusion by means of a portable pump for 1 month and as daily sc injections (at 1900 h) for another month. An average daily GH dosage (+/- SEM) of 3.15 +/- 0.27 IU was administered during both periods. Steady state 24-h profiles of GH, IGF-I, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), insulin, glucose, lipid.......35 (infusion); P infusion induced higher nighttime than daytime GH levels (P = 0.01), indicating a diurnal variation in the absorption or clearance of GH. Serum IGF-I levels (micrograms per L) were slightly higher (P infusion [312...

  19. Continuous administration of insulin-like growth factor-I and basic fibroblast growth factor does not affect left ventricular geometry after acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinowitz, M; Abramov, D; Kotlyar, A; Savion, N; Eldar, M

    1998-02-28

    We examined the long-term effect of exogenous administration of bFGF and IGF-I on myocardial geometry in 72 Sprague-Dawley male rats subjected to AMI. A preloaded miniature osmotic pump subsequently implanted in the peritoneum for continuous infusion (1 week) of IGF-I, bFGF, IGF-I+bFGF or rat albumin. Six weeks following AMI the rats were killed and cross-section slices were analyzed for left ventricular geometry. No differences were observed between IGF-I-treated, bFGF-treated, IGF-I+bFGF-treated and control groups in all parameters of the left ventricle.

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  3. Analysis of mirror soft-x-ray-EUV scattering using generalized continuous growth model of multiscale reliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goray, Leonid; Lubov, Maxim

    2015-04-20

    Combined computer simulations of the growth of multilayer mirrors and their exact differential reflection coefficients in the soft-x-ray-EUV range have been conducted. The proposed model describes the variation of the surface roughness of the multilayer Al/Zr mirror boundary profiles taking into account a random noise source. Theoretically calculated Al/Zr boundary profiles allow one to know real rough boundary statistics including rms roughnesses and correlation lengths and, to obtain rigorously EUV specular and diffuse reflection coefficients. The proposed integrated approach opens up a way to performing exact theoretical studies similar in accuracy to results obtained by quantitative microscopy investigations of nanoreliefs and synchrotron radiation measurements.

  4. Effects of Continuous Sciatic Nerve Block by Tetrodotoxin on Growth Associated Protein-43 Expression in Dorsal Root Ganglions of Normal and Sciatic Nerve Injury Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wang; Yong-fa Zhang; Xiao-yu Huang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) is considered to be one of the most useful molecular markers for the neural development, nerve regeneration, and neuroplasticity. In most mature neurons, the expression of GAP-43 is at very low or negative level; its expression is triggered in response to the interruption of axonal transport. The purpose of this study was to examine whether continuous sciatic nerve block by tetrodotoxin (TTX) affects GAP-43 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of normal and sciatic nerve injury rats.

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  6. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning r...

  7. Effect of dilution rate and light intensity on growth of a diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans under continuous cultivation in flat-panel photobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutako, M.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Batch and continuous cultures of a marine diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans were conducted in flatpanel photobioreactors. The photobioreactor was made of transparent plastic sheet filled with 5.5 L of Guillard's F/2 culture medium (prepared with 30 PSU salinity seawater. The photobioreactor was continuously illuminated at 16 µmol photon m-2 s-1 with fluorescence lamps and operated under ambient room temperature (26-38ºC. With batch cultivation, C. calcitrans had the maximum cell density of 160x104 cells ml-1 and maximum specific growth rate of 1.03 day-1. During continuous cultivation, addition of fresh medium and removal of diatom cells were conducted using a peristaltic pump. The dilution rate was varied from 0.52 to 1.97 day-1 in 12 steps. The results showed that the highest cell density of 193x104 cells ml-1 was obtained at the lowest dilution rate (0.52 day-1. When the dilution rate was increased to 1.97 day-1, cell density of the diatom at steady state was decreased to 6x104 cells ml-1. However, the highest productivity was obtained at 0.98 day-1 dilution rates which provided cell productivity of 132x104 cell ml-1 day-1. In addition, increase in light intensity from 16 to 40 µmol photon m-2 s-1 resulted in an increase of the diatom growth and productivity, especially at low dilution rate. With this study, the recommended dilution rate for continuous cultivation of C. calcitrans was approximately 0.8 day-1. At this dilution rate, cell productivity of approximately 112x104 cells ml-1 day-1 or cell dry weight productivity of 64 mg L-1 day-1 could be expected.

  8. Continuous Czochralski Growth. Silicon Sheet Growth Development of the Large Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, F.

    1979-01-01

    During the reporting period, a successful 100 kilogram run was performed. Six ingots of 13 cm diameter were grown, ranging in size from 15.5 kg to 17.7 kg. Melt replenishment methods included both poly rod and lump feed material. Samples from each ingot were prepared for solar cell fabrication and analyses, impurity analysis, and structural studies. The furnace was converted to the 14-inch hot zone and preliminary heat runs were performed. Two sucessful runs were demonstrated, by growing 25 kg ingots from 30 kg melts. Also, a 100 kg run was attempted, utilizing the 14 inch crucible hot zone, but was prematurely terminated due to excessive monoxide which accumulated on the viewports and a seed failure.

  9. Super High Dosing with a Novel Buttiauxella Phytase Continuously Improves Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Mineral Status of Weaned Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhikai; Li, Qingyun; Tian, Qiyu; Zhao, Panfeng; Xu, Xiao; Yu, Shukun; Piao, Xiangshu

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a novel Buttiauxella phytase to pigs fed P-deficient, corn-soybean meal diets. One hundred and twenty crossbred piglets (9.53 ± 0.84 kg) were allocated to one of five treatments which consisted of four low P diets (0.61 % Ca and 0.46 % total P) supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 20,000 FTU/kg phytase as well as a positive control diet (0.77 % Ca and 0.62 % total P). Each treatment had six replicated pens with four pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 28 days. Phytase supplementation linearly improved (P phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) further increased (P phytase inclusion group, as well as ATTD of Ca and P. Metacarpal bone characteristics and several trace mineral concentration in bone, plasma, or organ tissues were linearly (P phytase. Super high dosing with phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) supplementation improved (P phytase supplementation (500 or 1,000 FTU/kg). In conclusion, supplementation of 500 FTU of Buttiauxella phytase/kg and above effectively hydrolyzed phytate in a low-P corn-soybean diet for pigs. In addition, a super high dosing with phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) improved macro- or micro mineral availability and growth performance.

  10. Continuous Czochralski growth: silicon sheet growth development of the large area silicon sheets task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Ninth quarterly progress report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, R.L.; Roberts, E.

    1979-01-01

    During this reporting period, four more 100 kg continuous runs were completed to satisfy the six required by the project extension. One of the four (2*) was performed using a new standard CG2000 RC grower, using accessory equipment and process techniques developed under this project. The sixth and final 100 kg continuous run was performed with purified carbon parts and resulted in the best results to date. Run No. 62 resulted in 103.0 kg being pulled from 104.5 kg total charge weight (98.6% pulled yield). Of this 103 kg grown, 89.3 kg were monocrystalline. Moreover, 72.2 kg was OD material. Another encouraging result was that 85% of the eighth crystal was monocrystalline and 67% of the ninth and last crystal was monocrystaline after ninety seven hours of continuous growth. Impurity analysis data indicate that impurity build-up in grown crystals during 100 kg continuous runs is insignificant. However, the results indicate that impurities tend to accumulate in the crucible. Moreover, impurity analysis performed on new crucibles indicates that these new crucibles may not be as pure as the manufacturer's literature states. Solar cell efficiency data from two 100 kg continuous runs were received this quarter with very encouraging results. The average efficiencies of all cells tested was 16.35% AM1, which is considerably higher than our 14% AM1 goal. Moreover, the efficiencies remained at or near the same levels throughout the entire 100 kg continuous run. We expect to receive solar cell efficiency results from three more of the 100 kg continuous runs in the next quarter.

  11. Plants Growth Rate in Evapotranspiration continuous system reactors as the 2nd Treatment at Anaerobic-evapotranspiration system with High Strength Ammonium in Leachate Influent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrus Zaman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium is one of parameter which responsible to leachate toxicity. Preliminary research was shown that the Fimbristylis globulosa (water plant, Alocasia macrorrhiza (terrestrial plant and Eleusine indica (terrestrial grass were potential plants for used as object in evaporation reactor system with high strength ammonium  concentration in leachate treatment. This research was integrated of anaerobic system with evapotranspiration system with continuous influent using ammonium concentration in leachate was 2000 mg/l NH4-N. Plants growth rate was analyzed for 25 days operated. The result shown that average of thallus growth rate of Fimbristylis globulosa was 17,5 cm d-1. The average of leaf and thallus growth rate of Alocasia macrorrhiza was 18,1 cm d-1 and 3,2 cm d-1 respectively. The average of blade and thallus of Eleusine indica were same that was 4,7 cm d-1.This research conclude that integration system of anaerobic and evpotranspiration was be potential used for high strength ammonium in leachate treatment.

  12. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Communities on Soil Quality and the Growth of Cucumber Seedlings in a Greenhouse Soil of Continuously Planting Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; CHEN Ying-Long; LI Min; LIN Xian-Gui; LIU Run-Jin

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to determine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities on soil properties and the growth of cucumber seedlings in a degraded soil that had been used for continuous cucumber monoculture in a greenhouse for 15 years.In the experiment,AMF communities (created by combining various AMF species that were found to be dominant in natural farm soil) were inoculated into the degraded soil,and then the soil was planted with cucumber.Inoculation with AMF communities did not affect soil pH but increased soil aggregate stability and decreased the concentrations of salt ions and electrical conductivity (EC) in the soil.Inoculation with AMF communities increased the numbers of culturable bacteria and actinomycetes but reduced the number of fungi. AMF communities increased plant growth,soluble sugar content,chlorophyll content,and root activity compared to non-mycorrhizal or a single AMF species treatments. Improvements of soil quality and plant growth were greatest with the following two communities:Glomus etunicatum + G.mosseae + Gigaspora margarita + Acaulospora lacunosa and G.aggregatum + G.etunicatum +G.mosseae + G.versiforme + G.margarita + A.lacunosa.The results suggested that certain AMF communities could substantially improve the quality of degraded soil.

  13. Complete abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombosis and obstruction of both common iliac arteries with intrathrombotic pressures demonstrating a continuing risk of rupture: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotzadimitriou Aikaterini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although mural thrombus in an abdominal aortic aneurysm is frequent and its role has been studied extensively, complete thrombosis of an abdominal aneurysm is extremely rare and its natural history in relation to the risk of rupture is not known. The case of a patient with a completely thrombosed infrarenal aneurysm is presented along with a literature review. Case presentation We report the case of a 56-year-old Caucasian man with an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, presenting at our hospital due to critical ischemia of his right lower limb. Computed tomography and angiography demonstrated complete aneurysm thrombosis and obstruction of both common iliac arteries. Conclusion During the operation, systolic and mean intrathrombotic pressures, measured in different levels, constituted 74.5-90.2% and 77.5-92.5% of systolic and mean intraluminal pressure and 73-88.4% and 76.5-91.3% of systemic pressure, respectively. Our findings show that there may be a continuing risk of rupture in cases of a thrombosed abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  14. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  15. Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits growth of Listeria monocytogenes in an in vitro continuous flow gut model, but promotes invasion of L. monocytogenes in the gut of gnotobiotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Licht, Tine Rask; Saadbye, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    The ability of the pediocin AcH producing Lactobacillus plantarum DDEN 11007 and its non-producing plasmid-cured isogenic variant, DDEN 12305 to prevent the persistence and growth of Listeria monocytogenes EP2 in two gastrointestinal (GI) tract models was examined. In vitro studies conducted...... in a two-stage continuous flow system showed that L. plantarum DDEN 11007 inhibited L. monocytogenes EP2 under these conditions, while less effect was seen of the non-bacteriocin producing variant. The inhibitory effect was more pronounced at pH 5 than at pH 7. No effect on persistence of L. monocytogenes...... in the GI tract was seen in gnotobiotic rats colonized with either the pediocin AcH producing or the non-bacteriocin producing variant of L. plantarum when compared to rats inoculated with L. monocytogenes EP2 alone. Surprisingly, inoculation of the gnotobiotic animals with either of the L. plantarum...

  16. Muscle hypertrophy in heavy weight Japanese quail line: delayed muscle maturation and continued muscle growth with prolonged upregulation of myogenic regulatory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y M; Suh, Y; Ahn, J; Lee, K

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the temporal expression of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, Pax7, and myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) between heavy weight (HW) and random bred control (RBC) Japanese quail lines during muscle development to better understand the mechanisms leading to increased skeletal muscle mass in the HW quail line selected for a greater BW at 4 wk of age separated from RBC quail. Expression of neonatal MyHC isoform began at 3 and 7 d posthatch in RBC and HW quail lines, respectively. In the RBC quail line, adult MyHC isoform, as a marker for muscle maturation, was expressed at 28 d posthatch with sustained expression through 75 d posthatch, whereas this protein was detected only at 75 d posthatch in the HW quail line. Moreover, Pax7 expression continued from embryonic ages to 14 d posthatch in the HW quail line and to 7 d posthatch in the RBC quail line. These expression patterns of MyHC isoforms and Pax7 in the HW quail line were accompanied by delayed muscle maturation and prolonged growth compared with the RBC quail line. Temporal expressions of the primary MRF showed that higher expression levels of MyoD and Myf-5 were observed at 9 and 11 d embryo in the HW quail line compared with the RBC quail line (P muscle development is associated with delayed maturation and continued muscle growth, which consequently would permit muscle hypertrophic potentials in the HW quail line compared with the RBC quail line. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Effects on development, growth responses and thyroid-hormone systems in eyed-eggs and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) continuously exposed to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Olufsen, Marianne; Cicero, Nicola; Hansen, Marianne D

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3; and thyroxine, T4) play significant roles in development, metamorphosis, metabolism, homeostasis, cellular proliferation, and differentiation, for which the effects are mediated through thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ). Similarly, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is involved in growth and development through regulation of somatic growth. This study was designed to examine the effects of the dioxin-like 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77) on responses related to growth and thyroid hormone system in eyed eggs and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic salmon. Salmon eggs were continuously exposed to two waterborne concentrations of PCB-77 (1 or 10 ng/L) over a period of 50 d covering hatching and through yolk-sac absorption stages. Sampling was performed regularly throughout the exposure period and at different time intervals. Gene expression patterns were performed on whole-body homogenate at age 500, 548, 632, 674, and 716 dd (dd: day degrees) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Total T3 (TT3) and total T4 (TT4) were measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data showed that 10 ng PCB-77 increased dioiodinase 2 (Dio2) at 500 dd and both PCB-77 concentrations decreased dio2 expression at 548 dd. PCB-77 elevated cellular TT3 at 500 dd and was lowered at 548 dd only at 10 ng. Otherwise, time-related reduction was not affected by PCB-77 exposure as observed for the rest of the exposure period. For TT4, 1 ng PCB-77 produced a rise at 500 dd, and an apparent concentration decrease at 548 dd, before a total inhibition at 632 dd. The IGF-1 and IGF-1R were variably affected by PCB-77. For IGF-2, PCB-77 produced a concentration-dependent increase at 548 dd, and thereafter an elevation (1 ng) and fall (10 ng) at 632 dd. TRβ mRNA demonstrated PCB-77 related increases during the exposure period, and this effect returned to control levels at 716 dd. For TRα, a rise was noted only after exposure to 10 ng PCB-77 at 500 dd

  18. Fermentation and growth response of a primary poultry isolate of Salmonella typhimurium grown under strict anaerobic conditions in continuous culture and amino acid-limited batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciorowski, K G; Nisbet, D J; Ha, S D; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Ricke, S C

    1997-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium is a significant hazard to consumer health that is carried asymptomatically in poultry gastrointestinal tracts. Nurmi cultures may prevent Salmonella colonization in young chicks, but the mechanism of competitive exclusion is unclear. Modeling Salmonella's metabolism in pure culture may allow for greater definition in choosing strains for Nurmi cultures. The growth rates and affinity constants of S. typhimurium growing in amino acid-limited conditions were determined in batch culture and compared to primary poultry isolates of cecal strains. Serine and NH4Cl were the best N sources for growth of all organisms tested in this study. The fermentation response of S. typhimurium was also monitored in continuous culture at a slow dilution rate of 0.021 h-1. S. typhimurium was found to adapt to VL media, with trends in protein disappearance, Yglucose, and Yprotein. This may show that amino acid or protein concentrations may be an integral component of the initial establishment of S. typhimurium in the cecum.

  19. Growth and exopolysaccharide yield of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 in batch and continuous bioreactor experiments at constant pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Susann; Krzyzanowski, Leona; Weber, Jost; Jaros, Doris; Rohm, Harald

    2012-02-01

    Some Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains are able to synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPS) and are therefore highly important for the dairy industry as starter cultures. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional requirements for growth and EPS production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus DSM 20081. A medium was developed from a semi-defined medium (SDM) in which glucose was replaced by lactose and different combinations of supplements (nucleobases, vitamins, salts, sodium formate and orotic acid) were added. Constant pH batch fermentation with the modified medium resulted in an EPS yield of approximately 210 mg glucose equivalents per liter medium. This was a 10-fold increase over flask cultivation of this strain in SDM. Although not affecting cell growth, the mixture of salts enhanced the EPS synthesis. Whereas EPS production was approximately 12 mg/g dry biomass without salt supplementation, a significantly higher yield (approximately 20 mg/g dry biomass) was observed after adding the salt mixture. In continuous fermentation, a maximal EPS concentration was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.31/h (80 mg EPS/L), which corresponded to a specific EPS production of 49 mg/g dry biomass.

  20. Ruminal fermentation, microbial growth and amino acid flow in single-flow continuous culture fermenters fed a diet containing olive leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Alcaide, E; Martín-García, A I; Moumen, A; Carro, M D

    2010-04-01

    Six single-flow continuous culture fermenters were used to determine fermentation profile, microbial growth and amino acid (AA) flow promoted by olive leaves supplemented with barley grains and faba beans (OLSUP), and alfalfa hay (AH). Two incubation runs were carried out with three fermenters inoculated with ruminal fluid from wethers and three from goats. The inoculum source did not affect (p = 0.059 to 0.980) any of the parameters. Daily volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and carbohydrate digestibility were greater (p = 0.009 and 0.024, respectively) for AH, therefore the pH values were lower (p = 0.015) than for OLSUP. Acetate was greater (p microbial N flow and efficiency were greater (p = 0.016 and p = 0.041) for diet AH. Individual AA flows were greater (p microbial essential AA proportion was greater for OLSUP (p = 0.015). The results indicate that OLSUP promoted lower bacterial growth and AA flow than AH, which could have been partially due to a limitation of N availability to ruminal microbes.

  1. Demonstration of immunochemical identity between the nerve growth factor-inducible large external (NILE) glycoprotein and the cell adhesion molecule L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, E; Richter-Landsberg, C; Faissner, A

    1985-01-01

    -treated rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells yielded comigrating bands by SDS-PAGE. NILE antibodies reacted with immunopurified L1 antigen, but not with N-CAM and other L2 epitope-bearing glycoproteins from adult mouse brain. Finally, by sequential immunoprecipitation from detergent extracts of [35S......The nerve growth factor-inducible large external (NILE) glycoprotein and the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 were shown to be immunochemically identical. Immunoprecipitation with L1 and NILE antibodies of [3H]fucose-labeled material from culture supernatants and detergent extracts of NGF...

  2. Simultaneous production of l-lactic acid with high optical activity and a soil amendment with food waste that demonstrates plant growth promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitpreechavanich, Vichien; Hayami, Arisa; Talek, Anfal; Chin, Clament Fui Seung; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    A unique method to produce highly optically-active l-lactic acid and soil amendments that promote plant growth from food waste was proposed. Three Bacillus strains Bacillus subtilis KBKU21, B. subtilis N3-9 and Bacillus coagulans T27, were used. Strain KBKU21 accumulated 36.9 g/L l-lactic acid with 95.7% optical activity and 98.2% l-lactic acid selectivity when fermented at 43°C for 84 h in a model kitchen refuse (MKR) medium. Residual precipitate fraction (anaerobically-fermented MKR (AFM) compost) analysis revealed 4.60%, 0.70% and 0.75% of nitrogen (as N), phosphorous (as P2O5), and potassium (as K2O), respectively. Additionally, the carbon to nitrogen ratio decreased from 13.3 to 10.6. AFM compost with KBKU21 promoted plant growth parameters, including leaf length, plant height and fresh weight of Brassica rapa (Komatsuna), than that by chemical fertilizers or commercial compost. The concept provides an incentive for the complete recycling of food waste, contributing towards a sustainable production system.

  3. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  4. Comparative proteome approach demonstrates that platelet-derived growth factor C and D efficiently induce proliferation while maintaining multipotency of hMSCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotoca, Ana M., E-mail: a.sotoca@science.ru.nl [Department of Cell and Applied Biology, Radboud University, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Roelofs-Hendriks, Jose [Department of Cell and Applied Biology, Radboud University, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boeren, Sjef [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenlaan 3, 6703 HA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kraan, Peter M. van der [Department of Rheumatology Research and Advanced Therapeutics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Vervoort, Jacques [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenlaan 3, 6703 HA Wageningen (Netherlands); Zoelen, Everardus J.J. van; Piek, Ester [Department of Cell and Applied Biology, Radboud University, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    This is the first study that comprehensively describes the effects of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms C and D during in vitro expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Our results show that PDGFs can enhance proliferation of hMSCs without affecting their multipotency. It is of great value to culture and expand hMSCs in a safe and effective manner without losing their multipotency for manipulation and further development of cell-based therapies. Moreover, differential effects of PDGF isoforms have been observed on lineage-specific differentiation induced by BMP2 and Vitamin D3. Based on label-free LC-based quantitative proteomics approach we have furthermore identified specific pathways induced by PDGFs during the proliferation process, showing the importance of bioinformatics tools to study cell function. - Highlights: • PDGFs (C and D) significantly increased the number of multipotent undifferentiated hMSCs. • Enhanced proliferation did not impair the ability to undergo lineage-specific differentiation. • Proteomic analysis confirmed the overall signatures of the ‘intact’ cells.

  5. Proteomics demonstration that normal breast epithelial cells can induce apoptosis of breast cancer cells through insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 and maspin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toillon, Robert-Alain; Lagadec, Chann; Page, Adeline; Chopin, Valérie; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Ricort, Jean-Marc; Lemoine, Jérôme; Zhang, Ming; Hondermarck, Hubert; Le Bourhis, Xuefen

    2007-07-01

    Normal breast epithelial cells are known to exert an apoptotic effect on breast cancer cells, resulting in a potential paracrine inhibition of breast tumor development. In this study we purified and characterized the apoptosis-inducing factors secreted by normal breast epithelial cells. Conditioned medium was concentrated by ultrafiltration and separated on reverse phase Sep-Pak C18 and HPLC. The proapoptotic activity of eluted fractions was tested on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and nano-LC-nano-ESI-MS/MS allowed the identification of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and maspin as the proapoptotic factors produced by normal breast epithelial cells. Western blot analysis of conditioned media confirmed the specific secretion of IGFBP-3 and maspin by normal cells but not by breast cancer cells. Immunodepletion of IGFBP-3 and maspin completely abolished the normal cell-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, and recombinant proteins reproduced the effect of normal cell-conditioned medium on apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Together our results indicated that normal breast epithelial cells can induce apoptosis of breast cancer cells through IGFBP-3 and maspin. These findings provide a molecular hypothesis for the long observed inhibitory effect of normal surrounding cells on breast cancer development.

  6. Hydraulic continuity and biological effects of low strength very low frequency electromagnetic waves: Case of microbial biofilm growth in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Merlin; Noamen, Omri; Evelyne, Gonze; Eric, Valette; Gilles, Cauffet; Marc, Henry

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to elucidate the interactions between water, subjected to electromagnetic waves of very low frequency (VLF) (kHz) with low strength electromagnetic fields (3.5 mT inside the coils), and the development of microbial biofilms in this exposed water. Experimental results demonstrate that in water exposed to VLF electromagnetic waves, the biomass of biofilm is limited if hydraulic continuity is achieved between the electromagnetic generator and the biofilm media. The measured amount of the biofilm's biomass is approximately a factor two lower for exposed biofilm than the non-exposed biofilm. Measurements of electromagnetic fields in the air and simulations exhibit very low intensities of fields (electromagnetic generator. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields of the quoted intensities cannot explain thermal and ionizing effects on the biofilm. A variable electrical potential with a magnitude close to 20 mV was detected in the tank in hydraulic continuity with the electromagnetic generator. The application of quantum field theory may help to explain the observed effects in this case.

  7. 长三角入境旅游的持续高增长及时间同步性分析%ENTRY TOURISM OF CONTINUOUS GROWTH AND TIME SYNCHRONICITIES ANALYSIS OF YANGTZE RIVER DELTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻学锋; 孙根年

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses Yangtze River Delta tourism continuous growth and time boom through to add up and analyse entry tourism data and definite the entry tourism continuous growth, using the entry tourism person-time and income two basic indexes in order to introduce tourism services density index and combine correlation coefficient from 1980 to 2009. There have four finds as a result. Firstly, it is the continuing growth of “high-stable” operation. Secondly, it is continuous high-growth area responsiveness. Thirdly, it is the synchronism between the entry tourism income and tourism person-times of time. Fourthly, Yangtze River Delta is one of the fastest growing regions in continuous growth process. During continuous growth process, it is very clearly that regional tourism growth speed differences are narrowing.%通过对长三角1980-2009年入境旅游数据统计分析,根据入境旅游持续高增长的界定,利用入境旅游人次和收入两个基础指标,引入旅游服务密度指标,结合相关系数,分析长三角入境旅游持续高增长及时间同步性.结果发现:一是持续高增长的"高位-平稳"运行;二是持续高增长的区域响应性;三是入境旅游收入和旅游人次的时间同步性;四是长三角作为入境旅游发展速度最快的区域之一,在持续高增长过程中,区域间入境旅游增长的速度差异明显缩小.

  8. Stimulation of the 150-kilodalton insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 ternary complex by continuous and pulsatile patterns of growth hormone (GH) administration in GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2000-01-01

    Abstract In the circulation insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and the acid-labile subunit (ALS) form a 150-kDa ternary complex that is of importance for the regulation of IGF-I bioactivity. GH administration is known to increase each of the single components...... of the ternary complex, and in GH-deficient rats formation of the 150-kDa complex is induced more by continuous than by pulsatile GH patterns. The aim of the present studies was to study the effects of the GH administration pattern on the formation of the 150-kDa ternary complex in humans. A fixed total GH dose...... (2 IU/m2-24 h) was administered iv randomly as 1) continuous infusion or 2) eight bolus injections to five GH-deficient patients over a period of 24 h. GH administration significantly increased serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels and the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio. IGF-I levels increased most pronouncedly after...

  9. 关于斜积空间上连续函数的增长率%On growth rates of continuous functions in skew-product system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文娟

    2009-01-01

    We consider the growth rate of continuous function φ(x,y) in fiber direction in the skew-product system F:X×Y→X×Y,F(x,y)=(f(x),g(x,y)).We proved that if μ is f-ergodic measure,then Λ(μ) =maxv∈Mμ(F)∫X×Yφdv and λ(μ)=limn→∞(1)/(n) maxy∈Y ∑n-1i=0 φ(Fi(x,y)) =constant for μ a.e. x are the same.%研究斜积系统F:X×Y→X×Y,F(x,y)=(f(x),g(x,y))上连续函数φ(x,y)纤维方向的增长率.我们证明了如果μ是f-遍历测度,则Λ(μ)=maxv∈Mμ(F)∫X×Yφdv及λ(μ)=limn→∞(1)/(n)maxy∈Y∑n-1i=0φ(Fi(x,y))=constant 对μ a.e.x是一致的.

  10. Development and validation of a potentiometric biosensor assay for tylosin with demonstrated applicability for the detection of two other antimicrobial growth-promoter compounds in feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, S L; Wolodko-Cierniak, K B; Richmond, S F; Sharman, M; Driver, P; Teale, P; Leonardova, O; Purvis, D

    2011-01-01

    A potentiometric biosensor assay based on a commercially available polyclonal antibody was developed to detect tylosin residues in animal feed. The method can be used as a rapid (less than 45 min) laboratory-based procedure or as a portable field-test for the simultaneous measurement of up to 12 different samples. For both procedures the qualitative detection capability (CCβ) for tylosin was determined as 0.2 mg kg(-1) in a range of animal feeds with a measurement repeatability at concentrations between 0.2 and 4 mg kg(-1) of ≤13% coefficient of variation (%CV). The field-test format was capable of detecting tylosin residues at operating (external air) temperatures ranging between +4 and 37°C, although some reduction in signal was observed at the lower temperatures. The laboratory-based tylosin assay was evaluated using 16 medicated and 22 non-medicated feeds and was found to give comparable data with a confirmatory method based upon liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The potential to develop a multi-probe format assay for the simultaneous detection of tylosin, spiramycin and virginiamycin was also demonstrated. Cross-validation in a second laboratory showed the assay to be transferable, reliable and robust.

  11. Long-term, repeated dose in vitro neurotoxicity of the glutamate receptor antagonist L-AP3, demonstrated in rat hippocampal slice cultures by using continuous propidium iodide incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bjarne W; Blaabjerg, Morten; Noraberg, Jens

    2007-01-01

    ), which is known to be toxic in vivo after subchronic, but not acute, administration. Degenerative effects were monitored by measuring the cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI; continuously present in the medium) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and by using a panel of histological stains...

  12. Mathematical Modeling on the Growth and Removal of Non-metallic Inclusions in the Molten Steel in a Two-Strand Continuous Casting Tundish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Haitao; Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Hong

    2016-10-01

    In the current study, mathematical models were developed to predict the transient concentration and size distribution of inclusions in a two-strand continuous casting tundish. The collision and growth of inclusions were considered. The contribution of turbulent collision and Stokes collision was evaluated. The removal of inclusions from the top surface was modeled by considering the properties of inclusions and the molten steel, such as the wettability, density, size, and interfacial tension. The effect of composition of inclusions on the collision of inclusions was included through the Hamaker constant. Meanwhile, the effect of the turbulent fluctuation velocity on the removal of inclusions at the top surface was also studied. Inclusions in steel samples were detected using automatic SEM Scanning so that the amount, morphology, size, and composition of inclusions were achieved. In the simulation, the size distribution of inclusions at the end steel refining was used as the initial size distribution of inclusions at tundish inlet. The equilibrium time when the collision and coalescence of inclusions reached the steady state was equal to 3.9 times of the mean residence time. When Stokes collision, turbulent collision, and removal by floating were included, the removal fraction of inclusions was 16.4 pct. Finally, the removal of solid and liquid inclusions, such as Al2O3, SiO2, and 12CaO·7Al2O3, at the interface between the molten steel and slag was studied. Compared with 12CaO·7Al2O3 inclusions, the silica and alumina inclusions were much easier to be removed from the molten steel and their removal fractions were 36.5 and 39.2 pct, respectively.

  13. Long-term, repeated dose in vitro neurotoxicity of the glutamate receptor antagonist L-AP3, demonstrated in rat hippocampal slice cultures by using continuous propidium iodide incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bjarne W; Blaabjerg, Morten; Noraberg, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Most in vitro models are only used to assess short-term effects of test compounds. However, as demonstrated here, hippocampal slice cultures can be used for long-term studies. The test compound used was the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, L(+)-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid (L-AP3...

  14. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  15. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  16. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  17. Growth model and metabolic activity of brewing yeast biofilm on the surface of spent grains : a biocatalyst for continuous beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; A.A. Vicente; Kuncová, Gabriela; Podrazký, Ondřej; Dostálek, Pavel; Teixeira, J. A

    2004-01-01

    In the continuous systems, such as continuous beer fermentation, immobilized cells are kept inside the bioreactor for long periods of time. Thus an important factor in the design and performance of the immobilized yeast reactor is immobilized cell viability and physiology. Both the decreasing specific glucose consumption rate (Q_im) and intracellular redox potential of the cells immobilized to spent grains during continuous cultivation in bubble-column reactor implied alteratio...

  18. Protective effect of HSV-mediated gene transfer of nerve growth factor in pyridoxine neuropathy demonstrates functional activity of trkA receptors in large sensory neurons of adult animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Munmun; Goss, James; Lacomis, David; Goins, William C; Glorioso, Joseph C; Mata, Marina; Fink, David J

    2003-02-01

    The distinct distribution of trkA receptors on small neurons and trkC receptors on large neurons in the dorsal root ganglion correlates with the dependence of these two classes of neurons on nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3, respectively, for survival during development. In adult animals, the distribution of high affinity neurotrophin (trk) is complex and overlapping; neurotrophins are not required for cell survival, but may influence cell phenotype and the response to injury. In order to test the functional activity of trkA receptors in the sensory ganglia of adult animals in vivo, we examined the ability of a nerve growth factor-expressing recombinant replication-defective herpes simplex virus-based vector to prevent the selective degeneration of large sensory fibres caused by intoxication with pyridoxine. Transduction of dorsal root ganglion neurons in vivo by subcutaneous inoculation of the nerve growth factor-expressing vector prevented the development of pyridoxine-induced neuropathy measured by electrophysiological, morphological and behavioural measures. These results demonstrate a functional activity of trkA receptors expressed on large neurons in the dorsal root ganglion in mature animals; this observation has important implications for the choice of neurotrophic factors for treatment of peripheral nerve disease.

  19. Flammable gas/slurry growth unreviewed safety question:justification for continued operation for the tank farms at the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) provides a basis for continued operation in 176 high level waste tanks, double contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks, 244-AR Vault, 242-S and 242-T Evaporators and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) relative to flammable gas hazards. Required controls are specified.

  20. Role of limited hydrogen and flow interval on the growth of single crystal to continuous graphene by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Munu; Pathak, Abhishek K.; Singh, Dilip K.; Pal, Prabir; Dhakate, Sanjay R.

    2017-02-01

    A method for defect-free large crystallite graphene growth remains unknown despite much research effort. In this work, we discuss the role of flow duration of H2 gas for the production of graphene as per requirement and production at a minimum flow rate considering the safety issue of hydrogen utilization. The copper substrate used for growth was treated for different time intervals (0 to 35 min) in H2 flow prior to growth. Structural and chemical changes occurring in the copper substrate surface were probed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results were correlated with the Raman spectroscopy data, which can quantify the quality of graphene. With increasing H2 flow interval, secondary nucleation sites were observed and growth favored few-layer graphene structures. The surface-adsorbed oxygen molecules and its conversion to an OH terminated surface with increasing hydrogen flow interval was found to be a key factor in enhancing nucleation density. The Stranski-Krastanov type of nucleation was observed for samples grown with different time intervals of H2 treatment, except 5 min of H2 flow prior to growth for which the Volmer-Weber type of growth favored monolayer graphene crystallite growth.

  1. Decision support software technology demonstration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.; ARMSTRONG,A.

    1998-09-01

    The performance evaluation of innovative and alternative environmental technologies is an integral part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mission. Early efforts focused on evaluating technologies that supported the implementation of the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts. In 1986 the Agency began to demonstrate and evaluate the cost and performance of remediation and monitoring technologies under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program (in response to the mandate in the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA)). In 1990, the US Technology Policy was announced. This policy placed a renewed emphasis on making the best use of technology in achieving the national goals of improved quality of life for all Americans, continued economic growth, and national security. In the spirit of the technology policy, the Agency began to direct a portion of its resources toward the promotion, recognition, acceptance, and use of US-developed innovative environmental technologies both domestically and abroad. Decision Support Software (DSS) packages integrate environmental data and simulation models into a framework for making site characterization, monitoring, and cleanup decisions. To limit the scope which will be addressed in this demonstration, three endpoints have been selected for evaluation: Visualization; Sample Optimization; and Cost/Benefit Analysis. Five topics are covered in this report: the objectives of the demonstration; the elements of the demonstration plan; an overview of the Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot; an overview of the technology verification process; and the purpose of this demonstration plan.

  2. Vertically aligned CNT growth on a microfabricated silicon heater with integrated temperature control—determination of the activation energy from a continuous thermal gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engstrøm, Daniel Southcott; Rupesinghe, Nalin L; Teo, Kenneth B K

    2011-01-01

    Silicon microheaters for local growth of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) were fabricated. The microheaters had a four-point-probe structure that measured the silicon conductivity variations in the heated region which is a measure of the temperature. Through FEM simulations the temper...

  3. Regulation of Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Metabolism in Pseudomonas oxalaticus OX1. Growth on Fructose and on Mixtures of Fructose and Formate in Batch and Continuous Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, L.; Harder, W.

    1984-01-01

    In Pseudomonas oxalaticus the synthesis of enzymes involved in autotrophic CO2 fixation via the Calvin cycle is regulated by repression/derepression. During growth of the organism on fructose alone, the synthesis of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) remained fully repressed, both in batch

  4. Electrochemical island growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry are not fully understood. Here the kinetics of 3D island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide is studied. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal, disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e. a surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to 1/2 whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. Accordingly, a growth mechanism is proposed, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by 2D nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane. The surface roughness evolution, during isolated island growth, island coalescence, and continuous film growth, has also been studied as a function of island shape and island density. It is shown that the surface width wsat(l,t) initially follows anomalous scaling in the isolated island growth regime but exhibits normal scaling during the early stages of continuous film growth. Furthermore, the short length scale roughness is dependent primarily on island shape while the long length scale roughness is dependent on island density. Electrochemical deposition of

  5. 上半年中国经济将继续高位增长%Economy will continue to see high growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ A report published by the Economic and Resources Management Institute of Beijing Normal University recently forecasts that China's GDP will grow 10% in the first half of this year, and the country's national economy will keep growing adhesively and at high levels.That is,China's GDP will maintain the high-level growth of 10%,neither growing at a faster pace nor dropping sharply, to present a development trend of small fluctuations.

  6. Tree-ring δ13C and δ18O, leaf δ13C and wood and leaf N status demonstrate tree growth strategies and predict susceptibility to disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, S A; Boone, A S; Stephen, F M

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how tree growth strategies may influence tree susceptibility to disturbance is an important goal, especially given projected increases in diverse ecological disturbances this century. We use growth responses of tree rings to climate, relationships between tree-ring stable isotopic signatures of carbon (δ(13)C) and oxygen (δ(18)O), wood nitrogen concentration [N], and contemporary leaf [N] and δ(13)C values to assess potential historic drivers of tree photosynthesis in dying and apparently healthy co-occurring northern red oak (Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) during a region-wide oak decline event in Arkansas, USA. Bole growth of both healthy and dying trees responded negatively to drought severity (Palmer Drought Severity Index) and temperature; healthy trees exhibited a positive, but small, response to growing season precipitation. Contrary to expectations, tree-ring δ(13)C did not increase with drought severity. A significantly positive relationship between tree-ring δ(13)C and δ(18)O was evident in dying trees (P trees. Healthy trees' wood exhibited lower [N] than that of dying trees throughout most of their lives (P trees between contemporary leaf δ(13)C and leaf N (by mass), but not in dying trees. Our work provides evidence that for plants in which strong relationships between δ(13)C and δ(18)O are not evident, δ(13)C may be governed by plant N status. The data further imply that historic photosynthesis in healthy trees was linked to N status and, perhaps, C sink strength to a greater extent than in dying trees, in which tree-ring stable isotopes suggest that historic photosynthesis was governed primarily by stomatal regulation. This, in turn, suggests that assessing the relative dominance of photosynthetic capacity vs stomatal regulation as drivers of trees' C accrual may be a feasible means of predicting tree responses to some disturbance events. Our work demonstrates that a dual isotope, tree-ring approach can be integrated with

  7. Ethylene production and petiole growth in rumex plants induced by soil waterlogging: the application of a continuous flow system and a laser driven intracavity photoacoustic detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voesenek, L A; Harren, F J; Bögemann, G M; Blom, C W; Reuss, J

    1990-11-01

    Petiole growth of Rumex acetosa L., Rumex crispus L., and Rumex palustris Sm. in response to soil waterlogging was studied in relation to production of the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. Ethylene production was monitored in a flow-through system and a recently developed laser driven photoacoustic detection system, which allowed ethylene measurements as low as 6 picoliters per liter. R. acetosa showed a two-fold increase in ethylene production correlated with a slight enhancement of the growth of the petiole that developed during the waterlogging treatment. Both R. crispus and R. palustris showed a strong petiole elongation of existing as well as newly formed petioles, which was correlated with a 20-fold increase in ethylene production after approximately 7 days. Increased rates of ethylene production in R. palustris were related to a strong increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and a slight, but detectable, increase in ethylene forming enzyme activity. In R. acetosa on the other hand, only a very small increase in ACC concentration was observed. Changes in ethylene production in Rumex are strongly correlated with variation in ACC content and ethylene forming enzyme activity. The interaction between ethylene production/internal concentration and ethylene sensitivity of the three Rumex species is discussed in relation to their field location in a flooding gradient and their differential resistance toward waterlogging and submergence.

  8. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  9. 生长激素缺乏但持续增高:垂体柄中断合并垂体多激素缺乏一例报告及文献复习%Continuous growth with undetectable growth hormone level: one case of invisible pituitary stalk and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹卓娜; 金文胜; 许卫国; 邓爱民; 赵霞; 宋丹丹; 张松; 刘俊伟

    2009-01-01

    报道一例垂体柄中断合并垂体多激素缺乏、包括经低血糖刺激试验发现生长激素缺乏、但表现为持续增高的病例.结合文献复习发现,此种非生长激素依赖的身高生长一般有垂体其他激素尤其是促性腺激素缺乏、骨骺未闭合为基础条件.%Normal function of growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor Ⅰaxis is essential for linear growth after birth. A case of continuous growth with undetectable growth hormone level even under insulinhypoglycemia stimulation was reported. The growth hormone deficiency was due to pituitary stalk interruption combined with deficiency of multiple pituitary hormones. Taken together with reviewed literature, this so-called nongrowth hormone-dependent linear growth was preconditioned by other hormones, especially gonadotropin deficiency,and the unclosed epiphysis.

  10. Water-level variations and their effects on tree growth and mortality and on the biogeochemical system at the phytoremediation demonstration site in Fort Worth, Texas, 1996-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Eberts, Sandra M.; Jones, Sonya A.; Harvey, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, a field-scale phytoremediation demonstration project was initiated and managed by the U.S. Air Force at a site in western Fort Worth, Texas, using a plantation of 1-year-old stems harvested from branches of eastern cottonwoods during the dormant season (whips) and a plantation of 1-year-old eastern cottonwood seedlings (calipers). The primary objective of the demonstration project was to determine the effectiveness of eastern cottonwoods at reducing the mass of dissolved trichloroethene transported within an alluvial aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to determine water-level variations and their effects on tree growth and mortality and on the biogeochemical system at the phytoremediation site. As part of the study, water-level and water-quality data were collected throughout the duration of the project. This report presents water-level variations at periodic sampling events; data from August 1996 to January 2003 are presented in this report. Water levels are affected by aquifer properties, precipitation, drawdown attributable to the trees in the study area, and irrigation. This report also evaluates the effects of ground-water depth on tree growth and mortality rates and on the biogeochemical system including subsurface oxidation-reduction processes. Overall, both whips and calipers showed a substantial increase in height, canopy diameter, and trunk diameter over the first 3 years of the study. By the fifth growing season (September 2000), the height of the calipers varied predictably with height decreasing with increasing depth to ground water. Percent mortality was relatively constant at about 25 percent in the whip plantation in January 2003 where ground-water levels were less than 10 feet below land surface during the drought in September 2000. The mortality rate increased where the ground-water levels were greater than 10 feet below land surface and approached 90 percent where ground

  11. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  12. An integral parametrization of the bacterial growth curve experimental demonstration with E. coli C{sub 6}00 bacteria; Parametrizacion integrada de la curva de crecimiento bacteriano. Comprobacion experimental para E. coli C{sub 6}00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, F.; Vidania, R. de

    1984-07-01

    In this work an integral parametrization of the bacterial growth curve is presented. The values of the parameters are obtained by fitting to the experimental data. Those parameters, with allow to describe the growth in its different phases, are the followings: slopes of the curve in its three parts and the time which divides the last two phases of the bacterial growth. The experimental data are bacterial densities measured by optical methods. The bacteria used was the E. coli C{sub 6}00. (Author)

  13. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  14. Experimental Demonstration of Isomorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenicek, J.; Melicharek, M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes some simple experiments related to the properties of crystals. Illustrates isomorphism using single crystals of alum. Presents experiments for determining how various mixture compositions affect the growth of salt crystals. (WRM)

  15. The POSEIDON Demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P.J.L.J. van de

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the Poseidon demonstrator: a demonstrator that integrates the individual research results of all partners of the Poseidon project. After describing how the Poseidon demonstrator was built, deployed, and operated, we will not only show many results obtained from the demons

  16. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  17. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  18. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  19. Comparing the Discrete and Continuous Logistic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2008-01-01

    The solutions of the discrete logistic growth model based on a difference equation and the continuous logistic growth model based on a differential equation are compared and contrasted. The investigation is conducted using a dynamic interactive spreadsheet. (Contains 5 figures.)

  20. Comparing the Discrete and Continuous Logistic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2008-01-01

    The solutions of the discrete logistic growth model based on a difference equation and the continuous logistic growth model based on a differential equation are compared and contrasted. The investigation is conducted using a dynamic interactive spreadsheet. (Contains 5 figures.)

  1. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  2. Optimization of ferric chloride concentration and pH to improve both cell growth and flocculation in Chlorella vulgaris cultures. Application to medium reuse in an integrated continuous culture bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecina, Martí; Nadal, Gisela; Solà, Carles; Prat, Jordi; Cairó, Jordi J

    2016-09-01

    Combined effect of ferric chloride and pH on Chlorella vulgaris growth and flocculation were optimized using DoE. Afterwards, an integrated bioprocess for microalgae cultivation and harvesting conceived as a sole step was run in continuous operation mode. Microalgae concentration in a 2L-photobioreactor was about 0.5gL(-1) and the efficiency of flocculation in the coupled sedimentation tank was about 95%. Dewatered microalgae reached a biomass concentrations increase about 50-fold, whereas it was only about 0.02gL(-1) in the clarified medium. Then, the reuse of the clarified medium recovered was further evaluated. The clarified medium was reused without any further nutrient supplementation, whereas a second round of medium reuse was performed after supplementation of main nutrients (phosphate-sulfate-nitrate), micronutrients and ferric chloride. The medium reuse strategy did not affect cell growth and flocculation. Consequently, the reuse of medium reduces the nutrients requirements and the demand for water, and therefore the production costs should be reduced accordingly.

  3. Effects of continuously diurnal desiccation on Ulva pertusa growth and biochemical constituents%连续性干出对孔石莼生长和生化组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭赣林; 阎斌伦; 徐静; 赵艳景; 石艳; 徐婷

    2011-01-01

    以孔石莼(Ulva pertusa)为试验材料,研究了连续性干出对其生长和生化组成的影响.结果表明:与对照组(0 h)相比,短时间的连续性干出促进孔石莼生长,表现在特定生长率( SGR)升高、叶绿素a含量上升;随着连续性干出时间延长,孔石莼SGR、叶绿素a、蛋白质含量下降,叶绿素b、可溶性糖含量上升;叶绿素a/b比值变化和可溶性糖含量变化有利于抵抗干出胁迫.%This study showed that as compared with the control, a short term continuously diurnal desiccation promoted the growth of Vlva pertusa, manifesting in the increase of specific growth rate (SGR) and chlorophyll a content. However, with the prolonged desiccation duration, the SGR and chlorophyll a and protein contents decreased, while the chlorophyll b and soluble sugar contents increased. The changes of chlorophyll a/b and soluble sugar content could benefit the desiccation tolerance of U. Pertusa.

  4. ISPO BEIJING 2012- Growth Trend Continues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    In the year of 2008, the Olympic Games were held in the city of Beijing for the first time in the country's history, marking the emergence of a new relationship between China and the sports industry, and resulting in a subsequent three years of fast developmenttowards an exciting sports business future. ISPO BEIJING 2012, which is scheduled to be held from February 22nd to 25th, 2012 at the China National Convention Center in Beijing, would once again offer the sports industrial fields a platform to seek their opportunities.

  5. Toy Demonstrator's "VISIT" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The role of the toy demonstrator in a home-based, mother-involved intervention effort (Verbal Interaction Project) is presented in this handbook for staff members. It is believed that the prerequisites for functioning in the toy demonstrator's role are a sense of responsibility, patience with the children and their mothers, and willingness to be…

  6. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  7. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  8. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  9. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  10. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data.

  11. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Buuck, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y.-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); and others

    2015-10-28

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, modular, HPGe detector array with a mass of 44-kg (29 kg {sup 76}Ge and 15 kg {sup nat}Ge) to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double beta decay searches will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is envisioned to demonstrate a path forward to achieve a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value of 2039 keV. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR follows a modular implementation to be easily scalable to the next generation experiment. First, the prototype module was assembled; it has been continuously taking data from July 2014 to June 2015. Second, Module 1 with more than half of the total enriched detectors and some natural detectors has been assembled and it is being commissioned. Finally, the assembly of Module 2, which will complete MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, is already in progress.

  12. Status of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Baldenegro-Barrera, C X; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2015-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, modular, HPGe detector array with a mass of 44-kg (29 kg 76Ge and 15 kg natGe) to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge-76. The next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double beta decay searches will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is envisioned to demonstrate a path forward to achieve a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value of 2039 keV. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR follows a modular implementation to be easily scalable to the next generation experiment. First, the prototype module was assembled; it has been continuously taking data from July 2014 to June 2015. Second, Module 1 with more than half of the total enriched detectors and some natural detectors has been assembled and it is being commissioned. Finally, the assembly of Module 2, which will complete MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, ...

  13. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  14. TENCompetence tool demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2009). TENCompetence tool demonstration. Presented at Zorgacademie Parkstad (Health Academy Parkstad), Limburg Leisure Academy, Life Long Learning Limburg and a number of regional educational institutions. May, 18, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, T

  15. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  16. 40 CFR 264.272 - Treatment demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 264.272 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.272 Treatment demonstration. (a) For each waste that will be applied to...

  17. Pancreaticopleural fistula : CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung [Chuncheon Medical Center, ChunChon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the pancreaticopleural fistula is known to cause recurrent exudative or hemorrhagic pleural effusions. These are often large in volume and require treatment, unlike the effusions in acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis can be made either by the finding of elevated pleural fluid amylase level or, using imaging studies, by the direct demonstration of the fistulous tract. We report two cases of pancreaticopleural fistula demonstrated by computed tomography.

  18. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  19. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  20. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  1. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  2. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  3. Demonstrating Supernova Remnant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Denis A.; Williams, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    We have created a software tool to calculate at display supernova remnant evolution which includes all stages from early ejecta dominated phase to late-time merging with the interstellar medium. The software was created using Python, and can be distributed as Python code, or as an executable file. The purpose of the software is to demonstrate the different phases and transitions that a supernova remnant undergoes, and will be used in upper level undergraduate astrophysics courses as a teaching tool. The usage of the software and its graphical user interface will be demonstrated.

  4. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  5. Effects of fumigation sterilization to potato growth and soil microorganism of the continuous cropping soils%熏蒸灭菌对连作马铃薯生长发育及土壤微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂丽; 童娟; 张丽; 马琨; 宋乃平

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of sterilized soil on the potato growth and soil microorganism community function diversity. The experiment was carried out by potted culture with sterilized potato continuous cropping soil,which were seperately sampled from the fields from potato normal rotation and different continuous cropping period.The result showed that the characteristics of photosynthetic parameters were complicated under the condition of sterilized continuous cropping soil. The photosynthetic characteristics may be affected by nonstomatal limitation and the stomata conductance were decreased owning to the absence of soil water content, which may be the main influential factor. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the potato leaves were increased under the continuous cropping, but the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (POD) were obviously decreased when the continuous cropping soil were sterilized. The harmful soil environment factors to potato growth were changed. Soil microorganism function diversity in potato rhizosphere soils were also influenced by continuous cropping. The average color change rate(AWCD) of Biolog Ecoplate were significant increased in the five and ten years continuous cropping period when the soil were sterilized. Compared with no sterilized soil, the AWCD were separately increased 30. 9%- 41.6% and 2. 7% - 12.8%. There are still have more high carbon substrate utilization ability and soil microorganism carbon substrate using function diversity. But the diversity of soil microbial community function to carbon substrate utilization have the trendency of gradually decline under the condition of continuous cropping.%采用土壤熏蒸灭菌的方法,分析了连作土壤灭菌对盆栽马铃薯生长发育及根际土壤微生物功能多样性的影响.结果表明:土壤熏蒸灭菌对马铃薯主要光合特征参数影响规律较复杂,连作时间长短对叶片光合能力有显著影响;连作土壤熏蒸灭

  6. Differential regulation of transforming growth factor beta and interleukin 2 genes in human T cells: demonstration by usage of novel competitor DNA constructs in the quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The regulation of mRNA encoding transforming growth factor beta (TGF- beta) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in normal human T cells was explored using novel competitor DNA constructs in the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and accessory cell-independent T cell activation models. Our experimental design revealed the following: (a) TGF-beta mRNA and IL-2 mRNA are regulated differentially in normal human T cells, quiescent or signaled with the synergistic combinations of: sn-1,2- dioctanoylglycer...

  7. Multiphasic growth curve analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Application of a multiphasic growth curve is demonstrated with 4 data sets, adopted from literature. The growth curve used is a summation of n logistic growth functions. Human height growth curves of this type are known as "double logistic" (n = 2) and "triple logistic" (n = 3) growth curves (Bock

  8. Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L.; Fowler, Veronica L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analys

  9. Arctic Craft Demonstration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    it received a lot of attention from the local population. Demonstration personnel, both Coast Guard and contractors, were asked to be receptive to...www.uscg.mil/top/missions/ . Counter-Drug Interdiction and Alien Migrant Interdiction operations are currently not included. In the non-Polar regions

  10. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  11. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  12. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  13. Passive damping technology demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert E.; Spencer, Susan M.; Austin, Eric M.; Johnson, Conor D.

    1995-05-01

    A Hughes Space Company study was undertaken to (1) acquire the analytical capability to design effective passive damping treatments and to predict the damped dynamic performance with reasonable accuracy; (2) demonstrate reasonable test and analysis agreement for both baseline and damped baseline hardware; and (3) achieve a 75% reduction in peak transmissibility and 50% reduction in rms random vibration response. Hughes Space Company teamed with CSA Engineering to learn how to apply passive damping technology to their products successfully in a cost-effective manner. Existing hardware was selected for the demonstration because (1) previous designs were lightly damped and had difficulty in vibration test; (2) multiple damping concepts could be investigated; (3) the finite element model, hardware, and test fixture would be available; and (4) damping devices could be easily implemented. Bracket, strut, and sandwich panel damping treatments that met the performance goals were developed by analysis. The baseline, baseline with damped bracket, and baseline with damped strut designs were built and tested. The test results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions and demonstrated that the desired reduction in dynamic response could be achieved. Having successfully demonstrated this approach, it can now be used with confidence for future designs as a means for reducing weight and enhancing reliability.

  14. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are no

  15. Distance Learning Environment Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Distance Learning Environment Demonstration (DLED) was a comparative study of distributed multimedia computer-based training using low cost high...measurement. The DLED project provides baseline research in the effective use of distance learning and multimedia communications over a wide area ATM/SONET

  16. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  17. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  18. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  19. Growth of the Mammalian Golgi Apparatus during Interphase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Alex T-W; Harrison, Rene E

    2016-09-15

    During the cell cycle, genetic materials and organelles are duplicated to ensure that there is sufficient cellular content for daughter cells. While Golgi growth in interphase has been observed in lower eukaryotes, the elaborate ribbon structure of the mammalian Golgi apparatus has made it challenging to monitor. Here we demonstrate the growth of the mammalian Golgi apparatus in its protein content and volume during interphase. Through ultrastructural analyses, physical growth of the Golgi apparatus was revealed to occur by cisternal elongation of the individual Golgi stacks. By examining the timing and regulation of Golgi growth, we established that Golgi growth starts after passage through the cell growth checkpoint at late G1 phase and continues in a manner highly correlated with cell size growth. Finally, by identifying S6 kinase 1 as a major player in Golgi growth, we revealed the coordination between cell size and Golgi growth via activation of the protein synthesis machinery in early interphase.

  20. Population growth and economic growth: any connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, J R

    1982-12-01

    The author examines the current evidence concerning the relationship between population growth and economic growth, with particular reference to the justification for U.S. assistance to programs designed to slow rates of population growth in developing countries. It is concluded that "the results of economic theory and research do not support the oft-repeated claims that population growth inhibits economic growth." The author suggests that the reason for continued U.S. support for population programs is the effectiveness of a population lobby that has a vested interest in the continuation of such assistance.

  1. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  2. THE EQUATION FOR THE CONTINUOUS INGOT SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS OF CONTINUOUS CASTING CASTER MNLZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Pugachev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A process of heat transfer in continuous casting mould is considered. The substantiated equations predict shell growth, temperature distributions, solidification rates and can be used for continuous casters control systems.

  3. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  4. The Majorana Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Aguayo, E; Hoppe, E W; Keillor, M E; Kephart, J D; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Merriman, J; Orrell, J L; Overman, N R; Avignone, F T; Back, H O; Combs, D C; Leviner, L E; Young, A R; Barabash, A S; Konovalov, S I; Vanyushin, I; Yumatov, V; Bergevin, M; Chan, Y-D; Detwiler, J A; Loach, J C; Martin, R D; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Vetter, K; Bertrand, F E; Cooper, R J; Radford, D C; Varner, R L; Yu, C -H; Boswell, M; Elliott, S R; Gehman, V M; Hime, A; Kidd, M F; LaRoque, B H; Rielage, K; Ronquest, M C; Steele, D; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Gusey, K; Kochetov, O; Shirchenko, M; Timkin, V; Yakushev, E; Busch, M; Esterline, J; Tornow, W; Christofferson, C D; Horton, M; Howard, S; Sobolev, V; Collar, J I; Fields, N; Creswick, R J; Doe, P J; Johnson, R A; Knecht, A; Leon, J; Marino, M G; Miller, M L; Robertson, R G H; Schubert, A G; Wolfe, B A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Hazama, R; Nomachi, M; Shima, T; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Henning, R; Howe, M A; MacMullin, S; Phillips, D G; Snavely, K J; Strain, J; Vorren, K; Guiseppe, V E; Keller, C; Mei, D -M; Perumpilly, G; Thomas, K; Zhang, C; Hallin, A L; Keeter, K J; Mizouni, L; Wilkerson, J F

    2011-01-01

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program including background reduction techniques is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% in 76Ge is given.

  5. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  6. Extrapituitary growth hormone and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steve; Baudet, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    While growth hormone (GH) is obligatory for postnatal growth, it is not required for a number of growth-without-GH syndromes, such as early embryonic or fetal growth. Instead, these syndromes are thought to be dependent upon local growth factors, rather than pituitary GH. The GH gene is, however, also expressed in many extrapituitary tissues, particularly during early development and extrapituitary GH may be one of the local growth factors responsible for embryonic or fetal growth. Moreover, as the expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene mirrors that of GH in extrapituitary tissues the actions of GH in early development are likely to be mediated by local autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, especially as extrapituitary GH expression occurs prior to the ontogeny of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of GH in embryos has also been shown to be of functional relevance in a number of species, since the immunoneutralization of endogenous GH or the blockade of GH production is accompanied by growth impairment or cellular apoptosis. The extrapituitary expression of the GH gene also persists in some central and peripheral tissues postnatally, which may reflect its continued functional importance and physiological or pathophysiological significance. The expression and functional relevance of extrapituitary GH, particularly during embryonic growth, is the focus of this brief review.

  7. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a $6.9 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Technology has a vital role in ensuring that coal can continue to serve U.S. energy interests and enhance opportunities for economic growth and employment while meeting the national committment to a clean and healthy global environment. These technologies are being advanced through the CCT Program. The CCT Program supports three substantive national objectives: ensuring a sustainable environment through technology; enhancing energy efficiency and reliability; providing opportunities for economic growth and employment. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program reduce the emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants, solid and liquid wastes, and other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion to other fuel forms. These emissions reductions are achieved with efficiencies greater than or equal to currently available technologies.

  8. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    . This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses...... of control, driven by such challenges as complying with cost goals, the need to choose a German prefab supplier, and local contractors. Energy calculations, indoor climate, issues related to square meter requirements, and the hydrogen element became problematic. The aim to obtain passive house certification...

  9. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    , and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...... encompasses both an evaluation of the design and Construction process as well as a post-occupancy evaluation. Process experiences include the use of a multidisciplinary competence group and performance measurement. The commencement of the project was enthusiastic, but it was forced into more traditional forms...

  10. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  11. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  12. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  13. Education Demonstration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A.; Lee, R. L.

    2003-10-01

    The General Atomics fusion education program ``Scientist in the Classroom" (SIC) now in its sixth year, uses scientists and engineers to present plasma as a state of matter to students in the classroom. Using hands-on equipment, students see how magnets, gas pressure changes, and different gases are turned into plasmas. A piston, sealed volume, and vacuum chamber illuminate ideal gas laws. Liquid nitrogen is used to explore thermodynamic temperature effects and changes in states of matter. Light bulbs are excited with a Tesla coil to ionize gases, thus becoming an inexpensive plasma devices and a plasma tube shows magnetic interactions with plasma. The demonstration equipment used in this program is built with simple designs and common commercial equipment keeping in mind a teacher's tight budget. The SIC program ( ˜25 school presentations per year) has become very popular and has acquired an enthusiastic group of regular teacher clientele requesting repeat visits. In addition, three very popular and successful ``Build-It" days, sponsored by the General Atomics Fusion Education Outreach Program, enables teachers to build and keep in their classroom some of this equipment. The demonstration devices will be presented along with their ``build-it" details.

  14. Inseparable phone books demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation and experiment steps are presented on how to turn a simple discrepant event into an instructional activity. Results showed the relationships between number of pages and force, as well as between amounts of interleave and force. In addition to these, the mathematical equation for the total force between all interleaved pages is derived. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that not only can phone books be used, but also ordinary books, to investigate this discrepant event. This experiment can be conducted as an example to show the agreement between theoretical and experimental results along with the confounding variables. This discrepant event can be used to create a cognitive conflict in students’ minds about the concepts of ‘force and motion’ and ‘friction force’.

  15. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  16. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  17. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  18. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  19. LFR Demonstrator Materials Viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, M

    2006-08-02

    Interest in fast reactor development has increased with the Department of Energy's introduction of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) [1]. The GNEP program plans development of a sodium cooled Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) that can be used to reduce the amount spent LWR fuel in storage and the number of high level waste sites needed for expansion of nuclear power throughout the world over the 21st century. In addition, the program proposes to make nuclear power more available while reducing the proliferation concerns by revising policies and technology for control of weapons useable materials. This would be accomplished with establishment of new institutional arrangements based on selective siting of reprocessing, enrichment and waste disposal facilities. The program would also implement development of small reactors suitable for use in developing countries or remote regions with small power grids. Over the past several years, under the Department of Energy (DOE) NERI and GEN IV programs research has been conducted on small lead cooled reactors. The Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) [2] is the most recent version of this type of reactor and research is continuing on it in the GEN IV program in parallel with GNEP. SSTAR is a small (10MWe-100MWe) reactor that is fueled once for life. It complements the GNEP program very well in that it serves one of the world markets not currently addressed by large reactors and its development requirements are similar to those for the ABRs. In particular, the fuel and structural materials for these fast spectrum reactors share common thermal and neutron environments. The coolants, sodium in ABR and lead or lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) in SSTAR, are the major developmental difference. This report discusses the status of structural materials for fast reactor core and primary system components and selected aspects of their development.

  20. Quasi-continuous magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Naumovich, G.J.; Hoang, T.A.; Dent, P.C. [Everson Electric Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is completing a quasi-continuous magnet which will sustain a constant field of 60 T for 100 ms in a 32-mm 77 K bore. This magnet consists of 9 mechanically independent, nested, liquid nitrogen-cooled coils which are individually reinforced by high-strength stainless steel outer shells. The coils were wound from rectangular large cross-section, high-strength, high-conductivity copper conductor insulated wtih polyimide and fiberglass tapes. After winding, the coils were inserted into closely fitted, stainless steel reinforcing shells and impregnated with epoxy resin. Design, analysis, material, fabrication and operational issues for this class of magnets are reviewed. Fabrication and quality assurance testing of the 60 T coil set are covered in detail. Future growth of and possible links from this technology to other magnet systems are discussed. Needed improvements in design, analysis, materials, and fabrication are outlined.

  1. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  2. Nuclear power demonstrating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, V. V.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1980-08-12

    Apparatus for demonstrating the operation of a closed loop nuclear steam electric generating plant includes a transparent boiler assembly having immersion heating elements, which may be quartz lamps or stainless steel encased resistive immersion heating units with a quartz iodide lamp providing a source of visible radiation when using the encased immersion heating units. A variable voltage autotransformer is geared to a support rod for simulated reactor control rods for controlling the energy delivered to the heating elements and arranged so that when the voltage is high, the rods are withdrawn from the boiler to produce increased heating and illumination proportional to rod position, thereby simulating nuclear reaction. A relief valve, steam outlet pipe and water inlet pipe are connected to the boiler with a small stainless steel resistive heating element in the steam outlet pipe providing superheat. This heater is connected in series with a rheostat mounted on the front panel to provide superheat adjustments and an interlock switch that prevents the superheater from being energized when the steam valve is off with with no flow through the superheater. A heavy blue plastic radiation shield surrounds the boiler inside a bell jar.

  3. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  4. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  5. Continuous propagation of microalgae. III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D. T.; Fredrickson, A. G.; Tsuchiya, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    Data are presented which give the specific photosynthetic rate and the specific utilization rates of urea and carbon dioxide as functions of specific growth rate for Chlorella. A mathematical model expresses a set of mass balance relations between biotic and environmental materials. Criteria of validity are used to test this model. Predictive procedures are complemented by a particular model of microbial growth. Methods are demonstrated for predicting substrate utilization rates, production rates of extracellular metabolites, growth limiting conditions, and photosynthetic quotients from propagator variables.

  6. WSF Biodiesel Demonstration Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State University; University of Idaho; The Glosten Associates, Inc.; Imperium Renewables, Inc.

    2009-04-30

    engines. Each test vessel did experience a microbial growth bloom that produced a build up of material in the fuel purifiers similar to material witnessed in the 2004 fuel test. A biocide was added with each fuel shipment and the problem subsided. In January of 2009, the WSF successfully completed an eleven month biodiesel fuel test using approximately 1,395,000 gallons of biodiesel blended fuels. The project demonstrated that biodiesel can be used successfully in marine vessels and that current ASTM specifications are satisfactory for marine vessels. Microbial growth in biodiesel diesel interface should be monitored. An inspection of the engines showed no signs of being negatively impacted by the test.

  7. Morphoelasticity: A theory of elastic growth

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-10-11

    This chapter is concerned with the modelling of growth processes in the framework of continuum mechanics and nonlinear elasticity. It begins by considering growth and deformation in a one-dimensional setting, illustrating the key relationship between growth, the elastic response of the material, and the generation of residual stresses. The general three-dimensional theory of morphoelasticity is then developed from conservation of mass and momentum balance equations. In the formulation, the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation tensor, the standard approach in morphoelasticity, is derived in a new way. A discussion of continuous growth is also included. The chapter concludes by working through a sample problem of a growing cylindrical tube. A stability analysis is formulated, and the effect of growth on mucosal folding, a commonly seen instability in biological tubes, is demonstrated.

  8. 75 Easy Life Science Demonstrations. Teacher Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Thomas

    This book is a collection of life science classroom demonstrations. Explanations that review key concepts are included. Topics are: stimulus and response; gravitropism; phototropism; living organisms; carbon dioxide; gases emitted by plants; greenhouse effect; stomata; transpiration; leaf skeletons; seed growth; water evaporation in plants; carbon…

  9. Continuing Education in Nursing Comes to Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Avis B.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the growth and development of the Continuing Education in Nursing Department, a part of the School of Nursing at the University of Southern Mississippi. Curriculum development inservice programs, workshops, conferences. (RB)

  10. Continuous gas-phase synthesis of nanowires with tunable properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heurlin, Magnus; Magnusson, Martin H; Lindgren, David; Ek, Martin; Wallenberg, L Reine; Deppert, Knut; Samuelson, Lars

    2012-12-06

    Semiconductor nanowires are key building blocks for the next generation of light-emitting diodes, solar cells and batteries. To fabricate functional nanowire-based devices on an industrial scale requires an efficient methodology that enables the mass production of nanowires with perfect crystallinity, reproducible and controlled dimensions and material composition, and low cost. So far there have been no reports of reliable methods that can satisfy all of these requirements. Here we show how aerotaxy, an aerosol-based growth method, can be used to grow nanowires continuously with controlled nanoscale dimensions, a high degree of crystallinity and at a remarkable growth rate. In our aerotaxy approach, catalytic size-selected Au aerosol particles induce nucleation and growth of GaAs nanowires with a growth rate of about 1 micrometre per second, which is 20 to 1,000 times higher than previously reported for traditional, substrate-based growth of nanowires made of group III-V materials. We demonstrate that the method allows sensitive and reproducible control of the nanowire dimensions and shape--and, thus, controlled optical and electronic properties--through the variation of growth temperature, time and Au particle size. Photoluminescence measurements reveal that even as-grown nanowires have good optical properties and excellent spectral uniformity. Detailed transmission electron microscopy investigations show that our aerotaxy-grown nanowires form along one of the four equivalent〈111〉B crystallographic directions in the zincblende unit cell, which is also the preferred growth direction for III-V nanowires seeded by Au particles on a single-crystal substrate. The reported continuous and potentially high-throughput method can be expected substantially to reduce the cost of producing high-quality nanowires and may enable the low-cost fabrication of nanowire-based devices on an industrial scale.

  11. Inflatable Wing Morphing Aircraft Aeroservoelastic Control and Design Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The role of UASs in the DoD has been continuously growing and is expected to show much higher growth rates in operations in the near future. A pressing need for such...

  12. A Simple Experimental Demonstration of Microbial Growth and Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Milton

    1988-01-01

    Described is a simple, safe, and inexpensive experiment which allows secondary school pupils to observe how fungi and bacteria grow and interact with each other. Included are discussions of materials, methods, observations, and a historical comment. (Author/CW)

  13. Chemical strategies for the presentation and delivery of growth factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabanas Danés, Jordi; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Since the first demonstration of employing growth factors (GFs) to control cell behaviour in vitro, the spatiotemporal availability of GFs in vivo has received continuous attention. In particular, the ability to physically confine the mobility of GFs has been used in various tissue engineering

  14. Continuous Lunches Are Not Free

    OpenAIRE

    Vose, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Stemming from a paper of Auger and Teytaud, there is a common misconception that for continuous domains No Free Lunch (NFL) does not hold. However, Rowe, Vose, and Wright have demonstrated that NFL holds for arbitrary domains and co-domains. This paper resolves the apparent contradiction.

  15. Unconditional Continuous Variable Dense Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ralph, T C

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which unconditional dense coding can be achieved using continuous variable entanglement. We consider the effect of entanglement impurity and detector efficiency and discuss experimental verification. We conclude that the requirements for a strong demonstration are not as stringent as previously thought and are within the reach of present technology.

  16. Continuous epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor administration in primary lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring favorable mutations with controlled target lung tumors dose not hinder survival benefit despite small new lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chih Hsu

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Continuous EGFR-TKI administration in favorable EGFR-mutative lung adenocarcinoma patients with controlled primary tumors did not hinder the survival benefit, despite the appearance of new lesions.

  17. Continuity and export performance in Peruvian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Malca Guaylupo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between continuity of business in international markets and their export performance. For this, the paper focuses on the Peruvian export companies during the period 2000-2008, stage where Peruvian exports had continued growth. the results achieved in international markets are analyzed and through probabilistic logit model establishes the relationship between continuity in these markets and the export performance measured in export sales.

  18. Enhancing the Quality of Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese economy will continue to be the spotlight for world economic growth China’s GDP will maintain a growth rate of about 8.9 percent in 2012 said the annual economic blue book released by the Chinese

  19. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    sustainable building . Models produced through the REM process can be updated and accessed continually, thus allowing energy managers to continuously explore...time and cost of audits 4. Review the energy analysis findings under the High Performance and Sustainable Building Guiding Principles Compliance

  20. Prediction of height achievement at five years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight : Continuation of catch-up growth after two years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qvigstad, E.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Ens-Dokkum, M.H.; Schreuder, A.M.; Veen, S.; Brand, R.; Oostdijk, W.; Ruys, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    To predict height at five years in a cohort of 565 very preterm and/or very low-birth-weight children, hypothesized growth determinants were subjected to discriminant analysis. Many neonatal parameters were not significantly associated with short stature at five years of age. A correct classificatio

  1. Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Ahmadi, Zahra; Costa, Paulo S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Zhang, Xiaozhe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Cheng, Xuemei [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010 (United States); DiChiara, Anthony D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gruverman, Alexei, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Enders, Axel, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Xu, Xiaoshan, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-09-05

    Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50–100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structures of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.

  2. A thought-provoking demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, E. Roger; Holton, Brian; Horton, George K.

    1998-01-01

    We present and discuss a physics demonstration, similar to, but distinct from, the ballistic-pendulum demonstration, one that illustrates all three conservation laws of mechanics (for energy, momentum, and angular momentum) simultaneously.

  3. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  4. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka;

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  5. Laser-zone growth in a Ribbon-To-Ribbon (RTR) process. Silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtler, R. W.; Baghdadi, A.; Legge, R.; Sopori, B.; Ellis, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Ribbon-to-Ribbon (RTR) approach to silicon ribbon growth is investigated. An existing RTR apparatus is to be upgraded to its full capabilities and operated routinely to investigate and optimize the effects of various growth parameters on growth results. A new RTR apparatus was constructed to incorporate increased capabilities and improvements over the first apparatus and to be capable of continuous growth. New high power lasers were implemented and this led to major improvements in growth velocity -- 4 inch/min. growth has been demonstrated. A major step in demonstration of the full feasibility of the RTR process is reported in the demonstration of RTR growth from CVD polyribbon rather than sliced polyribbon ingots. Average solar cell efficiencies of greater than 9% and a best cell efficiency of 11.7% are reported. Processing was shown to provide a substantial improvement in material minority carrier diffusion length. An economic analysis is reported which treats both the polyribbon fabrication and RTR processes.

  6. Discretization of Continuous Frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Fattahi; H Javanshiri

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we consider the notion of continuous frame of subspaces and define a new concept of continuous frame, entitled continuous atomic resolution of identity, for arbitrary Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}$ which has a countable reconstruction formula. Among the other results, we characterize the relationship between this new concept and other known continuous frames. Finally, we state and prove the assertions of the stability of perturbation in this concept.

  7. Continuous Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates of the ...

  8. Plants under continuous light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.; Ieperen, van W.; Vreugdenhill, D.; Millenaar, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous light is an essential tool for understanding the plant circadian clock. Additionally, continuous light might increase greenhouse food production. However, using continuous light in research and practice has its challenges. For instance, most of the circadian clock-oriented experiments wer

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING CONTINUOUS ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Rizescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Change involves the continuous adjustment to the external conditions of organizations in the operating environment, in parallel with the growth of domestic stability. This process constitutes the dilemma of change-stability, which can be tackled only through a vision of the future, meaning the idorganization of organization-environment interaction along with a flexible organizational structure, the use of advanced technology and the existence of a system of rewarding employees that reflects the values and priorities of both, organizational norms and individual needs.

  10. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration project will advance optical communications technology, expanding industry’s capability to produce competitive,...

  11. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  12. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  13. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  14. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  15. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This is the sixth quarterly report for this project and it covers work performed on Phase 3a of the project from February 1, 1992 through April 30, 1992. Extension of the parametric test period through June 1992 provides an opportunity to regain most of the schedule slippage, but only if the modifications needed for continuous operation of the CZD system are installed concurrent with the extended test period. These modifications include automation of the lime preparation and transfer system, automatic injection control, and related instrumentation and controls as necessary to integrate the operation of the CZD system with Seward Station Boiler No. 15. Early installation of these modifications would permit testing, debugging and adjustment of the automatic control system during the parametric test period. Results of current testing indicate that considerable testing and adjustment will be required to optimize operation of the CZD system after it is automated for continuous operation. Therefore, we intend to incorporate in Phase 3a(parametric testing) the system modifications needed for continuous automatic operation that were originally included in Phase 3b. Phase 3b would then be limited only to the one-year continuous demonstration.

  16. Demonstrative and non-demonstrative reasoning by analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Ippoliti, Emiliano

    2008-01-01

    The paper analizes a set of issues related to analogy and analogical reasoning, namely: 1) The problem of analogy and its duplicity; 2) The role of analogy in demonstrative reasoning; 3) The role of analogy in non-demonstrative reasoning; 4) The limits of analogy; 5) The convergence, particularly in multiple analogical reasoning, of these two apparently distinct aspects and its methodological and philosophical consequences. The paper, using example from number theory, argues for an heuristc c...

  17. Continuity in Discrete Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Burgin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Continuous models used in physics and other areas of mathematics applications become discrete when they are computerized, e.g., utilized for computations. Besides, computers are controlling processes in discrete spaces, such as films and television programs. At the same time, continuous models that are in the background of discrete representations use mathematical technology developed for continuous media. The most important example of such a technology is calculus, which is so useful in physics and other sciences. The main goal of this paper is to synthesize continuous features and powerful technology of the classical calculus with the discrete approach of numerical mathematics and computational physics. To do this, we further develop the theory of fuzzy continuous functions and apply this theory to functions defined on discrete sets. The main interest is the classical Intermediate Value theorem. Although the result of this theorem is completely based on continuity, utilization of a relaxed version of contin...

  18. On barely continuous functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stephens

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The term barely continuous is a topological generalization of Baire-1 according to F. Gerlits of the Mathematical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and thus worthy of further study. This paper compares barely continuous functions and continuous functions on an elementary level. Knowing how the continuity of the identity function between topologies on a given set yields the lattice structure for those topologies, the barely continuity of the identity function between topologies on a given set is investigated and used to add to the structure of that lattice. Included are certain sublattices generated by the barely continuity of the identity function between those topologies. Much attention is given to topologies on finite sets.

  19. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  20. Effectiveness observation on mepitel accompanied by continuous negative pressure drainage combined with recombinant human epidermal growth factor on diabetic patients with pressure ulcer%美皮康辅以持续负压引流联合重组人表皮生长因子对糖尿病患者压疮的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹃

    2012-01-01

      目的观察美皮康外敷,同时持续负压引流,辅以重组人表皮生长因子进行治疗糖尿病压疮的临床疗效。方法使用美皮康辅以持续负压引流联合重组人表皮生长因子对8处糖尿病患者不同部位压疮进行治疗。结果8处压疮患者有6处治愈,无并发症,2处显效。结论美皮康外敷,同时持续负压引流,辅以重组人表皮生长因子进行治疗糖尿病患者压疮,效果明显。%  Objective To observe Mepitel external, at the same time continuous negative pressure drainage, supplemented with recombinant human epidermal growth factor for treatment of diabetic ulcer clinical curative effect. Methods using the Mepitel accompanied by continuous negative pressure drainage combined with recombinant human epidermal growth factor on 8 diabetic patients with pressure ulcers were treated in different parts of. Results 8 patients with pressure ulcers 6 cure, no complications, 2 effective. Conclusion Mepitel external, at the same time continuous negative pressure drainage, supplemented with recombinant human epidermal growth factor for treatment of diabetic patients with pressure ulcers, obvious effect.

  1. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner {trademark}/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist{trademark}/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals.

  2. Effect of different photoperiods on growth, feed utilization and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of different photoperiods on growth, feed utilization and survival of ... in body weight, relative growth rate (RGR), specific growth rate (SGR) and gross food ... of continuous darkness or low light intensity for optimal growth performance, ...

  3. Crafting a Gauss Gun Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Matthew E.; Blodgett, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    A Gauss Gun launches a ferromagnetic projectile using a pulsed electromagnet. This demonstration provides a nice counterpoint to the popular Thompson's jumping ring demonstration, which launches a nonferromagnetic ring via repulsion of an induced current. The pulsed current must be short enough in duration so that the projectile is not retarded by lingering current in the launch solenoid, but also large enough to provide a suitably impressive velocity. This project involved an iterative design process, as we worked through balancing all the different design criteria. We recommend it as a very nice electronics design project which will produce a very portable and enjoyable demonstration. AAPT sponsor Earl Blodgett.

  4. Let Continuous Outcome Variables Remain Continuous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complementary log-log is an alternative to logistic model. In many areas of research, the outcome data are continuous. We aim to provide a procedure that allows the researcher to estimate the coefficients of the complementary log-log model without dichotomizing and without loss of information. We show that the sample size required for a specific power of the proposed approach is substantially smaller than the dichotomizing method. We find that estimators derived from proposed method are consistently more efficient than dichotomizing method. To illustrate the use of proposed method, we employ the data arising from the NHSI.

  5. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Status of the MAJORANA Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Greenn, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Schmitt, C; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Timkin, V; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V

    2014-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  7. Demonstration of Cauchy: Understanding Algebraic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study we present some considerations about the End of Course Work undergraduate Full Degree in Mathematics / UFMT, drafted in 2011, and by taking title "A story about Cauchy and Euler's theorem on polyhedra" that gave birth to our research project Master of Education, begun in 2012, on the approaches of Euler's theorem on polyhedra in mathematics textbooks. At work in 2011 presented some considerations about the history of Euler's theorem for polyhedra which focus the demonstration presented by Cauchy (1789-1857, who tries to generalize it, relying on assumptions not observable in Euclidean geometry. Therefore, we seek the accessible literature on the history of mathematics; relate some aspects of the demonstration Cauchy with historical events on the development of mathematics in the nineteenth century, which allowed the acceptance of such a demonstration by mathematicians of his time.Keywords: History of Mathematics. Euler's Theorem on Polyhedra. Demonstration of Cauchy.

  8. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Detwiler, Jason A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Timkin, V.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-09

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  9. Teacher Training: The Demonstration Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan C.

    1977-01-01

    A teacher training technique is discussed involving a demonstration class given by a local teacher and observed by prospective teachers. After the class a discussion is held analyzing lesson content and teaching techniques. (CHK)

  10. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  11. Residential Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    The theme of this discursive essay is residential continuing education: its definition, its development along somewhat different lines in Europe and in America, and its practice in university centers in the United States. Continuing education includes any learning or teaching program that is based on the assumptions that the learners have studied…

  12. On continued fraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ionica

    2010-01-01

    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi

  13. On continued fraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ionica

    2010-01-01

    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi

  14. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  15. Orcc's Compa-Backend demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Yaset; Casseau, Emmanuel; Martin, Kevin; Bomel, Pierre; Diguet, Jean-Philippe; Yviquel, Hervé; Raulet, Mickael; Raffin, Erwan; Morin, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the implementation of a video decoding application starting from its dataflow and CAL representations. Our objective is to demonstrate the ability of the Open RVC-CAL Compiler (Orcc) to generate code for embedded systems. For the demonstration, the video application will be an MPEG-4 Part2 decoder. The targeted architecture is a multi-core heterogeneous system deployed onto the Zynq platform from Xilinx.

  16. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Growth Hormone Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: GH; Human Growth Hormone; HGH; Somatotropin; Growth Hormone Stimulation Test; Growth ...

  17. A Simple Model of Hox Genes: Bone Morphology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmaefsky, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Visual demonstrations of abstract scientific concepts are effective strategies for enhancing content retention (Shmaefsky 2004). The concepts associated with gene regulation of growth and development are particularly complex and are well suited for teaching with visual models. This demonstration provides a simple and accurate model of Hox gene…

  18. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  19. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  20. Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project. Progress report II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project involves an evaluation of the reclamation process on a 13.8-ha abandoned deep coal mine refuse site in southwestern Illinois. The procedure included collection of preconstruction environmental data, determination of the site's final land use, and development and implementation of a detailed site development plan. Approximately 9.3 ha of refuse material was recontoured, covered with a minimum of 30 cm of soil obtained on site, and seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. Hydrologic investigation indicates some improvement in groundwater quality. Surface water quality also has shown improvement, but development of the aquatic ecosystem in the newly-constructed pond is slow. Revegetation has been successful, and a protective plant cover has been established on most areas of the site. Soil tests indicate that acceptable plant growth media have been constructed; however, continued application of fertilizer and limestone will probably be necessary to maintain the vegetation. The soil microbial community has achieved total numbers equal to those of old fields, but species' diversity is low. Small mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians have invaded and are utilizing the site. The economic value of the site and adjacent property has increased substantially, and the area's aesthetic value has been enhanced significantly. The two-year period of intensive monitoring and evaluation has been utilized to develop recommendations for improving the designs of future reclamation efforts.

  1. Continuous Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... characterizes stochastic bisimilarity and it supports the definition of a quantified extension of the satisfiability relation that measures the "compatibility" between a model and a property. In this context, the metaproperties allows us to prove two robustness theorems for the logic stating that one can...

  2. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  3. SECURES: Austin, Texas demonstration results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Glynn; Shaw, Scott; Scharf, Peter; Stellingworth, Bob

    2003-09-01

    The Law Enforcement technology development community has a growing interest in the technologies associated with gunshot detection and localization. These interests revolve around community-oriented policing. Technologies of interest include those associated with muzzle blast and bullet shockwave detection and the inter-netting of these acoustic sensors with electro-optic sensors. To date, no one sensor technology has proven totally effective for a complete solution. PSI has a muzzle blast detection and localization product which is wireless, highly mobile and reconfigurable, with a user-friendly laptop processor and display unit, which completed a one-year demonstration in Austin, Texas on July 6, 2002. This demonstration was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Institute of Justice and in cooperation with the Austin Police Department. This paper will discuss the details of the demonstrations, provide a summarized evaluation, elucidate the lessons learned, make recommendations for future deployments and discuss the developmental directions indicated for the future.

  4. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  5. Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

  6. Measuring business continuity programmes in large organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the field of business continuity management, organisations commit sums of money (often very large sums) to develop and maintain their continuity capability. Despite this, there is almost no measurement of whether this expense offers value for money, or whether it is targeted in the right areas. This paper will explain some methods of measuring components of a business continuity programme. The important outputs from this measurement activity are to demonstrate that an organisation's continuity capability is improving over time, and to identify areas of weakness that should be targeted during future work.

  7. Continuous production of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    During the in situ extraction of ß-carotene from Dunaliella salina, the causal relationship between carotenoid extraction and cell death indicated that cell growth and cell death should be at equilibrium for a continuous in situ extraction process. In a flat-panel photobioreactor that was operated a

  8. Continuous production of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    During the in situ extraction of ß-carotene from Dunaliella salina, the causal relationship between carotenoid extraction and cell death indicated that cell growth and cell death should be at equilibrium for a continuous in situ extraction process. In a flat-panel photobioreactor that was operated

  9. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0{sub 2} removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0{sub 2} emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  10. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  11. Continuous-time signals

    CERN Document Server

    Shmaliy, Yuriy

    2006-01-01

    Gives a modern description of continuous-time deterministic signals Signal formation techniquesTime vs. frequency and frequency vs. time analysisCorrelation and energy analysisNarrowband signals and sampling.

  12. Continuous ethanol fermentors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-03

    A continuous EtOH fermentor was developed. In the 1st stage of the fermentor, EtOH fermentation medium is contacted with an EtOH-producing bacterium (e.g. Zymomonas mobilis) attached to a carrier material (e.g., vermiculite powder) and with brewers' bottom yeast in the 2nd stage. This system does not require any special cell separator for continuous operation.

  13. Continuous Time Model Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Shenhuai Gao

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an easy to follow method for continuous time model estimation. It serves as an introduction on how to convert a state space model from continuous time to discrete time, how to decompose a hybrid stochastic model into a trend model plus a noise model, how to estimate the trend model by simulation, and how to calculate standard errors from estimation of the noise model. It also discusses the numerical difficulties involved in discrete time models that bring about the unit ...

  14. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  15. Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

  16. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  17. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  18. SunJammer Technology Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sunjammer Project is a NASA funded contract to L?Garde Inc. to fly a solar sail demonstration for a period of approximately one year. L?Garde is also partnered...

  19. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  20. Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

  1. Demonstration of melatonin in amphibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerdonk, F.C.G. van de

    1967-01-01

    The presence of melatonin in the amphibian epiphysis has been ascertained earlier by several indirect methods, demonstrating the synthesizing enzyme or precursors of the compound. This communication describes the presence of melatonin in amphibian brain in a direct way, using dextran gel chromatogra

  2. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.; Water, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) has the leading role for NASA s preliminary conceptual launch vehicle design and performance analysis. Over the past several years the ACO Earth-to-Orbit Team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a multitude of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). NASA plans to continue human space exploration and space station utilization. Launch vehicles used for heavy lift cargo and crew will be needed. One of the current leading concepts for future heavy lift capability is an inline one and a half stage concept using solid rocket boosters (SRB) and based on current Shuttle technology and elements. Potentially, the quickest and most cost-effective path towards an operational vehicle of this configuration is to make use of a demonstrator vehicle fabricated from existing shuttle assets and relying upon the existing STS launch infrastructure. Such a demonstrator would yield valuable proof-of-concept data and would provide a working test platform allowing for validated systems integration. Using shuttle hardware such as existing RS-25D engines and partial MPS, propellant tanks derived from the External Tank (ET) design and tooling, and four-segment SRB s could reduce the associated upfront development costs and schedule when compared to a concept that would rely on new propulsion technology and engine designs. There are potentially several other additional benefits to this demonstrator concept. Since a concept of this type would be based on man-rated flight proven hardware components, this demonstrator has the potential to evolve into the first iteration of heavy lift crew or cargo and serve as a baseline for block upgrades. This vehicle could also serve as a demonstration

  3. Natural Hazard Demonstrations for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents several demonstrations that have been developed or gathered from other sources in the general area of natural hazards (e.g. landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, wildfires, tsunamis, mass movements, asteroid impacts, etc.). There are many methods of teaching, but as university lecturers, particularly for large class sizes, we find ourselves too often presenting material to students by direct speaking, or some combination of blackboard/whiteboard/slide projector/digital projector. There are certainly a number of techniques to more actively involve students, so that teaching is not just `receiving of information', including breaking up students into small group discussions, encouraging students to actively participate in class through comments and questions, and/or some combination of hands-on activities and demonstrations. It is this latter which is concentrated on here. As a teaching tool, the students themselves became much more excited about what they are learning if use is made of 5--10 minute demonstrations, even if only peripherally related to the subject at hand. The resultant discussion with questions and comments by students keeps both the students and the lecturer (in this case the author) motivated and intrigued about the subjects being discussed. Days, weeks, and months later, the students remember these `demonstrations', but to set these up takes time, effort, and resources of equipment, although not necessarily a large amount of the latter. Several natural hazards demonstrations are presented here, most inexpensive, that have been used in front of large university classes and smaller `break-out groups', and which can also be adapted for secondary-school students.

  4. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States); Irwin, Mark [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  5. Soil eukaryotic microorganism succession as affected by continuous cropping of peanut--pathogenic and beneficial fungi were selected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingna Chen

    Full Text Available Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping.

  6. Soil eukaryotic microorganism succession as affected by continuous cropping of peanut--pathogenic and beneficial fungi were selected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping.

  7. The MAJORANA Demonstrator Radioassay Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P. H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Dunmore, J. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S.; Finnerty, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, Victor M.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Massarcyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan W.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, David; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, K.; Vorren, Kris R.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-05-03

    The Majorana collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope 76Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are suffciently pure is described. The resulting measurements of the radioactiveisotope contamination for a number of materials studied for use in the detector are reported.

  8. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR radioassay program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Arnquist, I.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Back, H.O. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Barabash, A.S. [National Research Center, “Kurchatov Institute” Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boswell, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, A.W. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Buuck, M. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Byram, D. [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Caldwell, A.S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, Y.-D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christofferson, C.D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chu, P.-H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); and others

    2016-08-21

    The MAJORANA collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope {sup 76}Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are sufficiently pure is described. The resulting measurements from gamma-ray counting, neutron activation and mass spectroscopy of the radioactive-isotope contamination for the materials studied for use in the detector are reported. We interpret these numbers in the context of the expected background for the experiment.

  9. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR radioassay program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, H. O.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunmore, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Finnerty, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, V. M.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, D.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-08-01

    The MAJORANA collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope 76Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are sufficiently pure is described. The resulting measurements from gamma-ray counting, neutron activation and mass spectroscopy of the radioactive-isotope contamination for the materials studied for use in the detector are reported. We interpret these numbers in the context of the expected background for the experiment.

  10. Performance demonstration by ROC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Hannelore; Nockemann, Christina; Tillack, Gerd-Rüdiger; Mattis, Arne

    1994-12-01

    The question of the efficiency of a material testing system is important, when a competing or advanced system appears at the market. The comparison of the different systems can be done partly by the comparison of the technical specification of the systems, but not all parameters can be expressed by measured values, especially not the influence of human inspectors. A testing system in the field of NDT - for example weld inspection - often consists of several different devices and components (radiographic film, its irradiation and development, conventional inspection with a light box, human inspector). The demonstration of the performance of such a system with similar or advanced methods can be done by a statistical method, the ROC method. This quantitative measure for testing performance allows the comparison of complex NDT systems which will be demonstrated in detail by the comparison of conventional weld inspection with inspection of welds using the digitised image of the radiographs.

  11. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, David L.; Mills, Raymond A.; Bowden, Mary L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) was to create a near-term Shuttle flight experiment focusing on the deployment and erection of structural truss elements. The activities of the MIT Space Systems Laboratory consist of three major areas: preparing and conducting neutral buoyancy simulation test series; producing a formal SADE Experiment plan; and studying the structural dynamics issues of the truss structure. Each of these areas is summarized.

  12. Solar heating demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonicatto, L.; Kozak, C.

    1980-01-01

    The demonstration involved a 4-panel solar collector mounted on the industrial arts building. A 120 gallon storage tank supplements a 66 gallon electric hot water heater which supplies hot water for 5 shop wash basins, girl's and boy's lavatories, and a pressure washer in the auto shop. The installation and educational uses of the system are described. (MHR)

  13. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and on affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a DOE request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. This report discusses the demonstration of ETS equipment at four member light departments.

  14. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and on affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a DOE request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. This report discusses the demonstration of ETS equipment at four member light departments.

  15. DOE`s annealing prototype demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.; Nakos, J.; Rochau, G.

    1997-02-01

    One of the challenges U.S. utilities face in addressing technical issues associated with the aging of nuclear power plants is the long-term effect of plant operation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). As a nuclear plant operates, its RPV is exposed to neutrons. For certain plants, this neutron exposure can cause embrittlement of some of the RPV welds which can shorten the useful life of the RPV. This RPV embrittlement issue has the potential to affect the continued operation of a number of operating U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. However, RPV material properties affected by long-term irradiation are recoverable through a thermal annealing treatment of the RPV. Although a dozen Russian-designed RPVs and several U.S. military vessels have been successfully annealed, U.S. utilities have stated that a successful annealing demonstration of a U.S. RPV is a prerequisite for annealing a licensed U.S. nuclear power plant. In May 1995, the Department of Energy`s Sandia National Laboratories awarded two cost-shared contracts to evaluate the feasibility of annealing U.S. licensed plants by conducting an anneal of an installed RPV using two different heating technologies. The contracts were awarded to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) and MPR Associates (MPR). The ASME team completed its annealing prototype demonstration in July 1996, using an indirect gas furnace at the uncompleted Public Service of Indiana`s Marble Hill nuclear power plant. The MPR team`s annealing prototype demonstration was scheduled to be completed in early 1997, using a direct heat electrical furnace at the uncompleted Consumers Power Company`s nuclear power plant at Midland, Michigan. This paper describes the Department`s annealing prototype demonstration goals and objectives; the tasks, deliverables, and results to date for each annealing prototype demonstration; and the remaining annealing technology challenges.

  16. An Automated and Continuous Plant Weight Measurement System for Plant Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Tai; Yeh, Yu-Hui F.; Liu, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ta-Te

    2016-01-01

    In plant factories, plants are usually cultivated in nutrient solution under a controllable environment. Plant quality and growth are closely monitored and precisely controlled. For plant growth evaluation, plant weight is an important and commonly used indicator. Traditional plant weight measurements are destructive and laborious. In order to measure and record the plant weight during plant growth, an automated measurement system was designed and developed herein. The weight measurement system comprises a weight measurement device and an imaging system. The weight measurement device consists of a top disk, a bottom disk, a plant holder and a load cell. The load cell with a resolution of 0.1 g converts the plant weight on the plant holder disk to an analog electrical signal for a precise measurement. The top disk and bottom disk are designed to be durable for different plant sizes, so plant weight can be measured continuously throughout the whole growth period, without hindering plant growth. The results show that plant weights measured by the weight measurement device are highly correlated with the weights estimated by the stereo-vision imaging system; hence, plant weight can be measured by either method. The weight growth of selected vegetables growing in the National Taiwan University plant factory were monitored and measured using our automated plant growth weight measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the functionality, stability and durability of this system. The information gathered by this weight system can be valuable and beneficial for hydroponic plants monitoring research and agricultural research applications. PMID:27066040

  17. Aerospace Communications Security Technologies Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, James H.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2003-01-01

    In light of the events of September 11, 2001, NASA senior management requested an investigation of technologies and concepts to enhance aviation security. The investigation was to focus on near-term technologies that could be demonstrated within 90 days and implemented in less than 2 years. In response to this request, an internal NASA Glenn Research Center Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Aviation Security Tiger Team was assembled. The 2-year plan developed by the team included an investigation of multiple aviation security concepts, multiple aircraft platforms, and extensively leveraged datalink communications technologies. It incorporated industry partners from NASA's Graphical Weather-in-the-Cockpit research, which is within NASA's Aviation Safety Program. Two concepts from the plan were selected for demonstration: remote "black box," and cockpit/cabin surveillance. The remote "black box" concept involves real-time downlinking of aircraft parameters for remote monitoring and archiving of aircraft data, which would assure access to the data following the loss or inaccessibility of an aircraft. The cockpit/cabin surveillance concept involves remote audio and/or visual surveillance of cockpit and cabin activity, which would allow immediate response to any security breach and would serve as a possible deterrent to such breaches. The datalink selected for the demonstrations was VDL Mode 2 (VHF digital link), the first digital datalink for air-ground communications designed for aircraft use. VDL Mode 2 is beginning to be implemented through the deployment of ground stations and aircraft avionics installations, with the goal of being operational in 2 years. The first demonstration was performed December 3, 2001, onboard the LearJet 25 at Glenn. NASA worked with Honeywell, Inc., for the broadcast VDL Mode 2 datalink capability and with actual Boeing 757 aircraft data. This demonstration used a cockpitmounted camera for video surveillance and a coupling to

  18. Demonstration projects : learning by experience : the Seabird Island demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-10-15

    This article described the Seabird Island sustainable community housing demonstration project near Agassiz, British Columbia. The project provides a sustainable, affordable place for 7 families and demonstrates a new way to build and design communities using renewable energy technologies to provide residents with better quality, energy efficient housing while reducing costs and minimizing environmental impacts. The design integrates renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and geothermal energy to save on heating and lighting costs. This article noted some of the dubious design features that could have been screened out at the design stage if careful analysis had been carried out. It described features such as the solar orientation; climatic factors that influenced the form and details of the building; the high-efficiency, condensing, natural gas water heater for space heating combined with a forced-air and radiant-floor heating system; solariums that provided solar preheating of domestic hot water; ventilation air preheating; the solar roof; an earth-tube ventilation system; and 3 wind turbines to generate electricity to offset conventional electricity sources. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation has monitored several of the systems in order to evaluate the extent to which these features have influenced the performance of the dwelling units. The energy use in all 7 units was documented along with indoor air quality. An energy performance rating of EnerGuide 80 was achieved, which is comparable to R-2000. The monitoring study revealed that wind energy at this location was not sufficient to justify the installation of the wind turbines. The solar steel roof/solarium energy system did not perform as expected. In addition, the earth-tube ventilation system provided little heat and its overall contribution to ventilation was uncertain. Other deficiencies were also noted, such as leaky ductwork, non-operational dampers and poorly integrated control systems. The

  19. 40 CFR 63.2270 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood... periods described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section). (e) For dry rotary dryer and veneer...

  20. Introduction to Continuous Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Niclas; Evgrafov, Anton; Patriksson, Michael

    optimal solutions for continuous optimization models. The main part of the mathematical material therefore concerns the analysis and linear algebra that underlie the workings of convexity and duality, and necessary/sufficient local/global optimality conditions for continuous optimization problems. Natural...... algorithms are then developed from these optimality conditions, and their most important convergence characteristics are analyzed. The book answers many more questions of the form “Why?” and “Why not?” than “How?”. We use only elementary mathematics in the development of the book, yet are rigorous throughout...

  1. Continuous Platform Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil

    low risks and investments but also with relatively fuzzy results. When looking for new platform projects, it is important to make sure that the company and market is ready for the introduction of platforms, and to make sure that people from marketing and sales, product development, and downstream......, but continuous product family evolution challenges this strategy. The concept of continuous platform development is based on the fact that platform development should not be a one-time experience but rather an ongoing process of developing new platforms and updating existing ones, so that product family...

  2. 2015 Workshop on Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    his volume contains the papers presented at WoC 2015, the Workshop on Continuations held at ETAPS 2015. There were four submissions. Each of them was reviewed by, on the average, three PC members. The committee decided to accept three papers. The program also includes one invited talk. It also...... documents the depth, variety, and richness of continuations with four distilled tutorials. Thanks are due to the local organizers of ETAPS 2015 for the infras- tructure and to the general chairman of WoC 2015, Ugo de'Liguoro, for initiating this workshop and making it happen...

  3. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because their parents are. But some children have growth disorders. Growth disorders are problems that prevent children from developing ... or other features. Very slow or very fast growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease. ...

  4. Topological Photonics for Continuous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha, Mario

    Photonic crystals have revolutionized light-based technologies during the last three decades. Notably, it was recently discovered that the light propagation in photonic crystals may depend on some topological characteristics determined by the manner how the light states are mutually entangled. The usual topological classification of photonic crystals explores the fact that these structures are periodic. The periodicity is essential to ensure that the underlying wave vector space is a closed surface with no boundary. In this talk, we prove that it is possible calculate Chern invariants for a wide class of continuous bianisotropic electromagnetic media with no intrinsic periodicity. The nontrivial topology of the relevant continuous materials is linked with the emergence of edge states. Moreover, we will demonstrate that continuous photonic media with the time-reversal symmetry can be topologically characterized by a Z2 integer. This novel classification extends for the first time the theory of electronic topological insulators to a wide range of photonic platforms, and is expected to have an impact in the design of novel photonic systems that enable a topologically protected transport of optical energy. This work is supported in part by Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia Grant Number PTDC/EEI-TEL/4543/2014.

  5. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  6. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. [CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO{sub 2} removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO{sub 2} removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20{degree}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ({del}T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO{sub 2} removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, {del}T = 20--22{degree}F, and 70% SO{sub 2} removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO{sub 2} emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  7. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. (CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO[sub 2] removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO[sub 2] removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20[degree]F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ([del]T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO[sub 2] removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, [del]T = 20--22[degree]F, and 70% SO[sub 2] removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO[sub 2] emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  8. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  9. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy

  10. Demonstration Telescopes Using "Dollar Optics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Paul

    2008-05-01

    I propose a poster that illustrates the use of "dollar optics” for experimentation and for the creation of demonstration telescopes. Handling a variety of lenses and mirrors provides an opportunity for discovering practical optics. Some part of this path of exploration must have been traveled by Galileo as he experimented with spectacle lenses. "Dollar optics” include reading glasses (positive meniscus lenses), convex and concave mirrors, Fresnel sheets, magnifying lenses, and eye loupes. Unwanted distance spectacles (negative meniscus lenses) are available at second-hand stores. Galileo telescopes, "long” 17th century telescopes, and useful demonstration models of Newtonian reflectors can be made with "dollar” optics. The poster will illustrate practical information about "dollar optics” and telescopes: magnification, focal length, and "diopters” disassembling spectacles; creating cheap mounts for spectacle lenses; the importance of optical axes and alignment; eyepieces; and focusing. (A table would be useful with the poster to set out a hands-on display of "dollar optic” telescopes.) Educators, experimenters, and those concerned with astronomy outreach might be interested in this poster. Working with "dollar optics” requires facility with simple tools, interest in planning projects, patience, imagination, and the willingness to invest some time and effort. "Dollar optics” may help to foster creativity and hands-on enthusiasm - as did Galileo's work with simple lenses 400 years ago. "Oh! When will there be an end put to the new observations and discoveries of this admirable instrument?” - Galileo Galilei as quoted by Henry C. King, The History of the Telescope.

  11. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  12. Bentonite mat demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.G.

    1994-12-30

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration was developed to provide the Environmental Restoration Department with field performance characteristics and engineering data for an alternative closure cover system configuration. The demonstration was initiated in response to regulatory concerns regarding the use of an alternative cover system for future design configurations. These design considerations are in lieu of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Recommended Design for Closure Cover Systems and specifically a single compacted kaolin clay layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. This alternative configuration is a composite geosynthetic material hydraulic barrier consisting from bottom to top: 2 ft compacted sandy clay layer (typical local Savannah River Site soil type) that is covered by a bentonite mat--geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and is overlaid by a 40 mil High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane--flexible membrane liner. This effort was undertaken to obtain and document the necessary field performance/engineering data for future designs and meet regulatory technical requirements for an alternative cover system configuration. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is the recommended alternative cover system configuration for containment of hazardous and low level radiological waste layers that have a high potential of subsidence to be used at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This alternative configuration mitigates subsidence effects in providing a flexible, lightweight cover system to maintain the integrity of the closure. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is recommended for the Sanitary Landfill and Low Level Radiological Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) Closures.

  13. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  14. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  15. Reparametrizations of Continuous Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli; Raussen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    compare it to the distributive lattice of countable subsets of the unit interval. The results obtained are used to analyse the space of traces in a topological space, i.e., the space of continuous paths up to reparametrization equivalence. This space is shown to be homeomorphic to the space of regular...

  16. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and…

  17. Continuous venovenous haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bistrup, C; Pedersen, R S; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    1996-01-01

    . Standard solutions for peritoneal dialysis are administered in a single-pass manner countercurrent to the blood flow. To control the dialysate flow through the filter, two separate pumps designed for intravenous infusion are used. Anticoagulation is achieved by means of continuous heparin infusion...

  18. Continuing professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collin, K.; Heijden, van der B.I.J.M.; Lewis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD), when provided formally, is something that is easy to recognize but perhaps rather more difficult to define. Theoretical and empirical controversy surrounds the scope and understanding of the concept. Definition is made more elusive by the different conceptu

  19. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  20. 连阴雨天气对凡纳滨对虾-吉丽罗非鱼混养围隔中浮游植物和对虾生长、存活的影响%Effects of Continuous Rainy Weather on Phytoplankton and the Growth and Survival of Shrimp in Litopenaeus vannamei-Gili Tilapia Polyculture Enclosures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽华; 粟丽; 朱长波; 张汉华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to provide some theoretical basis for Litopenaeus vannamei-Gili tilapia polyculture. [ Method] The effects of continuous rainy weather on the growth and survival of phytoplankton and shrimp in the culture enclosure of L. vannamei were studied. [ Result] The continuous rainy weather had the effects on the number and dominant species of phytoplankton in the enclosures. The number of phytoplankton in all enclosures declined and reached the lowest value on July 20th , and the dominant species changed from Cyanobacte-ria to Chlorophyta. Because of continuous rainy weather, dead shrimps appeared in half of Enclosures on about July 10th. From July 10th to July 23rd , pH and dissolved oxygen in the enclosures decreased, and the content of ammonia nitrogen and nitrite increased. The changes of these environmental factors were harmful to the growth of shrimp. [Conclusion] Continuous rainy weather influenced the temperature, pH, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen and other physical and chemical factors of phytoplankton and water, which caused the environmental fluctuations of aquaculture water and resulted in the occurrence of shrimp diseases.%[目的]为凡纳滨对虾-吉丽罗非鱼混养提供一定的理论依据.[方法]探讨连续阴雨天气对凡纳滨对虾养殖围隔中浮游植物和对虾生长、存活的影响.[结果]连阴雨天气对围隔中浮游植物的数量和优势种都有影响,使各围隔浮游植物数量下降,在7月20日降至最低,优势种从蓝藻转变为绿藻.连续阴雨天气使半数围隔在7月10日左右出现了死虾情况;7月10日至7月23日各围隔pH、溶解氧均有所降低,氨氮和亚硝酸盐含量有所上升,这些环境因子的突变不利于对虾的生长.[结论]连阴雨天气通过影响浮游植物和水体温度、pH、氨氮、亚硝氮等理化因子,引起的养殖水体环境波动,从而导致对虾病害的发生.

  1. Impacts of energy efficiency on employment, growth and trade. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Jochem, E.

    2000-07-01

    Empirical studies demonstrate that, although substantial improvements in energy efficiency have already been made, there still exist significant economic potentials - even in energy intensive sectors. Realising these potentials will reduce costs for energy services and improve overall economic efficiency, but employment gains are likely to be small. Technological progress in energy efficiency may foster economic growth, improve competitiveness and create new export markets. Above-average growth and export rates for energy efficient products can be expected to continue, in particular, if policies are appropriately designed to realise untapped efficiency potentials and to encourage innovation in energy efficient technologies. (orig.)

  2. Energy 2007. Research, development, demonstration; Energi 07. Forskning, udvikling, demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byriel, I.P.; Justesen, Helle; Beck, A.; Borup Jensen, J.; Rosenfeldt Jakobsen, Kl; Jacobsen, Steen Hartvig (eds.)

    2007-08-10

    Danish energy research is in an exciting and challenging situation. Rising oil prices, unstable energy supply, climate policy responsibilities and globalization have brought development of new environmentally friendly and more efficient energy technologies into focus. Promising international markets for newly developed energy technologies are emerging, and at the same time well established Danish positions of strength are challenged by new strong actors on the global market. The Danish government has set to work on its vision of an appreciable strengthening of public energy research funding through the recent law on the energy technological development and demonstration programme EUDP and the realization of globalization funds. The interaction between basic and applied research must be kept intact. In this report the various Danish energy research programmes administered by Energinet.dk, Danish Energy Authority, Danish Energy Association, Danish Council for Strategic Research's Programme Commission on Energy and Environment and Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, coordinate their annual reports for the first time. The aim of Energy 2007 is to give the reader an idea of how the energy research programmes collaborate on solving the major energy technology challenges - also in an international context. (BA)

  3. Demonstration of 5MW PAFC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Yutaka [Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association, Osaka (Japan); Takae, Toshio [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association, established in May 1991 by Japanese 10 electric power and 4 gas companies, started a new project in 1991 FY, with the object of PAFC realization and aiming the development of 5MW- class PAFC. power plant for urban energy center and 1 MW- class power plant for onsite use. This project is carried out as 6 years plan jointly with New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization. The targets of the project are to evaluate and resolve the development task, such as a high reliability, compactness and cost reduction throughout the engineering, manufacturing and field testing of PAFC power plants. PAC tests and power generating test operations of 5MW plant were completed in 1994. Conducting the 2 years continuous operations and studies since 1995, the plant operational performance, system control characteristics, waste heat recovery and environmental advantage will be demonstrated.

  4. A demonstrator for bolometric interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ghribi, Adnan; Galli, Silvia; Piat, Michel; Breelle, Eric; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Spinelli, Sebastiano; Gervasi, Massimo; Zannoni, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Bolometric Interferometry (BI) is one of the most promising techniques for precise measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background polarization. In this paper, we present the results of DIBO (Demonstrateur d'Interferometrie Bolometrique), a single-baseline demonstrator operating at 90 GHz, built to proof the validity of the BI concept applied to a millimeter-wave interferometer. This instrument has been characterized in the laboratory with a detector at room temperature and with a 4 K bolometer. This allowed us to measure interference patterns in a clean way, both (1) rotating the source and (2) varying with time the phase shift among the two interferometer's arms. Detailed modelisation has also been performed and validated with measurements.

  5. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, Don T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Archiblad, Kip E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  6. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  7. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Dvorak, E; Hahn, A; Jaskierny, W; Johnson, C; Jostlein, H; Kendziora, C; Lockwitz, S; Pahlka, B; Plunkett, R; Pordes, S; Rebel, B; Schmitt, R; Stancari, M; Tope, T; Voirin, E; Yang, T

    2014-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  8. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  9. Visualization by Demonstration: An Interaction Paradigm for Visual Data Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saket, Bahador; Kim, Hannah; Brown, Eli T; Endert, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Although data visualization tools continue to improve, during the data exploration process many of them require users to manually specify visualization techniques, mappings, and parameters. In response, we present the Visualization by Demonstration paradigm, a novel interaction method for visual data exploration. A system which adopts this paradigm allows users to provide visual demonstrations of incremental changes to the visual representation. The system then recommends potential transformations (Visual Representation, Data Mapping, Axes, and View Specification transformations) from the given demonstrations. The user and the system continue to collaborate, incrementally producing more demonstrations and refining the transformations, until the most effective possible visualization is created. As a proof of concept, we present VisExemplar, a mixed-initiative prototype that allows users to explore their data by recommending appropriate transformations in response to the given demonstrations.

  10. Contaminant analysis automation demonstration proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; Heubach, J.G.

    1993-10-01

    The nation-wide and global need for environmental restoration and waste remediation (ER&WR) presents significant challenges to the analytical chemistry laboratory. The expansion of ER&WR programs forces an increase in the volume of samples processed and the demand for analysis data. To handle this expanding volume, productivity must be increased. However. The need for significantly increased productivity, faces contaminant analysis process which is costly in time, labor, equipment, and safety protection. Laboratory automation offers a cost effective approach to meeting current and future contaminant analytical laboratory needs. The proposed demonstration will present a proof-of-concept automated laboratory conducting varied sample preparations. This automated process also highlights a graphical user interface that provides supervisory, control and monitoring of the automated process. The demonstration provides affirming answers to the following questions about laboratory automation: Can preparation of contaminants be successfully automated?; Can a full-scale working proof-of-concept automated laboratory be developed that is capable of preparing contaminant and hazardous chemical samples?; Can the automated processes be seamlessly integrated and controlled?; Can the automated laboratory be customized through readily convertible design? and Can automated sample preparation concepts be extended to the other phases of the sample analysis process? To fully reap the benefits of automation, four human factors areas should be studied and the outputs used to increase the efficiency of laboratory automation. These areas include: (1) laboratory configuration, (2) procedures, (3) receptacles and fixtures, and (4) human-computer interface for the full automated system and complex laboratory information management systems.

  11. Continuous-wave Terahertz Imaging Applied to Detect Infestations Caused by Insects in Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuojun Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Detection infestations caused by insects in grain are important control measures for ensuring storage longevity, seed quality and food safety. The efficiency of the continuous wave terahertz imaging method to detect infestations caused by insects in wheat kernels was determined in this study. A continuous wave terahertz experimental setup was designed for recording of THz images corresponding to different infestations caused by different life stages of insects. The experimental results indicate that the absorbance is generally highest for un-infested wheat kernels and decreased at later growth stages from THz pseudo-color images. Our study intended to demonstrate how the method of continuous wave Terahertz imaging could be applied to detect Infestations Caused by Insects in Grain.

  12. Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, Thoman

    2014-12-31

    The Consolidated Edison, Inc., of New York (Con Edison) Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP), sponsored by the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), demonstrated that the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of the grid can be improved through a combination of enhanced monitoring and control capabilities using systems and resources that interoperate within a secure services framework. The project demonstrated the capability to shift, balance, and reduce load where and when needed in response to system contingencies or emergencies by leveraging controllable field assets. The range of field assets includes curtailable customer loads, distributed generation (DG), battery storage, electric vehicle (EV) charging stations, building management systems (BMS), home area networks (HANs), high-voltage monitoring, and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). The SGDP enables the seamless integration and control of these field assets through a common, cyber-secure, interoperable control platform, which integrates a number of existing legacy control and data systems, as well as new smart grid (SG) systems and applications. By integrating advanced technologies for monitoring and control, the SGDP helps target and reduce peak load growth, improves the reliability and efficiency of Con Edison’s grid, and increases the ability to accommodate the growing use of distributed resources. Con Edison is dedicated to lowering costs, improving reliability and customer service, and reducing its impact on the environment for its customers. These objectives also align with the policy objectives of New York State as a whole. To help meet these objectives, Con Edison’s long-term vision for the distribution grid relies on the successful integration and control of a growing penetration of distributed resources, including demand response (DR) resources, battery storage units, and DG. For example, Con Edison is expecting significant long-term growth of DG

  13. Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, Thoman [Consolidated Edison Company Of New York, Inc., NY (United States)

    2014-12-28

    The Consolidated Edison, Inc., of New York (Con Edison) Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP), sponsored by the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), demonstrated that the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of the grid can be improved through a combination of enhanced monitoring and control capabilities using systems and resources that interoperate within a secure services framework. The project demonstrated the capability to shift, balance, and reduce load where and when needed in response to system contingencies or emergencies by leveraging controllable field assets. The range of field assets includes curtailable customer loads, distributed generation (DG), battery storage, electric vehicle (EV) charging stations, building management systems (BMS), home area networks (HANs), high-voltage monitoring, and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). The SGDP enables the seamless integration and control of these field assets through a common, cyber-secure, interoperable control platform, which integrates a number of existing legacy control and data systems, as well as new smart grid (SG) systems and applications. By integrating advanced technologies for monitoring and control, the SGDP helps target and reduce peak load growth, improves the reliability and efficiency of Con Edison’s grid, and increases the ability to accommodate the growing use of distributed resources. Con Edison is dedicated to lowering costs, improving reliability and customer service, and reducing its impact on the environment for its customers. These objectives also align with the policy objectives of New York State as a whole. To help meet these objectives, Con Edison’s long-term vision for the distribution grid relies on the successful integration and control of a growing penetration of distributed resources, including demand response (DR) resources, battery storage units, and DG. For example, Con Edison is expecting significant long-term growth of DG

  14. Continuous coal processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryason, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  15. Demonstration of an instrumented patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M.; Renaud, G.; Backman, D.; Genest, M.; Delannoy, M.

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration at its tip. This stress concentration was designed to produce a disbond during fatigue testing, without the need for the introduction of any foreign material to create an artificial disbond condition. The aluminum substrate was grit blasted and the instrumented patch was bonded using FM ®73 adhesive, and was cured following the recommendations of the manufacturer. The geometric characteristics of the patch followed standard repair guidelines for such variables as material selection, taper angles and loading conditions, with the exception of the area designed for premature disbond. All test specimens were inspected using non-destructive testing technique (ultrasound pulse echo) to guarantee that no disbonding had occurred during curing of the specimen. The specimens were placed under fatigue loading to induce a disbond condition between the aluminum substrate and the patch. The specimens were cyclically loaded and strain gauges bonded to strategic locations on the aluminum and composite patch surface to be able to measure changes in surface strains as the disbond progressed. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was also used to measure full field strains over the gauge length of the coupon. The DIC results were compared with the strain gauge data and were used to provide a qualitative measure of the load transfer in the bonded specimen, which clearly demonstrated the change in surface strain that occurred as the composite patch disbonded from the aluminum substrate. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) was also used to measure surface strains on the

  16. Safety Campaign Continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    If you see this poster, stop and read it! This is the third poster produced by TIS Division as part of its information campaign on health and safety in the workplace. It provides statistics on occupational accidents at CERN. You will see that, as in the rest of Europe, falls, slips and trips continue to be the main cause of accident. So, eyes open and take care! For more information : http://safety.cern.ch/

  17. Chinese Economy to Continue to Grow Despite Pitfalls:Economists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese economy will continue to maintain a rapid growth rate for a considerable period of time to come. predicted leading Chinese economists. These economists include Justin Lin, Zhang Weiying, YiGang, Zhou Qiren and Fan Gang.

  18. Building a global business continuity programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Business continuity programmes provide an important function within organisations, especially when aligned with and supportive of the organisation's goals, objectives and organisational culture. Continuity programmes for large, complex international organisations, unlike those for compact national companies, are more difficult to design, build, implement and maintain. Programmes for international organisations require attention to structural design, support across organisational leadership and hierarchy, seamless integration with the organisation's culture, measured success and demonstrated value. This paper details practical, but sometimes overlooked considerations for building successful global business continuity programmes.

  19. The ideal hydrogen demonstration platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, J. [Village Technology, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper suggested that the best platform to demonstrate hydrogen's capability as an emission-free fuel regime is an urban pedestrian system. The on-grade bi-directional downtown people-mover was designed to fit in existing street-scapes without eliminating traffic lanes. The system is comprised of rubber-tired tram-buses that are synchronized to arrive at stop-boarding areas at the same time in order to provide a seamless headway along a single, dedicated guide-lane. The system was designed to operate along strategic urban corridors in order to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. The vehicles are inductively charged with fixed fuel cell generators at stop-boarding areas. A single people-mover has the capacity to replace several thousand car trips and parking movements per day, or 8000 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It was concluded that the system was designed to dovetail with fuel cell generator stations planned for private vehicles as they begin to be converted in the future. 8 figs.

  20. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  1. Growth through Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Emily

    2016-01-01

    This article explores one teacher-researcher's consideration of how the 50-year anniversary of the Dartmouth Seminar continues to influence and hold relevance for the teaching of English in Australian secondary schools. Particular attention is paid to the influence of John Dixon and the Personal Growth model of English. The author, an early career…

  2. Your Child's Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10 to 12 hours of sleep per night. Sleep gives growing bodies the rest they need to continue growing properly. Good nutrition: A balanced diet full of essential vitamins and minerals will help kids reach their full growth potential. Regular exercise: Because obesity is a problem ...

  3. Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Analyzer: Demonstration of feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroz, E.J.; Olivares, J.; Kok, G.

    1996-04-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Analyzer (AACA) that will provide a continuous, real-time analysis of the elemental (major, minor and trace) composition of atmospheric aerosols. The AACA concept is based on sampling the atmospheric aerosol through a wet cyclone scrubber that produces an aqueous suspension of the particles. This suspension can then be analyzed for elemental composition by ICP/MS or collected for subsequent analysis by other methods. The key technical challenge was to develop a wet cyclone aerosol sampler suitable for respirable particles found in ambient aerosols. We adapted an ultrasonic nebulizer to a conventional, commercially available, cyclone aerosol sampler and completed collection efficiency tests for the unit, which was shown to efficiently collect particles as small as 0.2 microns. We have completed the necessary basic research and have demonstrated the feasibility of the AACA concept.

  4. Camp Sacajawea Passive Solar Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-31

    The intent of the Passive Solar Demonstration Project was to have: an actual demonstration of the effectiveness of a passive solar design and working automatic shading devices; accurate data of energy saved by the passive design and shading devices; a brochure distributed to architects, builders, and consumers, with the monitoring data and information about the project; and the continued monitoring of the building to help explain to those who are using the building the value of the system; this would not only include the 7000 members, bu visitors and other users of the facility. To accomplish these goals, a monitoring system was installed in the recently build Passive Solar Lodge at Camp Sacajawea on Casper Mountain south of Casper, Wyoming. The building was monitored continously for the remainder of the project. The installation of the automatic shading device, a curtain wall was accomplished but had some difficulty. The results indicate there is some effectiveness of the Curtain Wall, but a quantitative value would be impossible at this time.

  5. Advanced Crystal Growth Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Hawley-Fedder, R A

    2005-03-01

    Although the fundamental mechanism of crystal growth has received and continues to receive deserved attention as a research activity, similar research efforts addressing the need for advanced materials and processing technology required to grow future high quality crystals has been sorely lacking. The purpose of this research effort is to develop advanced rapid growth processing technologies and materials suitable for providing the quality of products needed for advanced laser and photonics applications. In particular we are interested in developing a methodology for growing high quality KDP crystals based on an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms affecting growth. One problem in particular is the issue of control of impurities during the growth process. Many unwanted impurities are derived from the growth system containers and can adversely affect the optical quality and aspect ratio (shape) of the crystals. Previous studies have shown that even trace concentrations ({approx}10{sup -9} M) of impurities affect growth and even 'insignificant' species can have a large impact. It is also known that impurities affect the two growth faces of KDP very differently. Traces of trivalent metal impurities such as Fe{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Al{sup 3+} in solution are known to inhibit growth of the prismatic {l_brace}100{r_brace} faces of KDP while having little effect on the growth of the pyramidal {l_brace}101{r_brace} faces. This differentiation opens the possibility of intentionally adding select ions to control the aspect ratio of the crystal to obtain a more advantageous shape. This document summarizes our research efforts to improve KDP crystal growth. The first step was to control unwanted impurity addition from the growth vessel by developing an FEP liner to act as a barrier to the glass container. The other focus to develop an understanding of select impurities on growth rates in order to be able to use them to control the habit or shape of the

  6. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  7. Exoplanets: The Hunt Continues!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Swiss Telescope at La Silla Very Successful Summary The intensive and exciting hunt for planets around other stars ( "exoplanets" ) is continuing with great success in both hemispheres. Today, an international team of astronomers from the Geneva Observatory and other research institutes [1] is announcing the discovery of no less than eleven new, planetary companions to solar-type stars, HD 8574, HD 28185, HD 50554, HD 74156, HD 80606, HD 82943, HD 106252, HD 141937, HD 178911B, HD 141937, among which two new multi-planet systems . The masses of these new objects range from slightly less than to about 10 times the mass of the planet Jupiter [2]. The new detections are based on measured velocity changes of the stars [3], performed with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , as well as with instruments on telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory and on the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA). Some of the new planets are unusual: * a two-planet system (around the star HD 82943) in which one orbital period is nearly exactly twice as long as the other - cases like this (refered to as "orbital resonance") are well known in our own solar system; * another two-planet system (HD 74156), with a Jupiter-like planet and a more massive planet further out; * a planet with the most elongated orbit detected so far (HD 80606), moving between 5 and 127 million kilometers from the central star; * a giant planet moving in an orbit around its Sun-like central star that is very similar to the one of the Earth and whose potential satellites (in theory, at least) might be "habitable". At this moment, there are 63 know exoplanet candidates with minimum masses below 10 Jupiter masses, and 67 known objects with minimum masses below 17 Jupiter masses. The present team of astronomers has detected about half of these. PR Photo 13a/01 : Radial-velocity measurements of HD 82943, a two-planet system . PR Photo 13b/01 : Radial

  8. Step driven competitive epitaxial and self-limited growth of graphene on copper surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Fan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of surface steps was found to have significant function and influence on the growth of graphene on copper via chemical vapor deposition. The two typical growth modes involved were found to be influenced by the step morphologies on copper surface, which led to our proposed step driven competitive growth mechanism. We also discovered a protective role of graphene in preserving steps on copper surface. Our results showed that wide and high steps promoted epitaxial growth and yielded multilayer graphene domains with regular shape, while dense and low steps favored self-limited growth and led to large-area monolayer graphene films. We have demonstrated that controllable growth of graphene domains of specific shape and large-area continuous graphene films are feasible.

  9. Rapid Growth of China Petroleum Machinery Manufacturing (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian; Sun Zuchen; Wang Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Technology for petroleum machinery design and manufacturing upgraded remarkably The basic research on rock bit. drilling pump. pump valve, piston, flooding pumps, derrick, shale shaker.hydraulic blowout preventer, torque converter, pumping unit. sucker rod. submersible pump. fracturing pump centrifugal pump. pneumatic parts, geophone and acquisition station has reached the advanced international level.

  10. CNPC Continually Committed to Production Growth in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation(CNPC)held its 2010 anaual working conference in Langfang City,Hebei Province between January 14 and 16 to formulate the guidelines for business development and main tasks in the coming year.

  11. Continuity and Rupture in the Growth of Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Botey Vallès

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the article deals with the classical concepts of identity, diversity and pluralism in relation to present societies in conflict. The second part addresses specifically the case of the Andalusian immigration to Catalonia from 1955 to 1975 and the hardening relations and tensions between the two communities in present-day Catalonia. Finally, in the presence of economic globalization and the bolstered emergence of new identities, some of which have religious aspects as significant components, a proposition is put forth to find common ground in the new social movements and religious faith as two arenas of intercultural negotiation.

  12. Seaborne coal trades - major growth trends set to continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    A collection of short articles reviews the coal trade world-wide, over the last decade and discusses imports and exports of coking coal and steam coal during 1990. The coal exports industry for major exporting countries is reviewed with reference to recent reports and forecasts. Energy needs for the EEC, Eastern Europe and other major countries are discussed. A short item describes the development in Indonesia of a new ultra clean steam coal called Envirocoal. Bulk terminals, existing and planned, in the Netherlands are described. A publication by SERIS giving information on world coal producers is briefly reviewed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 photos.

  13. Continuous Integration in CFMGR

    CERN Document Server

    Frohlingsdorf, David

    2017-01-01

    Cfmgr is a managing tool for network devices. At the moment there is no way to automatically check the working behaviour of the tool, meaning that a lot of effort is spend into manually testing the tool after an update. During my stay at CERN I developed a black-box testing framework for Cfmgr according to Continuous Integration practices and successfully deployed the framework using Jenkins and Docker. This report discusses in detail how the framework works and how it can be configured, and equally gives a broad problem description and outlines future work directions.

  14. Ethanol by continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    EtOH is produced by continuous fermentation of molasses. Thus, molasses diluted to 20/sup 0/ Brix was inoculated with bakers' yeast and fermented at 32/sup 0/. When the medium reached 4% EtOH, it was circulated through a centrifuge. The concentrated yeast was recycled to the fermentor and the supernatant was sent to a still. After distillation, the still residue was returned to the fermentor. When the initial charge was entirely fermented, 13 kg molasses of 40/sup 0/ Brix was added to the fermentor per hour, and the yield of EtOH was 1.7 kg/100 L-hour.

  15. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...... at the limit state of serviceability is in some simple cases determined by setting up the statical and the compatibility conditions.With these moment distributions, the maximum deflection and the reinforcement stresses at the span middle and at a support are calculated.The results are compared with results...

  16. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Continuous system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  18. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  19. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  20. Continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, D

    1987-04-01

    With the rapid advances in medical science and increasing complexities of patient care, the need for continuing medical education (CME) is widely accepted by the profession. CME follows general and higher professional training, and should be a life long process. Teaching hospitals and postgraduate professional institutions play vital roles in organising, promoting, and monitoring this activity. CME directorates should be established. University authorities must recognise the important role of medical teachers in postgraduate and continuing medical education, and the staff establishment and terms of service should be held regularly. Medical libraries should have easy borrowing facilities. Self-assessment and audio-visual material are particularly helpful to the busy practitioner and inexpensive local or regional journals of quality can provide pertinent and up-to-date information. All charges for attending scientific meetings and educational material should be tax deductible or subsidized. The effectiveness of CME is difficult to assess and participation is almost impossible to enforce. Much depends on the standard of medical practice wanted by society. Recertification of general practitioners or specialists poses many problems. On the other hand, completion of self-assessment programmes, active participation at medical meetings, contributions to scientific literature, and membership of medical societies with built-in peer review could be monitored and regularly used to evaluate professional status.

  1. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  2. Growth process and mechanism of a multi-walled carbon nanotube nest deposited on a silicon nanoporous pillar array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Weifen, E-mail: gingerwfj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, No. 36 Beihuan Road, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Jian Lv; Yang Xiaohui [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, No. 36 Beihuan Road, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Li Xinjian [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2010-03-01

    A large scale nest array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NACNTs) was grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Through observing its macro/micromorphology and structure, ascertaining the catalyst component and its locations at different growth time by hiring field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and selected area electron diffraction, the growth process was deduced. Its thermal properties were also investigated by using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Our experiments demonstrated that the CNTs growth by means of root-growth mechanism at the initial growth stage, then a continuous growth process with its tip open is suggested, finally, a schematic growth model of NACNT/Si-NPA was presented.

  3. Space Solar Power Demonstrations: Challenges and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The prospects of using electrical power beamed from space are coming closer to reality with the continued pursuit and improvements in the supporting space solar research and technology. Space Solar Power (SSP) has been explored off and on for approximately three decades as a viable alternative and clean energy source. Results produced through the more recent Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program involving extensive participation by industry, universities, and government has provided a sound technical basis for believing that technology can be improved to the extent that SSP systems can be built, economically feasible, and successfully deployed in space. Considerable advancements have been made in conceptual designs and supporting technologies including solar power generation, wireless power transmission, power management distribution, thermal management and materials, and the integrated systems engineering assessments. Basic technologies have progressed to the point were the next logical step is to formulate and conduct sophisticated demonstrations involving prototype hardware as final proof of concepts and identify high end technology readiness levels in preparation for full scale SSP systems designs. In addition to continued technical development issues, environmental and safety issues must be addressed and appropriate actions taken to reassure the public and prepare them for the future use of this alternative renewable energy resource. Accomplishing these objectives will allow informed future decisions regarding further SSP and related R&D investments by both NASA management and prospective external partners. In particular, accomplishing these objectives will also guide further definition of SSP and related technology roadmaps including performance objectives, resources and schedules; including 'multi-purpose' applications (terrestrial markets, science, commercial development of space, and other government missions).

  4. Social Work Continuing Education: Current Issues and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzman, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Continuing education is arising as an area of rapid growth and increased attention in the social work profession. Conceptually, the impetus and focus are on the promotion of the principles of lifelong learning and professional replenishment; but pragmatically, the driving force has been the virtually universal requirement of continuing education…

  5. European projects as Continuous Professional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    Recent years have seen an increased awareness of the need for Continuous Professional Development (CPD) of academic staff teaching international programmes to diverse student audiences. At the same time, many academic units are under pressure from the university leadership teams to demonstrate...

  6. Continuous-variable quantum erasure correcting code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Sabuncu, Metin; Huck, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a continuous variable quantum erasure-correcting code, which protects coherent states of light against complete erasure. The scheme encodes two coherent states into a bi-party entangled state, and the resulting 4-mode code is conveyed through 4 independent channels...

  7. [Continuous-infusion ketamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, P G; Caggese, G; Di Fabio, A; Di Nino, G F; Cocchi, V

    1980-08-01

    An investigation was made of the employment of ketamin as the sole anaesthetic in general surgery, using continuous infusion of a 1% solution for both induction and maintenance in 118 cases. ECG was monitored and arterial pressure was measured invasively. Central venous pressure was also determined in 10 cases. Changes in serum enzyme values during and after surgery were examined in 35 patients. Blood samples were withdrawn before induction, after the return to consciousness, and 24 hr after the operation. Side-effects were common, but slight. Five patients suffered from nightmares, but these were persons with marked imaginative activity and a melancholic nature. Cardiocirculatory function was satisfactory. In particular, peripheral perfusion was excellent in all cases.

  8. Knowledge and Continuous Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry; Caffyn, S.; Corso, M.

    1999-01-01

    proposes a model to describe and explain how companies can gain a substantive competitive advantage by extending their innovation efforts to other phases of the product life cycle and by facilitating knowledge transfer and learning both within the company and with other partner organisations. The model......Competition today is forcing companies to increase their effectiveness through exploiting synergy and learning in product innovation. Literature, however, is still mainly focused on how product development projects, seen largely as isolated efforts, should be organised and managed. This article...... is based on collaborative research by the authors, based on their involvement in the Euro-Australian co-operation project CIMA (Euro-Australian co-operation centre for Continuous Improvement and innovation MAnagement)....

  9. Spaces of continuous functions

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, G L M

    2016-01-01

    The space C(X) of all continuous functions on a compact space X carries the structure of a normed vector space, an algebra and a lattice. On the one hand we study the relations between these structures and the topology of X, on the other hand we discuss a number of classical results according to which an algebra or a vector lattice can be represented as a C(X). Various applications of these theorems are given. Some attention is devoted to related theorems, e.g. the Stone Theorem for Boolean algebras and the Riesz Representation Theorem. The book is functional analytic in character. It does not presuppose much knowledge of functional analysis; it contains introductions into subjects such as the weak topology, vector lattices and (some) integration theory.

  10. Continuous Culture Microbioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäpper, Daniel

    . The advance of miniature online measuring techniques makes it possible to measure at least the basic culture variables such as dissolved oxygen (DO), cell density (OD) and pH continuously and without disturbing the cultivation. Online measurements are at this scale very susceptible to the presence of bubbles...... focus was put on the single-use aspect. This includes both being cheap in fabrication and in operation, and also requires the reactor to be sterilizable by industrial methods. It consists entirely of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and contains two optical sensor spots for the measurement of DO and p.......2 mm height. The reactor chamber is a cylinder with 8 mm diameter and 2 mm height resulting in a culture volume of 100 L. The uidic connections are done by piercing the reactor side walls with needles|the PDMS will tightly enclose the needle to prevent leakage. The reactor chamber is sealed with a semi...

  11. Growth Econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    JOHNSON, Paul; Steven N. Durlauf; Temple, Johnathan R. W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a survey and synthesis of econometric tools that have been employed to study economic growth. While these tools range across a variety of statistical methods, they are united in the common goals of first, identifying interesting contemporaneous patterns in growth data and second, drawing inferences on long-run economic outcomes from cross-section and temporal variation in growth. We describe the main stylized facts that have motivated the development of growth econometrics...

  12. Growth and Characterization of Semiconductor Nanostructures for Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiebin

    Recently, semiconductor nanostructures have generated a continuously growing interest owing to their intriguing physical properties and potential for future technology development. Quasi-one-dimensional nanowires (NWs), usually defined as round or polyhedral shaped cross-sectional structures with a high aspect ratio of 1000 or more, is one of the most active research areas for nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and sensors. Precise controlled growth of NWs, including dimensions, growth rate, morphology, growth direction, and composition, is essential from the viewpoints of fundamental materials fabrication and their performance in future applications. However, there are still many challenges in the fabrication of NWs with controlled dimensions and properties. This dissertation focuses on investigating the fundamental synthesis aspects of epitaxially grown III-V NWs by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). First, gold (Au) catalyst-assisted growth of InSb NWs directly on lattice mismatched (˜7%) InAs (100) substrates have been studied. The influences of NW diameter and growth temperature on the NW growth rate and morphology have been investigated. The results indicate that NW growth is limited by the growth species direct impingement and the diffusion of surface adatoms. Next, the dependence of morphology of epitaxial InSb NWs on CVD growth parameters over InSb (100) substrates has been investigated. NW length and tapering factors correlated to morphological variations are determined as a function of growth parameters including growth temperature (300°C--480°C), powder source, and duration of growth. Results showed that NW morphology is influenced by axial and radial growth modes, reflecting the competition of various growth mechanisms under different growth conditions. We discovered that Indium droplets may also promote the growth of NWs with a similar role to that of catalytic Au nanoparticles. A potential growth model is accordingly described and discussed. An

  13. Measuring continuity of care: psychometric properties of the Nijmegen Continuity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijen, Annemarie A; Schers, Henk J; Schellevis, François G; Mokkink, Henk GA; van Weel, Chris; van den Bosch, Wil JHM

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, the Nijmegen Continuity Questionnaire (NCQ) was developed. It aims to measure continuity of care from the patient perspective across primary and secondary care settings. Initial pilot testing proved promising. Aim To further examine the validity, discriminative ability, and reliability of the NCQ. Design A prospective psychometric instrument validation study in primary and secondary care in the Netherlands. Method The NCQ was administered to patients with a chronic disease recruited from general practice (n = 145) and hospital outpatient departments (n = 123) (response rate 76%). A principal component analysis was performed to confirm three subscales that had been found previously. Construct validity was tested by correlating the NCQ score to scores of other scales measuring quality of care, continuity, trust, and satisfaction. Discriminative ability was tested by investigating differences in continuity subscores of different subgroups. Test–retest reliability was analysed in 172 patients. Results Principal factor analysis confirmed the previously found three continuity subscales — personal continuity, care provider knows me; personal continuity, care provider shows commitment; and team/cross-boundary continuity. Construct validity was demonstrated through expected correlations with other variables and discriminative ability through expected differences in continuity subscores of different subgroups. Test–retest reliability was high (the intraclass correlation coefficient varied between 0.71 and 0.82). Conclusion This study provides evidence for the validity, discriminative ability, and reliability of the NCQ. The NCQ can be of value to identify problems in continuity of care. PMID:22782001

  14. Influence of Light Quality and Continuous Lighting on Growth and Nutritional Quality of Two Two-color Lettuce Cultivars%弱光条件下光质与连续光照对水培生菜生长与品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余意; 杨其长; 刘文科

    2016-01-01

    Purple lettuce and green lettuce were hydroponically cultivated in a culture room to investigate the influence of light quality and continuous lighting on their growth and nutritional quality.The results showed that the shoot fresh weight and root fresh weight of the two kinds of lettuce improved under treatment of continuous lighting.The shoot fresh weight of purple lettuce under RB 2∶1 treatment was significantly higher than that of RB 1∶2 when the photoperiod was the same, but that of green lettuce didn’ t showed significant difference.Phenol and flavonoid relative contents of purple lettuce and green lettuce responded to continuous lighting treatment differently with the variation of light quality.When under the same lighting period, phenol and flavonoid relative contents of purple lettuce and green lettuce reduced with the increasing of red light ratio.The ascorbic acid content of purple lettuce lessened greatly under continuous lighting.The soluble sugar and soluble protein contents of purple lettuce didn’ t change much with the variation of red and blue light ratio and lighting period.The influence of continuous lighting on soluble sugar content of green lettuce differed with the change of light quality.When under the same light quality, soluble protein contents of green lettuce dropped under treatment of continuous lighting.And soluble sugar and soluble protein contents of green lettuce responded differently to the change of light quality with the alteration of lighting period.%在密闭植物生长室中,采用LED光源研究了弱光条件下光质与连续光照对水培紫叶生菜和绿叶生菜产量和品质的影响。结果表明,绿叶生菜和紫叶生菜地上部鲜重及根系鲜重都在连续光照处理下显著提高。光周期条件相同时,紫叶生菜在红蓝光比例2∶1光质下地上部鲜重要显著大于红蓝光比例1∶2,绿叶生菜则无显著差异。连续光照处理对紫叶生菜和绿叶生菜

  15. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated.

  16. The Growth Delusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Lloyd

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Concern for the environment and a move towards “sustainable development” has assisted progress in a wide range of renewable energy technologies in recent years. The science suggests that a transition from fossil fuels to sustainable sources of energy in a time frame commensurate with the demise of the fossil fuels and prevention of runaway climate change is needed. However, while the movement towards sustainable energy technologies is underway, the World does not want to give up the idea of continuing economic growth. In recent times the financial collapse of October 2008 has given rise to yet another set of pleas from corporations and politicians alike to restart the growth machine. The transition to renewable energy technologies will be difficult to achieve as nowhere within existing economic and political frameworks are the limits to when growth will be curtailed being set. It is possible that the irrational insistence on endless growth as a non negotiable axiom, by a large proportion of the world’s population, may in fact be akin to the similarly irrational belief, by a similarly large proportion of the world’s population, that a supernatural being controls our existence and destiny. The irrationality of religion has recently been examined by Richard Dawkins in “The God Delusion”. Dawkins’ book is used as a starting point to investigate similarities between a belief in God and a belief in continuous growth.

  17. NASA Solar Array Demonstrates Commercial Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Gray

    2006-01-01

    A state-of-the-art solar-panel array demonstration site at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center provides a unique opportunity for studying the latest in high-efficiency solar photovoltaic cells. This five-kilowatt solar-array site (see Figure 1) is a technology-transfer and commercialization success for NASA. Among the solar cells at this site are cells of a type that was developed in Dryden Flight Research Center s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program for use in NASA s Helios solar-powered airplane. This cell type, now denoted as A-300, has since been transferred to SunPower Corporation of Sunnyvale, California, enabling mass production of the cells for the commercial market. High efficiency separates these advanced cells from typical previously commercially available solar cells: Whereas typical previously commercially available cells are 12 to 15 percent efficient at converting sunlight to electricity, these advanced cells exhibit efficiencies approaching 23 percent. The increase in efficiency is due largely to the routing of electrical connections behind the cells (see Figure 2). This approach to increasing efficiency originated as a solution to the problem of maximizing the degree of utilization of the limited space available atop the wing of the Helios airplane. In retrospect, the solar cells in use at this site could be used on Helios, but the best cells otherwise commercially available could not be so used, because of their lower efficiencies. Historically, solar cells have been fabricated by use of methods that are common in the semiconductor industry. One of these methods includes the use of photolithography to define the rear electrical-contact features - diffusions, contact openings, and fingers. SunPower uses these methods to produce the advanced cells. To reduce fabrication costs, SunPower continues to explore new methods to define the rear electrical-contact features. The equipment at the demonstration site includes

  18. Entanglement Continuous Unitary Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, S; Orus, R

    2016-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called "entanglement-CUT" or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators, and we present proof-of-principle results for the spin-1/2 1d quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermo...

  19. Continuous home oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Entanglement continuous unitary transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Serkan; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Orús, Román

    2017-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called “entanglement-CUT” or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators. We also present proof-of-principle results for the spin-(1/2) 1d quantum Ising model and the 3-state quantum Potts model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermodynamic limit.

  1. Growth prospects for the Brazilian reinsurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Honorato Teixeira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, resolution 168 of the National Council of Private Insurance (CNSP allowed international reinsurers to request authorization to operate in Brazil from the Superintendence of Private Insurance (SUSEP. This led to changes in the insurance and reinsurance markets. There is a lack of in-depth studies to evaluate the growth of the reinsurance market since its effective opening, taking into account macroeconomic factors and market reserve. This study aims to evaluate the size of the reinsurance market by examining: the main sectors of business that yield reinsurance, market concentration, share of GDP, and expectations for future growth. The main objective of this paper is to provide companies in the reinsurance segment with assistance in identifying the potential market, understanding its complexity: their main competitors, and possible operational niches. In addition, it provides new and existing reinsurers with an overview of difficulties in the market and the strategic positioning that the company must adopt in order to act more effectively within the industry. To achieve these goals, it analyzes the reinsurance market in detail, proposes methods or steps to take to define strategic positioning in the market, and offers a graphic "Performance vs. Importance Matrix." There is potential demand available to the insurance market which remains unmet. Despite the initial difficulties for companies operating in the sector, the market has demonstrated its potential for continued growth since its effective opening, which will ultimately attract reinsurers, making the market highly competitive.Key words: Reinsurance. Insurance. Growth Perspective.

  2. Analysis of acoustic emission signals of fatigue crack growth and corrosion processes. Investigation of the possibilities for continuous condition monitoring of transport containers by acoustic emission testing; Analyse der Schallemissionssignale aus Ermuedungsrisswachstum und Korrosionsprozessen. Untersuchung der Moeglichkeiten fuer die kontinuierliche Zustandsueberwachung von Transportbehaeltern mittels Schallemissionspruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachsmuth, Janne

    2016-05-01

    Fatigue crack growth and active corrosion processes are the main causes of structural failures of transport products like road tankers, railway tank cars and ships. To prevent those failures, preventive, time-based maintenance is performed. However, preventive inspections are costly and include the risk of not detecting a defect, which could lead to a failure within the next service period. An alternative is the idea of continuous monitoring of the whole structure by means of acoustic emission testing (AT). With AT, defects within the material shall be detected and repaired directly after their appearance. Acoustic emission testing is an online non-destructive testing method. Acoustic emission (AE) arises from changes within the material and is transported by elastic waves through the material. If the AE event generates enough energy, the elastic wave propagates to the boundaries of the component, produces a displacement in the picometre scale and can be detected by a piezoelectric sensor. The sensor produces an electrical signal. From this AE signal, AE features such as the maximum amplitude or the frequency can be extracted. Methods of signal analysis are used to investigate the time and frequency dependency of signal groups. The purpose of the signal analysis is to connect the AE signal with the originating AE source. If predefined damage mechanisms are identified, referencing the damage condition of the structure is possible. Acoustic emission from events of the actual crack propagation process can for example lead to the crack growth rate or the stress intensity factor, both specific values from fracture mechanics. A new development in the domain of acoustic emission testing is the pattern recognition of AE signals. Specific features are extracted from the AE signals to assign them to their damage mechanisms. In this thesis the AE signals from the damage mechanisms corrosion and fatigue crack growth are compared and analysed. The damage mechanisms were

  3. Waves in continuous media

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilyuk, S L; Sukhinin, S V

    2017-01-01

    Starting with the basic notions and facts of the mathematical theory of waves illustrated by numerous examples, exercises, and methods of solving typical problems Chapters 1 & 2 show e.g. how to recognize the hyperbolicity property, find characteristics, Riemann invariants and conservation laws for quasilinear systems of equations, construct and analyze solutions with weak or strong discontinuities, and how to investigate equations with dispersion and to construct travelling wave solutions for models reducible to nonlinear evolution equations. Chapter 3 deals with surface and internal waves in an incompressible fluid. The efficiency of mathematical methods is demonstrated on a hierarchy of approximate submodels generated from the Euler equations of homogeneous and non-homogeneous fluids. The self-contained presentations of the material is complemented by 200+ problems of different level of difficulty, numerous illustrations, and bibliographical recommendations.

  4. Effects of balanced fertilization and soil amendment on growth and yield of Sanqi in continuous cropping%平衡施肥及土壤改良剂对连作条件下三七生长与产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧小宏; 金航; 郭兰萍; 崔秀明; 肖焱波; 刘大会; 黄璐琦

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the solution of continuous cropping obstacle of Panax notoginseng. Method: The effects of balanced fertilization and soil amendment on the emergence rate, survival rate, growth and yield of P. notoginseng were studied with a pot culture experiment in 3-yesr-interval continuous cropping soil. Result: The result showed that the content of total N, total P, available N, available P and other available components in continuous cropping soil were higher than those in fresh soil while available K and the rate of K/N were declined, and available Cu and some other micro elements were lack. The way of balanced fertilization "low N + fused calcium-magnesium-phosphate fertilizer + high K + lime + micro elements" would significantly enhance the rate of survival , biomass and yield. It also promoted the growth of P. notoginseng in continuous cropping. The bagasse could relieve the continuous cropping obstacle obviously, the survival rate was improved for 31.6% and the yield of medicinal materials was 19. 5%. The fly ash had also some effect in relieving the continuous crapping obstacle. Conclusion: The overall results suggested that the adequate fertilization plan is the applying lime, reducing N, applying calcium-magnesium-phosphate fertilizer, improving K and supplying mircoele-ment as well as applying bagasse to resolve the problem of continuous cropping obstacle of P. notoginseng.%目的:探求三七连作障碍的解决途径.方法:采用间隔3年的三七连作土进行盆栽试验,比较大、中、微量元素配合施用和施用甘蔗渣、粉煤灰、糖泥、牛粪、发酵烟杆、沸石、玉米杆等改良剂,对三七出苗率、存苗率、植株生长和产量影响.结果:间隔3年的三七连作土中全氮、全磷、碱解氮、有效磷等成分的含量较新土大幅度增加,速效钾含量及土壤钾素与氮素养分间比例则是大幅降低,有效铜、有效锌和有效硼等微量元素比较缺乏.三七连作土采

  5. Downward continuation of aeromagnetic data to the marine surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shizhe; WANG Rui; ZHOU Jianxin; XIAO Pengfei; CHEN Shengchang

    2008-01-01

    The existing methods of downward continuation of potential field cannot be used to continue the aeromagnetie data to the marine surface because of the limited continuation distance.An iteration method for the downward continuation of potential field with a much larger continuation distance has been developed,which can continue the aeromagnetic data to the marine surface and get the marine-magnetic chart with the same scale as the aeromagnetic data.This downward continuation method will greatly raise the ef- ficiency of marine-magnetic investigation.The principle of the iteration method is presented.The method is demonstrated on synthetic models and real aeromagnetic data.Also,the error brought by continuation is discussed.The efficiency of the iteration method for the downward continuation of potential field is compared with the fast fourier transform (FFT) method,the former is much better than the latter.

  6. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories.

  7. Continuous-Discrete Path Integral Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhashyam Balaji

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A summary of the relationship between the Langevin equation, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov forward equation (FPKfe and the Feynman path integral descriptions of stochastic processes relevant for the solution of the continuous-discrete filtering problem is provided in this paper. The practical utility of the path integral formula is demonstrated via some nontrivial examples. Specifically, it is shown that the simplest approximation of the path integral formula for the fundamental solution of the FPKfe can be applied to solve nonlinear continuous-discrete filtering problems quite accurately. The Dirac-Feynman path integral filtering algorithm is quite simple, and is suitable for real-time implementation.

  8. How do attachment dimensions affect bereavement adjustment? A mediation model of continuing bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; He, Li; Xu, Wei; Wang, Jianping; Prigerson, Holly G

    2016-04-30

    The current study aims to examine mechanisms underlying the impact of attachment dimensions on bereavement adjustment. Bereaved mainland Chinese participants (N=247) completed anonymous, retrospective, self-report surveys assessing attachment dimensions, continuing bonds (CB), grief symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Results demonstrated that attachment anxiety predicted grief symptoms via externalized CB and predicted PTG via internalized CB at the same time, whereas attachment avoidance positively predicted grief symptoms via externalized CB but negatively predicted PTG directly. Findings suggested that individuals with a high level of attachment anxiety could both suffer from grief and obtain posttraumatic growth after loss, but it depended on which kind of CB they used. By contrast, attachment avoidance was associated with a heightened risk of maladaptive bereavement adjustment. Future grief therapy may encourage the bereaved to establish CB with the deceased and gradually shift from externalized CB to internalized CB.

  9. Holographic and single beam optical manipulation of hyphal growth in filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, D. R.; Wright, G. D.; Read, N. D.; McGloin, D.

    2007-08-01

    We report on the ability of holographic light fields to alter the normal growth patterns of filamentous fungi. The light fields are produced on a microscopic scale by borrowing methods from the field of optical tweezers, but without the aim of directly trapping or manipulating objects. Extended light fields are shown to redirect and constrict hyphal tip growth, and induce hyphal branching in a highly reproducible manner. The merits of using discrete and continuous light fields produced using a spatial light modulator are discussed and the use of three-dimensional 'pseudowalls' of light to control the growth patterns is reported. We also demonstrate the dependence of hyphal tip growth on the wavelength of light, finding that less power is needed at shorter wavelengths to effect changes in the growth dynamics of fungal hyphae.

  10. LIVE DEMONSTRATION OF DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.; Wächter, J.

    2009-12-01

    environment of DEWS working in the background. The demonstration runs through a virtual Tsunami threat located in the Andaman Sea in front of Thailand; Beginning with the detection of an earthquake of critical magnitude and the calculation of early Tsunami predictions; Continuing with sea level measurements and the refinement of Tsunami predictions; Finally reaching the dissemination of warning messages via SMS, mail and other channels. REFERENCES [1] DEWS, www.dews-online.org [2] OGC, www.opengeospatial.org [3] SWE, www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb [4] Eclipse RCP, www.eclipse.org/home/categories/rcp.php [5] uDig, udig.refractions.net [6] WMS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms [7] WFS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs [8] WPS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps [9] OASIS, www.oasis-open.org [10] CAP, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#capv1.1 [11] EDXL-DE, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#edxlde-v1.0 [12] SOAP, www.w3.org/TR/soap [13] GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is a project of the German Federal Government to aid the reconstruction of the tsunami-prone Indian Ocean region, www.gitews.org [14] The Tsunami Service Bus is the GITEWS sensor system integration platform offering standardised services for the detection and monitoring of tsunamis

  11. Commercialization strategy for the Department of Energy's Solar Buildings Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Efforts reported include: conducting a survey of existing commercial demonstration projects, categorizing these projects, determining criteria for evaluating the feasibility of continuing/aborting demonstration projects, and applying the criteria and making recommendations for which projects to continue and abort. It is recommended to refurbish 114 of the projects examined and to abandon 41. (LEW)

  12. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    . There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes....

  13. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    OpenAIRE

    Prak, Dennis R.J.; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2014-01-01

    There exist many inventory control studies that consider either continuous review & continuous ordering, or periodic review & periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information on the actual inventory level is not always up to date while making ordering decisions. This paper will therefore consider this case of periodic review and continuous ordering. Assuming zero fixed...

  14. Kimberlina: a zero-emissions demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronske, K. [Clean Energy Systems Inc. (USA)

    2007-06-15

    FutureGen may be getting the headlines, but it is not the only superclean demonstration plant in town. In fact, you could argue that other technologies are further down the evolutionary timeline. Case in point: Clean Energy Systems' adaptation of rocket engine technology to radically change the way fuel is burned. The result is a true zero-emissions power plant. Its most distinctive element is an oxy-combustor, similar to one used in rocket engines, that generates steam by burning clean, gaseous fuel in the presence of gaseous oxygen and water. The clean fuel is prepared by processing a conventional fossil fuel such as coal-derived syngas, refinery residues, biomass or biodigester gas, or natural or landfill gas. Combustion takes place at near-stoichiometric conditions to produce a mixture of steam and CO{sub 2} at high temperature and pressure. The steam conditions are suitable for driving a conventional or advanced steam turbine-generator, or a gas turbine modified to be driven by high-temperature steam or to do work as an expansion unit at intermediate pressure. After pressure through the turbine(s), the steam/CO{sub 2} mixture is condensed, cooled, and separated into water and CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} can be sequestered and/or purified and sold for commercial use. Durability and performance tests carried out between March 2005 and March 2006 produced excellent results. CO and NOx emissions are considerably low than those of combined-cycle power plants fuelled by natural gas and using selective catalytic reduction for NOx control. Work is continuing under an NETL grant. Progress and plans are reported in the article. 7 figs.

  15. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, Dennis; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Many inventory control studies consider either continuous review and continuous ordering, or periodic review and periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information on the actua

  16. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, Dennis R.J.; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2014-01-01

    There exist many inventory control studies that consider either continuous review & continuous ordering, or periodic review & periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information

  17. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, Dennis R.J.; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2014-01-01

    There exist many inventory control studies that consider either continuous review & continuous ordering, or periodic review & periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information

  18. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, Dennis; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Many inventory control studies consider either continuous review and continuous ordering, or periodic review and periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information on the

  19. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after ...

  20. Thick silicon growth techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, H. E.; Mlavsky, A. I.; Jewett, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    Hall mobility measurements on a number of single crystal silicon ribbons grown from graphite dies have shown some ribbons to have mobilities consistent with their resistivities. The behavior of other ribbons appears to be explained by the introduction of impurities of the opposite sign. Growth of a small single crystal silicon ribbon has been achieved from a beryllia dia. Residual internal stresses of the order of 7 to 18,000 psi have been determined to exist in some silicon ribbon, particularly those grown at rates in excess of 1 in./min. Growth experiments have continued toward definition of a configuration and parameters to provide a reasonable yield of single crystal ribbons. High vacuum outgassing of graphite dies and evacuation and backfilling of growth chambers have provided significant improvements in surface quality of ribbons grown from graphite dies.

  1. Urban growth management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Alexander Sick Nielsen, Thomas; Grünfelder, Julien

    2011-01-01

    , and finally urban attractivity policies. Effective regional bodies are needed to deal with urban expansion and peri-urbanisation at a relevant scale; European rural and agricultural policies makes up the main ‘policy complex’ targeting the non-urban area including its land uses; while lastly leverage of urban...... urban growth and curb urban sprawl in a wider sense. Methodology The main methodology of the paper is a desk-research based review of policy options supplemented with field study and interviews in selected cased study regions. This paper consists of two parts. The first part is based on literature...... there are contradictions in the evidence presented in the literature, we believe that it may be safely said that urban growth management policies have an influence on urban growth under certain preconditions including: sufficient time for implementation and continuity of efforts; choice of appropriate policy measures...

  2. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  3. China's backlog order size continues to shrink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The monthly report issued by CANSI on June 27 says that from January to May this year,the economic operation of China's shipbuilding industry kept a stable situation with twodigit growth of major economic indexes.However,under the impact of such adverse elements as slowing down of foreign demands,appreciation of domestic currency,rise of integrated cost and tightening up of fund supply,China's backlog order size continued to shrink,necessitating readjustment without hesitation of ship product structure.

  4. Continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-08-01

    Continuous manufacturing has been applied in many different industries but has been pursued reluctantly in biotechnology where the batchwise process is still the standard. A shift to continuous operation can improve productivity of a process and substantially reduce the footprint. Continuous operation also allows robust purification of labile biomolecules. A full set of unit operations is available to design continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals. Chromatography, the central unit operation, is most advanced in respect to continuous operation. Here, the problem of 'batch' definition has been solved. This has also paved the way for implementation of continuous downstream processing from a regulatory viewpoint. Economic pressure, flexibility, and parametric release considerations will be the driving force to implement continuous manufacturing strategies in future.

  5. Human Resource Management for Continuous Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Laugen, Bjørge; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    includes a brief literature review of HRM and CI and statistical analyses of data collected from the Continuous Innovation Network Survey (2002). The results of the analyses demonstrate that HRM has a significant effect on CI and organizational behavior, with the strongest relationship between HRM, CI...... and performance occurring when company's align their CI activities with their strategic objectives and use of systems, procedures, and processes to measure the results of their CI activities ....

  6. Intergenerational Continuity and Discontinuity in Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The Family Transitions Project began in 1989 to see how rural families in Iowa were coping with the severe economic downturn in agriculture at that time. In this report we show that cohort members who were treated harshly by their parents tended to emulate these behaviors with their children. However, if they co-parented with a partner who demonstrated a warm and supportive parenting style, intergenerational continuity was disrupted. PMID:22754400

  7. Continuous Variable Solution for Byzantine Agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Neigovzen, R; Neigovzen, Rodion; Sanpera, Anna

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that the Byzantine Agreement Problem (BAP) in its weaker version with detectable broadcast, can be solved using continuous variables Gaussian states with Gaussian operations. The protocol uses genuine tripartite symmetric entanglement, but differs from protocols proposed for qutrits or qubits. Contrary to the quantum key distribution (QKD) which is possible with all Gaussian states, for the BAP entanglement is needed, but not all tripartite entangled symmetric states can be used to solve the problem.

  8. Demonstration of a Quantum Nondemolition Sum Gate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshikawa, J.; Miwa, Y.; Huck, Alexander;

    2008-01-01

    The sum gate is the canonical two-mode gate for universal quantum computation based on continuous quantum variables. It represents the natural analogue to a qubit C-NOT gate. In addition, the continuous-variable gate describes a quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction between the quadrature compo...

  9. Continuous and Jump Betas: Implications for Portfolio Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Alexeev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using high-frequency data, we decompose the time-varying beta for stocks into beta for continuous systematic risk and beta for discontinuous systematic risk. Estimated discontinuous betas for S&P500 constituents between 2003 and 2011 generally exceed the corresponding continuous betas. We demonstrate how continuous and discontinuous betas decrease with portfolio diversification. Using an equiweighted broad market index, we assess the speed of convergence of continuous and discontinuous betas in portfolios of stocks as the number of holdings increase. We show that discontinuous risk dissipates faster with fewer stocks in a portfolio compared to its continuous counterpart.

  10. LDRD final report on continuous wave intersubband terahertz sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samora, Sally; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.; Young, Erik W.; Fuller, Charles T.; Stephenson, Larry L.; Reno, John Louis; Wanke, Michael Clement; Hudgens, James J.

    2005-02-01

    with wavelengths spanning 65-150 microns. We developed and refined the MBE growth for THz for both internally and externally designed QC lasers. Processing related issues continued to plague many of our demonstration efforts and will also be addressed in this report.

  11. Effects of Bacteria-feeding Nematodes on Growth of Strawberry Seedlings, Soil Enzyme Activities and Mineral Nitrogen Content in Continuous Cropping System%接种食细菌线虫对连作草莓幼苗生长及其根际土壤酶活性和矿质氮含量影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺勤; 张林林; 刘奇志; 张航; 白鹏华; 栾小兵

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study how soil bacteria-feeding nematodes impact strawberry seedling growth, soil enzyme activity and mineral nitrogen content in continuous cropping system. Treatments were designed as no inoculation (CK), inoculated with 2 individuals nematodes/g soil (A) and 8 individuals nematodes/g soil (B). The results showed that bacteria-feeding nematodes significantly increased the length and fresh weight of shoot or root, root activity and SOD activity of strawberry seedlings. The increment range was 13.35%-14.60%, 14.17%-26.07%, 25.61%-46.32%, 31.20%-68.98%, 9.09%-13.41% and 6.12%-13.03%, respectively. Bacteria-feeding nematodes significantly decreased MDA content, the decrement range was 17.78% to 22.8%. Bacteria-feeding nematodes significantly enhanced activities of urease, sucrase and the content of soil mineral nitrogen, the increment range was 9.14%-13.48%, 9.06%-11.92% and 6.95%-9.46%, respectively. In conclusion, inoculation of bacteria-feeding nematodes could stimulate strawberry seedling growth, increase soil enzyme activities and mineral nitrogen content in continuous cropping system.%通过温室盆栽试验,探讨接种食细菌线虫对连作草莓幼苗生长、土壤酶活性和矿质氮含量的影响。试验设不接种食细菌线虫(CK)、接种食细菌线虫2条/克土(A)和接种食细菌线虫8条/克土(B)3个处理。结果表明,与对照相比食细菌线虫能够使连作草莓植株的株高、根长、地上部和地下部鲜重、根系活力和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性显著增加13.35%~14.60%、14.17%~26.07%、25.61%~46.32%、31.20%~68.98%、9.09%~13.41%和6.12%~13.03%,使根系丙二醛(MDA)含量显著降低17.78%~22.8%;使连作草莓根际土壤脲酶、蔗糖酶活性和矿质氮含量显著增加9.14%~13.48%、9.06%~11.92%和6.95%~9.46%;接种量为2条/克土处理的影响作用大于接种量为8条/克土的处理。总之,接种食细

  12. Omega-3 production by fermentation of Yarrowia lipolytica: From fed-batch to continuous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongming; Miller, Edward; Sharpe, Pamela; Jackson, Ethel; Zhu, Quinn

    2017-04-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid, cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) has wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, and mental health. A sustainable source of EPA production through fermentation of metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica has been developed. In this paper, key fed-batch fermentation conditions were identified to achieve 25% EPA in the yeast biomass, which is so far the highest EPA titer reported in the literature. Dynamic models of the EPA fermentation process were established for analyzing, optimizing, and scaling up the fermentation process. In addition, model simulations were used to develop a two-stage continuous process and compare to single-stage continuous and fed- batch processes. The two stage continuous process, which is equipped with a smaller growth fermentor (Stage 1) and a larger production fermentor (Stage 2), was found to be a superior process to achieve high titer, rate, and yield of EPA. A two-stage continuous fermentation experiment with Y. lipolytica strain Z7334 was designed using the model simulation and then tested in a 2 L and 5 L fermentation system for 1,008 h. Compared with the standard 2 L fed-batch process, the two-stage continuous fermentation process improved the overall EPA productivity by 80% and EPA concentration in the fermenter by 40% while achieving comparable EPA titer in biomass and similar conversion yield from glucose. During the long-term experiment it was also found that the Y. lipolytica strain evolved to reduce byproduct and increase lipid production. This is one of the few continuous fermentation examples that demonstrated improved productivity and concentration of a final product with similar conversion yield compared with a fed-batch process. This paper suggests the two-stage continuous fermentation could be an effective process to achieve improved production of omega-3 and other fermentation products where non-growth or partially growth associated kinetics

  13. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of two coal liquefaction demonstration plants and of four coal gasification demonstration plants is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, contract number, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, schedule, history and progress during the July-September quarter, 1979. Supporting projects in coal feeding systems, valves, grinding equipment, instrumentation, process control and water treatment are discussed in a similar way. Conceptual design work on commercial plants for coal to methanol and for a HYGAS high BTU gas plant were continued. (LTN)

  14. The evolution of growth trajectories: what limits growth rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriew, Caitlin M

    2011-02-01

    is surprisingly little evidence to date demonstrating predator-independent costs of growth acceleration. Evidence that does exist indicates that such costs may be most apparent under stressful conditions. Future studies should examine more closely the link between patterns of resource allocation to traits in the adult organism and lifetime fitness. Changes in body composition at maturation, for example, may determine the outcome of trade-offs between reproduction and survival or between early and late reproduction. A number of design issues for studies investigating costs of growth that are imposed over the long term are discussed, along with suggestions for alternative approaches. Despite these issues, identifying costs of growth acceleration may fill a gap in our understanding of life-history evolution: the relationships between growth rate, the environment, and fitness may contribute substantially to the diversification of life histories in nature.

  15. Modeling turkey growth with the relative growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, K; Potts, W J; Bacon, W L; Nestor, K E

    1998-01-01

    Six sigmoidal growth curves and two growth curves derived from a two-phase relative growth rate model were evaluated, using an experimental body-weight data from male and female turkeys of two genetic lines; a fast-growing (F) line and a randombred control (RBC) line from which the F line was developed. When their root mean square error was compared to the root mean square error of the local regression smoother, all sigmoidal growth curves: the logistic, Gompertz, von Bertalanffy, Richards, Weibull, and Morgan-Mercer-Flodin growth curves demonstrated a lack of fit. The primary source of the systematic lack of fit was identified with nonparametric estimates of the relative growth rate (the growth rate as a fraction of the body weight) of 20 turkeys. When the relative growth rate was estimated from the above sigmoidal growth curves, none could accommodate features of the nonparametric estimates of the relative growth rate. Based on the feature of the relative growth rate, two new growth curves were derived from a segmented two-phase model. Both models, in which the relative growth rate decreases in two linear phases with slopes of beta1 and beta2 joined together at time=kappa, gave growth curves that fit the experimental data acceptably. The linear-linear model with the smooth transition rendered better fit over the model with the abrupt transition. When the growth curves of male and female turkeys were compared, beta1, beta2, and kappa were smaller in males. When the F line was compared to the RBC line, beta1 and kappa were smaller and beta2 was closer to zero, indicating that the relative growth rate declined rapidly until about 61 days of age in the F line, while it declined less rapidly until about 71 days of age in the RBC line.

  16. Growth Stimulants

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Nyle J.

    1989-01-01

    A tiny pellet inserted under the skin of a calf's ear may increase weight gains as much as 15 to 20 percent. This same result would take years to accomplish through breeding and selection. These tiny pellets are growth stimulants. They are made of hormones that are constructed to slowly release minute amounts into the blood stream that stimulate the animal to produce natural body hormones. One of these hormones is a growth hormone. It regulates the rate of growth of the animal. Increasing the...

  17. Efeito do ultra-som terapêutico contínuo em placas epifisárias de coelhos Efectos de la ultrasonografia terapéutica continua en placas epifisarias de conejos Effect of continuous therapeutic ultrasound in rabbit growth plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersom Ricardo Fréz

    2006-06-01

    que en el control (p The therapeutic efficiency of ultrasound has become an indispensable tool of physical therapy treatment in cases of alteration by lesions and in many kinds of sickness. However, in pediatric cases the use of ultrasound is controversial due to possible disturbance and damage to the growth plate. The aim of this study is to find out if the continuous ultrasound presents alteration effects on the growth plate of female rabbits. Eight New Zealand female rabbits with two months of age were tested. They were treated by continuous therapeutic ultrasound with doses of 1 W/cm² in the lateral region of the right knee joint for five minutes, during 10 days, with an interval of two days after five applications. The left knee joint was used as a control. The histological analysis showed an alteration in the thickness of the growth plate on the treated side 24.40% bigger than in the left knee joint of the control (p < 0.0001. On other hand, the radiological analysis did not show any difference between the limbs. The conclusion was that the therapeutic ultrasound produced significant histological alterations in the cartilage thickness on the treated side according to the manner it was used in the experiment. Such fact suggests an acceleration in the growth plate metabolism.

  18. Useful Demonstrations for a Medial Biochemistry Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragatz, Barth H.; Modrak, Gina

    1986-01-01

    Describes six demonstrations used in a medical biochemistry course. These demonstrations focus on: (1) platelet aggregometry; (2) ion-transporting antibiotics; (3) glycosylated hemoglobin; (4) molecular models; (5) serum preparation; and (6) bioluminescence. (JN)

  19. Introduction to Atomic Structure: Demonstrations and Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparick, Joseph D.

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates a variety of electrical phenomena to help explain atomic structure. Topics include: establishing electrical properties, electrochemistry, and electrostatic charges. Recommends demonstration equipment needed and an explanation of each. (MVL)

  20. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system.